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  1. Pertussis Prevalence in Korean Adolescents and Adults with Persistent Cough.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Han, Seung Beom; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Ju Sang

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of pertussis in Korean adolescents and adults with persistent cough. Study population was adolescents (aged 11-20 yr) and adults (≥ 21 yr old) who showed persistent cough of 1-8 weeks' duration. Pertussis was diagnosed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. A total of 310 subjects participated in this study, and 76 cases (24.5%) met the criteria for laboratory-confirmed pertussis. The majority of the pertussis cases (66/76) were confirmed by serology, while 3 cases (1.0%) were diagnosed with culture, and 10 cases (3.2%) were detected with PCR. Of the 76 subjects diagnosed with pertussis, 20/86 cases were adolescents and 56/224 cases were adults. Neither adolescents nor adults received adolescent-adult booster against pertussis within the previous 5 yr. Pertussis can be a primary cause of persistent cough in Korean adolescents and adults.

  2. Arsenic exposure and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Woo, Jeong-taek; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population.

  3. Arsenic exposure and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Woo, Jeong-taek; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

  4. Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

  5. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  6. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  7. Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction and Associated Factors in Korean Older Adults With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Son, Youn-Jung; Jang, Miyoun; Jun, Eun-Young

    2016-10-01

    The current study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) among 161 Korean adults 60 and older with coronary artery disease (CAD). ED was diagnosed in 72.2% of patients-the prevalence of which was significantly associated with age, education, employment, monthly income, frequency of sexual intercourse, body mass index, and low-density lipoprotein. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was lower in patients with ED than in those without ED (p < 0.001). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that ED significantly influenced HRQoL in patients with CAD after adjusting for sociodemographic and disease-related characteristic variables (p < 0.001). Interventions and training courses for health care providers should focus on improving caregivers' knowledge and communication skills with patients and spouses regarding sexual health. Furthermore, guidelines to improve HRQoL in patients with CAD should consider incorporating sexual counseling. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(10), 32-41.]. PMID:27379456

  8. Sex-specific effects of social networks on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jiwon; Hur, Nam Wook; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a common chronic disease among older adults, and is associated with medical complications and mortality. This study aimed to examine the effects of social network characteristics on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older adults. Methods The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) interviewed 814 ≥ 60-year-old residents and their spouses from a rural township between December 2011 and March 2012 (response rate: 95%). We evaluated the data from 595 participants. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of network characteristics on hypertension. Results We observed strong sex-specific network effects on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. Among older women, network density was associated with hypertension awareness [odds ratio (OR): 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–5.37] and control (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.94–3.13). Among older men, large networks were associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58–0.96). Compared to older women, older men with coarse networks exhibited better hypertension awareness (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14–0.95) and control (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19–0.91). Network size interacted with density for hypertension control (P = 0.051), with controlled hypertension being associated with large and course networks. Conclusions A large network was associated with a lower risk for hypertension, and a coarse network was associated with hypertension awareness and control among older men. Older women with dense networks were most likely to exhibit hypertension awareness and control. PMID:27605938

  9. Sex-specific effects of social networks on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jiwon; Hur, Nam Wook; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a common chronic disease among older adults, and is associated with medical complications and mortality. This study aimed to examine the effects of social network characteristics on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older adults. Methods The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) interviewed 814 ≥ 60-year-old residents and their spouses from a rural township between December 2011 and March 2012 (response rate: 95%). We evaluated the data from 595 participants. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of network characteristics on hypertension. Results We observed strong sex-specific network effects on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. Among older women, network density was associated with hypertension awareness [odds ratio (OR): 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–5.37] and control (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.94–3.13). Among older men, large networks were associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58–0.96). Compared to older women, older men with coarse networks exhibited better hypertension awareness (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14–0.95) and control (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19–0.91). Network size interacted with density for hypertension control (P = 0.051), with controlled hypertension being associated with large and course networks. Conclusions A large network was associated with a lower risk for hypertension, and a coarse network was associated with hypertension awareness and control among older men. Older women with dense networks were most likely to exhibit hypertension awareness and control.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for depression in Korean adult patients with asthma: is there a difference between elderly and non-elderly patients?

    PubMed

    Choi, Gil-Soon; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Joo-Hee; Choi, Seon Yoon; Lee, Soo-Keol; Nam, Young-Hee; Lee, Young-Mok; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-12-01

    Depression is an important comorbidity of asthma. However, little information is available about depression and its potential impact on asthma control in Korean adult asthma patients. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for depression in Korean adults with persistent asthma. The 127 non-elderly (20-64 yr) and 75 elderly (≥65 yr) patients with asthma were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were extracted, and the patients completed the Asthma Specific Quality of Life (AQOL) questionnaire and asthma control test (ACT). Depression status was defined using the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Depression was more prevalent in non-elderly (18.9%) than in elderly patients with asthma (13.3%). Patients with depression were significantly younger, had lower economic status, shorter disease duration, poorer asthma control, and worse AQOL scores (P<0.05). Within the non-elderly group, younger age and shorter disease duration were significantly associated with depression (P<0.05). Within the elderly group, a higher body mass index and current smoking status were significantly associated with depression (P<0.05). The PHQ-9 score was significantly correlated with worse ACT and AQOL scores in both groups. In conclusion, depression is strongly associated with poor asthma control and quality of life in Korean adult asthma patients. Our results provide important clues that used to target modifiable factors which contribute to development of depression in asthma patients.

  11. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adolescents According to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seonho; So, Wi-Young

    2016-01-01

    In both adults and children, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been attributed to risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This descriptive study aimed to compare the prevalence of MetS and diagnostic components according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 2330 Korean adolescents (10–18 years), using data from the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V. The NCEP-ATP III and IDF were used to diagnose MetS and yielded prevalence rates of 5.7% and 2.1%, respectively, with no sex-related differences. The most frequent MetS diagnostic components according to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria were high triglyceride levels (21.2%) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (13.6%), respectively; approximately 50.1% and 33.1% of adolescents had at least one MetS diagnostic component according to the respective criteria. Both overweight/obese male and female adolescents exhibited significantly increased prevalence rates of MetS and related diagnostic components, compared to normal-weight adolescents. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of MetS and diagnostic components differ according to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria. Henceforth, efforts are needed to establish diagnostic criteria for Korean adolescents. PMID:27706073

  12. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  13. The prevalence and factors associated with hearing impairment in the Korean adults: the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (observational study).

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae W; Jeon, Ju H; Ku, Cheol R; Noh, Jung H; Yoo, Hyung J; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-03-01

    There are few studies that have used audiometric testing to gauge the demographic characteristics and associated risk factors for hearing loss at the national-level. Here, we investigated the weighted prevalence and associated factors of hearing impairment in 16,040 Korean adult population. Subjects completed audiometric test and laboratory examination as part of the data from The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). In our respective study, the overall weighted (n = 33,762,584) prevalence of mild hearing impairment among the Korean adult population was 20.5% (95% clearance [CI], 19.6-21.6), whereas moderate-to-profound hearing impairment was 9.2% (95% CI, 8.6-9.9). The weighted prevalence of mild hearing impairment in younger adults (19-39 years' old) was 4.4% (3.5-5.5), in middle-age adults (40-64 years), it was 21.1% (19.8-22.5), and in older adults (≥65 years' old), it was 69.7% (67.8-71.6). Logistic regression analyses were performed for low/mid frequency or high-frequency mild hearing impairment with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73m² as covariates. The analyses revealed independent correlations between increased age, tobacco use, education, hypertension, and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m², and low/mid frequency and high frequency mild hearing impairment. High frequency mild hearing impairment was positively correlated with male sex, diabetes, and an increase in total serum cholesterol. Taken together, hearing impairment in Korea is highly prevalent with approximately one-fifth of Korean adult reporting mild hearing impairment. This study suggests that individuals with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, increased serum cholesterol, or decreased eGFR are at particular risk of developing hearing

  14. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (≥19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],≥65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ≥65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ∼ 24% of Korean adults and ∼ 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults. PMID:24718421

  15. New reference data on bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged 50 years or older: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Shik; Bae, Su-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Lee, Jungun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ≥20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ≥50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ≥50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population.

  16. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults: The 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data.Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years' old) who participated in the 2012-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥ 3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90  mg/dL), NFG 2 (90-99  mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100-110  mg/dL), IFG 2 (111-125  mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126  mg/dL).Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3-26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01-1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG 2 group

  17. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. PMID:25524331

  18. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  19. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  20. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Prevalence of Microalbuminuria in Korean Adults of Age 30 Years and Older without Diabetes, Hypertension, Renal Failure, or Overt Proteinuria: The 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Woo-Jeong; Lee, Gong-Myung; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Mi-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background Microalbuminuria and obesity markers are known risk factors for cardiovascular or renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria according to body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity criteria. Methods The study subjects included 3,979 individuals aged 30 years or older who did not have diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, or overt proteinuria, from among those who participated in The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013, a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g. BMI and waist circumference were classified according to the Asia-Pacific criteria. Results The prevalence of microalbuminuria was found to be 5.1%. In the normoalbuminuria group, 3.4%, 41.7%, 24%, 27.6%, and 3.2% of participants were included in the underweight, normal, overweight, obesity 1, and obesity 2 groups, respectively. These percentages in the microalbuminuria group were 7.1%, 34.5%, 19.2%, 28.6%, and 10.6%, respectively (P<0.001). The waist circumference in men was 21.4% in the normoalbuminuria group and 36.5% in the microalbuminuria group (P=0.004). Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between the presence of microalbuminuria and BMI or waist circumference groups. The risk of microalbuminuria was significant only in the underweight group (odds ratio, 13.22; 95% confidence interval, 2.55–68.63; P=0.002) after adjusting for confounding factors, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with microalbuminuria. Conclusion The prevalence of microalbuminuria in a general population in Korea was associated with underweight in men and was not associated with waist circumference in either men or women. PMID:26885324

  1. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity.

  2. Analysis of the Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Hearing Loss in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seok Min; Park, Il-Seok; Kim, Yong Bok; Hong, Seok Jin; Lee, Byungho

    2016-01-01

    Background Hearing loss can lead to a number of disabilities, subsequently reducing the quality of life. In general, hearing thresholds of adolescents are better than adults and the elderly. However, occasionally, adolescents acquire hearing loss for a number of reasons. In this study, our goal was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss in the Korean population and to investigate the factors related to hearing thresholds in adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2012. We enrolled a total of 1,658 participants, ages 13 to 18 years. We investigated the prevalence of hearing loss and the factors associated with hearing thresholds at various frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 KHz). Results Weighted prevalence of unilateral and bilateral hearing loss in Korean adolescents was 2.2% and 0.4%, respectively. Weighted prevalence of hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at speech and high frequencies were 3.1% and 5.0%, respectively, for unilateral hearing loss and 0.7% and 1.9%, respectively, for bilateral. Age group, tympanometric data, and household income were significantly related to unilateral or bilateral hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at speech frequencies. Earphone use in noisy places was associated with bilateral hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB at high frequencies. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss in Korean adolescents was 2.6% using the general standard threshold associated with hearing loss. However, the prevalence of hearing thresholds ≥ 20 dB for speech and high frequencies was much higher. The results from this study provide an estimate of hearing loss in adolescents and suggest the need for early detection and hearing preservation programs among adolescents. PMID:27513659

  3. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  4. Top 10 Dietary Supplements of Korean Adults from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence, types, and trends of dietary supplement (DS) use. We analyzed the Dietary Supplement Questionnaire data of Korean aged 19 years old or older from the Nutrition Survey of the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. Each reported DS was coded based on ingredients according to the 2010 Korean Food and Drug Administration Notification. The prevalence (standard error) of current DS use was 20.6% (0.7) for men, 32.2% (0.7) for women. Those with DS use for longer than two weeks during previous one year were 27.2% (0.7), and 40.2% (0.8), for men and women respectively. Vitamin mineral supplement (221.6/103 persons) was the most frequently consumed DS in Korean adults. The trend for DS use in Korean adults is changing as well as increasing. PMID:22745863

  5. Study on the Korean adult cranial capacity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y I; Lee, K H; Choi, B Y; Lee, K S; Lee, H Y; Sir, W S; Kim, H J; Koh, K S; Han, S H; Chung, M S

    1995-08-01

    Cranial capacity was measured in Korean adult skulls. The cavity was filled with rice seeds and the volume of the seeds were measured in a graduated cylinder. The results were 1470 +/- 107 (mean +/- standard deviation) in male and 1317 +/- 117 cc in female skulls. These values were in good accordance with those previously reported. In addition, regression formulae were obtained with the product of the length, breadth, and height of the skull as an independent parameter and the measured capacity as a dependent one. With known external measurements, the expected cranial capacity was as follows: when using baso-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 307.5 + 333 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) female: capacity = -12.0 + 435 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) and, when using auriculo-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 214.6 + 429 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height) female: capacity = 131.6 + 461 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height). PMID:8593202

  6. Chronic cough in Korean adults: a literature review on common comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Gun-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cough is a significant medical condition with high prevalence and a strong negative impact on the quality of life. Cough hypersensitivity is thought to underlie chronic cough, with several environmental and host factors interacting to cause neuronal sensitization and chronicity. Comorbid conditions affecting cough reflex pathways, such as upper airway diseases, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux, play important roles in chronic cough. However, their prevalence may vary in patients living in different geographical regions or with different ethnicities. We conducted a literature review to examine common comorbidities in Korean adult patients with chronic cough, their clinical implications, and the issues that still need to be addressed in the development of clinical evidence of chronic cough in Korean adult patients. PMID:27803879

  7. Prevalence and Characteristics of Musculoskeletal Pain in Korean Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Min, David; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of musculoskeletal pain (MSK) pain in Korean farmers using initial survey data of Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related MSK pain (FARM) study. Methods Farmers (534 females and 479 males; mean age 57.2±7.5 years) who owned or rented a farm and belonged to an agricultural cooperative unit were recruited. Presence of pain for each body part (neck, shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist/hand/finger, low back, leg/foot), and characteristics of MSK pain (prevalence, location, duration, severity, and frequency) during the last year was assessed. Additionally, demographic data such as farming duration, history of prior injury, and workload (low, moderate, somewhat hard, or hard) were collected using structured questionnaires. Results Almost all subjects (n=925; 91.3%) complained of pain in more than one body part. The frequency order was low back (63.8%), leg/foot (43.3%), shoulder (42.9%), wrist/hand/finger (26.6%), arm/elbow (25.3%), and neck (21.8%). Low back pain was more frequent in those with over 30 years of farming experience (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.81). MSK pain was related to history of prior injury (OR, 2.18–5.24; p<0.05) in all body parts except for leg/foot, and very hard workload was associated with low back, leg/foot, neck, shoulder, and wrist/hand/finger pain (OR, 2.88–10.83; p<0.05). Conclusion Most Korean farmers experience MSK pain; furthermore, there is a significant association between pain, history of prior injury, and workload, suggestive of the necessity of coping and preventive strategies to reduce injury or workload. PMID:26949663

  8. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits. PMID:25516328

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young, Middle, and Older Women of Korean Descent in California

    PubMed Central

    Liles, Sandy; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Beeston, Tara; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Data were grouped by age. In each group, psychological aggression was the most common type of IPV in the past year, followed by a moderate form of sexual coercion, while physical assault and injury were infrequent. Immigration stress was associated with psychological aggression in all three groups, and partner alcohol use was associated in none. Other predictors varied by group. Results suggest that psychological abuse is a serious issue, and that women’s life stage is an important consideration in IPV among Korean Americans. Findings, which sometimes diverged from those of prior studies of this population, merit further investigation. PMID:23645971

  10. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Korean Woman Based on the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyoung-Joon; Ha, Yong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Background The criteria for defining sarcopenia vary among studies and confusion has arisen when defining the cutoff value. As a result, the prevalence of sarcopenia differs markedly depending on the definition. This study used the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V. We used the AWGS recommended cutoff value of 5.4 kg/m2 to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean women. Results The prevalence rates of sarcopenia using a cutoff value of 5.4 kg/m2 were 385 (19.5%) in women in their 50s, 286 (16.6%) in women in their 60s, 293 (23.7%) in women in their 70s, and 91 (30.8%) in women ≥80 years. The prevalence rates of sarcopenia were 307 (19.0%) in women 65 to 74 years, 194 (27.4%) in women 75 to 84 years, and 32 (40.5%) in women ≥85 years. The overall prevalence among women >50 years was 20.2%. The prevalence of sarcopenia in women >65 years was 22.1%. Conclusions The prevalence of sarcopenia among Korean women was within the range of values of previous research about sarcopenia. Furthermore, using 5.4 kg/m2 as the cutoff value was useful to compare various studies about sarcopenia in Koreans. PMID:26981517

  11. Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

  12. Older Korean-American Adults' Attitudes toward the Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Hyuckhoon

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…

  13. Between Sundays: A Case Study of a Korean Immigrant Adult Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jun, Byoungchul Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a Korean immigrant adult learning program, the Reading Facilitator Training program, at a Korean immigrant church in Los Angeles, CA, in 2008. The purpose of this research was to discover how Korean immigrant adults learn in a way that has meaning and brings about change and how the local church can function as a safe learning…

  14. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity

  15. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity

  16. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  17. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  18. Disease burdens from environmental tobacco smoke in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the disease burdens attributable to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in Korean adults in 2010 and analyzed the trend of that from 2005 to 2010. We obtained information on the study population from the 2010 Cause of Death Statistic and estimated the ETS-attributable fraction using data from the Korean Community Health Survey and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The numbers of ETS-attributable deaths in female and male non-smokers were estimated to be 4.1 and 69.6% of the numbers of deaths attributable to current smoke, respectively. The deaths attributable to ETS were larger in female than in male non-smokers (710 vs. 420). The ETS-attributable deaths increased slightly in 2005-2008 but decreased in 2009-2010. The number of potential years of life lost from ETS was 9077.24 years in 2010. If there were no exposure to ETS in adult non-smokers, we would expect to see 1130 fewer deaths (9.9% of the deaths from current smoke). The results suggest that ETS poses considerable disease burdens for non-smokers, especially women, in Korea.

  19. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension.

  20. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension. PMID:26449129

  1. Association between Hypertension and the Prevalence of Low Back Pain and Osteoarthritis in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension and musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent in adult populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hypertension and prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and osteoarthritis in Koreans. Methods A total 17,128 participants (age ≥20 years) who answered low back pain and osteoarthritis items in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2009) were analyzed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression and were adjusted for age, sex, income level, education, occupation, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Results Lifetime prevalence of LBP in hypertensive subjects was 34.4%, and that of osteoarthritis 26.2%. LBP prevalence was significantly lower in hypertensives (fully adjusted OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70–0.90), and both LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence was significantly lower in participants with systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg than those with <120mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70–0.94, and 0.81; 95% CI 0.68–0.96, respectively). Prevalence of LBP in subjects with diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg was also significantly lower than those with <80mmHg (fully adjusted OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.63–0.85). LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence did not differ by systolic or diastolic blood pressure interval in respondents taking antihypertensive medication. LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence increased with longer hypertension duration (fully adjusted p for trend 0.028, and 0.0008, respectively). Conclusions Hypertension showed an inverse relationship with LBP and osteoarthritis prevalence, which may be ascribed to hypertension-associated hypalgesia, and antihypertensive medication intake and longer hypertension duration attenuated this association. PMID:26393797

  2. Association Between Hearing Impairment and Albuminuria in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the associations between albuminuria and renal and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and hypertension, have been extensively studied, few studies have investigated the association between albuminuria and hearing impairment. In this study, we assessed the relationship between albuminuria and hearing impairment in 9786 adult Korean subjects, using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. The range of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was divided into 4 grades: grade 1 (first tertile of low-grade albuminuria [LGA]), 0.00 to 1.99 mg/g Cr; grade 2 (second tertile of LGA), 2.00 to 5.49 mg/g Cr; grade 3 (third tertile of LGA), 5.50 to 29.99 mg/g Cr; grade 4 (albuminuria), ≥30.00 mg/g Cr. The age- and sex-adjusted weighted UACR was higher in subjects with hearing impairment compared with those without hearing impairment (26.2 ± 4.7 mg/g Cr vs 14.1 ± 1.5 mg/g Cr, P = 0.020). The age- and sex-adjusted weighted prevalence of albuminuria was also higher in subjects with hearing impairment compared with subjects without hearing impairment. (8.3 ± 0.9% vs 5.8 ± 0.4%, P = 0.013) The age- and sex-adjusted weighted percentage of hearing impairment increased as UACR increased (18.0% ± 0.6%, 20.0% ± 0.8%, 22.2% ± 0.9%, 25.3% ± 2.0%, respectively; P < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses were performed for hearing impairment by albuminuria, with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 as covariates. Using grade 1 of UACR as the control, grade 3 (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.53, P = 0.005) and grade 4 (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.04–1.90, P = 0.026) of UACR were correlated with hearing impairment, respectively

  3. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  4. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  5. Associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chun, In-Ae; Park, Jong; Ro, Hee-Kyung; Han, Mi-Ah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Food insecurity has been suggested as being negatively associated with healthy behaviors and health status. This study was performed to identify the associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data used were the 2011 Community Health Survey, cross-sectional representative samples of 253 communities in Korea. Food insecurity was defined as when participants reported that their family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat in the past year. Healthy behaviors were considered as non-smoking, non-high risk drinking, participation in physical activities, eating a regular breakfast, and maintaining a normal weight. Multiple logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association between food insecurity and healthy behaviors. RESULTS The prevalence of food insecurity was 4.4% (men 3.9%, women 4.9%). Men with food insecurity had lower odds ratios (ORs) for non-smoking, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82), participation in physical activities, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.59-0.74), whereas they had a higher OR for maintaining a normal weight, 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.30), than men with food security. Women with food insecurity had lower ORs for non-smoking, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.66-0.89), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72-0.88). For men, ORs for obesity were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70-0.87) for overweight and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.39-0.82) for mild obesity. For women, the OR for moderate obesity was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.14-3.63) as compared with normal weight. CONCLUSIONS Food insecurity has a different impact on healthy behaviors. Provision of coping strategies for food insecurity might be critical to improve healthy behaviors among the population. PMID:26244083

  6. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. PMID:26337763

  7. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  8. Poor-quality sleep is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junyong; Choi, Youn Seon; Jeong, Young Jin; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Jung Hyun; Kim, Su Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jeon, Tae Hee

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorder and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are important health-related problems. Recently, sleep duration has decreased among Korean adults. In this study, we examined whether sleep quality is associated with MetS by analyzing 301 subjects, aged 20 years or over, without acute and severe illness who visited three primary care clinics. Sleep duration, sleep quality and the risk of sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) were assessed with a standardized sleeping-estimating instrument. MetS was defined according to the modified diagnostic criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III using the Korean abdominal obesity definition. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, compared with the 7-hour sleep group, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of the ≤ 5- and ≥ 9-hour sleep groups for MetS were 4.89 and 5.98, respectively. Compared with the good-sleep quality and low-SRBD risk groups, the adjusted ORs of the poor-quality sleep and high-SRBD risk groups were 3.83 and 1.92, respectively (p < 0.05). In the ≤ 5- and ≥ 9-hour sleep groups, the prevalence of elevated triglyceride and high HOMA-IR was higher (p = 0.069). In the poor-quality sleep group, the prevalence of abdominal obesity, elevated triglyceride, low HDL cholesterol, high fasting insulin and high HOMA-IR were higher. In the high-SRBD risk group, the prevalence of abdominal obesity, obesity and elevated triglyceride were higher (p < 0.05). Overall, the ≤ 5- or ≥ 9-hour sleep duration, poor-quality sleep and high-SRBD risk are related with the high prevalence of MetS, perhaps through elevated insulin-resistance resulting from adiposity.

  9. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Korean Police Personnel.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Hak Young; Cho, Jae Hwan; Seok, Jong Min; Cho, Taek Sang; Jeon, Woo Jin; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate efficient, systematic management of the Korean police and to examine the status and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in Korean police officers. For police officers in special working environments, the importance of basic data is emphasized for human resources (HR) management and the prevention of industrial hazards from an industrial health care perspective. This study was conducted on police officers who visited the national police hospital and who underwent x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders. The results revealed that examinations for the lower extremities and spine were most frequently conducted using x-ray, CT, and MRI. In particular, knee and lumbar examinations were most frequently conducted among all lower extremity and spine examinations, respectively.

  10. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  11. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance of Bacillus cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Seung-Hak; Kang, Suk-Ho; Park, Yong-Bae; Yoon, Mi-Hye; Lee, Jong-Bok; No, Wan-Seob; Kim, Jung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus contamination is a major food safety problem for Korean fermented soybean products, but few studies have assessed its potential to cause foodborne illness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of B. cereus isolated from Korean fermented soybean products. B. cereus was detected in 110 of 162 (67.9%) samples. The highest B. cereus frequency was observed in deonjang (68 of 93 samples, 73.1%) and cheonggukjang (18 of 25, 72.0%); however, nonhemolytic enterotoxin was detected only in 22 of 162 samples (13.6%). Although the tested B. cereus isolates showed diverse pulsotypes according to repetitive sequence-PCR banding patterns, they displayed similar antibiotic sensitivity spectra. The low frequency of enterotoxin detection suggests that the potential risk of B. cereus foodborne illness associated with Korean fermented soybean products is lower than generally presumed. However, considering the prevalence of B. cereus and the high content of fermented soybean products in the Korean diet, it is necessary to constantly monitor the level of contamination with B. cereus and its toxins in such Korean food products.

  12. Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

  13. Socioeconomic Costs of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Heon; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988

  14. Sarcopenia Is Not Associated with Depression in Korean Adults: Results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Kim, Han-Kyul

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, its association with depression in the general population remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated this association in Korea. Methods This study included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1, 2. The study was restricted to participants ≥20 years of age who had completed the survey, including whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,364 subjects were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized into three groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Depression was categorized into three groups (not depressed, depressed, and depression). Results The sarcopenia group did not have a higher prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms compared to the nonsarcopenia group; the same was true even when obesity was considered. All age groups showed non-significant associations between sarcopenia and depression. In multivariate logistic regression models, no significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in men and women. Conclusion We found no associations between sarcopenia and the prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in Korean adults. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess this relationship. PMID:26885321

  15. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  16. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  17. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  18. Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Korea: the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji In; Baek, Hyunjeong; Jung, Hae Hyuk

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a leading public health problem related to poor quality of life and premature death. As a resource for evidence-informed health policy-making, we evaluated the prevalence of chronic kidney disease using the data of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥ 20 years (n = 15,319) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011-2013. Chronic kidney disease was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g or an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The total prevalence estimate of chronic kidney disease for adults aged ≥ 20 years in Korea was 8.2%. By disease stage, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was as follows: stage 1, 3.0%; stage 2, 2.7%; stage 3a, 1.9%; stage 3b, 0.4%; and stages 4-5, 0.2%. When grouped into three risk categories according to the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines, the proportions for the moderately increased risk, high risk, and very high risk categories were 6.5%, 1.2%, and 0.5%, respectively. Factors including older age, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, body mass indexes of ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and < 18.5 kg/m(2), and rural residential area were independently associated with chronic kidney disease. Based on this comprehensive analysis, evidence-based screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the Korean population should be developed to optimize prevention and early intervention of chronic kidney disease and its associated risk factors.

  19. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Related Factors in Korean Employees: The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (2011)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Nam; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between general working conditions and depressive symptoms among Korean employees. The target population of the study was native employees nationwide who were at least 15 years old, and 50,032 such individuals were enrolled in the study. Depressive symptoms was assessed using the WHO-5 wellbeing index. Associations between general characteristics, job-related characteristics, work environment, and depressive symptoms were tested using chi-square tests, t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 39% (40.7% in males and 36.5% in females). Multiple regression analysis revealed that male subjects, older subjects, subjects with higher education status, subjects with lower monthly income, current smokers, and frequent drinkers were more likely to have depressive symptoms. In addition, longer weekly work hours, occupation type (skilled, unskilled, operative, or economic sector), shift work, working to tight deadlines, exposure to stress at work, and hazard exposure were associated with depressive symptoms. This representative study will be a guide to help manage depression among Korean employees. We expect that further research will identify additional causal relationships between general or specific working conditions and depression. PMID:27089355

  20. The Prevalence of Lisping in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes…

  1. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of four DSM-IV specific phobia subtypes: results from the Korean Epidemiological Catchment Area study.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Hong, Jin Pyo; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Young Moon; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Bae, Jae Nam; Lee, Jun Young; Son, Jung-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-10-30

    Although several studies have detected differences in clinical features among specific phobias, there is a shortage of detailed national data on the on the DSM-IV SP subtypes, particularly in the Asian population. To examine the prevalence, demographic and other correlates, and co-morbidities of DSM-IV SP subtypes in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. We recruited 6510 participants aged 18-64 years for this study. Lay interviewers used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess participants. We analyzed socio-demographics, health-related correlates and frequencies of comorbid mental disorders among participants with SP and each subtypes compared to unaffected adults. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV SP was 3.8%, and animal phobias were the most prevalent type of SP. Blood-injection-injury phobia was negatively associated with education, whereas situational phobia was positively associated with education. The strongest mental disorder comorbidity was associated with situational phobia; there is a higher probability of comorbid mood (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.09-15.73), anxiety (OR=7.54, 95% CI=2.34-24.28), and somatoform disorders (OR=7.61, 95% CI=1.64-35.22) with this subtype. Blood-injection-injury phobia was highly associated with alcohol dependence (OR=9.02, 95% CI=3.54-23.02). Specific phobias are heterogeneous with respect to socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidity pattern. Implications of the usefulness of current subtype categories should continue to be investigated.

  2. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in older adults in Korea: analysis of data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mona; Yeom, Hye-A; Jung, Dukyoo

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is consistently increasing among Korean adults and is reported to be particularly high among older adults in Korea. This paper reports the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and identifies the association between metabolic syndrome and physical activity in Korean older adults. Subjects of this study were 3653 older adults who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 2007-2009. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 46.84%. The prevalences of abdominal obesity, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure were 39.51, 45.53, 39.55, 48.24, and 69.14%, respectively, in the study population. Compared to subjects who reported low levels of physical activity, the odds ratios of metabolic syndrome for those who were moderately active and highly active were 0.93 and 0.63, respectively. Nurses should develop metabolic syndrome management programs that are tailored to the needs of the targeted group and that include individually adapted physical activity programs to promote health.

  3. Prevalence and Trends of Obesity among Chinese Korean Nationality Children and Adolescents, 1991–2010

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Chunhua; MA, Yana; PAN, Chenwei; CHEN, Xing; SUN, Hongpeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a serious problem for Chinese Han nationality. This research aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and trends in obesity among Chinese Korean nationality children and adolescents (1991–2010). Methods: We used data from Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). CNSSCH was utilized to monitor Chinese students’ health condition and released its data every 5 yr (1991, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010). The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts based on the 1985 CNSSCH data. Obesity was defined as ≧120% of standard weight-for-height. Results: The total age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 15.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.9–16.9%) among Chinese Korean children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 yr. Children or adolescents who were boys (Rate ratios (RR), 1.35; 95% CI, 1.19–1.53) or aged 10–12 (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.17–1.63) were more likely to be obese. The trend analysis of the 19-yr period implied a serious annual increasing trend during 1991–2000 (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.07) and during 2000–2010 (RR,, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.11–1.13). Chinese Korean children may also be more likely to become obese than Han nationality children during 1991–2010. Conclusion: A serious and continuous increasing trend was in the prevalence of obesity among Chinese Korean children and adolescents during 1991–2010. Childhood obesity had become a serious problem. This prognosis is worrisome.

  4. Prevalence and Trends of Obesity among Chinese Korean Nationality Children and Adolescents, 1991–2010

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Chunhua; MA, Yana; PAN, Chenwei; CHEN, Xing; SUN, Hongpeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a serious problem for Chinese Han nationality. This research aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and trends in obesity among Chinese Korean nationality children and adolescents (1991–2010). Methods: We used data from Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH). CNSSCH was utilized to monitor Chinese students’ health condition and released its data every 5 yr (1991, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010). The standard weight-for-height was the 80th percentile for sex- and age-specific growth charts based on the 1985 CNSSCH data. Obesity was defined as ≧120% of standard weight-for-height. Results: The total age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 15.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.9–16.9%) among Chinese Korean children and adolescents aged 7 to 18 yr. Children or adolescents who were boys (Rate ratios (RR), 1.35; 95% CI, 1.19–1.53) or aged 10–12 (RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.17–1.63) were more likely to be obese. The trend analysis of the 19-yr period implied a serious annual increasing trend during 1991–2000 (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.07) and during 2000–2010 (RR,, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.11–1.13). Chinese Korean children may also be more likely to become obese than Han nationality children during 1991–2010. Conclusion: A serious and continuous increasing trend was in the prevalence of obesity among Chinese Korean children and adolescents during 1991–2010. Childhood obesity had become a serious problem. This prognosis is worrisome. PMID:27648414

  5. Association between direct and indirect smoking and osteoarthritis prevalence in Koreans: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyungrae; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between smoking patterns and knee and hip joint osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence in Koreans aged 50 years or older with focus on knee OA. Design Cross-sectional study using nationally representative data. Setting Data were collected at portable Health Examination Centres in Korea. Participants Data of 9064 participants of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012) aged 50 years or older who received knee or hip joint X-rays out of 31 596 total surveyees were analysed. Primary outcome measures OA prevalence by smoking behaviour (current smoking, past smoking, indirect smoking and non-smoking). Secondary outcome measures Estimated risk of OA by smoking amount, period, pack-years and indirect smoking exposure time to assess the association between smoking-related factors and knee OA by calculating ORs and adjusting for covariates in a complex sampling design. A multinomial logistic regression analysis and backward elimination method was used. Results OA prevalence in Koreans aged 50 years or older was 13.9%, with prevalence about 3.5 times higher in women (men 5.7%, women 20.1%). ORs for knee and hip joint OA prevalence by smoking behaviour in male indirect-smokers were lower than those in non-smokers in age and sex (OR 0.271; 95% CI 0.088 to 0.828), and selective adjustments (OR 0.314; 95% CI 0.102 to 0.966). All other analyses for smoking behaviour and total OA prevalence, and knee OA prevalence were not significantly different. Associations between smoking amount, period, pack-years and knee OA prevalence were non-significant in ever-smokers. Associations between indirect smoking exposure time and knee OA prevalence were also non-significant. Conclusions This study found that though direct and previous smoking and OA prevalence were not associated, there was a weak relationship between indirect smoking and OA. PMID:26892791

  6. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837

  8. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Subjective Halitosis in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of subjective halitosis in adolescents. In total, 359,263 participants were selected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2009 through 2013. Demographic data including age, sex, obesity and residency; psychosocial factors such as subjective health, stress, and economic levels; and dietary factors such as alcohol consumption; smoking; and fruit, soda, fast food, instant noodle, confection, and vegetable consumption were analyzed for correlations with halitosis using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. In total, 23.6% of the participants reported the presence of halitosis. The following subjectively assessed factors were related to halitosis: poor health status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.56), overweight or obese (AOR = 1.37), stress (AOR = 2.56), and lower economic levels (AOR = 1.85). The high intake of fast food (AOR = 1.15), instant noodles (AOR = 1.17), and confections (AOR = 1.17) and the low intake of fruits (AOR = 1.22) and vegetables (AOR = 1.19) were also related to halitosis. The prevalence of subjective halitosis in the studied adolescents was 23.6%. Specific psychosocial factors and dietary intake were related to halitosis. PMID:26461837

  9. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19–40, 41–60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05–1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04–1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  10. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  11. Prevalence of sleepwalking in an adult population

    PubMed Central

    Mume, Celestine Okorome

    2010-01-01

    Background Sleepwalking consists of a series of behavioral activities that occur during sleep. These activities may be simple, complex or aggressive in nature. They include motor activities, confusion, and amnesia for the events. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In children, episodes of sleepwalking are rarely violent; in adults, however, sleepwalking might include violence, which could endanger the patient or others and might precipitate legal issues. There is inadequate information on the prevalence and demographic correlates of sleepwalking in Nigeria. Objectives One objective of this study was to determine the lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking in an adult population in Ile-Ife, in Southwestern Nigeria. Another objective was to determine the age and sex distribution of sleepwalking among those who have experienced it at least once in their lifetime. Materials and Methods A random sample of 228 healthy individuals aged 18–60 years was obtained and the members were asked to fill out a survey form about lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking. Results The overall lifetime prevalence rate of sleepwalking was 7% (16 of 228 participants). It was 10.4% in males and 3.5% in females, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.07). Conclusion This study has shown that sleepwalking is common in the population. In view of the psychological effects of sleepwalking and the potential physical and legal problems associated with it, adequate efforts should be made for early detection and prompt management of the condition. PMID:21483553

  12. Situated Learning and Identity Development in a Korean Older Adults' Computer Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Sek; Merriam, Sharan B.

    2010-01-01

    Situated learning theory understands learning to be a sociocultural activity, and individuals experience identity development as they participate in communities of practice. The purpose of this study was to understand how Korean older adults' computer learning in a classroom is a situated activity and how this learning influences older adults'…

  13. Bullying Among South Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Association With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rates of physical, verbal, relational, property, and cyber bullying among a sample of South Korean middle school students. Associations between bullying and a list of psychopathological symptoms were also examined. Finally, whether a link between bullying and psychopathological symptoms is modified by the level of parental attachment was examined. Results show that, contrary to Western studies, girls were more likely than boys to be involved in school bullying. Significant interaction effects between parental attachment and bully/victim status on depression were also discovered. PMID:26645381

  14. Bullying Among South Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Association With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rates of physical, verbal, relational, property, and cyber bullying among a sample of South Korean middle school students. Associations between bullying and a list of psychopathological symptoms were also examined. Finally, whether a link between bullying and psychopathological symptoms is modified by the level of parental attachment was examined. Results show that, contrary to Western studies, girls were more likely than boys to be involved in school bullying. Significant interaction effects between parental attachment and bully/victim status on depression were also discovered.

  15. Lower than expected hepatitis B virus infection prevalence among first generation Koreans in the U.S.: results of HBV screening in the Southern California Inland Empire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is prevalent in Asian immigrants in the USA. California’s Inland Empire region has a population of approximately four million, including an estimated 19,000 first generation Koreans. Our aim was to screen these adult individuals to establish HBV serological diagnoses, educate, and establish linkage to care. Methods A community-based program was conducted in Korean churches from 11/2009 to 2/2010. Subjects were asked to complete a HBV background related questionnaire, provided with HBV education, and tested for serum HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb. HBsAg positive subjects were tested for HBV quantitative DNA, HBeAg and HBeAb, counseled and directed to healthcare providers. Subjects unexposed to HBV were invited to attend a HBV vaccination clinic. Results A total of 973 first generation Koreans were screened, aged 52.3y (18-93y), M/F: 384/589. Most (75%) had a higher than high school education and were from Seoul (62.2%). By questionnaire, 24.7% stated they had been vaccinated against HBV. The serological diagnoses were: HBV infected (3.0%), immune due to natural infection (35.7%), susceptible (20.1%), immune due to vaccination (40.3%), and other (0.9%). Men had a higher infection prevalence (4.9% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.004) and a lower vaccination rate (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p = 0.004) compared to women. Self-reports of immunization status were incorrect for 35.1% of subjects. Conclusions This large screening study in first generation Koreans in Southern California demonstrates: 1) a lower than expected HBV prevalence (3%), 2) a continued need for vaccination, and 3) a need for screening despite a reported history of vaccination. PMID:24884673

  16. Prevalence of immediate-type food allergy in Korean schoolchildren: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Chae, Yoomi; Park, Yong Mean; Han, Man Yong; Lee, Kee-Jae; Kim, Ja Kyoung; Yang, Eun Seok; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevalence and causes of food allergy (FA) vary by geographic location, large well-designed epidemiological studies in Asia are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immediate-type FA in the general population of Korean schoolchildren. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using a stratified two-stage cluster-sampling design. In this survey, children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years were randomly selected, and the presence of FA was determined by a questionnaire survey and assessment of specific IgE. After adjustment for missing data, 3907 children aged 6-7 years and 3975 students aged 12-13 years who completed the questionnaire were included in this study. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of confirmed immediate-type FA was 0.3%, and the prevalence of possible immediate-type FA was 0.3%. By contrast, 0.6 and 1.0% of children aged 12-13 years had confirmed immediate-type FA and possible immediate-type FA, respectively. In 6- to 7-year-old children, egg was the most frequent causative food associated with a confirmed or possible immediate-type FA. In 12- to 13-year-old children, crustaceans were the most frequent cause of confirmed immediate-type FA, and fruit was most frequently involved in possible immediate-type FA. This is the first nationwide population-based study of FA in Korean schoolchildren. Unlike in western countries, the prevalence of immediate-type FA seems to be low. In 12- to 13 year-old children with confirmed immediate-type FA, peanuts/tree nuts are not common causes, whereas crustaceans are frequent triggers. PMID:23394505

  17. The Association between Vitamin D and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Baek, Jin Kyung; Cho, Ho Jin; Kim, Ye Seul

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life, and explored other related factors in the general Korean population. Methods We used data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on 14,104 adults, aged 20–49 years, who had consented to serum vitamin D measurement and answered health-related quality of life questions. EuroQol-5 was used for measurement. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at intervals of 0–9.99, 10–19.99, 20–29.99, and ≥30 ng/mL. Results Participants with higher serum vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels were significantly less likely to report problems with depression and anxiety. After adjustment for age, gender, income level, education level, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and the existence of depressive disorders, the odds ratio for reporting a problem with depression and anxiety was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.91). The odds ratio for the prevalence of any problem was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53–0.89) before adjustment, but was not statistically significant after adjustment. No significant associations were observed for problems with mobility, self-care, usual activity, or pain and discomfort. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the associations between vitamin D and health-related quality of life for the general Korean population. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with the dimensions of EuroQol-5 except for depression and anxiety problems. PMID:27468340

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Thyroid Eye Disease among Korean Dysthyroid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of thyroid eye disease among dysthyroid Korean patients and to analyze the relationship between demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease and thyroid eye disease. Methods All dysthyroid patients who visited endocrinology clinics in 24 general hospitals in Korea during a chosen one-week period were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during an interviewer-administered questionnaire and chart review. Demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease variables were analyzed as risk factors using multivariable regression models to identify independent associations with thyroid eye disease. Results A total of 1,632 dysthyroid patients were included (1,301 females [79.7%] and 331 males [20.3%]). Two hundred eighty-three of these patients (17.3%) had thyroid eye disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, young age, Graves' disease, dermopathy, anti-thyroid medication treatment, and radioiodine treatment were independent risk factors for thyroid eye disease. Conclusions The lower prevalence of thyroid eye disease in dysthyroid Korean patients and the influence of gender on risk factors in this study are novel findings compared to studies performed involving Europeans. Although the risk factors for thyroid eye disease are understood in part, a more in-depth comparative study of gender and ethnic groups is needed to fully understand the biological significance of the demographic factors. PMID:24311923

  19. Intake and major sources of dietary flavonoid in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Jin; Park, Min Young; Chang, Namsoo; Kwon, Oran

    2015-01-01

    With an effort to investigate possible relationship between flavonoids and health, an accurate estimation of flavonoid intake is valuable. We estimated dietary flavonoid intake and identified the major food sources. Subjects were healthy adults aged >=19 y (n=11,474) who completed the 24-h dietary recall of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012). The US Department of Agriculture and newly estimated or published values for typical Korean foods were combined into a Korean-targeted flavonoid database. The mean intake of total flavonoid was 107±1.47 mg/d, with a higher intake in women than in men after energy-adjustment. Quercetin, cyanidin, genistein, daidzein, epigallocatechin 3-gallate, epicatechin, hesperetin, and luteolin were identified as major flavonoid compounds. Across the age range studied, flavonols and flavones showed a reversed U-shape curve; flavan-3-ol and flavanones showed a decreasing pattern; and anthocyanidins and isoflavones showed an increasing pattern. Forty-five food items were identified as contributing >2% of at least one flavonoid compound's intake. Kimchi was the major food source of total flavonoids, followed by green tea, persimmons, and soybeans. Single food items accounting for more than 50% of the intake of a specific flavonoid included persimmons (cyanidin), green tea (epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate), black tea (thearubigin), tangerines (hesperetin and naringenin), and onions (isorhamnetin). This study provides information on Korean flavonoid intake to enable international comparisons, along with insight into how the sources and intake of various flavonoids vary according to age and gender. This work should facilitate future investigations of the association between flavonoid intake and health. PMID:26420187

  20. ADHD Prevalence in Adult Outpatients with Nonpsychotic Psychiatric Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Hernandez Garcia, Ana Olivia; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of ADHD in the general adult population has been estimated to be about 4.4%. However, few studies exist in which the prevalence of ADHD in psychiatric adult outpatient samples has been estimated. These studies suggest that the prevalence is higher than in the general population. The objective of this study is to estimate…

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis among adults with or without diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mihee; Kim, Hee Yeon; Seok, Hannah; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kim, Young Soo; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Young Bok; Lee, Dong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Im; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Ko, Yoon Ho; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Chae, Hiun Suk; Sohn, Tae Seo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study examined prevalence and risk factors of periodontitis in representative samples of Korean adults, with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 4,477 adults (≥ 30 years old) were selected from 8,057 individuals who completed a nutrition survey, a self-reported general health behavior questionnaire, an oral examination, an oral hygiene behaviors survey, and laboratory tests. DM was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, or self-reported diagnosed diabetes, or current use of oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin. The community periodontal index was used to assess periodontitis status and comparisons between the periodontitis and the non-periodontitis group, were performed, according to the presence of DM. Risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM and without DM were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in adults with DM (43.7%) than in those without DM (25%, p < 0.001). In adults without DM, risk factors for periodontitis were older age, male, urban habitation, waist circumference, smoking, oral pain, and less frequent tooth brushing. Significant risk factors for periodontitis in adults with DM were the smoking, oral pain, and not-using an oral hygiene product. Conclusions: Adults with DM have an increased risk of periodontitis than those without DM. Current smoking and oral pain increase this risk. Using an oral hygiene product can reduce risk of periodontal disease in adults with DM. PMID:27604799

  2. Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

  3. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  4. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  5. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of anemia in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae Sung; Bang, Ki Bae; Kim, Ji Yeon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik; Choi, Kyu Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Quality of life is closely related to anemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several studies have reported on anemia in patients with IBD in Western countries. This study investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of anemia in Korean patients with IBD. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 92 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 76 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) who were followed regularly at a single tertiary medical center in Korea between January 2003 and December 2012. Hemoglobin (Hb) thresholds used to define anemia were <13.0 g/dL in men and <12.0 g/dL in women according to the World Health Organization criteria. We chose the lowest Hb level in each year as a representative value because Hb levels changed at each examination and anemia was associated with disease deterioration. The relationship between clinical variables and lowest Hb level was assessed. Results The prevalence of anemia was 36.3% in patients with UC and 41.6% in patients with CD. Anemia in patients with CD was associated with hospital admission, 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) and infliximab treatment in men. Anemia in patients with UC was associated with hospital admission, oral steroid use, thiopurine and infliximab treatment in men. Conclusions The prevalence of anemia in Korean patients with IBD was comparable to that of patients in Western countries. Anemia was associated with male patients with CD who were admitted to the hospital and received medications including 5-ASA and infliximab, and men with UC who were admitted to the hospital and received medications including oral steroids, thiopurine and infliximab. PMID:26884734

  6. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Association With Metabolic Disease in Korean Orthopedic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Tack; Kang, Kyung-Chung; Shin, Dong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kwon, Tae-Yoon

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D is considered essential for bone and muscle health, and some studies have demonstrated the positive effects of vitamin D on metabolic diseases and cancer. Nevertheless, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported in various populations, regardless of country or race. However, no studies regarding the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Korean orthopedic patients currently exist. This cross-sectional study included 272 male and 937 female patients aged 50 years and older who were consecutively admitted to the authors' orthopedic department. Vitamin D (25-hydroxy vitamin D), bone turnover markers (osteocalcin, c-telopeptide), and bone mineral density were measured. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with other factors were evaluated. Mean patient age was 67.2 ± 8.9 years, and mean level of vitamin D was 16.1 ± 9.1 ng/mL. Overall, 91.2% of patients had deficient (<20 ng/mL; 70.6%) or insufficient (20-30 ng/mL; 20.6%) levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D level did not vary by age group or sex. The level of vitamin D was significantly associated with osteocalcin, c-telopeptide, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose (P<.01). Vitamin D level in Korean orthopedic patients of this region was extremely low, regardless of sex and age. Although vitamin D was not directly associated with bone mineral density, there were significant associations between vitamin D and other factors related to bone health and metabolic diseases.

