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Sample records for korean eyes measured

  1. Eye Movements and Parafoveal Processing during Reading in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Parafoveal word processing was examined during Korean reading. Twenty-four native speakers of Korean read sentences in two conditions while their eye movements were being monitored. The boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) was used to create a mismatch between characters displayed before and after an eye movement contingent display change. In the…

  2. Linguistic Complexity and Information Structure in Korean: Evidence from Eye-Tracking during Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Lee, Hanjung; Gordon, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the memory processes that support language comprehension and the manner in which information packaging influences online sentence processing were investigated in three experiments that used eye-tracking during reading to measure the ease of understanding complex sentences in Korean. All three experiments examined reading of embedded…

  3. Exploring Cultural Variation in Eye Movements on a Web Page between Americans and Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Changwoo

    2009-01-01

    This study explored differences in eye movement on a Web page between members of two different cultures to provide insight and guidelines for implementation of global Web site development. More specifically, the research examines whether differences of eye movement exist between the two cultures (American vs. Korean) when viewing a Web page, and…

  4. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Thyroid Eye Disease among Korean Dysthyroid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of thyroid eye disease among dysthyroid Korean patients and to analyze the relationship between demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease and thyroid eye disease. Methods All dysthyroid patients who visited endocrinology clinics in 24 general hospitals in Korea during a chosen one-week period were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during an interviewer-administered questionnaire and chart review. Demographic data, lifestyle risk factors, and status of thyroid disease variables were analyzed as risk factors using multivariable regression models to identify independent associations with thyroid eye disease. Results A total of 1,632 dysthyroid patients were included (1,301 females [79.7%] and 331 males [20.3%]). Two hundred eighty-three of these patients (17.3%) had thyroid eye disease. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, young age, Graves' disease, dermopathy, anti-thyroid medication treatment, and radioiodine treatment were independent risk factors for thyroid eye disease. Conclusions The lower prevalence of thyroid eye disease in dysthyroid Korean patients and the influence of gender on risk factors in this study are novel findings compared to studies performed involving Europeans. Although the risk factors for thyroid eye disease are understood in part, a more in-depth comparative study of gender and ethnic groups is needed to fully understand the biological significance of the demographic factors. PMID:24311923

  6. Measuring Reflective Power with the Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang

    Although the legitimacy of using the eye as an essential instrument in photometric experiments had been questioned by critics, the practitioners of visual photometry in the 18th and 19th centuries were convinced that the eye was reliable and capable of making accurate judgments in comparing brightness. They demonstrated their belief through their efforts in searching for the optimal conditions for the eye in photometric measurements. Eventually, they were able to measure reflective power with accuracy comparable to today's standards by developing a body of practice, including both instrumental designs and experimental procedures, which aimed at maintaining the eye's sensibility in brightness comparison.

  7. Ultrasound velocities for axial eye length measurement.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, K J

    1994-09-01

    Since 1974, I have used individual sound velocities for each eye condition encountered for axial length measurement. The calculation results in 1,555 M/sec for the average phakic eye. A slower speed of 1,549 M/sec was found for an extremely long (30 mm) eye and a higher speed of 1,561 M/sec was noted for an extremely short (20 mm) eye. This inversely proportional velocity change can best be adjusted for by measuring the phakic eye at 1,532 M/sec and correcting the result by dividing the square of the measured axial length (AL1,532)2 by the difference of the measured axial length (AL1,532) minus 0.35 mm. A velocity of 1,534 M/sec was found for all aphakic eyes regardless of their length, and correction is clinically significant. The velocity of an eye containing a poly(methyl methacrylate) intraocular lens is not different from an average phakic eye but it does magnify the effect of axial length change. I recommend measuring the pseudophakic eye at 1,532 M/sec and adding to the result (AL1,532), + 0.04 + 44% of the IOL thickness. The speed for an eye with a silicone IOL was found to be 1,476 M/sec (or AL1,532 + 0.04 - 56% of IOL thickness) and for glass, 1,549 M/sec (or AL1,532 + 0.04 + 75% of IOL thickness). A speed of 1,139 M/sec was found for a phakic eye with silicone oil filling most of the vitreous cavity and 1,052 M/sec for an aphakic eye filled with oil. For varying volumes of oil, each eye should be calculated individually. The speed was 534 M/sec for phakic eyes filled with gas. Eyes containing a silicone IOL or oil or gas will create clinically significant errors (3 to 10 diopters) if the sound velocity is not corrected. PMID:7996413

  8. Etiology and Features of Eyes with Rubeosis Iridis among Korean Patients: A Population-Based Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yun Cheol; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the etiology and features of the eyes with rubeosis iridis among Korean patients. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective review of 533 Korean patients with rubeosis iridis who visited an eye hospital in Seoul, Korea. We defined rubeosis iridis as visible blood vessels on the iris surface detected during a slit-lamp examination. All cases were reviewed for age at the time of diagnosis, medical history, the most likely cause of rubeosis iridis, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure. Results The most commonly observed cause of rubeosis iridis was diabetic retinopathy (DR; n = 337, 63.2%), followed by retinal vein occlusion (RVO; n = 101, 18.9%), ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS; n = 24, 4.5%), retinal detachment (n = 17, 3.2%), and uveitis (n = 15, 2.8%). The cause was classified as miscellaneous in 18 cases (3.4%); in 21 eyes (3.9%), the cause was not clear. Age at the time of rubeosis iridis diagnosis was lower in patients with DR (56.5 years) than in those with RVO (61.0 years) and OIS (64.8 years; P < 0.01). Intraocular pressure of the eyes with DR (37.3 mmHg) and RVO (39.5 mmHg) was higher than that of the eyes with OIS (25.8 mmHg; P < 0.01). Conclusion In our population-based single center study, DR was the leading cause of rubeosis iridis followed by RVO and OIS among Korean patients. The clinical characteristics of the eyes with rubeosis iridis differed according to etiology. This finding may be useful when assessing eyes with rubeosis iridis. PMID:27490797

  9. Dynamic eye phantom for retinal oximetry measurements

    PubMed Central

    Lemaillet, Paul; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy. Recently, we developed a multiaperture camera that uses the division of the retinal image into several wavelength-sensitive subimages to compute retinal oxygen saturation. The calibration of such instruments is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose, we realize an in vitro model of the human eye composed of a lens, the retina vessel, and three layers: the choroid, the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the sclera. The retinal vessel is modeled with a microtube connected to a micropump and a hemoglobin reservoir in a closed circulatory system. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the vessel could be altered using a reversible fuel cell. The sclera is represented by a Spectralon slab. The optical properties of the other layers are mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer, ink as an absorber, and epoxy as a supporting structure. The optical thickness of each layer of the eye phantom is matched to each respective eye layer. PMID:20059246

  10. Dynamic eye phantom for retinal oximetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaillet, Paul; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2009-11-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy. Recently, we developed a multiaperture camera that uses the division of the retinal image into several wavelength-sensitive subimages to compute retinal oxygen saturation. The calibration of such instruments is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose, we realize an in vitro model of the human eye composed of a lens, the retina vessel, and three layers: the choroid, the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the sclera. The retinal vessel is modeled with a microtube connected to a micropump and a hemoglobin reservoir in a closed circulatory system. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the vessel could be altered using a reversible fuel cell. The sclera is represented by a Spectralon slab. The optical properties of the other layers are mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer, ink as an absorber, and epoxy as a supporting structure. The optical thickness of each layer of the eye phantom is matched to each respective eye layer.

  11. Understanding mechanisms in transitive inferences: an eye-tracking study in Korean reading.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan

    2013-12-01

    The current experiment examined the mechanism of relational information processing by assessing transitive inferences in different syntactic structures. More specifically, the current experiment focused on whether the demands of conscious inference processing interact with the difficulty of syntactic processing. This research used the eye-tracking method to investigate online processing mechanisms in complex sentences with transitive inference. Overall sentence reading times, accuracy rates of comprehension questions, and the two eye-movement measures of gaze duration and re-reading times were examined in 32 participants. The results showed that inference processing demands affected overall reading times and accuracy rates, while syntactic processing demands did not have an effect on overall reading times or accuracy rates. The results of the eye-tracking measures showed that syntactic processing demands affected gaze duration, while the inference processing demand affected re-reading times. Apparently, the difficulty of inference processing was not affected by the surface form of a sentence. The results of this study suggested that basic processes of sentence interpretation share resources with other cognitive processes such as inference.

  12. Detecting false intent using eye blink measures

    PubMed Central

    Marchak, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

  13. Measurement of eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    Do eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow actually make the eyes appear larger than they really are? If so, by what percentage? To answer these questions, we used psychophysical experiments. Experiment 1 manipulated the degree of eyeliner (four levels) and mascara (five levels), and measured perceived eye size using a psychophysical procedure called the staircase method. The results showed that both eyeliner and mascara make the eyes appear larger than they really are by up to 6% (13% in area), but their effects are not additive. Eyeliner increased perceived eye size only in the absence of mascara. In the presence of mascara, however, eyeliner has no additional effect. Experiment 2 measured perceived eye size with or without eye shadow and demonstrated that eye shadow increases perceived eye size by about 5% (10% in area). These findings indicate that one mechanism by which makeup and cosmetics alter facial appearances involves inducing visual illusions. In addition, it is suggested that the eye size illusion caused by eyeliner, mascara, and eye shadow uses the same mechanism as that of the Delboeuf illusion, a geometric illusion of assimilation.

  14. U.S. History through the Eyes of South Korean Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Sohyun; Kim, Myung Jung; Delacruz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The study begins with the premise of the critical need of increased understanding of others in our global times. Given the intensive and extensive, and often complicated and controversial relations between the United States and South Korea in its modern history, it is critical for South Korean youth to build a more accurate understanding of their…

  15. Cognitive performance baseline measurement and eye movement performance measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirre, Erik S.; Chase, Bradley; Tsai, Yi-Fang

    2005-05-01

    Personnel are often required to perform multiple simultaneous tasks at the limits of their cognitive capacity. In research surrounding cognitive performance resources for tasks during stress and high cognitive workload, one area of deficiency is measurement of individual differences. To determine the amount of attentional demand a stressor places on a subject, one must first know that all subjects are performing at the same level with the same amount of available capacity in the control condition. By equating the baselines of performance across all subjects ("baselining") we can control for differing amounts of performance capacity or attentional resources in each individual. For example, a given level of task performance without a time restriction may be equated across subjects to account for attentional resources. Training to a fixed level of proficiency with time limits might obliterate individual differences in mental resources. Eye movement parameters may serve as a real-time measure of attentional demand. In implementing a baselining technique to control for individual differences, eye movement behaviors will be associated with the true cognitive demands of task loading or other stressors. Using eye movement data as a proxy for attentional state, it may be possible to "close the loop" on the human-machine system, providing a means by which the system can adapt to the attentional state of the human operator. In our presentation, eye movement data will be shown with and without the benefit of the baselining technique. Experimental results will be discussed within the context of this theoretical framework.

  16. Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

  17. Influences of reference plane and direction of measurement on eye aberration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, David A.; Charman, W. Neil

    2005-12-01

    We explored effects of measurement conditions on wave aberration estimates for uncorrected, axially myopic model eyes. Wave aberrations were initially referenced to either the anterior corneal pole or the natural entrance pupil of symmetrical eye models, with rays traced into the eye from infinity (into the eye) to simulate normal vision, into the eye from infinity and then back out of the eye from the retinal intercepts (into/out of the eye), or out of the eye from the retinal fovea (out of the eye). The into-the-eye and out-of-the-eye ray traces gave increases in spherical aberration as myopia increased, but the into/out-of-the-eye ray trace showed little variation in spherical aberration. Reference plane choice also affected spherical aberration. Corresponding residual aberrations were calculated after the models had been optically corrected, either by placing the object or image plane at the paraxial far point or by modifying corneas to simulate laser ablation corrections. Correcting aberrations by ablation was more complete if the original aberrations were referenced to the cornea rather than to the entrance pupil. For eyes corrected by spectacle lenses, failure to allow for effects of pupil magnification on apparent entrance pupil diameter produced larger changes in measured aberrations. The general findings regarding choice of reference plane and direction of measurement were found to be equally applicable to eyes that lacked rotational symmetry.

  18. Preservation and Modification of Culture in Family Socialization: Development of Parenting Measures for Korean Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Drankus, Dina; Kim, Hyun Jee

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to describe the family socialization beliefs and practices of Korean immigrant parents through testing psychometric properties of several newly developed items and scales to assess the major components of the Korean traditional concept of family socialization, ga-jung-kyo-yuk. These new measures were examined for validity and reliability. The findings show that Korean immigrant parents largely preserve their traditional and core parenting values, while also showing meaningful, yet not very dramatic, signs of adopting new cultural traits. The results also suggest that the acculturative process may not be simply bilinear but may generate a new, unique and blended value and behavior set from the two (or more) cultures involved. Culturally appropriate practice requires not only further validation of existing knowledge with minority groups, but the development of a theoretical framework of family socialization that recognizes the cultural uniqueness of immigrant families. PMID:24765236

  19. Automated measurement of ommatidia in the compound eyes of beetles.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Bartosz W; Gudowska, Agnieszka; Kapustka, Filip; Labecka, Anna Maria; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-08-01

    The size of the ommatidia that compose the insect compound eye is linked to visual capacity, physiological performance, and cell size. Therefore, rapid and reliable methods for measuring ommatidia can advance research on insect ecology and evolution. We developed an automated method to measure ommatidia in nail polish imprints of the eyes of three Carabidae beetle species using the widely available, free software ImageJ. Our automated method was equivalent to a traditional manual method in terms of accuracy but had the advantage of being 70 times faster. We provide access to our algorithm, which can be used to investigate biological phenomena ranging from the functional architecture of the compound eye to the cellular basis of the evolution of body size and metabolic rates. PMID:26260089

  20. Usability of the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) with 5-Year-Old Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jooyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized test of music aptitude developed for American children yields results, which may have valid interpretation when used with 5-year-old Korean children. The specific questions regarding the Primary Measures of Music Audiation (PMMA) norms were: (1) Does PMMA when used with 5-year-old…

  1. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Anthropometric measurements (e.g. the height to the head, nose tip, eyes or shoulders) of a perpetrator based on video material may be used in criminal cases. However, several height measurements may be difficult to assess as the perpetrators may be disguised by clothes or headwear. The eye height (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during a complete gait cycle. The influence of head tilt on the EH was investigated in 20 healthy men. Markers were attached to the face and the subjects were instructed to stand relaxed, tilt their head to the right, to the left, forward and backward. The marker data for the right eye were used to calculate the EH. The respective deviation and SD from the relaxed standing EH and the EH in the Frankfurt plane, left tilted, right tilted, forward tilted and backward tilted, in addition to the corresponding head tilt angles were calculated. There was no correlation between the height of the subject and the maximum vertical displacement of the EH throughout the gait cycle nor between height of the subjects and the variation of the EH throughout the gait cycle. The average maximum vertical displacement for the test subject group was 4.76 cm (± 1.56 cm). The average EH was lower when the subjects were standing in the relaxed position than in the Frankfurt plane. The average EH was higher in the relaxed position than when the subjects tilted their heads, except when they tilted their heads backwards. The subjects had a slightly larger range of motion to the right than to the left, which was not significant. The results of this study provide a range for eye height estimates and may be readily implemented in forensic case work. It can be used as a reference in height estimates in cases with height

  2. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    SciTech Connect

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I

    2001-12-31

    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. Eye Movement Measurement in Diagnostic Assessment of Disorders of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Windsor Kwan-Chun; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We review the literature to appraise the evidence supporting or disputing the use of eye movement measurement in disorders of consciousness (DOC) with low levels of arousal or awareness, such as minimally conscious state (MCS), vegetative state (VS), and coma for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. We will focus on the effectiveness of each technique in the diagnostic classification of these patients and the gradual trend in research from manual to computerized tracking methods. New tools have become available at clinicians’ disposal to assess eye movements with high spatial and temporal fidelity. The close relationship between eye movement generation and organic dysfunction in the brain allows these tools to be applied to the assessment of severe DOC as a unique supplementary toolset. We posit that eye tracking can improve clinical diagnostic precision for DOC, a key component of assessment that often dictates the course of clinical care in DOC patients. We see the emergence of long-term eye-tracking studies with seamless integration of technology in the future to improve the performance of clinical assessment in DOC. PMID:25120529

  4. Development of an eyewear to measure eye and body movements.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, S; Ichi-Nohe, S; Shioya, S; Inoue, K; Kawashima, R

    2015-01-01

    To enable precise detection of mental and physical states of users in a daily life, we have been developing an eyewear to measure eye and body movement in a unrestricted way. The horizontal and vertical EOG (electrooculogram) signals are measured and amplified with three metal dry electrodes placed near nasion and both sides of rhinion, of which positions correspond to the bridge and nose pads of eyewear, respectively. The user's mental states like drowsiness, sleepiness, fatigue, or interest to objects can be identified by the movements and blinking of the eyes extracted from the measured EOG. And the six-axis motion sensor (three-axis accelerometer and three-axis gyroscope) mounted in the eyewear measures the body motion. As the sensor located near the head is on the body axis, this eyewear is suitable to measure user's movement or shift of center of gravity during physical exercise with a high precision. The measured signals are used to extract various events of eye and body movement by the mounted microcontroller chip, or can be transmitted to the external devices via Bluetooth communication. This device can enable you to look into "yourself", as well as outer scenes. In this presentation, the outline of the eyewear is introduced and some possible applications are shown. PMID:26736744

  5. Measurement of the photoreceptor pointing in the living chick eye.

    PubMed

    Walker, Maria K; Blanco, Leonardo; Kivlin, Rebecca; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan

    2015-04-01

    The chick eye is used in the study of ocular growth and emmetropization; however optical aberrations in the lens and cornea limit the ability to visualize fine retinal structure in living eyes. These aberrations can be corrected using adaptive optics (AO) allowing for cellular level imaging in vivo. Here, this capability is extended to measure the angular tuning properties of individual photoreceptors. The left eyes from two White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) labeled chick A and chick B, were imaged using an AO flood illuminated fundus camera. By translating the entrance pupil position, the same retinal location was illuminated with light of varying angles allowing for the measurement of individual photoreceptor pointing. At 30° nasal from the pecten tip, the pointing direction for both chicks was towards the pupil center with a narrow distribution. These particular chicks were found to have a temporal (T) and inferior (I) bias in the alignment with peak positions of (0.81 T, 0.23 I) and (0.57 T, 0.18 I) mm from the pupil center for chicks A and B respectively. The rho, ρ, values for the major, ρL, and minor, ρs, axes were 0.14 and 0.17mm(-2) for chick A and 0.09 and 0.20mm(-2) for chick B. The small disarray in the alignment of the chick photoreceptors implies that the photoreceptors are aligned to optimize the light entering the eye through the central portion of the pupil aperture. The ability to measure pointing properties of individual photoreceptors will have application in the study of eye growth and various retinal disorders.

  6. OPTICAL EYE MODEL: Human eye aberrations: 2. Development of a dynamic model of the human eye based on measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu; Kudryashov, A. V.

    2008-11-01

    A human eye model based on a flexible semipassive bimorph mirror is proposed and experimentally realised. The model can be used for the real-time reproduction of human eye aberrations and their fluctuations. The accuracy of the reproduction of individual Zernike polynomials and of total eye aberrations of inspected patients is discussed.

  7. Measuring immigration stress of first-generation female Korean immigrants in California: Psychometric evaluation of Demand of Immigration Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Norman, Gregory J.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Chhay, Douglas; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Immigration involves challenges and distress, which affect health and well-being of immigrants. Koreans are a recent, fast growing, but understudied group of immigrants in the US, and no study has established or evaluated any immigration stress measure among this population. This study explores the psychometric properties of Korean-translated Demands of Immigration (DI) Scale among first-generation female Korean immigrants in California. Analyses included evaluation of factor structure, reliability, validity, and descriptive statistics of subscales. Design A surname driven sampling strategy was applied to randomly select a representative sample of adult female Korean immigrants in California. Telephone interviews were conducted by trained bilingual interviewers. Study sample included 555 first-generation female Korean immigrants who were interviewed in Korean language. The 22-item DI scale was used to assess immigration stress in the study sample. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested six correlated factors existed in the DI scale: language barriers, sense of loss, not feeling at home, perceived discrimination, novelty, and occupation. Confirmatory Factor Analysis validated the factor structure. Language barriers accounted for the most variance of the DI Scale (29.11%). The DI scale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Conclusion Evidence has been offered that the Korean-translated DI scale is a reliable and valid measurement tool to examine immigration stress among Korean immigrants. The Korean-translated DI scale has replicated factor structure obtained in other ethnicities, but addition of cultural-specific items is suggested for Korean immigrants. High levels of language and occupation related stress warrant attention from researchers, social workers and policy makers. Findings from this study will inform future interventions to alleviate stress due to demands of immigration. PMID:21213157

  8. Evaluating Psychometric Properties of the Korean Translated Social Emotional Assessment Measure for Korean Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young Ah Kim

    2012-01-01

    Children's social emotional competence affects school achievement as well as later job success. Social emotional competence can be promoted when appropriate social emotional interventions are provided. To provide quality intervention, it is essential to use measures that include functional skills, promote team collaboration, and monitor…

  9. A Preformed Scleral Search Coil for Measuring Mouse Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Chris R. S.; Rosenfeld, Sam; Fontaine, Ethan; Markov, Alex; Phillips, James O.; Yarno, John

    2010-01-01

    Mice are excellent subjects for use of genetic-manipulation techniques to study the basis of pathological and normal physiology and behavior; however behavioral analyses of associated phenotypes is often limited. To improve the accuracy and specificity of repeated measurements of vestibular function, we developed a miniaturized, contact-lens scleral search coil to measure mouse eye movements. We describe the physical attributes and document its functionality by measuring vestibulo-ocular responses in normal mice. This coil should greatly improve the sensitivity and documentation of vestibular dysfunction in mouse models of pathology and dysfunction while allowing screening of significant numbers of subjects. PMID:20817027

  10. Improvement of air quality according to Mobile reduction measures to establish Korean Auto-oil program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunwoo, Y.; Jo, H.; Ma, Y.; Kim, S.; Hong, K.; Lim, Y.; Javascript:Setnextpage('sponsor')

    2011-12-01

    The mobile of NOx and PM10 emission of Korea in 2007 accounted for 42%, 23%, respectively (excluded fugitive dust). Seoul highly affected mobile emission which accounted for 46%, 49%, respectively. Korean government ,therefore, established "Special Act for improvement of air quality in Seoul metropolitan area" including mobile emission reduction measures and organized research forum including reformation of fuel and cars, risk assessment, control of greenhouse gas and assessment of air quality to establish Korean Auto-oil program This study quantitatively analyses improvement of air quality in Seoul according to the reformation of fuel and supply of DPF in Korean Auto-oil program. WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ were emploied for this study. SO2, CO, NOx, PM10 and VOCs emission are based on the INTEX-B emission inventory, NH3 were from the REAS emission inventory. Korea emission is derived by CAPSS (Clean Air Policy Support System) data. The reduction through reformation of fuel and supply of DPF is calculated by reduction ratio of air pollutants with strengthen fuel quality standard and number of car supplied DPF, refer to Metropolitan Air Quality Management Office Republic of Korea (2011) in detail. The effect of air quality is quantifiably comparing modeling results which are applied/not applied on the measures. This study will be provided basic data to establish Korean Auto-oil program through quantifying and predicting to improvement of air quality according to the mobile measures. Acknowledgement This research was supported in part by the "Assessment of risk and health benefits considering exposure characteristics of fuel" project sponsored by the Korea Automobile Environmental Association.

  11. Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim

    2013-03-01

    Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and-although very limited-negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research.

  12. Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim

    2013-01-01

    Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and—although very limited—negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:23977415

  13. Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim

    2013-03-01

    Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and-although very limited-negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:23977415

  14. Development of eye-safe lidar for aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Wilderson, Thomas D.

    1990-01-01

    Research is summarized on the development of an eye safe Raman conversion system to carry out lidar measurements of aerosol and clouds from an airborne platform. Radiation is produced at the first Stokes wavelength of 1.54 micron in the eye safe infrared, when methane is used as the Raman-active medium, the pump source being a Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 micron. Results are presented for an experimental study of the dependence of the 1.54 micron first Stokes radiation on the focusing geometry, methane gas pressure, and pump energy. The specific new technique developed for optimizing the first Stokes generation involves retroreflecting the backward-generated first Stokes light back into the Raman cell as a seed Stokes beam which is then amplified in the temporal tail of the pump beam. Almost 20 percent conversion to 1.54 micron is obtained. Complete, assembled hardware for the Raman conversion system was delivered to the Goddard Space Flight Center for a successful GLOBE flight (1989) to measure aerosol backscatter around the Pacific basin.

  15. Photometer for measuring intensity and rhodopsin distributions in intact eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Theodore P.; Webbers, Jacob P. P.

    1995-09-01

    We describe a photometer that measures light transmitted through excised eyes. The instrument, an ocular transmission photometer, employs sensitive single photon-counting techniques, and its usefulness has been tested by the study of the absorbance of rhodopsin in retinal rod cells in situ. We find that absorbances of rat rods agree well with those predicted by microspectrophotometry without making corrections for cellular mosaics. Additional tests of the ocular transmission photometer show that (a) the instrument is sensitive to subtle differences in rhodopsin absorbance, known to exist in specific locations in the rat retina, and (b) using the rate of rhodopsin bleaching as the measure of intensity, we can determine the intensity distribution at several locations across the rat retina.

  16. Noninvasive polarimetric glucose measurement system for eye phantoms and in-vivo measurement requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawer, Rainer C.; Vollmer, Patrick; Malz, Andre; Stork, Wilhem; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus D.

    2003-10-01

    Non-invasive monitoring of the glucose level is a key technology for improved diagnosis and therapy for Diabetes patients. Optical measurement techniques like polarimetry measuring at the human eye offer promising properties for non-invasive and painless application. This article presents a polarimetric measurement system utilizing the polarizing properties of the Aqueous Humour (AH) for quantative glucose measurements. In particular the special requirements of in-vivo measurements for such a system are discussed.

  17. Eye-Safe Lidar System for Pesticide Spray Drift Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R.

    2015-01-01

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

  18. Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2015-02-04

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m.

  19. Eye-safe lidar system for pesticide spray drift measurement.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, Eduard; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2015-01-01

    Spray drift is one of the main sources of pesticide contamination. For this reason, an accurate understanding of this phenomenon is necessary in order to limit its effects. Nowadays, spray drift is usually studied by using in situ collectors which only allow time-integrated sampling of specific points of the pesticide clouds. Previous research has demonstrated that the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique can be an alternative for spray drift monitoring. This technique enables remote measurement of pesticide clouds with high temporal and distance resolution. Despite these advantages, the fact that no lidar instrument suitable for such an application is presently available has appreciably limited its practical use. This work presents the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for the monitoring of pesticide clouds. Parameter design of this system is carried out via signal-to-noise ratio simulations. The instrument is based on a 3-mJ pulse-energy erbium-doped glass laser, an 80-mm diameter telescope, an APD optoelectronic receiver and optomechanically adjustable components. In first test measurements, the lidar system has been able to measure a topographic target located over 2 km away. The instrument has also been used in spray drift studies, demonstrating its capability to monitor the temporal and distance evolution of several pesticide clouds emitted by air-assisted sprayers at distances between 50 and 100 m. PMID:25658395

  20. Direct measurement of bull's-eye nanoantenna metal loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani Nia, Iman; Jang, Sung J.; Memis, Omer G.; Gelfand, Ryan; Mohseni, Hooman

    2013-09-01

    The loss in optical antennas can affect their performance for their practical use in many branches of science such as biological and solar cell applications. However the big question is that how much loss is due to the joule heating in the metals. This would affect the efficiency of solar cells and is very important for single photon detection and also for some applications where high heat generation in nanoantennas is desirable, for example, payload release for cancer treatment. There are few groups who have done temperature measurements by methods such as Raman spectroscopy or fluorescence polarization anisotropy. The latter method, which is more reliable than Raman spectroscopy, requires the deposition of fluorescent molecules on the antenna surface. The molecules and the polarization of radiation rotate depending upon the surface temperature. The reported temperature measurement accuracy in this method is about 0.1° C. Here we present a method based on thermo-reflectance that allows better temperature accuracy as well as spatial resolution of 500 nm. Moreover, this method does not require the addition of new materials to the nanoantenna. We present the measured heat dissipation from bull's-eye nanoantennas and compare them with 3D simulation results.

  1. Laser Measurement of Optical Errors of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut

    2006-01-01

    One way to motivate students' interest in physics is to teach it in the context of medicine. Optics, for example, can be taught with examples from the eye. For many years simple optics of lenses has been taught using a model of the eye. However, recent advances in using lasers for ophthalmological (ocular) examinations can be used to increase…

  2. What the Eyes Already "Know": Using Eye Movement Measurement to Tap into Children's Implicit Numerical Magnitude Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Angela; Thaler, Verena; Tamm, Sascha; Hawelka, Stefan; Schneider, Michael; Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Verschaffel, Lieven; Stern, Elsbeth; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2010-01-01

    To date, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of mismatches between children's "implicit" and "explicit" knowledge at certain points in development that become manifest by their gestures and gaze orientation in different problem solving contexts. Stimulated by this research, we used eye movement measurement to investigate the…

  3. Eye Movements in Autistic, Mentally Retarded and Normal Young Children: Simultaneous Measurement by an Eye Camera System for Autistic Children (ECSA) and an Electro-Oculography (EOG).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itoh, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    Smooth pursuit eye movements and saccadic eye movements in Japanese autistic, mentally retarded, and normal young children were simultaneously measured by an eye camera system (ECS) and an electro-oculography (EOG) system. The ECS was developed in the laboratory of the Research Institute for the Education of Exceptional Children at Tokyo Gakugei…

  4. Measurement Invariance of the Counselor Burnout Inventory across Cultures: A Comparison of U.S. and Korean Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrola, Paul A.; Yu, Kumlan; Sass, Daniel A.; Lee, Sang Min

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed scores from the Counselor Burnout Inventory for factorial validity, convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, and measurement invariance across U.S. and Korean counselors. Although evidence existed for factorial validity across both groups, mixed results emerged for the other forms of validity and…

  5. 1H NMR and calorimetric measurements on rabbit eye lenses.

    PubMed

    Gutsze, A; Bodurka, J; Olechnowicz, R; Buntkowsky, G; Limbach, H H

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic properties of water molecules in the rabbit lens were studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance line shape analysis, measurements of relaxation times as a function of temperature and calorimetric measurements. The experiments prove, as already suggested by other authors, that there are two types of water in the lens of rabbit eyes, namely bound unfreezable hydration water and bulk freezable water. Line shape analysis and relaxometry showed, that this two types of water exist in two different environments, which may be identified as the nucleus and the cortex of the lens. The line shape analysis showed furthermore that water molecules in the rabbit lens has a common spin lattice relaxation time (T1), but two different transverse relaxation times (T2A and T2B). The tentative model of fast water exchange on the T1 time scale and slow water exchange on the T2 time scale, was used to explain experimental proton relaxation data of the rabbit lens. An estimation for this exchange rate kex by comparing it to the relaxation times is given (T1(-1) < kex < T1(-1)). It has also been shown by a calorimetric measurements, that the lenses can be easily under-cooled to temperatures well below the freezing point of water. The achievable maximum undercooling temperature of the lens is a function of the cooling rate KC, therefore it has to be considered as an experimentally adjustable parameter which is not characteristic for the investigated sample. Thus it must be noted that any previous discussions about the specific value of the temperature of water crystallisation in biological systems need to be carefully reconsidered.

  6. Measuring health literacy among immigrants with a phonetic primary language: a case of Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Jiyun; Kim, Miyong T; Kim, Kim B

    2011-04-01

    While the need for understanding the issue of health literacy among ethnic minority groups with limited English skills is rapidly increasing in the US, it is difficult to find valid and useful health literacy tools for certain linguistic minorities. This study was designed to validate the Korean translation of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults-Short form (S-TOFHLA). Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA were administered to 98 Korean American women, together with REALM-English. Participants were first-generation immigrants who were educated in Korea. Both Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA resulted in a negatively-skewed distribution. REALM-English yielded well-distributed groups with significant correlations with Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P = 0.003 and 0.22, P = 0.03, respectively). Educational level was significantly correlated with REALM-English and Korean S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.39, P = 0.000 and 0.25, P = 0.014), but not with REALM-Korean. The translation of REALM and S-TOFHLA into the Korean language did not lead to a valid assessment of health literacy. A more systematic approach is needed to assess health literacy in immigrants with limited English skills, particularly those with a phonetic primary language. Meanwhile, REALM-English could be used as a crude health literacy test for individuals with some English skills.

  7. Cephalometric Angular Measurements of the Mandible Using Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Scans in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Kang, Seok Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted this study to analyze the values of the key cephalometric angular measurements of the mandible using 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography scans. Methods In the 106 enrolled patients, a 3D cephalometric analysis was performed to measure the angular variables of the mandible. These values were compared between the two sides and between the two sexes. Results The frontal measurements revealed that the mandibular body curve angle was larger on the left (Lt) side (right [Rt], 141.24±7.54; Lt, 142.68±6.94; P=0.002) and the gonial angle was larger on the right side (Rt, 134.37±8.44; Lt, 131.54±7.14; P<0.001). The sagittal measurements showed that the gonial angle was larger on the right side (Rt, 134.37±8.44; Lt, 131.54±7.14; P>0.05). Further, the transverse measurements revealed that the mandibular body curve angle was larger on the right side (Rt, 140.28±7.05; Lt, 137.56±6.23; P<0.001). Conclusions These results provide an average of the mandibular angular measurements for the Korean population, establishing a standard for determining surgical patient groups and outcome evaluations in the field of mandible contour surgery. PMID:26848443

  8. Normal Echocardiographic Measurements in a Korean Population Study: Part II. Doppler and Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Oh; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Seong-Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Lee, Mi-Rae; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Shin, Gil Ja; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Woo-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic and functional evaluation with Doppler and tissue Doppler study as a part of comprehensive echocardiography is essential but normal reference values have never been reported from Korean normal population especially according to age and sex. Methods Using Normal echOcaRdiographic Measurements in a KoreAn popuLation study subjects, we obtained normal reference values for Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography including tricuspid annular velocities according to current guidelines and compared values according to gender and age groups. Results Mitral early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) velocity as well as E/A ratio were significantly higher in women compared to those in men. Conversely, mitral peak systolic and late diastolic annular velocity in both septal and lateral mitral annulus were significantly lower in women compared to those in men. However, there were no significant differences in both septal and lateral mitral early diastolic annular (e') velocity between men and women. In both men and women, mitral E velocity and its deceleration time as well as both E/A and E/e' ratio considerably increased with age. There were no significant differences in tricuspid inflow velocities and tricuspid lateral annular velocities between men and women except e' velocity, which was significantly higher in women compared to that in men. However, changes in both tricuspid inflow and lateral annular velocities according to age were similar to those in mitral velocities. Conclusion Since there were significant differences in Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic variables between men and women and changes according to age were even more considerable in both gender groups, normal Doppler echocardiographic values should be differentially applied based on age and sex. PMID:27358707

  9. Things Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  10. The effects of objectively measured physical activity and fitness on fear of falling among Korean older women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung; Lim, Seung-Kil; Shin, Sohee; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) on fear of falling (FOF) among older adults. The subjects were 94 Korean females aged 65–79. PA was measured with accelerometers, PF with the senior fitness test and FOF with the Korean Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly. With the subjects’ age, number of chronic conditions, and history of falls included as correction factors, a multiple regression analysis showed that PA (P=0.016) and agility/dynamic balance measured by the 8-foot up-and-go test (UNG) (P=0.001) significantly influenced FOF. The FOF of the slowest UNG quartile was significantly higher than those of other groups (P=0.002). This study concludes that among female older adults agility/dynamic balance as measured by UNG is the main factor impacting FOF and individuals with markedly low UNG tend to have high FOF. PMID:27807530

  11. In-situ Measurements of the Cosmic Radiation on the Aircraft Altitude over Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Park, I.; Lee, J.; Oh, S.; Kim, Y. C.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the comparison between the measured and modeled cosmic radiation on aircraft altitude over Korean peninsula. We performed the measurement with a radiation spectrometer, Liulin-6K on board a Republic of Korea (ROK) Air Force aircraft accomplishing the high-altitude (above 9 km) flight over Korea, and the modeled data was obtained from the operational modeling program, CARI-6M developed by FAA. A number of measurements for the flight mission at high-altitude have been executed to evaluate the exposed dose of cosmic radiation. Both the measured and the calculated data show that the exposed radiation dose enhances dramatically as the altitude increases. The results reveal that the exposed dose rate of aircrews at high-altitude flight is 2-3 orders of magnitude (1-2 mSv/hour) higher than the exposure rate at sea level. It is inferred that the annual total dose of radiation for the aircrews at high-altitude could be higher than the annually public limit (1 mSv) recommended by ICRP. Finally, since neutrons are the dominant components reflecting among total cosmic radiation above 9 km, we try to analyze the relationship between the neutron count from the neutron monitor on the ground and the effective dose from the on board spectrometer. Based on these results, it is suggested that the annual criterion and the proper managing procedure of exposed dose for the flight aircrews of ROK Air Force should be regulated.

  12. Secondary neutron dose measurement for proton eye treatment using an eye snout with a borated neutron absorber

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We measured and assessed ways to reduce the secondary neutron dose from a system for proton eye treatment. Methods Proton beams of 60.30 MeV were delivered through an eye-treatment snout in passive scattering mode. Allyl diglycol carbonate (CR-39) etch detectors were used to measure the neutron dose in the external field at 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm depths in a water phantom. Secondary neutron doses were measured and compared between those with and without a high-hydrogen–boron-containing block. In addition, the neutron energy and vertices distribution were obtained by using a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. Results The ratio of the maximum neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose (H(10)/D) at 2.00 cm from the beam field edge was 8.79 ± 1.28 mSv/Gy. The ratio of the neutron dose equivalent to the proton absorbed dose with and without a high hydrogen-boron containing block was 0.63 ± 0.06 to 1.15 ± 0.13 mSv/Gy at 2.00 cm from the edge of the field at depths of 0.00, 1.64, and 6.00 cm. Conclusions We found that the out-of-field secondary neutron dose in proton eye treatment with an eye snout is relatively small, and it can be further reduced by installing a borated neutron absorbing material. PMID:23866307

  13. Static and Dynamic Measurement of Ocular Surface Temperature in Dry Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Srinivasan; Morgan, Philip B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To study ocular surface temperature (OST) in dry eyes by static and dynamic measures. Methods. OST was recorded on 62 dry eyes and 63 age- and sex-matched controls. Static measures were study of absolute OST at t = 0, 5, and 10 s after eye opening. Dynamic measures were study of mean change and net change in OST over 10 s of sustained eye opening. Ten OST indices studied were temperatures of the geometric center of the cornea (GCC), extreme temporal (T1) and nasal conjunctiva (T4), midtemporal (CT) and nasal conjunctiva (CN), temporal (LT) and nasal (LN) limbus, and mean (MOST), maximum (Max T), and minimum (Min T) temperatures of the region of interest. Results. For static measures, dry eyes recorded significantly lower GCC, MOST, Min T, Max T, T4, CT, LT, LN, and CN. For dynamic measures, dry eyes had significantly steeper regression line of mean change (corresponding to greater net change) for Max T 5 s onward and T4 at 3 s onward. Conclusions. Both static and dynamic measures of the OST were valuable and can be used as clinical tool to assess dry eye. PMID:27433352

  14. Measurement of intraocular distances in human eyes by using Fourier domain low-coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liang; Zhu, Lida; Li, Qinghua; Ma, Zhenhe; Wang, Bo; Wang, Yi

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a system for rapidly measuring the intraocular distances of human eyes in vivo with high sensitivity by using Fourier domain low-coherence interferometry. The system mainly consisting of a rapid focus displacement unit and a reference arm which has a variable optical path length. This system is capable of providing a complete biometrical assessment of a human eye in a single measurement procedure, including cornea thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and axial length. The system is experimentally verified by measuring the four parameters of a human eye in vivo.

  15. Real-Time Detection and Measurement of Eye Features from Color Images

    PubMed Central

    Borza, Diana; Darabant, Adrian Sergiu; Danescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    The accurate extraction and measurement of eye features is crucial to a variety of domains, including human-computer interaction, biometry, and medical research. This paper presents a fast and accurate method for extracting multiple features around the eyes: the center of the pupil, the iris radius, and the external shape of the eye. These features are extracted using a multistage algorithm. On the first stage the pupil center is localized using a fast circular symmetry detector and the iris radius is computed using radial gradient projections, and on the second stage the external shape of the eye (of the eyelids) is determined through a Monte Carlo sampling framework based on both color and shape information. Extensive experiments performed on a different dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. In addition, this work provides eye annotation data for a publicly-available database. PMID:27438838

  16. Real-Time Detection and Measurement of Eye Features from Color Images.

    PubMed

    Borza, Diana; Darabant, Adrian Sergiu; Danescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    The accurate extraction and measurement of eye features is crucial to a variety of domains, including human-computer interaction, biometry, and medical research. This paper presents a fast and accurate method for extracting multiple features around the eyes: the center of the pupil, the iris radius, and the external shape of the eye. These features are extracted using a multistage algorithm. On the first stage the pupil center is localized using a fast circular symmetry detector and the iris radius is computed using radial gradient projections, and on the second stage the external shape of the eye (of the eyelids) is determined through a Monte Carlo sampling framework based on both color and shape information. Extensive experiments performed on a different dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. In addition, this work provides eye annotation data for a publicly-available database. PMID:27438838

  17. Comparing Eye Tracking with Electrooculography for Measuring Individual Sentence Comprehension Duration

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jana Annina; Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a procedure for performing the audio-visual paradigm introduced by Wendt et al. (2015) with reduced practical challenges. The original paradigm records eye fixations using an eye tracker and calculates the duration of sentence comprehension based on a bootstrap procedure. In order to reduce practical challenges, we first reduced the measurement time by evaluating a smaller measurement set with fewer trials. The results of 16 listeners showed effects comparable to those obtained when testing the original full measurement set on a different collective of listeners. Secondly, we introduced electrooculography as an alternative technique for recording eye movements. The correlation between the results of the two recording techniques (eye tracker and electrooculography) was r = 0.97, indicating that both methods are suitable for estimating the processing duration of individual participants. Similar changes in processing duration arising from sentence complexity were found using the eye tracker and the electrooculography procedure. Thirdly, the time course of eye fixations was estimated with an alternative procedure, growth curve analysis, which is more commonly used in recent studies analyzing eye tracking data. The results of the growth curve analysis were compared with the results of the bootstrap procedure. Both analysis methods show similar processing durations. PMID:27764125

  18. A Major Locus for Quantitatively Measured Shank Skin Color Traits in Korean Native Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Jin, S.; Lee, J. H.; Seo, D. W.; Cahyadi, M.; Choi, N. R.; Heo, K. N.; Jo, C.; Park, H. B.

    2016-01-01

    Shank skin color of Korean native chicken (KNC) shows large color variations. It varies from white, yellow, green, bluish or grey to black, whilst in the majority of European breeds the shanks are typically yellow-colored. Three shank skin color-related traits (i.e., lightness [L*], redness [a*], and yellowness [b*]) were measured by a spectrophotometer in 585 progeny from 68 nuclear families in the KNC resource population. We performed genome scan linkage analysis to identify loci that affect quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC. All these birds were genotyped with 167 DNA markers located throughout the 26 autosomes. The SOLAR program was used to conduct multipoint variance-component quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. We detected a major QTL that affects b* value (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 47.5, p = 1.60×10−49) on GGA24 (GGA for Gallus gallus). At the same location, we also detected a QTL that influences a* value (LOD = 14.2, p = 6.14×10−16). Additionally, beta-carotene dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2), the obvious positional candidate gene under the linkage peaks on GGA24, was investigated by the two association tests: i.e., measured genotype association (MGA) and quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT). Significant associations were detected between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and a* (PMGA = 1.69×10−28; PQTDT = 2.40×10−25). The strongest associations were between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and b* (PMGA = 3.56×10−66; PQTDT = 1.68×10−65). However, linkage analyses conditional on the single nucleotide polymorphism indicated that other functional variants should exist. Taken together, we demonstrate for the first time the linkage and association between the BCDO2 locus on GGA24 and quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC. PMID:27383802

  19. Measurement of eye lens dose for Varian On-Board Imaging with different cone-beam computed tomography acquisition techniques.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Sudesh; Dhote, Deepak; Thakur, Kalpna; Pawar, Amol; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Munish; Kulkarni, M S; Sharma, S D; Kannan, V

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to measure patient eye lens dose for different cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocols of Varian's On-Board Imaging (OBI) system using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) and to study the variation in eye lens dose with patient geometry and distance of isocenter to the eye lens. During the experimental measurements, OSLD was placed on the patient between the eyebrows of both eyes in line of nose during CBCT image acquisition to measure eye lens doses. The eye lens dose measurements were carried out for three different cone-beam acquisition protocols (standard dose head, low-dose head [LDH], and high-quality head [HQH]) of Varian OBI. Measured doses were correlated with patient geometry and distance between isocenter and eye lens. Measured eye lens doses for standard head and HQH protocols were in the range of 1.8-3.2 mGy and 4.5-9.9 mGy, respectively. However, the measured eye lens dose for the LDH protocol was in the range of 0.3-0.7 mGy. The measured data indicate that eye lens dose to patient depends on the selected imaging protocol. It was also observed that eye lens dose does not depend on patient geometry but strongly depends on distance between eye lens and treatment field isocenter. However, undoubted advantages of imaging system should not be counterbalanced by inappropriate selection of imaging protocol, especially for very intense imaging protocol. PMID:27651564

  20. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  1. The cutoff values of indirect indices for measuring insulin resistance for metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Woo; Park, Sang Hoo; Kim, Yoojin; Im, Minji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and percentile distribution of insulin resistance (IR) among Korean children and adolescents were investigated. The cutoff values of IR were calculated to identify high-risk MetS groups. Methods Data from 3,313 Korean subjects (1,756 boys and 1,557 girls, aged 10–18 years) were included from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted during 2007–2010. Three different sets of criteria for MetS were used. Indirect measures of IR were homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index. The cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were obtained from the receiver operation characteristic curves. Results According to the MetS criteria of de Ferranti el al., Cook et al., and the International Diabetes Federation, the prevalence rates in males and females were 13.9% and 12.3%, 4.6% and 3.6%, and 1.4% and 1.8%, respectively. Uses these 3 criteria, the cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were 2.94 and 8.41, 3.29 and 8.38, and 3.54 and 8.66, respectively. The cutoff values using each of the 3 criteria approximately corresponds to the 50th–75th, 75th, and 75th–90th percentiles of normal HOMA-IR and TyG index levels. Conclusion This study describes the prevalence rates of MetS in Korean children and adolescents, an index of IR, and the cutoff values for MetS with the aim of detecting high-risk groups. The usefulness of these criteria needs to be verified by further evaluation. PMID:27777906

  2. Measuring positive emotions in cows: Do visible eye whites tell us anything?

    PubMed

    Proctor, Helen S; Carder, Gemma

    2015-08-01

    Insight into the emotional lives of animals is of utmost importance to the welfare of the billions of animals in our care, yet little is known about how to measure these states. Scientific understanding of how to measure and interpret positive emotional states is particularly lacking, although recent years have seen a notable increase in such studies. This study explored whether the percentage of visible eye whites is a valid measure of a low arousal, positive emotional state in dairy cows (Bos taurus), by using stroking as the positive stimulus. Thirteen dairy cows were studied over a period of two months, and a total of 372 full 15minute focal observations were performed. Each focal observation comprised three 5minute phases: pre-stroking (baseline), stroking (stimulus), and post-stroking (post-stimulus), and the focal cow's behaviours were recorded throughout each observation, and the focal eye was filmed for later analysis. Following data collection we calculated the percentage of visible eye white at nine pre-determined measurement points throughout each focal observation. The eye white data were analysed using the one-way repeated measures ANOVA test. The percentage of visible eye white dropped during stroking compared with during both the pre-stroking and post-stroking phases (ANOVA: F1.242, 14.9=4.32, P=0.025). The behaviours were analysed using Friedman's ANOVA and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. Behaviours known to be associated with positive emotions in cows were performed during the stroking phase of the focal observation, supporting the use of stroking as a stimulus to induce a positive, low arousal emotional state. This study has explored the potential of visible eye whites as a measure of positive emotions and arousal, and our results support previous studies which suggest that eye whites may serve as a dynamic measure of emotion and arousal.

  3. Measuring positive emotions in cows: Do visible eye whites tell us anything?

    PubMed

    Proctor, Helen S; Carder, Gemma

    2015-08-01

    Insight into the emotional lives of animals is of utmost importance to the welfare of the billions of animals in our care, yet little is known about how to measure these states. Scientific understanding of how to measure and interpret positive emotional states is particularly lacking, although recent years have seen a notable increase in such studies. This study explored whether the percentage of visible eye whites is a valid measure of a low arousal, positive emotional state in dairy cows (Bos taurus), by using stroking as the positive stimulus. Thirteen dairy cows were studied over a period of two months, and a total of 372 full 15minute focal observations were performed. Each focal observation comprised three 5minute phases: pre-stroking (baseline), stroking (stimulus), and post-stroking (post-stimulus), and the focal cow's behaviours were recorded throughout each observation, and the focal eye was filmed for later analysis. Following data collection we calculated the percentage of visible eye white at nine pre-determined measurement points throughout each focal observation. The eye white data were analysed using the one-way repeated measures ANOVA test. The percentage of visible eye white dropped during stroking compared with during both the pre-stroking and post-stroking phases (ANOVA: F1.242, 14.9=4.32, P=0.025). The behaviours were analysed using Friedman's ANOVA and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. Behaviours known to be associated with positive emotions in cows were performed during the stroking phase of the focal observation, supporting the use of stroking as a stimulus to induce a positive, low arousal emotional state. This study has explored the potential of visible eye whites as a measure of positive emotions and arousal, and our results support previous studies which suggest that eye whites may serve as a dynamic measure of emotion and arousal. PMID:25862928

  4. Toward an Appropriate Baseline for Measures of Eye Movement Behavior During Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Scott A.; Shillcock, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    In empirical studies of human eye movement behavior during reading, it is common to compute various summary measures from the data, but these measures are typically not evaluated with respect to corresponding measures of baseline performance. The authors present a method for deriving an appropriate baseline by mapping the actual behavior to a…

  5. Horizontal Eye Position Affects Measured Vertical VOR Gain on the Video Head Impulse Test

    PubMed Central

    McGarvie, Leigh A.; Martinez-Lopez, Marta; Burgess, Ann M.; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Curthoys, Ian S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/hypothesis: With the video head impulse test (vHIT), the vertical VOR gain is defined as (vertical eye velocity/vertical head velocity), but compensatory eye movements to vertical canal stimulation usually have a torsional component. To minimize the contribution of torsion to the eye movement measurement, the horizontal gaze direction should be directed 40° from straight ahead so it is in the plane of the stimulated canal plane pair. Hypothesis: as gaze is systematically moved horizontally away from canal plane alignment, the measured vertical VOR gain should decrease. Study design: Ten healthy subjects, with vHIT measuring vertical eye movement to head impulses in the plane of the left anterior-right posterior (LARP) canal plane, with gaze at one of five horizontal gaze positions [40°(aligned with the LARP plane), 20°, 0°, −20°, −40°]. Methods: Every head impulse was in the LARP plane. The compensatory eye movement was measured by the vHIT prototype system. The one operator delivered every impulse. Results: The canal stimulus remained identical across trials, but the measured vertical VOR gain decreased as horizontal gaze angle was shifted away from alignment with the LARP canal plane. Conclusion: In measuring vertical VOR gain with vHIT the horizontal gaze angle should be aligned with the canal plane under test. PMID:25852637

  6. The Choroidal Eye Oximeter - An instrument for measuring oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laing, R. A.; Danisch, L. A.; Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Choroidal Eye Oximeter is an electro-optical instrument that noninvasively measures the oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in the back of the human eye by a spectrophotometric method. Since choroidal blood is characteristic of blood which is supplied to the brain, the Choroidal Eye Oximeter can be used to monitor the amount of oxygen which is supplied to the brain under varying external conditions. The instrument consists of two basic systems: the optical system and the electronic system. The optical system produces a suitable bi-chromatic beam of light, reflects this beam from the fundus of the subject's eye, and onto a low-noise photodetector. The electronic system amplifies the weak composite signal from the photodetector, computes the average oxygen saturation from the area of the fundus that was sampled, and displays the value of the computed oxygen saturation on a panel meter.

  7. Accuracy of topographic measurements in a model eye with the laser tomographic scanner.

    PubMed

    Dreher, A W; Weinreb, R N

    1991-10-01

    The authors evaluated the accuracy of topographic measurements with the laser tomographic scanner using a model eye. Diameter, depth, and shape at different axial lengths of four sample holes that simulated optic nerve heads in phakic and aphakic conditions were determined by confocal imaging. The computer-generated cross-section profiles of the simulated optic nerve heads corresponded well with the actual contours as photographed by scanning electron microscopy. The average relative error in diameter was 2.0% (range: 0.3-2.9%) for the phakic model eye and 3.6% (range: 0.6-8.2%) for the aphakic model eye. The average relative error in depth was 11.7% (range: 1.2-20.1%) for the phakic model eye and 10.1% (range: 1.7-22.6%) for the aphakic model.