  7. The WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Eun-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective A self-report scale of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the ASRS in Korean samples. Methods The ASRS includes 18 questions regarding the frequency of recent DSM-IV Criterion A symptoms of adult ADHD. We examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the ASRS in Korean samples. Results The ASRS demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the ASRS and other adult ADHD measures were high, providing evidence of convergent validity. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor solution provided the best fit. Conclusion It is expected that this scale would be helpful in clinical settings and research in Korea. PMID:23482673

  8. Validation of western Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody assays in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee-Won; Hur, Mina; Yun, Yeo-Min

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is endemic in Korea, and serology testing is widely performed. The aim of this study was to validate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of Korean and Western serological assays for H. pylori detection in Korean adults. The 114 Korean adults who visited our centre over a 6-month period for the evaluation of H. pylori infection using the urea breath test (UBT) were enrolled in this prospective study. Anti-H. pylori IgG was measured using three commercially available immunoassays: Genedia H. pylori ELISA (Green Cross Medical Science), Chorus helicobacter IgG (DIESSE Diagnostica Senese) and Vidas H. pylori IgG (bioMérieux). Positive UBT findings were obtained in 40.6% of included subjects. The sensitivities and the specificities of Vidas, Chorus and Genedia were 89.7%, 100% and 100% and 85.5%, 75.4% and 80.7%, respectively. We found no differences in sensitivity between the Vidas and Chorus (P=0.125), Chorus and Genedia (P=0.125) and Vidas and Genedia (P=1.000) assays. There were also no differences in specificity between the Vidas and Chorus (P=0.070), Chorus and Genedia (P=0.508) and Vidas and Genedia (P=0.549) assays. In Korean adults, the Genedia H. pylori ELISA, Chorus helicobacter IgG and Vidas H. pylori IgG assays exhibited a high concurrence rate with similar diagnostic accuracy. Thus, both the Korean and Western non-invasive assays are reliable for serodiagnosis of H. pylori in Korean individuals.

  9. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  10. Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2013-10-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.

  11. Correlation between Transformative Learning and Cultural Context: A Case Study of Adult Participants in a Korean American Immigrant Congregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Brian Byung Joo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the nature, process, and facilitating factors of transformative learning experiences of Korean-American adults in a Korean American immigrant congregation (KAIC). The focus was on discovering how and to what extent, if any, the congregational culture of the KAIC as the learning situation played a role in…

  12. Agent Orange Exposure and Prevalence of Self-reported Diseases in Korean Vietnam Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. Methods A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Conclusions Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure. PMID:24137524

  13. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  15. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  16. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults.

  17. High Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Korean Patients after Hip Fracture: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia-related falls and fractures are increasing worldwide due to the aging population. The purpose of this study was to 1) evaluate anthropometric characteristics related to hip fracture in Korean patients, 2) investigate sarcopenia prevalence in hip fracture (HF) and non-hip fracture (NF) groups, and 3) investigate the correlation between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. This case-control study examined 359 HF and 1,614 NF normal populations using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We performed whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to analyze body composition using the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI: lean mass/height2) and bone mineral density (BMD). In the HF group, using the AWGS definition, the prevalence of sarcopenia in women and men was 44.3% and 68.2%, respectively; in the NF group, it was 7.1% and 16.1%, respectively. Lower appendicular SMI (P < 0.001), leg muscle mass (P < 0.001), and higher prevalence of sarcopenia (P < 0.001) were observed in the HF group after adjustment for age and gender. In multivariate analysis, sarcopenia (OR = 6.52; 95% CI = 4.67-9.09), age (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.13-1.17), and osteoporosis (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.35-2.58) were associated with the occurrence of a hip fracture. This study showed a higher prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with hip fractures compared with a normal population, and higher prevalence of sarcopenia in men. PMID:27510394

  18. High Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Korean Patients after Hip Fracture: a Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jun Il; Ha, Yong Chan; Kwon, Hyeok Bin; Lee, Young Kyun; Koo, Kyung Hoi; Yoo, Moon Jib

    2016-09-01

    Sarcopenia-related falls and fractures are increasing worldwide due to the aging population. The purpose of this study was to 1) evaluate anthropometric characteristics related to hip fracture in Korean patients, 2) investigate sarcopenia prevalence in hip fracture (HF) and non-hip fracture (NF) groups, and 3) investigate the correlation between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. This case-control study examined 359 HF and 1,614 NF normal populations using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We performed whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to analyze body composition using the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI: lean mass/height²) and bone mineral density (BMD). In the HF group, using the AWGS definition, the prevalence of sarcopenia in women and men was 44.3% and 68.2%, respectively; in the NF group, it was 7.1% and 16.1%, respectively. Lower appendicular SMI (P < 0.001), leg muscle mass (P < 0.001), and higher prevalence of sarcopenia (P < 0.001) were observed in the HF group after adjustment for age and gender. In multivariate analysis, sarcopenia (OR = 6.52; 95% CI = 4.67-9.09), age (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.13-1.17), and osteoporosis (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.35-2.58) were associated with the occurrence of a hip fracture. This study showed a higher prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with hip fractures compared with a normal population, and higher prevalence of sarcopenia in men. PMID:27510394

  19. Learning Disability Prevalence and Adult Education Program Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies adult education program characteristics associated with learning disability (LD) prevalence through statistical analyses of data from a single U.S. state (Kansas). Data indicate that several variables at the adult education (AE) program level are linked to LD prevalence, including disability incidence, educational background…

  20. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. PMID:22845631

  1. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  2. Prevalence and Epidemiological Factors Involved in Cellulitis in Korean Patients With Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sae In; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jeong, Ho Joong; Kim, Ghi Chan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors involved in cellulitis with lymphangitis among a group of Korean patients who were being treated for lymphedema. We present our epidemiologic research and we also report a systematic review of these types of cases. Methods This was a retrospective medical record study among 1,246 patients diagnosed with lymphedema. The study was carried out between January 2006 and December 2012 at the Kosin University Gospel Hospital and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Cases were examined for onset time, affected site, seasonal trend, and recurrence pattern of lymphedema, lymphangitis, and cellulitis. We also evaluated the history of blood-cell culture and antibiotic use. Results Ninety-nine lymphedema patients experienced complications such as cellulitis with accompanying lymphangitis. Forty-nine patients had more than two recurrences of cellulitis with lymphangitis. The incidence and recurrence of cellulitis with lymphangitis were significantly higher in the patients with lower-extremity lymphedema. There was a significant trend toward higher cellulitis prevalence in the lower-extremity lymphedema group according to the time of lymphedema onset. Among the cellulitis with lymphangitis cases, 62 cases were diagnosed through blood-cell culture; 8 of these 62 cultures were positive for β-hemolytic streptococci. Conclusion The prevalence rate of cellulitis with lymphangitis in patients with lymphedema was 7.95%, and the prevalence of recurrent episodes was 3.93%. Especially, there was high risk of cellulitis with lymphangitis after occurrence of lower-extremity lymphedema with passage of time. Lymphedema patients should be fully briefed about the associated risks of cellulitis before treatment, and physicians should be prepared to provide appropriate preventive education. PMID:27152284

  3. The Change of South Korean Adult Education in Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung-Jung

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of adult education in South Korea from postwar modernization to the current globalized environment. Notes that adult higher education is increasingly formalized and institutionalized, with expanded credentialism, inequality, and government intervention and a weakening connection between adult education and social…

  4. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Nonobese Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Chin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging problem in Asia, but little is known about the disease in the nonobese population. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and the factors associated with it in a nonobese Korean population and to compare the clinical characteristics of nonobese and obese subjects with NAFLD. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from 2,058 subjects who participated in a medical checkup program. Results The prevalence of NAFLD was 12.4% (213/1,711) in the nonobese population. A higher body mass index (BMI), higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values, higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, triglyceride concentrations 150 mg/dL, and hyperuricemia were independently associated with the presence of NAFLD in the nonobese subjects. Compared with the obese subjects with NAFLD, the nonobese subjects with NAFLD were composed of a higher proportion of females and had lower BMIs, smaller waist circumferences, lower HOMA-IR values, and fewer metabolic irregularities. Conclusions Higher BMIs, HOMA-IR values, ALT levels, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia were associated with NAFLD in the nonobese subjects. Clinicians should be particularly aware of the possibility of NAFLD in nonobese Asian people. PMID:26260755

  5. The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-05-01

    The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population.

  6. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Nan Hee; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Han, Kyungdo

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data. Methods Using data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM]), 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM), and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM), we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication) and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg). Results The prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) compared with non-DM adults (26.2%). Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001) and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020) rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%), compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001) and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004). Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%), compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001) and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001). Conclusion Higher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. PMID:24627828

  7. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20 years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  8. Predictors of the Severity and Serious Outcomes of Anaphylaxis in Korean Adults: A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Tae-Bum; Sohn, Seong-Wook; Koh, Young-Il; Park, Hye-Kyung; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Hur, Gyu-Young; Kim, Joo-Hee; Kim, Sang-Heon; Choi, Gil-Soon; Lee, Soo-Keol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Differences in definitions of the condition, relevant triggers, and the geographical locations of study centers, cause estimates of the prevalence of anaphylaxis to vary. Recent epidemiological data indicate that the incidence of anaphylaxis is rising. Methods To investigate the causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis in Korean adults, factors associated with the severity of the condition, and serious outcomes, a retrospective medical record review was performed on adult patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2007 and 2011 in 15 University Hospitals of South Korea. Results A total of 1,806 cases (52% male, age 16-86 years) were reported. Cutaneous symptoms (84.0%), combined with respiratory (53.9%) and/or cardiovascular (55.4%) symptoms, were the most frequent presentations. Using a recognized grading system, 1,776 cases could be classified as either mild, 340; moderate, 690; or severe, 746. Although eliciting factors varied significantly by age, gender, and regional and seasonal factors, drugs (46.5%; including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and radiocontrast media) were the most common cause of anaphylaxis, followed by foods (24.2%), insect stings (16.4%), exercise (5.9%), and unknown etiology (7.0%). All of age, multi-organ involvement, a history of allergic disease, and drug-induced anaphylaxis, were significant predictors of serious outcomes requiring hospital admission or prolongation of hospital stay. Epinephrine auto-injectors were prescribed for 7.4% of reported cases. Conclusions The principal causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adults were drugs, food, and insect stings. Drug-associated anaphylaxis, a history of allergic disease, multi-organ involvement, and older age, were identified as predictors of serious outcomes. PMID:25553259

  9. Bone Mineral Density and Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Korean Women with Low-Energy Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women with low-energy distal radius fractures and compared with those of aged-matched normal Korean women. Two hundred and six patients with distal radius fractures between March 2006 and March 2010 were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups by age; group 1 (50-59 years), group 2 (60-69 years), and group 3 (70-79 years). Controls were age-matched normal Korean women. The bone mineral density values at all measured sites, except for the spine, were significantly lower in group 1 than those of control. While the bone mineral density values in group 2 and 3 were lower than those of controls, these differences were not statistically significant. All groups had significantly higher prevalence of osteoporosis at the Ward’s triangle; however, at the spine, femoral neck and trochanteric area it was not significantly different from those of age-matched controls. Although the prevalence of osteoporosis of the postmenopausal women with low-energy distal radius fractures may not be higher than that of the control, osteoporosis should be evaluated especially in younger postmenopausal patients to prevent other osteoporotic hip and/or spine fractures. PMID:27247508

  10. Nursing assistants' communication styles in Korean American older adults with dementia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haesook; Woods, Dianna Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Ruiz, Maria Elena; Salem, Benissa; Jeffers-Skrine, Kia; Salem, Nancy

    2015-03-01

    As ethnic diversity increases in the United States with the anticipated increase in dementia, it is critical to understand the implications of dementia and culturally appropriate communication for ethnic minority older adults with dementia. Utilizing the Ethno-Cultural Gerontological Nursing model and the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model, this article describes the relationship between nursing assistants' communication style and behavioral symptoms of dementia, focused on Korean American older adults with dementia residing in nursing homes. The discussion includes reviewing currently available studies, nursing implications, and suggestions for future studies.

  11. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  12. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  13. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire in Adults Aged 20–39 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hie; Kim, Seong Jae; Lee, Se Yong; Jang, Kwang Ho; Kim, In Soo; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Morningness-Eveningness (ME) can be defined by the difference in individual diurnal preference observed from general behavioral patterns including sleep habits. The Horne & Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) has been used for classifying ME types. We examined the reliability of a Korean version of the MEQ (Korean MEQ) and verified its validity by comparing responses on the Korean MEQ to objectively-recorded sleep-wake rhythms. After translating and back translating the MEQ from English into Korean, we examined the internal consistency of 19 items of the Korean MEQ in 91 subjects, and the test–retest reliability in 21 subjects who took the Korean MEQ twice, four weeks apart. The Korean MEQ was then administered to 1,022 young adult subjects. A subset of 46 morning, neither, and evening type subjects took part in a validation study in which their rest-activity timing was collected by actigraphy for 7 days. Cosinor analyses on these data were done to obtain the acrophase and amplitude of the sleep-wake rhythm. Cronbach's alpha of the total scores from the Korean MEQ was 0.77, and the test-retest reliability intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.90 (p<0.0001). There was a significant negative correlation between Korean MEQ score and reported sleep-wake timing among the entire cohort (p<0.0001). There was a significant difference in bedtime and wake time (on both work and free days), and in the mean sleep-wake rhythm acrophase, between ME types (p<0.01). In this study, the validity of the Korean MEQ was verified by illustrating the difference in acrophases of the sleep-wake rhythm between the ME types in young adults PMID:24467306

  14. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  15. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-21

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  16. Prevalence and molecular characterization of meq in feather follicular epithelial cells of Korean broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Won; Cho, Sun-Hee; Mo, In-Pil; Lee, Dong-Woo; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon

    2007-10-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious lymphoproliferative disease of chickens. Meq is the relevant oncogene and four isoforms, long (L)-meq, meq, short (S)-meq and very short (VS)-meq, have been identified. Although MD is important in the poultry industry, the prevalence and molecular properties of Korean MD virus (MDV) among broiler chickens remain unclear. Therefore, we characterized meq in pooled feather tips sampled at 3- and 5-week-old chickens from 21 unvaccinated and 22 vaccinated broiler farms via nested-PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis. Multiple bands consisting of L-meq, meq, and S-meq amplicons were observed in a commercial vaccine (CVI988 + HVT), 1 (4.8%) and 5 samples (22.7%) from unvaccinated and vaccinated farms, respectively. A strong meq amplicon was observed in a MD-related tumor tissue, 6 (28.6%) and 1 (4.5%) samples from unvaccinated and vaccinated farms, respectively. Six and one amplicons from unvaccinated (28.6%) and vaccinated farms (4.5%), respectively, were differentiated from CVI988 by nucleotide sequence analysis. Therefore, the relatively high rate of meq in the unvaccinated broiler farms constitutes support for vaccination. However, the existence of CVI988-related meq in unvaccinated chickens necessitates further study regarding the origins and pathoimmunological effects of the viruses on chickens. PMID:17516161

  17. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Korean Children Presenting with Nonspecific Lower-Extremity Pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Jung; Lee, Juyeob; Lee, Jun Ku

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although interest in the role played by vitamin D in bone health is increasing, little is known about the role of this vitamin in musculoskeletal pain in children. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children presenting with nonspecific lower extremity pains. Materials and Methods From 2011 to 2012, 183 children underwent evaluation for nonspecific lower-extremity pains. Patients with valid causes, such as fractures or transient synovitis, were excluded, as were those with underlying medical conditions, such as cerebral palsy and metabolic disease. Ultimately, 140 patients met the inclusion criteria. Levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25-(OH)D], the ideal indicator of vitamin D status, were measured in these children. Results Eighty-seven boys (62.1%) and 53 girls (37.9%) were included. The mean age at presentation was 5.2 years (range, 2-15). Serum 25-(OH)D levels were <10 ng/mL in 5.7% of patients, 10 to <20 ng/mL in 51.4%, 20 to <30 ng/mL in 37.9%, and ≥30 ng/mL in only 5.0%. Most patients visited the hospital in the winter (41.4%) (summer, 12.9%), and serum 25-(OH)D levels were also lowest in the winter (17.2±5.5 ng/mL). Conclusion This study found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency in Korean children with nonspecific lower-extremity pains, indicating a positive association between vitamin D deficiency and growing pains. More attention should be directed toward vitamin D and its role in the optimization of bone health. PMID:26256984

  18. Spousal support in diabetes self-management among Korean immigrant older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Lee, Jennifer J; Park, Jenny J; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the current article investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean older adults and their spouses. Two focus groups were conducted with diabetic participants from the greater Los Angeles Korean community, and three were conducted with their spouses. In the focus groups, participants were asked to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group comprised four to nine participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and medical regimen among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean older adults may have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  19. Associations between Lifestyle Factors and Iron Overload in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that iron overload, which indicates the accumulation of iron, generates cellular reactive oxygens and causes peroxide damages to the body. Such oxidative stresses, in a broader context, are also caused by lifestyles such as alcohol consumption and smoking. However, there are limited data on the association between these lifestyle factors and internal iron overload. In present study, we evaluated associations between lifestyle factors, such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and serum markers of iron overload. In a population-based cross-sectional study including 2,347 Korean men and women aged 49–79 years, we assessed serum transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels and defined iron overload as TSAT levels > 50% for men and > 45% for women. After excluding persons with chronic diseases and iron deficiency, multivariate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated to evaluate associations between lifestyle factors and iron overload in 1,973 participants. In all participants, we examined a significantly positive association between heavy alcohol consumption (> 30 g/day) and iron overload; heavy drinkers showed 1.6-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.11–2.36) than non-drinkers. Stratified analysis by sex showed that this association was significant only among men. In addition, we observed a potential association between heavy smoking > 10 cigarettes/day and iron overload (p = 0.07). In stratified analysis by sex, we examined a significant association between smoking and iron overload only among women; former or current smokers had 1.9-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.01–3.63) than never-smoker. Our findings suggest that heavy alcohol consumption and smoking may worsen iron accumulation in the body. PMID:27812516

  20. Dental pain related to quality of life and mental health in South Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Min, Jung-Ah; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-12-01

    High levels of stress, anxiety and depression have been reported in patients with orofacial pain. Dental pain has the potential to reduce quality of life (QOL), and pain relief is important aspect of QOL. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships of dental pain with QOL and mental health using a nationally representative, population-based study. This study analyzed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 5469). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was evaluated using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS, and mental health was evaluated by questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 5469 adults, 1992 (36.42%) presented self-reported dental pain. Participants with anxiety/depression or pain/discomfort, and participants with stress, melancholy, suicidal thought or depression showed significantly higher prevalence of dental pain. After adjusting for covariates, five aspects of QOL and five aspects of mental health were related with dental pain. The AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.39 (1.06-1.81) for mobility, 1.77 (1.19-2.63) for self-care, 1.38 (1.02-1.85) for usual activities, 1.73 (1.43-2.09) for pain/discomfort and 1.50 (1.13-1.98) for anxiety/depression. For mental health status factors, the AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.29 (1.11-1.51) for stress, 1.37 (1.09-1.74) for melancholy, 1.26 (1.01-1.58) for suicidal thoughts, 1.43 (.93-2.19) for consultation to psychiatrist and 1.53 (1.07-2.19) for depression. This study showed that dental pain has an association with lower HRQOL and worse mental health status in South Korean adults.

  1. Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/yr). The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ΔeGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8%) of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years), 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years), and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years). The median decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ΔeGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with <5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr (3.16% versus 0.00%; P = 0.049). The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ΔeGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice. PMID:24895568

  2. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Jung; Lee, Yo Han; Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Kyeong Jin; An, Jee Hyun; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Hee Young; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Sin Gon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its related factors among North Korean refugees (NKR) in South Korea. Design Cross-sectional study conducted using a questionnaire and anthropometric and biochemical data on NKR in South Korea. Setting Seoul, South Korea. Participants A sample of NKR who voluntarily underwent medical examinations in Anam Hospital of Korea University, Seoul, South Korea (N=708, consisting of 161 males and 547 females). To compare the prevalence of MetS, 1416 age- and gender-matched individuals from the South Korean population (SKP, at a ratio of 1:2 to NKR) were randomly selected from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Main outcome measures The prevalence of MetS and its related factors among NKR in South Korea and comparison with its prevalence among the general SKP. Results The prevalence of MetS among male and female NKR in South Korea was 19.7% and 17.2%, respectively. Although obesity is more prevalent in South than in North Korea, we found no difference in the prevalence of MetS between the female NKR and SKP groups (17.2% vs 16.6%, respectively; p=0.830). As regards the males, the small sample size of the NKR group yielded insufficient evidence of any difference in MetS prevalence between the NKR and SKP groups (19.7% vs 26.2%, respectively; p=0.134). We found that excess weight gain (≥5%) in South Korea was significantly associated with MetS among NKR. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS among NKR did not differ from that in the SKP group despite the lower prevalence of obesity in NKR than in the general SKP. The fact that excess weight gain in South Korea was associated with the risk of MetS suggests that public health policy makers should focus on preventing excess weight gain in NKR during resettlement in South Korea. PMID:27251685

  4. Excess Medical Care Costs Associated with Physical Inactivity among Korean Adults: Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and premature death. The increased health risks associated with physical inactivity may also generate a heavier economic burden to society. We estimated the direct medical costs attributable to physical inactivity among adults using data from the 2002-2010 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 68,556 adults whose reported physical activity status did not change during the study period was included for this study. Propensity scores for inactive adults were used to match 23,645 inactive groups with 23,645 active groups who had similar propensity scores. We compared medical expenditures between the two groups using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and a log link. Direct medical costs were based on the reimbursement records of all medical facilities from 2005 to 2010. The average total medical costs for inactive individuals were $1110.5, which was estimated to be 11.7% higher than the costs for physically active individuals. With respect to specific diseases, the medical costs of inactive people were significantly higher than those of active people, accounting for approximately 8.7% to 25.3% of the excess burden. Physical inactivity is associated with considerable medical care expenditures per capita among Korean adults. PMID:26797622

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hearing Loss Using the Korean Working Conditions Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The hearing loss of workers can occur when they are affected by age, otologic disease, and work-related risks such as noise and chemicals. Based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) in 2010, this research aimed to estimate the prevalence rate of hearing loss and to identify the risk factors affecting its occurrence. Subjects and Methods The subjects were 10019 employees who completed an interview conducted as part of KWCS in 2010. The prevalence rate of hearing loss according to sex, age, education, income, smoking, drinking, hypertension, industrial type, occupations, employment status, working period, and hazards at the workplace were assessed. The factors that could affect the occurrence of hearing loss were investigated based on a logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence rate of hearing loss was 2.7%. In a logistic multivariate analysis, sex, age, occupations, working period, noise, and exposure to chemicals showed statistically significant correlations to the occurrence of hearing loss. The adjusted odd ratios were as follows: 1.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.96] for males, 2.11 (95% CI, 1.14-3.89) for those in their 40s, 2.24 (95% CI, 1.19-4.20) for those in their 50s, 2.21 (95% CI, 1.18-4.15) for manage/professional works, 2.73 (95% CI, 1.69-4.41) for manufacturing, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.36-3.15) for those who have worked for more than 20 years, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.14-2.58) for noise exposure, 1.53 (95% CI, 1.02-2.30) for vibration exposure and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.11-2.24) for chemical exposure. Conclusions The overall occupational and non-occupational risk factors related to employees' hearing loss were reviewed. In addition to the exposure to noise, occupational risks of hearing loss, such as isolated exposure to vibration and chemicals, and combined exposure to noise and these hazards, were identified. Multiple exposure to hazards, along with prolonged noise exposure increased the risk of hearing loss. PMID

  6. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

  7. Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2006-02-15

    Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and

  8. The Band-Importance Function for the Korean Standard Sentence Lists for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jin, In-Ki; Lee, Kyoungwon; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Dongwook; Sohn, Junil; Lee, Kyung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The band-importance function (BIF) refers to a value characterizing the relative importance of different frequencies to speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to derive the BIF for the Korean standard sentence lists for adults (KS-SL-A). Subjects and Methods In this study, sentences from the KS-SL-A were used as the speech material. Twenty-six normal-hearing Korean listeners participated and intelligibility scores in 8 filters with 3 signal-to-noise ratio conditions were obtained. Based on the intelligibility score percentages, the BIF for the KS-SL-A was derived by using an established protocol. Results Band-importance weights varied across frequency bands. The most important frequency region was around 316 Hz (20.0%), and the importance of the frequency bands below the center frequency (CF) of 1,778 Hz was 59.6%. Therefore, low frequencies below the CF of 1,778 Hz were more important than high frequencies above the CF of 1,778 Hz. Conclusions The BIF for KS-SL-A could be applied towards developing a hearing aid fitting formulae for Korean listeners.

  9. Comparison of treated and untreated major depressive disorder in a nationwide sample of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Bae, Jae Nam; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Son, Jung-Woo; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Bae, Ahn; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2012-06-01

    We examined factors associated with lifetime treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. Of the 6,510 subjects aged 18-64 years who participated in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 362 (5.6%) with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD were analyzed. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by lay interviewers. Of the 362 respondents with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD, 117 (32.3%) had been treated for psychiatric problems. Treated individuals with MDD were more likely to have chronic episode(s), more symptoms of depression, insomnia, and suicidal ideation, and were less likely to have feelings of guilt. In addition, treated individuals were more likely to have comorbid anxiety disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Treatment-seeking by individuals with MDD is affected by socio-cultural factors such as misconception and stigma of mental illness, as well as severity of depression and comorbid conditions.

  10. The Band-Importance Function for the Korean Standard Sentence Lists for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jin, In-Ki; Lee, Kyoungwon; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Dongwook; Sohn, Junil; Lee, Kyung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The band-importance function (BIF) refers to a value characterizing the relative importance of different frequencies to speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to derive the BIF for the Korean standard sentence lists for adults (KS-SL-A). Subjects and Methods In this study, sentences from the KS-SL-A were used as the speech material. Twenty-six normal-hearing Korean listeners participated and intelligibility scores in 8 filters with 3 signal-to-noise ratio conditions were obtained. Based on the intelligibility score percentages, the BIF for the KS-SL-A was derived by using an established protocol. Results Band-importance weights varied across frequency bands. The most important frequency region was around 316 Hz (20.0%), and the importance of the frequency bands below the center frequency (CF) of 1,778 Hz was 59.6%. Therefore, low frequencies below the CF of 1,778 Hz were more important than high frequencies above the CF of 1,778 Hz. Conclusions The BIF for KS-SL-A could be applied towards developing a hearing aid fitting formulae for Korean listeners. PMID:27626080

  11. The Association Between Urinary Benzophenone Concentrations and Personal Care Product Use in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ahra; Kang, Hui-Seung; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Moon, Gui Im; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Benzophenone (BP) derivatives are widely used in personal care products (PCPs) for protection from ultraviolet radiation. Because of their broad applications, BP derivatives have been found in various human bodily fluids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives and PCP use in Korean adults. A urinary BP biomonitoring survey was conducted in Korea by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2014. BP derivatives (BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP) were measured in urine samples from 168 Korean adults (mean age, 43.2 ± 15.4 years) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Information about the use of PCPs in the past 7 days was obtained by direct interviews. The mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were 0.87, 5.87, and 0.13 ng/g creatinine, respectively. The geometric mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were significantly higher in female than those in male. The medians of the urinary concentration of BP derivatives were significantly higher among users of the following PCPs than those in non-users; the PCPs included sunscreen, skin care products, functional cosmetics, makeup base, makeup, lip cosmetics, eye cosmetics, color cosmetics, perfume products, and nail products. A regression analysis revealed a significant linear association between urinary BP-3 concentrations and the number of additional cosmetic products used. These findings provide evidence of a positive association between exposure to PCPs and urinary BP derivative concentrations in Korean adults.

  12. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongwon; Kim, Hong Geum; Song, Daeheon; Yoon, Jung Yoon; Chung, Myung Eun

    2016-09-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  13. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  14. The Association Between Urinary Benzophenone Concentrations and Personal Care Product Use in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ahra; Kang, Hui-Seung; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Moon, Gui Im; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Benzophenone (BP) derivatives are widely used in personal care products (PCPs) for protection from ultraviolet radiation. Because of their broad applications, BP derivatives have been found in various human bodily fluids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives and PCP use in Korean adults. A urinary BP biomonitoring survey was conducted in Korea by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2014. BP derivatives (BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP) were measured in urine samples from 168 Korean adults (mean age, 43.2 ± 15.4 years) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Information about the use of PCPs in the past 7 days was obtained by direct interviews. The mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were 0.87, 5.87, and 0.13 ng/g creatinine, respectively. The geometric mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were significantly higher in female than those in male. The medians of the urinary concentration of BP derivatives were significantly higher among users of the following PCPs than those in non-users; the PCPs included sunscreen, skin care products, functional cosmetics, makeup base, makeup, lip cosmetics, eye cosmetics, color cosmetics, perfume products, and nail products. A regression analysis revealed a significant linear association between urinary BP-3 concentrations and the number of additional cosmetic products used. These findings provide evidence of a positive association between exposure to PCPs and urinary BP derivative concentrations in Korean adults. PMID:26626599

  15. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m2 and 23.3 kg/m2 for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  16. Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Status and Metabolic Risk Factors among Korean Adults with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Han Na; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Serum vitamin D status has been associated with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence for the increased risk of metabolic disorders in individuals with prediabetes and a low vitamin D status is limited and uncertain. Furthermore, it has not been confirmed whether this possible relationship occurs in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and metabolic risk factors in Korean adults with prediabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 subjects aged 20–65 years. Participants had fasting glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dl. A questionnaire was used to assess vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure and a dietary intake examined using 3-days dietary records. Clinical and biochemical data were also collected. The 2009 harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used. Serum vitamin D levels were classified according to criteria from the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. The majority of subjects (75%) had a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/ml, and among them, 31.1% were vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml). The proportion (42.9%) of subjects having low HDL-cholesterol was the highest among vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml) group (12 to < 20 ng/ml: 16.1%, ≥ 20 ng/ml: 6.7%). We observed an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and TG, AI (β = -6.355, SE = 2.463; β = -0.020, SE = 0.008) after adjusted confounders. Korean adults with prediabetes were more likely to have low serum 25(OH)D levels. A sufficient 25(OH)D level may have possible beneficial effects on lipid profiles. PMID:27783655

  17. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Chang Won; Kim, Byung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m(2) and 23.3 kg/m(2) for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults.

  18. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon.

  19. Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhwi; Park, Young-Kyung; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Hong

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean score of the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R in 10-yr age increments significantly decreased as age increased (K-DTVP-2, F= 41.120, P< 0.001; VMI-3R, F= 16.583, P< 0.001). The mean score of the VMI-3R and K-DTVP-2 were significantly decreased in participants in their 50s compared to those in their 20s (P< 0.05). Age (t= -9.130, P< 0.001), gender (t= 3.029, P= 0.003), and the presence of diseases (t= -2.504, P= 0.013) were the significant factors affecting K-DTVP-2 score. On the other hand, age (t= -6.300, P< 0.001) was the only significant factor affecting VMI-3R score. K-DTVP-2 score (Standardized β= -0.611) decreased more sensitively with aging than VMI-3R (Standardized β= -0.467). The two measurements had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.855, P< 0.001). In conclusion, it can be suggested that VP and VMI should be regularly checked from an individual's 50s, which is a critical period for detecting cognitive decline by aging. Both the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R could be used for determining the level of cognitive deficit by aging. PMID:25210701

  20. Association between Genetic Variations Affecting Mean Telomere Length and the Prevalence of Hypertension and Coronary Heart Disease in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with telomere length (TL) were associated with the incidence of hypertension (HTN)/coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular risk factors in the Korean population. Data from 5,705 (ages 39–70) participants in the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohorts) were studied. Twelve SNPs known to be associated with telomere biology were tested for an association with HTN/CHD. As results, no significant associations were found between the selected TL-related SNPs and prevalence of HTN and CHD. Among non-alcohol users, subjects with minor alleles in rs1269304 and rs10936601 (TERC and LRRC34, respectively) exhibited a higher rate of CHD occurrence (odds ratio [OR], 1.862; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.137, 3.049; OR, 1.855; 95% CIs, 1.111, 2.985; respectively). However, alcohol users with minor alleles in rs398652 (PELI2) were significantly associated with higher HTN prevalence (OR, 1.179; 95% CIs, 1.040, 1.336). Of the 3 SNPs related to disease outcomes, rs1296304 was significantly associated with increased levels of diastolic blood pressure (β estimate, 0.470; 95% CIs, 0.013, 0.926). The minor allele in rs398652 was significantly associated with higher levels of body mass index (OR, 0.128; 95% CIs, 0.010, 0.246) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (OR, 0.013; 95% CIs, 0.001, 0.024). In conclusion, there were no significant associations between the selected TL-related SNPs and the occurrence of HTN/CHD in Koreans. However, the results suggest the presence of a possible interaction between related SNPs and alcohol behavior associated with HTN/CHD occurrence. PMID:27812514

  1. Trends in health-related behaviors of Korean adults: study based on data from the 2008-2014 Community Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Wha; Ko, Yun Sil; Kim, Keon Yeop; Sung, Changhyun; Lee, Dong Han; Jeong, Eunkyeong

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity (multiple risks) often lead to serious health consequence and impaired health status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the trend in health-related behavioral factors over time among adults in South Korea (hereafter Korea). The data of 1,595,842 Koreans older than 19 years who participated in the 2008-2014 Korea Community Health Survey were analyzed to assess the trend in the prevalence of behavioral risk factors. Individual or clustering health-related behaviors were assessed according to sex, age, and region among 228,712 adults who participated in the 2014 survey. From 2008 to 2014, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity and high-risk alcohol use increased the prevalence of male current smoking and marginally decreased walking ability. Over 7 years, the percentage of adults who reported having all three healthy behaviors (i.e., currently not smoking, not consuming alcohol or having high-risk alcohol use, and engaging in walking) decreased from 35.2% in 2008 to 29.6% in 2014. Increased efforts to emphasize multiple health-related behavioral risk factors, including reducing alcohol use and smoking, and to encourage walking are needed in the thirties and forties age groups in Korea. PMID:26493778

  2. Theories and Messages in South Korean Antismoking Advertising.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jin Hong; Aikat, Debashis Deb; Jung, Eun Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated antismoking advertisements in South Korean television by drawing upon a Health Communication article by Cohen, Shumate, and Gold (2007) and on Gold, Cohen, and Shumate's (2008) typology. This study examined the theories and messages in South Korean antismoking advertisements. First, South Korean antismoking advertisements primarily targeted adults. In addition, the advertisements for adults normally used statistical evidence, whereas those for adolescents often used testimonial evidence. In terms of the type of performance, narration was often used in advertisements for both adults and adolescents. Second, the most prevalent persuasive health message used social norms, whereas the most prevalent affective appeal used fear appeals. Third, antismoking advertisements in South Korea mentioned more benefits of not smoking than barriers to not smoking. This study also identified the message difference in the U.S. and South Korean antismoking advertisements. PMID:25297054

  3. Prevalence of Dementia in Adults with and without Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Warren B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of adults with mental retardation either with or without Down syndrome and under or over 50 years of age found a significantly higher rate of dementia only in Down syndrome subjects over 50. However, the observed incidence based on functional findings was substantially below the presumed 100% prevalence of neuropathological markers of…

  4. The Nature and Prevalence of Learning Deficiencies among Adult Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Raymond; And Others

    In order to determine the nature and prevalence of learning deficiencies among adult inmates in U.S. correctional institutions, a sample of subjects was drawn from three institutions in each of the states of Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington. One male maximum security, one male medium security, and one women's prison were selected in each of…

  5. The prevalence of BRCA mutations among familial breast cancer patients in Korea: results of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Ah; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, Sue K; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Lee, Min Hyuk; Nam, Seok-Jin; Han, Wonshik; Bae, Young Tae; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Cho, Young Up; Chang, Myung Chul; Paik, Nam Sun; Hwang, Ki-Tae; Kim, Sei Joong; Noh, Dong-Young; Choi, Doo Ho; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Lee Su; Kim, Ku Sang; Suh, Young Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Jung, Yongsik; Moon, Byung-In; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Yom, Cha Kyong; Kim, Sung Yong; Lee, Hyde; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2013-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations among familial breast cancer (BC) patients in Korea. We analyzed 775 familial BC patients who were enrolled in the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study and treated at 36 institutions between May 2007 and May 2010. Patients with familial BC were defined as BC patients with family histories of BC or ovarian cancer (OC) in any relatives. All probands received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing was performed after obtaining informed consent. The mean age of BC diagnosis was 43.6 years. The numbers of probands with family histories of BC only and OC only were 682 and 93, respectively. The overall prevalence of the BRCA mutation among familial BC patients was 21.7 % (BRCA1 9.3 % and BRCA2 12.4 %). Subgroup analyses observed prevalences of the BRCA mutation as follows: 19.6 % among patients with BC family history only (BRCA1 7.6 % and BRCA2 12.0 %) and 36.6 % among patients with OC family history only (BRCA1 21.5 % and BRCA2 15.1 %). Most of the subgroups satisfied the 10 % probability criteria to undergo BRCA testing. However, the prevalence of the BRCA mutations among subgroups that had 2 BC patients in a family with both age at diagnosis of more than 50 years old did not reach the 10 % criteria (4.1 %). Korean familial BC patients are good candidates for BRCA testing even when they have family histories of single breast cancers. However, proband age at diagnosis should be carefully considered when selecting patients for testing.

  6. Sexism, Ageism and Racism Prevalent Throughout the South Korean System of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Zoltan Paul

    2009-01-01

    Korean society has for long been shaped by Confucian ideologies wherein age and gender among other factors predetermine one's position in relation to others among friends, family and society as a whole. Especially the determiners pertaining to age and gender lead to sexism and ageism which in essence encompass the widely spread prejudicial…

  7. Estimation of Total and Inorganic Arsenic Intake from the Diet in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Na; Lee, Seul-Gi; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major environmental pollutant and a known human carcinogen that is widely distributed in the air, soil, and water. General population is mainly exposed to As through drinking water and food from the contaminated water and soil. Arsenic in drinking water is generally well controlled now. This study was performed to estimate total and inorganic As intake and to determine the major contributing source in the Korean adult diet. The study subjects were 2117 healthy adults (922 males and 1195 females) who had not been occupationally exposed to As. Total dietary intake was studied using the 24-h recall method, which included 138 specific food items. The estimates of total As and inorganic As intake were based on total and inorganic As contents in each food item consumed during the last 24 h. Daily dietary intake was estimated to be 1373.6 g. Total As intake was estimated to be 145.4 µg As/day. Total dietary As intake was correlated with consumption of fish/shellfish, seaweeds, and grains. Approximately 87% of total dietary As intake was attributed to seafood, such as 105.5 µg As/day from fish/shellfish and 20.5 µg As/day from seaweeds. Inorganic As intake was estimated to be 10.4 µg As per day. Inorganic As intake was mainly provided by grains (6.4 µg As/day), followed by seaweeds and fish/shellfish. Our results indicate that seafood and grains are the main As dietary sources in Korean adults and that dietary As exposure may be associated with individual dietary habits and environmental As contamination among countries. PMID:26706926

  8. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  9. Impact of cystatin-C level on the prevalence and angiographic characteristics of vasospastic angina in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Nam; Shin, Dong Il; Jung, Mi-Hyang; Choi, Ik Jun; Seo, Suk Min; Her, Sung Ho; Kim, Pum-Joon; Moon, Keon-Woong; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Baek, Sang Hong; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Cystatin-C, a marker of mild renal dysfunction, has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases including vasospastic angina (VSA). We aimed to investigate the impact of cystatin-C level on the prevalence and angiographic characteristics of VSA in Korean patients.A total of 549 patients in the VA-KOREA (Vasospastic Angina in KOREA) registry who underwent ergonovine provocation tests were consecutively enrolled. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin-C were assessed before angiography.The patients were classified into two groups: the VSA group (n = 149, 27.1%) and the non-VSA group (n = 400). Although eGFR and Cr levels were similar between the two groups, the VSA group had a significantly higher level of cystatin-C (P < 0.05). A high level of cystatin-C (second tertile, hazard ratio 1.432; 95% confidence interval [1.1491.805]; P = 0.026, third tertile, 1.947 [1.132-2.719]; P = 0.003) and current smoking (2.710 [1.415-4.098]; P < 0.001) were independently associated with the prevalence of VSA. Furthermore, the highest level of cystatin-C (> 0.96 ng/mL) had a significant impact on the incidence of multivessel spasm (2.608 [1.061-4.596]; P = 0.037).A high level of cystatin-C was independently associated with the prevalence of VSA and with a high-risk type of VSA in Korean patients, suggesting that proactive investigation of VSA should be considered for patients with mild renal dysfunction indicated by elevated cystatin-C.

  10. Prevalence and Indicators of Tooth Wear among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhao; Du, Yangge; Zhang, Jing; Tai, Baojun

    2016-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have focused on the prevalence and related indicators of tooth wear. However, no sufficient studies have been conducted with Chinese adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of tooth wear and identify related indicators among adults aged 36 to 74 years in Wuhan City, P.R. China. A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted with 720 participants, aged 35–49 yrs and 50–74 yrs, in 2014. Each age group included 360 participants, of which 50% were males and 50% were females. All participants completed a questionnaire before examination. Tooth wear was assessed using the modified Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of tooth wear was 67.5% and 100% in the 35–49 and 50–74 age groups, respectively. The prevalence of dentin exposure was 64.7% and 98.3%, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear and dentin exposure was found in the 50–74 yr group than in the 35–49 yr group (p < 0.05). Critical indicators of tooth wear and dentin exposure included high frequency of acidic drinks and foods consumption, low socio-economic status, and unilateral chewing. The frequency of changing toothbrushes and the habit of drinking water during meals were associated with tooth wear. In addition, the usage of hard-bristle toothbrushes and consuming vitamin C and aspirin were found to be linked with dentin exposure. In conclusion, the prevalence of tooth wear and dentin exposure observed in Chinese adults was high, and the results revealed an association between tooth wear and socio-behavioral risk indicators. PMID:27583435

  11. Prevalence and Indicators of Tooth Wear among Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhao; Du, Yangge; Zhang, Jing; Tai, Baojun; Du, Minquan; Jiang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have focused on the prevalence and related indicators of tooth wear. However, no sufficient studies have been conducted with Chinese adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of tooth wear and identify related indicators among adults aged 36 to 74 years in Wuhan City, P.R. China. A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted with 720 participants, aged 35-49 yrs and 50-74 yrs, in 2014. Each age group included 360 participants, of which 50% were males and 50% were females. All participants completed a questionnaire before examination. Tooth wear was assessed using the modified Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of tooth wear was 67.5% and 100% in the 35-49 and 50-74 age groups, respectively. The prevalence of dentin exposure was 64.7% and 98.3%, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear and dentin exposure was found in the 50-74 yr group than in the 35-49 yr group (p < 0.05). Critical indicators of tooth wear and dentin exposure included high frequency of acidic drinks and foods consumption, low socio-economic status, and unilateral chewing. The frequency of changing toothbrushes and the habit of drinking water during meals were associated with tooth wear. In addition, the usage of hard-bristle toothbrushes and consuming vitamin C and aspirin were found to be linked with dentin exposure. In conclusion, the prevalence of tooth wear and dentin exposure observed in Chinese adults was high, and the results revealed an association between tooth wear and socio-behavioral risk indicators. PMID:27583435

  12. Prevalence of coronary risk factors in healthy adult Kuwaitis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R T; al-Mousa, Z; al-Raqua, M; Prakash, P; Muhanna, A

    2001-07-01

    Obesity has been shown to be a serious health risk and is associated with a wide range of comorbid conditions, including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease (CHD), gall bladder disease, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and certain cancers. Studies in Kuwait and other Gulf States indicate that obesity is prevalent and may be increasing. Previous studies in Kuwait have mostly focused on the epidemiology of overweight and obesity in children, adolescents, and young adults. Relatively less is known about the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its correlates in older adults for whom obesity may be more closely related to CHD risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 9755 adult men and women and to determine the relationship of weight to other risk factors for chronic disease. For the first time we examine a sample of older Kuwaitis to explore the relationship between high BMI, hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia. One-third of adult Kuwaitis are obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2), 4.7% of Kuwaiti females have severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2). BMI, cholesterol, and glucose values increase with age across the life span. Older Kuwaitis have a greater constellation of risk factors for chronic diseases. The results of a multiple linear regression model in which cholesterol values were studied, controlling for age, BMI, blood glucose, and sex revealed that age, BMI and sex were significant predictors of cholesterol values. These results indicate that actions to reduce obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperglycemia are needed.

  13. The Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Cancer Survivors in a Nationwide Survey of the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Myueng Guen; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that inadequate vitamin D levels are associated with a poor cancer prognosis, but data regarding actual vitamin D levels in cancer survivors are limited. This study investigated the vitamin D levels and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Korean cancer survivors compared with non-cancer controls, and identified the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 915 cancer survivors and 29,694 controls without a history of cancer were selected. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured; vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D levels less than 20 ng/mL. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors. Results Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 62.7% of cancer survivors and 67.1% of controls. Among cancer survivors, vitamin D deficiency was most prevalent among 19–44 year olds (76.2%) and among managers, professionals, and related workers (79.3%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger cancer survivors and those who work indoors were predisposed to vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent among both cancer survivors and controls in Korea. The regular evaluation and management of vitamin D levels is needed for both bone health and general health in cancer survivors. PMID:26047013

  14. Magnetic resonance image-based cerebellar volumetry in healthy Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, I J; Cho, T H; Lee, N J; Uhm, C S; Kim, H; Suh, Y S

    1999-08-01

    The effects of age and gender on cerebellar size have not been established yet. To understand these effects, the area of cerebellar vermis and the volume of cerebellum were measured using serial magnetic resonance images of 124 Korean adults free of neurologic symptoms and signs. Cerebellar volume of male was significantly larger than that of female, although the size of vermis did not show significant gender difference. Correlation analysis revealed that cerebellar volume was not affected by aging. Regressional analysis demonstrated that female vermis had a tendency to shrink after age of 50, whereas male vermis and total cerebellar volume in both sexes were not altered with aging. The different response of vermis with aging and maintenance of cerebellum volume need to be more explored. PMID:10462116

  15. Does the maxillary anterior ratio in Korean adults follow the Golden Proportion?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of changes in the horizontal plane angle on the mesiodistal width ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth during the acquisition of frontal view photographs, derive these ratios for Korean adults on the basis of the data obtained, and analyze them using the Golden Proportion as a reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS In experiment I, 30 plaster casts were mounted on an articulator and positioned on the angle-measuring device with a center setting of 0°. The device was rotated to 10° in 1° increments in a counterclockwise direction. At each angle, photographs were obtained and analyzed. Experiment II was based on 60 patients who visited the Department of Prosthodontics at Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from February 2012 to February 2015. The patients were divided into three groups [Male (M), Female (F), Total (M + F)]. Frontal views were obtained for all groups and analyzed. RESULTS From 1° to 10°, the relative mesiodistal width ratios for the maxillary anterior teeth showed no significant differences from those at 0°. In all three groups, the relative width ratio of the maxillary central incisor was smaller than that specified in the Golden Proportion; the opposite was true for the canine. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the mesiodistal width ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth do not follow the Golden Proportion in Korean adults, and that a change in the horizontal plane angle from 1° to 10° during frontal photography does not affect these ratios. PMID:27141256

  16. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This syndrome increases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. It has been demonstrated that the prevalence of MS is increasing worldwide. Despite the importance of MS in the context of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, few studies have described the prevalence of MS and its determinants in Latin America. The present study aims to assess studies describing the prevalence of MS in Brazil in order to determine the global prevalence of the syndrome and its components. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scielo from the earliest available online indexing year through May 2013. There were no restrictions on language. The search terms used to describe MS were taken from the PubMed (MeSH) dictionary: “metabolic syndrome x”, “prevalence” and “Brazil”. Studies were included if they were cross-sectional, described the prevalence of MS and were conducted in apparently healthy subjects, from the general population, 19-64 years old (adult and middle aged) of both genders. The titles and abstracts of all the articles identified were screened for eligibility. Results Ten cross-sectional studies were selected. The weighted mean for general prevalence of MS in Brazil was 29.6% (range: 14.9%-65.3%). Half of the studies used the criteria for clinical diagnosis of MS proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) (2001). The highest prevalence of MS (65.3%) was found in a study conducted in an indigenous population, whereas the lowest prevalence of MS (14.9%) was reported in a rural area. The most frequent MS components were low HDL-cholesterol (59.3%) and hypertension (52.5%). Conclusions Despite methodological differences among the studies selected, our findings suggested a high prevalence of MS in the Brazilian adult population. PMID:24350922

  17. Prevalence of chronic cough and possible causes in the general population based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Jinkyeong; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Park, Hye Yun; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Choi, Eun Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jin Woo; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Sei Won; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Hui Jung; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5% ± 0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7% ± 3.8% of study population and 46.8% ± 3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4% ± 3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5% ± 2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1% ± 1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0% ± 1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3% ± 4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P < 0.001), UACS (OR 2.50, P < 0.001), COPD (OR 2.41, P < 0.001), asthma (OR 8.89, P < 0.001), and chest radiographic abnormalities (OR 2.74, P = 0.003) were independent risk factor for chronic cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population. PMID:27631208

  18. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association. PMID:26073677

  19. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Ju; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Dae Hyung; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Nah, Jeung Weon; Kim, Soon Ki

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥ 10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA.

  20. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  1. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Ju; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Dae Hyung; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Nah, Jeung Weon; Kim, Soon Ki

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥ 10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  2. National survey of prevalent HIV strains: limited genetic variation of Korean HIV-1 clade B within the population of Korean men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gab Jung; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Shin, Bo Gyeong; Kee, Mee Kyeong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Kim, Sung Soon

    2008-06-01

    The evolution of HIV is the result of an explosive combination of factors-a high rate of mutation, replication dynamics, frequent recombination, and natural selection. To understand the evolution of the distinctive Korean HIV-1 B clade, we investigated the characteristics of the genetic variation of the HIV-1 subtype B env gene within the group of Korean men who have sex with men (MSM). From 1985 to 2005, 700 HIV-1-infected Koreans were sequenced at the V1 to V5 region of the HIV-1 env gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, 560 isolates were identified as HIV-1 subtype B, and 489 of the 560 isolates were HIV-1 Korean clade B. Based on epidemiologic investigation, 249 of 700 HIV-1-infected patients were HIV-1 subtype B-infected MSM. Interestingly, the proportion of the GPGS motif in MSM infected by Koreans was 1.6 times higher than in MSM infected by foreigners, and the genetic expansions of diversity and divergence for HIV-1 subtype B in Korean MSM were 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. This was much lower than those observed in other countries. Therefore, our findings imply that the HIV strains in this group were closely related. This result may be helpful for understanding the evolution of the distinct HIV-1 Korean B clade.

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Adult Under-Nutrition in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Letamo, Gobopamang; Navaneetham, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Background To estimate the prevalence and determinants of adult under-nutrition in Botswana. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted where a nationally representative sample of people aged 20 to 49 years was used for the analysis. The outcome measure of under-nutrition was measured as BMI<18.5 kg/m2. Results Of the total sample, 19.5% of males and 10.1% of females were underweight (BMI<18.5 kg/m2). The wealth index showed that 30.9% of the adult population with low a BMI belongs to the poorest 20% of the households while only 9.6% comprised of the richest 20% of the households. Results from logistic regression analysis indicated that both adult men and women who had no education and belonged to the low socioeconomic group had a statistically significant association with low BMI. Among the female adult population, being young and not having watched TV at least once a week were significantly associated with low BMI. For the male adult population, being unmarried was significantly associated with low BMI. Conclusions Programme interventions aimed at improving the nutritional status of adults can use these findings to make appropriate policy, to establish baselines and study nutritional changes over time and its covariates. PMID:25054546

  4. Prevalence of Common Ocular Morbidities in Adult Population of Aligarh

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Inaamul; Khan, Zulfia; Khalique, Najam; Amir, Ali; Jilani, Fatima A; Zaidi, Meena

    2009-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of common ocular morbidities (cataract, refractive errors, glaucoma, and corneal opacities) and their demographic and sociocultural correlates. Settings and Design: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in the field practice areas of the Department of Community Medicine, JNMC, AMU, Aligarh, for a period of one year, from September 2005 to August 2006. Materials and Methods: Systematic random sampling was done to select the required sample size. All adults aged 20 years and above in the selected households were interviewed and screened using a 6/9 illiterate ‘E’ chart. Those who could not read the ‘E’ chart were referred to the respective health training center for a complete eye examination by an ophthalmologist. Statistical Analysis: Chi- square test. Results: The prevalence of visual impairment, low vision, and blindness, based on presenting visual acuity was 13.0, 7.8, and 5.3%, respectively. The prevalence of cataract was 21.7%. Bilateral cataract was present in 16.9% of the population. Cataract was significantly associated with age, education, and fuel use. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism was 11.5, 9.8, and 3.7%, respectively. Glaucoma was diagnosed in six patients, giving a prevalence rate of 0.9%. All the six patients of glaucoma were aged above 40 years. The prevalence of corneal opacity was 4.2%. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of treatable or preventable morbidities such as cataract, refractive errors, and corneal opacity. PMID:20049295

  5. Dietary sodium intake in young Korean adults and its relationship with eating frequency and taste preference.

    PubMed

    Shim, Eugene; Ryu, Ha-Jung; Hwang, Jinah; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Eun-Jung

    2013-06-01

    Dietary sodium intake is considered one of the major causal factors for hypertension. Thus, to control the increase of blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension-related clinical complications, a reduction in sodium intake is recommended. The present study aimed at determining the association of dietary sodium intake with meal and snack frequency, snacking time, and taste preference in Korean young adults aged 20-26 years, using a 125-item dish-frequency questionnaire. The mean dietary sodium intakes of men and women were 270.6 mmol/day and 213.1 mmol/day, which were approximately 310% and 245% of the daily sodium intake goal for Korean men and women, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in the total group, and BMI in the total and men-only groups. In the total and men-only groups, those who consumed meals more times per day consumed more dietary sodium, but the number of times they consumed snacks was negatively correlated with dietary sodium intake in the total, men-only, and women-only groups. In addition, those who consumed snacks in the evening consumed more sodium than those who did so in the morning in the men-only group. The sodium intake was also positively associated with preference for salty and sweet taste in the total and women-only groups. Such a high intake of sodium in these young subjects shows that a reduction in sodium intake is important for the prevention of hypertension and related diseases in the future.

  6. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into three groups by T-score: normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Assessment of adherence level was based on 5 components of osteoporosis guidelines, considering intake of sodium, calcium and protein, smoking and regular exercise. Results The sex, body mass index, income and educational level did not significantly differ between three groups. Deficient intake of calcium was significantly associated with a threefold greater odds in osteoporosis group (OR 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-5.22). Excessive protein intake was significantly increased the risk only in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.62). Smoking increased the risk in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.75-4.76), osteoporosis group compared to the osteopenia group (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.61-4.55). Conclusions Nutritional factor (intake of calcium and protein) and lifestyle-related factor (smoking and exercise) must be accompanied the management for bone health. An adherence of guidelines is considered very important for the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:27622178

  7. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into three groups by T-score: normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Assessment of adherence level was based on 5 components of osteoporosis guidelines, considering intake of sodium, calcium and protein, smoking and regular exercise. Results The sex, body mass index, income and educational level did not significantly differ between three groups. Deficient intake of calcium was significantly associated with a threefold greater odds in osteoporosis group (OR 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-5.22). Excessive protein intake was significantly increased the risk only in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.62). Smoking increased the risk in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.75-4.76), osteoporosis group compared to the osteopenia group (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.61-4.55). Conclusions Nutritional factor (intake of calcium and protein) and lifestyle-related factor (smoking and exercise) must be accompanied the management for bone health. An adherence of guidelines is considered very important for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  8. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea.

  9. Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in Kabul, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension is rising worldwide with an estimated one billion people now affected globally and is of near epidemic proportions in many parts of South Asia. Recent turmoil has until recently precluded estimates in Afghanistan so we sought, therefore, to establish both prevalence predictors in our population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults ≥40 years of age in Kabul from December 2011-March 2012 using a multistage sampling method. Additional data on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were collected as well as an estimate of glycaemic control. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were undertaken to explore the association between hypertension and potential predictors. Results A total of 1183 adults (men 396, women 787) of ≥ 40years of age were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 46.2% (95% CI 43.5 – 49.3). Independent predictors of hypertension were found to be: age ≥50 (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 2.86 – 5.21); illiteracy (OR = 1.90, 1.05 – 1.90); the consumption of rice >3 times per week (OR = 1.43, 1.07 – 1.91); family history of diabetes (OR = 2.20, 1.30 – 3.75); central obesity (OR = 1.67, 1.23 – 2.27); BMI ≥ 30 Kg/meter squared (OR = 2.08, 1.50 – 2.89). The consumption of chicken and fruit more than three times per week were protective with ORs respectively of 0.73 (0.55-0.97) and 0.64 (0.47 – 0.86). Conclusions Hypertension is a major public health problem in Afghan adults. We have identified a number of predictors which have potential for guiding interventions. PMID:24754870

  10. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among healthy Korean women: implications of multiplex PCR pathogen detection on antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoonjung; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using multiplex real-time PCR assay in healthy Korean women. We also evaluated the risk factors of STIs, and compared the various factors between the STI-positive and the STI-negative groups. A total of 799 endocervical swab samples from healthy Korean women who visited our hospital for general medical check-ups during January 2012 to October 2012 were included. Eight STIs including Human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), Ureaplasma parvum (UP), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) were detected using Anyplex II STI-7 Detection assay Detection (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) and Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (Digene Corporation, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) according manufacture's protocols. Ninety-seven (12.1%) subjects were positive for HPV. Of 393 (49.2%) subjects were infected with at least one microorganism and a total of 499 STIs were identified. Among the 393 STI-positive subjects, the proportion of single, double and triple infection was 76.3%, 20.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The median age of the STI-positive group (47 years, range 42-52) was younger than the STI-negative group (49 years, range 43-56; P < 0.001). The infection rate of HPV was significantly higher in the STI-positive group (15.8%, 62/393) than the STI-negative group (8.6%, 35/406) (P = 0.002). PMID:24462432

  11. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  12. Age- and Sex-Specific Relationships between Household Income, Education, and Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Methods Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. Results The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected. Conclusions We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations. PMID:25622031

  13. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV).

    PubMed

    Lee, H-S; Lee, S-S; Hwang, I-Y; Park, Y-J; Yoon, S-H; Han, K; Son, J-W; Ko, S-H; Park, Y G; Yim, H W; Lee, W-C; Park, Y-M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Korean adults with diagnosed diabetes using nationally representative data. Among subjects aged ≥30 years who participated in the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007 and 2008, a total of 745 subjects (336 men and 409 women) with a previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus were analyzed. The prevalence of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes was 55.5%. The rates of awareness, treatment and control were 88.0, 94.2, and 30.8%, respectively. Compared with the general population, the prevalence of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes was higher in all age groups in both genders. Factors independently associated with a high prevalence of hypertension included being male, increasing age, single, <9 years of education, the presence of chronic kidney disease risk, hypercholesterolemia (≥240 mg dl(-1)) and high body mass index (≥25 kg m(-2)). Regular medical screening was positively associated with hypertension control, whereas a high triglyceride level (≥150 mg dl(-1)) was inversely associated. A high prevalence and a low control rate of hypertension in adults with diagnosed diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control blood pressure in diabetic patients.

  14. Reference Intervals for Plasma Amyloid β in Korean Adults Without Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Kim, Kyu Nam; Cho, Hye Min; Lee, Duck Joo; Cho, Doo Yeoun

    2016-11-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are important components of plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies suggest that a low plasma ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 may precede the development of the sporadic form of AD. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for plasma Aβ in Korean adults. A total of 370 apparently healthy individuals (181 males and 189 females aged 40-69 yr) without cognitive impairment were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were measured by using a human amyloid β assay kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories, Japan). Reference intervals were established according to the "CLSI guidelines for defining, establishing, and verifying reference intervals in the clinical laboratory". There was no need to partition the data with respect to gender or age group. The 95th percentile reference intervals for Aβ40 and Aβ42 were 127-331 pg/mL and 2.31-19.84 pg/mL, respectively. The reference interval for the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was 0.011-0.092. Plasma Aβ concentrations obtained in this study could be used as reference intervals for clinical purposes. PMID:27578514

  15. Reference Intervals for Plasma Amyloid β in Korean Adults Without Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Cho, Hye-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are important components of plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies suggest that a low plasma ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 may precede the development of the sporadic form of AD. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for plasma Aβ in Korean adults. A total of 370 apparently healthy individuals (181 males and 189 females aged 40-69 yr) without cognitive impairment were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were measured by using a human amyloid β assay kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories, Japan). Reference intervals were established according to the "CLSI guidelines for defining, establishing, and verifying reference intervals in the clinical laboratory". There was no need to partition the data with respect to gender or age group. The 95th percentile reference intervals for Aβ40 and Aβ42 were 127-331 pg/mL and 2.31-19.84 pg/mL, respectively. The reference interval for the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was 0.011-0.092. Plasma Aβ concentrations obtained in this study could be used as reference intervals for clinical purposes. PMID:27578514

  16. Evaluation of the relationship between upper incisor exposure and cephalometric variables in Korean young adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Chang, Na-Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to classify Korean young adults into 3 groups on the basis of upper incisor exposure rates (UIERs) and to compare the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue variables. Methods Samples were obtained from 127 students at the College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University in South Korea. Facial photographs of frontal posed smiles and lateral cephalograms of the subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of UIERs and 20 measurements were compared among the 3 groups. The correlations between the variables were determined. Results Male and female subjects showed significant differences in the group distribution. Male subjects showed higher frequencies of low smiles, and female subjects showed higher frequencies of high smiles. The vertical height of the anterior alveolar process of the maxilla directly correlated with the UIER. However, the UIER showed no significant correlation with the vertical height of the anterior basal bone or the inclination of the upper incisor axis. In female subjects, the upper central incisor clinical crown length showed an inverse correlation with the UIER. However, this variable showed no significant correlation with the UIER in male subjects. Conclusions The UIER was directly correlated with the levator muscle activity of the upper lip and inversely correlated with the upper lip thickness, yet there was no correlation between the UIER and upper lip length at rest. PMID:24228237

  17. Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes.

  18. Osteoporosis, vitamin C intake, and physical activity in Korean adults aged 50 years and over.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] To investigate associations between vitamin C intake, physical activity, and osteoporosis among Korean adults aged 50 and over. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on bone mineral density measurement data from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The study sample comprised 3,047 subjects. The normal group was defined as T-score ≥ -1.0, and the osteoporosis group as T-score ≤ -2.5. The odds ratios for osteoporosis were assessed by logistic regression of each vitamin C intake quartile. [Results] Compared to the lowest quartile of vitamin C intake, the other quartiles showed a lower likelihood of osteoporosis after adjusting for age and gender. In the multi-variate model, the odds ratio for the likelihood of developing osteoporosis in the non-physical activity group significantly decreased to 0.66, 0.57, and 0.46 (p for trend = 0.0046). However, there was no significant decrease (0.98, 1.00, and 0.97) in the physical activity group. [Conclusion] Higher vitamin C intake levels were associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged over 50 with low levels of physical activity. However, no association was seen between vitamin C intake and osteoporosis risk in those with high physical activity levels.

  19. Clinical features and outcomes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis pathologic variants in Korean adult patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that clinical characteristics and outcomes differ depending on pathologic variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). However, these are not well defined in Asian populations. Methods This retrospective study evaluated clinical features and outcomes of pathologic FSGS variants in 111 adult patients between January 2004 and December 2012. Primary outcome was the composite of doubling of baseline serum creatinine concentrations (D-SCr) or onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Secondary outcome included complete (CR) or partial remission (PR). Results There were 70 (63.1%), 20 (18.0%), 17 (15.3%), 3 (2.7%), and 1 (0.9%) patients with not-otherwise specified (NOS), tip, perihilar, cellular, and collapsing variants, respectively. At presentation, nephrotic-range proteinuria occurred more commonly in tip lesion than in other variants. The overall 5-year renal survival rate was 76.8%. During a median follow-up of 34.5 months, only 1 (5.0%) patient with a tip lesion reached the composite end point compared to 2 (11.8%) and 12 (17.1%) patients in perihilar and NOS variants, but this difference was not statistically significant in an adjusted Cox model. However, tip lesion was associated with a significantly increased probability of achieving CR (P = 0.044). Conclusion Similar to other populations, Korean adult patients with FSGS have distinct clinical features with the exception of a rare frequency of cellular and collapsing variants. Although pathologic variants were not associated with overall outcome, the tip variant exhibited favorable outcome in terms of achieving remission. Further studies are required to delineate long-term outcome and response to treatment of the pathologic variants. PMID:24666814

  20. Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, β-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake. PMID:21103089

  1. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  2. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study.

  3. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Emem-Chioma, P C; Siminialayi, I M; Wokoma, F S

    2011-09-01

    The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other non- communicable diseases continues to rise globally, and recent studies suggest that metabolic syndrome (MS) may add to this burden by contributing to the development of CKD. Given that reports on the prevalence of CKD in patients with MS in this environment are scanty, this study was undertaken with the sole aim of determining the prevalence of CKD in subjects with MS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the National Cholesterol Education Project Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). A total of 240 consenting adults (18-70 years) attending the general out- patient clinic of the General Hospital Okrika for various ailments were studied. Subjects were screened for MS as per the above- mentioned criteria. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was determined with Modification of Diet for Renal Disease (MDRD) formula and CKD was defined as eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . Data was analyzed using SPSS version 12.0 and Epi info version 4.06d; P <0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 88 males and 152 females were screened for MS by both criteria. Eighty- four (35.0%) of 240 subjects had MS as defined by NCEP ATP III, while 85 (35.4%) had MS as defined by the IDF. The subjects were predominantly females, and mean age was between 54.74 ± 15.30 and 55.60 ± 14.81 years. Four of the 84 (4.8%) subjects with MS by NCEP ATP III definition had CKD while three of the 85 (3.5%) subjects with MS by IDF definition had CKD. Among subjects without MS by either definition, the prevalence of CKD was four of 140 (2.9%). Although the prevalence of CKD was higher among subjects with MS by ATP III compared with those with MS as defined by IDF and subjects without MS, the differences were not statistically significant (X2 = 0.14; P = 0.710). A comparison of MS subjects without CKD and those with CKD did not show any significant difference in age, waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting blood

  4. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19-40, 41-60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05-1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99-1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  5. The prevalence of periodontal diseases among adult population in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tsitaishvili, L; Margvelashvili, M; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2014-09-01

    The present research was conducted to estimate the prevalence of periodontal diseases in the adult population of Georgia, to study the peculiarity of their distribution within population in different regions of the country. The survey was carried out based on cluster- stratified method derived by WHO. 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men distributed in 4 age groups: I - 20-34, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65+ the residents of the city, town and village in 9 regions of Georgia and the capital Tbilisi were examined. The assessment of periodontal status and oral hygiene was based on WHO-'s recommendation. (WHO 1997 '˜Oral Health Assessment Form') Examination was done under good natural light using a mouth mirror and a periodontal index (CPI) probe for measurements of periodontal pockets depth. Questionnaires comprised questions for revealing the following risk factors: social status and family income, existence of common diseases, people'S attitude towards oral hygiene(tooth brushing, using dental floss, mouth rinsing) acceptability of dental service, sugar consumption rate, tobacco use, consumption of dairy products. The reliable statistical data received from the study relieved high prevalence of periodontal diseases in all regions: in Achara - 71.7, Mtskheta-Mtianeti - 70.8%, Imereti - 64.9%, Qvemo Qartli - 61.6%, Tbilisi - 61.8% and Shida Qartli - 60.5%, Guria - 55.9%, Samtskhe-Javakheti - 56.0%, Kakheti - 59.1%, Samegrelo - 55.2%. Despite the variability of risk factors high prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in regions of Georgia was related to more extent to the low educational medical background, less dental acceptability due to not very positive attitude towards dental service and oral hygiene skills though financial problems also played substantial role. The study confirmed that periodontal diseases represent an actual problem in Georgia and need caring out serious preventive measures to enhance peoples' referral to dental service and

  6. The prevalence of periodontal diseases among adult population in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tsitaishvili, L; Margvelashvili, M; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2014-09-01

    The present research was conducted to estimate the prevalence of periodontal diseases in the adult population of Georgia, to study the peculiarity of their distribution within population in different regions of the country. The survey was carried out based on cluster- stratified method derived by WHO. 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men distributed in 4 age groups: I - 20-34, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65+ the residents of the city, town and village in 9 regions of Georgia and the capital Tbilisi were examined. The assessment of periodontal status and oral hygiene was based on WHO-'s recommendation. (WHO 1997 '˜Oral Health Assessment Form') Examination was done under good natural light using a mouth mirror and a periodontal index (CPI) probe for measurements of periodontal pockets depth. Questionnaires comprised questions for revealing the following risk factors: social status and family income, existence of common diseases, people'S attitude towards oral hygiene(tooth brushing, using dental floss, mouth rinsing) acceptability of dental service, sugar consumption rate, tobacco use, consumption of dairy products. The reliable statistical data received from the study relieved high prevalence of periodontal diseases in all regions: in Achara - 71.7, Mtskheta-Mtianeti - 70.8%, Imereti - 64.9%, Qvemo Qartli - 61.6%, Tbilisi - 61.8% and Shida Qartli - 60.5%, Guria - 55.9%, Samtskhe-Javakheti - 56.0%, Kakheti - 59.1%, Samegrelo - 55.2%. Despite the variability of risk factors high prevalence of inflammatory periodontal diseases in regions of Georgia was related to more extent to the low educational medical background, less dental acceptability due to not very positive attitude towards dental service and oral hygiene skills though financial problems also played substantial role. The study confirmed that periodontal diseases represent an actual problem in Georgia and need caring out serious preventive measures to enhance peoples' referral to dental service and

  7. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult Malaysians: an update.

    PubMed

    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon-Wan; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Khir, Amir Sharifuddin-Md; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Ismail, Ikram Shah; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Yaacob, Nor Azwany; Mustafa, Norlaila; Ali, Osman; Isa, Siti Harnida-Md; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad-Wan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 4428 adults (>18 years old) from 5 different selected regions in Peninsular and East Malaysia participated in this health survey. Using World Health Organization recommendations for body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of overweight and obesity were found to be 33.6% (95% CI= 32.2, 35.0) and 19.5% (95% CI= 18.3, 20.7) respectively. There were more females who were obese (22.5%, 95% CI=20.9, 24.0) compared to males (14.1%, 95% CI=12.3, 15.9). Highest prevalence of obesity were among the Indians (24.6%, 95% CI=20.3, 29.3), followed closely by the Malays (23.2%, 95% CI=21.6, 24.8%) and lowest prevalence was among the Chinese subjects (8.2%, 95% CI=6.2, 10.6). More than 43% of the 531 younger subjects (<30 years old) were either overweight (20%, 95% CI=16.6, 23.6) or obese (13.9%, 95% CI=11.1, 17.2%). All subjects who claimed to be non-diabetes were required to undergo 75 g glucose tolerance test. Compared to subjects with normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), there was a 3- and 2-folds increase in the prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance respectively, among obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m2) who initially claimed to have no diabetes. This study highlights a need for more active, inter-sectoral participation advocating a health-promoting environment in order to combat obesity in this country. PMID:21393108

  8. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang

    2011-01-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

  9. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  10. Prevalence and cross-immunity of Eimeria species on Korean chicken farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...

  11. Prevalence of Bacillus cereus in the faeces of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A C

    1978-04-01

    In a survey designed to determine the prevalence of Bacillus cereus in the faeces of healthy persons, the organism was found in low numbers in 100 (14%) of single faecal specimens from 711 adults in the general population. In addition, in an attempt at assessing the changes in the B. cereus distribution within the faecal flora of the individual, weekly faecal specimens were submitted over a seven-week period by 18 members of staff of two laboratories. The total isolation rate was again 14%, with 15 serotypes represented. In four individuals B. cereus was isolated in two consecutive weeks and in all cases the isolates were of different serotypes. Excretion was never recorded for more than two consecutive weeks. These findings probably reflect the intake of B. cereus in the individual's diet.

  12. Prevalence of voice quality deviations in the normal adult population.

    PubMed

    Brindle, B R; Morris, H L

    1979-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of voice quality deviations in a normal adult population. One-hundred twelve subjects, aged 17 to 80, read a short paragraph aloud into a high-fidelity tape recorder and completed a case history questionnaire. A group of 11 pretrained judges rated overall performance of each taped sample on a seven-point equal-appearing intervals scale, then designated those quality components which contributed toward deviant ratings. Eighty-two percent of the group received a mean severity rating lower than 1.99; 16% had a rating between 2.00 and 2.99; and 2% was assigned a mean rating higher than 3.00.

  13. Associations of Low Environmental Exposure to Multiple Metals with Renal Tubular Impairment in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungryul; Lim, Ji-ae; Choi, Jong Hyuk; Kwon, Ho-jang; Ha, Mina; Kim, Heon; Park, Jung-duck

    2016-01-01

    Recently several studies reported that the renal toxicity of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) may exist in even a low level exposure. In terms of the deterioration of tubular function, it affects the loss of divalent metals and leads to other complications, so renal tubular effect of heavy metals should be well managed. Considering the exposure to heavy metals in reality, it is hard to find the case that human is exposed to only one heavy metal. We designed a cross-sectional study using Korean Research Project on the Integrated Exposure Assessment (KRIEFS) data to investigate the renal effects of multiple metal exposure in general population. We used blood Pb and urinary Cd as exposure measures, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) as renal tubular impairment outcome. We conducted linear regression to identify the association between each heavy metal and urinary NAG and β2-MG. And then, we conducted linear regression including the interaction term. Of 1953 adults in KRIEFS (2010~2011), the geometric mean of blood Pb and urinary Cd concentration was 2.21 μg/dL (geometric SD = 1.49 μg/dL) and 1.08 μg/g cr (geometric SD = 1.98 μg/g cr), respectively. In urinary Cd, the strength of the association was also high after adjusting (urinary NAG: β = 0.44, p < 0.001; urinary β2-MG: β = 0.13, p = 0.002). Finally, we identified the positive interactions for the two renal biomarkers. The interaction effect of the two heavy metals of β2-MG was greater than that of NAG. It is very important in public health perspective if the low level exposure to multiple heavy metals has an interaction effect on kidney. More epidemiological studies for the interaction and toxicological studies on the mechanism are needed. PMID:26977259

  14. Association between urinary levels of bisphenol-A and estrogen metabolism in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jee; Lee, Dongho; Chung, Bong Chul; Pyo, Heesoo; Lee, Jeongae

    2014-02-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) possesses estrogenic properties both in vitro and in vivo as an endocrine disrupting chemical. Humans experience a long-term and cumulative exposure to BPA. BPA was detectable in 97.3% of 1904 urine specimens from Korean adults. We investigated urinary estrogen concentrations in subjects with low and high BPA concentrations and its possible association with estrogen metabolism. Urine samples were collected from a high BPA concentration group (BPA-H; n=100, 11.05 ± 20.47 μg/g creatinine) and a low BPA concentration group (BPA-L; n=100, 0.70 ± 0.22 μg/g creatinine) from Korea Biomonitoring Program of Hazardous Materials Survey 2009-2010. Urinary estrogens were enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted, and then derivatized for quantitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Estrogen levels were higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group. Concentrations of estrone, 17β-estradiol, and their hydroxylated metabolites in both men and women were significantly higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group (p<0.04). Furthermore, in the BPA-H group, estrogen metabolism to 4-hydroxy-estrone and 4-hydroxy-17β-estradiol was more active than that to 2-hydroxy-estrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol. Although single measurement and/or single spot urine samples limit the measurement of long-term exposure to BPA, we found significant differences of estrogen metabolism in the BPA-H and the BPA-L groups. The increase of hydroxyestrogens, especially 4-hydroxyestrogens, can be an important factor resulting negative effects of prolonged exposure to BPA. PMID:23954212

  15. The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Mi; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Dong Lim; Kim, Suk Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    Background The common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults. Methods A total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS. Results Midnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12) than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34) (P=0.001). Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ≥100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4). Conclusion The results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS. PMID:22737665

  16. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers.

  17. Dietary quality differs by consumption of meals prepared at home vs. outside in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating out has been reported to have negative effects on nutritional status. However, eating out can include meals prepared at home and eaten outside. Conversely, meals eaten at home can be brought from outside, as take-out and home deliveries have become common in Korea. Thus, we tested whether or not meal preparation location influences daily diet quality. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2009, 4,915 Korean adults (20-64 years) were classified into two groups: home-made meal group (HMG), who ate ≥ 2 meals per day prepared at home (n = 4,146), and non-home-made meal group (NHMG), who ate ≥ 2 meals per day prepared outside home (n = 769). Daily diet quality was determined by energy intake, nutrient intake, Dietary Variety Score (DVS), and Diet Diversity Score (DDS). RESULTS Compared to the HMG, the NHMG was more likely to consist of men, single, employed, educated and of a higher economic status (all, P < 0.01). The NHMG showed higher energy intakes (1,776 vs. 2,116 kcal/day) with higher percentages of energy from protein (15 vs. 23%) and fat (14 vs. 16%) and lower intakes of dietary fiber, phosphorus, potassium, niacin, and vitamin C (all, P < 0.01) than the HMG, with some variations among age groups. The NHMG tended to consume foods prepared by frying and grilling and had more one-dish meals such as bibimbap, noodles, and dumplings but also showed higher dietary diversity. CONCLUSIONS It should be noted that home-made meals do not necessarily guarantee a healthy diet, and the effects of meal preparation location on nutritional status might vary depending on socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:27247726

  18. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  19. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate according to the Pulmonary Function of Korean Adults Aged 40 Years and Over: Analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Influenza vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality, particularly for those who have decreased lung functions. This study was to identify the factors that affect vaccination coverage according to the results of pulmonary function tests depending on the age. In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 3,224 adults over the age of 40 who participated in the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and underwent pulmonary function testing in 2012. To identify the factors that affect vaccination rate, logistic regression analysis was conducted after dividing the subjects into two groups based on the age of 65. Influenza vaccination coverage of the entire subjects was 45.2%, and 76.8% for those aged 65 and over. The group with abnormal pulmonary function had a higher vaccination rate than the normal group, but any pulmonary dysfunction or history of COPD did not affect the vaccination coverage in the multivariate analysis. The subjects who were 40-64 years-old had higher vaccination coverage when they were less educated or with restricted activity level, received health screenings, and had chronic diseases. Those aged 65 and over had significantly higher vaccination coverage only when they received regular health screenings. Any pulmonary dysfunction or having COPD showed no significant correlation with the vaccination coverage in the Korean adult population. PMID:27134491

  20. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  1. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Passananti, V.; Siniscalchi, M.; Zingone, F.; Bucci, C.; Tortora, R.; Iovino, P.; Ciacci, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2), and Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC. PMID:24369457

  2. Influence of message error type on Korean adults' attitudes toward an individual who uses augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Eun Hye

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of types of message errors on the attitudes of Korean adults toward a person who uses AAC. The attitudes of 72 adults who speak native Korean were examined through attitude questionnaires completed after viewing videotaped conversations between a boy with cerebral palsy and an adult without disabilities. Each interaction video involved a message with one of six error types, including various types of syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic errors. The participants provided information on their attitude towards the person who used AAC, and ranked their preferences among the six messages. The results provide evidence that attitudes towards the individual using AAC were most positive (in comparison with other conditions) when a pragmatic error was observed. Messages containing a syntactic error were ranked most favorably. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed some relationship between attitudes rating and preferences ranking. Our results provide evidence that specific language and cultural contexts may play an important role in shaping attitudes toward those who use AAC. PMID:25716683

  3. Functional disability of adults in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire; Pereira, Maurício Gomes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with functional disability in adults in Brazil. METHODS We used information from the health supplement of the National Household Sample Survey in 2008. The dependent variable was the functional disability among adults of 18 to 65 years, measured by the difficulty of walking about 100 meters; independent variables were: health plan membership, region of residence, state of domicile, education level, household income, economic activity, self-perception of health, hospitalization, chronic diseases, age group, sex, and color. We calculated the gross odds ratios (OR), and their respective confidence intervals (95%), and adjusted them for variables of study by ordinal logistic regression, following hierarchical model. Sample weights were considered in all calculations. RESULTS We included 18,745 subjects, 74.0% of whom were women. More than a third of adults reported having functional disability. The disability was significantly higher among men (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09;1.27), people from 35 to 49 years (OR = 1.30; 95%CI 1.17;1.45) and 50 to 65 years (OR = 1.38; 95%CI 1.24;1.54); economically inactive individuals (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.65;2.96); adults who reported heart disease (OR = 1.13; 95%CI 1.03;1.24), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.16; 95%CI 1.05;1.29), arterial systemic hypertension (OR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02;1.18), and arthritis/rheumatism (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.15;1.34); and participants who were admitted in the last 12 months (OR = 2.35; 95%CI 1.73;3.2). CONCLUSIONS Functional disability is common among Brazilian adults. Hospitalization is the most strongly associated factor, followed by economic activity, and chronic diseases. Sex, age, education, and income are also associated. Results indicate specific targets for actions that address the main factors associated with functional disabilities and contribute to the projection of interventions for the improvement of the well-being and promotion of adults

  4. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-08-01

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future. PMID:18612173

  5. Disability of Hearing Impairment Is Positively Associated With Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio in Korean Adults: The 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Dong-Hee; Chae, Hiun Suk; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Sohn, Tae Seo; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Kim, Hee Yeon; Lee, Jae-Im; Song, Jae Yen; Yeo, Chang Dong; Lee, Young Bok; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Hong, Mihee; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hearing thresholds in the nationwide, large-scaled Korean population. Methods. This study analyzed the data of 9,798 subjects of 19 years and older (4,387 males and 5,411 females). Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured from first-voided spot urine samples. The air-conduction hearing threshold was measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz and pure tone audiogram (PTA) average was calculated as the four-frequency average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Results. Urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in both genders, especially at 3 and 6 kHz in males and at 1, 3, 4, and 6 kHz in females. After adjusting, urine ACR also increased the risk of hearing loss in female, especially if urine ACR was 30 mg/g and more (odds ratio, 1.636–2.229. This study showed that the degree of hearing loss was significantly different according to categories of urine ACR in both genders. Hearing loss without disability was found less but that with bilateral hearing disability was found more as urine ACR increased. In generally, prevalence of hearing loss with disability was higher in males than females. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in Korean adults of both genders. This study suggests that clinicians should carefully monitor the hearing level for subjects with elevated urine ACR, even though high urine ACR within the normal range. PMID:27416740

  6. Prevalence of gonococcal conjunctivitis in adults and neonates

    PubMed Central

    McAnena, L; Knowles, S J; Curry, A; Cassidy, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the prevalence of gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC) presenting to a tertiary referral maternity hospital (NMH) and a tertiary referral ophthalmic hospital (RVEEH) from 2011 to 2013 and describe the demographics, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae ocular infections. Methods Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were collected from patients with laboratory confirmed GC. Results There were 27 556 live births at NMH during the study period, and no case of neonatal GC was identified. Fourteen cases of GC were identified at RVEEH in this period, representing a prevalence of 0.19 cases per 1000 eye emergency attendees. Antibiotic susceptibility data were available on nine cases, of which, all were ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin sensitive. 64.3% of patients were male, with a mean age of 18 years. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days. All patients presented with unilateral conjunctival injection and purulent discharge. Eight cases had visual impairment at presentation and their mean visual acuity was 6/15. Corneal involvement was present in 25% of patients. Uveitis was not detected. On receipt of positive culture and/or PCR results, treatment was altered in two thirds of patients. All patients were referred for full STI screening and all patients showed a full clinical recovery 1 week posttreatment. Conclusion We observed that GC presented in young adults with a male predominance and was rare in neonates. In cases of unilateral purulent conjunctivitis, there should be a high clinical suspicion of GC, early swab for PCR and culture, and knowledge of current CDC-recommended antibiotic guidelines. PMID:25907207

  7. Occlusal status in Asian male adults: prevalence and ethnic variation.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jen; Sandham, Andrew; Chan, Yiong Huak

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occlusal status in young Asian male adults of three ethnic groups. Study models of a sample of male army recruits (N = 339, age 17-22 years) with no history of orthodontic treatment were assessed. The ethnic proportions of the sample were Chinese 76.1% (n = 258), Malay 17.7% (n = 60), and Indian 6.2% (n = 21). British Standard Institute (BSI) and Angle's classification were used to determine incisor and molar relationships, respectively. Chi-square test or Fisher's Exact test was performed to compare the occlusal traits between ethnic groups. The distribution of incisor relationships of the total sample consisted of Class I = 48.1%, Class II/1 = 26.3%, Class II/2 = 3.2%, and Class III = 22.4%. Right Angle's molar relationships were 49.9%, 24.5%, and 24.2% whereas left Angle's molar relationships were 53.1%, 25.1%, and 21.2% for Class I, II, and III, respectively. Comparison between ethnic groups found that Indian subjects were more likely to have Class II/1 malocclusions and clinically missing permanent teeth (P < .05). The study found that the overall prevalence of malocclusion (BSI) was Class I, Class II/1, Class III, and Class II/2 in descending order of proportions. Angle's Class I molar was most prevalent followed by Class II and Class III relations. A significant difference in occlusal status between the ethnic groups was found regarding incisor relationship and missing permanent teeth (P < .05).