  8. Improved computing scheme for measuring eye alignment with Purkinje images I and IV.

    PubMed

    Barry, J C; Backes, A; Pongs, U M; Kirschkamp, T; Dunne, M C

    1997-09-01

    This study introduces an improved computing scheme for determining eye rotation from Purkinje images I and IV. The original computing scheme systematically underestimated eye rotation. Paraxial raytracing calculations revealed that this error resulted from failure to account for the fact that Purkinje images I and IV fall at different distances behind the cornea. The error could be overcome with a correction factor derived from paraxial raytracing calculations. A series of experiments were carried out to test the validity of this correlation factor, involving exact raytracing calculations as well as measurements on physical model eyes and human eyes. The influence on the correction factor of ocular surface asphericity, accommodation, age and ocular component variations were examined. The new method was also compared to Hirschberg's technique, which makes use of Purkinje image I alone, as a means of screening for strabismus. PMID:9390370

  9. Tilt and decentration tolerance of intraocular lenses: measurements with an improved mechanical model eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traxler, Lukas; Reutterer, Bernd; Bayer, Natascha; Rank, Elisabet; Krause, Sylvio; Beckert, Erik; Drauschke, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Cataract, a clouding of the crystalline eye lens, is the leading cause of blindness. It can effectively be treated by cataract surgery, where the clouded lens is replaced by an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). Postoperative healing processes can cause a displacement of the IOL, which further leads to the fact that the quality of vision is deteriorated. Studies have shown that the imaging quality of high sophisticated IOL designs is more sensitive to lens displacements than simpler designs. The effects of IOL displacements are not well represented and tested within the current IOL test standard ISO 11979-2. This fact leads to the necessity to develope new test standards for novel and more sophisticated IOL designs. In this paper we present an improved model eye, which extends the current standard in three main aspects: First, the eye-model is very close to the physiology of the human eye. Second, electromechanic drives allow an automatic and precise simulation of postoperative lens tilts and decentrations, and finally in addition to standard conform MTF analysis, in the proposed setup also wavefront aberrations are measured. The latter reveals specific image aberrations caused by lens displacements. The model eye allows to objectively analyze the displacement tolerance of various IOL designs. The functionality of this novel setup is tested by measuring a spherical and an aspheric IOL design. Additionally, for comparison, IOLs that were already investigated with a previous version of the presented model eye are used for analysis. Measurements results reveal improvements compared to the previous version of the model eye and a functional prototype for wavefront measurement.

  10. Eye-Tracking Measurements of Language Processing: Developmental Differences in Children at High Risk for ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chita-Tegmark, Meia; Arunachalam, Sudha; Nelson, Charles A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    To explore how being at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), based on having an older sibling diagnosed with ASD, affects word comprehension and language processing speed, 18-, 24- and 36-month-old children, at high and low risk for ASD were tested in a cross-sectional study, on an eye gaze measure of receptive language that measured how…

  11. Clinical use of three-dimensional video measurements of eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merfeld, D. M.; Black, F. O.; Wade, S.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Noninvasive measurements of three-dimensional eye position can be accurately achieved with video methods. A case study showing the potential clinical benefit of these enhanced measurements is presented along with some thoughts about technological advances, essential for clinical application, that are likely to occur in the next several years.

  12. A Model-Based Approach for the Measurement of Eye Movements Using Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, Kwangjae; Reschke, Millard F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a video eye-tracking algorithm which searches for the best fit of the pupil modeled as a circular disk. The algorithm is robust to common image artifacts such as the droopy eyelids and light reflections while maintaining the measurement resolution available by the centroid algorithm. The presented algorithm is used to derive the pupil size and center coordinates, and can be combined with iris-tracking techniques to measure ocular torsion. A comparison search method of pupil candidates using pixel coordinate reference lookup tables optimizes the processing requirements for a least square fit of the circular disk model. This paper includes quantitative analyses and simulation results for the resolution and the robustness of the algorithm. The algorithm presented in this paper provides a platform for a noninvasive, multidimensional eye measurement system which can be used for clinical and research applications requiring the precise recording of eye movements in three-dimensional space.

  13. Influence of environmental factors on infrared eye temperature measurements in cattle.

    PubMed

    Church, J S; Hegadoren, P R; Paetkau, M J; Miller, C C; Regev-Shoshani, G; Schaefer, A L; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-02-01

    Environmental factors were evaluated to determine potential limitations in using cattle eye temperatures obtained through infrared thermography (IRT) for early disease detection systems or in animal welfare research studies. The effects of the following factors on IRT eye temperatures in cattle and a fabricated surrogate "eye" were evaluated: camera to object distance, wind speed, camera settings (distance, emissivity, and humidity), and solar loading. Wind speed in both live animals and using a surrogate "eye" was found to decrease the IRT temperature. In the presence of ∼ 7 km/h wind, the mean IRT eye temperature decreased by 0.43 ± 0.13 °C and; at higher wind speeds (∼ 12 km/h), the temperature decreased by 0.78 ± 0.33 °C. Direct sunlight was found to increase the IRT eye temperature by 0.56 ± 0.36 °C. It was determined that environmental factors impact IRT temperature measurements significantly and therefore must be managed to ensure reproducible and accurate readings.

  14. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Noninvasive Keratograph 5M Measurements in Patients with Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lei; Qu, Jing-hao; zhang, Xiao-yu; Sun, Xu-guang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the intraexaminer repeatability and interexaminer reproducibility of tear meniscus height (TMH) and noninvasive Keratograph tear breakup time (NIKBUT) measurements obtained with the Keratograph 5M (K5M) in a sample of healthy and dry eye populations. Methods. Forty-two patients with dry eye disease (DED group) and 42 healthy subjects (healthy group) were recruited in this prospective study. In all subjects, each eye received 3 consecutive measurements using the K5M for the TMH and NIKBUTs (NIKBUT-first and NIKBUT-average). And then a different examiner repeated the measurements. The repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The repeatability and reproducibility of TMH and NIKBUTs were good in both DED and healthy groups (CV% ≤ 26.1% and ICC ≥ 0.75 for all measurements). Patients with DED showed better intraexaminer repeatability for NIKBUTs, but worse for TMH than healthy subjects. Average TMH, NIKBUT-first, and NIKBUT-average were significantly lower in DED group than in healthy group (all P values < 0.05). Conclusions. Measurements of TMH and NIKBUTs obtained with the K5M may provide a simple, noninvasive screening test for dry eye with acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. The NIKBUTs were more reliable, but TMH was less reliable in patients with DED. PMID:27190639

  15. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Noninvasive Keratograph 5M Measurements in Patients with Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Qu, Jing-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Xu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the intraexaminer repeatability and interexaminer reproducibility of tear meniscus height (TMH) and noninvasive Keratograph tear breakup time (NIKBUT) measurements obtained with the Keratograph 5M (K5M) in a sample of healthy and dry eye populations. Methods. Forty-two patients with dry eye disease (DED group) and 42 healthy subjects (healthy group) were recruited in this prospective study. In all subjects, each eye received 3 consecutive measurements using the K5M for the TMH and NIKBUTs (NIKBUT-first and NIKBUT-average). And then a different examiner repeated the measurements. The repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were assessed by the coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results. The repeatability and reproducibility of TMH and NIKBUTs were good in both DED and healthy groups (CV% ≤ 26.1% and ICC ≥ 0.75 for all measurements). Patients with DED showed better intraexaminer repeatability for NIKBUTs, but worse for TMH than healthy subjects. Average TMH, NIKBUT-first, and NIKBUT-average were significantly lower in DED group than in healthy group (all P values < 0.05). Conclusions. Measurements of TMH and NIKBUTs obtained with the K5M may provide a simple, noninvasive screening test for dry eye with acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. The NIKBUTs were more reliable, but TMH was less reliable in patients with DED. PMID:27190639

  16. Ocular water evaporation and the dry eye. A new measuring device.

    PubMed

    Mathers, W D; Binarao, G; Petroll, M

    1993-07-01

    We developed a simple device to measure the water evaporation from the ocular surface, and we measured the evaporation rate in 18 normal individuals. We compared this to a group of 15 patients with dry eye from low tear production. We found the normal rate of water evaporation from the ocular surface to be 14.7 +/- 6.4 x 10(-7) g/cm2/s or 0.14 +/- 0.06 microliter/min at 30% relative humidity. For dry eye patients, the rate was significantly increased to 47.6 +/- 20.1 x 10(-7) g/cm2/s or 0.43 +/- 0.19 microliter/min (p < 0.005). Neither group showed any evidence of meibomian gland dysfunction that might have increased evaporation. From these results, we conclude that evaporation is accelerated when tear production decreases and is of sufficient magnitude to exacerbate the dry eye.

  17. Lyin' eyes: ocular-motor measures of reading reveal deception.

    PubMed

    Cook, Anne E; Hacker, Douglas J; Webb, Andrea K; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean D; Woltz, Dan J; Kircher, John C

    2012-09-01

    Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants' ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a "guilty" group that committed one of two mock crimes or an "innocent" group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants' incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and rereading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception-vigilance and strategy-and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts.

  18. Measuring Cognitive Load with Electroencephalography and Self-Report: Focus on the Effect of English-Medium Learning for Korean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjeong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated a reliable and valid method for measuring cognitive load during learning through comparing various types of cognitive load measurements: electroencephalography (EEG), self-reporting, and learning outcome. A total of 43 college-level students underwent watching a documentary delivered in English or in Korean. EEG was…

  19. Using Reading Times and Eye-Movements to Measure Cognitive Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Self-paced reading and eye-tracking can be used to measure microlevel student engagement during science instruction. These methods imply a definition of engagement as the quantity and quality of mental resources directed at an object and the emotions and behaviors entailed. This definition is theoretically supported by models of reading…

  20. Eye Tracking as a Measure of Noticing: A Study of Explicit Recasts in SCMC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether eye-tracking technology could be employed as a measure of noticing of corrective feedback (in the form of explicit recasts) during NS-NNS task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC). Pairs of university-level learners of English (n = 18) engaged in a short chat interaction task with a native…

  1. Measurement of characteristics and phase modulation accuracy increase of LC SLM "HoloEye PLUTO VIS"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondareva, A. P.; Cheremkhin, P. A.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Krasnov, V. V.; Starikov, R. S.; Starikov, S. N.

    2014-09-01

    Phase liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM) are actively integrated in various optical systems for dynamic diffractive optical elements imaging. To achieve the best performance, high stability and linearity of phase modulation is required. This article presents results of measurement of characteristics and phase modulation accuracy increase of state of the art LC SLM with HD resolution "HoloEye PLUTO VIS".

  2. Lyin’ Eyes: Ocular-motor Measures of Reading Reveal Deception

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Anne E.; Hacker, Douglas J.; Webb, Andrea K.; Osher, Dahvyn; Kristjansson, Sean; Woltz, Dan J.; Kircher, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate an alternative to current methods for detecting deception in security screening contexts. We evaluated a new cognitive-based test of deception that measured participants’ ocular-motor responses (pupil responses and reading behaviors) while they read and responded to statements on a computerized questionnaire. In Experiment 1, participants from a university community were randomly assigned to either a “guilty” group that committed one of two mock crimes or an “innocent” group that only learned about the crime. Participants then reported for testing, where they completed the computer-administered questionnaire that addressed their possible involvement in the crimes. Experiment 2 also manipulated participants’ incentive to pass the test and difficulty of statements on the test. In both experiments, guilty participants had increased pupil responses to statements answered deceptively; however, they spent less time fixating on, reading, and re-reading those statements than statements answered truthfully. These ocular-motor measures were optimally weighted in a discrimination function that correctly classified 85% of participants as either guilty or innocent. Findings from Experiment 2 indicated that group discrimination was improved with greater incentives to pass the test and the use of statements with simple syntax. The present findings suggest that two cognitive processes are involved in deception -- vigilance and strategy -- and that these processes are reflected in different ocular-motor measures. The ocular-motor test reported here represents a new approach to detecting deception that may fill an important need in security screening contexts. PMID:22545928

  3. Measurement of eye lens dose for Varian On-Board Imaging with different cone-beam computed tomography acquisition techniques

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Sudesh; Dhote, Deepak; Thakur, Kalpna; Pawar, Amol; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Munish; Kulkarni, M. S.; Sharma, S. D.; Kannan, V.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to measure patient eye lens dose for different cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocols of Varian's On-Board Imaging (OBI) system using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) and to study the variation in eye lens dose with patient geometry and distance of isocenter to the eye lens. During the experimental measurements, OSLD was placed on the patient between the eyebrows of both eyes in line of nose during CBCT image acquisition to measure eye lens doses. The eye lens dose measurements were carried out for three different cone-beam acquisition protocols (standard dose head, low-dose head [LDH], and high-quality head [HQH]) of Varian OBI. Measured doses were correlated with patient geometry and distance between isocenter and eye lens. Measured eye lens doses for standard head and HQH protocols were in the range of 1.8–3.2 mGy and 4.5–9.9 mGy, respectively. However, the measured eye lens dose for the LDH protocol was in the range of 0.3–0.7 mGy. The measured data indicate that eye lens dose to patient depends on the selected imaging protocol. It was also observed that eye lens dose does not depend on patient geometry but strongly depends on distance between eye lens and treatment field isocenter. However, undoubted advantages of imaging system should not be counterbalanced by inappropriate selection of imaging protocol, especially for very intense imaging protocol. PMID:27651564

  4. Application of eye movement measuring system OBER 2 to medicine and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ober, Jozef; Hajda, Janusz; Loska, Jacek; Jamicki, Michal

    1997-08-01

    The OBER 2 is an infrared light eye movement measuring system and it works with IBM PC compatible computers. As one of the safest systems for measuring of eye movement it uses a very short period of infrared light flashing time (80 microsecond for each measure point). System has an advanced analog-digital controller, which includes background suppression and prediction mechanisms guaranteeing elimination of slow changes and fluctuations of external illumination frequency up to 100 Hz, with effectiveness better than 40 dB. Setting from PC the active measure axis, sampling rate (25 - 4000 Hz) and making start and stop the measure, make it possible to control the outside environment in real-time. By proper controlling of gain it is possible to get high time and position resolution of 0.5 minute of arc even for big amplitude of eye movement (plus or minus 20 degree of visual angle). The whole communication system can also be driven directly by eye movement in real time. The possibility of automatic selection of the most essential elements of eye movement, individual for each person and those that take place for each person in determined situations of life independently from personal features, is a key to practical application. Hence one of conducted research topic is a personal identification based on personal features. Another task is a research project of falling asleep detection, which can be applied to warn the drivers before falling asleep while driving. This measuring system with a proper expert system can also be used to detect a dyslexia and other disabilities of the optic system.

  5. Corneal Biomechanical Properties in Myopic Eyes Measured by a Dynamic Scheimpflug Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyi; Li, Ying; Jin, Yumei; Yang, Xue; Zhao, Chan; Long, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the corneal biomechanical parameters in myopic and emmetropic eyes using Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CorVis ST). Methods. 103 myopic and emmetropic eyes of 103 patients were examined. Corneal biomechanical parameters, axial length, and mean keratometry were measured using CorVis ST, IOL Master, and topography, respectively. Corneal biomechanical properties were compared within four groups. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between corneal biomechanical parameters and ocular characteristics. Results. Four of ten corneal biomechanical parameters, namely, deformation amplitude (DA), first- and second-applanation time (A1-time, A2-time), and radius at highest concavity (HC radius), were significantly different within the four groups (P < 0.05). In correlation analysis, DA was positively correlated with axial length (r = 0.20, P = 0.04); A2-time was positively correlated with spherical equivalent (SE) (r = 0.24, P = 0.02); HC radius was positively correlated with SE (r = 0.24, P = 0.02) and was negatively correlated with mean keratometry (r = −0.20, P = 0.046) and axial length (r = −0.21, P = 0.03). Conclusions. The corneal refraction-related biomechanical alterations were associated with ocular characteristics. Highly myopic eyes exhibited longer DA and smaller HC radius than do moderately myopic eyes; the eyes with longer axial length tend to have less corneal stiffness and are easier to deform under stress. PMID:26576291

  6. New eyes in the sky measure glaciers and ice sheets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, Hugh; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Barry, Roger G.; Bindschadler, Robert; Bishop, Michael P.; MacKinnon, David; Ohmura, Atsumu; Raup, Bruce; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bamber, Jonathan; Braun, Mattias; Brown, Ian; Cohen, Denis; Copland, Luke; DueHagen, Jon; Engeset, Rune V.; Fitzharris, Blair; Fujita, Koji; Haeberli, Wilfried; Hagen, Jon Oue; Hall, Dorothy; Hoelzle, Martin; Johansson, Maria; Kaab, Andi; Koenig, Max; Konovalov, Vladimir; Maisch, Max; Paul, Frank; Rau, Frank; Reeh, Niels; Rignot, Eric; Rivera, Andres; De Ruyter de Wildt, Martiyn; Scambos, Ted; Schaper, Jesko; Scharfen, Greg; Shroder, Jack; Solomina, Olga; Thompson, David; van der Veen, Kees; Wohlleben, Trudy; Young, Neal

    2000-01-01

    The mapping and measurement of glaciers and their changes are useful in predicting sea-level and regional water supply, studying hazards and climate change [Haeberli et al., 1998],and in the hydropower industry Existing inventories cover only about 67,000 of the world's estimated 160,000 glaciers and are based on data collected over 50 years or more [e.g.,Haeberli et al., 1998]. The data available have proven that small ice bodies are disappearing at an accelerating rate and that the Antarctic ice sheet and its fringing ice shelves are undergoing unexpected, rapid change. According to many glaciologists, much larger fluctuations in land ice—with vast implications for society—are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change [Oppenheimer, 1998].

  7. Noninvasive measurement of pharmacokinetics by near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the eye of mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobosz, Michael; Strobel, Steffen; Stubenrauch, Kay-Gunnar; Osl, Franz; Scheuer, Werner

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: For generating preclinical pharmacokinetics (PKs) of compounds, blood is drawn at different time points and levels are quantified by different analytical methods. In order to receive statistically meaningful data, 3 to 5 animals are used for each time point to get serum peak-level and half-life of the compound. Both characteristics are determined by data interpolation, which may influence the accuracy of these values. We provide a method that allows continuous monitoring of blood levels noninvasively by measuring the fluorescence intensity of labeled compounds in the eye and other body regions of anesthetized mice. Procedures: The method evaluation was performed with four different fluorescent compounds: (i) indocyanine green, a nontargeting dye; (ii) OsteoSense750, a bone targeting agent; (iii) tumor targeting Trastuzumab-Alexa750; and (iv) its F(-alxea750 fragment. The latter was used for a direct comparison between fluorescence imaging and classical blood analysis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We found an excellent correlation between blood levels measured by noninvasive eye imaging with the results generated by classical methods. A strong correlation between eye imaging and ELISA was demonstrated for the F( fragment. Whole body imaging revealed a compound accumulation in the expected regions (e.g., liver, bone). Conclusions: The combination of eye and whole body fluorescence imaging enables the simultaneous measurement of blood PKs and biodistribution of fluorescent-labeled compounds.

  8. Design and verifications of an eye model fitted with contact lenses for wavefront measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Chen, Jia-Hong; Chang, Rong-Jie; Wang, Chung-Yen; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Wang, Pei-Jen

    2015-09-01

    Contact lenses are typically measured by the wet-box method because of the high optical power resulting from the anterior central curvature of cornea, even though the back vertex power of the lenses are small. In this study, an optical measurement system based on the Shack-Hartmann wavefront principle was established to investigate the aberrations of soft contact lenses. Fitting conditions were micmicked to study the optical design of an eye model with various topographical shapes in the anterior cornea. Initially, the contact lenses were measured by the wet-box method, and then by fitting the various topographical shapes of cornea to the eye model. In addition, an optics simulation program was employed to determine the sources of errors and assess the accuracy of the system. Finally, samples of soft contact lenses with various Diopters were measured; and, both simulations and experimental results were compared for resolving the controversies of fitting contact lenses to an eye model for optical measurements. More importantly, the results show that the proposed system can be employed for study of primary aberrations in contact lenses.

  9. Anterior Segment Dimensions in Asian and Caucasian Eyes Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bing; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Chu, Renyuan; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare Asian and Caucasian anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Anterior segment OCT images were obtained in normal subjects. Four line scans were acquired at the 90°, 45°, 0°, and 135° meridians of each eye. Computer calipers acquired anterior segment dimensions of corneal diameter, anterior chamber width, corneal vault, and anterior chamber depth on OCT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess correlations. RESULTS Corneal diameter was 0.5 mm narrower (P < .01), anterior chamber width was 0.46 mm narrower (P < .01), and corneal vault was 0.22 mm lower (P < .01) in Asian eyes. All anterior segment dimensions decreased with age. CONCLUSION Asian eyes had smaller anterior segments compared to Caucasian eyes. Regardless of race, anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lenses. PMID:22320411

  10. Pressure and volume measurements from the eye for detecting possible arterial obstruction.

    PubMed

    McRae, L P; Kartchner, M M

    1984-01-01

    Detection and evaluation of functionally significant carotid occlusive disease are effectively achieved by noninvasive pressure and/or volume measurements from the eye. Ocular arterial blood pressure is measured by applying either direct compression or suction to evaluate intraocular pressure to the point of arterial collapse. Carotid blood flow is evaluated as it affects ocular volume waveforms, which result from the difference between pulsatile arterial flow and relatively constant venous flow. The relationship between noninvasive measurements from the eyes and carotid blood flow can be predicted using simple models of the cervical-cerebral circulatory system. Proper models verify clinically observed correlations between pressure and volume measurements from the eye and the underlying carotid occlusive disease. Electrical analog circuits provide a method for varying model parameters to simulate abnormalities, producing waveforms with good similarity to waveforms recorded from patients with known vascular or ophthalmic pathology. Further model refinements can be contributed by interested investigators. By using the improved models the strengths and weaknesses of current tests and techniques can then be better defined. Techniques that have been widely used for screening and evaluating potential stroke patients can thereby be modified to give improved functional analysis of these patients.

  11. Disability Weights Measurement for 228 Causes of Disease in the Korean Burden of Disease Study 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Disability weight for each disease plays a key role in combining years lived with disability and years of life lost in disability adjusted life year. For the Korean Burden of Disease 2012 study, we have conducted a re-estimation of disability weights for causes of disease by adapting the methodology of a recent Global Burden of Disease study. Our study was conducted through a self-administered web-based survey using a paired comparison (PC) as the main valuation method. A total of 496 physicians and medical college students who were attending in third or fourth grade of a regular course conducted the survey. We applied a probit regression on the PC data and computed the predicted probabilities of each cause of disease from the coefficient estimates of the probit regression. We used 'being dead (1)' and 'full health (0)' as anchor points to rescale the predicted probability of each cause of disease on a scale of 0 to 1. By this method, disability weights for a total of 228 causes of disease were estimated. There was a fairly high correlation between the disability weights of overlapping causes of disease from this study and a previous South Korean study despite the differences in valuation methods and time periods. In conclusion, we have shown that disability weights can be estimated based on a PC by including 'full health' and 'being dead' as anchor points without resorting to a person trade-off. Through developments in the methodology of disability weights estimation from this study, disability weights can be easily estimated and continuously revised. PMID:27775250

  12. Eye lens dosimetry in interventional cardiology: results of staff dose measurements and link to patient dose levels.

    PubMed

    Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Rehani, M; Aleksandric, S; Arandjic, D; Ostojic, M

    2013-01-01

    Workers involved in interventional cardiology procedures receive high eye lens dose if protection is not used. Currently, there is no suitable method for routine use for the measurement of eye dose. Since most angiography machines are equipped with suitable patient dosemeters, deriving factors linking staff eye doses to the patient doses can be helpful. In this study the patient kerma-area product, cumulative dose at an interventional reference point and eye dose in terms of Hp(3) of the cardiologists, nurses and radiographers for interventional cardiology procedures have been measured. Correlations between the patient dose and the staff eye dose were obtained. The mean eye dose was 121 µSv for the first operator, 33 µSv for the second operator/nurse and 12 µSv for radiographer. Normalised eye lens doses per unit kerma-area product were 0.94 µSv Gy⁻¹ cm⁻² for the first operator, 0.33 µSv Gy⁻¹ cm⁻² for the second operator/nurse and 0.16 µSv Gy⁻¹ cm⁻² for radiographers. Statistical analysis indicated that there is a weak but significant (p < 0.01) correlation between the eye dose and the kerma-area product for all three staff categories. These values are based on a local practice and may provide useful reference for other studies for validation and for wider utilisation in assessing the eye dose using patient dose values. PMID:23152146

  13. Eye-Tracking as a Measure of Responsiveness to Joint Attention in Infants at Risk for Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navab, Anahita; Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Johnson, Scott P.; Sigman, Marian; Hutman, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Reduced responsiveness to joint attention (RJA), as assessed by the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), is predictive of both subsequent language difficulties and autism diagnosis. Eye-tracking measurement of RJA is a promising prognostic tool because it is highly precise and standardized. However, the construct validity of eye-tracking…

  14. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  15. Bibliometric analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse databases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Shil

    2009-10-01

    The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indices were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades.

  16. Gastrointestinal tract volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Kayo; Yamada, Kenji; Watabe, Kenji; Kido, Michiko; Nagakura, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Hideya; Nishida, Tsutomu; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takehara, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose an intestine volume measurement method using a compound eye type endoscope. This method aims at assessment of the gastrointestinal function. Gastrointestinal diseases are mainly based on morphological abnormalities. However, gastrointestinal symptoms are sometimes apparent without visible abnormalities. Such diseases are called functional gastrointestinal disorder, for example, functional dyspepsia, and irritable bowel syndrome. One of the major factors for these diseases is abnormal gastrointestinal motility. For the diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tract, both aspects of organic and functional assessment is important. While endoscopic diagnosis is essential for assessment of organic abnormalities, three-dimensional information is required for assessment of the functional abnormalities. Thus, we proposed the three dimensional endoscope system using compound eye. In this study, we forces on the volume of gastrointestinal tract. The volume of the gastrointestinal tract is thought to related its function. In our system, we use a compound eye type endoscope system to obtain three-dimensional information of the tract. The volume can be calculated by integrating the slice data of the intestine tract shape using the obtained three-dimensional information. First, we evaluate the proposed method by known-shape tube. Then, we confirm that the proposed method can measure the tract volume using the tract simulated model. Our system can assess the wall of gastrointestinal tract directly in a three-dimensional manner. Our system can be used for examination of gastric morphological and functional abnormalities.

  17. Dosimetry of Strontium eye applicator: Comparison of Monte Carlo calculations and radiochromic film measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laoues, M.; Khelifi, R.; Moussa, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Strontium-90 eye applicators are a beta-ray emitter with a relatively high-energy (maximum energy about 2.28 MeV and average energy about 0.9 MeV). These applicators come in different shapes and dimensions; they are used for the treatment of eye diseases. Whenever, radiation is used in treatment, dosimetry is essential. However, knowledge of the exact dose distribution is a critical decision-making to the outcome of the treatment. The main aim of our study is to simulate the dosimetry of the SIA.20 eye applicator with Monte Carlo GATE 6.1 platform and to compare the calculated results with those measured with EBT2 films. This means that GATE and EBT2 were used to quantify the surface and depths dose- rate, the relative dose profile and the dosimetric parameters in according to international recommendations. Calculated and measured results are in good agreement and they are consistent with the ICRU and NCS recommendations.

  18. The Eyes Test as a Measure of Individual Differences: How much of the Variance Reflects Verbal IQ?

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Eric; Miller, Stephanie F.

    2012-01-01

    Developed by Baron-Cohen et al. (1997, 2001), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test requires individuals to determine mental states from photos of pairs of eyes. Used in over 250 studies, it has been conceptualized as an advanced theory of mind test that is relatively free of general cognitive abilities. Given the sensitivity of the instrument, many studies with healthy adult samples have used this instrument as a measure of individual differences in social-perceptual processes that contribute to theory of mind and overall phenotype. We administered the two-subtest Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, a face-processing task (Cambridge Face Memory Test), and the Eyes Test to 42 college students. Surprisingly, verbal IQ contributed significantly to the variance in Eyes Test performance while the face perception measure did not. These findings have both practical and theoretical ramifications for interpreting Eyes Test results in normative adult samples. PMID:22783217

  19. HotEye (tm) Based Coordinate Measuring Machine for Forging Industry

    SciTech Connect

    OG Technologies

    2003-06-09

    The objective of this project is to develop a 3 dimensional measurement system for the domestic forging industry based on HotEye{trademark}. This technology will allow high definition camera to accurately image a red hot object. The project marries conventional Coordinate Measurement Machine ''CMM'' technology to HotEye{trademark} technology to permit the accurate measurement of forged parts while they are at high temperature. Being able to take such measurements will dramatically reduce the amount of scrap produced by the domestic forging industry. This industry wastes a significant amount of energy because of the high rate of scrap it produces. OGT will: (1) Develop a 3D measurement sensor head that will work on a part at a temperature up to 1,450 C with an accuracy of 0.1mm or better and with a scanning speed of less than 10 seconds for an area of 100mm x 100mm. (2) Develop a Virtual-Fixturing software package to alleviate the need of precise hard fixturing. (3) Integrate the 3D measurement sensor head and the Virtual-Fixturing software into a standard CMM, both hardware (replacing the probes) and software (data format and user interface match) so that the system can automatically perform a complete preprogrammed measurement of a hot product. (4) Test and evaluate the system in a forging facility.

  20. Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry.

    PubMed

    Hitzenberger, C K

    1991-03-01

    A new technique has been developed to determine the axial length of the human eye in vivo. Based on laser interferometry in conjunction with the Doppler technique, it uses partially coherent light. This new technique complies with laser safety regulations. High accuracy is achieved, the optical length (OL) can be determined within +/- 30 microns, and the reproducibility of the geometric eye length is greater than +/- 25 microns. Possible errors are discussed. First comparisons with the ultrasound technique yield good agreement for emmetropic subjects and for subjects with a myopia of up to 10 diopters. The advantages of the laser doppler interferometry (LDI) technique are high accuracy, high transversal resolution, and more comfort for the patient (it is a noncontact method; no anesthesia is needed). Possible future applications of LDI, like measurements of fundus profiles and of retinal thickness, are mentioned.

  1. Measuring and tracking eye movements of a behaving archer fish by real-time stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simon, Avi; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Segev, Ronen

    2009-11-15

    The archer fish (Toxotes chatareus) exhibits unique visual behavior in that it is able to aim at and shoot down with a squirt of water insects resting on the foliage above water level and then feed on them. This extreme behavior requires excellent visual acuity, learning, and tight synchronization between the visual system and body motion. This behavior also raises many important questions, such as the fish's ability to compensate for air-water refraction and the neural mechanisms underlying target acquisition. While many such questions remain open, significant insights towards solving them can be obtained by tracking the eye and body movements of freely behaving fish. Unfortunately, existing tracking methods suffer from either a high level of invasiveness or low resolution. Here, we present a video-based eye tracking method for accurately and remotely measuring the eye and body movements of a freely moving behaving fish. Based on a stereo vision system and a unique triangulation method that corrects for air-glass-water refraction, we are able to measure a full three-dimensional pose of the fish eye and body with high temporal and spatial resolution. Our method, being generic, can be applied to studying the behavior of marine animals in general. We demonstrate how data collected by our method may be used to show that the hunting behavior of the archer fish is composed of surfacing concomitant with rotating the body around the direction of the fish's fixed gaze towards the target, until the snout reaches in the correct shooting position at water level.

  2. Measuring and tracking eye movements of a behaving archer fish by real-time stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simon, Avi; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Segev, Ronen

    2009-11-15

    The archer fish (Toxotes chatareus) exhibits unique visual behavior in that it is able to aim at and shoot down with a squirt of water insects resting on the foliage above water level and then feed on them. This extreme behavior requires excellent visual acuity, learning, and tight synchronization between the visual system and body motion. This behavior also raises many important questions, such as the fish's ability to compensate for air-water refraction and the neural mechanisms underlying target acquisition. While many such questions remain open, significant insights towards solving them can be obtained by tracking the eye and body movements of freely behaving fish. Unfortunately, existing tracking methods suffer from either a high level of invasiveness or low resolution. Here, we present a video-based eye tracking method for accurately and remotely measuring the eye and body movements of a freely moving behaving fish. Based on a stereo vision system and a unique triangulation method that corrects for air-glass-water refraction, we are able to measure a full three-dimensional pose of the fish eye and body with high temporal and spatial resolution. Our method, being generic, can be applied to studying the behavior of marine animals in general. We demonstrate how data collected by our method may be used to show that the hunting behavior of the archer fish is composed of surfacing concomitant with rotating the body around the direction of the fish's fixed gaze towards the target, until the snout reaches in the correct shooting position at water level. PMID:19698749

  3. Reproducibility analysis of measurements with a mechanical semiautomatic eye model for evaluation of intraocular lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rank, Elisabet; Traxler, Lukas; Bayer, Natascha; Reutterer, Bernd; Lux, Kirsten; Drauschke, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Mechanical eye models are used to validate ex vivo the optical quality of intraocular lenses (IOLs). The quality measurement and test instructions for IOLs are defined in the ISO 11979-2. However, it was mentioned in literature that these test instructions could lead to inaccurate measurements in case of some modern IOL designs. Reproducibility of alignment and measurement processes are presented, performed with a semiautomatic mechanical ex vivo eye model based on optical properties published by Liou and Brennan in the scale 1:1. The cornea, the iris aperture and the IOL itself are separately changeable within the eye model. The adjustment of the IOL can be manipulated by automatic decentration and tilt of the IOL in reference to the optical axis of the whole system, which is defined by the connection line of the central point of the artificial cornea and the iris aperture. With the presented measurement setup two quality criteria are measurable: the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the Strehl ratio. First the reproducibility of the alignment process for definition of initial conditions of the lateral position and tilt in reference to the optical axis of the system is investigated. Furthermore, different IOL holders are tested related to the stable holding of the IOL. The measurement is performed by a before-after comparison of the lens position using a typical decentration and tilt tolerance analysis path. Modulation transfer function MTF and Strehl ratio S before and after this tolerance analysis are compared and requirements for lens holder construction are deduced from the presented results.

  4. The effects of eye movements on emotional memories: using an objective measure of cognitive load

    PubMed Central

    van Veen, Suzanne C.; Engelhard, Iris M.; van den Hout, Marcel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. The working memory (WM) theory explains its efficacy: recall of an aversive memory and making eye movements (EM) both produce cognitive load, and competition for the limited WM resources reduces the memory's vividness and emotionality. The present study tested several predictions from WM theory. Objective We hypothesized that 1) recall of an aversive autobiographical memory loads WM compared to no recall, and 2) recall with EM reduces the vividness, emotionality, and cognitive load of recalling the memory more than only recall or only cognitive effort (i.e., recall of an irrelevant memory with EM). Method Undergraduates (N=108) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) recall relevant memory with EM, 2) recall relevant memory without EM, and 3) recall irrelevant memory with EM. We used a random interval repetition task to measure the cognitive load of recalling the memory. Participants responded to randomly administered beeps, with or without recalling the memory. The degree to which participants slow down during recall provides an index of cognitive load. We measured the cognitive load and self-reported vividness and emotionality before, halfway through (8×24 s), and after (16×24 s) the intervention. Results Reaction times slowed down during memory recall compared to no recall. The recall relevant with EM condition showed a larger decrease in self-reported vividness and emotionality than the control conditions. The cognitive load of recalling the memory also decreased in this condition but not consistently more than in the control conditions. Conclusions Recall of an aversive memory loads WM, but drops in vividness and emotionality do not immediately reduce the cognitive load of recalling the memory. More research is needed to find objective measures that could capture changes in the quality of the memory. Highlights of the

  5. Measuring social attention and motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorder using eye-tracking: Stimulus type matters

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, Coralie; Parish-Morris, Julia; McVey, Alana; Rump, Keiran; Sasson, Noah J.; Herrington, John; Schultz, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by social impairments that have been related to deficits in social attention, including diminished gaze to faces. Eye-tracking studies are commonly used to examine social attention and social motivation in ASD, but they vary in sensitivity. In this study, we hypothesized that the ecological nature of the social stimuli would affect participants' social attention, with gaze behavior during more naturalistic scenes being most predictive of ASD vs. typical development. Methods 81 children with and without ASD participated in three eye-tracking tasks that differed in the ecological relevance of the social stimuli. In the “Static Visual Exploration” task, static images of objects and people were presented; in the “Dynamic Visual Exploration” task, video clips of individual faces and objects were presented side-by-side; in the “Interactive Visual Exploration” task, video clips of children playing with objects in a naturalistic context were presented. Results Our analyses uncovered a three-way interaction between Task, Social vs. Object Stimuli, and Diagnosis. This interaction was driven by group differences on one task only – the Interactive task. Bayesian analyses confirmed that the other two tasks were insensitive to group membership. In addition, ROC analyses demonstrated that, unlike the other two tasks, the Interactive task had significant classification power. Conclusions The ecological relevance of social stimuli is an important factor to consider for eye-tracking studies aiming to measure social attention and motivation in ASD. PMID:26069030

  6. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Anterior Segment Measurements in Normal Eyes Using Dual Scheimpflug Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Altıparmak, Zeynep; Yağcı, Ramazan; Güler, Emre; Arslanyılmaz, Zeynel; Canbal, Metin; Hepşen, İbrahim F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the repeatability and reproducibility of anterior segment measurements including aberrometric measurements provided by a dual Scheimpflug analyzer (Galilei) system in normal eyes. Materials and Methods: Three repeated consecutive measurements were taken by two independent examiners. The following were evaluated: total corneal power and posterior corneal power, corneal higher-order wavefront aberrations (6.0 mm pupil), pachymetry at the central, paracentral, and peripheral zones, and anterior chamber depth (ACD). Repeatability was assessed by calculating the within-subject standard deviation, precision, repeatability, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Bland-Altman analysis was used for assessing reproducibility. Results: Thirty eyes of 30 patients were included. The best ICC values were for corneal pachymetry and ACD. For both observers, acceptable ICC was also achieved for the other parameters, the only exceptions being posterior corneal astigmatism and total high order aberration. The 95% LoA (Limits of Agreement) values for all measurements showed small variability between the two examiners. Conclusion: The Galilei system provided reliable measurements of anterior segment parameters. Therefore, the instrument can be confidently used for routine clinical use and research purposes. PMID:27800242

  7. Eye-tracking measurements of language processing: developmental differences in children at high risk for ASD.

    PubMed

    Chita-Tegmark, Meia; Arunachalam, Sudha; Nelson, Charles A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-10-01

    To explore how being at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), based on having an older sibling diagnosed with ASD, affects word comprehension and language processing speed, 18-, 24- and 36-month-old children, at high and low risk for ASD were tested in a cross- sectional study, on an eye gaze measure of receptive language that measured how accurately and rapidly the children looked at named target images. There were no significant differences between the high risk ASD group and the low risk control group of 18- and 24-month-olds. However, 36-month-olds in the high risk for ASD group performed significantly worse on the accuracy measure, but not on the speed measure. We propose that the language processing efficiency of the high risk group is not compromised, but other vocabulary acquisition factors might have lead to the high risk 36-month-olds to comprehend significantly fewer nouns on our measure. PMID:26109246

  8. Eye-tracking measurements of language processing: developmental differences in children at high risk for ASD.

    PubMed

    Chita-Tegmark, Meia; Arunachalam, Sudha; Nelson, Charles A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-10-01

    To explore how being at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), based on having an older sibling diagnosed with ASD, affects word comprehension and language processing speed, 18-, 24- and 36-month-old children, at high and low risk for ASD were tested in a cross- sectional study, on an eye gaze measure of receptive language that measured how accurately and rapidly the children looked at named target images. There were no significant differences between the high risk ASD group and the low risk control group of 18- and 24-month-olds. However, 36-month-olds in the high risk for ASD group performed significantly worse on the accuracy measure, but not on the speed measure. We propose that the language processing efficiency of the high risk group is not compromised, but other vocabulary acquisition factors might have lead to the high risk 36-month-olds to comprehend significantly fewer nouns on our measure.

  9. Dodge-ing the issue: Dodge, Javal, Hering, and the measurement of saccades in eye-movement research.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J; Tatler, Benjamin W; Heller, Dieter

    2003-01-01

    Dodge, in 1916, suggested that the French term 'saccade' should be used for describing the rapid movements of the eyes that occur while reading. Previously he had referred to these as type I movements. Javal had used the term 'saccade' in 1879, when describing experiments conducted in his laboratory by Lamare. Accordingly, Javal has been rightly credited with assigning the term to rapid eye movements. In English these rapid rotations had been called jerks, and they had been observed and measured before Lamare's studies of reading. Rapid sweeps of the eyes occur as one phase of nystagmus; they were observed by Wells in 1792 who used an afterimage technique, and they were illustrated by Crum Brown in 1878. Afterimages were used in nineteenth-century research on eye movements and eye position; they were also employed by Hering in 1879, to ascertain how the eyes moved during reading. In the previous year, Javal had employed afterimages in his investigations of reading, but this was to demonstrate that the eyes moved horizontally rather than vertically. Hering's and Lamare's auditory method established the discontinuous nature of eye movements during reading, and the photographic methods introduced by Dodge and others in the early twentieth century enabled their characteristics to be determined with greater accuracy.

  10. Specific features of measuring the optical power of artificial refractive and diffractive-refractive eye lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenkova, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    Methods for monitoring the optical power of artificial refractive eye lenses (intraocular lenses) based on measuring focal lengths in air and in medium are analyzed. The methods for determining the refraction of diffractive-refractive lenses (in particular, of MIOL-Akkord type), with allowance for the specific features of the diffractive structure, are considered. A computer simulation of the measurement of the focal length of MIOL-Akkord lenses is performed. The effective optical power of the diffractive component of these lenses is shown to depend on the diaphragm diameter. The optimal diaphragm diameter, at which spherical aberrations do not affect the position of foci, is found to be 3 mm. Possible errors in measuring the focal lengths are analyzed, and the necessary corrections that must be introduced into measurement results and calculations of refractions are determined.

  11. Dopamine activation in Neuroticism as measured by spontaneous eye blink rate.

    PubMed

    Barbato, Giuseppe; Della Monica, Ciro; Costanzo, Antonio; De Padova, Vittoria

    2012-01-18

    Personality dimensions have been associated with different psychobiological systems. However, no agreement exists in literature on a specific role of a single neurotransmitter for each of the dimensions investigated. We studied the relationship of Neuroticism, Extraversion and Psychoticism as assessed by Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) with spontaneous eye blink rate (BR), a non-invasive measure of central dopamine activity. A total of sixty-three healthy subjects (40 females, 23 males, mean age 24.2±3.9) were studied. Spontaneous blink rate and time of blink suppression were assessed by EOG measurement. Levels of Extraversion and Neuroticism were inversely correlated. In contrast with previous findings, a significant correlation between blink rate measures and Neuroticism was found. No significant correlation between blink measures and either Extraversion, or Psychoticism were found. The results appear consistent with a lower threshold for activation in neuroticism as suggested by Eysenck's original model.

  12. Binocular Rivalry Measured 2 Hours After Occlusion Therapy Predicts the Recovery Rate of the Amblyopic Eye in Anisometropic Children

    PubMed Central

    Lunghi, Claudia; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Secci, Jacopo; Caputo, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies on adults have shown that short-term monocular deprivation boosts the deprived eye signal in binocular rivalry, reflecting homeostatic plasticity. Here we investigate whether homeostatic plasticity is present also during occlusion therapy for moderate amblyopia. Methods Binocular rivalry and visual acuity (using Snellen charts for children) were measured in 10 children (mean age 6.2 ± 1 years) with moderate anisometropic amblyopia before the beginning of treatment and at four intervals during occlusion therapy (2 hours, 1, 2, and 5 months). Visual stimuli were orthogonal gratings presented dichoptically through ferromagnetic goggles and children reported verbally visual rivalrous perception. Bangerter filters were applied on the spectacle lens over the best eye for occlusion therapy. Results Two hours of occlusion therapy increased the nonamblyopic eye predominance over the amblyopic eye compared with pretreatment measurements, consistent with the results in adults. The boost of the nonamblyopic eye was still present after 1 month of treatment, steadily decreasing afterward to reach pretreatment levels after 2 months of continuous occlusion. Across subjects, the increase in nonamblyopic eye predominance observed after 2 hours of occlusion correlated (rho = −0.65, P = 0.04) with the visual acuity improvement of the amblyopic eye measured after 2 months of treatment. Conclusions Homeostatic plasticity operates during occlusion therapy for moderate amblyopia and the increase in nonamblyopic eye dominance observed at the beginning of treatment correlates with the amblyopic eye recovery rate. These results suggest that binocular rivalry might be used to monitor visual cortical plasticity during occlusion therapy, although further investigations on larger clinical populations are needed to validate the predictive power of the technique. PMID:27046118

  13. Radiologic Measurement of Tibial Tuberosity-Trochlear Groove (TT-TG) Distance by Lower Extremity Rotational Profile Computed Tomography in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Seon, Jong Keun; Kim, Min Cheol; Seol, Young-Jun; Lee, Seung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Background Tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance is important in the assessment and treatment of patellofemoral disorders. However, normal and pathological TT-TG values have not been established in Koreans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the TT-TG distance in the Korean population using lower leg rotational profile computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods One hundred rotational profile CT scans were retrospectively collected from patients without knee joint problems aged between 25 to 82 years. TT-TG distances were measured, and statistical analysis was performed. Each CT scan was measured twice in a blinded, randomized manner by three reviewers. Patients with pre-existing knee joint problems were excluded from the study; hence 15 of the 100 patients were excluded because of deformity or unreadable CT scans. Thus, 85 of the 100 patients were included in the study. Results Interobserver and intraobserver reliability of TT-TG distance measurements was good. The median TT-TG distance for this Korean population was 11.24 mm (mean, 10.24 ± 0.8 mm). TT-TG distance measured nearly 2 mm less on rotational profile CT scans. Conclusions Some of the TT-TG distances on rotational profile CT scans were significantly correlated, indicating that they could be accepted. Furthermore, the values on CT scans showed good reliability. In this study, the TT-TG distance in normal Korean people was approximately 10.24 mm without significant differences in TT-TG values between genders. PMID:26929798

  14. Eye rubbing-induced changes in intraocular pressure and corneal thickness measured at five locations, in subjects with ocular allergy

    PubMed Central

    Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L.; Alanazi, Saud A.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To assess the effects of eye rubbing on corneal thickness (CT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements obtained 0-30min after habitual eye rubbing in symptomatic patients. METHODS Measurements of IOP and CT were obtained at five locations (central, temporal, superior, nasal and inferior) before, and every 5min for 30min interval after 30s of eye rubbing, for 25 randomly selected eyes of 14 subjects with ocular allergy and 11 age-matched normals. Differences in measurements were calculated in each group [Baseline measurements minus measurements recorded at each time interval after eye rubbing (for IOP), and for each corneal location (for CT)] and comparison were then made between groups (allergic versus control) for differences in any observed effects. RESULTS Within groups, baseline mean IOPs in the allergic patient-group (14.2±3.0 mm Hg) and in the control group (13.1±1.9 mm Hg) were similar at all times, after eye rubbing (P >0.05, for all). The maximum reduction in IOP was 0.8 mm Hg in the control subjects and the maximum increase was also 0.8 mm Hg in the allergic subjects. Between groups (allergic versus control), the changes in IOP remained under 1 mm Hg at all times (P=0.2) after 30min of eye rubbing. Between 0 and 30min of CT measurements after eye rubbing, the mean central CT (CCT), inferior CT (ICT), superior CT (SCT), temporal CT (TCT) and nasal CT (NCT) did not vary significantly from baseline values in the control and allergic-subject groups (P>0.05, for both). Between both groups, changes in CT were similar at all locations (P>0.05) except for the TC which was minimally thinner by about 4.4 µm (P=0.001) in the allergic subjects than in the control subjects, 30min following 30s of eye rubbing. CONCLUSION IOP measured in allergic subjects after 30s of habitual eye rubbing was comparable with that obtained in normal subjects at all times between 0 and 30min. Although, CT in the allergic subjects were similar to those of the control subjects at

  15. Association of Kidney Disease Measures with Cause-Specific Mortality: The Korean Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Yejin; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H.; Grams, Morgan; Shin, Sang Yop; Jee, Sun Ha; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background The link of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high proteinuria to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is well known. However, its link to mortality due to other causes is less clear. Methods We studied 367,932 adults (20–93 years old) in the Korean Heart Study (baseline between 1996–2004 and follow-up until 2011) and assessed the associations of creatinine-based eGFR and dipstick proteinuria with mortality due to CVD (1,608 cases), cancer (4,035 cases), and other (non-CVD/non-cancer) causes (3,152 cases) after adjusting for potential confounders. Results Although cancer was overall the most common cause of mortality, in participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD), non-CVD/non-cancer mortality accounted for approximately half of cause of death (47.0%for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 and 54.3% for proteinuria ≥1+). Lower eGFR (<60 vs. ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2) was significantly associated with mortality due to CVD (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49 [95% CI, 1.24–1.78]) and non-CVD/non-cancer causes (1.78 [1.54–2.05]). The risk of cancer mortality only reached significance at eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73m2 when eGFR 45–59 ml/min/1.73m2 was set as a reference (1.62 [1.10–2.39]). High proteinuria (dipstick ≥1+ vs. negative/trace) was consistently associated with mortality due to CVD (1.93 [1.66–2.25]), cancer (1.49 [1.32–1.68]), and other causes (2.19 [1.96–2.45]). Examining finer mortality causes, low eGFR and high proteinuria were commonly associated with mortality due to coronary heart disease, any infectious disease, diabetes, and renal failure. In addition, proteinuria was also related to death from stroke, cancers of stomach, liver, pancreas, and lung, myeloma, pneumonia, and viral hepatitis. Conclusion Low eGFR was associated with CVD and non-CVD/non-cancer mortality, whereas higher proteinuria was consistently related to mortality due to CVD, cancer, and other causes. These findings suggest the need for multidisciplinary prevention

  16. Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Test as a Measure of Postflight Ataxia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Fisher, E. A.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Harm, D.L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Astronauts returning from space flight universally exhibit impaired posture and locomotion. Measurement of this impairment is an evolving process. The walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC) provides a unique procedure for quantifying postflight ataxia. Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing NASA interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance. METHODS: Seven astronauts (5 short duration with flights of 12-16 days; 2 long duration crewmembers with flights of 6 months) were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short duration only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. The WOFEC consisted of walking for 10 steps (repeated twice) with the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed. The performance metric (scored by three examiners from video) was the percentage of correct steps completed over the three trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened their eyes, or paused for more than three seconds between steps. RESULTS/ CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short duration crew) and on first day following landing (long duration) with partial recovery the following day, and full recovery beginning on day sixth after flight. Both short and long duration fliers appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. Postflight, deviation from a straight path was common, and the test for two crewmembers elicited motion sickness symptoms. These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after returning from spaceflight. The WOFEC test has value providing the investigator or crew surgeon with a simple method to quantify vestibular ataxia, as well as providing instant feedback of postural ataxia without the use of complex test equipment.

  17. A noninvasive video-based method for measuring lens transmission properties of the human eye.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A; Howard, D L; Marshall, D; Shu, H

    1993-11-01

    The Lens Absorption Monitor (LAM) is an automated video-based system for obtaining rapid objective noninvasive measurements of the spectral transmission properties of the human lens. The technique is based on intensity measurements of the 4th Purkinje image for different wavelengths, and incorporates several features that overcome some of the difficulties associated with previous studies using this approach. LAM transmission measures for the visible spectrum can be obtained in approximately 2 s, and in most instances can be obtained without having to dilate the subject's eye. This paper describes the technique and presents our initial findings for 40 normal observers between the ages of 24 and 77 years. Results of the LAM technique show that it is able to measure the wavelength-dependent properties of the lens accurately and to identify age-related changes in "yellowing" of the lens. Test-retest reliability of the LAM is better than for psychophysical estimates of ocular media transmission. LAM and psychophysical measures in the same subjects were found to be correlated, although LAM measures produced consistently lower values of lens density than the psychophysical determinations. There was only moderate agreement between LAM and psychophysical measures of lens density. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. Future research will determine whether this technique is able to detect and quantify early cataract development.