  8. Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Memon, A.; Moody, P. M.; Sugathan, T. N.; el-Gerges, N.; al-Bustan, M.; al-Shatti, A.; al-Jazzaf, H.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults. METHODS: The 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. Altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% CI = 1.3-2.5) among women. Among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% CI = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< or = 20 years). Among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% CI = 3.1-11.1). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (OR) 3.5; 95% CI = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (OR = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 2.0-11.8). The majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (P < 0.0001). On average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; P < 0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; P < 0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; P < 0.05). A large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. Almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. The biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about "how to quit". A total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% CI = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. About half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive. PMID:24968689

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Ying, Chanying; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Huey, Teh Chien; Hock, Lim Kuang; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abd; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Cheong, Kee Chee

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) in 2006, this study examined the association between socio-demographic factors and physical inactivity in a sample of 33,949 adults aged 18 years and above by gender. Physical activity levels were measured using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ vers 1). Physical inactivity was defined as having a total physical activity level of less than 600 metabolic equivalents-minutes per week (METs-minutes/week) contributed by all three different life domains.Logistic regression analyses were conducted.The prevalence of overall physical inactivity was 43.7% (95% CI: 42.9-44.5). The mean total physical activity level was 894.2 METs-minutes/ week. The means METs-minutes/week for the domain of work, travelling, and leisure time were 518.4, 288.1, and 134.8, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that females were more likely to be physically inactive than males were (aOR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.53-1.72). Among women, being a housewife (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.56-2.03), widow/divorcee (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), and those with no formal education (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.43) were found to be significantly associated with physical inactivity.Urban residents, older adults aged 65 years and above, private employees, nonworking group, and those with a monthly household income level of MYR5,000 and above appeared to be consistently associated with physical inactivity across men, women, and combined group (both). Specific health intervention strategies to promote physical activity should be targeted on population subgroups who are inactive.

  11. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  12. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  13. Olfactory Dysfunction Is Associated with the Intake of Macronutrients in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. Methods A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012. Olfactory dysfunction was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire, and the nutritional status was assessed through a validated 24-hour recall method. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses with complex sampling were performed to evaluate the relationships between olfactory dysfunction and protein intake (daily protein intake/recommended protein intake [%]), carbohydrate intake (daily carbohydrate intake/total calories [%]), and fat intake (daily fat intake/total calories [%]) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and stress level. Results Olfactory dysfunction was reported by 5.4% of Korean adults and was found to be associated with decreased fat consumption (estimated value [EV] of fat intake [%] = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.13 to -0.13, P = 0.045). A subgroup analysis according to age and sex revealed that among young females, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat consumption (EV = -2.30, 95% CI = -4.16 to -0.43, P = 0.016) and increased carbohydrate intake (EV = 2.80, 95% CI = 0.55 to 5.05, P = 0.015), and that among middle-aged females, olfactory dysfunction was also associated with reduced fat intake (EV = -1.26, 95% CI = -2.37 to -0.16, P = 0.025). In contrast, among young males, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced protein intake (EV = -26.41 95% CI = -45.14 to -7.69, P = 0.006). Conclusion Olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat intake. Moreover

  14. Association Between Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong Chul; Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High sodium intake is 1 of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but in Korea, daily sodium intake is estimated to be double the level recommended by World Health Organization. We investigated the association between the estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (24hUNaE) and metabolic syndrome using nationwide population data. In total, 17,541 individuals (weighted n = 33,200,054; weighted men, 52.5% [95% confidence interval, CI = 51.8–53.3]; weighted age, 45.2 years [44.7–45.7]) who participated in the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2011 were investigated. NCEP-ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome were used, and sodium intake was estimated by 24hUNaE using Tanaka equation with a spot urine sample. The weighted mean 24hUNaE values were 3964 mg/d (95% CI = 3885–4044) in men and 4736 mg/d (4654–4817) in women. The weighted age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.2% (21.4–23.0), and it increased with 24hUNaE quartile in both men and women (mean ± standard error of the mean; men: 22.5 ± 1.0%, 23.0 ± 1.0%, 26.0 ± 1.2%, and 26.0 ± 1.2%; P = 0.026; women: 19.4 ± 0.8%, 17.7 ± 0.8%, 19.8 ± 1.0%, and 23.0 ± 1.1%; P = 0.002, for quartiles 1–4, respectively). Even after adjustment for age, daily calorie intake, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, college graduation, and antihypertensive medication, the weighted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with the increase in 24hUNaE in men and women. The weighted 24hUNaE was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for confounding factors in men and women. In subjects without antihypertensive medication, the odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in quartile 4 of 24hUNaE compared with quartile 1 was 1.56 (1.33–1.84, P < 0.001) in the total population, 1.66 (1.34–2.06, P < 0.001) in men, and 1.94 (1.49–2.53, P < 0

  15. Establishment of a Flexible Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Platform for Detecting Prevalent Deafness Mutations Associated with Variable Degree of Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Hee; Kim, Ah Reum; Kim, Min Young; Ahn, Soyeon; Oh, Seung-Ha; Song, Ju Hun; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Many cutting-edge technologies based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) have been employed to identify candidate variants responsible for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, these methods have limitations preventing their wide clinical use for primary screening, in that they remain costly and it is not always suitable to analyze massive amounts of data. Several different DNA chips have been developed for screening prevalent mutations at a lower cost. However, most of these platforms do not offer the flexibility to add or remove target mutations, thereby limiting their wider use in a field that requires frequent updates. Therefore, we aimed to establish a simpler and more flexible molecular diagnostic platform based on ethnicity-specific mutation spectrums of SNHL, which would enable bypassing unnecessary filtering steps in a substantial portion of cases. In addition, we expanded the screening platform to cover varying degrees of SNHL. With this aim, we selected 11 variants of 5 genes (GJB2, SLC26A4, MTRNR1, TMPRSS3, and CDH23) showing high prevalence with varying degrees in Koreans and developed the U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit, a real-time PCR-based method using the MeltingArray technique and peptide nucleic acid probes. The results of 271 DNA samples with wild type sequences or mutations in homo- or heterozygote form were compared between the U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit and Sanger sequencing. The positive and negative predictive values were 100%, and this method showed perfect agreement with Sanger sequencing, with a Kappa value of 1.00. The U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit showed excellent performance in detecting varying degrees and phenotypes of SNHL mutations in both homozygote and heterozygote forms, which are highly prevalent in the Korean population. This platform will serve as a useful and cost-effective first-line screening tool for varying degrees of genetic SNHL and facilitate genome-based personalized hearing rehabilitation for the Korean population

  16. Establishment of a Flexible Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Platform for Detecting Prevalent Deafness Mutations Associated with Variable Degree of Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Young; Ahn, Soyeon; Oh, Seung-Ha; Song, Ju Hun; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Many cutting-edge technologies based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) have been employed to identify candidate variants responsible for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, these methods have limitations preventing their wide clinical use for primary screening, in that they remain costly and it is not always suitable to analyze massive amounts of data. Several different DNA chips have been developed for screening prevalent mutations at a lower cost. However, most of these platforms do not offer the flexibility to add or remove target mutations, thereby limiting their wider use in a field that requires frequent updates. Therefore, we aimed to establish a simpler and more flexible molecular diagnostic platform based on ethnicity-specific mutation spectrums of SNHL, which would enable bypassing unnecessary filtering steps in a substantial portion of cases. In addition, we expanded the screening platform to cover varying degrees of SNHL. With this aim, we selected 11 variants of 5 genes (GJB2, SLC26A4, MTRNR1, TMPRSS3, and CDH23) showing high prevalence with varying degrees in Koreans and developed the U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit, a real-time PCR-based method using the MeltingArray technique and peptide nucleic acid probes. The results of 271 DNA samples with wild type sequences or mutations in homo- or heterozygote form were compared between the U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit and Sanger sequencing. The positive and negative predictive values were 100%, and this method showed perfect agreement with Sanger sequencing, with a Kappa value of 1.00. The U-TOP™ HL Genotyping Kit showed excellent performance in detecting varying degrees and phenotypes of SNHL mutations in both homozygote and heterozygote forms, which are highly prevalent in the Korean population. This platform will serve as a useful and cost-effective first-line screening tool for varying degrees of genetic SNHL and facilitate genome-based personalized hearing rehabilitation for the Korean population

  17. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice.

  18. Prevalence of Cervical Enamel Projection and Its Impact on Furcation Involvement in Mandibular Molars: A Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Study in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Chang; Jeon, Seok-Kyun; Cha, Jae-Kook; Lee, Jung-Seok; Choi, Seong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of cervical enamel projections (CEPs) in mandibular molars, and analyzed the correlation between CEPs and furcation involvement (FI) based on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data in a Korean population. CBCT images obtained from March 2012 to August 2012 were analyzed. CEPs and FI on the buccal and lingual surface were classified in three-dimensionally reconstructed images and cross-sectional views, and the correlation between these two parameters was analyzed. In total, 982 teeth in 425 patients were analyzed. The overall prevalence rate of CEPs was 76% (71% and 27% on the buccal and lingual surfaces, respectively). Grade I CEPs were the most common, followed by CEPs of grades II and III. There was a statistically significant, but negligible correlation between the CEP grade and the degree of FI on the buccal and lingual surfaces. Within the limitations of this cross-sectional study, a high prevalence of CEPs were found in a Korean population, but the role of CEPs in provoking FI appeared not to be decisive.

  19. Relationship between Secondhand Smoking with Depressive Symptom and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Non-Smoker Adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Wook; Shin, Jin-Young; Goo, Ae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that mental health is affected not only by smoking, but also by secondhand smoking. But the most researches have been conducted in North America and/or Europe. We examined whether this relationship remains evident within the South Korean population. Specifically, we investigated the effect of secondhand smoking on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Methods We analyzed data from 6,043 non-smoking adults who participated in the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We compared the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in 3,006 participants who were exposed to secondhand smoking in the office or at home with 3,037 non-exposed participants. Results In unadjusted logistic regression analysis, secondhand smoking exposure group had more suicidal ideations than no secondhand smoking exposure (16.1% vs. 12.2%; odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.241–1.804), but risk of depressive symptoms was not significantly different between two groups (15.2% vs. 12.2%; OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.997–1.460). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, Among those exposed to secondhand smoking, the OR for depressive symptoms was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.866–1.299) and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.139–1.802) for suicidal ideation. Overall, secondhand smoking at home was significantly related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Among females, secondhand smoking exposure at home only (not in the office) was related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Conclusion Exposure to secondhand smoking, especially at home, may be associated with an increase in especially in female depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among adults in South Korea. PMID:27073608

  20. Modernity and Postmodernity Related Issues in Developing Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education in Korean Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    Korean society is in the midst of a conflict between modern and postmodern condition. The concept of modernity is rooted in the Enlightenment, which valued reason and proposed the rational and progressive construction and transformation of society and reality. As a result of a rational differentiation between culture and society, modern phenomena…

  1. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults. PMID:27630731

  2. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults.

  3. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Wansu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults. PMID:27630731

  4. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  5. End-of-life communication in Korean older adults: With focus on advance care planning and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ji Eun; Cho, BeLong; Yoo, Sang Ho; Kim, SangYun; Yoo, Jun-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of current status of end-of-life (EOL) care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, with focus on the EOL communication and use of advance directives (AD) in elderly Koreans. Through literature review, we discuss the current status of EOL care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, and provide a look-ahead. In Korea, patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very end of life. Advance care planning is rare, and most do-not-resuscitate decisions are made between the family and physician at the very end of patient's life. Koreans, influenced mainly by Confucian tradition, prefer a natural death and discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment. Although Koreans generally believe that death is natural and unavoidable, they tend not to think about or discuss death, and regard preparation for death as unnecessary. As a result, AD are completed by just 4.7% of the general adult population. This situation can be explained by several sociocultural characteristics including opting for natural death, wish not to burden others, preference for family involvement and trust in doctor, avoidance of talking about death, and filial piety. Patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very EOL, advance care planning and the use of AD is not common in Korea. This was related to unique sociocultural characteristics of Korea. A more active role of physicians, development of a more deliberate EOL discussion process, development of culturally appropriate AD and promotion of advance care planning might be required to provide good EOL care in Korea.

  6. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  7. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Identify Common Smoking Situations Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Shin, Hee-Sung; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    The present study provides detailed contextual information about smoking habits among young Korean American smokers with the goal of characterizing situations where they are most at risk for smoking. Relevant situational factors included location, social context, concurrent activities, time of day, affective states, and food and beverage consumption. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over 7 days, participants (N = 78) were instructed to respond to smoking prompts (n = 2614) and non-smoking prompts (n = 2136) randomly scheduled throughout the day. At each prompt, participants completed a short survey about immediate contextual factors. We used multilevel models to evaluate the association between contextual factors and smoking and further explored the distribution of smoking locations and concurrent activities across each social context and reason for smoking. Compared to non-smoking events, smoking events were associated with being outside, the presence of Korean friends, socializing, consuming alcohol, and experiencing more stress relative to one's average stress level (all ps < .01). Further analyses involving only smoking events showed that when participants smoked alone, they were most commonly at home (50 %) and most often studying/working (28 %). When smoking with Korean friends, participants were most often outside (38 %) and socializing (54 %). When smoking to reduce craving, participants were most often at home (39 %) and studying/working (25 %). To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide detailed descriptions of real-time smoking contexts among young Korean American smokers. Information with this level of granularity is needed to develop effective just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) for smoking cessation. PMID:27476588

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults with Hearing Impairment: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Ae Jin; Choi, Won-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background As the global population ages, disabling hearing impairment (HI) have been increased rapidly. The impact of HI on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is of great importance to aid the development of strategic plans and to guide therapeutic interventions. Purpose To evaluate HRQoL in Korean adults with different degrees of HI using EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS), the preference-based generic measures of HRQoL. Methods Using a representative dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from January 2010 to December 2012, EQ-5D questionnaire and EQ- VAS scores of subjects with HI were compared with those of subjects without HI. Logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for covariates, was used to evaluate the impact of HI on HRQoL scales. HI was defined according to the hearing thresholds of pure-tone averages at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 kHz of the better hearing ear as follows; mild HI (26 to < 40 dB) and moderate to severe HI (≥ 40 dB). Results Of the 16,449 Korean adults in KNHANES (age, 45.0 ± 0.2 years; male, 49.7%), 1757 (weighted prevalence, 7.6%) had mild HI and 890 (3.6%) had moderate to severe HI. Subjects with HI had impaired HRQoL as compared with subjects without HI (EQ-5D, 0.96 ± 0.00 vs. 0.88±0.00 vs. 0.86 ± 0.01 for control vs. mild HI vs. moderate to severe HI, p < 0.001; EQ-VAS, 75.10 ± 0.18 vs. 67.48 ± 0.63 vs. 66.24 ± 0.92 for control vs. mild HI vs. moderate to severe HI, p < 0.001). After adjusting for socio-demographic factors (age, gender, household income, education level, presence of spouse) and health-related behaviors (smoking status, alcohol intake, regular exercise), psychological stress, and the presence of comorbidities (diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, decreased eGFR, and tinnitus), EQ-VAS remained impaired in the moderate to severe HI group (61.72±1.69) as compared with the control group (65.68 ± 1.26, p = 0.004), but EQ-5D

  9. Development of a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life (QOL) among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. To develop a situation-specific theory, three sources were considered: (a) the conceptual model of health promotion and QOL for people with chronic and disabling conditions (an existing theory related to the QOL in patients with chronic diseases); (b) a literature review using multiple databases including Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, PsycINFO, and two Korean databases; and (c) findings from our structural equation modeling study on health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. The proposed situation-specific theory is constructed with six major concepts including barriers, resources, perceptual factors, psychosocial factors, health-promoting behaviors, and health-related QOL. The theory also provides the interrelationships among concepts. Health care providers and nurses could incorporate the proposed situation-specific theory into development of diabetes education programs for improving health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Personal views about aging among Korean American older adults: the role of physical health, social network, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A

    2012-06-01

    Given the importance of a positive attitude towards one's own aging, we examined its predictors in a sample of 230 Korean American older adults (M (age) = 69.8 years, SD = 7.05). Personal views about aging, measured with a subscale of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), were regressed on demographic variables, physical health-related factors, and psychosocial attributes (social network and acculturation). Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that better physical health conditions (fewer chronic conditions, less functional disability, and better vision) were associated with more positive personal views about aging. Other significant contributors included larger social networks and higher levels of acculturation. Findings suggest that personal views about aging among immigrant elderly populations can be enhanced by promoting physical health, social connectedness, and acculturation. Ways to maintain and improve positive attitudes about personal aging are discussed in a cultural context. PMID:22581472

  11. Mediating effect of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life among low-income older Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jung

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life (QOL) for low-income older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles County, CA. A cross-sectional survey of low-income older Korean immigrants who use ADHC programs was conducted. Self-reported measures included sociocultural characteristics, acculturation, cognitive function, family network, utilization of ADHC, and QOL. The study found that for QOL, two variables had only direct effects: years in ADHC and acculturation. Family network was directly associated with QOL and indirectly associated with it through the variable "years in ADHC." Our findings indicate that a strong family network is positively associated with more years of attendance in ADHC, and with higher QOL scores. Thus, policy makers and practitioners should be aware of the positive association among social networks, attendance in ADHC, and higher QOL among low-income older Korean immigrants.

  12. Prevalence of pressure ulcers by race and ethnicity for older adults admitted to nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Harms, Susan; Bliss, Donna Z; Garrard, Judith; Cunanan, Kristen; Savik, Kay; Gurvich, Olga; Mueller, Christine; Wyman, Jean F; Eberly, Lynn; Virnig, Beth

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of pressure ulcers (PUs) among racial and ethnic groups of older individuals admitted to nursing homes (NHs). NHs admitting higher percentages of minority individuals may face resource challenges for groups with more PUs or ones of greater severity. This study examined the prevalence of PUs (Stages 2 to 4) among older adults admitted to NHs by race and ethnicity at the individual, NH, and regional levels. Results show that the prevalence of PUs in Black older adults admitted to NHs was greater than that in Hispanic older adults, which were both greater than in White older adults. The PU rate among admissions of Black individuals was 1.7 times higher than White individuals. A higher prevalence of PUs was observed among NHs with a lower percentage of admissions of White individuals. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 40(3), 20-26.]. PMID:24219072

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of Intanza(®)/IDflu(®) intradermal influenza vaccine in South Korean adults: a multicenter, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hoon Han, Sang; Hee Woo, Jun; Weber, Francoise; Joo Kim, Woo; Ran Peck, Kyong; Il Kim, Sang; Hwa Choi, Young; Myung Kim, June

    2013-09-01

    Intanza(®)/IDflu(®) (Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France) is an intradermal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine developed as an alternative to intramuscular influenza vaccine. The objective of this study was to confirm the immunogenicity and safety of Intanza/IDflu in South Korean adults. In a phase IV multicenter trial, South Korean adults 18-59 y old (n = 120) and ≥ 60 y old (n = 120) were randomized 1:1 to receive a single dose of Intanza/IDflu (9 µg for 18-59 y, 15 µg for ≥ 60 y) or trivalent intramuscular vaccine (Vaxigrip(®) 15 µg, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France). Blood was collected on pre-vaccination (day 0) and on day 21. Hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates and seroconversion rates were determined on day 21. Geometric mean titers, seroprotection and seroconversion rates were similar between the intradermal and intramuscular vaccines in both age groups for all three vaccine strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B). Both vaccines met Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use criteria for all three strains. Solicited systemic reactions of the intradermal groups were generally mild, transient, and similar to those of the intramuscular groups. Solicited injection site reactions were more frequent in the intradermal groups but were mostly mild, transient, and consisted mainly of pain, erythema, and pruritus. No treatment-related serious adverse events or other safety concerns were reported. These results confirm that Intanza/IDflu is an effective and well-tolerated alternative to IM influenza vaccination. (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT ID: NCT01215669).

  14. Prevalence and Associations of Anxiety Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, K. A.; Smiley, E.; Cooper, S.-A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are known to be common in the general population. Previous studies with adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) report a prevalence of general anxiety disorder ranging from less than 2% to 17.4%. Little is known about associated factors in this population. This study investigates point prevalence of anxiety…

  15. Prevalence of Hypertension in Adults with Intellectual Disability in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Louw, Joyce; Vorstenbosch, R.; Vinck, L.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Literature on the prevalence of hypertension in people with intellectual disability (ID) is mostly based on file studies or on measurements limited to the age group below 50 years. We measured and calculated the prevalence of hypertension in adults with ID and studied the distribution of hypertension in relation to age, gender,…

  16. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Change in Adult-Child Primary Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Family caregiving research is increasingly contextual and dynamic, but few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of change in primary caregivers, those with the most frequent contact with healthcare professionals. We identified prevalence and predictors of 2-year change in primary adult-child caregivers. Data pooled from the 1992-2000…

  18. Prevalence of Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities in Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne; Moran, Robert; Platt, Tan; Wood, Hope; Isaac, Terri; Dasari, Srikanth

    2005-01-01

    Two primary care practices were used to recruit adults with and without disability. Disability groups included autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. The patients without disability had an epilepsy prevalence rate of 1%. The prevalence of epilepsy within the disability groups was 13% for cerebral palsy, 13.6% for Down…

  19. The prevalence of food hypersensitivity in an unselected population of children and adults.

    PubMed

    Osterballe, M; Hansen, T K; Mortz, C G; Høst, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2005-11-01

    A rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic reactions to food has been reported the last decade. To estimate the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of children and adults. We investigated a cohort of 111 children <3 yr of age, 486 children 3 yr of age, 301 children older than 3 yr of age and 936 adults by questionnaire, skin prick test, histamine release test and specific immunoglobulin E followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. In total, 698 cases of possible FHS were recorded in 304 (16.6%) participants. The prevalence of FHS confirmed by oral challenge was 2.3% in the children 3 yr of age, 1% in children older than 3 yr of age and 3.2% in adults. The most common allergenic foods were hen's egg affecting 1.6% of the children 3 yr of age and peanut in 0.4% of the adults. Of the adults, 0.2% was allergic to codfish and 0.3% to shrimp, whereas no challenges with codfish and shrimp were positive in the children. The prevalence of clinical reactions to pollen-related foods in pollen-sensitized adults was estimated to 32%. This study demonstrates the prevalence of FHS confirmed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of children and adults.

  20. Current cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults--United States, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    2011-09-30

    Cigarette smoking is among the most important modifiable risk factors for adverse health outcomes and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Current cigarette smoking prevalence among all adults aged ≥18 years has decreased 42.4% since 1965, but declines in current smoking prevalence have slowed during the past 5 years (declining from 20.9% in 2005 to 19.3% in 2010) and did not meet the Healthy People 2010 (HP2010) objective to reduce cigarette smoking among adults to ≤12%. Targeted workplace tobacco control interventions have been effective in reducing smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke; therefore, CDC analyzed National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data for 2004-2010 to describe current cigarette smoking prevalence among currently working U.S. adults by industry and occupation. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, overall, age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults was 19.6% and was highest among those with less than a high school education (28.4%), those with no health insurance (28.6%), those living below the federal poverty level (27.7%), and those aged 18-24 years (23.8%). Substantial differences in smoking prevalence were observed across industry and occupation groups. By industry, age-adjusted cigarette smoking prevalence among working adults ranged from 9.7% in education services to 30.0% in mining; by occupation group, prevalence ranged from 8.7% in education, training, and library to 31.4% in construction and extraction. Although some progress has been made in reducing smoking prevalence among working adults, additional effective employer interventions need to be implemented, including health insurance coverage for cessation treatments, easily accessible help for those who want to quit, and smoke-free workplace policies.

  1. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  2. Correlations between the sequelae of stroke and physical activity in Korean adult stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Jong; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Chun, In-Ae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated a wide range of stroke patients living in South Korea using the Korean Community Health Survey raw data to determine the correlation between stroke and physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] This study used raw data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey. The total number of participants was 228,921; of the 4,475 stroke patients who had been diagnosed by a medical doctor or an oriental medical doctor, the data for 4,460 patients, excluding 15 whose amount of physical activity was unclear, were used in the analysis. [Results] The amount of physical activity performed by patients who had sequelae was significantly lower than that performed by patients who no longer had sequelae. Similarly, for the type of sequelae, palsy in the arms and legs, facial palsy, communication disability, swallowing or eating disability, and visual disability were associated with lower physical activity. Furthermore, as the number of sequelae increased, patients performed significantly less physical activity. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that when decisions on national policies and budgets are made, methods for increasing the physical activity of patients with a history of stroke should be considered. PMID:27390446

  3. Relationships of Mental Disorders and Weight Status in the Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Young-Kyung; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Jin-Yeong; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Maeng Je

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between weight status and mental disorders, including depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder. A total of nationally representative 6,510 subjects aged 18-64 yr was interviewed in face-to-face household survey. Response rate was 81.7%. Mental disorders were diagnosed using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). The subjects reported their heights and weights. After adjusting for age and gender, the lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorder had a significant association with only the underweight group (odds ratio [OR], 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.38). The association between underweight and depressive disorder was the strongest for subjects with a high education level (OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.2-2.56), subjects with a married/cohabiting status (OR, 1.94, 95% CI, 1.17-3.22) and smokers (OR, 2.58, 95% CI, 1.33-4.98). There was no significant association between obesity and depressive disorder in Korea. But there was a significant association between the underweight group and depressive disorder. The relationship between obesity and mental disorder in a Korean population was different from that in a Western population. These results suggest that the differences of traditional cultures and races might have an important effect on the associations between the weight status and mental disorders. PMID:21218038

  4. Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

  5. The Prevalence and Determinants of Obesity in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, C. A.; Cooper, S. -A.; Morrison, J.; Allan, L.; Smiley, E.; Williamson, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major public health concern internationally and this study aimed to measure the prevalence of obesity in adults with intellectual disabilities in comparison with general population data, and examine the factors associated with obesity. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of all adults with intellectual disabilities,…

  6. Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence, Incidence and Remission of Aggressive Behaviour and Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S.-A.; Smiley, E.; Jackson, A.; Finlayson, J.; Allan, L.; Mantry, D.; Morrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Aggressive behaviours can be disabling for adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), with negative consequences for the adult, their family and paid carers. It is surprising how little research has been conducted into the epidemiology of these needs, given the impact they can have. This study investigates point prevalence, 2-year…

  7. State-specific prevalence of obesity among adults--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-07-18

    Obesity is associated with reduced quality of life, development of serious chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, increased medical care costs, and premature death. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to reduce to 15% the proportion of adults who are obese. In 2005, no state met this target, and (based on self-reported height and weight) 23.9% of adults in the United States were obese. To update 2005 estimates of the prevalence of obesity in adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. The results of that analysis indicated that 25.6% of respondents overall in 2007 were obese; the prevalence of obesity among adults remained above 15% in all states and was above 30% in Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee. Enhanced collaborative efforts among national, state, and community groups are needed to establish, evaluate, and sustain effective programs and policies to reduce the prevalence of obesity in the United States.

  8. Prevalence of Diabetes Treatment Effect Modifiers: the External Validity of Trials to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Carlos O.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Leff, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potential treatment effect modifiers (TEMs) are specific diseases or conditions with a well-described mechanism for treatment effect modification. The prevalence of TEMs in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. Objectives were to (1) determine the prevalence of pre-specified potential TEMs; (2) demonstrate the potential impact of TEMs in the older adult population using a simulated trial; (3) identify TEM combinations associated with number of hospitalizations to test construct validity. Methods Data are from the nationally-representative United States National Health and Examination Survey, 1999–2004: 8,646 Civilian, non-institutionalized adults aged 45–64 or 65+ years, including 1,443 with DM. TEMs were anemia, congestive heart failure, liver inflammation, polypharmacy, renal insufficiency, cognitive impairment, dizziness, frequent mental distress, mobility difficulty, and visual impairment. A trial was simulated to examine prevalence of potential TEM impact. The cross-sectional association between TEM patterns and number of hospitalizations was estimated to assess construct validity. Results The prevalence of TEMs was substantial such that 19.0% (95%CI: 14.8–23.2) of middle-aged adults and 38.0% (95% CI: 33.4–42.5) of older adults had any two. A simulated trial with modest levels of interaction suggested the prevalence of TEMs could nullify treatment benefit in 3.9–27.2% of older adults with DM. Compared to having DM alone, hospitalization rate was increased by several combinations of TEMs with substantial prevalence. Conclusions We provide national benchmarks that can be used to evaluate TEM prevalence reported by clinical trials of DM, and correspondingly their external validity to older adults. PMID:23238312

  9. Effect of sex and age on the association between suicidal behaviour and obesity in Korean adults: a cross-sectional nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Kwon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the hypothesis that the relationship between obesity and the risk of suicidal behaviour would differ according to sex and age. Setting Data from the 2007–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used. Participants 36 211 adults with body mass index (BMI) data were included and the mean age was 49.6 years. Independent variable BMI. Primary and secondary outcome measures Suicide ideation and attempts. Design and analysis A cross-sectional study was performed. Multiple logistic regressions after controlling for socioeconomic variables and concomitant diseases were applied to see the relationship between obesity level and suicidal ideation or attempt. Results Women with severe obesity had the highest prevalence of suicide attempts and ideation, whereas among males, underweight men had the highest prevalence. After adjustment, obese men had a lower OR for suicide ideation (OR=0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.00). Among women, the ORs of severely obese and underweight women were 1.27 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.52) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.45), respectively. When grouped by age category, the ORs for suicide ideation in severely obese women aged 18 to <30 years or attempts in severely obese women aged 30 to <50 years were 2.30 (95% CI 1.36 to 3.89) and 3.07 (95% CI 1.50 to 6.31), respectively. However, overweight and obese women aged more than 50 years exhibited significantly less ORs of suicide ideation, when compared with counterparts of normal weight. Conclusions The association between obesity and suicidal behaviour exhibited a different pattern by sex and age in South Korea. In particular, severely obese young women had a substantial risk of suicidal behaviour. Our study results highlighted the importance of obesity management in the prevention of suicide among young women, and may be helpful for the drafting of the health agenda in Asian countries with an obesity prevalence and culture similar to those in Korea

  10. Decreasing prevalence of the full metabolic syndrome but a persistently high prevalence of dyslipidemia among adult Arabs.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Sabico, Shaun Louie B; Chrousos, George P

    2010-01-01

    A decade has passed since metabolic syndrome (MetS) was documented to be highly prevalent in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. No follow-up epidemiologic study was done. This study aims to fill this gap. In this cross-sectional, observational study, a total of 2850 randomly selected Saudi adults aged 18-55 years were recruited. Subjects' information was generated from a database of more than 10,000 Saudi citizens from the existing Biomarkers Screening in Riyadh Program (RIYADH Cohort), Saudi Arabia. Anthropometrics included body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, as well as waist and hip circumferences. Fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were determined using routine laboratory procedures. The definition of ATP-III (NHANES III) was used for the diagnosis of the full MetS. The overall prevalence of complete MetS was 35.3% [Confidence-Interval (CI) 33.5-37.01]. Age-adjusted prevalence according to the European standard population is 37.0%. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent of all MetS risk factors, affecting 88.6% (CI 87.5-89.7) and hypertriglyceridemia the second most prevalent, affecting 34% (CI 32.3-35.7) of the subjects. The prevalence of the full MetS decreased from previous estimates but remains high, while dyslipidemia remains extremely high, affecting almost 90% of middle-aged Arabs. Screening for dyslipidemia among Saudi adults is warranted, especially among those most at risk. Scientific inquiry into the molecular causes of these manifestations should be pursued as a first step in the discovery of etiologic therapies.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential.

  12. Things Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  13. Hypocholesterolemic effect of sonication-killed Bifidobacterium longum isolated from healthy adult Koreans in high cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hea Soon; Park, Shin Young; Lee, Do Kyung; Kim, Sun Ae; An, Hyang Mi; Kim, Jung Rae; Kim, Mi Jin; Cha, Min Gyeong; Lee, Si Won; Kim, Kyung Joo; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2010-09-01

    We have previously reported that live Bifidobacterium longum SPM1207, a strain isolated from healthy adult Koreans, significantly reduced serum cholesterol in broth and rat. We here examined the effect of oral administration of sonication-killed B. longum SPM1207 on serum cholesterol in rats in order to investigate whether this killed strain could be utilized as a potent probiotics for human and animals. Dietary treatments consisted of 3 treatment groups of 24 rats each randomly assigned to either normal diet, high cholesterol diet and saline (HCS), or high cholesterol diet and sonication-killed B. longum SPM1207 (HCKB) for 3 weeks. Although HDL-cholesterol levels in the serum were not significantly (p > 0.05) different between HCKB rats and HCS rats, total and LDL-cholesterol levels in the serum were significantly (p < 0.05) less increased in HCKB (total: 177.71 mg/dL, LDL-: 60.50 mg/dL) rats when compared to HCS (total: 237.17 mg/dL, LDL-: 71.50 mg/dL) rats. AI was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in HCKB (4.95 mg/dL) rats when compared to HCS (9.22 mg/dL) rats. Body weight increase and relative liver weight were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in HCKB rats when compared to HCS rats. Over the time, high cholesterol diet caused dry feces accompanied by decreased fecal water content (66.00 to 61.94%) but sonication-killed B. longum SPM1207 administration increased fecal water content (71.58 to 74.25%). The results in the current study provide evidence that the sonication-killed cells of B. logum SPM1207 isolated from healthy adult Koreans have a greater potential to be used as a cholesterol-lowering agent. Furthermore, the current study suggest that this killed specific strain may play role in part in blocking the body weight increase and relieving or eliminating constipation.

  14. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  15. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage.

  16. Declining estimated prevalence of alcohol drinking and smoking among young adults nationally: artifacts of sample undercoverage?

    PubMed

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Gundersen, Daniel A; Hagman, Brett T

    2008-01-01

    A growing concern in public health surveillance surveys that rely on random digit dialing for sampling is the exclusion of adults in cell-phone-only households. The purpose of this study was to examine whether recent increases in wireless substitution have affected estimates of tobacco and alcohol use in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in a subpopulation with notable cell-phone usage (i.e., young adults). BRFSS data from 2001-2005 were examined. Analyses were limited to participants aged 18-24 years, and the sample contained approximately 18,500 persons in each year. Prevalence estimates were generated with SUDAAN software for three health behaviors: cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and heavy alcohol consumption. In addition, the authors examined sample completeness for young adults relative to US Census estimates. Overall, prevalences of all three health behaviors among young adults were fairly stable between 2001 and 2003 but significantly decreased between 2003 and 2005. These trends are not replicated in national surveys that use area probability samples. The authors found a declining trend in the sample completeness ratio for young adults; it declined from 0.32 in 2001 to 0.15 in 2005. Given the high prevalence of wireless substitution among young adults and the declining sample completeness ratio, the authors suspect that the observed decreases in prevalence are artifacts of undercoverage. PMID:17977896

  17. Assessment of anterior-posterior jaw relationships in Korean adults using the nasion true vertical plane in cone-beam computed tomography images

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngju; Cho, Youngserk; Mah, James

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to investigate a simple method for assessing anterior-posterior jaw relationships via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images taken in the natural head position (NHP) relative to the nasion true vertical plane (NTVP), and measure normative data in Korean adults with normal profiles. Methods Subjects were selected from patients presenting for third molar extraction and evaluated as having normal profiles by three examiners. The CBCT images of 80 subjects (39 males, 41 females) were taken in the NHP according to Solow and Tallgren's method. Linear measurements of the A-point, B-point, and Pog were calculated relative to the NTVP. Student's t-test was used to assess sexual differences in these measurements. Results The mean linear measurements of the A-point, B-point, and Pog relative to the NTVP were 0.18 mm (standard deviation [SD], 4.77 mm), −4.00 mm (SD, 6.62 mm), and −2.49 mm (SD, 7.14 mm) respectively in Korean males, and 1.48 mm (SD, 4.21 mm), −4.07 mm (SD, 6.70 mm) and −2.91 mm (SD, 7.25 mm) in Korean females respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between Korean males and females (p < 0.05). Conclusions Three-dimensional CBCT analysis using the NTVP is a simple and reliable method for assessing anterior-posterior skeletal relationships. PMID:27226962

  18. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 – 2012

    PubMed Central

    Eke, Paul I.; Dye, Bruce A.; Wei, Liang; Slade, Gary D.; Thornton-Evans, Gina O.; Borgnakke, Wenche S.; Taylor, George W.; Page, Roy C.; Beck, James D.; Genco, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the US adult population using combined data from the 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods Estimates were derived for dentate adults 30 years and older from the civilian non-institutionalized population. Periodontitis was defined by combinations of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and periodontal probing depth (PPD) from six sites per tooth on all teeth, except third molars, using standard surveillance case definitions. For the first time in NHANES history, sufficient numbers of Non-Hispanic Asians were sampled in 2011–2012 to provide reliable estimates of their periodontitis prevalence. Results In 2009–2012, 46% of US adults representing 64.7 million people had periodontitis, with 8.9% having severe periodontitis. Overall, 3.8% of all periodontal sites (10.6% of all teeth) had PPD≥4 mm and 19.3% of sites (37.4% teeth) had CAL≥3 mm. Periodontitis prevalence was positively associated with increasing age and was higher among males. Periodontitis prevalence was highest in Hispanics (63.5%) and Non-Hispanic blacks (59.1%), followed by Non-Hispanic Asian Americans (50.0%), and lowest in Non-Hispanic whites (40.8%). Prevalence varied two-fold between the lowest and highest levels of socioeconomic status, whether defined by poverty or education. Conclusion(s) This study confirms a high prevalence of periodontitis in US adults aged 30 years and older. Prevalence was greater in Non-Hispanic Asians than Non-Hispanic whites, although lower than other minorities. The distribution provides valuable information for population-based action to prevent periodontitis in US adults. PMID:25688694

  19. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  20. High Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi among Adult Blacklegged Ticks from White-Tailed Deer.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungeun; Hickling, Graham J; Tsao, Jean I

    2016-02-01

    We compared the prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi infection in questing and deer-associated adult Ixodes scapularis ticks in Wisconsin, USA. Prevalence among deer-associated ticks (4.5% overall, 7.1% in females) was significantly higher than among questing ticks (1.0% overall, 0.6% in females). Deer may be a sylvatic reservoir for this newly recognized zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26811985

  1. Decision-making regarding organ donation in Korean adults: A grounded-theory study.

    PubMed

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Young Mi; Kim, Jung A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the hidden patterns of behavior leading toward the decision to donate organs. Thirteen registrants at the Association for Organ Sharing in Korea were recruited. Data were collected using in-depth interview and the interview transcripts were analyzed using Glaserian grounded-theory methodology. The main problem of participants was "body attachment" and the core category (management process) was determined to be "pursuing life." The theme consisted of four phases, which were: "hesitating," "investigating," "releasing," and "re-discovering. " Therefore, to increase organ donations, it is important to find a strategy that will create positive attitudes about organ donation through education and public relations. These results explain and provide a deeper understanding of the main problem that Korean people have about organ donation and their management of decision-making processes. These findings can help care providers to facilitate the decision-making process and respond to public needs while taking into account the sociocultural context within which decisions are made.

  2. Trends and future projections of the prevalence of adult obesity in Saudi Arabia, 1992-2022.

    PubMed

    Al-Quwaidhi, A J; Pearce, M S; Critchley, J A; Sobngwi, E; O'Flaherty, M

    2014-10-20

    The prevalence of obesity among adults in Saudi Arabia increased from 22% in 1990-1993 to 36% in 2005, and future projections of the prevalence of adult obesity are needed by health policy-makers. In a secondary analysis of published data, a number of assumptions were applied to estimate the trends and projections in the age-and sex-specific prevalence of adult obesity in Saudi Arabia over the period 1992-2022. Five studies conducted between 1989 and 2005 were eligible for inclusion, using body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) to define obesity. The overall prevalence of obesity was projected to increase from around 12% in 1992 to 41% by 2022 in men, and from 21% to 78% in women. Women had much higher projected prevalence than men, particularly in the age groups 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years. Effective national strategies are needed to reduce or halt the projected rise in obesity prevalence.

  3. Adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia linked CSF1R mutation: Report of four Korean cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Joo; Shin, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jeong Hee; Kim, Jong Hun; Na, Duk L; Suh, Yeon-Lim; Hwang, Sun Jae; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Young Min; Shin, Myung-Jun; Lee, Myung Jun; Kim, Seong-Jang; Yoon, Uicheul; Park, Do Youn; Jung, Dae Soo; Ahn, Jae Woo; Sung, Suk; Huh, Gi Yeong

    2015-02-15

    We describe detailed clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological features in adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP), encompassing hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids (HDLS) and pigmentary orthochromatic leukodystrophy (POLD), linked to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) mutations in four Korean cases. Clinical, biochemical, neuroimaging and neuropathological findings were obtained by direct evaluation and from previous medical records. The genetic analysis of the CSF1R gene was done in two autopsy-confirmed ALSP cases and two cases where ALSP was suspected based on the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics. We identified two known mutations: c.2342C>T (p.A781V) in one autopsy-proven HDLS and clinically ALSP-suspected case and c.2345G>A (p.R782H) in another autopsy-proven POLD case. We also found a novel mutation (c.2296A>G; p.M766V) in a patient presenting with hand tremor, stuttering and hesitant speech, and abnormal behavior whose father died from a possible diagnosis of spinocerebellar ataxia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented ALSP-linked CSF1R mutation in Korea and supports the suggestion that HDLS and POLD, with pathological characteristics that are somewhat different but which are caused by CSF1R mutations, are the same spectrum of disease, ALSP.

  4. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  5. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: prevalence and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in adults.

    PubMed

    Petrovay, Fruzsina; Németh, István; Balázs, Andrea; Balla, Eszter

    2015-09-01

    The extragenital manifestation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection frequently results in non-specific conjunctivitis among sexually active adults. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis, to describe the distribution of serovars among patients with conjunctivitis and to characterize the relationship between the prevalence and patient demographics such as age and gender. A total of 245 conjunctival specimens were screened for C. trachomatis DNA targeting the plasmid gene. Serovar determination of the C. trachomatis-positive specimens was carried out by an omp1 PCR-based RFLP analysis method. Statistical analysis was done using a generalized linear model. C. trachomatis was detected in 53 cases (21.6 %) of adult conjunctivitis. Molecular genotyping differentiated seven distinct urogenital serovars, the most prevalent being serovar E (16/53), followed by F (15/53), D (6/53), K (6/53), G (4/53), H (4/53) and J (2/53). Statistical analysis showed higher C. trachomatis prevalence in the younger age groups, and this peaked at younger age in women than in men. The high prevalence of this pathogen found in ocular samples should alert ophthalmologists to focus on the role of C. trachomatis in adult conjunctivitis. The serovar distribution indicated that ocular chlamydial infections usually have a genital source. Nevertheless, conjunctivitis might be the only sign of this sexually transmitted infection. Further comparative genotyping of C. trachomatis in ocular and genital specimens might give more detailed epidemiological information about the aetiology of the disease.

  6. Incidence and Prevalence of Dementia in Elderly Adults with Mental Retardation without Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Urv, Tiina K.; Schubert, Romaine; Silverman, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Rates of dementia in adults with mental retardation without Down syndrome were equivalent to or lower than would be expected compared to general population rates, whereas prevalence rates of other chronic health concerns varied as a function of condition. Given that individual differences in vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease have been…

  7. The Prevalence of Undiagnosed Geriatric Health Conditions among Adult Protective Service Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, John M.; Brown, Merle; Kobylarz, Fred A.; Castano, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of remediable health conditions from in-home geriatric assessments of referred adult protective service (APS) clients suffering elder mistreatment. Design and Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study of 211 APS clients (74% female; age, M = 77 years) in two central New Jersey counties. Results:…

  8. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults With Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of eating disorders among 311 adults with mental retardation living in the West Coast of Norway was investigated. Reports stemming from a questionnaire completed by health workers were the data source. Diagnostic criteria adapted for persons with mental retardation were used. The main finding was that 27% of cases showed indices of…

  9. Survey on the use of health services by adult men: prevalence rates and associated factors1

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objective estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with the use of health services by men between 20 and 59 years of age. Method population-based, cross-sectional domestic survey undertaken with 421 adult men, selected through systematic random sampling. The data were collected through a structured instrument and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with multiple logistic regression. Results the prevalence rate of health service use during the three months before the interviews was 42.8%, being higher among unemployed men with a religious creed who used private hospitals more frequently, had been hospitalized in the previous 12 months and referred some disease. Conclusion the prevalence of health service use by adult men does not differ from other studies and was considered high. It shows to be related with the need for curative care, based on the associated factors found. PMID:27027680

  10. E-cigarette prevalence and correlates of use among adolescents versus adults: a review and comparison.

    PubMed

    Carroll Chapman, Shawna L; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2014-07-01

    Perceived safer than tobacco cigarettes, prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing. Analyses of cartridges suggest that e-cigarettes may pose health risks. In light of increased use and the potential for consequences, we searched Google Scholar and Pubmed in July of 2013 using keywords, such as e-cigarette and vaping, to compare differences and similarities in prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette use among adolescents (grades 6-12) versus adults (aged ≥18 years). Twenty-one studies focused on e-cigarette use. Ever-use increased among various age groups. In 2011, ever-use was highest among young adults (college students and those aged 20-28; 4.9%-7.0%), followed by adults (aged ≥18; 0.6%-6.2%), and adolescents (grades 6-12 and aged 11-19; <1%-3.3%). However, in 2012 adolescent ever-use increased to 6.8% and, among high school students, went as high as 10.0%. While the identified common correlate of e-cigarette use was a history of cigarette smoking, a notable proportion of adolescents and young adults who never smoked cigarettes had ever-used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use was not consistently associated with attempting to quit tobacco among young adults. Adults most often reported e-cigarettes as a substitute for tobacco, although not always to quit. Reviewed studies showed a somewhat different pattern of e-cigarette use among young people (new e-cigarette users who had never used tobacco) versus adults (former or current tobacco users). Research is needed to better characterize prevalences, use correlates, and motives of use in different population groups, including how adolescent and young adult experimentation with e-cigarettes relates to other types of substance use behaviors.

  11. Prevalence and trends of isolated systolic hypertension among untreated adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuefeng; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Wang, Kesheng

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence and long-term trends of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) among untreated adults have not been reported. Data from 24,653 participants aged ≥18 years were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of untreated ISH were estimated by conducting the independent survey t-test. The prevalence of untreated ISH was 9.4% and decreased from 10.3% in 1999-2004 to 8.5% in 2005-2010 (P = .00248). Old persons, females, and non-Hispanic blacks had higher prevalence of untreated ISH. Compared with 1999-2004, the prevalence of untreated ISH in 2005-2010 decreased among older (33.6%; 95% CI, 30.9%-36.3% vs. 25.1%; 95% CI, 22.7%-27.5%) and female individuals (8.3%; 95% CI, 7.5-9.2% vs. 11.4%; 95% CI, 10.4-12.3%). The stratified prevalence of untreated ISH declined in 2005-2010 (vs. 1999-2004) for older non-Hispanic whites (24.6% vs. 32.8%; P < .0001) and blacks (27.7% vs. 40.8%; P = .0013), non-Hispanic white females (7.5% vs. 10.8%; P < .0001), older individuals with higher education (21.0% vs. 30.6%; P = .0024), and females with lower education (10.1% vs. 13.1%; P = .006). Untreated ISH is more prevalent in older adults and females. Significant decreases in untreated ISH prevalence over time among these groups suggest that public health measures and/or treatment patterns are trending in the right direction. PMID:25795550

  12. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Penezić, Aleksandra; Selaković, Sanja; Pavlović, Ivan; Ćirović, Duško

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections. PMID:24951168

  13. First findings and prevalence of adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) in wild carnivores from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Penezić, Aleksandra; Selaković, Sanja; Pavlović, Ivan; Ćirović, Duško

    2014-09-01

    Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic roundworm that causes a zoonotic disease known as dirofilariosis. Little is known about the role of wild carnivores serving as reservoirs in nature. Therefore, we examined 738 hearts and lungs of free ranging wild carnivores from Serbia to determine the presence of adult heartworms. During the period 2009-2013, the prevalence in golden jackals (Canis aureus) was 7.32%, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) 1.55%, in wolves (Canis lupus) 1.43%, and in wild cats (Felis silvestris) 7.69%. No adult heartworm specimens were found in beech martens (Martes foina), stone martens (Martes martes), European polecats (Mustela putorius), badgers (Meles meles) or otter (Lutra lutra). The highest recorded prevalence was in 2013 (7.30%) and the lowest in 2012 (1.6%). In jackals, the prevalence was higher in males (10%) than in females (4.06%), while in foxes the prevalence was 1.75% in males and 1.26% in females. The most infected host was a wolf in which 37 adult specimens were found. Because of the potentially significant role in the life cycle of D. immitis, populations of wild carnivores in Europe should be further examined and tested for heartworm infections.

  14. Feasibility of a Self-Determination Theory-Based Exercise Program in Community-Dwelling South Korean Older Adults: Experiences from a 13-Month Trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Min Joo; Suh, Dongwon; Kim, Jungjin; Jo, Eunkyoung; Yoon, BumChul

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the effectiveness of self-determination theory (SDT), a representative motivational theory, on exercise domain in older adults. This feasibility study used quantitative and qualitative approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of a 13-month group exercise program applying SDT-based motivational strategies on exercise adherence, physical fitness, and quality of life, and to explore factors affecting exercise adherence in South Korean older adults (N = 18). Exercise attendance rate was high (82.52%). There were significant differences in aerobic endurance (p < .001), lower body strength (p < .05), dynamic balance (p < .001), and perceived social functioning (p < .05) at 13 months compared with baseline. Factors affecting exercise adherence were related to the SDT-based motivational strategies. These results support the importance of health professionals applying SDT-based motivational strategies to exercise programs to help facilitate motivation for participation and to promote physical fitness and quality of life in older adults.

  15. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  16. Analysis of Kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption trends among Korean adults: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Ha, Ae-Wha; Choi, Eun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to analyze daily kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption by general characteristics and vegetable and fruit consumption from 1998 to 2012 by the Korean population based on the data of the KNHANES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). SUBJECTS/METHODS This study is based on the 1998-2012 KNHNES. Analysis data on 54,700 subjects aged 19 years and older were obtained from health behavior interviews and the 24-hour dietary recall method. RESULTS Daily kimchi consumption and portion size of kimchi decreased significantly from 1998 to 2012 (adjusted P for trend < 0.0001). Meanwhile, daily consumption of both non-salted vegetable and fruit with and without kimchi did not significantly change between 1998 and 2012. Reduced consumption of kimchi, non-salted vegetable, and fruit was observed for both genders as well as daily meal episodes and cooking locations. Male and female subjects with insufficient non-salted vegetable and fruit intake were increased 1.4 times and 1.3 times, respectively, in 2012 than 1998. All subjects consumed at least 400 g/day of non-salted vegetable, fruit, and kimchi in each survey year, although they consumed insufficient amounts (< 400 g/day) of non-salted vegetable and fruit without kimchi. CONCLUSIONS Since Koreans generally consume high amounts of fermented vegetables, including kimchi, total vegetables and fruit. Consumption of these foods by the Korean adult population reached 400 g, which is the recommended intake of the WCRF/AICR. Based on this result, it is necessary to promote consumption of kimchi in the Korean population and research the development of low sodium kimchi in the future. PMID:27087903

  17. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%). In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%). In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809 PMID:21777478

  18. Multimorbidity prevalence and pattern in Indonesian adults: an exploratory study using national survey data

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohammad Akhtar; Huxley, Rachel R; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and pattern of multimorbidity in the Indonesian adult population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based survey. The sampling frame was based on households in 13 of the 27 Indonesian provinces, representing about 83% of the Indonesian population. Participants 9438 Indonesian adults aged 40 years and above. Main outcome measures Prevalence and pattern of multimorbidity by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Results The mean number of morbidities in the sample was 1.27 (SE±0.01). The overall age and sex standardised prevalence of multimorbidity was 35.7% (34.8% to 36.7%), with women having significantly higher prevalence of multimorbidity than men (41.5% vs 29.5%; p<0.001). Of those with multimorbidity, 64.6% (62.8% to 66.3%) were aged less than 60 years. Prevalence of multimorbidity was positively associated with age (p for trend <0.001) and affluence (p for trend <0.001) and significantly greater in women at all ages compared with men. For each 5-year increment in age there was an approximate 20% greater risk of multimorbidity in both sexes (18% in women 95% CI 1.14 to 1.22 and 22% in men 95% CI 1.18 to 1.26). Increasing age, female gender, non-Javanese ethnicity, and high per-capital expenditure were all significantly associated with higher odds of multimorbidity. The combination of hypertension with cardiac diseases, hypercholesterolemia, arthritis, and uric acid/gout were the most commonly occurring disease pairs in both sexes. Conclusions More than one-third of the Indonesian adult population are living with multimorbidity with women and the more wealthy being particularly affected. Of especial concern was the high prevalence of multimorbidity among younger individuals. Hypertension was the most frequently occurring condition common to most individuals with multimorbidity. PMID:26656028

  19. Wheat-Induced Anaphylaxis in Korean Adults: A Report of 6 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is a common cause of food allergy. Wheat-induced anaphylaxis (WIA) and wheat-dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) are severe forms of immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated allergic reaction to wheat protein. As the diagnosis of WIA or WDEIA is not easy because of the risk of oral challenge, identification of specific IgE of various wheat proteins is helpful for diagnosis. In Korea, there are only a few reports on WIA in adults. We report six cases of WIA diagnosed on the basis of clinical history and specific IgE of wheat proteins or provocation test. For immunologic evaluation of severe wheat allergy including WIA and WDEIA, it is important to measure specific IgE to each component of wheat including gluten and ω-5 gliadin not just measuring wheat-specific IgE. PMID:23429235

  20. Distribution of abdominal obesity and fitness level in overweight and obese korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Duk-Chul; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won; Jeon, Justin Y

    2014-01-01

    Background. Abdominal obesity and its relative distribution are known to differ in association with metabolic characteristics and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study aimed to determine an association between fitness level and abdominal adiposity in overweight and obese adults. Methods. 228 overweight and obese individuals were classified as either cardiorespiratory unfit or fit based on their recovery heart rate. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio), and cardiometabolic characteristics were analyzed to examine the relationship between recovery heart rate and abdominal adiposity components. Results. After adjustments for age and sex, significant relationships of recovery heart rate and VAT, SAT, and VAT/SAT ratio were found; however, SAT was not significantly associated after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.045, P = 0.499), whereas VAT (r = 0.232, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (r = 0.214, P = 0.001) remained associated. Through stepwise multiple regression analyses after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, lifestyle factors, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, and hsCRP, recovery heart rate was identified as an independent variable associated with VAT (β = 0.204, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (β = 0.163, P = 0.008) but not with SAT (β = 0.097, P = 0.111). Conclusions. Cardiorespiratory fitness level is independently associated with VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio but not with SAT in overweight and obese adults. PMID:24723950

  1. High prevalence of spine–femur bone mineral density discordance and comparison of vertebral fracture risk assessment using femoral neck and lumbar spine bone density in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Seok, Hannah; Kim, Kwang Joon; Kim, Kyoung Min; Rhee, Yumie; Cha, Bong Soo; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of spine–femur discordance, and to compare the effectiveness of femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) for estimation of the risk of vertebral fractures. Women who were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry between January 2001 and December 2005 were enrolled in this study. Vertebral fracture risk was calculated using initial FN and LS BMD. The follow-up vertebral X-rays from all subjects were reviewed, and the calculated estimated risk using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX(®)) was compared with the actual prevalence of vertebral fractures during the follow-up period. Among a total of 443 women with a mean age of 58.5 years, 130 women (29.3 %) demonstrated femur–spine discordance (i.e., a difference between FN and LS BMD of [1 SD). Most subjects having discordance showed lower LS BMD (73.1 %) compared to FN BMD. During the mean 7-year follow-up period, 12 (2.7 %) vertebral fractures occurred. In cases with high estimated fracture risk ([20 % for estimated fracture risk), using LSBMD significantly reflected the actual vertebral fracture in total subjects [odds ratio (OR) 19.29, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.21–88.46], in subjects with spine–femur discordance (OR 16.00, 95 % CI 1.91–134.16), and in subjects with spine–femur discordance having lower LSBMD (OR 20.67, 95 % CI 1.63–262.71). In comparison, the estimated risk using FN BMD did not reflect the actual occurrence of vertebral fractures. In conclusion, a significant number of Korean subjects exhibited spine–femur discordance, and LS BMD might be more appropriate for estimation of vertebral fracture risk.

  2. Diabetes prevalence among Puerto Rican adults in New York City, NY, 2000.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Thomas A; Hosler, Akiko S; Sekhobo, Jackson P; Duffy, Thomas P; Tierney, Edward F; Engelgau, Michael M; Geiss, Linda S

    2004-03-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and associated characteristics among Puerto Rican adults in New York City, NY, with a random-digit-dialed telephone survey with a dual-frame sampling design. Overall, 11.3% (95% confidence interval = 8.7%, 14.0%) had diagnosed diabetes; diabetes was significantly related to age, obesity, and family history; and the prevalence was high among those with the least education. This study showed the ability to obtain critically needed diabetes information from ethnic minorities at the local level.

  3. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  4. Association of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate with Hemoglobin Level in Korean Adults: The 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Youb; Oh, Se Won; Hong, Jae Won; Yi, Seong Yoon; Noh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about anemia in patients with early renal dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the association of hemoglobin level and anemia prevalence with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline using a nation-wide representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods In total, 17,373 participants (7,296 men; weighted n = 18,330,187; mean age, 44.2±0.3 years; 9,886 women, weighted n = 18,317,454; mean age, 46.9±0.3 years) were included. eGFR was divided into 5 groups: Group 1, ≥105; Group 2, 90–104; 75–89; Group 4, 60–74; and Group 5, <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Results The weighted anemia prevalence rates were 2.6% in men and 12.8% in women. In men, the weighted hemoglobin level increased with a decrease in eGFR; this value peaked at an eGFR of 60–89 mL/min/1.73m2 and decreased thereafter at an eGFR of <60 mL/min/1.73m2 (15.19±0.03, 15.35±0.03, 15.53±0.03, 15.52±0.06, and 14.90±0.12 g/dL from Groups 1 to 5) after adjustment for age, college graduation, cancer history, current smoking, waist circumference, serum cholesterol level, serum triglyceride level, and diastolic blood pressure. In women, the weighted hemoglobin level increased with a decrease in eGFR; this value peaked with an eGFR of 75–89 mL/min/1.73m2 and decreased thereafter (12.90±0.03, 13.08±0.02, 13.20±0.04, 13.14±0.05, and 12.47±0.11 g/dL from Groups 1 to 5) after adjustment for menstruation, pregnancy, estrogen replacement, and the above-mentioned variables. In both sexes, the weighted prevalence of anemia with an eGFR of 60–104 mL/min/1.73m2 was significantly lower than that with an eGFR of ≥105 mL/min/1.73m2 (men, 3.2±0.4%, 1.9±0.3%, 1.8±0.3%, 2.0±0.9%, and 18.1±3.1%; women, 14.0±0.8%, 11.2±0.7%, 10.5±1.0%, 13.2±1.6%, and 32.3±3.2% from Groups 1 to 5). Conclusions We noted a compensatory increase in the hemoglobin level with a minor decline in kidney function (in the range of eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m2) prior to a marked decrease in

  5. Peripheral artery disease in korean patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: prevalence and association with coronary artery disease severity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Song, Pil Sang; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Song, Young Bin; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Choi, Jin-Ho; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Kyung Pyo; Park, Jeong Euy; Kim, Duk-kyung; Choi, Seung-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an important marker for the risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the prevalence of PAD in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with CAD and the relationship between ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and CAD severity. A total of 711 patients undergoing PCI for CAD from August 2009 to August 2011 were enrolled. PAD diagnosis was made using the ABPI. The prevalence of PAD was 12.8%. In PAD patients, mean values of right and left ABPI were 0.71 ± 0.15 and 0.73 ± 0.15. Patients with PAD had a higher prevalence of left main coronary disease (14.3% vs 5.8%, P = 0.003), more frequently had multivessel lesions (74.9% vs 52.1%, P < 0.001) and had higher SYNTAX score (18.2 ± 12.3 vs 13.1 ± 8.26, P = 0.002). Using multivariate analysis, we determined that left main CAD (OR, 2.954; 95% CI, 1.418-6.152, P = 0.004) and multivessel CAD (OR, 2.321; 95% CI, 1.363-3.953, P = 0.002) were both independently associated with PAD. We recommend that ABPI-based PAD screening should be implemented in all patients undergoing PCI with CAD, especially in severe cases. PMID:23341717

  6. The prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in Korean infertile couples and the effect of smoking on assisted conception outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Seul Ki; Yu, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoking has been reported to harm nearly every organ of the body, but conflicting results have been reported regarding the effects of smoking on assisted conception. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of positive urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples and whether cotinine positivity was associated with infertility treatment outcomes. Methods A qualitative urinary cotinine test was administered to 127 couples who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF, n=92) or intrauterine insemination (IUI, n=35). Results The overall prevalence of positive urinary cotinine test was 43.3% (55/127) in the male partners and 10.2% (13/127) in the female partners with similar prevalence rates in both genders in the IUI and IVF groups. Semen characteristics, serum markers of ovarian reserve, and number of retrieved oocytes were comparable among cotinine-positive and cotinine-negative men or women (with the exception of sperm count, which was higher among cotinine-positive men). The results of urinary cotinine tests in infertile couples were not associated with IVF and IUI outcomes. Conclusion The presence of cotinine in the system, as indicated by a positive urinary cotinine test, was not associated with poorer outcomes of infertility treatment. PMID:26816872

  7. Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheol-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Tae; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Ahn, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of dietary fat intake on the risk of cardiovascular disease remains unclear. We investigated the association between dietary fat and specific types of fat intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Methods The study population included 1,662 healthy adults who were 50.2 years of age and had no known hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, or metabolic syndrome at the initial visit. Dietary intake was obtained from a 1-day food record. During 20.7 months of follow-up, we documented 147 cases of metabolic syndrome confirmed by self-report, anthropometric data, and blood test results. The intakes of total fat, vegetable fat, animal fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and cholesterol level divided by quintile. Multivariate analyses included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, total calorie, and protein intake. Results Vegetable fat intake was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome risk (odds ratio for the highest vs. the lowest quintile, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.76). Total fat, animal fat, SFA, PUFA, MUFA, and cholesterol intakes showed no association with metabolic syndrome. Vegetable fat intake was inversely associated with the risk of hypertriglyceridemia among the components of metabolic syndrome. Conclusion These data support an inverse association between vegetable fat and the risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:26435816

  8. Disordered eating behaviors in young adult Mexican American women: prevalence and associations with health risks.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Chen, Ding-Geng Din; Corte, Colleen; Keller, Colleen; Trabold, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has shown that disordered eating behaviors are as prevalent in heterogenous samples of Latinas living in the U.S. as in non-Hispanic white women, yet less is known about the prevalence in women of Mexican origin. The primary purpose of this study is to report the prevalence and associations among DE behaviors and health risk of alcohol, tobacco use and obesity in a sample of N = 472 young adult college enrolled Mexican American (MA) women living in the United States. This report focuses on baseline data from a 12-month repeated measures longitudinal study. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture the prevalence of disordered eating and health risk behaviors in the context of everyday activities. Disordered eating behaviors including purging, binge eating, fasting and exercise were reported by approximately 15% of the sample. Food/calorie restricting, was the most prevalent behavior reported by 48% of the sample and along with binge eating was a positive predictor of BMI. Fasting was the only disordered eating behavior associated with tobacco use. These findings suggest that subclinical levels of DE behaviors are prevalent in a community sample of women of Mexican origin and are associated with health risks of tobacco use and higher BMI. Early identification of DE behaviors and community-based interventions targeting MA women may help reduce disparities associated with overweight and obesity in this population.

  9. The context of perceived and desired social support among Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Social support has multiple dimensions, the context of which can be explored by qualitative methods. In this study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 local senior center members (9 men and 12 women aged 65 and older) in Seoul, South Korea, in order to explore how they perceive and desire social support in an aging society. The qualitative methods in this study also included thematic analysis and constant comparison to identify three main themes: "no or denied support," "not to be greedy and shameless," and "justification and hopelessness." In the interviews, perceived and desired support did not emerge immediately as the participants were reluctant to share personal concerns with or to seek support from others. Nevertheless, they would turn to spouses and children for both emotional and instrumental support when in dire need. A shared norm among the participants was that seeking support would be an embarrassing and shameless act for themselves and a burden to others. They justified the discrepancy between the perceived and desired support as part of aging and felt hopelessness about it. The findings of this study have implications that implicit, individual social support may be effective than explicit, group support activities for those who are passive in recognizing the need for and seeking social support. In assessing and interpreting social support in old age, both perceived and desired support should be included and contextual approaches can be useful in so doing. The senior centers should be a more active advocate of successful aging that would offset hopelessness, negative attitude toward life, and social disconnection. Future research should focus on identifying effective strategies to bridge the gap between perceived and desired social support in older adults in this society of changing values and social norms.

  10. Associations of visceral adiposity and exercise participation with C-reactive protein, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in Korean healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijin; Valentine, Rudy J; Shin, Yoonjung; Gong, Kyungmin

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the associations of visceral adiposity and exercise participation with C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in Korean adults selected from the general population. We studied 160 Korean adults (aged 41.3 +/- 13.0 years; n = 38 men and n = 122 women) who volunteered in a health promotion program. Subjects were divided into 2 groups based upon spontaneous exercise participation for using a cross-sectional approach. We measured anthropometric factors (body mass index [BMI], percentage body fat, waist-hip ratio [WHR], and abdominal fat area by computed tomographic scanning), blood pressure (BP), blood levels of glucose, lipids, fibrinogen, CRP, leptin, hemoglobin A(1c), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and carotid intima media thickness (IMT; via ultrasonography). Associations among the variables were assessed by Pearson partial correlation and linear regression, controlling for age and sex. Independent t tests were used to assess differences between exercise participants and nonparticipants. Significance was accepted at P < .05. As expected, the measures of adiposity (BMI, percentage body fat, WHR, abdominal fat area) were highly correlated with each other (r = .49-.86, P < .01). Blood levels of high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), leptin, and HOMA were modestly correlated with all measures of adiposity. Visceral fat area was the most important predictor of hsCRP, explaining 19.6% of the variance using stepwise linear regression analysis (P < .01). As visceral fat area tertiles increased from low to high, a significant stepwise increment in blood levels of CRP (P < .001), HOMA (P = .005), and left carotid IMT (P = .035) was observed. However, hsCRP and HOMA were not significantly different when compared across whole-body fat tertiles. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, and left carotid IMT were modestly correlated with WHR and visceral fat area (P < .05); but systolic BP and diastolic BP were also

  11. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Paulo Henrique Faria; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; de Sá, Pedro Terra Teles; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication in Brazil’s adult population. METHODS Systematic review of cross-sectional population-based studies. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Scopus, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, CRD, Lilacs, SciELO, the Banco de teses brasileiras (Brazilian theses database) (Capes) and files from the Portal Domínio Público (Brazilian Public Domain). In addition, the reference lists from relevant studies were examined to identify potentially eligible articles. There were no applied restrictions in terms of the publication date, language or publication status. Data related to publication, population, methods and prevalence of self-medication were extracted by three independent researchers. Methodological quality was assessed following eight criteria related to sampling, measurement and presentation of results. The prevalences were measured from participants who used at least one medication during the recall period of the studies. RESULTS The literature screening identified 2,778 records, from which 12 were included for analysis. Most studies were conducted in the Southeastern region of Brazil, after 2000 and with a 15-day recall period. Only five studies achieved high methodological quality, of which one study had a 7-day recall period, in which the prevalence of self-medication was 22.9% (95%CI 14.6;33.9). The prevalence of self-medication in three studies of high methodological quality with a 15-day recall period was 35.0% (95%CI 29.0;40.0, I2 = 83.9%) in the adult Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS Despite differences in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that a significant proportion of the adult Brazilian population self-medicates. It is suggested that future research projects that assess self-medication in Brazil standardize their methods. PMID:26083944

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyeon-Young; Shin, Jin-Young; Jo, Euni

    2015-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is considered an important outcome measure in chronic diseases, in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is known to be associated with impaired HRQoL. However, few studies have examined HRQoL in individuals at high risk of CVD. Methods Using the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012, we analyzed data from 10,307 adults aged ≥30 years. The study subjects were stratified into 3 groups on the basis of their Framingham risk score-a 10-year estimate of CVD risk: <10.0% (low risk), 10.0%-19.9% (moderate risk), and ≥20.0% (high risk). The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate HRQoL. Results A significantly higher proportion of high-risk subjects than low-risk participants had impaired HRQoL (defined as the lowest quartile of the EQ-5D index); this held true even after adjustment for confounding factors in multivariable logistic regression analysis (men: odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.11; women: OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.02-2.08). In terms of the 5 EQ-5D dimensions, a 10-year CVD risk ≥20.0% was significantly associated with self-reported problems of mobility in men (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 2.02-4.90), and of mobility (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09-2.24), self-care (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.09-4.22), and usual activity problems (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.17-2.78) in women. Conclusion A high CVD risk is associated with impaired HRQoL. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, a 10-year CVD risk ≥20.0% is an independent predictor of impaired HRQoL in the general population; in particular, of mobility problems in men, and of mobility, self-care, and usual activity problems in women. PMID:26634104

  13. High prevalence of glucose intolerance even among young adults in south India

    PubMed Central

    Raghupathy, Palany; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Geethanjali, Finney S.; Leary, Samantha D.; Saperia, Julia; Priya, G; Rajaratnam, Abel; Richard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    India is experiencing an epidemic of type 2 diabetes (DM) in young adults. This study reports the prevalence of glucose intolerance, and insulin profiles, and their relationship to lifestyle factors in 2,218 young adults (aged 26-32 years; 997 urban, 1221 rural) in South India. They were drawn from a cohort of 10,691 individuals born during 1969-1973 in Vellore and nearby villages. Family history, socio-economic status, physical activity and tobacco and alcohol use were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed for diagnosis (WHO recommendations). Insulin resistance and secretion were derived from plasma insulin concentrations. Median BMI was 20.0 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 DM and IGT was higher in urban than in rural subjects (3.7% vs 2.1%, p=0.02; 18.9% vs 14.3%, p=0.002 respectively), while prevalence of IFG was similar in urban and rural populations (3.8% vs 3.4%, p=0.04). Type 2 DM, IGT, IFG or higher insulin resistance and increment were associated with higher socio-economic status (more household possessions) and higher percentage body fat, body mass index and waist/hip ratio. Insulin increment was lower in men with higher alcohol consumption. Our data suggest high levels of glucose intolerance in young rural and urban adults highlighting an urgent need for preventive action to avert a public health catastrophe in India. PMID:17229484

  14. Prevalence of and Associated Factors for Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Swiss Men

    PubMed Central

    Estévez, Natalia; Eich-Höchli, Dominique; Dey, Michelle; Gmel, Gerhard; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. Methods Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. Results The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial. PMID:24586672

  15. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insulin Resistance in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Palmar, Jim; Cabrera, Mayela

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Insulin resistance (IR) is a prominent pathophysiologic component in a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are common in our locality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IR and factors associated with this condition in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methodology. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 2026 adults. IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥ 2. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed in order to evaluate factors associated with IR. Results. The prevalence of IR was 46.5% (n = 943), with 46.7% (n = 450) in the general population, 46.4% (n = 493) in females, and 47.90% (n = 970) in males (p = 0.895). IR prevalence tended to increase with age and was significantly greater in subjects aged ≥30 years (χ2 = 16.726; p = 2.33 × 10−4). Employment, alcohol consumption, obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia were associated with greater odds of IR, whereas a high level of physical activity appeared to be weak protective factor against IR. Conclusions. The prevalence of IR is elevated in our locality. The main determinants of this condition appear to be the presence of obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, dysglycemia, and alcohol intake. PMID:27579182

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults living alone in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhong; Kim, Kyeongmo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for self-neglect among older adults who live alone. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview responses of 1,023 older adults living alone in a metropolitan area in South Korea, selected via stratified random sampling, which considered the population variables gender, age group, and district. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the prevalence of self-neglect, and hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant risk factors of self-neglect. At least 22.8% of the participants could be considered to have one form of elder self-neglect. Consistent with previous research, self-neglect was more prevalent in the older people living alone who had higher levels of depressive symptoms or a lack of family social support. Unexpectedly, self-neglect was more prevalent among respondents with higher levels of education and cognitive abilities, lower levels of medical comorbidities, and more children. Additionally, social networks of friends and use of social services (formal social support) did not affect the frequency of self-neglect. The findings have implications for gerontological practice and policy, especially for older people living alone in South Korea.

  17. Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in a rural adult population.

    PubMed Central

    Woolcock, A J; Peat, J K; Salome, C M; Yan, K; Anderson, S D; Schoeffel, R E; McCowage, G; Killalea, T

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adult populations is not known. To document its prevalence and distribution and to determine the factors associated with it, a random sample of the adult population of Busselton, Western Australia, was studied. Spirometric function, bronchial responsiveness to histamine, and atopic responses to skin prick tests were measured. Respiratory symptoms were determined by questionnaire. Data were obtained from 916 subjects. Of these, 876 underwent a histamine inhalation test and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine (defined as a dose of histamine provoking a 20% fall in FEV1 equal to or less than 3.9 mumol) was found in 10.5%. Another 40 subjects with poor lung function were tested with a bronchodilator and 12 were found to have bronchial hyperresponsiveness (defined as a greater than 15% increase in FEV1), making the total prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness 11.4%. The prevalence of current asthma, defined as bronchial hyperresponsiveness plus symptoms consistent with asthma in the last 12 months, was 5.9%. The distribution of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the studied population was continuous. There was a significant association between it and respiratory symptoms, atopy, smoking, and abnormal lung function (p less than 0.001 for all associations). There was no association with age, sex, or recent respiratory tract infection. Images PMID:3660290

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insulin Resistance in Adults from Maracaibo City, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Valmore; Salazar, Juan; Martínez, María Sofía; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Calvo, María José; Palmar, Jim; Bautista, Jordan; Ramos, Eduardo; Cabrera, Mayela; Pachano, Freddy; Rojas, Joselyn

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Insulin resistance (IR) is a prominent pathophysiologic component in a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are common in our locality. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IR and factors associated with this condition in an adult population from Maracaibo city, Venezuela. Methodology. A cross-sectional, descriptive study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 2026 adults. IR was defined as HOMA2-IR ≥ 2. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed in order to evaluate factors associated with IR. Results. The prevalence of IR was 46.5% (n = 943), with 46.7% (n = 450) in the general population, 46.4% (n = 493) in females, and 47.90% (n = 970) in males (p = 0.895). IR prevalence tended to increase with age and was significantly greater in subjects aged ≥30 years (χ (2) = 16.726; p = 2.33 × 10(-4)). Employment, alcohol consumption, obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, and dysglycemia were associated with greater odds of IR, whereas a high level of physical activity appeared to be weak protective factor against IR. Conclusions. The prevalence of IR is elevated in our locality. The main determinants of this condition appear to be the presence of obesity, high triacylglycerides, low HDL-C, dysglycemia, and alcohol intake. PMID:27579182

  19. Prevalence and clinical features of Thought-Perception-Sensitivity Symptoms: results from a community survey of Korean high school students.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nam-In; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Oh, Keun-Young; Shim, Shi-Ha; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-08-15

    Epidemiologic research indicates that psychosis and depression most frequently develop during adolescence. Hence, an efficient strategy for improving youth mental health would be to focus on detection of early-stage psychosis and depression in adolescence. In this study, 1461 high school students were surveyed using self-report scales. Students who scored equal to or above the cut-off value on any of the scales and who agreed to a further examination proceeded to a second assessment, using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States along with self-reporting scales. The estimated prevalence of adolescents at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and of depression-spectrum disorders was 1.26 and 3.69% respectively. Compared with the normal group, experiences of bullying, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were significantly higher in these two groups; the subjects at UHR for psychosis were found to have significantly lower academic performance and lower ratings on SCRS; and submissive behavior was more prevalent in the depression-spectrum group. Our results reveal several clinical features of adolescents at UHR for psychosis and with depression-spectrum disorder and underscore the importance of accurate assessment of and early appropriate care for these adolescents. PMID:22475525

  20. Association between long-term exposure to air pollutants and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in 108 South Korean communities in 2008-2010: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Whan Hee; Choo, Jee-Young; Son, Ji-Young; Kim, Ho

    2016-09-15

    Air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological association between the yearly concentration of air pollution and regional prevalence of cardiovascular disease in South Korea. In this cross-sectional study, data regarding the regional prevalence of cardiovascular disease (i.e., hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and angina) and health behaviors were obtained from the Korean Community Health Survey conducted in 108 communities of South Korea in 2008-2010. Data on carbon monoxide (CO; ppb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2; ppb), and particulate matter up to 10μm in size (PM10; μg/m(3)) were collected from the National Institute of Environmental Research. We used a distributed lag model with generalized estimating equations to represent the corrected lag-response and correlation among repeated observations. Cumulative odds ratios of hypertension, hypertension in those aged >30years, stroke, and angina with an increase of 10μg/m(3) in PM10 were 1.042 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.009, 1.077), 1.044 (CI: 1.009, 1.079), 1.044 (CI: 0.979, 1.114), and 0.977 (CI: 0.901, 1.059), respectively; a 10ppb increase in NO2 was associated with an odds ratio of 1.077 (CI: 1.044, 1.112), 1.08 (CI: 1.043, 1.118), 1.073 (CI: 0.994, 1.157), and 1.047 (CI: 0.968, 1.134), respectively. A 10ppb increase in CO was associated with an odds ratio of 1.123 (CI: 0.963, 1.31), 1.129 (CI: 0.963, 1.387), and 1.336 (CI: 0.9887, 2.011) for hypertension, hypertension in patients >30years, and stroke >50, respectively. We found suggestive evidence of an association between the long-term exposure (i.e., delayed for 5years) to air pollutants (i.e., PM10, NO2, and CO) and the regional prevalence of chronic cardiovascular disease (i.e., hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and angina) in 108 communities in South Korea. PMID:27177133

  1. Relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and beta cell function and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in non-diabetic Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun; Jeon, Dae Jung; Park, Chang Eun; You, Hye Sook; Moon, Ae Eun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to look at these relationships in non-diabetic Korean adults. This study was based on data from the KNHANES V-1, which is representative of the population of Korea. A total of 5,492 participants (≥20 years in age) without type 1 or type 2 diabetes, assessed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], fasting blood glucose and insulin, as well as anthropometric variables, were included in the analyses. The key study results were as follows: First, vitamin D status [vitamin D deficient, 25(OH)D <25 nM; vitamin D insufficient, 25(OH)D ≥25, <50 nM; vitamin D sufficient, 25(OH)D ≥50 nM] was inversely associated with homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-B) in model 2 (adjusted for age and gender) and 3 (further adjusted for smoking, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index). Second, in model 4, when further adjusted for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-C, vitamin D status was inversely associated with HOMA-B. However, association of vitamin D status and HOMA-IR was no longer significant. In conclusion, vitamin D was inversely associated with beta cell function in non-diabetic Korean adults but was not associated with insulin resistance.