  18. Form-To-Expectation Matching Effects on First-Pass Eye Movement Measures During Reading

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Thomas A.; Yan, Shaorong; Bicknell, Klinton; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent EEG/MEG studies suggest that when contextual information is highly predictive of some property of a linguistic signal, expectations generated from context can be translated into surprisingly low-level estimates of the physical form-based properties likely to occur in subsequent portions of the unfolding signal. Whether form-based expectations are generated and assessed during natural reading, however, remains unclear. We monitored eye movements while participants read phonologically typical and atypical nouns in noun-predictive contexts (Experiment 1), demonstrating that when a noun is strongly expected, fixation durations on first-pass eye movement measures, including first fixation duration, gaze duration, and go-past times, are shorter for nouns with category typical form-based features. In Experiments 2 and 3, typical and atypical nouns were placed in sentential contexts normed to create expectations of variable strength for a noun. Context and typicality interacted significantly at gaze duration. These results suggest that during reading, form-based expectations that are translated from higher-level category-based expectancies can facilitate the processing of a word in context, and that their effect on lexical processing is graded based on the strength of category expectancy. PMID:25915072

  19. Discrimination between normal and glaucomatous eyes with visual field and scanning laser polarimetry measurements

    PubMed Central

    Lauande-Pimentel, R.; Carvalho, R.; Oliveira, H.; Goncalves, D.; Silva, L.; Costa, V.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the ability of structural parameters (as determined by retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) measurements obtained with the scanning laser polarimeter (SLP-NFA/GDx)) and functional parameters (as determined by automated perimetry) to discriminate between normal and glaucomatous eyes.
METHODS—In a case-control study, a total of 91 normal subjects and 94 patients with glaucoma underwent automated perimetry and RNFL measurements obtained with the SLP. Three independent scans of each eye were obtained and a mean image was created and used for further analysis. Only one eye per individual was randomly included in the study. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of 12 RNFL parameters were calculated according to the SLP internal normative database. The Se and Sp of the visual field (VF) global indices and the glaucoma hemifield test (GHT) were also calculated according to the instrument's normative database. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were built for each SLP parameter and VF index. Fisher's linear discriminant formulas (LDFs) were developed for VF indices (VF LDF), SLP measurements (SLP LDF), and both examinations (combined LDF).
RESULTS—According to the SLP internal database, the parameters with better Se and Sp were: superior/nasal ratio (Se = 58.5%; Sp = 86.8%), and GDx the number (Se = 43.3%; Sp = 96.7%). The construction of an ROC curve for the number resulted in Se = 84% and Sp = 79%. The creation of LDFs improved both the sensitivities and specificities when compared with isolated parameters SLP LDF (Se = 90.4%; Sp = 82.4%), VF LDF (Se = 89.4%; Sp = 89.0%), and combined LDF (Se = 93.0%; Sp = 90.1%). The sensitivity to diagnose early and moderate glaucomatous damage observed with the GHT was lower than that obtained with the number (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS—Creation of LDFs enhanced the Se and Sp for both VF and SLP. Integration of SLP and VF in a combined LDF reached the highest Se/Sp relation

  20. Measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to total mercury and lead in total diet study for Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eunmi; Shin, Hyehyung; Yon, Miyong; Nam, Ji Woon; Lee, Yoonna; Kim, Dohee; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Meehye; Park, Sung-Kug; Choi, Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Previous Korean total diet studies (KTDSs) have estimated dietary exposure to toxic chemicals based on 110-120 representative foods selected from over 500 foods appeared in the Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES), which would result in a possible underestimation. In order to find measures for a closer-to-real estimate of dietary exposure to heavy metals, this study examined the feasibility of mapping foods to the representative foods in the KTDS by comparing estimates. In mapping, those foods not analyzed in the 2009 KTDS (443 out of 559 foods appeared in the 2007 KNHANES) were mapped to the 114 representative foods used in the 2009 KTDS based on the closeness in regards to biological systematics and morphological similarity. Dietary exposures to total mercury and lead were re-estimated using the content of total mercury and lead in 114 foods analyzed in the 2009 KTDS, food intake, and individual's own body weight for respondents in the 2007 KNHANES instead of mean body weight of Koreans used in the 2009 KTDS. The re-estimates of exposure with mapping were approximately 50% higher than the original estimates reported in the 2009 KTDS. In addition, mapping enabled the comparison of percentile distribution of the exposure among populations of different age groups. In conclusion, estimates via mapping resulted in a more comprehensive estimation of dietary exposure to heavy metals present in foods that Koreans consume. PMID:23198023

  1. Psychometric Properties of a Korean Measure of Person-Directed Care in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Lee, Minhong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity and reliability of a person-directed care (PDC) measure for nursing homes in Korea. Method: Managerial personnel from 223 nursing homes in 2010 and 239 in 2012 were surveyed. Results: Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis for the first sample generated a 33-item PDC measure with eight factors.…

  2. A multi level system design for vigilance measurement based on head posture estimation and eyes blinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyeb, Ines; Jemai, Olfa; Zaied, Mourad; ben Amar, Chokri

    2015-12-01

    Driving security is an important task for human society. The major challenge in the field of accident avoidance systems is the driver vigilance monitoring. The lack of vigilance can be noticed by various ways, such as, fatigue, drowsiness and distraction. Hence, the need of a reliable driver's vigilance decrease detection system which can alert drivers before a mishap happens. In this paper, we present a novel approach for vigilance estimation based on multilevel system by combining head movement analysis and eyes blinking. We have used Viola and Jones algorithm to analyse head movement and a classification system using wavelet networks for eyelid closure measuring. The contribution of our application is classifiying the vigilance state at multi level. This is different from the binary-class (awakening or hypovigilant state) existing in most popular systems.

  3. Processing Differences between Descriptions and Experience: A Comparative Analysis Using Eye-Tracking and Physiological Measures.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Fiedler, Susann; Hochman, Guy; Ayal, Shahar; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Do decisions from description and from experience trigger different cognitive processes? We investigated this general question using cognitive modeling, eye-tracking, and physiological arousal measures. Three novel findings indeed suggest qualitatively different processes between the two types of decisions. First, comparative modeling indicates that evidence-accumulation models assuming averaging of all fixation-sampled outcomes predict choices best in decisions from experience, whereas Cumulative Prospect Theory predicts choices best in decisions from descriptions. Second, arousal decreased with increasing difference in expected value between gambles in description-based choices but not in experience. Third, the relation between attention and subjective weights given to outcomes was stronger for experience-based than for description-based tasks. Overall, our results indicate that processes in experience-based risky choice can be captured by sampling-and-averaging evidence-accumulation model. This model cannot be generalized to description-based decisions, in which more complex mechanisms are involved.

  4. Third-eye guided telemeter for high-precision positional measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettiti, Giuseppe; Cumani, Aldo; Grattoni, Paolo; Guiducci, Antonio; Pollastri, Fabrizio; Rebaglia, Bruno

    1994-02-01

    The telemeter is a high precision positional tracking device that works by triangulation over the angular measurements provided by two or more telegoniometers. Each of the latter is composed of a TV camera with a teleobjective, looking at the working space through a pair of orthogonal mirrors. A problem with this kind of structure is the automation of the initial pointing of the telegoniometers on the target. We propose to add a third camera with a wide- angle lens framing the whole workspace to provide the line of sight on which the target must lie. In this work we present this `three-eyes' structure and discuss its calibration, as well as the problems related to the strategy for scanning the line of sight and for detecting the tracking condition. Two possible applications to robot qualification and autonomous navigation also are presented.

  5. Analysis of ocean diurnal variations from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager measurements using the DINEOF method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Menghua

    2016-10-01

    High-frequency images of the water diffuse attenuation coefficient at the wavelength of 490 nm (Kd(490)) derived from the Korean Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) provide a unique opportunity to study diurnal variation of water turbidity in coastal regions of the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea. However, there are many missing pixels in the original GOCI-derived Kd(490) images due to clouds and various other reasons. Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function (DINEOF) is a method to reconstruct missing data in geophysical datasets based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF). It utilizes both temporal and spatial coherencies of data to infer a solution at the missing locations. In this study, the DINEOF is applied to GOCI-derived Kd(490) data in the Yangtze River mouth and the Yellow River mouth regions, and the DINEOF reconstructed Kd(490) data are used to fill in the missing pixels. In fact, DINEOF has been used to fill in gaps in ocean color chlorophyll-a and turbidity data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) in previous studies. Our GOCI validation results show that the bias between the reconstructed data and the original Kd(490) value is quite small (<∼5%). The standard deviation of the reconstructed/original ratio is ∼0.25 and ∼0.30 for the mouths in the Yangtze River and Yellow River, respectively. In addition, GOCI high temporal resolution measurements in Kd(490) can capture sub-diurnal variation due to the tidal forcing. The spatial patterns and temporal functions of the first three EOF modes are also examined. The first EOF mode characterizes the general mean spatial distribution of the region, while the second and third EOF modes represent the variations due to the tidal forcing in the region.

  6. Pedagogical Significance of Morphological Awareness in Korean and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Young Ok; Jung, Chae Kwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean children understand the internal structure of compound words in Korean and English and whether there is a relationship between their performance in tasks that measure their understanding of the morphological structure of compounds in Korean and English. This study also examined the effects of gender, grade,…

  7. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Your eyes can get infections from bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Eye infections can occur in different parts of the eye and can affect just one eye or both. Two common eye infections are Conjunctivitis - also known as pinkeye. Conjunctivitis is ...

  8. Saccadic eye movements as a measure of the effect of low vision rehabilitation on reading rate.

    PubMed

    McMahon, T T; Hansen, M; Stelmack, J; Oliver, P; Viana, M A

    1993-06-01

    We assessed saccadic eye movements and reading capabilities in individuals with macular disease by a masked clinical study to determine whether changes in saccadic frequency were correlated to changes in reading rates or number of errors for a reading task. We used a measure of eye movement characteristics in the form of a saccadic frequency score (SFS). Twelve subjects with macular disease were tested before and after an intense 6-week inpatient vision rehabilitation program. The mean age was 70.9 years (63 to 77 years). Mean visual acuity was 10/100 (10/40 to 10/200). Mean reading rates at entry and discharge were 8.5 words/min and 20.9 words/min, respectively (p = 0.02). SFS improved from 2.709 to 2.022 (p = 0.07). Reading errors improved from 5.60 to 4.00 (p = 0.03). Reading rates and SFS's were highly inversely correlated both pre- and post-treatment (Pearson r = -0.892 and -0.896, respectively). SFS and the number of reading errors were highly correlated with both pre- and post-treatment as well (Pearson r = 0.782 and 0.601, respectively). Interestingly the data appeared to cluster into two groups, one showing improvement and the other showing none. Cluster analysis revealed a strong association among reading rate, saccade scores, and reading errors. Membership in the two clusters is consistent pre- and post-rehabilitation in all but one case. Clustering is most evident for reading rate and reading errors and less so for saccade scores.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance," or "ballad" based…

  10. Simultaneous refraction measurement and OCT axial biometry of the eye during accommodation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Freitas, Carolina; Hernandez, Victor M.; Ruggeri, Marco; Durkee, Heather A.; Williams, Siobhan; Gregori, Giovanni; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate a system that will enable objective assessment of the optical accommodative response in real-time while acquiring axial biometric information. The system combines three sub-systems which were integrated and mounted on a joystick x-y-z adjustable modified slit-lamp base to facilitate alignment and data acquisition: (1) a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for dynamic refraction measurement, provided software calculates sphere, cylinder and axis values, (2) an extended-depth Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system using an optical switch records high-resolution cross-sectional images across the length of the eye, from which, dynamic axial biometry (corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens thickness and vitreous depth) can be extracted, and (3) a modified dual-channel accommodation stimulus unit based on the Badal optometer for providing a step change in accommodative stimulus. The prototypal system is capable of taking simultaneous measurements of both the optical and the mechanical response of lens accommodation. These measurements can provide insight into correlating changes in lens shape with changes in lens power and ocular refraction and ultimately provide a more comprehensive understanding of accommodation, presbyopia and an objective assessment of presbyopia correction techniques.

  11. Repeatability of Ocular Measurements with a Dual-Scheimpflug Analyzer in Healthy Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Lopez de la Fuente, Carmen; Sanchez-Cano, Ana; Fuentes-Broto, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the repeatability of the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer (GDSA) in anterior segment examination. Methods. Fifty-two eyes from 52 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Anatomic, axial, refractive, and instantaneous parameters were measured with GDSA to provide a complete characterization of the anterior segment. Repeatability was assessed calculating intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and coefficient of variation (COV). Results. Correlation among repeated measurements showed almost perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81) for all parameters except thinnest central corneal thickness (CCT) (0.78), corneal thickness average out (0.79), and posterior axial curvature average out (0.60). Repeatability was excellent (COV < 10%) for all parameters except anterior chamber volume and, superior iridocorneal angle and eccentricities. In these last three parameters, repeatability limits were excessively high compared to the mean. Conclusions. GDSA in healthy young persons had an almost perfect correlation in measuring anatomic, axial, instantaneous, and refractive parameters with greater variability for peripheral terms. Repeatability of anatomical parameters like pachymetry, anterior chamber, or iridocorneal angle and eccentricity were limited. In healthy young persons, the other evaluated parameters had very good repeatability and their limits of agreement showed excellent clinical results for this device. PMID:24868548

  12. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ultrasound Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, C.; Young, M.; Mason, S.; Coble, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Law. J.; Alexander, D.; Ryder, V. Myers; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on ISS have typically averaged 2.3 to 5.3mm Hg, with large fluctuations occurring over periods of hours and days. CO2 has effects on cerebral vascular tone, resulting in vasodilation and alteration of cerebral blood flow(CBF). Increased CBF leads to elevated intracranial pressure(ICP), which is a factor leading to visual disturbance, headaches, and other central nervous system symptoms. Ultrasound of the optic nerve provides a surrogate measurement of ICP. Inflight ultrasounds were implemented as an enhanced screening tool for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome. This analysis examines the relationships between ambient CO2 levels on ISS and ultrasound measures of the eye in an effort to understand how CO2 may be associated with VIIP and to inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data. Results as shown in Figure2, there was a large timeframe where CO2 readings were removed due to sensor fault errors(see Limitations), from June 2011 to January 2012. After extensive cleaning of the CO2 data, metrics for all of the data were calculated (Table2). Preliminary analyses showed possible associations between variability measures of CO2 and AP diameter (Figure3),and average CO2 exposure and ONSD(Figure4). Adjustments for multiple comparisons were not made due to the exploratory nature of the analysis.

  13. Perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang

    2011-03-01

    Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.

  14. Exploration Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels and Ultrasound Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, M.; Mason, S.; Schaefer, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Coble, C.; Gruschkus, S.; Law, J.; Alexander, D.; Meyers, V.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced screening for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome, including in-flight ultrasound, was implemented in 2010 to better characterize the changes in vision observed in some long-duration crewmembers. Suggested possible risk factors for VIIP include cardiovascular changes, diet, anatomical and genetic factors, and environmental conditions. As a potent vasodilator, carbon dioxide (CO (sub 2)), which is chronically elevated on the International Space Station (ISS) relative to typical indoor and outdoor ambient levels on Earth, seems a plausible contributor to VIIP. In an effort to understand the possible associations between CO (sub 2) and VIIP, this study analyzes the relationship between ambient CO (sub 2) levels on ISS and ultrasound measures of the eye obtained from ISS fliers. CO (sub 2) measurements will be pulled directly from Operational Data Reduction Complex for the Lab and Node 3 major constituent analyzers (MCAs) on ISS or from sensors located in the European Columbus module, as available. CO (sub 2) measures between ultrasound sessions will be summarized using standard time series class metrics in MATLAB including time-weighted means and variances. Cumulative CO (sub 2) exposure metrics will also be developed. Regression analyses will be used to quantify the relationships between the CO (sub 2) metrics and specific ultrasound measures. Generalized estimating equations will adjust for the repeated measures within individuals. Multiple imputation techniques will be used to adjust for any possible biases in missing data for either CO (sub 2) or ultrasound measures. These analyses will elucidate the possible relationship between CO (sub 2) and changes in vision and also inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data.

  15. Measuring negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Sun; Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Park, Seon-Cheol; Yi, Jung-Seo; Park, Joong-Kyu; Lee, Jung Suk; Choi, Kee-Hong; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) is one of the validated interview measures of negative symptoms in psychotic disorders. The Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MPSR) is a self-report measure that assesses the motivation and pleasure domains of negative symptoms based on the CAINS. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of a Korean version of the MPSR. Methods A total of 139 patients with schizophrenia completed the MPSR, CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, and other measures of trait and cognitive function. Results The 15-item MPSR showed good internal consistency. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Motivation and Pleasure subscale of the CAINS and the anhedonia/avolition subscale of the SANS. The scale was not associated with psychotic symptoms, agitation/mania, and depression/anxiety, and it showed good discriminant validity. MPSR scores were significantly correlated with Behavioral Activation System total score for trait measure. Conclusion The Korean version of the MPSR is a notable self-report method for examining the severity of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:27274251

  16. Movement order and saccade direction affect a common measure of eye-hand coordination in bimanual reaching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cunguo; Ferdoash, Afreen; Snyder, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of visually guided unimanual reaching have established that a saccade usually precedes each reach and that the reaction times (RTs) for the saccade and reach are highly correlated. The correlation of eye and hand RT is commonly taken as a measure of eye-hand coordination and is thought to assist visuospatial guidance of the hand. We asked what happens during a bimanual reach task. As with a unimanual reach, a saccade was executed first. Although latencies were fastest on unimanual trials, eye and hand RT correlation was identical whether just one or both hands reached to a single target. The average correlation was significantly reduced, however, when each hand reached simultaneously to a different target. We considered three factors that might explain the drop. We found that correlation strength depended on which hand reached first and on which hand reached to the same target as the saccade. Surprisingly, these two factors were largely independent, and the identity of the hand, left or right, had little effect. Eye-hand correlation was similar to that seen with unimanual reaching only when the hand that moved to the same target as the saccade was also the first hand to move. Thus both timing as well as spatial pattern are important in determining eye-hand coordination. PMID:24848462

  17. Eye cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  18. Does Rebound Tonometry Probe Misalignment Modify Intraocular Pressure Measurements in Human Eyes?

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Ian G.; Laughton, Deborah S.; Coldrick, Benjamin J.; Drew, Thomas E.; Sallah, Marium; Davies, Leon N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the influence of positional misalignments on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement with a rebound tonometer. Methods. Using the iCare rebound tonometer, IOP readings were taken from the right eye of 36 healthy subjects at the central corneal apex (CC) and compared to IOP measures using the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT). Using a bespoke rig, iCare IOP readings were also taken 2 mm laterally from CC, both nasally and temporally, along with angular deviations of 5 and 10 degrees, both nasally and temporally to the visual axis. Results. Mean IOP ± SD, as measured by GAT, was 14.7 ± 2.5 mmHg versus iCare tonometer readings of 17.4 ± 3.6 mmHg at CC, representing an iCare IOP overestimation of 2.7 ± 2.8 mmHg (P < 0.001), which increased at higher average IOPs. IOP at CC using the iCare tonometer was not significantly different to values at lateral displacements. IOP was marginally underestimated with angular deviation of the probe but only reaching significance at 10 degrees nasally. Conclusions. As shown previously, the iCare tonometer overestimates IOP compared to GAT. However, IOP measurement in normal, healthy subjects using the iCare rebound tonometer appears insensitive to misalignments. An IOP underestimation of <1 mmHg with the probe deviated 10 degrees nasally reached statistical but not clinical significance levels. PMID:24073330

  19. Experimental measurements and Monte Carlo calculations for (103)Pd dosimetry of the 12 mm COMS eye plaque.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Pooneh; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2013-05-01

    Monte Carlo simulations and TLD dosimetry have been performed to determine the dose distributions along the central axis of the 12 mm COMS eye plaques loaded with IRA1-(103)Pd seeds. Several simulations and measurements have been employed to investigate the effect of Silastic insert and air in front of the eye on dosimetry results along the central axis of the plaque and at some critical ocular structures. Measurements were performed using TLD-GR200A circular chip dosimeters in a PMMA eye phantom. The central axis TLD chips locations were arranged in one central column of eye phantom, in 3 mm intervals. The off-axis TLD chips locations were arranged in three off-axis columns around the central axis column. Version 5 of the MCNP code was also used to evaluate the dose distribution around the plaque. The presence of the Silastic insert results in dose reduction of 14% at 5 mm; also about 7% dose reduction appears at the interface point, due to the air presence and lack of the scattering condition. The overall dosimetric parameters for the COMS eye plaque loaded with new palladium seeds are similar to a commercial widely used seed such as Theragenics200. As the dose calculations under TG-43 assumptions do not consider the effect of the plaque backing and Silastic insert for accurate dosimetry, it's suggested to apply the effect of the eye plaque materials and air on dosimetry results along the central axis of the plaque and at some critical ocular structures.

  20. Evaluating eye fixation and color contrast effects in the measurement of visual lobe sizes: comment on Tsang, et al. (2013).

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Kweon

    2014-12-01

    The visual lobe refers to the useful field of view, functional visual field, or conspicuity area in single eye fixation, and the visual lobe size is determined by the conspicuity of target presented amongst background characters. This comment discusses a study by Tsang, Chan, and Yu (2013) that investigated the effect of color contrast on the visual lobe. First, this comment suggests a way to improve the precision of their method for measuring a visual lobe. Measuring positions of the participants' eyes during visual search with an eye tracker would allow checking the eyes' fixation on the center of the search field, improving the precision of visual lobe measurement. This comment also suggests a more optimal experimental design to investigate the effect of color contrast on visual lobe size. Tsang, et al. used colors for target and background that had similar contrast (i.e., differences in chromaticity) for the experiments. If the color-contrast ratio in each experiment condition had differed enough, the color contrast effect on the visual lobe could have been investigated more effectively.

  1. The dangers of bunk beds to the eye - a case report and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Adeoti, C O; Ashaye, A O; Ubah, J N

    2010-06-01

    This is to illustrate the case of a 14 year old male student of a secondary school who fell off the top of an unguarded bunk bed in his hostel while sleeping and sustained a fracture of the left orbital margin, severe periorbital echymosis and conjunctivitis. He was managed conservatively. Two weeks post injury; the swelling resolved. At 2 months post injury, he improved tremendously and his visual acuity in the affected eye was 6/6. The swelling resolved and his anterior and posterior segments were normal. The patient was lucky to have had an intact eyeball. If it had been a penetrating eye injury, it could have been disastrous. Blinding eye injuries may be irreversible.Unguarded bunk beds may be dangerous to the eye. A recommendation of minimal standard for bunk-beds for children or no bunks at all in schools is suggested.

  2. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  3. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Eye Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us Eye Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Eye Cancer Overview Statistics ...

  4. SU-E-J-11: Measurement of Eye Lens Dose for Varian On-Board Imaging with Different CBCT Acquisition Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, S; Dhote, D; Kumar, R; Thakur, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To measure actual patient eye lens dose for different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) acquisition protocol of Varian’s On Board Imagining (OBI) system using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dosimeter and study the eye lens dose with patient geometry and distance of isocenter to the eye lens Methods: OSL dosimeter was used to measure eye lens dose of patient. OSL dosimeter was placed on patient forehead center during CBCT image acquisition to measure eye lens dose. For three different cone beam acquisition protocol (standard dose head, low dose head and high quality head) of Varian On-Board Imaging, eye lens doses were measured. Measured doses were correlated with patient geometry and distance between isocenter to eye lens. Results: Measured eye lens dose for standard dose head was in the range of 1.8 mGy to 3.2 mGy, for high quality head protocol dose was in range of 4.5mGy to 9.9 mGy whereas for low dose head was in the range of 0.3mGy to 0.7mGy. Dose to eye lens is depends upon position of isocenter. For posterioraly located tumor eye lens dose is less. Conclusion: From measured doses it can be concluded that by proper selection of imagining protocol and frequency of imaging, it is possible to restrict the eye lens dose below the new limit set by ICRP. However, undoubted advantages of imaging system should be counter balanced by careful consideration of imaging protocol especially for very intense imaging sequences for Adoptive Radiotherapy or IMRT.

  5. Korean Thanksgiving. Chusongnal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    This bilingual reader in Korean and English is intended for elementary school children in a bilingual education setting. Pen-and-ink drawings illustrate the story about a family's celebration of a traditional Korean Thanksgiving. (NCR)

  6. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980.

  7. Korean Year 3 Children's Environmental Literacy: A Prerequisite for a Korean Environmental Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Lee, Eun Ah; Ko, Hee Ryung; Shin, Dong Hee; Lee, Moon Nam; Min, Byeong Mee; Kang, Kyung Hee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean children's environmental literacy levels and the variables that affect their environmental literacy. An instrument, the Environment Literacy Instrument for Korean Children (ELIKC), was developed that measures four different dimensions (knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and skills) using 69 items…

  8. "You Don't Need to Be Mean. We're Friends, Right?": Young Korean-American Children's Conflicts and References to Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2014-01-01

    In the eyes of adults, conflicts between children are often treated as problematic social interactions that should be prevented. This study describes how young Korean-American children's conflict negotiation was a central part of their peer culture at a Korean heritage language school in the United States. Eleven young Korean-American…

  9. A Fuzzy-Based Fusion Method of Multimodal Sensor-Based Measurements for the Quantitative Evaluation of Eye Fatigue on 3D Displays

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jae Won; Choi, Jong-Suk; Heo, Hwan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid increase of 3-dimensional (3D) content, considerable research related to the 3D human factor has been undertaken for quantitatively evaluating visual discomfort, including eye fatigue and dizziness, caused by viewing 3D content. Various modalities such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses have been investigated. However, the majority of the previous research has analyzed each modality separately to measure user eye fatigue. This cannot guarantee the credibility of the resulting eye fatigue evaluations. Therefore, we propose a new method for quantitatively evaluating eye fatigue related to 3D content by combining multimodal measurements. This research is novel for the following four reasons: first, for the evaluation of eye fatigue with high credibility on 3D displays, a fuzzy-based fusion method (FBFM) is proposed based on the multimodalities of EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and subjective evaluation (SE); second, to measure a more accurate variation of eye fatigue (before and after watching a 3D display), we obtain the quality scores of EEG signals, eye BR, FT and SE; third, for combining the values of the four modalities we obtain the optimal weights of the EEG signals BR, FT and SE using a fuzzy system based on quality scores; fourth, the quantitative level of the variation of eye fatigue is finally obtained using the weighted sum of the values measured by the four modalities. Experimental results confirm that the effectiveness of the proposed FBFM is greater than other conventional multimodal measurements. Moreover, the credibility of the variations of the eye fatigue using the FBFM before and after watching the 3D display is proven using a t-test and descriptive statistical analysis using effect size. PMID:25961382

  10. High quality optical microangiography of ocular microcirculation and measurement of total retinal blood flow in mouse eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Zhongwei; Yin, Xin; Dziennis, Suzan; Alpers, Charles E.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2013-03-01

    Visualization and measurement of retinal blood flow (RBF) is important to the diagnosis and management of different eye diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is developed for generating 3D dynamic microcirculation image and later refined into ultra-high sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG) for true capillary vessels imaging. Here, we present the application of OMAG imaging technique for visualization of depth-resolved vascular network within retina and choroid as well as measurement of total retinal blood flow in mice. A fast speed spectral domain OCT imaging system at 820nm with a line scan rate of 140 kHz was developed to image mouse posterior eye. By applying UHS-OMAG scanning protocol and processing algorithm, we achieved true capillary level imaging of retina and choroid vasculature in mouse eye. The vascular pattern within different retinal layers and choroid was presented. An en face Doppler OCT approach [1] without knowing Doppler angle was adopted for the measurement of total retinal blood flow. The axial blood flow velocity is measured in an en face plane by raster scanning and the flow is calculated by integrating over the vessel area of the central retinal artery.

  11. A Study on Sea Level Variations of the Korean Peninsula and Surrounding Areas Based on Tide Gauge, GPS and Satellite Altimeter Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Park, K.; Won, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sea level variations of the Korean peninsula and surrounding areas in the ranges of 20-40 °N and 110-145 °E were investigated for the purpose of understanding the regional characteristics of the abnormal sea level rise near the Jeju island located in the southern edge of the Korean peninsula. For this study, we used tide gauge (TG) data, Global Positioning System (GPS) observations, and satellite altimeter measurements taken in the study area. We used the data at 194 TG stations. We obtained the TG data from 38 stations operated by Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration (KHOA) in Korea. We also collected monthly mean sea level observations from 139 and 17 TG stations of Japan and China, respectively. The data of Japan and China are from Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) services. We computed sea level rates using monthly mean sea level measurements, and analyzed spatial-temporal correlation through the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis. As the second part of our study, we derived absolute sea level rise rates by correcting the TG data for crustal deformation rates. To obtain the uplift rates in the area, we used continuous measurements at permanent GPS stations located at the TG site. For GPS data processing high-precision GPS data processing program GIPSY-OASIS II was used. To analyze local signatures of crustal deformation, we subtracted the primary EOF mode signal from the GPS height time series. Furthermore, we compared the obtained absolute sea level rates with satellite altimeter measurements. We obtained and analyzed TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, and Jason-2 satellite altimeter data provided by AVISO from 1993 to 2010. We found that the absolute sea level rates from geodetic measurements are generally in good agreement with radar altimeter rates.

  12. Morphometric measurement of Schlemm's canal in normal human eye using anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guohua; Wang, Fei; Li, Xiqi; Lu, Jing; Ding, Zhihua; Sun, Xinghuai; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Yudong

    2012-01-01

    We have used anterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography to measure Schlemm's canal (SC) morphometric values in the living human eye. Fifty healthy volunteers with 100 normal eyes were measured in the nasal and temporal side. Comparison with the published SC morphometric values of histologic sections proves the reliability of our results. The statistical results show that there are no significant differences between nasal and temporal SC with respect to their diameter, perimeter, and area in our study (diameter: t=0.122, p=0.903; perimeter: t=-0.003, p=0.998; area: t=-1.169, p=0.244); further, no significant differences in SC morphometric values are found between oculus sinister and oculus dexter (diameter: t=0.943, p=0.35; perimeter: t=1.346, p=0.18; area: t=1.501, p=0.135).

  13. Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

    2014-11-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The

  14. Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

    2014-11-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.95), EYE and RT (r = 0.76) and EYE and VT (r = 0.77). In Exp. 2 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, lactating ewes (St. Croix White, n = 2, and Barbados Blackbelly, n = 12) at -12, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after being administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n = 7; 0.2 µg/kg BW, i.v.) or saline (n = 7; 0.5 mL, i.v.). Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. When data were combined across treatments (LPS and saline) there was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.96), EYE and RT (r = 0.82), MUZ and RT (r = 0.72), and EYE and VT (r = 0.93). In Exp. 3 EYE, MUZ, VT and RT were measured in multiparous, non-lactating, pregnant Senepol cattle (n = 44) between 0900 and 1200 h on a single day. A digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure both VT and RT. There was a high correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and RT (r = 0.78), a moderate correlation (P < 0.001) between VT and EYE (r = 0.52), RT and EYE (r = 0.58) and EYE and MUZ (r = 0.48). There was no correlation (P > 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The

  15. Rapid, accurate, and non-invasive measurement of zebrafish axial length and other eye dimensions using SD-OCT allows longitudinal analysis of myopia and emmetropization.

    PubMed

    Collery, Ross F; Veth, Kerry N; Dubis, Adam M; Carroll, Joseph; Link, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2=0.9548, R2=0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of -0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of -0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors.

  16. Rapid, Accurate, and Non-Invasive Measurement of Zebrafish Axial Length and Other Eye Dimensions Using SD-OCT Allows Longitudinal Analysis of Myopia and Emmetropization

    PubMed Central

    Collery, Ross F.; Veth, Kerry N.; Dubis, Adam M.; Carroll, Joseph; Link, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Refractive errors in vision can be caused by aberrant axial length of the eye, irregular corneal shape, or lens abnormalities. Causes of eye length overgrowth include multiple genetic loci, and visual parameters. We evaluate zebrafish as a potential animal model for studies of the genetic, cellular, and signaling basis of emmetropization and myopia. Axial length and other eye dimensions of zebrafish were measured using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We used ocular lens and body metrics to normalize and compare eye size and relative refractive error (difference between observed retinal radial length and controls) in wild-type and lrp2 zebrafish. Zebrafish were dark-reared to assess effects of visual deprivation on eye size. Two relative measurements, ocular axial length to body length and axial length to lens diameter, were found to accurately normalize comparisons of eye sizes between different sized fish (R2 = 0.9548, R2 = 0.9921). Ray-traced focal lengths of wild-type zebrafish lenses were equal to their retinal radii, while lrp2 eyes had longer retinal radii than focal lengths. Both genetic mutation (lrp2) and environmental manipulation (dark-rearing) caused elongated eye axes. lrp2 mutants had relative refractive errors of −0.327 compared to wild-types, and dark-reared wild-type fish had relative refractive errors of −0.132 compared to light-reared siblings. Therefore, zebrafish eye anatomy (axial length, lens radius, retinal radius) can be rapidly and accurately measured by SD-OCT, facilitating longitudinal studies of regulated eye growth and emmetropization. Specifically, genes homologous to human myopia candidates may be modified, inactivated or overexpressed in zebrafish, and myopia-sensitizing conditions used to probe gene-environment interactions. Our studies provide foundation for such investigations into genetic contributions that control eye size and impact refractive errors. PMID:25334040

  17. Evaluation of eye tissue elasticity by means of sound propagation speed measuring in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crispim, Joao; Bogar, Adriano; Allemann, Norma; Neto, Jarbas C. C.; Chamon, Wallace

    2015-06-01

    Introduction: To date, it has never been demonstrated the propagation sound speed in human corneas and lens in vivo. With the advent of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), it became possible to determine the dimensions of the ocular tissues without the interference of sound propagation speed and to use this information to define the real propagation sound speed for each patient and individualized structure. Aim: To determine the sound propagation speed in the cornea and lens from patients that theoretically exhibits differences in tissue elasticity (normal corneas and keratoconus, corneas of young and elderly patients, in addition to clear crystalline lens from young and elderly patients with cataract). Then, relate the determined velocity in each group with the expected tissue elasticity of the cornea and lens. Methods: We studied 100 eyes from 50 patients: 50 with keratoconus and no cataract and 50 with cataract and no corneal changes. All patients measured corneal and lens thickness by ultrasound methods (Ultrasonic Biomicroscopy - UBM and Ultrasonic Pachymetry - USP) and by OCT (RTVue®, Lenstar® and Visante®), then were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (Cornea) analyzed the central corneal thickness (UBM, USP, RTVue®, Visante®, Lenstar®); Group 2 (Lens) analyzed the axial thickness of the lens (UBM and Lenstar®). Based on standard ultrasonic speed from USP (1640 m/s) and UBM (1548 m/s), we calculated the real sound propagation speed in each tissue. Results: Based on USP, the corneal sound speed on control group (1616 m/s) was faster than on keratoconus group (1547 m/s) (P < 0.0001). Based on UBM, the lens sound speed on cataract group (1664 m/s) was faster that on control group (1605 m/s) (P < 0.0001). Discussion: It is known that sound propagates faster in materials with lower elasticity. We found that the sound speed on keratoconic corneas (high elasticity) was slower and on cataract lens (lower elasticity) was faster than normal corneas and lens in vivo.

  18. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  19. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  20. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  1. Combining and comparing EEG, peripheral physiology and eye-related measures for the assessment of mental workload

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Erp, Jan B. F.

    2014-01-01

    While studies exist that compare different physiological variables with respect to their association with mental workload, it is still largely unclear which variables supply the best information about momentary workload of an individual and what is the benefit of combining them. We investigated workload using the n-back task, controlling for body movements and visual input. We recorded EEG, skin conductance, respiration, ECG, pupil size and eye blinks of 14 subjects. Various variables were extracted from these recordings and used as features in individually tuned classification models. Online classification was simulated by using the first part of the data as training set and the last part of the data for testing the models. The results indicate that EEG performs best, followed by eye related measures and peripheral physiology. Combining variables from different sensors did not significantly improve workload assessment over the best performing sensor alone. Best classification accuracy, a little over 90%, was reached for distinguishing between high and low workload on the basis of 2 min segments of EEG and eye related variables. A similar and not significantly different performance of 86% was reached using only EEG from single electrode location Pz. PMID:25352774

  2. Validation of a method for measuring the retinal thickness with Shack-Hartmann aberrometry in an artificial eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karitans, Varis; Jansone, Liene; Ozolins, Maris; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-05-01

    In Shack-Hartmann aberrometry, it is assumed that a wave front emerges from a single point focused on a retina. However, the retina is a multi-layered structure and reflections may occur from several layers. This may result in several overlapping spot patterns on the CCD due to different vergences of the outgoing wave fronts. The amount by which these spot patterns are displaced may contain information about the retinal thickness. In this study, we perform simulations of formation of double spots in a living eye and also apply this method to measure the thickness of an artificial retina with a simple structure. We also compare the results obtained with artificial eye and compare them to the simulated data. We evaluate the recommended range of the lenslet parameters for analyzing the retinal thickness. We conclude that this method could be used in a living eye for estimating the total retinal thickness and to confirm retinal pathologies associated with significant increase in the retinal thickness like glaucoma, macular edema, etc.

  3. The Walk on Floor Eyes Closed Tandem Step Test as a Quantitative Measure of Ataxia After Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, E. A.; Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Harm, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Posture and locomotion are among the functions most affected by space flight. Postflight ataxia can be quantified easily by using the walk on the floor line test with the eyes closed (WOFEC). Data from a modified WOFEC were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary pre- and postflight study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both postflight functional performance of astronauts and related physiological changes. METHODS Five astronauts with flight durations of 12 to 16 days participated in this study. Performance measurements were obtained in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day, and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The WOFEC test consisted of walking with the feet placed heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and eyes closed, for 10 steps. A trial was initiated after the eyes were closed and the front foot was aligned with the rear foot. The performance metric was the average percentage of correct steps completed over 3 trials. A step was not counted as correct if the crewmember sidestepped, opened eyes, or paused for more than 3 seconds between steps. Step accuracy was scored independently by 3 examiners. RESULTS Immediately after landing subjects seemed to be unaware of their foot position relative to their body or the floor. The percentage of correct steps was significantly decreased on landing day. Partial recovery was observed the next day, and full recovery to baseline on the sixth day post landing. CONCLUSION These data clearly demonstrate the sensorimotor challenges facing crewmembers after they return from space flight. Although this simple test is intended to complement the FTT battery of tests, it has some stand-alone value as it provides investigators with a means to quantify vestibular ataxia as well as provide instant feedback on postural stability without the use of complex test equipment.

  4. Learning-induced changes in attentional allocation during categorization: a sizable catalog of attention change as measured by eye movements.

    PubMed

    McColeman, Caitlyn M; Barnes, Jordan I; Chen, Lihan; Meier, Kimberly M; Walshe, R Calen; Blair, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    Learning how to allocate attention properly is essential for success at many categorization tasks. Advances in our understanding of learned attention are stymied by a chicken-and-egg problem: there are no theoretical accounts of learned attention that predict patterns of eye movements, making data collection difficult to justify, and there are not enough datasets to support the development of a rich theory of learned attention. The present work addresses this by reporting five measures relating to the overt allocation of attention across 10 category learning experiments: accuracy, probability of fixating irrelevant information, number of fixations to category features, the amount of change in the allocation of attention (using a new measure called Time Proportion Shift - TIPS), and a measure of the relationship between attention change and erroneous responses. Using these measures, the data suggest that eye-movements are not substantially connected to error in most cases and that aggregate trial-by-trial attention change is generally stable across a number of changing task variables. The data presented here provide a target for computational models that aim to account for changes in overt attentional behaviors across learning.

  5. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels, Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, C.; Young, M.; Mason, S.; Coble, C.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Patel, N.; Gibson, C.; Alexander, D.; Van Baalen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced screening for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome has been implemented to better characterize the ocular and vision changes observed in some long-duration crewmembers. This includes implementation of in-flight ultrasound in 2010 and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 2013. Potential risk factors for VIIP include cardiovascular health, diet, anatomical and genetic factors, and environmental conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2), a potent vasodilator, is chronically elevated on the International Space Station (ISS) relative to ambient levels on Earth, and is a plausible risk factor for VIIP. In an effort to understand the possible associations between CO2 and VIIP, this study explores the relationship of ambient CO2 levels on ISS compared to inflight ultrasound and OCT measures of the eye obtained from ISS crewmembers. CO2 measurements were aggregated from Operational Data Reduction Complex and Node 3 major constituent analyzers (MCAs) on ISS or from sensors located in the European Columbus module, as available. CO2 levels in the periods between each ultrasound and OCT session are summarized using timeseries metrics, including time-weighted means and variances. Partial least squares regression analyses are used to quantify the complex relationship between specific ultrasound and OCT measures and the CO2 metrics simulataneously. These analyses will enhance our understanding of the possible associations between CO2 levels and structural changes to the eye which will in turn inform future analysis of inflight VIIP data.

  6. Diurnal Choroidal Thickness Changes in Normal Eyes of Turkish People Measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Osmanbasoglu, Ozen Ayrancı; Ozkaya, Abdullah; Ozpınar, Yavuz; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To analyse the diurnal variation of central choroidal thickness (CCT) in healthy emetropic patients during working hours. Methods. Fifty healthy young emmetrpic volunteers were included in this study. CCT was measured at 9 AM and 4 PM with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering) with enhanced depth imaging. Diurnal variation of CCT, the correlation between rigth and left eyes and the demographic factors affecting this variation were assessed. Findings. The mean CCT at 9 AM and 4 PM was 308.7 ± 64.5 μm and 308.7 ± 62 μm, respectively, with a mean diurnal amplitude of −0.03 ± 14.7 μm, ranging between −55 μm and 47 μm, the difference was statistically insignificant (P: 0.9). There were positive correlations between right and left eyes among CCT measurements at 9 AM, 4 PM and the mean amplitude of diurnal change (r: 0.65, P < 0.01; r: 0.60, P < 0.01; r: 0.45, P: 0.00, resp.). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the magnitude of diurnal change and age (r: −0.27, P: 0.01). Conclusion. Although the mean CCT in the all group does not show significant variation during working hours, the pattern of diurnal variation may vary from person to person according to age, and there is a great harmony between the two eyes. PMID:23589769

  7. Time Series Analysis of Satellie-Measured Vegetation Phenology and Aerosol Optical Thickness over the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.

    2015-04-01

    The spatiotemporal influences of climatic factors and atmospheric aerosol on vegetative phenological cycles of the Korean Peninsula was analysed based on four major forest types. High temporal-resolution satellite data can overcome limitations of ground-based phenological studies with reasonable spatial resolution. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) (MOD13Q1 and MYD13Q1) and aerosol (MOD04_D3) data were downloaded from the USGS Earth Observation and Science (EROS) Data Center and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Harmonic analysis was used to describe and compare the periodic phenomena of the vegetative phenology and atmospheric aerosol optical thickness (AOT). The method transforms complex timeseries to a sum of various sinusoidal functions, or harmonics. Each harmonic curve, or term (or Fourier series), from time-series data us defined by a unique amplitude and a phase, indicating the half of the height and the peak time of a curve. Therefore, the mean, phase, and amplitude of harmonic terms of the data provided the temporal relationships between AOT and VI time series. The phenological characteristics of evergreen forest, deciduous forest, and grassland were similar to each other, but the inter-annual VI amplitude of mixed forest was differentiated from the other forest types. Overall, forests with high VI amplitude reached their maximum greenness earlier, and the phase of VI, or the peak time of greenness, was significantly influenced by air temperature. AOT time-series showed strong seasonal and inter-annual variations. Generally, aerosol concentrations were peaked during late spring and early summer. However, inter-annual AOT variations did not have significant relationships with those of VI. Weak relationships between inter-annual AOT and VI variations indicate that the impacts of aerosols on vegetation growth may be limited for the temporal scale investigated in the region.

  8. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  9. Optic nerve head analyser and Heidelberg retina tomograph: accuracy and reproducibility of topographic measurements in a model eye and in volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Janknecht, P; Funk, J

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy and reproducibility of the optic nerve head analyser (ONHA) and the Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) were compared and the performance of the HRT in measuring fundus elevations was evaluated. The coefficient of variation of three repeated measurements in a model eye and in volunteers and the relative error in a model eye was calculated. With ONHA measurements the pooled coefficient of variation in volunteers was 9.3% in measuring cup areas and 8.4% in measuring the cup volume. In a model eye the pooled coefficient of variation was 7.6% for the parameter 'cup area' and 9.9% for the parameter 'cup volume'. The pooled relative error in the model eye was 6.6% for the parameter 'cup area' and 5.1% for the parameter 'cup volume'. With HRT measurements in volunteers the pooled coefficient of variation of both the parameters 'volume below contour' and 'volume below surface' was 6.9%. In the model eye the pooled coefficient of variation was 2.4% for the 'volume below contour' and 4.1% for the parameter 'volume below surface'. The pooled relative error in the model eye was 11.3% for the 'volume below contour' and 11% for the 'volume below surface'. The pooled relative error in measuring retinal elevations in the model eye was 3.8%. The coefficient of variation was 3.5%. The accuracies of the HRT and ONHA were similar. However, as the ONHA 'cup volume' is unreliable in patients because of the design of the ONHA whereas the HRT volume parameters are reliable it seems reasonable to assume that the HRT is superior to the ONHA. Only the HRT is capable of quantifying retinal elevations. Images PMID:7803352

  10. Eye injuries in childhood.

    PubMed

    Grin, T R; Nelson, L B; Jeffers, J B

    1987-07-01

    A 3-year survey was conducted of all children with eye injuries admitted to Wills Eye Hospital to determine demographic, etiologic, and prophylactic factors. There were 278 cases, representing 22% of all ocular injuries in children requiring admission. The frequency of childhood ocular injuries is high, often resulting in serious visual impairment. Many of these injuries are preventable. The causes of pediatric eye injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  11. GMS-based"Future Time" Rainfall Data Assimilation for Mesoscale Weather Prediction over Korean Peninsula and Future Prospects with GPM Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Ou, Mi-Lim

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the use of satellite-derived nowcasted (short-term forecasted) rainfall over 3-hour time periods to gain an equivalent time increment in initializing a nonhydrostatic mesoscale model used for predicting convective rainfall events over the Korean peninsula. Infrared (IR) window measurements from the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) are used to specify latent heating for a spinup period of the model - but in future time -- thus initializing in advance of actual time in the framework of a prediction scenario. The main scientific objective of the study is to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of this approach insofar as data assimilation, in which the nowcasted assimilation data are derived independently of the prognostic model itself. Although there have been various recent improvements in formulating the dynamics, thermodynamics, and microphysics of mesoscale models, as well as computer advances which allow the use of high resolution cloud-resolving grids and explicit latent heating over regional domains, spinup remains at the forefront of unresolved mesoscale modeling problems. In general, non-realistic spinup limits the skill in predicting the spatial-temporal distribution of convection and precipitation, primarily in the early hours of a. forecast, stemming from standard prognostic variables not representing the initial diabatic heating field produced by the ambient convection and cloud fields. The long-term goal of this research is to improve short-range (12-hour) quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) over the Korean peninsula through the use of innovative data assimilation methods based on geosynchronous satellite measurements. As a step in ths direction, a non-standard data assimilation experiment in conjunction with GMS-retrieved nowcasted rainfall information introduced to the mesoscale model is conducted. The 3-hourly precipitation forecast information is assimilated through nudging the associated

  12. Optical performance simulation of free-form optics for an eye implant based on a measurement data enhanced model.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Ingo; Li, Likai; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Beckert, Erik; Steinkopf, Ralf; Yi, Allen Y

    2016-08-20

    This paper describes the application of a modeling approach for precise optical performance prediction of free-form optics-based subsystems on a demonstration model of an eye implant. The simulation model is enhanced by surface data measured on the free-form lens parts. The manufacturing of the free-form lens parts is realized by two different manufacturing processes: ultraprecision diamond machining and microinjection molding. Evaluation of both processes is conducted by a simulation of the optical performance on the basis of their surface measurement comparisons with the nominal geometry. The simulation results indicate that improvements from the process optimization of microinjection molding were obtained for the best manufacturing accuracy. PMID:27556988

  13. Studies of the Ability to Hold the Eye in Eccentric Gaze: Measurements in Normal Subjects with the Head Erect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Leigh, R. John; Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, William H.; Kornilova, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    We studied the ability to hold the eyes in eccentric horizontal or vertical gaze angles in 68 normal humans, age range 19-56. Subjects attempted to sustain visual fixation of a briefly flashed target located 30 in the horizontal plane and 15 in the vertical plane in a dark environment. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting centripetal eye drifts by exponential curves and calculating the time constant (t(sub c)) of these slow phases of gazeevoked nystagmus. Although the distribution of time-constant measurements (t(sub c)) in our normal subjects was extremely skewed due to occasional test runs that exhibited near-perfect stability (large t(sub c) values), we found that log10(tc) was approximately normally distributed within classes of target direction. Therefore, statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of z identical with log10t(sub c). Subjects showed considerable variation in their eyedrift performance over repeated trials; nonetheless, statistically significant differences emerged: values of tc were significantly higher for gaze elicited to targets in the horizontal plane than for the vertical plane (P less than 10(exp -5), suggesting eccentric gazeholding is more stable in the horizontal than in the vertical plane. Furthermore, centrifugal eye drifts were observed in 13.3, 16.0 and 55.6% of cases for horizontal, upgaze and downgaze tests, respectively. Fifth percentile values of the time constant were estimated to be 10.2 sec, 3.3 sec and 3.8 sec for horizontal, upward and downward gaze, respectively. The difference between horizontal and vertical gazeholding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied in a clinical setting to patients who were exposed to environments

  14. Gender Effect on Reading Comprehension with Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Tae-Il

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of gender on English reading comprehension for Korean EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners. The gender effect was measured using a DIF (Differential Item Functioning) methodology. Specifically, gender DIF was investigated for a random sample of 14,000 Korean examinees (7,000 males and 7,000 females) who took…

  15. Eye-rima oris distance and its relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion measured by two methods: Anthropometric study in a sample of Yemeni dental students

    PubMed Central

    Alhajj, Mohammed Nasser; Khalifa, Nadia; Amran, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the distance measured from the distal outer of the eye to the parting line of the lips and the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) measured by two methods. Methods: One hundred and fourteen dental students (76 males and 38 females) were recruited for this study with mean age (22.34 ± 1.83) years. The distance from distal canthus of the eye to rima oris (eye-RO) was compared with two different measurements of the OVD (nasal [N] to gnathion [Gn], and subnasal [Sn] to menton [Me]). All distances were measured using modified digital caliper. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient test for correlations and paired samples t-test for differences were used with a significant level of (P < 0.05). There was a positive significant correlation between the eye-RO distance and the two measurements of the OVD. However, this correlation was stronger between eye-RO and the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin than that between eye-RO and the distance from the septum of the nose to the under of the chin (r = 0.313 with P = 0.0007, r = 0.296 with P = 0.0014), respectively. Conclusion: The distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the parting of the lips seems to be a reliable method in predicting the OVD and should relate to the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin. PMID:27011736

  16. Experiments on a Model Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arell, Antti; Kolari, Samuli

    1978-01-01

    Explains a laboratory experiment dealing with the optical features of the human eye. Shows how to measure the magnification of the retina and the refractive anomaly of the eye could be used to measure the refractive power of the observer's eye. (GA)

  17. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking good care of ... are qualified to perform eye exams. Aging and Vision Changes As you age, it is normal to ...

  18. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  19. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  20. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  1. Measurement of Acute Changes in Choroid Thickness in Healthy Eyes During Posture Change Using Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Connor R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    The Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome affects 60% of astronauts returning from long-duration missions and is characterized by structural and functional changes of the eye (3). Upon entry into weightlessness, approximately two liters of fluid translocates from the lower body to the thorax and cephalad regions, potentially contributing to elevated intracranial and intraocular pressures. The choroid is the vasculature that supplies blood flow to the posterior part of the retina and has limited autoregulation. As a consequence these vessels may engorge during a cephalad fluid shift, contributing to structural changes in the retina. The purpose of this experiment was to quantify changes in choroid thickness during a fluid shift. In order to fulfill this objective, it was also necessary to improve the measurement technique for assessing choroid thickness.

  2. Brief Report: Broad Autism Phenotype in Adults is Associated with Performance on an Eye-Tracking Measure of Joint Attention

    PubMed Central

    Siller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current study takes advantage of modern eye-tracking technology and evaluates how individuals allocate their attention when viewing social videos that display an adult model who is gazing at a series of targets that appear and disappear in the four corners of the screen (congruent condition), or gazing elsewhere (incongruent condition). Data demonstrated the feasibility of administrating this experimental paradigm to a diverse sample of healthy adult college students (N = 44). Results revealed that individual differences in gaze allocation were significantly related to a self-report measure evaluating features of the broad autism phenotype, suggesting that individual variation in the broad autism phenotype is related to individual differences in gaze allocation. PMID:23921972

  3. Evaluation of Visual Acuity Measurements after Autorefraction versus Manual Refraction in Eyes with and without Diabetic Macular Edema

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jennifer K.; Qin, Haijing; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Melia, Michele; Beck, Roy W.; Andreoli, Christopher M.; Edwards, Paul A.; Glassman, Adam R.; Pavlica, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare visual acuity (VA) scores after autorefraction versus research protocol manual refraction in eyes of patients with diabetes and a wide range of VA. Methods Electronic Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (E-ETDRS) VA Test© letter score (EVA) was measured after autorefraction (AR-EVA) and after Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (DRCR.net) protocol manual refraction (MR-EVA). Testing order was randomized, study participants and VA examiners were masked to refraction source, and a second EVA utilizing an identical manual refraction (MR-EVAsupl) was performed to determine test-retest variability. Results In 878 eyes of 456 study participants, median MR-EVA was 74 (Snellen equivalent approximately 20/32). Spherical equivalent was often similar for manual and autorefraction (median difference: 0.00, 5th and 95th percentiles −1.75 to +1.13 Diopters). However, on average, MR-EVA results were slightly better than AR-EVA results across the entire VA range. Furthermore, variability between AR-EVA and MR-EVA was substantially greater than the test-retest variability of MR-EVA (P<0.001). Variability of differences was highly dependent on autorefractor model. Conclusions Across a wide range of VA at multiple sites using a variety of autorefractors, VA measurements tend to be worse with autorefraction than manual refraction. Differences between individual autorefractor models were identified. However, even among autorefractor models comparing most favorably to manual refraction, VA variability between autorefraction and manual refraction is higher than the test-retest variability of manual refraction. The results suggest that with current instruments, autorefraction is not an acceptable substitute for manual refraction for most clinical trials with primary outcomes dependent on best-corrected VA. PMID:22159173

  4. Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries. ImagesFigures 2a, bFigure 3Figures 4a, b, c, dFigure 5 PMID:21267100

  5. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  6. Effects of eye-glasses, hair, headgear, and clothing on measured head-related transfer functions Part Ib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riederer, Klaus A. J.

    2003-10-01

    Extensive head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements show high HRTF repeatability, consequences of different measurement methods, and conditions covering the whole three-dimensional space [Riederer, J. Audio Eng. Soc. (Abstracts) 46, 1036 (1998), preprint 4846]. This study concentrates on specific effects on HRTFs carefully re-measured on the same Cortex dummy head applying Sennheiser KE4-211-2 microphones at its silicone putty blocked ear-canal entrances, employing 252 sound incidents including seven elevations. The effects of five different wigs (synthetic, natural, thick, thin, long and short hair) with varied hairstyles, four hats (cap, bicycle helmet, mens and womens trilby), clothes (alpaca pullover, bicycling drymax-jacket) and spectacles were investigated under 28 combinations. The influences are highly dependent on direction, frequency, and case. Clothes and eye-glasses affect minimally HRTF; hair has a stronger effect, depending on the actual hairdo (typically above 7 kHz). Hats alter intensively HRTFs (typically above 5 kHz), depending on the model. The measurements give deeper insight to the development of idiosyncratic features in binaural localization cues. The second part of the study addresses their perceptual effects [Riederer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., this issue]. [Work supported by Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunication and Automation; thanks to Finnish Broadcasting Company, Mr. Hellstrom; Mrs. Chen.