  2. Association between Smoking and Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010 and 2012)

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ah-Young; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Lee, Hae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease in Korean adults. Methods The data were collected from 8,336 participants, aged between 20 and 64 years, who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (2010 and 2012). Smoking status was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Periodontal disease was defined as a community periodontal index ≥3 points. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, sex, education, monthly income, diabetes, obesity, alcohol intake, and frequency of tooth brushing. Results The risk of periodontal disease was higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.83) than never smokers. Among current smokers, the risk of periodontal disease was increased in smokers of ≥10 cigarettes/d, ≥20 years duration, and >10 pack-years compared with never smokers (P<0.05). Among former smokers, the risk of periodontal disease after 10 years since cessation declined to 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with current smokers and was indistinguishable statistically from never smokers. Conclusion Periodontal disease is significantly associated with smoking status in Korean adults. PMID:27073611

  3. Low Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Independent of Visceral Obesity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji A.; Eun, Chai Ryoung; Cho, Hyunjoo; Lee, Seung Ku; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Yim, Hyung Joon; Shin, Chol; Kim, Nan Hee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) independent of visceral obesity in Koreans and to examine whether the associations differ according to the presence of diabetes or insulin resistance. Research Design and Methods A total of 1081 adults were enrolled from a population-based cohort in Ansan city. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in all subjects. Insulin resistance was measured by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using computed tomography, NAFLD was diagnosed if the liver attenuation index (LAI, the difference between the mean hepatic and splenic attenuation) was <5 Hounsfield Units. Results In subjects with diabetes (n = 282), 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with waist circumference, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride levels, and visceral abdominal fat, and were positively associated with LAI after adjusting for age, sex, season, exercise, and vitamin supplementation. In subjects without diabetes, only triglyceride level was negatively associated with 25(OH)D. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for NAFLD increased sequentially across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D in subjects with diabetes even after adjusting for visceral fat [Q1 vs. Q4; OR for NAFLD 2.5 (95% CI:1.0–6.2)]. In contrast, no significant difference in OR was observed in subjects without diabetes. When we classified non-diabetic subjects by HOMA-IR, an increase in the OR for NAFLD across decreasing quartiles of 25(OH)D was observed in the high HOMA-IR (≥2.5) group [n = 207, Q1 vs. Q4; OR 3.8(1.4–10.3)], but not in the low HOMA-IR (<2.5) group [n = 592, OR 0.8 (0.3–1.9)]. Conclusions Low vitamin D status is closely associated with NAFLD, independent of visceral obesity in subjects with diabetes or insulin resistance. PMID:24130687

  4. Seropositivity among Korean Young Adults Approximately 2 Years after a Single-Dose Vaccination against Hepatitis A Virus.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong-Jun; Lim, Jiseun; Park, Woong-Sub; Sohn, Haesook; Lee, Moo-Sik; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Hwasung; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    We previously observed 80.7% seropositivity and a significant interaction between gender and hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine type (Havrix vs. Epaxal) on the seropositivity approximately 11 months after single-dose HAV vaccinations in Korean young adults. Our objective was to evaluate seropositivity approximately 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination and the influence of demographic characteristics on seropositivity, including the interaction between gender and vaccine type. Seronegative medical school students were randomly vaccinated with Havrix or Epaxal. Based on a total serum anti-HAV antibody titer cutoff of 20 IU/mL, 338 participants (76.0%) of the 445 vaccinees were seropositive 20-25 months after a single-dose HAV vaccination. The seropositive rates were similar after vaccination with Havrix (77.0%) and Epaxal (74.9%). Univariate analysis indicated that female (p = 0.052) and less obese (p < 0.001) participants had a higher seropositive rate, whereas other characteristics such as age, alcohol use, smoking history, vaccine type, and follow-up duration were not associated with seropositivity. Multivariate analysis indicated that women (p = 0.026) and participants with moderate alcohol use (p < 0.001) showed significantly higher seropositive rates than men and participants with no or low alcohol use, respectively. The seropositive rates after vaccination with Havrix and Epaxal were 70.9% and 67.5% in men and 87.7% and 91.3% in women, respectively (p for interaction = 0.304). Compared with the seropositive rate approximately 11 months after vaccination, the seropositive rate decreased substantially only in men in the Havrix group (11.0% points), and consequently, the interaction between gender and vaccine type disappeared while seropositivity remained high (87.7% and 91.3% in Havrix and Epaxal groups, respectively) among women approximately 2 years after vaccination. Further studies are needed to assess whether the seropositive rate would be maintained in

  5. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Wei, Liang; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; McGuire, Lisa C; Genco, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an

  6. Prevalence of anemia and associated factors in older adults: evidence from the SABE Study

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Ligiana Pires; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lucia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence of anemia and associated factors in older adults. METHODS The prevalence and factors associated with anemia in older adults were studied on the basis of the results of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Welfare and Aging) study. A group of 1,256 individuals were interviewed during the third wave of the SABE study performed in Sao Paulo, SP, in 2010. The study included 60.4% females; the mean age of the participants was 70.4 years, and their average education was 5.3 years. The dependent variable was the presence of anemia (hemoglobin levels: 12 g/dL in women and 13 g/dL in men). Descriptive analysis and hierarchical logistic regression were performed. The independent variables were as follows: a) demographics: gender, age, and education and b) clinical characteristics: self-reported chronic diseases, presence of cognitive decline and depression symptoms, and body mass index. RESULTS The prevalence of anemia was 7.7% and was found to be higher in oldest adults. There was no difference between genders, although the hemoglobin distribution curve in women showed a displacement toward lower values in comparison with the distribution curve in men. Advanced age (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 0.57;1.64; p < 0.001), presence of diabetes (OR = 2.30; 95%CI 1.33;4.00; p = 0.003), cancer (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.2;6.11; p = 0.016), and presence of depression symptoms (OR = 1.75; 95%CI 1.06;2.88; p = 0.028) remained significant even after multiple analyses. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of anemia in older adults was 7.7% and was mainly associated with advanced age and presence of chronic diseases. Thus, anemia can be an important marker in the investigation of health in older adults because it can be easily diagnosed and markedly affects the quality of life of older adults. PMID:25372162

  7. Sociocultural Dynamics of ESL Learning (De)Motivation: An Activity Theory Analysis of Two Adult Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the longitudinal trajectories of two Korean ESL immigrants' L2 learning motivation from an Activity Theory perspective. Two highly skilled immigrants participated in monthly semistructured interviews over a period of 10 months. The research questions are as follows: (1) How does the relationship between ESL learners and their…

  8. National, regional, and global trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity prevalence are commonly used for public and policy communication of the extent of the obesity epidemic, yet comparable estimates of trends in overweight and obesity prevalence by country are not available. Methods We estimated trends between 1980 and 2008 in overweight and obesity prevalence and their uncertainty for adults 20 years of age and older in 199 countries and territories. Data were from a previous study, which used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate mean body mass index (BMI) based on published and unpublished health examination surveys and epidemiologic studies. Here, we used the estimated mean BMIs in a regression model to predict overweight and obesity prevalence by age, country, year, and sex. The uncertainty of the estimates included both those of the Bayesian hierarchical model and the uncertainty due to cross-walking from mean BMI to overweight and obesity prevalence. Results The global age-standardized prevalence of obesity nearly doubled from 6.4% (95% uncertainty interval 5.7-7.2%) in 1980 to 12.0% (11.5-12.5%) in 2008. Half of this rise occurred in the 20 years between 1980 and 2000, and half occurred in the 8 years between 2000 and 2008. The age-standardized prevalence of overweight increased from 24.6% (22.7-26.7%) to 34.4% (33.2-35.5%) during the same 28-year period. In 2008, female obesity prevalence ranged from 1.4% (0.7-2.2%) in Bangladesh and 1.5% (0.9-2.4%) in Madagascar to 70.4% (61.9-78.9%) in Tonga and 74.8% (66.7-82.1%) in Nauru. Male obesity was below 1% in Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ethiopia, and was highest in Cook Islands (60.1%, 52.6-67.6%) and Nauru (67.9%, 60.5-75.0%). Conclusions Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased since 1980, and the increase has accelerated. Although obesity increased in most countries, levels and trends varied substantially. These data on trends in overweight and obesity may be used to set targets for obesity

  9. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping <7 hours per night is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping <7 hours in a 24-hour period, suggesting an ongoing need for public awareness and public education about sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health. PMID:26890214

  10. The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status), Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373). Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013), ethnicity (p = 0.001), religion (p = 0.002), schooling (p = 0.020), educational level (p = 0.016), marital status (p = 0.001) and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken. PMID:19358728

  11. Prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in adults in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Fang; Bots, Michiel L; Guo, Weiying; Zhao, Di; Hoes, Arno W; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate the prevalence and clustering of major cardiovascular risk factors in adults in Northeast China. Methods In total, 37 141 individuals undergoing a health screening programme at the International Health Promotion Center at the 1st Hospital of Jilin University were enrolled. Height, weight, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were recorded. Results Compared with women, the age-standardised prevalence of overweight (44.0% vs 25.0%) and obesity (20.2% vs 7.1%), hypertension (33.7% vs 19.3%), dyslipidaemia (63.8% vs 42.3%), impaired fasting glucose (5.1% vs 4.2%) and diabetes mellitus (8.1% vs 3.5%) was higher in men. Overall, 69.1%, 32.7% and 10.0% of participants had ≥1, ≥2 and ≥3 major cardiovascular risk factors, respectively (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus). For men, the figures were 79.2%, 41.1% and 13.3%, respectively, and for women 53.4%, 19.8% and 5.0%, respectively. With increasing age and increasing body mass index, the prevalence of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors increased in both men and women. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adults in Northeast China: one out of three has at least two risk factors. Prevalence was higher in men than in women. Clustering of risk factors is more common with increasing age and body mass index in both men and women. Prevention of the development of risk factors should be an extremely high priority in this region. PMID:27326186

  12. Obesity in older adults is associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of pain.

    PubMed

    Heim, Noor; Snijder, Marieke B; Deeg, Dorly J H; Seidell, Jaap C; Visser, Marjolein

    2008-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between BMI and pain. This prospective study investigated the associations of measured BMI and waist circumference with prevalent and incident pain in older adults. The study included participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, aged 55-85 years at baseline (1992-1993). Pain was assessed using a subscale of the Nottingham Health Profile at baseline (N = 2,000), after 3 years (N = 1,478) and 6 years (N = 1,271) of follow-up. The overall prevalence of pain was 32.7% at baseline and increased significantly with higher quartiles of BMI or waist circumference. After adjustment for age, education, depression, smoking, physical activity, and chronic diseases, multiple logistic regression analyses showed odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval)) for prevalent pain of 2.16 (1.32-3.54) in men and 1.93 (1.26-2.95) in women comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of BMI. Of the participants without pain at baseline, those in the highest quartile of BMI had a twofold increased odds for incident pain after 3 years of follow-up. After 6 years of follow-up, ORs for incident pain were 2.34 (1.17-4.72) in men and 2.78 (1.36-5.70) in women. Additional adjustment for weight change did not change these associations. Similar results were found for the associations between waist circumference and pain. Exploring the reversed causal relation, analyses showed no significant associations between prevalent pain and weight gain. In conclusion, the prevalence of pain is higher among obese older men and women compared to their normal-weight peers. Furthermore, obese older adults are at increased odds to develop pain. PMID:18787527

  13. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  14. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping <7 hours per night is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping <7 hours in a 24-hour period, suggesting an ongoing need for public awareness and public education about sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  15. Short Sleep Duration in Prevalent and Persistent Psychological Distress in Young Adults: The DRIVE Study

    PubMed Central

    Glozier, Nicholas; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Patton, George; Ivers, Rebecca; Li, Qiang; Hickie, Ian; Senserrick, Teresa; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn; Stevenson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Young people are sleeping less. Short sleep duration has a range of negative consequences including a hypothesized link with psychological distress, which has yet to be studied Design: Prospective cohort study Setting: Community-based sample from Australia Participants: Twenty thousand (20,822) young adults (aged 17-24) identified through the state vehicle licensing authority. A random sample (n = 5000) was approached for follow-up 12-18 months later, with 2937 providing full data. Main Outcome Measure: Psychological distress, determined by a Kessler 10 score > 21, at baseline; and as both onset and persistence of distress at follow-up. Results: Shorter sleep duration was linearly associated with prevalent psychological distress: relative risk (RR) 1.14 (95%CI 1.12 to 1.15). Only the very short (< 5 h) sleepers among those not distressed at baseline had an increased risk for onset of psychological distress (RR 3.25 [95% CI 1.84, 5.75]). Of 945 cohort participants reporting psychological distress at baseline, 419 (44%) were distressed at follow-up. Each hour less of sleep increased the risk of psychological distress persisting after adjustment for potential confounding variables: RR 1.05 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.10). Long sleep duration showed no association with distress at any time point. Conclusions: Self-reported shorter sleep duration is linearly associated with prevalent and persistent psychological distress in young adults. In contrast, only the very short sleepers had a raised risk of new onset of distress. Different approaches to sleep duration measurement yield different results and should guide any interventions to improve subjective sleep duration in young adults. Citation: Glozier N; Martiniuk A; Patton G; Ivers R; Li Q; Hickie I; Senserrick T; Woodward M; Norton R; Stevenson M. Short sleep duration in prevalent and persistent psychological distress in young adults: the DRIVE study. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1139-1145. PMID:20857859

  16. Sunburn prevalence among adults--United States, 1999, 2003, and 2004.

    PubMed

    2007-06-01

    Episodic acute overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (i.e., sunburn) is an important risk factor for two types of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Melanoma is the most lethal type of skin cancer. In 2003, a total of 45,625 new cases of melanoma were diagnosed in the United States, and 7,818 persons died from the disease. A meta-analysis of 57 studies indicated that the relative risk for melanoma among persons with sunburn history compared with those without sunburn history was 2.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73-2.37). Monitoring sunburn prevalence with population-based surveys allows an estimate of compliance with sun-protection behaviors, assessments of risk for developing skin cancer, and measurement of the success of prevention programs. To evaluate trends in sunburn prevalence among U.S. adults, CDC analyzed cross-sectional data from the 1999, 2003, and 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that sunburn prevalence among all adults increased from 31.8% in 1999 to 33.7% in 2004. Further research is needed to determine which interventions will best improve sun-protection behaviors among the public.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of obesity and dietary habits among adults in rural area, Chile.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Miho; Miyoshi, Miki; Okumura, Junko; Sanchez, Hugo; Andreu, Juan; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2007-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of obesity and its determinants among adults in a rural area of Chile. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in April-June 2004 in San Carlos (8th region). Height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured for 603 adults (female 447, male 156) aged 20-64 years, and data on socio-economic factors, dietary intake, and dietary habits were obtained by questionnaire interviews. The prevalence of obese individuals was 45.2% among females and 30.1% among males, whereas that of overweight individuals was higher among males than females. Obesity was associated with socio-economic factors for females but not for males. With regard to diet, different patterns between females and males were observed in terms of frequency of food intake, as well as in dietary habits. Our findings of a high prevalence of obese/overweight individuals, together with the characteristics of their diets including changes in the cooking process, suggest that nutrition transition is underway in rural regions as well. Appropriate interventions, therefore, should be introduced to control obesity among women and to enhance health awareness among men throughout the country.

  18. Gender Differences in Lay Knowledge of Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms Among Community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Adults - DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Bender, Melinda S.; Choi, JiWon; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in lay knowledge of type 2 diabetes symptoms among community-dwelling Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. Design and Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of 904 adults (172 Caucasians, 248 Latinos, 234 Koreans, and 250 Filipinos) without diabetes at community events, community clinics, churches, and online in the San Francisco Bay Area and San Diego from August to December 2013. Participants were asked to describe in their own words signs and/or symptoms of diabetes. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association of lay symptom knowledge with gender after controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Overall, the average age of the sample populations was 44 (SD ±16.1) years, 36% were male, and 58% were married. Increased thirst/dry mouth following increased urinary frequency/color/odor and increased fatigue/lethargy/low energy were the most frequently reported signs and symptoms (19.8%, 15.4%, and 13.6%, respectively). After controlling for known confounding factors, women were 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.3, P = .004) times more likely than men to report at least 1 diabetes symptom. However, this gender difference in knowledge of diabetes signs and symptoms did not significantly differ across Caucasians, Latinos, Filipinos, and Korean Americans (P = .87). Conclusion The findings underscore the importance of improving public knowledge and awareness of signs and symptoms of diabetes, particularly in men. PMID:25227121

  19. Disparities in the prevalence of comorbidities among US adults by state Medicaid expansion status

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemiju, Tomi; Jha, Megha; Moore, Justin Xavier; Pisu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction About 92% of US older adults have at least one chronic disease or medical condition and 77% have at least two. Low-income and uninsured adults in particular experience a higher burden of comorbidities, and the Medicaid expansion provision of the Affordable Care Act was designed to improve access to healthcare in this population group. However, a significant number of US states have declined expansion. The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution of low-income and uninsured adults in expanded versus non-expanded states, and evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in both groups. Methods Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) dataset was analyzed, and Medicaid expansion status was assessed from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services report on State Medicaid and CHIP Income Eligibility Standards. Next, age adjusted mean number of comorbidities between expanded and non-expanded states was compared, with adjustment for socio-demographic differences. Results Expanded states had a higher proportion of adults with income of at least $50,000 per year (39.6% vs. 35.5%, p < 0.01) and a lower proportion of individuals with no health insurance coverage (15.2% vs. 20.3%, p < 0.01) compared with non-expanded states. Among the uninsured, there was a higher proportion of obese (31.6% vs. 26.9%, p < 001), and higher average number of comorbidities (1.62 vs. 1.52, p < 0.01) in non-expanded states compared to expanded states. Overall, the prevalence of comorbidities was higher among BRFSS participants in states that did not expand Medicaid compared with those in expanded states. Conclusion States without Medicaid expansion have a greater proportion of poor, uninsured adults with more chronic diseases and conditions. PMID:27095325

  20. High prevalence of thymic tissue in adults with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    McCune, J M; Loftus, R; Schmidt, D K; Carroll, P; Webster, D; Swor-Yim, L B; Francis, I R; Gross, B H; Grant, R M

    1998-01-01

    The thymus in adults infected with the HIV-1 is generally thought to be inactive, both because of age-related involution and viral destruction. We have revisited the question of thymic function in adults, using chest-computed tomography (CT) to measure thymic tissue in HIV-1-seropositive (n = 99) or HIV-1-seronegative (n = 32) subjects, and correlating these results with the level of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that are phenotypically described as naive thymic emigrants. Abundant thymic tissue was detectable in many (47/99) HIV-1-seropositive adults, aged 20-59. Independent of age, radiographic demonstration of thymic tissue was significantly associated with both a higher CD4(+) T cell count (P = 0.02) and a higher percentage and absolute number of circulating naive (CD45RA+CD62L+) CD4(+) T cells (P < 0.04). The prevalence of an abundant thymus was especially high in younger HIV-1-seropositive adults ( 40 yr) regardless of CD4 count (P = 0.03). These studies suggest that the thymus is functional in some but not all adults with HIV-1 disease. PMID:9616201

  1. Association of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus in the South Korean general population according to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Young-Il

    2011-10-01

    We examined the association of serum ferritin levels with metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the adult South Korean population using data from the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 6311 adults older than 20 years who participated in the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of at least 3 of the following: elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated serum triglycerides, elevated plasma glucose, and abdominal obesity. Diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance. In a representative sample of the adult Korean population, MS was more prevalent in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of serum ferritin concentrations in women following adjustments for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of serum ferritin concentrations in premenopausal women and men. The geometric means of fasting insulin and insulin resistance determined using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in the fourth serum ferritin quartiles of postmenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared with those in the first quartile of the respective groups. The present study demonstrates that elevated serum ferritin concentrations are associated with an increased risk of MS and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the adult South Korean population.

  2. Differences in prevalence of obesity among black, white, and Hispanic adults - United States, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    2009-07-17

    Obesity is associated with increased health-care costs, reduced quality of life, and increased risk for premature death. Common morbidities associated with obesity include coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. As of 2007, no state had met the Healthy People 2010 objective to reduce to 15% the prevalence of obesity among U.S. adults. An overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 is to eliminate health disparities among racial/ethnic populations. To assess differences in prevalence of obesity among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics, CDC analyzed data from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys conducted during 2006--2008. Overall, for the 3-year period, 25.6% of non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics were obese. Non-Hispanic blacks (35.7%) had 51% greater prevalence of obesity, and Hispanics (28.7%) had 21% greater prevalence, when compared with non-Hispanic whites (23.7%). This pattern was consistent across most U.S. states. However, state prevalences varied substantially, ranging from 23.0% (New Hampshire) to 45.1% (Maine) for non-Hispanic blacks, from 21.0% (Maryland) to 36.7% (Tennessee) for Hispanics, and from 9.0% (District of Columbia [DC]) to 30.2% (West Virginia) for non-Hispanic whites. Given the overall high prevalence of obesity and the significant differences among non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics, effective policies and environmental strategies that promote healthy eating and physical activity are needed for all populations and geographic areas, but particularly for those populations and areas disproportionally affected by obesity.

  3. Prevalence and determinants of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Greek adult population.

    PubMed

    Tsirona, Sofia; Katsaros, Fotis; Bargiota, Alexandra; Polyzos, Stergios A; Arapoglou, George; Koukoulis, George N

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide reaching epidemic proportions. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of DM in Thessaly, a large region of Central Greece, and to extrapolate our results to the population of the entire country. A random sample of 805 adults (421 females and 384 men) living in Thessaly, aged 18-80 years, was surveyed. After completing a questionnaire about health status and a thorough physical examination, a blood sample was obtained from each participant for biochemical analysis. Participants with fasting glucose levels between 100-125 mg/dl underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A second survey was also conducted, via telephone call-interviews, in a randomly selected sample age- and sex-stratified to the country's adult population in order to extrapolate the DM data from Thessaly to the whole country. The frequency of DM based on patient history and fasting blood glucose levels was 6.96%, comparable to that observed in the telephone-based nationwide survey (7.38%, p=0.669). However, after the OGTT an additional 3.72% of the population had undiagnosed DM, increasing DM prevalence to 10.68% (age adjusted 11.77%). The prevalence of pre-diabetes was 8.70%, with impaired fasting glucose at 5.84% and impaired glucose tolerance at 2.86%. The prevalence of DM was significantly higher in men (14.58%) than in women (7.13%, p<0.001), increased with age in both sexes and was more prevalent in hypertensive (p<0.001) and obese subjects (p=0.001) and in those living in rural areas (p=0.003). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, significant predictors of pre-diabetes and DM together were age, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alcohol consumption and educational status, whereas those of DM alone were age, HOMA-IR and triglycerides. Extrapolating our data to the whole country, the age-adjusted prevalence of DM was estimated at 11.97% (men 13.98%, women 9

  4. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Young Adults in Ternate, Eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ie, Susan Irawati; Turyadi; Sidarta, Erick; Sadhewa, Arkasha; Purnomo, Gludhug Ariyo; Soedarmono, Yuyun S M; Pattiiha, Mochtar Zein; Thedja, Meta Dewi; Harahap, Alida R; Muljono, David H

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been declining thanks to the universal hepatitis B infant immunization program. Nevertheless, young adults born before the program implementation might have acquired HBV in early childhood or remain susceptible to infection. This study aimed to evaluate hepatitis B epidemiology in asymptomatic young adult population in Ternate, eastern Indonesia. Serum samples of 376 subjects (aged 17-25, mean 19.82 ± 1.69 years; male/female 138/238) were screened for HBV parameters serologically (HBV surface antigen [HBsAg]; its antibody [anti-HBs]; anti-core antigen [anti-HBc]), and molecularly (HBV DNA). HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and HBV DNA prevalence were 15.7%, 36.2%, 24.2%, and 27.9%, respectively, with male predominance. Of all subjects, 13.0% were HBsAg negative with detectable HBV DNA (occult hepatitis B [OHB]), and 56.4% showed negativity for all seromarkers. This population showed high hepatitis B prevalence with substantial occurrence of OHB. However, a high percentage of the population were still susceptible and at risk of HBV infection. This study emphasizes the necessity to improve prevention strategies to screen and manage HBV carriers, including the adoption of catch-up or booster vaccination targeted to young adult populations. Investigations on the roles of host-virus interactions associated with OHB and its implications are warranted.

  5. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Goodman, B Mitchell; Artz, Nicole; Radford, Barbera; Chen, Ian A

    2010-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to fracture risk and chronic musculoskeletal pain. Adults with sickle cell disease have a high prevalence of low bone density and chronic pain with poorly defined etiologies. We recognized that vitamin D deficiency may represent a treatable etiology and sought to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in adults with sickle cell. We measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in adults at 2 university-based sickle cell disease-management programs. Regression was performed in 142 patients to identify predictors of low vitamin D. Mean vitamin D levels were 9.0 ng/mL at Eastern Virginia Medical School and 12.8 ng/mL at University of Chicago; 139 of 142 (98%) had suboptimal levels (<30 ng/mL) and 85/142 (60%) were severely deficient (<10 ng/mL). Vitamin D level was not related to age, sex, hydroxyurea use, sickle cell type, or date of lab draw. Vitamin D deficiency was, therefore, nearly ubiquitous in our patient population, with a majority being severely deficient. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of vitamin D repletion on clinical outcomes such as bone density, chronic musculoskeletal pain, and functional status. Clinicians caring for patients with sickle cell disease should be aware of and screen for this important clinical state.

  6. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  7. Meta-analysis of the Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection among Children and Adults of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Afshari, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a common health problem related to many gastrointestinal disorders. This study aims to estimate the total and age specific prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori infection in Iran. We systematically reviewed all national and international databases and finally identified 21 studies were eligible for meta-analysis. Each of them were assigned a quality score using STROBE checklist. Due to significant heterogeneity of the results, random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval of Helicobacter Pylori infection. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA. V11 software. The pooled prevalence (95% confidence interval) of Helicobacter Pylori infection among all population, children and adults were estimated as 54% (53%- 55%), 42% (41%- 44%) and 62% (61%- 64%) respectively. Helicobacter Pylori, has infected more than half of Iranian people during the last decade. Preventive strategies as well as taking into account this infection during clinical visits should be emphasized to reduce its transmission and prevalence within the community. PMID:27076886

  8. The Prevalence of Medical Conditions Among U.S. Chinese Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruijia; Simon, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The burden of medical conditions is increasing among U.S. older adults, yet we have very limited knowledge about medical conditions among Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of medical conditions and its sociodemographic and health-related correlates within the context of a population-based cohort study of U.S. Chinese older adults. Method. Using a community-based participatory research approach, community-dwelling Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area were interviewed between 2011 and 2013. Results. Of the 3,159 participants interviewed, 58.9% were female and the mean age was 72.8 years. In total, 84.3% of older adults had one or more medical condition, 24.6% reported two conditions, 19.5% had three conditions, and 17.0% reported four or more conditions. A sizeable percentage of older adults had never been screened for dyslipidemia (24.4%) or had never been screened for diabetes mellitus (35.7%).For those who reported high cholesterol, 73.0% were taking medications when compared with 76.1% of those who reported having diabetes and 88.3% of those who reported having high blood pressure. Various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics were correlated with medical conditions. Conclusion. Medical conditions were common among U.S. Chinese older adults, yet screening and treatment rates were fairly low. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to better understand the risk and protective factors associated with medical conditions. PMID:25378445

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jaffna District.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, S; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2015-09-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among adults in Jaffna District. Multistage stratified cluster sampling technique was employed to select 544 participants. An interviewer administrated questionnaire was used. Anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements were recorded and biochemical parameters were analysed. Response rate was 95.3%. Of them, 224 (43.8%) were male. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.4% (95% CI: 13.3- 19.9); in males 19.6% (95% CI: 14.6-25.4) and in females 13.9% (95% CI: 10.1-18.5). Of the diabetics, 27.4% were previously undiagnosed. In the final multivariable model, participants with family history of diabetes were 3.5 times (p<0.001) more likely and those with high waist hip ratio were 2 times (p=0.009) more likely to develop diabetes mellitus. PMID:26520866

  10. Prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome in Adult ADHD and Its Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Snitselaar, Mark A; Smits, Marcel G; Spijker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this observational cross-sectional study, 49 subjects were assessed for sleep disorders and for ADHD symptoms. Thirty-six received an ADHD diagnosis (29: combined type (ADHD-C); 7: inattentive type). An RLS and RLS symptoms prevalence of 34.5% was found, with a higher prevalence rate in the ADHD-C subgroup, although not significantly (p = 0.066). RLS symptoms were correlated with particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity (ρ = 0.742; p: 0.000). ADHD patients with positive RLS scores reported higher scores on the ADHD-Rating scale compared with patients with negative RLS scores (Z: -2.968, p = 0.003), mainly due to higher hyperactivity-impulsivity scores (Z: -3.145; p = 0.002). Our findings show that clinicians need to be aware of RLS among adult ADHD patients, particularly those with severe hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. PMID:26418664

  11. Prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults with obstructive sleep apnea symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Grønli, Janne; Sivertsen, Børge; Lehmann, Sverre

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of insomnia and excessive sleepiness in adults presenting symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the general population. Randomly selected participants (N = 1,502; 50.7% men, 49.3% women), ages 40 to 70 yr. (M = 53.6, SD = 8.5) were interviewed over the telephone. Insomnia and excessive sleepiness (hypersomnia) were assessed with the Bergen Insomnia Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. OSA symptoms were identified by self- or spouse reports on snoring, breathing cessations during sleep, and being tired or sleepy. The prevalence of OSA was 6.2%. Among these participants with OSA, 57.6% reported insomnia and 30.1% reported excessive sleepiness. Furthermore, OSA symptoms were associated with self-reported obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and depression, but only in participants with comorbid insomnia or excessive sleepiness.

  12. Compulsions in adults with mental retardation: prevalence, phenomenology, and comorbidity with stereotypy and self-injury.

    PubMed

    Bodfish, J W; Crawford, T W; Powell, S B; Parker, D E; Golden, R N; Lewis, M H

    1995-09-01

    A variety of conceptual similarities between compulsions seen in individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder and stereotypy and self-injury seen in individuals with mental retardation led us to investigate the prevalence, phenomenology, and comorbidity of compulsions in adults with severe or profound mental retardation. We developed simple assessment screening instruments for stereotypy and self-injury and used Gedye's Compulsive Behavior Checklist and found acceptable levels of reliability, stability, and validity for each instrument. Prevalences were as follows: stereotypy: 60.9%; self-injury: 46.6%; and compulsion: 40%. The occurrence of compulsions was significantly positively associated with the occurrence of stereotypy, self-injury, and stereotypy plus self-injury.

  13. Prevalence and Management of Diabetes and Metabolic Risk Factors in Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aekplakorn, Wichai; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Sangthong, Rassamee; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and undiagnosed and diagnosed diabetes in Thai adults in 2009 and examine the extent of changes in proportions of diagnosis, treatment, and control for blood glucose, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol between 2004 and 2009. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from the multistage cross-sectional National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV of 18,629 Thai adults aged ≥20 years conducted in 2009 were used to analyze and compare with the data from NHES III in 2004. RESULTS The prevalence of IFG and diabetes was 10.6 and 7.5%, respectively. Of all diabetes diagnoses, 35.4% were not previously diagnosed, and the proportion was higher in men than in women (47.3 vs. 23.4%, P < 0.05). Compared with those in year 2004, the proportions of individuals with diabetes and concomitant hypertension did not significantly decrease in 2009 in both sexes, but the proportions of women with diabetes who were abdominally obese or had high total cholesterol (≥5.2 mmol/L) significantly increased in 2009 by 18.0 and 23.5%, respectively (all P < 0.01). The rates of treatment and control of blood glucose, high blood pressure, and high total cholesterol were favorably improved in 2009. However, in substantial proportions of individuals with diabetes these concomitants were still controlled suboptimally. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of diabetes and IFG remained high in Thai adults. Improvement in detection and control of diabetes and associated metabolic risk factors, particularly obesity and high serum cholesterol, are necessary. PMID:21816976

  14. Contributors to Depressive Symptoms among Korean Immigrants with Type 2 Diabete

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sarah E.; Reed, Preston L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes have a higher prevalence of depression than the general population. Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes are understudied. Objectives To identify the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in Korean immigrants. Method In this cross-sectional descriptive study, a community sample of 164 Korean immigrant adults with type 2 diabetes were assessed for depressive symptoms using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Predictors of depression were grouped into three categories: demographic (age, gender, education, English proficiency); clinical (duration of diabetes, comorbidities, insulin use); and psychosocial (general health, diabetes-related quality-of-life, family support). Results Approximately 56% of participants had CES-D scores ≥ 16. Higher levels of depression were associated with greater impact of diabetes on QOL (b = 5.68, p = .001), worse overall health (b = -0.09, p = .012), and less family support (b = -4.02, p = .042). The relationship between depression and diabetes impact on quality-of-life was stronger for men than women (b = 6.67, p = .020). Discussion Depressive symptoms are common among Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes. Assessing diabetes-related quality-of-life, general health, and family support may be of value in better understanding depressive symptoms among this population. Among Korean immigrant men with type 2 diabetes, specific attention should be paid to diabetes-related quality-of-life. PMID:23190692

  15. The Prevalence and Determinants of Overweight and Obesity among French Youths and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Attending Special Education Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…

  16. Mental Disorders and Problem Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Three-Month Prevalence and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn; Havik, Odd E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of mental disorders in a Norwegian sample of adults with intellectual disability (ID) using the "Psychopathology Checklists for Adults With Intellectual Disability" (P-AID; Hove & Havik, 2008), a screening instrument adopting diagnostic criteria from the "Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric…

  17. The Prevalence, Incidence, and Factors Predictive of Mental Ill-Health in Adults with Profound Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sally-Ann; Smiley, Elita; Finlayson, Janet; Jackson, Alison; Allan, Linda; Williamson, Andrew; Mantry, Dipali; Morrison, Jillian

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no previous studies of the prevalence and incidence of mental ill-health in adults with profound intellectual disabilities. Method: In this population-based prospective cohort study, adults with profound intellectual disabilities underwent psychiatric assessment (n = 184), with further assessment after 2 years (n = 131).…

  18. Prevalence of reduced muscle strength in older U.S. adults: United States, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Looker, Anne C; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2015-01-01

    Five percent of adults aged 60 and over had weak muscle strength and 13% had intermediate muscle strength, as defined by the new FNIH criteria. Weak muscle strength is clinically relevant because it is associated with slow gait speed, an important mobility impairment. It is also linked to an increased risk of death. The prevalence of reduced muscle strength increased with age and was higher in non-Hispanic Asian and Hispanic persons than in non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black persons. Decreasing muscle strength was linked with increased difficulty in rising from an armless chair, which is another important type of mobility impairment. PMID:25633238

  19. Longitudinal prevalence and correlates of elder mistreatment among older adults receiving home visiting nursing.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce; Santos, Elizabeth J; Liebel, Dianne V; Russ, Ann J; Conwell, Yeates

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify elder mistreatment (EM) prevalence among a cohort of older adults receiving visiting nurse care in their homes, determine EM subtypes, and identify factors associated with EM. EM data were collected by nurses during monthly home visits for up to 24 months. It took the nurses a mean of 10.5 visits to discern EM. Fifty-four (7.4%) of 724 patients were identified as mistreated, of which 33 had enough information to subtype the EM. Of these 33, 27 were victims of neglect, 16 of psychological abuse, and 10 of financial exploitation, and 17 suffered more than one type. Among the entire sample, 11 variables were positively correlated with EM presence. Nurses visiting older adults in their homes should be aware that their patients are, as a group, vulnerable to EM, and that the factors identified here may be specific markers of greater risk.

  20. Prevalence and Determinants of Falls among Older Adults in Ecuador: An Analysis of the SABE I Survey

    PubMed Central

    Orces, Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study based on a nationally representative sample of older adults living in the Andes mountains and coastal region of the country indicates that 34.7% of older adults had fallen in the previous year in Ecuador. Among fallers, 30.6% reported a fall-related injury. The prevalence of falls was higher in women and among older adults residing in the rural Andes mountains. In the multivariate model, women, subjects with cognitive impairment, those reporting urinary incontinence, and those being physically active during the previous year were variables found independently associated with increased risk of falling among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, a gradual and linear increase in the prevalence of falls was seen as the number of risk factors increased. Falls represent a major public health problem among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of awareness and fall prevention among older adults at higher risk of falls. PMID:23476643

  1. Prevalence of hyperglycemia among adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hyperglycemia among HIV-infected persons who are not receiving antiretroviral therapy is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of hyperglycemia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. Methods Two thousand and six newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients from 10 provinces and municipalities in China were selected during 2009 to 2010. After an overnight fast, serum samples were collected to measure glucose concentrations. Demographics and medical histories were recorded. Factors associated with the presence of diabetes were analysed by logistic regression. Results Among the 2006 patients, 75.67% were male. Median age was 40 years (range: 18–86 years). 19.99% had hyperglycemia, 9.47% had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 10.52% had diabetes. The prevalences of hyperglycemia, of IFG and of diabetes were 21.54%, 10.28% and 11.27% among men and 15.16%, 6.97% and 8.20% among women, respectively. The prevalence of diabetes increased with increasing age (7.00%, 13.36% and 21.21% among patients who were 18–40, 40–60, and ≥60 years of age respectively) and with decreasing CD4 count (6.74%, 8.45%, 9.69%, and 12.66% among patients with CD4 count of ≥350, 200–350, 50–200, and < 50/mm3 respectively). The prevalence of diabetes was higher among ethnic minority patients than among the Han patients (14.37% versus 9.24%). The logistic analysis showed that older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Conclusions Hyperglycemia is highly prevalent among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. Older age, lower CD4 count and minority ethnicity are associated with increased risk of diabetes. All newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS individuals should be routinely evaluated for hyperglycemia. PMID:23394285

  2. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Fall-Related Injuries among Older Adults in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Orces, Carlos H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence and determinants of fall-related injuries in the previous year among adults aged 60 years or older in Ecuador. Methods. The prevalence of fall-related injuries was estimated using cross-sectional data from the first national survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging study. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between participants' demographic characteristics and fall-related injuries. Results. Of 5,227 participants with a mean age of 72.6 years, 11.4% (95% CI, 10.3%–12.7%) reported a fall-related injury in Ecuador, representing an estimated 136,000 adults aged 60 years or older. Fall-related injuries were more frequently reported among older adults residing in the most urbanized and populated provinces of the country. After controlling for potential confounders, self-reported race as Indigenous (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 2.11–2.31), drinking alcohol regularly (OR 2.54; 95% CI, 2.46–2.63), subjects with greater number of comorbid conditions (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.97–2.08), and urinary incontinence (OR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.79–1.87) were factors independently associated with increased odds of sustaining fall-related injuries. Conclusions. Fall-related injuries represent a considerable burden for older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement fall prevention programs among subjects at higher risk for this type of injury. PMID:25371674

  4. The prevalence of loneliness among adults: a case study of the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Victor, Christina R; Yang, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Within contemporary Western (post) modern societies, loneliness is seen as a problem that is particularly associated with old age. Much less attention has been given to examining variations in loneliness across age groups. We examine patterns of loneliness across adults aged 15 years and older in the United Kingdom using data from the European Social Survey. We first consider the prevalence of loneliness among the adult population; then the relationship between loneliness and a range of key risk factors, and finally the relationship with age for each of our risk factors. Loneliness demonstrates a nonlinear U-shaped distribution, with those aged under 25 years and those aged over 65 years demonstrating the highest levels of loneliness. Depression is associated with loneliness for all age groups. Poor physical health is associated with loneliness in young adult and midlife but not later life. For those in mid and later life, the quality of social engagement is protective against loneliness, while for young adults it is the quantity of social engagement. This indicates that different factors may endow vulnerability (or protect) against loneliness at different stages of life and suggests that preventative strategies or interventions that reflect these variations need to be developed.

  5. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480

  6. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Yoo, Hye Jin; Yoo, Roh Eul; Lim, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Seob; Yoo, Seong Ho

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs.

  7. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Yoo, Hye Jin; Yoo, Roh Eul; Lim, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Seob; Yoo, Seong Ho

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  9. Prevalence of celiac disease in adult patients with refractory functional dyspepsia: Value of routine duodenal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Giangreco, Emiliano; D’agate, Cinzia; Barbera, Carmelo; Puzzo, Lidia; Aprile, Giuseppe; Naso, Pietro; Bonanno, Giacomo; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Nicoletti, Alessandra; Incarbone, Salvatore; Trama, Giuseppe; Russo, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in adult patients referred to an open access gastroenterology clinic in the south of Italy and submitted to esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) for evaluation of refractory functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty six consecutive dyspeptic patients (282 male, 444 female; mean age 39.6 years, range 18-75 years) with unexplained prolonged dyspepsia were prospectively enrolled. Duodenal biopsies were taken and processed by standard staining. Histological evaluation was carried out according to the Marsh-Oberhuber criteria. RESULTS: The endoscopic findings were: normal in 61.2%, peptic lesions in 20.5%, malignancies in 0.5%, miscellaneous in 16.7%. CD was endoscopically diagnosed in 8 patients (1.1%), histologically in 15 patients (2%). The endoscopic features alone showed a sensitivity of 34.8% and specificity of 100%, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPP) of 97.9%. CONCLUSION: This prospective study showed that CD has a high prevalence (1:48) in adult dyspeptic patients and suggests the routine use of duodenal biopsy in this type of patient undergoing EGD. PMID:19058330

  10. Prevalence of alternative forms of tobacco use in a population of young adult military recruits.

    PubMed

    Vander Weg, Mark W; Peterson, Alan L; Ebbert, Jon O; Debon, Margaret; Klesges, Robert C; Haddock, C Keith

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the popularity of certain alternative forms of tobacco may be increasing in adolescents. Little is known, however, about the use of these products among young adults. This study examined the use of alternative tobacco products including bidis, cigars, kreteks (clove cigarettes), pipes, and smokeless tobacco in a large sample of young adult military recruits (N=31107). Overall, 18.5% of participants were using some form of alternative tobacco product prior to entry into Basic Military Training. Results revealed a relatively high prevalence of cigar (12.3%) and smokeless tobacco use (6.7%). Use of other products was less common, including 1.1% for pipes, 2.0% for bidis, and 3.0% for kreteks. With the exception of kreteks, which did not differ by gender, the prevalence of use of alternative tobacco products was greater for males than for females (p<.001). Patterns of use also differed according to other demographic characteristics including race, ethnicity, age, and income. Implications for surveillance and tobacco control efforts are discussed.

  11. Prevalence of alternative forms of tobacco use in a population of young adult military recruits⋆

    PubMed Central

    Vander Weg, Mark W.; Peterson, Alan L.; Ebbert, Jon O.; DeBon, Margaret; Klesges, Robert C.; Haddock, C. Keith

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the popularity of certain alternative forms of tobacco may be increasing in adolescents. Little is known, however, about the use of these products among young adults. This study examined the use of alternative tobacco products including bidis, cigars, kreteks (clove cigarettes), pipes, and smokeless tobacco in a large sample of young adult military recruits (N=31107). Overall, 18.5% of participants were using some form of alternative tobacco product prior to entry into Basic Military Training. Results revealed a relatively high prevalence of cigar (12.3%) and smokeless tobacco use (6.7%). Use of other products was less common, including 1.1% for pipes, 2.0% for bidis, and 3.0% for kreteks. With the exception of kreteks, which did not differ by gender, the prevalence of use of alternative tobacco products was greater for males than for females ( p<.001). Patterns of use also differed according to other demographic characteristics including race, ethnicity, age, and income. Implications for surveillance and tobacco control efforts are discussed. PMID:17706889

  12. Prevalence of mental illness in a rehabilitation unit for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Shah, D; Evans, M; King, D

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was studied in 78 elderly people in a rehabilitation unit for older adults. The patients were assessed using the Evans Liverpool depression rating scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and Mini-Mental State Examination. Twenty-eight (35.9%) patients were found to be depressed, 15 of these also had raised anxiety. Thirty-one (41.0%) patients had significant cognitive impairment and 14 of these had associated depression. Only 33 (42%) had no evidence of either cognitive impairment or mood disorder. On discharge, 20 (25.6%) patients were on antidepressant treatment but only 50% of those had this diagnosis recorded on the discharge summary. Our results showed higher prevalence of depression in this situation compared with the reported prevalence of 20-30% in the acute hospital setting. We recommend that all patients undergoing rehabilitation should be routinely screened for depression as it is common and treatment will improve the overall outcome.


Keywords: depression; elderly; rehabilitation; psychiatric morbidity; screening PMID:10684325

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for work related asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, R D; Bettiol, H; Barbieri, M A; Terra‐Filho, J; Garcia, C A; Vianna, E O

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence and predictors of work related asthma in young adults from the general population. Methods A total of 1922 subjects randomly selected from a birth cohort 1978/79 in Brazil, aged 23–25 years, completed a respiratory symptoms questionnaire based on the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, and underwent spirometry, bronchial challenge test with methacholine, and skin prick test. For subjects presenting with bronchial hyperresponsiveness, workplace exposure and its relationship with symptoms were assessed by a specific questionnaire and individualised job description to define cases of work related asthma. Results The prevalence of work related asthma was 4.2% (81 cases): 1.5% (29 cases) were classified as aggravated asthma and 2.7% (52 cases) as occupational asthma. Work related asthma was associated with atopy and education. Lower educational level (1–8 years of schooling) was associated with work related asthma (odds ratio 7.06, 95% CI 3.25 to 15.33). There was no association between work related asthma and smoking, gender, or symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion The prevalence of work related asthma was high (4.2%), and was associated with low schooling, probably because of low socioeconomic level. The disease may therefore be a consequence of poverty. PMID:16728501

  14. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia.

  15. Constipation: Prevalence and Associated Factors in Adults Living in Londrina, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Fernanda Mateus Queiroz; de Gouveia Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição; de Cássia Domansky, Rita; Neves, José Marcio Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of constipation and identify associated factors among adults living in an urban area in Londrina, Brazil. This was a secondary analysis of an epidemiological, population-based study on bowel habit performed in 2008 with 2,162 individuals selected through cluster sampling. Interviews were administered using a sociodemographic questionnaire and the adapted and validated Brazilian version of the "Bowel Function in the Community" tool. Variables from the original database were used to determine the prevalence of constipation (according to the Rome Criteria III) and associated factors. The chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used for data analysis. The overall prevalence of constipation (14.6%; n = 315) was higher among women than among men (21.9% vs. 5.3%), increased with age among men, and was inversely related to family income. Overall, female gender, low socioeconomic status, history of anal fissure, anorectal surgery, stroke, nervous system disease, fistulae, and hemorrhoids were factors significantly associated with constipation. The variables low social economic status, stroke, anal fissure history, and anorectal surgery were statistically significant in all three tested statistical models. PMID:27258460

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population.

    PubMed

    Albin, Stephanie; Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p < 0.0001), and there were significantly fewer Asians with penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance.