  7. Intraocular Pressure Measurements Referring to the Corneal Thickness in Keratoconic Eyes After Corneal Crosslinking with Riboflavin and Ultraviolet A

    PubMed Central

    Kasumovic, Sanja Sefic; Mavija, Milka; Kasumovic, Aida; Lepara, Orhan; Duric-Colic, Belkisa; Cabric, Emir; Muhamedagic, Lejla; Sakovic-Racic, Adisa; Jankov, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the possible relation between intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal resistance (CR) in kerotoconic eyes before, 3,6 and 12 months after collagen crosslinking procedure (CXL) with aim to find out does the thicker cornea means already more resistance cornea followed with higher IOP. Methods: Thirty eyes (30 patients) with central keratoconus (KC)were evaluated in retrospective cross sectional study. The corneal biomechanical parameters were taken with Wave Light Allegro Oculyzer produced by Alcon before the CXL, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure. IOP were checked by Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) before, 3, 6 and 12 months after CXL. Results: The value of IOP before the CXL was 12,0 mmHg (10,62-15,25 mmHg), 3 months later 13,5 mmHg (11,0-16,0 mmHg), 6 months 14,0 mmHg (11,0-16,0 mmHg) and 12 months later 15,0 mmHg (10,37-17,25 mmHg) and was statistically significant higher (p=0,015) comparing to the value of IOP 3 months after the CXL, IOP 12 months after CXL procedure was statistically significant higher comparing to preoperative values (p=0,010). There were no statistically significant difference between the values 3 and 6 months after CXL. The CCT before the CXL procedure was 449 (433-505,75 microns), 3 months after CXL was 420 (383-473microns, p < 0,005), 6 months later 437 (401,25-480,25, p=0,001), 12 months after CXL 437 (401-503 microns, p=0,001). However there is statistically significant difference in CCT 12 months after CXL 437 (401-503microns p=0,032) and the value of CCT 3 months later the procedure (p=0,004) and the CCT 12 months after CXL and the value of CXL 6 months after CXL (p=0,036). The value of CCT did not show any statistically significant difference 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion: After riboflavin-UVA CXL in eyes with KC there was significant decrease in central corneal thickness 3 and 6 months after the procedure and the thickness is almost the same 12 months later

  8. Eyes on the Block: Measuring Urban Physical Disorder Through In-Person Observation

    PubMed Central

    Pebley, Anne R.; Sastry, Narayan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from measuring physical disorder in Los Angeles neighborhoods. Disorder measures came from structured observations conducted by trained field interviewers. We examine inter-rater reliability of disorder measures in depth. We assess the effects of observation conditions on the reliability of reporting. Finally, we examine the relationships between disorder, other indicators of neighborhood status, and selected individual outcomes. Our results indicate that there is considerable variation in the level of agreement among independent observations across items, although overall agreement is moderate to high. Durable indicators of disorder provide the most reliable measures of neighborhood conditions. Circumstances of observation have statistically significant effects on the observers’ perceived level of disorder. Physical disorder is significantly related to other indicators of neighborhood status, and to children’s reading and behavior development. This result suggests a need for further research into the effects of neighborhood disorder on children. PMID:21643484

  9. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Mirian; Ferreras, Antonio; Pajarin, Ana B.; Calvo, Pilar; Figus, Michele; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Methods. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (COV), and test-retest variability (TRT) were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. Results. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946) in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982) and inferior average (0.978) yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43%) in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. Conclusions. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression. PMID:26185762

  10. The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.

  11. Research Spotlight: Two eyes are better than one for measuring rain from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-03-01

    One predicted consequence of climate change is a global redistribution of precipitation and the resultant shifts in regional rainfall volumes. To forecast the details of Earth's changing climate, researchers rely on the accurate detection and measurement of rainfall volumes. One type of rain, the light, warm drizzle often found in coastal regions or during a spring shower, is especially difficult to measure using satellite observations. The two most promising techniques for measuring warm rain—passive microwave (PMW), which sees through clouds and measures the microwave radiation emitted by rain, and visible/near-infrared (VNIR) detection, which measures reflected sunlight at wavelengths up to near-infrared absorption bands of water—both have shortcomings. In their new study, Bennartz et al. try to marry the two techniques, using the strengths of each to improve the accuracy of warm rain detection. The researchers assessed the viability of using combined VNIR and PMW data with a simplified cloud model before testing their technique with satellite observations and independently observed precipitation data for a region along the western coast of South Africa. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2009JD013679, 2010)

  12. Quantifying patterns of dynamics in eye movement to measure goodness in organization of design elements in interior architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkia, Hasti; Sangari, Arash; Nelson, Mark; Assadi, Amir H.

    2013-03-01

    Architecture brings together diverse elements to enhance the observer's measure of esthetics and the convenience of functionality. Architects often conceptualize synthesis of design elements to invoke the observer's sense of harmony and positive affect. How does an observer's brain respond to harmony of design in interior spaces? One implicit consideration by architects is the role of guided visual attention by observers while navigating indoors. Prior visual experience of natural scenes provides the perceptual basis for Gestalt of design elements. In contrast, Gestalt of organization in design varies according to the architect's decision. We outline a quantitative theory to measure the success in utilizing the observer's psychological factors to achieve the desired positive affect. We outline a unified framework for perception of geometry and motion in interior spaces, which integrates affective and cognitive aspects of human vision in the context of anthropocentric interior design. The affective criteria are derived from contemporary theories of interior design. Our contribution is to demonstrate that the neural computations in an observer's eye movement could be used to elucidate harmony in perception of form, space and motion, thus a measure of goodness of interior design. Through mathematical modeling, we argue the plausibility of the relevant hypotheses.

  13. Korean Version of Inventory of Complicated Grief Scale: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (P<0.001). Concurrent validity was assessed using a correlation between the ICG total scores and the CDI total scores (r=0.75, P<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on the comparison of ICG total scores between adolescents without complicated grief (1.2±3.7) and adolescent with complicated grief (3.2±6.6) groups was relatively high (t=5.71, P<0.001). The data acquired from the 1,138 students was acceptable for a factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ2=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. PMID:26770046

  14. The Relationship between Corvis ST Tonometry and Ocular Response Analyzer Measurements in Eyes with Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Masato; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Murata, Hiroshi; Yanagisawa, Mieko; Nakao, Yoshitaka; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    It is important to compare the results of Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology instrument (CST) measurements and Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) parameters. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between CST measurements and ORA parameters in ninety-five patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Measurements of CST, ORA, axial length (AL), average corneal curvature (CC), central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) were carried out. The association between CST and ORA parameters was assessed using linear regression analysis, with model selection based on the second order bias corrected Akaike Information Criterion index. Measurements from ORA (corneal hysteresis [CH] and corneal response factor [CRF]) had high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and low coefficients of variation, but some CST parameters showed much lower reproducibility, namely: A1 length, A2 length, highest concavity time and peak distance. Of 12 CST parameters tested, 8 were significantly correlated with CH and 10 were significantly correlated with CRF, however, the magnitude of the correlation coefficients were weak to moderate at best. The optimal model to explain CH using CST measurements was given by: CH = -76.3 + 4.6*A1 time + 1.9*A2 time + 3.1 * highest concavity deformation amplitude + 0.016*CCT (R2 = 0.67, p <0.001). Similarly, the optimal model for CRF was given by: CRF = -53.5 + 4.2*A1 time + 1.9*A1 length + 20.8*A1 deformation amplitude + 0.8*A2 time + 0.017*CCT (R2 = 0.73, p <0.001). ORA parameters show higher reproducibility than CST measurements. Although many CST parameters are significantly related to ORA parameters, the strengths of these relationships are weak to moderate. PMID:27580243

  15. The Relationship between Corvis ST Tonometry and Ocular Response Analyzer Measurements in Eyes with Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Masato; Hirasawa, Kazunori; Murata, Hiroshi; Yanagisawa, Mieko; Nakao, Yoshitaka; Nakakura, Shunsuke; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Asaoka, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    It is important to compare the results of Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology instrument (CST) measurements and Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) parameters. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between CST measurements and ORA parameters in ninety-five patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. Measurements of CST, ORA, axial length (AL), average corneal curvature (CC), central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) were carried out. The association between CST and ORA parameters was assessed using linear regression analysis, with model selection based on the second order bias corrected Akaike Information Criterion index. Measurements from ORA (corneal hysteresis [CH] and corneal response factor [CRF]) had high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and low coefficients of variation, but some CST parameters showed much lower reproducibility, namely: A1 length, A2 length, highest concavity time and peak distance. Of 12 CST parameters tested, 8 were significantly correlated with CH and 10 were significantly correlated with CRF, however, the magnitude of the correlation coefficients were weak to moderate at best. The optimal model to explain CH using CST measurements was given by: CH = -76.3 + 4.6*A1 time + 1.9*A2 time + 3.1 * highest concavity deformation amplitude + 0.016*CCT (R2 = 0.67, p <0.001). Similarly, the optimal model for CRF was given by: CRF = -53.5 + 4.2*A1 time + 1.9*A1 length + 20.8*A1 deformation amplitude + 0.8*A2 time + 0.017*CCT (R2 = 0.73, p <0.001). ORA parameters show higher reproducibility than CST measurements. Although many CST parameters are significantly related to ORA parameters, the strengths of these relationships are weak to moderate. PMID:27580243

  16. Timed and Untimed Grammaticality Judgments Measure Distinct Types of Knowledge: Evidence from Eye-Movement Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfroid, Aline; Loewen, Shawn; Jung, Sehoon; Park, Ji-Hyun; Gass, Susan; Ellis, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Grammaticality judgment tests (GJTs) have been used to elicit data reflecting second language (L2) speakers' knowledge of L2 grammar. However, the exact constructs measured by GJTs, whether primarily implicit or explicit knowledge, are disputed and have been argued to differ depending on test-related variables (i.e., time pressure and item…

  17. Eye-Safe Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Laser infrared radar (lidar) undergoing development harmless to human eyes, consists almost entirely of solid-state components, and offers high range resolution. Operates at wavelength of about 2 micrometers. If radiation from such device strikes eye, almost completely absorbed by cornea without causing damage, even if aimed directly at eye. Continuous-wave light from laser oscillator amplified and modulated for transmission from telescope. Small portion of output of oscillator fed to single-mode fiber coupler, where mixed with return pulses. Intended for remote Doppler measurements of winds and differential-absorption measurements of concentrations of gases in atmosphere.

  18. Dry eye syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... particles that have gotten in. A healthy tear film on the eye is necessary for good vision. ... exam Diagnostic staining of the cornea and tear film Measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT) ...

  19. Reliability of manual measurements of corneal thickness obtained from healthy canine eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).

    PubMed

    Alario, Anthony F; Pirie, Christopher G

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to manually measure corneal thickness in canine eyes using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device and to assess intra- and inter-observer reliability of this technique. Twenty healthy dogs with a mean age of 4.7 y were examined. A 6-mm corneal pachymetry protocol was carried out by 1 operator using 1 SD-OCT device in both eyes of each animal. Measurements were obtained manually and in duplicate by 2 independent investigators (> 24 h apart), using the built-in caliper function. Measurements included epithelial thickness (ET), non-epithelial thickness (NET), and central corneal thickness (CCT). The overall mean ET, NET, and CCT for all eyes examined were 72.3 ± 4.6 μm, 538.9 ± 42.5 μm, and 611.2 ± 40.3 μm, respectively. There was no significant difference in ET, NET, or CCT based on the eye examined [oculus dexter (OD) versus oculus sinister (OS)], age, or gender of the animal. There was no significant difference in replicate measurements of ET, NET, or CCT done by the same operator, although a small but significant difference was noted between operators for ET measurements only. The mean difference in ET between operators was 0.6 μm (P = 0.03). The coefficient of variation ranged from 0.5% to 9.27% and intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.35 to 0.97. Based on these results, manual measurements of corneal thickness in canine eyes using a portable SD-OCT device provided ET, NET, and CCT measurements with clinically acceptable intra- and inter-observer reliability.

  20. Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity. PMID:24665426

  1. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  2. EYE DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Nicholas E.; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This chapter provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens. PMID:24784530

  3. Korean Geodetic VLBI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Kim, T.; Han, S.; Kwak, Y.; Oh, H.; Yi, S.; Bae, M.; Kim, K.; Moon, J.; Park, J.

    2009-04-01

    A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) for the project named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately. The KVG has started officially since October, 2008. The construction of all system will be completed by the end of 2011. In Korea, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has already promoted Korean VLBI Network (KVN) project dedicated to radio astronomy since 2001, and three 21-m diameter antennas have been constructed at Seoul, Ulsan, and Jeju Island. Although their receivers have not yet been fully installed, the antenna is designed to be able to receive 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands simultaneously. In parallel with the KVN project, the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) has been planning to construct their own VLBI antenna dedicated to geodetic measurements since 2001 to maintain the Korean Geodetic Datum accurately on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). It also aims at a fundamental station in East Asia and will contribute to the better determination of the ITRF there. A grand design for KVG project realizing NGII's plan has been proposed by the Ajou University under the collaborations with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan (NICT), National Astronomical Observatory, Japan (NAO), and the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan (GSI). The design of KVG antenna follows the VLBI2010 except for receiving frequencies and the diameter; VLBI2010 is the guideline for next generation's geodetic VLBI system compiled by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The antenna is designed to be able to receive 2, 8, 22, and 43 GHz bands simultaneously in order to carry out geodetic VLBI observations not only with current geodetic VLBI stations equipped with 2/8 GHz receivers but also

  4. Anthropometry of Korean female industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, J E; Malzahn, D E; Eyada, O K; Kim, C H

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on Korean female workers in the garment industry. The data was collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilized equipment from other countries. A set of 23 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 101 workers (aged 18-28 years). The anthropometric measurements are presented and compared with those of the Western and Japanese female. The results indicate that the body dimensions of the Korean female are different from those of both the Western and the Japanese female. The ratio of sitting height to standing height for the Korean female is closer to that of the Western female than it is the Japanese female.

  5. There's More to the Picture than Meets the Eye: Measuring Tangible and Intangible Capital in Two Marginal Communities in Rural Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Sorensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2007-01-01

    A missing link in economics has been what Veblen in 1908 termed intangible capital. This includes common norms, trust and high levels of cooperative performance. Intangibles are invisible to the eye and not easily measured in quantitative terms. They nevertheless involve visible, socioeconomic outcomes and should therefore rightly be seen as…

  6. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating Eye ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD ...

  7. Total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Hye-Jin; Cho, Mi Ran; Chang, Namsoo; Kim, Yuri; Oh, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to measure and/or estimate the total antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Eighty-one plant foods that were expected to exhibit rather high antioxidant activities were selected from the Korean diet using the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES V). These foods were categorized into 11 food groups: cereals, potatoes, legumes, nuts, vegetables, kimchies, mushrooms, fruits, fruit juices, sea weeds, and oils. The foods were mixed in the proportions specified in traditional Korean recipes and analyzed. The measured indicators for antioxidant capacities were total phenolics, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). RESULTS Total phenolics were high in the fruit juices, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; and the average DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC values were high in the vegetables, fruits, fruit juices, and nuts. The correlation coefficient between the content of total phenolics of each food and the in vitro antioxidant capacity was relatively high at 0.851. The intake of total phenolics per capita per day in the Republic of Korea was estimated to be 127 mg. The total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) values, which were obtained from the total antioxidant capacity of each food, taking into account the intake of each food, were 20,763, 54,335, and 876.4 µmol of Trolox equivalents using the DPPH, ORAC, and TEAC methods, respectively. The food group that contributed the most to the Korean TDAC was cereals at 39.7%, followed by fruits and vegetables at 27.8% and 13.9%, respectively. The contribution of legumes, nuts, fruit juices, and mushrooms was quite minimal at less than 2% each. CONCLUSIONS The content of total phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of the Korean diet are significantly correlated and the high contributing food groups are cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:24741403

  8. Development of a high precision dosimetry system for the measurement of surface dose rate distribution for eye applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Eichmann, Marion; Fluehs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The therapeutic outcome of the therapy with ophthalmic applicators is highly dependent on the application of a sufficient dose to the tumor, whereas the dose applied to the surrounding tissue needs to be minimized. The goal for the newly developed apparatus described in this work is the determination of the individual applicator surface dose rate distribution with a high spatial resolution and a high precision in dose rate with respect to time and budget constraints especially important for clinical procedures. Inhomogeneities of the dose rate distribution can be detected and taken into consideration for the treatment planning. Methods: In order to achieve this, a dose rate profile as well as a surface profile of the applicator are measured and correlated with each other. An instrumental setup has been developed consisting of a plastic scintillator detector system and a newly designed apparatus for guiding the detector across the applicator surface at a constant small distance. It performs an angular movement of detector and applicator with high precision. Results: The measurements of surface dose rate distributions discussed in this work demonstrate the successful operation of the measuring setup. Measuring the surface dose rate distribution with a small distance between applicator and detector and with a high density of measuring points results in a complete and gapless coverage of the applicator surface, being capable of distinguishing small sized spots with high activities. The dosimetrical accuracy of the measurements and its analysis is sufficient (uncertainty in the dose rate in terms of absorbed dose to water is <7%), especially when taking the surgical techniques in positioning of the applicator on the eyeball into account. Conclusions: The method developed so far allows a fully automated quality assurance of eye applicators even under clinical conditions. These measurements provide the basis for future calculation of a full 3D dose rate

  9. Validation of a paleo river system derived by ground based electromagnetic induction measurements with satellite based RapidEye images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Sebastian; von Hebel, Christian; Ali, Mohammed; Stadler, Anja; Herbst, Michael; Montzka, Carsten; Pätzold, Stefan; Weihermüller, Lutz; van der Kruk, Jan; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Morphological remnants of an inactive river system that has been filled by younger sediments can provide datable proxies about past climatic conditions. However, sediment composition of their infillings is a challenge for agriculture, in particular for precision agriculture. Differential crop development and yield reduction are often a consequence of lateral and vertical textural inhomogeneities. Several studies have shown that buried river systems can be traced by the use of remote sensing. However, the appearance of crop marks strongly depends on environmental conditions, and therefore, the reliance of remotely acquired data can become time and cost expensive. Soil physical properties which are related to textural differences can be mapped fast and cost-effective by the use of near surface geophysics. Especially electromagnetic induction (EMI), which measures soil apparent conductivity (ECa), has become a tool of choice to characterize large areas in high resolution. The introduction of multiple coil EMI systems as well as the quantification of respective measurements enables a reliable multilayer inversion. The aim of this study was to map a postglacial river system on agricultural fields and to mark out buried remains such as trenches and bomb craters of World War II. In summer 2012 ten fields (17 ha) were mapped with the CMD MiniExplorer, a multiple coil EMI system especially appropriate for near surface applications, after the harvest of winter wheat and sugar beet. At elevated sandy sites meander like patterns with higher conductivity were mapped. ECa measurements were verified by textural data taken from directed soil samples and vertical ECa logs. Sediment thickness was evaluated on soil cores and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) transects. Furthermore, ERT quantified ECa measurements were correlated with satellite as well as destructive derived leaf area index (LAI) measurements. In 3 of 71 LAI maps derived by multispectral RapidEye imagery crop

  10. Korean Teachers' Attitudes toward Academic Brilliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seon-Young; Cramond, Bonnie; Lee, Jongyeun

    2004-01-01

    This is a replication of a study designed by Tannenbaum (1962) and repeated by Cramond and Martin (1987) measuring U.S. attitudes toward intelligence by having respondents rate 8 hypothetical students who varied in their combinations of athleticism, effort, and academic ability. This study investigated 132 Korean preservice and in-service…

  11. Eye Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cornea, which focuses light while protecting the eye. After light passes through the cornea, it travels through a ... and have them progress faster. With cataracts, the eye's clear lens clouds, blocking light. To help deal with mild cataracts, you may ...

  12. Correlation between Extraocular Muscle Size Measured by Computed Tomography and the Vertical Angle of Deviation in Thyroid Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Yeun; Bae, Kunho; Park, Kyung-Ah; Lyu, In Jeong; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate extraocular muscle (EOM) volume and cross-sectional area using computed tomography (CT), and to determine the relationship between EOM size and the vertical angle of deviation in thyroid eye disease (TED). Twenty-nine TED patients (58 orbits) with vertical strabismus were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination including prism, alternate cover, and Krimsky tests. Orbital CT scans were also performed on each patient. Digital image analysis was used to quantify superior rectus (SR) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes. Measurements were compared with those of controls. The correlation between muscle size and degree of vertical angle deviation was evaluated. The mean vertical angle of deviation was 26.2 ± 4.1 prism diopters. The TED group had a greater maximum cross-sectional area and EOM volume in the SR and IR than the control group (all p<0.001). Area and volume of the IR were correlated with the angle of deviation, but the SR alone did not show a significant correlation. The maximum cross-sectional area and volume of [Right IR + Left SR - Right SR - Left IR] was strongly correlated with the vertical angle of deviation (P<0.001). Quantitative CT of the orbit with evaluation of the area and volume of EOMs may be helpful in anticipating and monitoring vertical strabismus in TED patients.

  13. Burn severity estimation using GeoEye imagery, object-based image analysis (OBIA), and Composite Burn Index (CBI) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragozi, E.; Gitas, Ioannis Z.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Minakou, C.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fires greatly influence the stability and functions of the forest ecosystems. The ever increasing need for accurate and detailed information regarding post-fire effects (burn severity) has led to several studies on the matter. In this study the combined use of Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite data (GeoEye), Objectbased image analysis (OBIA) and Composite Burn Index (CBI) measurements in estimating burn severity, at two different time points (2011 and 2012) is assessed. The accuracy of the produced maps was assessed and changes in burn severity between the two dates were detected using the post classification comparison approach. It was found that the produced burn severity map for 2011 was approximately 10% more accurate than that of 2012. This was mainly attributed to the increased heterogeneity of the study area in the second year, which led to an increased number of mixed class objects and consequently made it more difficult to spectrally discriminate between the severity classes. Following the post-classification analysis, the severity class changes were mainly attributed to the trees' ability to survive severe fire damage and sprout new leaves. Moreover, the results of the study suggest that when classifying CBI-based burn severity using VHR imagery it would be preferable to use images captured soon after the fire.

  14. Validation of the ECOS-16 Questionnaire in Koreans with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Seung Min; Goh, Tae Sik; Kim, Taek Hoon; Noh, Eun Yeong

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose To evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Korean version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (ECOS-16). Overview of Literature The validity of the Korean version of ECOS-16 has not been completely demonstrated. Methods Translation/retranslation of the English version of ECOS-16, and full cross-cultural adaptation were performed. The Korean version of a visual analog scale measure of pain, and the Korean versions of ECOS-16 and of the previously validated short form-36 (SF-36) were mailed to 158 consecutive patients with osteoporosis. Factor analysis and reliability assessment using kappa statistics of agreement for each item, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Cronbach's α were done. Construct validity was evaluated by comparing responses to ECOS-16 with responses to SF-36 using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Factor analysis extracted three factors. All items had a kappa statistics of agreement >0.6. The ECOS-16 showed good test/re-test reliability (0.8469) and internal consistency of Cronbach's α (0.897). The Korean version of ECOS-16 showed significant correlation with SF-36 total scores and with single SF-36 domains scores. Conclusions The adapted Korean version of the ECOS-16 was successfully translated and showed acceptable measurement properties. It is considered suitable for outcome assessments in Korean patients with osteoporosis. PMID:27790315

  15. Seasonal variation in carcass characteristics of korean cattle steers.

    PubMed

    Piao, M Y; Baik, M

    2015-03-01

    Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of -4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of -6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r≥0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r≤-0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions. PMID:25656196

  16. Seasonal variation in carcass characteristics of korean cattle steers.

    PubMed

    Piao, M Y; Baik, M

    2015-03-01

    Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of -4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of -6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r≥0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r≤-0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions.

  17. High-Speed Video-Oculography for Measuring Three-Dimensional Rotation Vectors of Eye Movements in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Noriaki; Uno, Atsuhiko; Inohara, Hidenori; Shimada, Shoichi

    2016-01-01

    Background The mouse is the most commonly used animal model in biomedical research because of recent advances in molecular genetic techniques. Studies related to eye movement in mice are common in fields such as ophthalmology relating to vision, neuro-otology relating to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), neurology relating to the cerebellum’s role in movement, and psychology relating to attention. Recording eye movements in mice, however, is technically difficult. Methods We developed a new algorithm for analyzing the three-dimensional (3D) rotation vector of eye movement in mice using high-speed video-oculography (VOG). The algorithm made it possible to analyze the gain and phase of VOR using the eye’s angular velocity around the axis of eye rotation. Results When mice were rotated at 0.5 Hz and 2.5 Hz around the earth’s vertical axis with their heads in a 30° nose-down position, the vertical components of their left eye movements were in phase with the horizontal components. The VOR gain was 0.42 at 0.5 Hz and 0.74 at 2.5 Hz, and the phase lead of the eye movement against the turntable was 16.1° at 0.5 Hz and 4.88° at 2.5 Hz. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this algorithm being used to calculate a 3D rotation vector of eye movement in mice using high-speed VOG. We developed a technique for analyzing the 3D rotation vector of eye movements in mice with a high-speed infrared CCD camera. We concluded that the technique is suitable for analyzing eye movements in mice. We also include a C++ source code that can calculate the 3D rotation vectors of the eye position from two-dimensional coordinates of the pupil and the iris freckle in the image to this article. PMID:27023859

  18. Symmetry Between the Right and Left Eyes of the Normal Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measured with Optical Coherence Tomography (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Budenz, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine the limits of the normal amount of interocular symmetry in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements obtained with third-generation time domain optical coherence tomography (OCT3). Methods Both eyes of normal volunteers were scanned using the peripapillary standard and fast RNFL algorithms of OCT3. Results A total of 108 volunteers were included in the analysis. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of age of the volunteers was 46.0 ± 15.0 years (range 20–82). Forty-two participants (39%) were male and 66 (61%) were female. Mean RNFL thickness correlated extremely well, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.89 for both algorithms (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–0.93). The mean RNFL thickness of the right eye measured 1.3 μm thicker than the left on the standard scan (SD 4.7, 95% CI 0.4–2.2, P = .004) and 1.2 μm on the fast scan (SD 5.2, 95% CI 0.1–2.2, P = .026). The 95% tolerance limits on the difference between the mean RNFL thicknesses of right minus left eye was −10.8 and +8.9 μm with the standard scan algorithm and −10.6 and +11.7 μm with the fast scan algorithm. Conclusions Mean RNFL thickness between the 2 eyes of normal individuals should not differ by more than approximately 9 to 12 μm, depending on which scanning algorithm of OCT3 is used and which eye measures thicker. Differences beyond this level suggest statistically abnormal asymmetry, which may represent early glaucomatous optic neuropathy. PMID:19277241

  19. A New Method to Assess Eye Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle-Inclan, Fernando; Blanco, Manuel J.; Soto, David; Leiros, Luz

    2008-01-01

    People usually show a stable preference for one of their eyes when monocular viewing is required ("sighting dominance") or under dichoptic stimulation conditions ("sensory eye-dominance"). Current procedures to assess this "eye dominance" are prone to error. Here we present a new method that provides a continuous measure of eye dominance and…

  20. Eyes - bulging

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting worse? What other symptoms do you have? A slit-lamp examination may be done. Blood testing for thyroid disease may be done. Treatments depend on the cause. Artificial tears may be given to lubricate the eye.