  17. Redrawing the US Obesity Landscape: Bias-Corrected Estimates of State-Specific Adult Obesity Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Zachary J.; Long, Michael W.; Resch, Stephen C.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Cradock, Angie L.; Giles, Catherine; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire

    2016-01-01

    Background State-level estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) underestimate the obesity epidemic because they use self-reported height and weight. We describe a novel bias-correction method and produce corrected state-level estimates of obesity and severe obesity. Methods Using non-parametric statistical matching, we adjusted self-reported data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2013 (n = 386,795) using measured data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 16,924). We validated our national estimates against NHANES and estimated bias-corrected state-specific prevalence of obesity (BMI≥30) and severe obesity (BMI≥35). We compared these results with previous adjustment methods. Results Compared to NHANES, self-reported BRFSS data underestimated national prevalence of obesity by 16% (28.67% vs 34.01%), and severe obesity by 23% (11.03% vs 14.26%). Our method was not significantly different from NHANES for obesity or severe obesity, while previous methods underestimated both. Only four states had a corrected obesity prevalence below 30%, with four exceeding 40%–in contrast, most states were below 30% in CDC maps. Conclusions Twelve million adults with obesity (including 6.7 million with severe obesity) were misclassified by CDC state-level estimates. Previous bias-correction methods also resulted in underestimates. Accurate state-level estimates are necessary to plan for resources to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:26954566

  18. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Yap, Roseline Wai Kuan; Loy, See Ling; Norris, Shane A; Biesma, Regien; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine trends in overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among Malaysian adults, and to identify its underlying determinants. A review of studies published between 2000 and 2012 on overweight, obesity, and T2DM was conducted. The Cochrane library of systematic reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, Scopus, and MyJurnal digital database were searched. According to national studies, the prevalence of overweight increased from 26.7% in 2003 to 29.4% in 2011; obesity prevalence increased from 12.2% in 2003 to 15.1% in 2011, and T2DM prevalence was reported as 11.6% in 2006 and 15.2% in 2011. Distal determinants of increased risk of overweight, obesity, and T2DM were as follows: female, Malay/Indian ethnicity, and low educational level. The limited number of studies on proximal determinants of these noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) indicated that an unhealthy diet was associated with increased risk, whereas smoking was associated with decreased risk. However, more studies on the proximal determinants of overweight, obesity, and T2DM within the Malaysian context are needed. Overall, our findings provide insights for designing both future investigative studies and strategies to control and prevent these NCDs in Malaysia. PMID:25524952

  20. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Neisha M.; Romero, Angel. F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of refractive conditions in the adult population that visited primary care optometry clinics in Puerto Rico. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients examined at the Inter American University of Puerto Rico School of Optometry Eye Institute Clinics between 2004 and 2010. Subjects considered had best corrected visual acuity by standardized subjective refraction of 20/40 or better. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE): sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia was classified as a SE>−0.50 D, hyperopia as a SE>+0.50  D, and emmetropia as a SE between −0.50 and +0.50, both included. Astigmatism equal or higher than 0.25 D in minus cylinder form was used. Patients with documented history of cataract extraction (pseudophakia or aphakia), amblyopia, refractive surgery or other corneal/ocular surgery were excluded from the study. Results A total of 784 randomly selected subjects older than 40 years of age were selected. The estimated prevalence (95%, confidence interval) among all subjects was hyperopia 51.5% (48.0–55.0), emmetropia 33.8% (30.5–37.2), myopia 14.7% (12.1–17.2) and astigmatism 69.6% (68.8–73.3). Hyperopia was more common in females than males although the difference was not statistically significant. The mean spherical equivalent values was hyperopic until 70 y/o and decreased slightly as the population ages. Conclusion Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population. PMID:25000872

  1. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Weight Loss Practice among Beijing Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li; Han, Xiaoyan; Qi, Zhi; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu; Liu, Aiping

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to determine the up-to-date prevalence of overweight and obesity, the distributions of body weight perception and weight loss practice in Beijing adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. A total of 2563 men and 4088 women aged 18–79 years from the general population were included. Data were obtained from questionnaire and physical examination. Results The prevalence of overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI≥28 kg/m2) was 42.1% and 20.3% in men and 35.6% and 17.1% in women, respectively. Age was inversely associated with overweight in both sexes, and obesity in women. Education level was negatively associated with overweight and obesity in women but not in men. Only 49.1% men and 58.3% women had a correct perception of their body weight. Underestimation of body weight was more common than overestimation, especially in men, the older people, and those with low education level. The percentage of taking action to lose weight was inversely associated with men and old age, and positively associated with higher education level, higher BMI, and self-perception as “fat” (OR = 3.78 in men, OR = 2.91 in women). Only 26.1% of overweight/obese individuals took action to lose weight. The top two weight loss practices were to reduce the amount of food intake and exercise. Conclusion Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent with high incorrect body weight perceptions in the general adult population in Beijing. Weight loss practice was poor in overweight and obese individuals. Actions at multiple levels are needed to slow or control this overweight and obesity epidemic. PMID:25225884

  2. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with leisure time physical activity among Peruvian adults

    PubMed Central

    Gelaye, Bizu; Tafur, Luis Revilla; Lopez, Tania; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Previous studies have suggested an inverse relationship between physical activity and MetS. However, these findings were inconsistent; and few investigators have examined these associations among South Americans. We estimated the prevalence of MetS and its association with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) among Peruvian adults. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study of 1,675 individuals (619 men and 1056 women) was conducted among residents in Lima and Callao, Peru. Information about LTPA, socio-demographic, and other lifestyle characteristics were collected by interview. The presence of MetS was defined using the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Results Overall, the prevalence of MetS was 26.9% and was more common among women (29.9%) than men (21.6%). Habitual participation in LTPA was associated with a 23% reduced risk of MetS (OR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.60–1.03). There was an inverse trend of MetS risk with amount of LTPA (p=0.016). Compared with non-exercisers, those who exercised < 150 minutes/week had a 21% reduced risk of MetS (AOR= 0.79; 95% CI 0.60–1.04). Individuals who exercised ≥ 150 minutes/week, compared with non-exercisers, had a 42% reduced risk of MetS (AOR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.36–0.93). Associations of similar magnitudes were observed when men and women were studied separately. Conclusion These data document a high prevalence of MetS and suggest an association with LTPA among urban dwelling Peruvians. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observations and to examine interventions that may promote increased physical activity in this population. PMID:19563445

  3. Prevalence of Alcohol Dependence Among US Adult Drinkers, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Marissa B.; Hedden, Sarra L.; Brewer, Robert D.; Gfroerer, Joseph C.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost the United States $223.5 billion in 2006. It is often assumed that most excessive drinkers are alcohol dependent. However, few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol dependence among excessive drinkers. The objective of this study was to update prior estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers. Methods Data were analyzed from the 138,100 adults who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2009, 2010, or 2011. Drinking patterns (ie, past-year drinking, excessive drinking, and binge drinking) were assessed by sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol dependence (assessed through self-reported survey responses and defined as meeting ≥3 of 7 criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Results Excessive drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence were most common among men and those aged 18 to 24. Binge drinking was most common among those with annual family incomes of $75,000 or more, whereas alcohol dependence was most common among those with annual family incomes of less than $25,000. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 10.2% among excessive drinkers, 10.5% among binge drinkers, and 1.3% among non-binge drinkers. A positive relationship was found between alcohol dependence and binge drinking frequency. Conclusion Most excessive drinkers (90%) did not meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. A comprehensive approach to reducing excessive drinking that emphasizes evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services could have an impact on reducing excessive drinking in addition to focusing on the implementation of addiction treatment services. PMID:25412029

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of opioid use in the US adult population.

    PubMed

    Parsells Kelly, Judith; Cook, Suzanne F; Kaufman, David W; Anderson, Theresa; Rosenberg, Lynn; Mitchell, Allen A

    2008-09-15

    This report describes the prevalence of opioid use in the US adult population, overall and in subgroups, the characteristics of opioid use, and concomitant medication use among opioid users. Data were obtained from the Slone Survey, a population-based random-digit dialing survey. One household member was randomly selected to answer a series of questions regarding all medications taken during the previous week. There were 19,150 subjects aged > or = 18 interviewed from 1998 to 2006. Opioids were used 'regularly' ( > or = 5 days per week for > or = 4 weeks) by 2.0%; an additional 2.9% used opioids less frequently. Regular opioid use increased with age, decreased with education level, and was more common in females and in non-Hispanic whites. The prevalence of regular opioid use increased over time and was highest in the South Central region. Nearly one-fifth of regular users had been taking opioids for > or = 5 years. Concomitant use of > or = 10 non-opioid medications was reported by 21% of regular opioid users compared to 4.5% of subjects who did not use opioids. Regular opioid users were more likely to use stool softeners/laxatives (9% vs. 2%), proton pump inhibitors (25% vs. 8%), and antidepressants (35% vs. 10%). From this nationally-representative telephone survey, we estimate that over 4.3 million US adults are taking opioids regularly in any given week. Information on the prevalence and characteristics of use is important as opioids are one of the most widely prescribed classes of drugs in the US.

  5. Prevalence, Associated Factors and Predictors of Depression among Adults in the Community of Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kader Maideen, Siti Fatimah; Mohd. Sidik, Sherina; Rampal, Lekhraj; Mukhtar, Firdaus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders and is an emerging public health problem. The objectives of this paper were to determine the prevalence of depression, its associated factors and the predictors of depression among adults in the community of Selangor. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in three districts in Selangor, from 11th June to 30th December 2012. The sampling frame was obtained from the Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOS) in May 2012, using the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Adults aged 18 years and above, living in the selected living quarters were approached to participate in the study and requested to complete a set of questionnaires. Results A total of 1,556 out of 2,152 participants participated in this study, giving an overall study response rate of 61.90%. Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence of depression. The prevalence of depression was 10.3%, based on the PHQ-9 cut off point of 10 and above. Based on multiple logistic regression analysis, the predictors of depression were presence of anxiety, serious problems at work, unhappy relationship with children, high perceived stress, domestic violence, unhappy relationship with spouse, low self-esteem, unhappy relationship with family, serious financial constraint and presence of chronic diseases. When reanalyzed after removing anxiety, high perceived stress and low self-esteem, additional predictors of depression were found to be serious marital problems and religiosity. Conclusion The prevalence of depression in this study is similar to that found in other studies. Findings from this study are being used as baseline data to develop an effective program to assist in the management of common mental health disorders in the community, in particular depression. The identification of predictors of depression in the community is important to identify the target population for the program. PMID:24755607

  6. Prevalence of tension-type headache in adult general population: the PACE study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Camarda, C; Taga, A; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

    2013-05-01

    The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE (PArma CEfalea, or "Headache in Parma"), aimed at detecting the prevalence and clinical features of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9), namely 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3). Our study results indicate a TTH prevalence rate (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges currently available for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear much different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %).

  7. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Rural Nepal: A Community Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Manandhar, K

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a major health problem throughout the world and is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. It is important to detect and manage prehypertension and hypertension to reduce the risk of correlated complications especially cardiovascular diseases. Objective The objective of the study was to find the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension among the adults in rural Nepal. Method A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 648 respondents. The information was obtained using pre-tested questionnaire which included demographic information of individuals and other risk factors like alcohol and tobacco use, physical activity and diet preference. Height, weight and blood pressure were recorded and hypertension was defined as per Joint National Committee (JNC) VII guidelines. Result The overall prevalence of hypertension was 20.5 % and pre-hypertension was 46.6%. The males had higher prevalence of hypertension (30.6%) compared to females (13.8%). Bivariate analysis showed male gender, smoking and non vegetarian diet have association with hypertension. Male gender [OR 2.50 (1.68 - 3.74)] and non vegetarian diet [OR 0.11 (0.01 - 0.85)] were found to be significantly associated with hypertension in multivariate analysis. Conclusion The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was high in the study population. In absence of life style modification and risk reduction the individuals categorized as prehypertension have great risk of developing hypertension in the future which may pose a great challenge in the future. Hence, there is a big scope for screening and primary prevention strategies to curb the epidemic of hypertension. PMID:27423286

  8. The prevalence and incidence of end-stage renal disease in Native American adults on the Navajo reservation.

    PubMed

    Hochman, M E; Watt, J P; Reid, R; O'Brien, K L

    2007-05-01

    Whereas members of the Navajo Nation are at high risk for diabetes mellitus, there are no recent published estimates of the burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), an important sequela of diabetes, on the Navajo Nation, a 16 million acre area in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah with more than 200 000 tribal members. We used data from the US Renal Data System to estimate the prevalence and incidence of ESRD among Native American adults (>/=18 years) living on the Navajo Nation. For comparison, we estimated the prevalence and incidence of ESRD among all adults in the US, all Native American adults in the US, and Native American adults living in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado excluding those living on the Navajo Nation. The age-adjusted prevalence of ESRD in the Native American adults on the Navajo Nation was 0.63%, which was higher than in the US adults (0.19%, P<0.0001) and among the Native American adults in the US (0.36%, P<0.0001), but lower than among the other Native American adults in the Southwest (0.89%, P<0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence of ESRD in the Native American adults on the Navajo Nation was 0.11%, which was also higher than in the US adults (0.045%, P<0.0001) and among the Native American adults in the US (0.073%, P<0.0009), but lower than among the other Native American adults in the Southwest (0.17%, P<0.0003). The reasons behind these disparities merit further study. PMID:17332739

  9. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Van Rompay, Maria I; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; McKeown, Nicola M; Ordovás, José M; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-10-01

    There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of American Diabetes Association (ADA) treatment goals in those with T2D. Baseline data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study were analyzed, which included 1,287 adults aged 45-75 years. Obesity, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia were prevalent and increased from NFG to IFG and T2D. In individuals without T2D, fasting insulin correlated significantly with body mass index. Achievement of ADA goals was poor; LDL cholesterol was most achieved (59.4%), followed by blood pressure (27.2%) and glycosylated hemoglobin (27.0%). Poverty, female sex, current alcohol use, and diabetes or anti-hypertensive medication use were associated with not meeting goals. Puerto Rican adults living in the Boston area showed several metabolic abnormalities and high CVD risk, likely due to pervasive obesity and socio-economic disparities.

  10. Ideal Cardiovascular Health and the Prevalence and Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Alman, Amy C.; Maahs, David M.; Rewers, Marian J.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In 2010, the American Heart Association defined seven metrics (smoking, BMI, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) for ideal cardiovascular health (ICH). Subsequent studies have shown that the prevalence of achieving these metrics is very low in the general population. Adults with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but no studies to date have been published on the prevalence of ICH in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data for this analysis were collected as part of the prospective Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study. This analysis involved 546 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 631 subjects without diabetes who had complete information for calculating the ICH metrics. RESULTS Overall, the prevalence of ICH was low in this population, with none meeting the ideal criteria for all seven metrics. The prevalence of ideal physical activity (10.0%) and diet (1.1%) were particularly low. ICH was significantly associated with both decreased prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.70; 95% CI 0.62–0.80) and progression (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66–0.90) of coronary artery calcification (CAC). CONCLUSIONS ICH is significantly associated with decreased prevalence and progression of CAC; however, prevalence of ICH metrics was low in adults both with and without type 1 diabetes. Efforts to increase the prevalence of ICH could have a significant impact on reducing the burden of CVD. PMID:24130360

  11. The prevalence and characteristics of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and its relation with chronic complications in a clinical department of a university hospital in Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Mi-Oh; Jung, Chan-Hee; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Mok, Ji-Oh; Kim, Chul-Hee

    2013-04-01

    Few studies were performed to evaluate the prevalence of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and the difference of chronic complications between LADA, T1DM, and T2DM in Korean. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of LADA in a diabetic clinic of Soonchunhyang University hospital and to compare the phenotypic characteristics according to DM classification based on positivity of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA). Also, another important point concerns the occurrence of diabetes chronic microvascular complications in LADA. 323 patients who were checked GADA among diabetic patients admitted at Soonchunhyang University hospital were recruited. Twenty-eight patients (8.7%) were identified as positive for GADA. 11.5% (n = 37) were diagnosed with T1DM and 5.3% (n = 17) were diagnosed with LADA. GADA titer showed significant negative correlation with age of onset, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), fasting C-peptide, stimulated C-peptide, BMI, and positive correlation with HbA1C and HDL-C. Compared with those that tested negative for GADA, patients with GADA positive had lower values of onset age, BMI, TC, TG, LDL-C, fasting, and stimulated C-peptide levels and higher values of HbA1C. A significant gradual increase of values was observed for the onset age, BMI, SBP, DBP, fasting, and stimulated C-peptide across the T1DM, LADA, and T2DM subgroups. Concerning the chronic complications there was no difference in prevalence of retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy between three groups. Of LADA patients, 12 patients were receiving insulin treatment and mean time to insulin initiation was about 37 months. In conclusion, because our study suggests LADA subgroups in Korea appear to have a faster decline in C-peptide levels, it is worth detecting the patients with LADA early and effort to preserve beta cell function. Furthermore, our results showed that the prevalence of microvascular complication was comparable between the

  12. Optic nerve sheath diameter threshold by ocular ultrasonography for detection of increased intracranial pressure in Korean adult patients with brain lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Un; Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Lee, Hannah; Han, Jung Ho; Seo, Mingu; Byoun, Hyoung Soo; Cho, Won-Sang; Ryu, Ho Geol; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Heung Cheol; Jang, Kyung-Sool

    2016-01-01

    Korean adult patients. PMID:27741121

  13. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  14. Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions This large population-based, nationally representative cross-sectional study has confirmed findings from high income countries showing high prevalence of asthma in men in a number of occupational categories and subcategories; however, with no evidence of increased risks for women in the same occupations. PMID:24712498

  15. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Obesity among Panamanian Adults. 1982–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Morris; Lee, Marcos; Jan, Carmen; Fontes, Flavia; Motta, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Background In Central America, there has been a marked increase in obesity in the last 30 years. Over this time frame, in Panama, there have been lifestyle changes associated with economic development and urbanization that may have facilitated increases in body weight. The aim of the study is to describe the change in the prevalence of obesity in the country since 1982 and to analyze the association of obesity with gender, place of residence and socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed three nationally representative cross-sectional studies and one sub-national study of Panamanian adults that evaluated anthropometric and socioeconomic variables; ENPA-1982 (n = 11 611), ENV-II 2003 (n = 14 737), ENV-III 2008 (n = 15 484), PREFREC-2010 (n  = 3 590). We also evaluated one nationally representative study that evaluated people’s perception of their body weight, ENSCAVI-2007 (n = 25 748). Results In 1982, the prevalence in males of a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2 was 3.8% (3.3 – 4.2) and in females 7.6% (6.9 – 8.2). In 2003, the prevalence in males increased to 14.4% (13.6 – 15.2) and in females to 21.8% (20.8 – 22.7). In 2008, the prevalence in males was 16.9% (16.0 – 17.7) and in females it was 23.8% (22.8 – 24.7). Nevertheless, in 2007, the national perception of being obese was only 4% among males and 6.7% among females. The highest prevalence of obesity was noted in urban areas. Female gender and higher income were found to be positively associated with obesity. Income level was positively associated with abdominal obesity in men but not in women. Conclusions There has been a marked increase of obesity in Panama in the last 3 decades. Initiatives to control this problem will have to take into consideration the observed gender difference and the lifestyle changes that have contributed to the rise of this problem. PMID:24621825

  16. Prevalence of complex activity limitations among racial/ethnic groups and Hispanic subgroups of adults: United States, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Schiller, Jeannine S

    2011-09-01

    This brief has shown that racial and ethnic differences exist in the prevalence of complex activity limitations among adults. Further, within the U.S. Hispanic adult population, a number of significant differences were found in complex activity limitations among Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, and other Hispanic adults—differences that would likely go unnoticed if the Hispanic population were treated as a single group. These disparities in the prevalence of complex activity limitations are further influenced by sex and age.

  17. Hydroxyurea is associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria in adults with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Laurin, Louis-Philippe; Nachman, Patrick H.; Desai, Payal C.; Ataga, Kenneth I.; Derebail, Vimal K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Albuminuria is an early manifestation of sickle cell nephropathy. Prior small case series suggests benefit of hydroxyurea in reducing albuminuria, with a similar trend noted in pediatric studies. We aimed to comprehensively evaluate hydroxyurea use and prevalence of albuminuria in adult sickle cell patients. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 149 adult patients followed between 2000 and 2011 in a comprehensive sickle cell clinic. All patients were assessed for albuminuria either by direct measurement or by urinary chemical strip (dipstick) testing. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACRs) were available for 112 patients. Hydroxyurea exposure was defined as ≥3 months of therapy before the assessment of albuminuria. Albuminuria was defined as either UACR ≥30 mg/g or ≥1+ proteinuria on two separate dipsticks. We constructed a multivariate logistic regression model to assess the association between hydroxyurea and albuminuria. Results The prevalence of albuminuria was lower among patients on hydroxyurea (34.7 versus 55.4%; P = 0.01) as was median albumin excretion (17.9 versus 40.5 mg/g; P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, hydroxyurea was associated with a lower likelihood of albuminuria (odds ratio 0.28, 95% CI: 0.11–0.75, P = 0.01), adjusting for age, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use, tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity, hypertension and acute chest syndrome. Conclusions In our population of sickle cell patients, those using hydroxyurea were less than one-third as likely to exhibit albuminuria. Hydroxyurea use may prevent development of overt nephropathy or the progression of sickle cell disease nephropathy to end-stage renal disease, and its use for this indication merits further investigation. PMID:24084325

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of misreporting of energy intake in US adults: NHANES 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2015-10-28

    Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2012, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under-reporting and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among 19 693 US adults ≥20 years of age. For the assessment of EI, two 24-h dietary recalls were conducted using the US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Under-reporters, acceptable reporters and over-reporters of EI were identified by two methods based on the 95 % confidence limits: (1) for agreement between the ratio of EI to BMR and a physical activity level for sedentary lifestyle (1·55) and (2) of the expected ratio of EI to estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1·0. BMR was calculated using Schofield's equations. EER was calculated using equations from the US Dietary Reference Intakes, assuming 'low active' level of physical activity. The risk of being an under-reporter or over-reporter compared with an acceptable reporter was analysed using multiple logistic regression. Percentages of under-reporters, acceptable reporters and over-reporters were 25·1, 73·5 and 1·4 %, respectively, based on EI:BMR, and 25·7, 71·8 and 2·5 %, respectively, based on EI:EER. Under-reporting was associated with female sex, older age, non-Hispanic blacks (compared with non-Hispanic whites), lower education, lower family poverty income ratio and overweight and obesity. Over-reporting was associated with male sex, younger age, lower family poverty income ratio, current smoking (compared with never smoking) and underweight. Similar findings were obtained when analysing only the first 24-h recall data from NHANES 1999-2012 (n 28 794). In conclusion, we found that misreporting of EI, particularly under-reporting, remains prevalent and differential in US adults. PMID:26299892

  19. [Etiology and prevalence of chronic pain in adults: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    Latina, Roberto; Sansoni, Julita; D'Angelo, Daniela; Di Biagio, Ettore; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Tarsitani, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    The chronic nonmalignant pain is an underestimated epidemiologic health problem. It is a disease in its own right. It is one of the major reasons because patients use health service. The magnitude of chronic pain is in terms of human suffering and costs to society. The aim of this review is to identify the diagnosis and the prevalence of nonmalignant chronic pain in the adults. We have done a review of the literature from 1998 to 2012 using the virtual newspaper libraries starting from data bases (Pub-Med, CINAHL, Cochrane). We have made a narrative review of the articles obtained. Excluding topics of headache, pain for pediatric and geriatric groups, cancer pain and disease-specific items. Studies were classified for year, author sample, methods, age groups and definition of pain. We have obtained 7 articles. These epidemiological studies conducted in different part of the world, reported prevalence rates of chronic pain ranging from 16-53%. They shows a high heterogeneity of results concerning diagnosis and methods. Although limited the number of articles, show the high complexity of the phenomenon. PMID:24083495

  20. Prevalence of hypertension in a sample of Black American adults using JNC 7 classifications.

    PubMed

    Brown, Debra J; Metiko, Esther B

    2005-12-01

    High blood pressure is a major health problem, particularly among Black Americans, and many Black Americans are unaware that they have the disease. In 2003, new guidelines (JNC 7) were created for classifying blood pressure including a category designated as "pre-hypertension." We examined the prevalence of hypertension based on JNC 7 guidelines in Black Americans from the study of Everyday Life for Black American Adults: Stress, Emotional and Cardiovascular Responses. In this study, 211 (N = 211) participants had no history of hypertension and were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. Demographic factors were also explored in relationship to the JNC 7 classifications. Using JNC 7, only 28.9% of the participants had normal blood pressures. Of those with abnormal blood pressures, 37.8% were pre-hypertensive. Surprisingly, there was a high prevalence of hypertension, which might be explained by a lack of awareness of their disease status, lack of desire to acknowledge it, or fear of having a disease. The pre-hypertension category allows for earlier identification of those at risk for developing hypertension so that early interventions can deter its debilitating effects. PMID:16570640

  1. [Etiology and prevalence of chronic pain in adults: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    Latina, Roberto; Sansoni, Julita; D'Angelo, Daniela; Di Biagio, Ettore; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Tarsitani, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    The chronic nonmalignant pain is an underestimated epidemiologic health problem. It is a disease in its own right. It is one of the major reasons because patients use health service. The magnitude of chronic pain is in terms of human suffering and costs to society. The aim of this review is to identify the diagnosis and the prevalence of nonmalignant chronic pain in the adults. We have done a review of the literature from 1998 to 2012 using the virtual newspaper libraries starting from data bases (Pub-Med, CINAHL, Cochrane). We have made a narrative review of the articles obtained. Excluding topics of headache, pain for pediatric and geriatric groups, cancer pain and disease-specific items. Studies were classified for year, author sample, methods, age groups and definition of pain. We have obtained 7 articles. These epidemiological studies conducted in different part of the world, reported prevalence rates of chronic pain ranging from 16-53%. They shows a high heterogeneity of results concerning diagnosis and methods. Although limited the number of articles, show the high complexity of the phenomenon.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p < 0.0001), and there were significantly fewer Asians with penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance. PMID:25584917

  4. Prevalence of obesity and its associated risk factors among Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Wai Fong; Masyita, Mamot; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Boo, Nem Yun; Zin, Thaw; Choo, Kong Bung; Yap, Sook Fan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor associated with most chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity, and its associated risk factors, among apparently healthy Chinese adults in a Malaysian suburban village. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the Chinese residents in Seri Kembangan New Village, Klang Valley, Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling was used for the selection of participants. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting venous plasma was drawn for the measurement of fasting glucose level and lipid profile. Data on sociodemographic factors, dietary habits, physical activity, perceived stress level and sleep duration were collected using interviewer-administered, pretested and validated questionnaires. RESULTS Among the 258 Chinese residents (mean age 41.4 ± 10.0 years) recruited, the prevalence of obesity was 40%. The obese participants had significantly higher mean blood pressure, and triglyceride and fasting plasma glucose levels than the non-obese participants (p < 0.05). The obese participants also had a significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than the non-obese participants. Logistic regression analysis showed that drinking soy milk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.447; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.253–0.787; p < 0.05) and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables (adjusted OR 0.440; 95% CI 0.215–0.900; p < 0.05) were associated with a reduced risk of obesity. The risk of obesity was higher in younger participants (adjusted OR 2.714; 95% CI 1.225–6.011; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION The prevalence of obesity was high among the apparently healthy suburban Chinese. Our findings suggest that soy milk consumption and the perception that a balanced diet consists mainly of vegetables are associated with a lower risk of developing obesity in this population. PMID:24570317

  5. Concomitant dietary supplement and prescription medication use is prevalent among US adults with doctor-informed medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Farina, Emily K; Austin, Krista G; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-11-01

    Information on patterns of concomitant dietary supplement (DS) and prescription medication (PM) use among US adults is limited. Thus, the prevalence of concomitant DS and PM use as a function of doctor-informed medical conditions (DIMC) was determined in a cross-sectional, observational study of a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized, civilian adults aged ≥20 years in the United States (N=9,950) from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Data were weighted for the complex, multistage, probability sampling design. Approximately one third (34.3%) of all US adults reported concomitant DS and PM use (approximately one in three adults). The prevalence of use was significantly higher among those with vs without a DIMC (47.3% vs 17.3%). Adults with a DIMC were more than two and a half times more likely to concomitantly use DS and PM than adults without a DIMC, after adjustment for sex, age, education, and household income. Multivitamin plus other ingredient(s), followed by antacids and multivitamin plus botanical ingredient(s), were the most prevalent DS categories used with a PM among those with and without a DIMC. The most prevalent PM categories used with a DS were cardiovascular agents (among those with a DIMC) and hormones (among those without a DIMC). These findings demonstrate that presence of a DIMC may be a risk factor for concomitant DS and PM use among US adults. Multivitamins containing nonvitamin or mineral ingredients are more commonly used than standard multivitamins with PM by US adults. This may be an emerging trend that warrants further consideration.

  6. Concept analysis of coping with arthritic pain by South Korean older adults: development of a hybrid model.

    PubMed

    Seomun, Gyeong-Ae; Chang, Sung Ok; Lee, Pyoung Sook; Lee, Sook Ja; Shin, Hyun Jeong

    2006-03-01

    This study was conducted to clarify and conceptualize the phenomenon of coping with arthritic pain by older adults. The Hybrid Model of concept development was applied to develop a conceptual structure of coping with arthritic pain by older adults. A refined definition of coping with arthritic pain by older adults emerged that identified the attributes and structure of the concept. This study reveals the characteristics of the ways that older adults cope with arthritic pain, such as how they experience themselves, how pain affects their daily life, and how they perceive the meaning of coping with arthritic pain. These characteristics indicate the complexity of the concept regarding the coping of older adults with arthritic pain. This area needs to be clarified when nursing staff assess coping with pain and plan pain management for older adults.

  7. Preservation of a traditional Korean dietary pattern and emergence of a fruit and dairy dietary pattern among adults in South Korea: secular transitions in dietary patterns of a prospective study from 1998 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, Sang Yeun; Wang, Youfa; Lee, Sun Ju; Oh, Kyungwon; Sohn, Chun Young; Moon, Young Myoung; Jee, Sun Ha

    2014-09-01

    Transitions in nutrition patterns tend to emerge through industrialization and economic development. We hypothesized that the dietary patterns among South Korean adults who were 20 years or older have changed significantly from 1998 to 2010. Herein, a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data was followed for 140601 adults. We noted changes in consumption, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and exercise, and tested the trends across the study period. Factor and cluster analyses were used to derive dietary patterns. A decrease in traditional Korean food consumption, including cereals, vegetables (252-176 g), and Kimchi (127-82 g), occurred, whereas fruit (172-252 g), egg, and fried food intakes increased (P < .05). Total daily energy intake declined steadily from 1931 in 1998 to 1691 kcal in 2010. Carbohydrate intakes were unchanged over the study period; however, fat-derived energy intake increased slightly from 19.7% to 20.0% (P < .05). Our factor and cluster analyses identified 3 dietary patterns: "Korean" diet (rice, vegetables, and Kimchi), "Western" diet (soda, eggs, and oil), and "New" diet (low sugar and high fruit and dairy product intakes). Compared to 1998, approximately 40% of participants still followed a Korean diet in 2010. Interestingly, the popularity of the Western diet fell by approximately 20%, whereas the new diet pattern increased 2-fold over the study period. Overall, these data show secular trends in dietary patterns that included a preservation of the traditional Korean diet and the emergence of a new diet pattern, and it demonstrated a unique transition in food and nutrient intakes in Korea.

  8. Prevalence of human norovirus and Clostridium difficile coinfections in adult hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Stokely, Janelle N; Niendorf, Sandra; Taube, Stefan; Hoehne, Marina; Young, Vincent B; Rogers, Mary AM; Wobus, Christiane E

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human norovirus (HuNoV) and Clostridium difficile are common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in adults in the US. However, limited information is available regarding HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections among adult patients in a hospital setting and disease symptomatology. Study design and setting For a cross-sectional analysis, 384 fecal samples were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxins from patients (n=290), whom the provider suspected of C. difficile infections. Subsequent testing was then performed for HuNoV genogroups I and II. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to determine symptoms more frequently associated with coinfections. Results The final cohort consisted of the following outcome groups: C. difficile (n=196), C. difficile + HuNoV coinfection (n=40), HuNoV only (n=12), and neither (n=136). Coinfected patients were more likely to develop nausea, gas, and abdominal pain and were more likely to seek treatment in the winter season compared with individuals not infected or infected with either pathogen alone. Conclusion Our study revealed that patients with coinfection are more likely to experience certain gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular abdominal pain, suggesting an increased severity of disease symptomatology in coinfected patients. PMID:27418856

  9. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction.

    PubMed

    Truskaite, Kotryna; Dlugosz, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17-96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI.

  10. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction

    PubMed Central

    Truskaite, Kotryna

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17–96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI. PMID:27547221

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population. PMID:27266400

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Exchange Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Emilio; Salazar, Marissa; Monjaras, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines prevalence and correlates of exchanging sex for drugs, money, food shelter, or other favors (sex exchange) among a nationally representative sample of youth and young adults. Adolescents and young adults (n = 11,620, 53% female, 47% male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used for the current sample. Participants completed in-home interviews at both waves. Results revealed that sex exchange was reported by 4.9% (n = 569) of the population in wave 2 or wave 3, and 4.6% (n = 26) of those who exchanged sex did so at both waves. More males reported exchanging sex than females (n = 332 versus n = 237). Respondents who reported child sexual abuse were more likely to exchange sex (95% CI 2.51-4.28, p < .05) than respondents who reported any other form of child abuse. Both males and females who engaged in sex exchange were at greater risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, the odds of ever exchanging sex were highest among males who ever had gonorrhea (OR = 6.2; 95% CI 3.75-10.3). Although sex exchange has been studied extensively among homeless and runaway youth, the current study reveals sex exchange also occurs in the general population.

  13. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Thomas; McClendon, McKee J; Wallendal, Maggie S; Hyde, Trevor F; Larsen, Janet D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning. PMID:26317004

  14. Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Adults with Esophageal Food Bolus Impaction.

    PubMed

    Truskaite, Kotryna; Dlugosz, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Background. The relation of esophageal food bolus impaction (FBI) to eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of EoE and LyE among adults with FBI. Methods. In this retrospective study we analyzed data from all patients referred for gastroscopy during the past 5 years, because of a present or recent episode of FBI. Results. We found 238 patients with FBI (median age 51 (17-96), 71% males). Endoscopic therapy was required in 143 patients. Esophageal biopsies were obtained in 185 (78%) patients. All biopsies were assessed for numbers of eosinophils and lymphocytes. EoE was found in 18% of patients who underwent biopsy. We found 41 patients (22%) who fulfilled the criteria for both EoE and LyE (EoE/LyE). LyE was found in the 9% of patients with FBI. EoE together with EoE/LyE was the leading cause of FBI in patients ≤50 years (64%). GERD was the leading cause of FBI among patients older than 50 years (42%). Conclusions. Our study showed that EoE was the leading cause of FBI in particular among young adults. Our study highlights the need for esophageal biopsies in any patient with FBI. PMID:27547221

  15. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Jingyu; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jiaming; Ma, Jiaolong; Guo, Heng; Yan, Yizhong; He, Jia; Wang, Kui; Li, Shugang; Ma, Rulin; Murat, Bek; Guo, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. Methods: The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old), and was conducted during 2009–2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4) and (80.9 ± 13.4) mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p < 0.05), while the SBP and DBP of Uyghur subjects were significantly low (Kazakh: (128.7 ± 23.9) and (83.0 ± 14.6) mmHg, Uyghur: (123.6 ± 19.3) and (77.4 ± 12.7) mmHg, Han: (126.5 ± 20.5) and (82.6 ± 11.9) mmHg, p < 0.05). Prevalence of hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p < 0.05). The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p < 0.05, p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Gender (OR = 1.324), age (OR = 2.098, 3.681, 6.794, 9.473, 14.646), nationality (OR = 1.541), occupation (OR = 1.659, 1.576), education (OR = 1.260), BMI (OR = 1.842), WC (OR = 1.585), WHR (OR = 1.188), WHR (OR = 1.188), diabetes (OR = 1.879), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.361), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.131) and high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR = 1.956) were all positively correlated with hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.765) was negatively correlated with hypertension. Conclusions

  16. Perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang

    2011-03-01

    Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.

  17. Comparison of HPV prevalence between HPV-vaccinated and non-vaccinated young adult women (20-26 years).

    PubMed

    Guo, Fangjian; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Berenson, Abbey B

    2015-01-01

    There is some concern about the effectiveness of the HPV vaccine among young adult women due to the risk of prior HPV infection. This study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012 data to evaluate the effectiveness of HPV vaccination among women 20-26 years of age who were vaccinated after 12 years of age. This cross-sectional study examined 878 young adult women (20-26 years) with complete information on HPV prevalence and HPV vaccination status from NHANES 2007-2012. Vaginal swab specimens were analyzed for HPV DNA by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviors were used to compare type-specific HPV prevalence between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. A total of 21.4% of young adult women surveyed through NHANES between 2007 and 2012 received the HPV vaccine. Vaccinated women had a lower prevalence of vaccine types than unvaccinated women (7.4% vs 17.1%, prevalence ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.88). The prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types was higher among vaccinated women than unvaccinated women (52.1% vs 40.4%, prevalence ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.57), but this difference was attenuated after adjusting for sexual behavior variables (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.43). HPV vaccination was effective against all 4 vaccine types in young women vaccinated after age 12. However, vaccinated women had a higher prevalence of high-risk nonvaccine types, suggesting that they may benefit from newer vaccines covering additional types.

  18. Vitamin D Intake and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Adults: Analysis of the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3) Using a Newly Established Vitamin D Database

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyoungok; Cho, Jinah; Ly, Sunyung

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is important for maintaining bone health and may prevent various diseases (i.e., cardiovascular disease and cancer). The aim of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes of Korean adults using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2009) data and a newly established vitamin D database. KNHANES (2009) participants (n = 4541; 2021 men; 2520 women) aged ≥20 years were included. Dietary vitamin D intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and the relationship between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D were evaluated. In men and women, vitamin D intakes were 4.00 ± 0.17 µg/day and 2.6 ± 0.1 µg/day respectively, and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 19.78 ± 0.33 ng/mL and 17.10 ± 0.26 ng/mL respectively. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of men aged <50 years and women aged >20 years were under 20 ng/mL. After adjusting for confounding factors, the positive relationship between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D was observed in total subjects (p < 0.05), excluding participants ≥50 years old. The main food sources for vitamin D among Korean adults were fish/shellfish (71.34%) and egg (14.89%). Korean adults should increase their serum 25(OH)D concentrations by increasing vitamin D intake. PMID:27690097

  19. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Malaza, Abraham; Mossong, Joel; Bärnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART) coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI) than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2), p<0.001). The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 30.2-32.4) was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7), whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively) was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001). In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8) and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5) kg/m(2) lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6) and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9) kg/m(2) lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48) than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92) and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30) was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06). Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  20. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability, 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Jason; Luckasson, Ruth; Keefe, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Research regarding the prevalence of psychiatric conditions co-occurring with intellectual disability in adults was reviewed. Particular attention was paid to the qualities of sampling and diagnostic methodology, which have been identified as needs in two recent reviews. Sixteen articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2003 and 2009…

  1. The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

  2. Prevalence of Autism in an Urban Population of Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saemundsen, Evald; Juliusson, H.; Hjaltested, S.; Gunnarsdottir, T.; Halldorsdottir, T.; Hreidarsson, S.; Magnusson, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research on the prevalence of autism in Iceland has indicated that one possible explanation of fewer autism cases in older age groups was due to an underestimation of autism in individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study systematically searched for autism cases in the adult population of individuals with severe…

  3. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  4. Improving test interpretation for detecting executive dysfunction in adults and older adults: prevalence of low scores on the test of verbal conceptualization and fluency.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Brian L; Iverson, Grant L; Lanting, Shawnda C; Horton, Arthur M; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence of low scores on a battery of executive-functioning tests supplements clinical interpretation and can reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing deficits in executive functioning. The purpose of this study is to examine the base rates of low scores on the Test of Verbal Conceptualization and Fluency (TVCF; Reynolds & Horton, 2006 ) in healthy adults (n = 332; M (age) = 33.0 years, SD = 10.5, range = 20-59) and older adults (n = 138; M (age) = 74.9 years, SD = 7.8, range = 60-89) from the TVCF standardization sample. The TVCF consists of four tests of executive functioning (i.e., Category Fluency, Letter Naming, Classification, and Trails C) that provide five age-adjusted T-scores. The prevalence of low scores was examined in the total sample and was stratified by educational level. When the five T-scores were considered simultaneously, having one or more scores that were 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean was found in 28% of healthy adults and 38% of older adults. Education-based differences were also present with more lenient cutoff scores (e.g., 1 SD) but not with more conservative cutoffs. Consistent with the existing literature on other test batteries, at least one low subtest score on the TVCF is common in healthy adults and older adults.

  5. Greater serum carotenoid levels associated with lower prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Liu, Zhao-min; Ling, Wen-hua; Chen, Yu-ming

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that serum carotenoids may be inversely associated with liver injury, but limited data are available from population-based studies. We examined the relationship between serum carotenoid levels and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese adults. A total of 2935 participants aged 40–75 years were involved in this community-based cross-sectional study. General information, lifestyle factors, serum levels of carotenoid and the presence and degree of NAFLD were determined. After adjusting for potential covariates, we observed a dose-dependent inverse association between NAFLD risk and each individual serum carotenoid and total carotenoids (all p-values < 0.001). The ORs of NAFLD for the highest (vs. lowest) quartile were 0.44 (95% CI 0.35, 0.56) for α-carotene, 0.32 (95% CI 0.25, 0.41) for β-carotene, 0.62 (95% CI 0.49, 0.79) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.54 (95% CI 0.42, 0.68) for lycopene, 0.56 (95% CI 0.44, 0.72) for lutein + zeaxanthin and 0.41 (95% CI 0.32, 0.53) for total carotenoids. Higher levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the degree of NAFLD (p-trend: < 0.001 to 0.003). Serum carotenoids are inversely associated with prevalence of NAFLD in middle aged and elderly Chinese. PMID:26256414

  6. Nail involvement in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis: prevalence and clinical features*

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Karen Regina Rosso; Beber, André Avelino Costa; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Monticielo, Odirlei André

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a disease of worldwide distribution with a prevalence of 1 to 3%. Nail psoriasis is estimated in 50% of patients with psoriasis, and in the presence of joint involvement, it can reach 80%. OBJECTIVE: To study the nail changes - and their clinical implications - presented by patients with psoriasis vulgaris under surveillance in a university hospital from the south of Brazil. METHODS: his cross-sectional study evaluated 65 adult patients from January 2012 to March 2013. Cutaneous severity was assessed according to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). The Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) was used to evaluate patient's nails. The diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis was established according to the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR). RESULTS: The prevalence of NP was 46.1%. These patients had a median [interquartilic range (IQR)] NAPSI of 1 (0-15). A total of 63.3% of patients reported aesthetic discomfort or functional impairment related to their nails. Onycholysis was the most common feature (80%). When compared with patients without nail involvement, patients with NP had lower mean age at psoriasis onset [21 (18-41) vs. 43 (30-56) years, p=0,001]; longer disease duration [15.5 (10-24) vs. 6 (2-12) years, p=0.001]; higher PASI [9.2 (5-17) vs. 3.7 (2-10), p=0.044], higher frequency of psoriatic arthritis (43.3 vs. 3.7, p = 0.002) and more often reported family history of psoriasis (40% vs. 7.4%, p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Onycholysis was the most frequent finding and most patients feel uncomfortable with the psoriatic nail changes that they experience. PMID:26131859

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lisa X; Khan, Abigail May; Drajpuch, David; Fuller, Stephanie; Ludmir, Jonathan; Mascio, Christopher E; Partington, Sara L; Qadeer, Ayesha; Tobin, Lynda; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Kim, Yuli Y

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with adverse outcomes and increased mortality in cardiac patients. No studies have examined PTSD in the adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) population. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of PTSD in patients with ACHD and explore potential associated factors. Patients were enrolled from an outpatient ACHD clinic and completed several validated measures including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Clinical data were abstracted through medical data review. A total of 134 participants (mean age 34.6 ± 10.6; 46% men) were enrolled. Of the 127 participants who completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, 14 (11%) met criteria for elevated PTSD symptoms specifically related to their congenital heart disease or treatment. Of the 134 patients who completed PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, 27 (21%) met criteria for global PTSD symptoms. In univariate analyses, patients with congenital heart disease-specific PTSD had their most recent cardiac surgery at an earlier year (p = 0.008), were less likely to have attended college (p = 0.04), had higher rates of stroke or transient ischemic attack (p = 0.03), and reported greater depressive symptoms on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (7 vs 2, p <0.001). In multivariable analysis, the 2 factors most strongly associated with PTSD were depressive symptoms (p <0.001) and year of most recent cardiac surgery (p <0.03). In conclusion, PTSD is present in 11% to 21% of subjects seen at a tertiary referral center for ACHD. The high prevalence of PTSD in this complex group of patients has important implications for the medical and psychosocial management of this growing population.

  8. Prevalence and profile of cognitive impairment in adult glioma: a sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Boone, Mathieu; Roussel, Martine; Chauffert, Bruno; Le Gars, Daniel; Godefroy, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive impairment has been reported in 27-83 % of adults with World Health Organization (WHO) grade I-III glioma. However, the few studies in this field used different methods for cognitive assessment. The objective of the present study was to establish the prevalence of cognitive impairment in patients with WHO grade I-III primary brain tumors and determine the effect sizes of a comprehensive battery of tests. This study used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery to examine 27 patients. To control for false positives, prevalence was estimated from the overall neuropsychological score. Size effects were determined using Cohen's d. Cognitive impairment was observed in 51.9 % (95 % CI 33-70.7 %) of the patients; the impairment affected action speed (38.5 %), cognitive (33 %) and behavioral (21.7 %) executive functions, oral expression (29.6 %), episodic memory (29.6 %) and visuoconstructive abilities (19.2 %). The largest effect sizes (d ≥ 1.645) were observed for the Digit Symbol Substitution test, global hypoactivity, free recall, Stroop time, the Boston Naming test (BNT), the Trail Making test B (TMTB), verbal fluency and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Four of these scores (global hypoactivity, the Digit Symbol Substitution test, the TMTB perseveration, and the BNT) were combined to make a shortened battery (AUC 0.872; 95 % CI 0.795-0.949). The overall neuropsychological score was the sole factor associated with the functional outcome. Our results suggest that about half of survivors with a grade I-III primary brain tumor suffer from cognitive impairment. Tests with a large effect size should be included in future large-scale studies. PMID:27241133

  9. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  10. Estimating the Burden of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Analysis of a Nationwide Korean Database

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Youn Hee; Park, Joo Yeon; Jang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Sun-Young; Nam, Mi-Hee; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) imposes a heavy economic burden. This study was to estimate the epidemiologic features of IBS and to report the IBS burden for the first time in the Korean population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) system database, which covers the entire population of Korea. IBS was defined as diagnostic code −10 in adults with any outpatient clinic visits or hospitalization related to IBS. We excluded diseases that mimic IBS symptoms. Results A total of 2.42 million (58.2% female) individuals were identified as patients with IBS, yielding an age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of 5.1% in males and 6.9% in females. The prevalence of IBS increased proportionally with age, with higher medical costs in middle-aged patients. Outpatient clinics were visited by 98.6% of IBS patients, and 1.9% were treated upon admission. Of these patients, 87.6% were given a prescription. Co-morbidities that commonly accompanied IBS included upper gastrointestinal (36.1%), respiratory (12.3%), musculoskeletal (8.0%) disease, somatoform (4.3%) and depression/anxiety disorders (3.1%). The NHI costs of IBS, which include the NHI covered cost and beneficiary copayment charges, were estimated to be 155 million USD, which accounts for 0.46% of the total NHI costs for the entire Korean population. Conclusions According to the Korean national claims database, about 6% of the Korean population seeks medical care for IBS at least once per year. This high prevalence places a large economic burden on the Korean healthcare system, accounting for 0.46% of overall national medical expenditure. PMID:24840377

  11. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon

    2015-11-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  12. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon

    2015-11-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress.

  13. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  14. Pattern of blood pressure distribution and prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia: disclosing the hidden burden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the 3rd cause of death accounting for one in eight deaths worldwide. Hypertension was thought to be rare in Africa, but it is now recognized as one of the most important cerebrovascular diseases contributing to about 40% of these diseases in the continent. The aims of this study were to describe the pattern of blood pressure distribution among adults, and determine prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among adults in Northern Ethiopia. Method The study was done on a community-based sample of 1183 adults of 697 (58.8%) urban and 486 (41.1%) rural residents using statistical multistage sampling procedures. The study was based on the recent WHO and JNC-7 classification of blood pressure. Multi-item structured questionnaires were also developed to elicit additional information on the subjects. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension in the study population was 18.1% and 37.2%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension positively correlated with body mass index and age in both urban and rural residents (P = 0.001). Sex and age adjusted mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was statistically higher in urban than in rural population (P = 0.001). Conclusion Hypertension was found to have high prevalence in the study region. However, people’s awareness and control of hypertension was found to be very poor. Lack of a clear hypertension prevention guidelines and strategies nationwide can aggravate the impact of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24592854

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Coinfections in an Adult HIV Centre Population in Gaborone, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Premal; Davis, Stephanie; Tolle, Michael; Mabikwa, Vincent; Anabwani, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected adults at an HIV center in Gaborone, Botswana. A retrospective review was performed of charts of currently active HIV-infected adult patients in the Family Model Clinic (FMC) of the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Center of Excellence (BCOE) in Gaborone, Botswana, for the results of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antihepatitis C IgG tests performed between January 1, 2005 and December 15, 2009. Of 308 active FMC patients, 266 underwent HBsAg serology testing within the period of study. The HBsAg coinfection prevalence was 5.3% (14/266); 2 of 252 patients had at least one positive antihepatitis C IgG serology, a 0.8% prevalence. Hepatitis B coinfection is relatively common in HIV-infected adults at our center in Botswana, whereas hepatitis C coinfection is rare. In this setting, where the diagnosis of hepatitis B coinfection with HIV has implications for choice of first-line antiretroviral therapy and prevention of perinatal hepatitis B transmission, broader sampling to establish the true population prevalence of hepatitis B coinfection and the desirability of adding screening to HIV management should be considered. These findings provide little justification for adding hepatitis C coinfection screening to the management of HIV infection in Botswana. PMID:21813864

  16. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult dyspeptic patients in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Asrat, D; Nilsson, I; Mengistu, Y; Ashenafi, S; Ayenew, K; Al-Soud, W Abu; Wadström, T; Kassa, E

    2004-03-01

    In developing countries such as Ethiopia, where chronic gastritis and peptic-ulcer disease are the most common endoscopic findings, it is important to study the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases. Both invasive and non-invasive diagnostic methods were therefore used to investigate 300, consecutive, adult patients with dyspepsia, from the gastrointestinal clinic of Tikur Anbassa University Hospital, Addis Ababa. The apparent overall prevalence of H. pylori infection varied according to the detection method employed. Culture revealed H. pylori in only 69% of the patients but this pathogen appeared more common when rapid urease tests (71%), PCR-denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (91%), histopathology (81%), silver staining (75%) or stool-antigen tests (81%) were employed. Antibodies to H. pylori were detected, both by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) and immunoblotting, in approximately 80% of the patients, whether the antigens used were of a reference strain or from a local isolate of H. pylori. When some of the EIA-positive and EIA-negative sera were cross-absorbed with antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and re-tested by EIA, the H. pylori-positive sera remained positive and the negative sera remained negative. Dyspeptic patients in Ethiopia, like most of those previously observed elsewhere in Africa, are often infected with H. pylori. It is important that the management of these patients should not be hampered by the misinterpretation of the African epidemiology of this pathogen.

  17. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

  18. Is subjective hyperhidrosis assessment sufficient enough? prevalence of hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Tomasz; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Idestal, Anette; Royton, Anders; Abi-Khalil, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis among young Polish adults. Additionally, this work aimed at comparing the subjective and objective (gravimetric) method of hyperhidrosis assessment. Healthy medical students, volunteering to take part in this study, were included. The participants filled out a questionnaire assessing the occurrence and subjective intensity of hyperhidrosis in different areas of the body. Additionally, the students were subjected to gravimetric assessment in four localizations: the face, palms, axillae and abdomino-lumbar area. Two hundred and fifty-three students (102 males and 151 females, mean age 24.3 ± 3.21 years) were included in the study. Forty-two (16.7%) participants declared that they suffer from hyperhidrosis. Out of the 42 students declaring any type of hyperhidrosis, only 20 (47.6%) exceeded the gravimetric reference values. From among the students that exceeded the normative values for palmar hyperhidrosis, only 10 (55.6%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. In the group of students that exceeded the normative values for axillary hyperhidrosis, 16 (39%) were aware of their hyperhidrosis. Subjectively declared hyperhidrosis incidence may significantly exceed the real-life occurrence of this disease. Basing studies solely on data gathered from questionnaires, may lead to false results. It is imperative, when assessing patients suffering from hyperhidrosis, to use both objective and subjective methods of evaluation.

  19. Prevalence of coeliac disease among adult patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Farahid, O H; Khawaja, N; Shennak, M M; Batieha, A; El-Khateeb, M; Ajlouni, K

    2014-02-11

    The prevalence of coeliac disease among patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism has not been studied before in Jordan and other Arab countries. A cross-sectional record-based review was made of all adult autoimmune hypothyroidism patients who attended a referral centre in Jordan, during an 8-month period. Coeliac disease in these patients was diagnosed by the attending physician based on positive serological tests for anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG followed by duodenal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Of 914 patients recruited, 117 (12.8%) were seropositive for coeliac disease. Of 87 seropositive patients who underwent duodenal biopsy, 39 had positive histological findings of coeliac disease (44.8%). Extrapolating from these findings the overall rate of coeliac disease among autoimmune hypothyroidism patients was estimated to be 5.7%. In multivariate logistic regression coeliac disease was significantly associated with older age (> 40 years), presence of other autoimmune diseases, vitamin B12 deficiency and anaemia.

  20. Daily Manganese Intake Status and Its Relationship with Oxidative Stress Biomarkers under Different Body Mass Index Categories in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bu, So-Young

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for human and plays an important role as a cofactor for several enzymes involving fatty acid synthesis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and oxidative stresses. Also, Mn intake status has been reported to have beneficial effects in reversing metabolic dysfunction including obesity and nonalcoholic steatosis which is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses, however, information on dietary Mn intake in Koreans are limited. Hence we investigated the relationship between dietary Mn intake and antioxidant defense factors in healthy and obese subjects. Total of 333 healthy subjects were recruited in the study and were assigned to one of three study groups: a normal group (18.5-22.9), a overweight group (23-24.9), and a obesity group (>25) according to their body mass index (BMI). We assessed Mn intakes (24-hr recall method) and several indicators for antioxidative defenses such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and urinary malonaldehyde (MDA). Results showed that body weight and blood pressure of study subjects were increased in dependent of their BMI (p < 0.01). However dietary Mn intakes and oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, GPx, and MDA) were not significantly different by groups defined by BMI. In correlation analysis adjusting for age, sex and energy intake, dietary Mn intake of the subjects in different BMI categories were not significantly correlated with GSH, GPx, MDA and showed a weak or no association with these oxidative stress markers. In conclusion dietary Mn intake at least in this study has a little or no influence on markers of oxidative status in both healthy and obese subjects. PMID:23431039

  1. Clinical comparison of psoriasis in Korean adults and children: correlation with serum anti-streptolysin O titers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue Kyung; Kang, Hee Young; Kim, You Chan; Lee, Eun-So

    2010-05-01

    Psoriasis is a relatively common disorder in children and can be triggered by an upper respiratory tract infection. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features of psoriasis in children and adult. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titers and the clinical features of psoriasis. A total of 30 childhood psoriasis patients and 30 adult psoriasis patients were evaluated. Childhood psoriasis had a facial predominance when compared with the adult psoriasis. The childhood psoriasis patients with high ASO titers had guttate psoriasis more frequently than patients with normal ASO titers. In children with plaque-type psoriasis, psoriasis area and severity index score was increased in the high ASO titer group than normal ASO titer group. In conclusion, if the children with psoriasis show increased ASO titer, the physician should pay attention to the worsening of the psoriasis. Furthermore, early treatment of streptococcal infections might be beneficial in childhood psoriasis.

  2. Sex Differences in Substance Use Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: Prevalence, Severity, and Need for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Francesca L.; Baird, Janette; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients, and sex has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology, pathophysiology, sequelae, and treatment of substance use disorders. However, additional information is needed about the epidemiology of substance use as it relates to sex among ED patients. Objectives This study examined sex differences in the prevalence and severity of self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among adult ED patients. Methods A random sample of English- or Spanish-speaking, non–critically ill or injured, 18- to 64-year-old patients was approached at two urban EDs and asked to self-report their lifetime and past 3-month tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Participants completed the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were categorized by their substance severity (ASSIST score) and need for a brief or more intensive intervention per World Health Organization recommendations. Substance misuse prevalence, frequency, severity, and need for interventions were compared between sexes by substance category. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sexes and the need for intervention after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Of the 6,432 participants in the study, the median age was 37 years (interquartile range = 26 to 48 years), and 56.6% were female. Overall, lifetime, and past 3-month use was higher for men across all substances (tobacco, alcohol, and drugs). Among those reporting past 3-month use, the frequency of use was similar between sexes for tobacco and all drugs, but men reported more frequent alcohol use. Men had higher mean ASSIST scores compared to women, 30.3 (standard error [SE] ± 0.8) vs. 21.1 (SE ± 0.5); mean difference 9.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.4 to 10.9). The need for any intervention (brief or intensive) was similar

  3. Is the prevalence of child sexual abuse decreasing? Evidence from a random sample of 750 young adult women.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C

    1990-06-01

    An adult recall study in Calgary, Alberta in 1988-89 of child sexual abuse used stratified, random sampling to identify 750 women ages 18 to 27 yr., divided into 10 age cohorts of approximately 75 each. Those aged 18 and 19 yr. recalled significantly less contact abuse up to age 16 than those aged 20 to 27 yr. Experiencing print or visual media on the topic of sexual abuse was associated with a decreased prevalence. It is argued that in a climate of publicity and greater understanding of help sources and harmful effects, the actual prevalence of child sexual abuse may be decreasing.

  4. Dyslipidemia Prevalence in Iranian Adult Men: The Impact of Population-Based Screening on the Detection of Undiagnosed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Moshiri, Esamil; Mohammadsalehi, Narges; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dyslipidemia has been established as one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslipidemia in males, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Iranian urban men. Materials and Methods A screening program was conducted in 845 Iranian men 25 years of age and older in 2014. A health interview survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported dyslipidemia and to collect demographic data, as well as serum lipid profile screening by a reference laboratory. Lipoprotein levels was categorized based on the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria and the data were analyzed using the chi-square test and analysis of variance. Results The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was 51.8%, and the prevalence of various forms of dyslipidemia was as follows: hypercholesterolemia (≥240 mg/dL), 11.4%; hyper-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (≥160 mg/dL), 9.6%; hypertriglyceridemia (≥200 mg/dL), 25%; and hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (<40 mg/dL), 34.3%. With the exception of hypo-HDL, all forms of dyslipidemia were significantly less common in men over 65 years of age (p<0.05). Conclusions The prevalence of hypo-HDL and hypertriglyceridemia was higher than expected in Iranian adult men, with half of men 25 years of age and older affected by at least one form of dyslipidemia. A large gap in primary and secondary care was observed, because nearly 80% of patients with dyslipidemia were unaware of their status. Urgent preventive programs and lifestyle changes are necessary to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:26770936

  5. A comparison of the prevalence and burdens of helminth infections in growers and adult free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Magwisha, H B; Kassuku, A A; Kyvsgaard, N C; Permin, A

    2002-05-01

    Matched samples of 100 chickens of each of growers and adult rural free-range chickens in Morogoro, Tanzania, were purchased from the beginning to the end of the long rainy season. At necropsy, the trachea, the gastrointestinal tract and the oviduct were examined for helminth infections. The helminth species isolated comprised 18 nematodes and 8 cestodes but no trematodes. Tetrameres fissispina is a new record in Tanzania. All the chickens harboured at least three different helminth species. Growers contained 4-14 and adults 3-12 helminth species. The number of species isolated per chicken increased as the rainy season advanced. The prevalence of the following species were significantly higher in growers than in adults (p < 0.05); Ascaridia galli (69% of growers, 29% of adults); Syngamus trachea (14%, 3%); Tetrameres americana (94%, 82%); Trichostrongylus tenuis (43%, 7%); Choanotaenia infundibulum (15%, 6%); Davainea proglottina (9%, 2%); and Raillietina tetragona (36%, 21%). Allodapa suctoria (3%, 20%) and Capillaria annulata (1%, 10%) had a significantly lower prevalence in growers than in adults (p < 0.05). There were significantly higher worm burdens (p < 0.05) in growers than in adults for A. galli, Capillaria caudinflata, R. tetragona, S. trachea, T. americana, T. fissispina and T. tenuis. Conversely, A. suctoria and C. annulata showed significantly higher worm burdens in adults (p < 0.05). The sex of the chickens influenced the burdens of Heterakis brevispiculum (p < 0.05). There was an interaction effect such that growing males and adult females had statistically higher (p < 0.05) burdens of T. tenuis and A. suctoria, respectively.

  6. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  7. Prevalence of obesity and affecting factors in physically disabled adults living in the city centre of Malatya

    PubMed Central

    Bozkir, Çiğdem; Özer, Ali; Pehlivan, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, and the risk factors associated with it, in physically disabled adults living in the city centre of Malatya, Turkey. Method This research was designed as a cross-sectional study conducted on physically disabled people aged 20–65 years living in the city centre of Malatya. The prevalence of obesity in disabled people was within 95% CIs, the power was calculated as 80%, and the sample size of our population was calculated as 258 individuals. Results The prevalence of obesity was found to be 13.2%. The relationship between disability type and obesity status was found to be significant. The prevalence of obesity was 21.3% in visually impaired people, 17.9% in speech-impaired people, 17.8% in hearing-impaired people and 6.5% in orthopaedically disabled people. Conclusions Educational interventions on nutrition and lifestyle can be effective considering the high prevalence of obesity in visually impaired people, the prevalence of weakness in orthopaedically disabled people and the risk related to the area in which body fat is localised even when body mass index is within the normal range. Training disabled people in sports appropriate to their disability type and building appropriate facilities for those sports might have a positive effect. PMID:27609842

  8. Prevalence of high blood pressure treated and untreated in an urban adult New Zealand population: Napier 1973.

    PubMed

    Christmas, B W; Turner, A S

    1977-11-01

    The prevalence of hypertensive levels of blood pressure was investigated in a random sample of 2535 adults in Napier in 1973. More than 70 percent of all persons examined had been measured for blood pressure within the previous five years. A retrospective analysis of results using the WHO classification indicated that 16.4 percent of the adult population had a mean systolic pressure of not less than 160mmHg or mean diastolic pressure of not less than 95mmHg. One third of the hypertensive group was receiving treatment and one half of those on therapy were effectively controlled. The total prevalence of treated and untreated hypertensives was estimated to be 20 percent of the survey population. According to the WHO criteria for blood pressure classification 33 percent of those over 60 years were hypertensive.

  9. Korean Asthma Guideline 2014: Summary of Major Updates to the Korean Asthma Guideline 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Ji Hong

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a prevalent and serious health problem in Korea. Recently, the Korean Asthma Guideline has been updated by The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) in an effort to improve the clinical management of asthma. This guideline focuses on adult patients with asthma and aims to deliver up to date scientific evidence and recommendations to general physicians for the management of asthma. For this purpose, this guideline was updated following systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies and adapting some points of international guidelines (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] report 2014, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program [NAEPP] 2007, British Thoracic Society [BTS/SIGN] asthma guideline 2012, and Canadian asthma guideline 2012). Updated issues include recommendations derived using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) model, which produced 20 clinical questions on the management of asthma. It also covers a new definition of asthma, the importance of confirming various airflow limitations with spirometry, the epidemiology and the diagnostic flow of asthma in Korea, the importance and evidence for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/formoterol as a single maintenance and acute therapy in the stepwise management of asthma, assessment of severity of asthma and management of exacerbation, and an action plan to cope with exacerbation. This guideline includes clinical assessments, and treatment of asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, management of asthma in specific conditions including severe asthma, elderly asthma, cough variant asthma, exercise-induced bronchial contraction, etc. The revised Korean Asthma Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in the management of asthma. PMID:27433170

  10. Korean Asthma Guideline 2014: Summary of Major Updates to the Korean Asthma Guideline 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Ji Hong; Yoo, Kwang-Ha; Kim, Kwan Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a prevalent and serious health problem in Korea. Recently, the Korean Asthma Guideline has been updated by The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) in an effort to improve the clinical management of asthma. This guideline focuses on adult patients with asthma and aims to deliver up to date scientific evidence and recommendations to general physicians for the management of asthma. For this purpose, this guideline was updated following systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies and adapting some points of international guidelines (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] report 2014, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program [NAEPP] 2007, British Thoracic Society [BTS/SIGN] asthma guideline 2012, and Canadian asthma guideline 2012). Updated issues include recommendations derived using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) model, which produced 20 clinical questions on the management of asthma. It also covers a new definition of asthma, the importance of confirming various airflow limitations with spirometry, the epidemiology and the diagnostic flow of asthma in Korea, the importance and evidence for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/formoterol as a single maintenance and acute therapy in the stepwise management of asthma, assessment of severity of asthma and management of exacerbation, and an action plan to cope with exacerbation. This guideline includes clinical assessments, and treatment of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, management of asthma in specific conditions including severe asthma, elderly asthma, cough variant asthma, exercise-induced bronchial contraction, etc. The revised Korean Asthma Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in the management of asthma.

  11. Korean Asthma Guideline 2014: Summary of Major Updates to the Korean Asthma Guideline 2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Ji Hong; Yoo, Kwang-Ha; Kim, Kwan Hyung

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a prevalent and serious health problem in Korea. Recently, the Korean Asthma Guideline has been updated by The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) in an effort to improve the clinical management of asthma. This guideline focuses on adult patients with asthma and aims to deliver up to date scientific evidence and recommendations to general physicians for the management of asthma. For this purpose, this guideline was updated following systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies and adapting some points of international guidelines (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] report 2014, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program [NAEPP] 2007, British Thoracic Society [BTS/SIGN] asthma guideline 2012, and Canadian asthma guideline 2012). Updated issues include recommendations derived using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) model, which produced 20 clinical questions on the management of asthma. It also covers a new definition of asthma, the importance of confirming various airflow limitations with spirometry, the epidemiology and the diagnostic flow of asthma in Korea, the importance and evidence for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/formoterol as a single maintenance and acute therapy in the stepwise management of asthma, assessment of severity of asthma and management of exacerbation, and an action plan to cope with exacerbation. This guideline includes clinical assessments, and treatment of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, management of asthma in specific conditions including severe asthma, elderly asthma, cough variant asthma, exercise-induced bronchial contraction, etc. The revised Korean Asthma Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in the management of asthma. PMID:27433170

  12. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) adults in New Jersey, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Hung, Robert W; Puelle, Rose S; Markowski, Daniel; Chomsky, Martin S

    2003-07-01

    Using polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed 529 Ixodes scapularis Say adults collected from 16 of New Jersey's 21 counties for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Overall, 261 (49.3%) were positive. B. burgdorferi was detected in ticks obtained from each county and from 53 of the 58 (93.1%) municipalities surveyed. The observed statewide prevalence in New Jersey is similar to those reported from other northeastern and mid-Atlantic states.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Sleep Problems in Adult Israeli Jews Exposed to Actual or Threatened Terrorist or Rocket Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Patrick A.; Chipman, Katie J.; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of, and to identify correlates of clinically significant sleep problems in adult Israeli citizens exposed to chronic terrorism and war trauma or threat thereof. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study of 1001 adult Israeli citizens interviewed by phone between July 15 and August 26, 2008. The phone survey was conducted in Hebrew and assessed demographics, trauma/stressor exposure, probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and sleep problems. Probable PTSD and depression were assessed with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), respectively, following DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Sleep problems in the past month were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), on which a global composite score ≥ 6 indicates a clinical-level sleep problem. Results: Prevalence of probable PTSD and depression was 5.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Prevalence of clinically significant sleep problems was 37.4% overall, but was significantly higher for probable PTSD (81.8%) and probable depression (79.3%) subgroups. Independent correlates of poor sleep included being female, older, less educated, experiencing major life stressors, and experiencing psychosocial resource loss. Psychosocial resource loss due to terrorist attacks emerged as the strongest potentially modifiable risk factor for sleep problems. Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Israeli adults living under chronic traumatic threat and trauma exposure. Given the continuing threat of war, interventions that bolster psychosocial resources may play an important role in preventing or alleviating sleep problems in this population. Citation: Palmieri PA; Chipman KJ; Canetti D; Johnson RJ; Hobfoll SE. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in adult Israeli Jews exposed to actual or threatened terrorist or rocket attacks. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):557-564. PMID:21206544

  14. Prevalence and correlates of internet cigarette purchasing among adult smokers in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C; Staniewska, D

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of internet cigarette purchasing among adult smokers. Design: Analysis of internet purchasing in data from a population based telephone survey of New Jersey households. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with internet cigarette purchasing, adjusting for year, demographic, and smoking behaviour variables. Participants: 3447 current cigarette smokers pooled from three cross sectional surveys conducted in 2000, 2001, and 2002. Main outcome measures: Ever purchasing tobacco and usually buying cigarettes via the internet. Results: Among all current cigarette smokers, ever having purchased tobacco via the internet increased from 1.1% in 2000 to 6.7% in 2002 and usually buying cigarettes via the internet increased from 0.8% in 2000 to 3.1% in 2002. Among current cigarette smokers with internet access, ever having purchased tobacco via the internet was higher among those who reported smoking 31 or more cigarettes per day (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 10.2) and those without a past year quit attempt (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.0). Usually purchasing cigarettes via the internet was higher among those aged 45–64 years (adjusted OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 17.1) and who reported having their first cigarette ⩽ 30 minutes after waking (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2). Conclusions: Although higher prices are known to reduce the demand for cigarettes, internet cigarette purchasing is likely to weaken this effect, particularly among heavy, more dependent smokers who are less interested in quitting. PMID:15333887

  15. Preventive Health Services Utilization Among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Casado, Banghwa Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the use of preventive health services among Korean American adults. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 212 Korean Americans in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. Guided by the Andersen's behavioral model, the authors examined whether predisposing (age, gender, marital status, household size, education), enabling (income, health insurance, English proficiency, citizenship, social network), and need (health status) factors are predictive of Korean Americans' preventive health services utilization. A binomial logistic regression showed that younger age, male, noncitizen, low income, no insurance, a larger family network, and better perceived health were associated with decreased odds of using preventive health services. PMID:27171558

  16. The 6-Month Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSS) Among Older Adults: Validity and Reliability of the PTSS Scale

    PubMed Central

    Préville, Michel; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Grenier, Sébastien; Potvin, Olivier; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the 6-month prevalence of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) in the older adult population and the validity of a PTSS Scale in an epidemiologic setting. Method: Data came from the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study) conducted during 2012–2013 using a probability sample of older adults seeking medical services in primary health clinics. Results: Results showed that a first-order PTSS measurement model consisting of 3 indicators—the number of lifetime traumatic events, the frequency of reactions and symptoms of distress associated with the traumatic events, and the presence of consequences on the social functioning—was plausible. Reliability of the PTSS was 0.82. According to the PTSS, 11.1% of the older adult patients presented with PTSS, but only 21.7% of them reported an impact of their symptoms on their social functioning. The prevalence of older adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reached 1.8%, and 1.8% of older adults reached criteria for partial PTSD. Our results also showed that women were more at risk to report PTSS than men and that older adults aged 75 years and older were less likely to report these symptoms than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusions: PTSS is a common mental health problem among adults aged 65 and older and seeking health services in the general medical sector. PMID:25565688

  17. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Results Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn’t. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224–1.461), 1.323 (1.193–1.456) and 1.261 (1.152–1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department. PMID:27467819

  18. Prevalence, control and awareness of high blood pressure among Canadian adults. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Joffres, M R; Hamet, P; Rabkin, S W; Gelskey, D; Hogan, K; Fodor, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of elevated blood pressure (BP) among Canadian adults and to determine the level of control, treatment, awareness and prevalence of other risk factors among adults with high BP. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional surveys. SETTING: Nine Canadian provinces, from 1986 to 1990. PARTICIPANTS: A probability sample of 26,293 men and women aged 18 to 74 years was selected from the health insurance registers in each province. For 20,582 subjects, BP was measured at least twice. Nurses administered a standard questionnaire and recorded two BP measurements using a standardized technique. Two further BP readings, anthropometric measurements and a blood specimen for lipid analysis were obtained from those subjects who attended a clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean values of systolic and diastolic BP, prevalence of elevated BP using different criteria, and prevalence of smoking, elevated blood cholesterol, body mass index, physical activity and presence of diabetes by high BP status are reported. MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen percent of men and 13% of women had diastolic BP of 90 mm Hg or greater or were on treatment (or both). About 26% of these subjects were unaware of their hypertension, 42% were being treated and their condition controlled, 16% were treated and not controlled, and 16% were neither treated nor controlled. Use of non-pharmacologic treatment of high BP with or without medication was low (22%). Hypertensive subjects showed a higher prevalence of elevated total cholesterol, high body mass index, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle than normotensive subjects. Most people with elevated BP were in the 90 to 95 mm Hg range for diastolic pressure and 140 to 160 mm Hg range for systolic pressure. Prevalence of high isolated systolic BP sharply increased in men (40%) and women (49%) 65 to 74 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively low level of control of elevated BP calls for population and individual strategies, stressing a

  19. High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adults in Senegal, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Benzekri, Noelle A.; Sambou, Jacques; Diaw, Binetou; Sall, El Hadji Ibrahima; Sall, Fatima; Niang, Alassane; Ba, Selly; Ngom Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Diallo, Mouhamadou Baïla; Hawes, Stephen E.; Seydi, Moussa; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition and food insecurity are associated with increased mortality and poor clinical outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS; however, the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity among people living with HIV/AIDS in Senegal, West Africa is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and severity of food insecurity and malnutrition among HIV-infected adults in Senegal, and to identify associations between food insecurity, malnutrition, and HIV outcomes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Dakar and Ziguinchor, Senegal. Data were collected using participant interviews, anthropometry, the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, the Individual Dietary Diversity Scale, and chart review. Results One hundred and nine HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 participants were enrolled. The prevalence of food insecurity was 84.6% in Dakar and 89.5% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of severe food insecurity was 59.6% in Dakar and 75.4% in Ziguinchor. The prevalence of malnutrition (BMI <18.5) was 19.2% in Dakar and 26.3% in Ziguinchor. Severe food insecurity was associated with missing clinic appointments (p = 0.01) and not taking antiretroviral therapy due to hunger (p = 0.02). Malnutrition was associated with lower CD4 cell counts (p = 0.01). Conclusions Severe food insecurity and malnutrition are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults in both Dakar and Ziguinchor, and are associated with poor HIV outcomes. Our findings warrant further studies to determine the root causes of malnutrition and food insecurity in Senegal, and the short- and long-term impacts of malnutrition and food insecurity on HIV care. Urgent interventions are needed to address the unacceptably high rates of malnutrition and food insecurity in this population. PMID:26529509

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity and some associated factors among adult residents of northeast China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Gao, Chunshi; Li, Zhijun; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and determine potential influencing factors among adults in northeast China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Jilin Province, northeast China, in 2012. A total of 9873 men and 10 966 women aged 18–79 years from the general population were included using a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Data were obtained from face-to-face interview and physical examination. After being weighted according to a complex sampling scheme, the sample was used to estimate the prevalence of overweight (body mass index (BMI) 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI >28 kg/m2) in Jilin Province, and analyse influencing factors through corresponding statistical methods based on complex sampling design behaviours. Results The overall prevalence of overweight was 32.3% (male 34.3%; female 30.2%), and the prevalence of obesity was 14.6% (male 16.3%; female 12.8%) in Jilin Province. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity were higher in men than women (p<0.001). Influencing factors included sex, age, marriage status, occupation, smoking, drinking, diet and hours of sleep (p<0.05). Conclusions This study estimated that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult residents of Jilin Province, northeast China, were high. The results of this study will be submitted to the Health Department of Jilin Province and other relevant departments as a reference, which should inform policy makers in developing education and publicity to prevent and control the occurrence of overweight and obesity. PMID:27456326

  1. Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996

  2. Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. RESULTS The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water. PMID:25324940

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taegon; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lee, Jongtae; Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    BR-TD-1001 was developed as a booster for the immunity maintenance of diphtheria and tetanus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of BR-TD-1001 (test vaccine) in comparison with placebo and an active comparator in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active comparator, phase I clinical trial was conducted. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in a ratio of 2:2:1, and were administered a single intramuscular dose of test vaccine, active comparator, or placebo, respectively. All subjects were monitored for 4 weeks after injection. The antibody titers of the patients 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination were compared with the baseline. The frequencies of all adverse events including adverse drug reactions in the test group were not statistically different from those of the other treatment groups (P = 0.4974, 0.3061). No serious adverse event occurred, and no subject was withdrawn from the study for safety. The seroprotection rates against both tetanus and diphtheria at 4 weeks after vaccination were over 0.95. For anti-tetanus antibody, the geometric mean titer in the test group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P = 0.0364, 0.0033). The geometric mean titer of anti-diphtheria antibody in the test group was significantly higher than the value of the placebo (P = 0.0347) while it was not for the value of the active comparator (P = 0.8484). In conclusion, BR-TD-1001 was safe, well-tolerated, and showed sufficient immunogenicity as a booster for diphtheria and tetanus.

  4. Effects of number and gender of offspring on quality of life among older adults: evidence from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Cho, Kyung-Hee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined correlations between number and gender of offspring and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of life (QoL) in older adults. Setting We used data from the 2006–2012 data sets of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants There were 10 242, 8680, 7907 and 7480 participants in 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012, respectively. Interventions Number and gender of offspring. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured participants’ QoL and HRQoL using a visual analogue scale developed by the Korea Labour Institute and which is similar to the EQ-VAS, a European measure. Results We estimated the HRQoL and QoL of individuals with offspring. Estimates for the HRQoL and QoL of parents with no offspring were −7.762 and −9.384, respectively (both p<0.0001) versus parents with two offspring. For parents with five or more offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −1.529 and 0.885, respectively (p<0.001 and p<0.017, respectively) compared with parents with two offspring. For fathers with no offspring compared with fathers with two offspring, the estimates for the HRQoL and QoL were −6.143 and −7.492, respectively (both p<0.0001). Conclusions These results suggest that number of offspring is associated with both HRQoL and QoL. Those with no offspring showed the lowest HRQoL and QoL. Although having five or more children had positive associations with QoL, it had negative associations with HRQoL. Public health services for those with poor quality of life should provide effective support programmes and services based on these findings. PMID:26063566

  5. Effects of a Walking Program on Self-management and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Gyoung; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Eun; Kim, Jee- Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week walking program on increasing an individual’s self-management and decreasing the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in the older adult population. [Subjects] A total of 31 older adults participated in this study. Eighteen participants in the experimental group and 13 controls completed the pretest and posttest measures. A walking exercise and health education were provided for the experimental group. Data were analyzed by ANCOVAs to examine group differences. [Results] At the end of the 12-week study period, the experimental group showed a significant improvement in individuals’ ability to self-manage their health compared to the control group. Also, there were significant differences between the two groups in the total numbers of risk factors of metabolic syndrome, systolic blood pressure and BMI. No significant difference in blood sugar levels, HDL-C, waist circumference, and triglyceride levels were found between the experimental and control group. [Conclusion] This study revealed that a combination of health education and for walking exercise can lead to improved lifestyle management and reduce risk factors of metabolic syndrome for the elderly population of Korea. PMID:24567686

  6. Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus in Korean adolescents and adults using fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test.

    PubMed

    Han, S B; Kang, K R; Huh, D H; Lee, H C; Kim, J H; Kang, J H; Ma, S H

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study in 2012-2013 to determine the seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in adolescents and adults living in Korea, where varicella vaccination has been recommended universally at age 12-15 months since 2005. Residual serum samples were collected from 1196 healthy adults and adolescents aged ⩾10 years between November 2012 and March 2013. The fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to determine the seroprevalence of VZV. The seroprevalences of VZV were compared between six age groups: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and ⩾60 years. The seroprevalence of VZV in the entire study cohort was 99·1% according to the FAMA test and 93·1% as determined by ELISA. The seroprevalences of the six age groups were as follows: 96·0%, 99·5%, 99·5%, 99·5%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, by the FAMA test, and 83·3%, 93·0%, 93·0%, 97·5%, 94·5%, and 97·5%, respectively, by ELISA. Seroprevalence increased significantly with age (P < 0·001); moreover, the seroprevalence in subjects aged 10-19 years was significantly lower than in other age groups (P < 0·001), as measured by both the FAMA test and ELISA. Thus, strategies to increase protective immunity against VZV in teenagers are necessary.

  7. Global, regional and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults 1980-2013: A systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Marie; Fleming, Tom; Robinson, Margaret; Thomson, Blake; Graetz, Nicholas; Margono, Christopher; Mullany, Erin C; Biryukov, Stan; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Jerry P; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen ME; Achoki, Tom; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso, Rafael; Ali, Mohammed K; Ali, Raghib; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Ammar, Walid; Anwari, Palwasha; Banerjee, Amitava; Barquera, Simon; Basu, Sanjay; Bennett, Derrick A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Blore, Jed; Cabral, Norberto; Nonato, Ismael Campos; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cundiff, David K; Dabhadkar, Kaustubh C; Dandona, Lalit; Davis, Adrian; Dayama, Anand; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Ding, Eric L; Durrani, Adnan M; Esteghamati, Alireza; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek FJ; Feigin, Valery L; Flaxman, Abraham; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Goto, Atsushi; Green, Mark A; Gupta, Rajeev; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hankey, Graeme J; Harewood, Heather C; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon; Hernandez, Lucia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Islami, Farhad; Jahangir, Eiman; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeffreys, Mona; Jonas, Jost B; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Daniel; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinge, Jonas M; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Kwan, Gene; Lai, Taavi; Leinsalu, Mall; Li, Yichong; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Shiwei; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lu, Yuan; Ma, Jixiang; Mainoo, Nana Kwaku; Mensah, George A; Merriman, Tony R; Mokdad, Ali H; Moschandreas, Joanna; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Nand, Devina; Narayan, KM Venkat; Nelson, Erica Leigh; Neuhouser, Marian L; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Oti, Samuel O; Pedroza, Andrea; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Roy, Nobhojit; Sampson, Uchechukwu; Seo, Hyeyoung; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Shibuya, Kenji; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Stapelberg, Nicolas JC; Sturua, Lela; Sykes, Bryan L; Tobias, Martin; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Toyoshima, Hideaki; van de Vijver, Steven; Vasankari, Tommi J; Veerman, J Lennert; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wang, Claire; Wang, Sharon XiaoRong; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Werdecker, Andrea; Wright, Jonathan L; Yang, Y Claire; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yoon, Jihyun; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Shankuan; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher JL

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3.4 million deaths, 3.9% of years of life lost, and 3.8% of DALYs globally. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparative, up-to-date information on levels and trends is essential both to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision-makers to prioritize action. Methods We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n = 1,769) that included information on height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. Mixed effects linear regression was used to correct for the bias in self-reports. Age-sex-country-year observations (n = 19,244) on prevalence of obesity and overweight were synthesized using a spatio-temporal Gaussian Process Regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals. Findings Globally, the proportion of adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or greater increased from 28.8% (95% UI: 28.4-29.3) in 1980 to 36.9% (36.3-37.4) in 2013 for men and from 29.8% (29.3-30.2) to 38.0% (37.5-38.5) for women. Increases were observed in both developed and developing countries. There have been substantial increases in prevalence among children and adolescents in developed countries, with 23.8% (22.9-24.7) of boys and 22.6% (21.7-23.6) of girls being either overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is also rising among children and adolescents in developing countries as well, rising from 8.1% (7.7-8.6) to 12.9% (12.3-13.5) in 2013 for boys and from 8.4% (8.1-8.8) to 13.4% (13.0-13.9) in girls. Among adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeds 50% among men in Tonga and women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has stabilized. Interpretation Because of the established health risks

  8. State and Regional Prevalence of Diagnosed Multiple Chronic Conditions Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Black, Lindsey I

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and care management of multiple (two or more) chronic conditions (MCC) are important public health concerns (1). Approximately 25% of U.S. adults have diagnoses of MCC (2). Care management of MCC presents a challenge to both patients and providers because of the substantial costs associated with treating more than one condition and the traditional care strategies that focus on single conditions as opposed to enhanced care coordination (3,4). Maintaining surveillance, targeting service delivery, and projecting resources are all important to meet this challenge, and these actions can be informed by identifying state and other regional variations in MCC prevalence (5,6). Data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate prevalence of MCC (defined as two or more of 10 diagnosed chronic conditions) for each U.S. state and region by age and sex. Significant state and regional variation in MCC prevalence was found, with state-level estimates ranging from 19.0% in Colorado to 38.2% in Kentucky. MCC prevalence also varied by region, ranging from 21.4% in the Pacific region to 34.5% in the East South Central region. The prevalence of MCC was higher among women than among men within certain U.S. regions, and was higher in older persons in all regions. Such findings further the research and surveillance objectives stated in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) publication, Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Strategic Framework (1). Furthermore, geographic disparities in MCC prevalence can inform state-level surveillance programs and groups targeting service delivery or allocating resources for MCC prevention activities. PMID:27467707

  9. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Sustained-Release Recombinant Human Growth Hormone in Korean Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngsook; Hong, Jae Won; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Sung-Woon; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jin Hwa; Kim, Byung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The administration of recombinant human growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency has been known to improve metabolic impairment and quality of life. Patients, however, have to tolerate daily injections of growth hormone. The efficacy, safety, and compliance of weekly administered sustained-release recombinant human growth hormone (SR-rhGH, Declage™) supplement in patients with growth hormone deficiency were evaluated. Materials and Methods This trial is 12-week prospective, single-arm, open-label trial. Men and women aged ≥20 years with diagnosed growth hormone deficiency (caused by pituitary tumor, trauma and other pituitary diseases) were eligible for this study. Each subject was given 2 mg (6 IU) of SR-rhGH once a week, subcutaneously for 12 weeks. Efficacy and safety at baseline and within 30 days after the 12th injection were assessed and compared. Score of Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA score) for quality of life and serum IGF-1 level. Results The IGF-1 level of 108.67±74.03 ng/mL was increased to 129.01±68.37 ng/mL (p=0.0111) and the AGHDA QoL score was decreased from 9.80±6.51 to 7.55±5.76 (p<0.0001) at week 12 compared with those at baseline. Adverse events included pain, swelling, erythema, and warmth sensation at the administration site, but many adverse events gradually disappeared during the investigation. Conclusion Weekly administered SR-rhGH for 12 weeks effectively increased IGF-1 level and improved the quality of life in patients with GH deficiency without serious adverse events. PMID:24954335

  11. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio Associated With Hearing Impairment Among Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yunji; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, June; Lee, Joo Kyung; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with hearing impairment among diabetic adults in Korea. The study was based on data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012. Participants were 1206 diabetic adults, aged over 19 years, who completed audiometric testing supervised by nationally certified clinicians. Hearing impairment was defined in three grades: no hearing impairment (pure-tone average 0–25 dB), slight hearing impairment (26–40 dB), and disabling hearing impairment (>40 dB) in the better ear at frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Using logistic regression, risk of hearing impairment was assessed after having controlled for confounding factors. Higher levels of ACR and lower levels of eGFR correlated with an increase in percentage of disabling hearing impairment both unilaterally and bilaterally (P < 0.001). Controlling for possible confounding covariates, odds ratios for hearing impairment showed tendency to increase in higher ACR groups (P for trend = 0.029). Similar pattern was examined between eGFR and hearing impairment (P for trend = 0.006). Odds ratios were 1.981 (1.146, 3.424) for ACR Q4 and 2.773 (1.286, 5.983) for eGFR < 60 mL/min. Fall in eGFR and rise in ACR correlated with severity of hearing impairment. The association existed independently of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, new onset of diabetes, education, income, mental stress, noise exposure, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:27124027

  12. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings. PMID:27482519

  13. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings. PMID:27482519

  14. Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

  15. Prevalence of Dentin Hypersensitivity and Related Factors Among Adult Patients Visiting a Dental School in Andhra Pradesh, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Ram K, Chaitanya; Sirisha, N R; Sree Y, Sandhya; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Satti, Narayana Reddy; Thatimatla, Chandrasekar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is a relatively common problem which may disturb the patient during eating, drinking, brushing and sometimes even breathing. It is a painful condition highly prevalent in the general adult population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of DH and to examine some associated factors such as initiating stimuli among adult patients. Materials and Methods: The study is done under two phases. In the first phase a cross-sectional study was carried out in 665 study volunteers. Only 212 adult patients who were meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were conveniently selected to the study. A detailed demographic data and a structured questionnaire regarding type of response, sensitivity episodes, and duration of sensation, and stimulus for initiation were recorded by the examiner. Evidence of DH was confirmed by the use of air blast and water from the air-water jet of the dental chair and scratching the suspected tooth surfaces which is indicated by study subjects with a dental probe and noting the responses by using visual analog scale (VAS). In the second phase the related factors or characteristics of DH were surveyed. Statistical analysis preformed by using methods of descriptive statistics and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: The overall prevalence of DH was found to be 32%. The most common cause was consuming cold food or drinks (92%) and common predisposing factor was gingival recession (28%). Probe method yields a higher VAS score followed by Air at 10 seconds and Water at 10 seconds which is statistically significant. Conclusion: The prevalence of DH in present study was 32% which is attributed to gingival recession as predisposing factor and cold stimuli. PMID:25386522

  16. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  17. Intercontinental differences in overweight of adopted Koreans in the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, Stanley; Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    A greater proportion of the United States (US) population is overweight or obese (with BMI over 25kg/m(2)) relative to all Western European populations, and it might be expected that migrants to either the US or Western Europe would develop patterns of overweight and obesity that reflect this difference. This paper examines the effects of obesogenic environments on Asians by reporting differences in rates of overweight (which is taken to include obesity in this analysis) among 261 adult South Koreans, which had been adopted in early-life into white middle class families living in the US and in Western European Nations. Data collected during an international adoption survey carried out for the Korean government in 2008 were analyzed. The prevalence of overweight of adopted Koreans raised in the US significantly exceeds the level among adopted Koreans in Europe by 11.3%. These intercontinental differences are statistically significant after controlling for sex, current age, age of adoption, and education. This paper supports the view that life-style factors are more detrimental for the weight status of people in the US than in Western Europe.

  18. Visceral Fat Mass Has Stronger Associations with Diabetes and Prediabetes than Other Anthropometric Obesity Indicators among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Suk Hwa; Ha, Kyoung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study determined which obesity measurement correlates the best with diabetes and prediabetes. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 1603 subjects (611 men, 992 women; age 30–64 years) at the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio, waist-thigh ratio, and visceral fat were used as measures of obesity. Visceral fat was acquired using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The prevalences of diabetes and prediabetes were defined using the criteria in the American Diabetes Association 2015 guidelines. Results After adjusting for age and other potential confounding factors, participants with a visce