  1. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  2. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Supervise children carefully. Teach them how to be safe. Always wear protective eye gear when: Using power tools, hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and dusty ...

  3. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  4. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aug 30, 2016 Toddlers Most at Risk of Chemical Burns to Eyes Aug 26, 2016 Firework Blinds Teenager, Severs Hand Jun 29, ... at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  5. Finite Control in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kum Young

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…

  6. Characteristics of Body Composition and Muscle Strength of North Korean Refugees during South Korean Stay

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun Wook; Koh, Eun Sil; Kim, Si Eun; Kim, Seok Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of body composition and muscle strength of North Korean refugees (NKRs) according to their duration of stay in South Korea. Methods NKRs who volunteered and were living in South Korea, aged 20 to 75 years were recruited. Body compositions were analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength was measured with the hand grip test. Demographic and migration information was obtained with a questionnaire. Results A total of 158 volunteers were recruited at a mean age of 48.3±11.4 years. The mean time from when they escaped from North Korea and arrived in South Korea was 5.8±4.3 years. Height, weight, and body surface area were significantly smaller in all NKRs compared to South Korean controls, except for women aged over 50 years. In females of younger ages (<50 years), NKRs with more than a 4-year stay in South Korea had a higher weight and fat mass than that of those who had a shorter stay (less than 4 years) in South Korea. All NKRs had a weaker grip strength than that of the age-matched controls from South Korea. Conclusion The NKRs showed relatively smaller physiques and weaker muscle strength than that of the South Korean controls. In younger female NKRs, shorter South Korean stay group showed small body weight and fat mass than that of longer South Korean stay group. Specific health support programs might be needed. PMID:26485471

  7. Saccadic eye movements and eye-head coordination in children.

    PubMed

    Funk, C J; Anderson, M E

    1977-04-01

    The eye and head movements of nine children, ages 6 through 10, were measured in order to establish quantitative characteristics of eye movements and eye-head corrdination patterns of children with normal vision and reading levels. The relationship between saccade amplitude and duration was linear, but the slope of this relationship indicated that saccades in children may have higher velocities than they do in adults. One of three temporal patterns of head and saccadic eye movement occurred during shifts of gaze to visual targets, depending on the temporal and spatial predictability of the target. It is suggested that quantitative measurements such as these could be used to examine developmental characteristics of eye and eye-head movement control.

  8. Effects of Different Multimedia Presentations on Viewers' Information-Processing Activities Measured by Eye-Tracking Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2012-01-01

    This study implemented eye-tracking technology to understand the impact of different multimedia instructional materials, i.e., five successive pages versus a single page with the same amount of information, on information-processing activities in 21 non-science-major college students. The findings showed that students demonstrated the same number…

  9. Eye shape illusions induced by eyebrow positions.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Soyogu; Morikawa, Kazunori; Mitsuzane, Saya; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the position of the eyebrows influences the perceived shape of the eyes by employing psychophysical measurements. Experiment 1 used arched and straight eyebrows at five different inclinations as stimuli and measured the perceived inclination of the eyes. The results demonstrated that the eyes are perceived to be somewhat inclined in the same direction as the eyebrows. Experiment 2 measured the perceived eye size by manipulating the distance between the eyes and the eyebrows and the curvature of the eyebrows across three levels. The results showed that the lower eyebrows (ie closer to eyes) made the eyes appear larger and the higher eyebrows made the eyes appear smaller, while eyebrow curvature had no effect on perceived eye size. Experiment 3 examined the role of the eye-eyebrow distance in the eye inclination illusion shown in experiment 1. The eye inclination illusion was unaffected by the eye-eyebrow distance, suggesting that the eye inclination illusion and the eye size illusion may involve different kinds of assimilation. These illusions are discussed in terms of face perception and possible practical applications.

  10. Eye tracker.

    PubMed

    Pruehsner, W; Enderle, J D

    1999-01-01

    A device that records saccadic eye movements, the Eye Tracker, is presented in this paper. The Eye Tracker utilizes infra-red technology mounted on fully adjustable goggles to follow eye movements targeted by either a goggles mounted HUD type display or a wall mounted light bank. Output from the goggles is remotely sent to a PC type computer, which leads to device portability. The goggles can also maintain output data in an internal memory for latter download. The user interface is Windows based with the output from the goggles represented as a trace map or plotted points. This output can also be saved or printed for future reference. The user interface can be used on any PC type computer. The device is designed with reference to standard ISO design methodology. Safety in design and final product usage has also been addressed with reference to standard ISO type procedures. Device accuracy is maintained by precise construction of the IR units in the goggles and tight control of cross talk between each IR device plus filtering of ambient light signals. Also, a reset feature is included to maintain equal baseline control. An automatic switching device is included in the goggles to allow the Eye Tracker to "warm up," assuring that equal IR power is delivered for each subject tested. The IR units in the goggles are also modular in case replacement is required. PMID:11143354

  11. Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method.

  12. The Association Between Urinary Benzophenone Concentrations and Personal Care Product Use in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ahra; Kang, Hui-Seung; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Moon, Gui Im; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Benzophenone (BP) derivatives are widely used in personal care products (PCPs) for protection from ultraviolet radiation. Because of their broad applications, BP derivatives have been found in various human bodily fluids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives and PCP use in Korean adults. A urinary BP biomonitoring survey was conducted in Korea by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2014. BP derivatives (BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP) were measured in urine samples from 168 Korean adults (mean age, 43.2 ± 15.4 years) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Information about the use of PCPs in the past 7 days was obtained by direct interviews. The mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were 0.87, 5.87, and 0.13 ng/g creatinine, respectively. The geometric mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were significantly higher in female than those in male. The medians of the urinary concentration of BP derivatives were significantly higher among users of the following PCPs than those in non-users; the PCPs included sunscreen, skin care products, functional cosmetics, makeup base, makeup, lip cosmetics, eye cosmetics, color cosmetics, perfume products, and nail products. A regression analysis revealed a significant linear association between urinary BP-3 concentrations and the number of additional cosmetic products used. These findings provide evidence of a positive association between exposure to PCPs and urinary BP derivative concentrations in Korean adults.

  13. The Association Between Urinary Benzophenone Concentrations and Personal Care Product Use in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ahra; Kang, Hui-Seung; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Moon, Gui Im; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Benzophenone (BP) derivatives are widely used in personal care products (PCPs) for protection from ultraviolet radiation. Because of their broad applications, BP derivatives have been found in various human bodily fluids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives and PCP use in Korean adults. A urinary BP biomonitoring survey was conducted in Korea by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2014. BP derivatives (BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP) were measured in urine samples from 168 Korean adults (mean age, 43.2 ± 15.4 years) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Information about the use of PCPs in the past 7 days was obtained by direct interviews. The mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were 0.87, 5.87, and 0.13 ng/g creatinine, respectively. The geometric mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were significantly higher in female than those in male. The medians of the urinary concentration of BP derivatives were significantly higher among users of the following PCPs than those in non-users; the PCPs included sunscreen, skin care products, functional cosmetics, makeup base, makeup, lip cosmetics, eye cosmetics, color cosmetics, perfume products, and nail products. A regression analysis revealed a significant linear association between urinary BP-3 concentrations and the number of additional cosmetic products used. These findings provide evidence of a positive association between exposure to PCPs and urinary BP derivative concentrations in Korean adults. PMID:26626599

  14. The Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Korean Career Stress Inventory for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Bo Young; Park, Heerak; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Sang Min

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean College Stress Inventory (KCSI), which is designed to measure Korean college students' experiences and symptoms of career stress. Even though there have been numerous scales related to career issues, few scales measure the career stress construct and its dimensions. Factor structure, internal…

  15. Overview of the Development of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics. PMID:24570801

  16. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  17. Googly Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Beverage take-out trays are funky in their form and function. In this article, the author describes how to make googly eye masks out of discarded take-out trays and other common recycled or discarded materials. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  18. Who Is the Authentic Korean American? Korean-Born Korean American High School Students' Negotiations of Ascribed and Achieved Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, John D.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the identity negotiations of a group of Korean-born Korean American (KBKA) high school students. One of the major tensions that arise from within the Korean American community is who should be considered an "authentic" member. Therefore, in this article I illustrate (a) the way American-born Korean Americans' (ABKAs')…

  19. EyeMap: a software system for visualizing and analyzing eye movement data in reading.

    PubMed

    Tang, Siliang; Reilly, Ronan G; Vorstius, Christian

    2012-06-01

    We have developed EyeMap, a freely available software system for visualizing and analyzing eye movement data specifically in the area of reading research. As compared with similar systems, including commercial ones, EyeMap has more advanced features for text stimulus presentation, interest area extraction, eye movement data visualization, and experimental variable calculation. It is unique in supporting binocular data analysis for unicode, proportional, and nonproportional fonts and spaced and unspaced scripts. Consequently, it is well suited for research on a wide range of writing systems. To date, it has been used with English, German, Thai, Korean, and Chinese. EyeMap is platform independent and can also work on mobile devices. An important contribution of the EyeMap project is a device-independent XML data format for describing data from a wide range of reading experiments. An online version of EyeMap allows researchers to analyze and visualize reading data through a standard Web browser. This facility could, for example, serve as a front-end for online eye movement data corpora. PMID:21994183

  20. The injured eye

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries come at a high cost to society and are avoidable. Ocular blast injuries can be primary, from the blast wave itself; secondary, from fragments carried by the blast wind; tertiary; due to structural collapse or being thrown against a fixed object; or quaternary, from burns and indirect injuries. Ballistic eye protection significantly reduces the incidence of eye injuries and should be encouraged from an early stage in Military training. Management of an injured eye requires meticulous history taking, evaluation of vision that measures the acuity and if there is a relative pupillary defect as well as careful inspection of the eyes, under anaesthetic if necessary. A lateral canthotomy with cantholysis should be performed immediately if there is a sight-threatening retrobulbar haemorrhage. Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed if there is a suspected penetrating or perforating injury. A ruptured globe should be protected by an eye shield. Primary repair of ruptured globes should be performed in a timely fashion. Secondary procedures will often be required at a later date to achieve sight preservation. A poor initial visual acuity is not a guarantee of a poor final result. The final result can be predicted after approximately 3–4 weeks. Future research in eye injuries attempts to reduce scarring and neuronal damage as well as to promote photoreceptor rescue, using post-transcriptional inhibition of cell death pathways and vaccination to promote neural recovery. Where the sight has been lost sensory substitution of a picture from a spectacle mounted video camera to the touch receptors of the tongue can be used to achieve appreciation of the outside world. PMID:21149360

  1. Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

  2. Demonstratives and Number in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ree, Joe J.

    It is a generally held view that Korean lacks articles and that the category "number" in this language is unproductive. That is, the nouns in Korean can be used freely as definite and indefinite, and as singular and plural, without overt grammatical markers. Contrary to this view, the claim is made in this paper that non-unique nouns, i.e., nouns…

  3. Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

  4. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  5. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared, confused, and…

  6. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  7. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  8. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  9. The Factors Affecting the Development of National Identity as South Korean in North Korean Refugees Living in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi-Eun; Eom, Jin-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims to observe the factors that influence the development of national identity of North Korean refugees who have resettled in South Korea. Methods The study population was comprised of 500 North Korean refugees who immigrated to South Korea in 2007. The variables measured national identity as South Korean, a scale for discrimination perceived during daily life, a social for supporting social network, a for childhood trauma experience, traumatic experiences in North Korea, and traumatic experiences during the escape process. Factor analysis was conducted on the result from the scale for national identity as South Korean which produced 4 factors including national consciousness, positive emotions, positive values, and negative values. Multiple regression was done to identify how variables such as demographic data, discrimination, social network, and past trauma had influenced each of 4 factors. Results National identity was negatively related by traumatic experience during childhood, perceived discrimination, and positively influenced by social networks. Positive emotion was related negatively to education level in North Korea and perceived discrimination, but positively related to traumatic experiences in North Korea. Negative value was related positively age and perceived discrimination but negatively related to supporting social network. Conclusion The results of this study suggests that promoting social networks, decreasing discrimination and healing past traumas were important factors for North Korean refugees in South Korea to facilitate a new national identity as a South Korean. PMID:22993518

  10. Chinese Koreans complete demographic transition.

    PubMed

    Gu, Q; Zhao, F

    1992-02-01

    The 1990 national census disclosed that there were 1,920,597 Koreans in China. There number increased 21% from 1,110, 000 in 1953 to 1,350,000 in 1964. The transition to low birth rate, low mortality rate, and low growth rate started in the mid-1960s and it was completed by 1974. Chinese Korean population increased form 1,350,000 in 1964 to 1,770,000 in 1982, and to 1,920,000 in 1990. Between 1982 and 1990, the average annual growth rate of the Han population, with the promotion of the 1-child policy, was 1.3%, while that of the Korean population who were allowed to have 2 children was only 1.0%. The total fertility rate (TFR) of Korean women in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture decreased from 4.7 in 1965 to 1.9 in 1974, to 1.8 in 1981, and to 1.6 in 1983, and increasing to 1.9 in 1989. 89-90% of women were primiparas between 1973 and 1983. In 1989 in Jilin Province 71% of Korean women were primiparas, 26% were secundiparas, and 3% were tertiparas or had higher parity. The decelerated population growth of the Korean nationality is attributed to the popularization of compulsory education. Primary school became compulsory in 1952 and junior high school in 1958. The illiteracy rate of Koreans was only 11% in 1982, 21% lower than that of the Han nationality and 32% lower than that of other ethnic groups in China. The rate declined further to 7% in 1987. The illiteracy rate of Korean women in reproductive age was only 3%, while the national illiteracy rate of such women was 30%, and that of women in ethnic groups was 46%. The marriage age of Korean women was 20 in 1966 increasing to 23 by 1973 with the birth interval of over 5 years.

  11. Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674

  12. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45–159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2) and standard error of prediction (SEP) for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively. PMID:26528973

  13. Design and Fabrication of a Real-Time Measurement System for the Capsaicinoid Content of Korean Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Powder by Visible and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jongguk; Kim, Giyoung; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to design and fabricate a system to measure the capsaicinoid content of red pepper powder in a non-destructive and rapid method using visible and near infrared spectroscopy (VNIR). The developed system scans a well-leveled powder surface continuously to minimize the influence of the placenta distribution, thus acquiring stable and representative reflectance spectra. The system incorporates flat belts driven by a sample input hopper and stepping motor, a powder surface leveler, charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor-embedded VNIR spectrometer, fiber optic probe, and tungsten halogen lamp, and an automated reference measuring unit with a reference panel to measure the standard spectrum. The operation program includes device interface, standard reflectivity measurement, and a graphical user interface to measure the capsaicinoid content. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was developed to predict the capsaicinoid content; 44 red pepper powder samples whose measured capsaicinoid content ranged 13.45-159.48 mg/100 g by per high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 1242 VNIR absorbance spectra acquired by the pungency measurement system were used. The determination coefficient of validation (RV2) and standard error of prediction (SEP) for the model with the first-order derivative pretreatment method for Korean red pepper powder were 0.8484 and ±13.6388 mg/100 g, respectively. PMID:26528973

  14. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  15. The Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ): A Validation Study in a Korean Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Chermack, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of the measurement scores of the learning organization culture, the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ), in a Korean context. A total of 1,529 cases from 11 firms in two major Korean conglomerates were analyzed. Rigorous translation procedures, including both…

  16. Can the Academic Achievement of Korean Students Be Portrayed as a Product of "Shadow Achievement"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of private tutoring expenditure on two types of Korean students' academic achievements as measured by standardized test achievement and by school performance achievement, applying 5-year data from Korean Educational Longitudinal Study (KELS). It was found that private tutoring…

  17. Reasons for Living and Their Moderating Effects on Korean Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon

    2011-01-01

    The present study validated the use of the Korean version of the Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (KRFL-A) in a group of 406 South Korean high school students. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the original 5-factor structure, and other psychometric properties demonstrated the usefulness of the KRFL-A as a measure of cognitive…

  18. Second-language experience modulates first- and second-language word frequency effects: evidence from eye movement measures of natural paragraph reading.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2012-02-01

    We used eye movement measures of first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) paragraph reading to investigate whether the degree of current L2 exposure modulates the relative size of L1 and L2 frequency effects (FEs). The results showed that bilinguals displayed larger L2 than L1 FEs during both early- and late-stage eye movement measures, which are taken to reflect initial lexical access and postlexical access, respectively. Moreover, the magnitude of L2 FEs was inversely related to current L2 exposure, such that lower levels of L2 exposure led to larger L2 FEs. In contrast, during early-stage reading measures, bilinguals with higher levels of current L2 exposure showed larger L1 FEs than did bilinguals with lower levels of L2 exposure, suggesting that increased L2 experience modifies the earliest stages of L1 lexical access. Taken together, the findings are consistent with implicit learning accounts (e.g., Monsell, 1991), the weaker links hypothesis (Gollan, Montoya, Cera, Sandoval, Journal of Memory and Language, 58:787-814, 2008), and current bilingual visual word recognition models (e.g., the bilingual interactive activation model plus [BIA+]; Dijkstra & van Heuven, Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5:175-197, 2002). Thus, amount of current L2 exposure is a key determinant of FEs and, thus, lexical activation, in both the L1 and L2.

  19. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  20. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). PMID:20521424

  1. Infant Eyes: A Window on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking "under the hood" if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants' gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous…

  2. Dynamic light-scattering measurement for a salt-induced cataract in the eye lens of a chicken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamano, K.; Kuwahara, N.; Chin, B.; Kubota, K.

    1991-01-01

    We study the dynamical behavior in the eye lens of a chicken inflicted with a cataract induced by a salt solution. The mean diffusion coefficient D¯ in the cataracted lens estimated in this work is approximately expressed by a power law as a function of the salt concentration of ||C-C*||. Our experimental findings suggest that the salt concentration should be a relevant parameter for describing the dynamical behavior in a cataracted lens. The magnitude of D¯ obtained for the cataracted lens is approximately five times smaller than that for the normal one, which is almost compatible with the earlier work of Tanaka and Benedek [Invest. Ophthalmol. 14, 449 (1975)]. The diffusive decay in the salt-induced cataract, which should be regarded as an osmotic type of cataract, has been discussed in terms of the phase separation associated with the lens opacification following the concept of Tanaka, Ishimoto, and Chylack [Science 197, 1010 (1977)].

  3. Choroidal vascularity index as a measure of vascular status of the choroid: Measurements in healthy eyes from a population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Kara-Anne; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-02-01

    The vascularity of the choroid has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various eye diseases. To date, no established quantifiable parameters to estimate vascular status of the choroid exists. Choroidal vascularity index (CVI) may potentially be used to assess vascular status of the choroid. We aimed to establish normative database for CVI and identify factors associated with CVI in healthy eyes. In this population-based study on 345 healthy eyes, choroidal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography scans were segmented by modified image binarization technique. Total subfoveal choroidal area (TCA) was segmented into luminal (LA) and stromal (SA) area. CVI was calculated as the proportion of LA to TCA. Linear regression was used to identify ocular and systemic factors associated with CVI and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT). Subfoveal CVI ranged from 60.07 to 71.27% with a mean value of 65.61 ± 2.33%. CVI was less variable than SFCT (coefficient of variation for CVI was 3.55 vs 40.30 for SFCT). Higher CVI was associated with thicker SFCT, but not associated with most physiological variables. CVI was elucidated as a significant determinant of SFCT. While SFCT was affected by many factors, CVI remained unaffected suggesting CVI to be a more robust marker of choroidal diseases.

  4. Heredity of acne in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Byul; Ha, Ji Min; Park, Eun Joo; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2014-10-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilocebaceous unit that presents with various spectrum and severity. Genetic backgrounds and environmental factors are also considered to be relevant, but few studies have focused on Korean patients. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study on family history of Korean acne patients was performed to analyze family history of acne, and to compare the severity and characteristics of acne in association with family history. A total of 221 patients were enrolled, 98 male (44.3%) and 123 female (55.7%). Patients were grouped as patients with (A+) or without (A-) family history of acne. In a second analysis, patients with any experience of acne treatment were evaluated. Severity of acne was measured with Burton's grading system and Korean Acne Grading System (KAGS). Female patients had a higher tendency to have family history than males (P = 0.002). Group A+ had statistically significant earlier onset of acne (P = 0.002). In inexperienced patients, patients with family history showed a relatively earlier onset (P = 0.084). This study confirmed the role of heredity in acne. Family history of acne is associated with earlier onset of the disease, and more non-inflammatory lesions.

  5. Attention to food and beverage advertisements as measured by eye-tracking technology and the food preferences and choices of youth.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Pasch, Keryn E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how objective measures of attention to food/beverage advertising were associated with the unhealthy food/beverage preferences and choices of children and adolescents. A self-report survey and eye-tracking session were completed by 102 youth (mean age=11.6 years; 56.4% were white; 43.1% were female) between April and November 2010. Participants viewed 40 food/beverage advertisements on a computer and their eye movements were recorded. Objective attention measures included total viewing time, fixation length (time spent viewing characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items), and fixation count (number of times an individual stops to examine characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items). Food/beverage preferences and choices were measured by self-report. The preferences index summed responses to 12 questions measuring snack food and sugar-sweetened beverage preferences and the choices index summed responses to eight questions measuring consumption of snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Regression models examined whether attention to food/beverage advertising was associated with food preferences and choices, controlling for sex, age, and body mass index z score. The length of time and number of times participants looked at unhealthy food and beverage items within advertisements were each significantly associated with unhealthy food/beverage preferences of youth (P<0.05). Associations were no longer significant after controlling for demographic characteristics. Attention to advertising was not significantly associated with food/beverage choices. Research with larger samples is needed to more fully understand the role of attention. Future research should also examine the association between attention to advertising and purchase requests, given the important role of parents in the decision-making process surrounding food choice.

  6. Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

  7. An eye model for uncalibrated eye gaze estimation under variable head pose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatow, Justin; Savakis, Andreas

    2007-04-01

    Gaze estimation is an important component of computer vision systems that monitor human activity for surveillance, human-computer interaction, and various other applications including iris recognition. Gaze estimation methods are particularly valuable when they are non-intrusive, do not require calibration, and generalize well across users. This paper presents a novel eye model that is employed for efficiently performing uncalibrated eye gaze estimation. The proposed eye model was constructed from a geometric simplification of the eye and anthropometric data about eye feature sizes in order to circumvent the requirement of calibration procedures for each individual user. The positions of the two eye corners and the midpupil, the distance between the two eye corners, and the radius of the eye sphere are required for gaze angle calculation. The locations of the eye corners and midpupil are estimated via processing following eye detection, and the remaining parameters are obtained from anthropometric data. This eye model is easily extended to estimating eye gaze under variable head pose. The eye model was tested on still images of subjects at frontal pose (0 °) and side pose (34 °). An upper bound of the model's performance was obtained by manually selecting the eye feature locations. The resulting average absolute error was 2.98 ° for frontal pose and 2.87 ° for side pose. The error was consistent across subjects, which indicates that good generalization was obtained. This level of performance compares well with other gaze estimation systems that utilize a calibration procedure to measure eye features.

  8. Caring for childbearing Korean women.

    PubMed

    Howard, J Y; Berbiglia, V A

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the traditional and modern cultural elements that may influence the health behaviors of the childbearing Korean woman and suggests ways to provide culturally sensitive care. The first author, born and raised in Korea, shares her reflections of culture and examples of clinical situations in Korea. Implications for nursing care are addressed through specific cultural prescriptions. Do's and don'ts are presented to foster culturally appropriate care for Korean childbearing women.

  9. Eye-Tracking Data

    PubMed Central

    Galesic, Mirta; Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P.; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2008-01-01

    Survey researchers since Cannell have worried that respondents may take various shortcuts to reduce the effort needed to complete a survey. The evidence for such shortcuts is often indirect. For instance, preferences for earlier versus later response options have been interpreted as evidence that respondents do not read beyond the first few options. This is really only a hypothesis, however, that is not supported by direct evidence regarding the allocation of respondent attention. In the current study, we used a new method to more directly observe what respondents do and do not look at by recording their eye movements while they answered questions in a Web survey. The eye-tracking data indicate that respondents do in fact spend more time looking at the first few options in a list of response options than those at the end of the list; this helps explain their tendency to select the options presented first regardless of their content. In addition, the eye-tracking data reveal that respondents are reluctant to invest effort in reading definitions of survey concepts that are only a mouse click away or paying attention to initially hidden response options. It is clear from the eye-tracking data that some respondents are more prone to these and other cognitive shortcuts than others, providing relatively direct evidence for what had been suspected based on more conventional measures. PMID:21253437

  10. Age-related differences in memory expression during infancy: using eye-tracking to measure relational memory in 6- and 12-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Jenny L; Power, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Relational memory, or the ability to bind components of an event into a network of linked representations, is a primary function of the hippocampus. Here we extend eye-tracking research showing that infants are capable of forming memories for the relation between arbitrarily paired scenes and faces, by looking at age-related changes in relational memory over the first year of life. Six- and 12-month-old infants were familiarized with pairs of faces and scenes before being tested with arrays of three familiar faces that were presented on a familiar scene. Preferential looking at the face that matches the scene is typically taken as evidence of relational memory. The results showed that while 6-month-old showed very early preferential looking when face/scene pairs were tested immediately, 12-month-old did not exhibit evidence of relational memory either immediately or after a short delay. Theoretical implications for the functional development of the hippocampus and practical implications for the use of eye tracking to measure memory during early life are discussed.

  11. Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Christopher J.; Turner, David D. ); Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, III, V. S.; Hwang, I. H.

    2002-04-01

    Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involve knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, has constructed four long-term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, Barrow, Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of nearly all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM MPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for ARM cloud and aerosol research.

  12. Full-Time, Eye-Safe Cloud and Aerosol Lidar Observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Sites: Instruments and Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James R.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flynn, Connor J.; Turner, David D.; Spinhirne, James D.; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Hwang, I. H.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric radiative forcing, surface radiation budget, and top of the atmosphere radiance interpretation involves a knowledge of the vertical height structure of overlying cloud and aerosol layers. During the last decade, the U.S. Department of Energy through I the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has constructed four long- term atmospheric observing sites in strategic climate regimes (north central Oklahoma, In Barrow. Alaska, and Nauru and Manus Islands in the tropical western Pacific). Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL) systems provide continuous, autonomous observation of all significant atmospheric cloud and aerosol at each of the central ARM facilities. Systems are compact and transmitted pulses are eye-safe. Eye-safety is achieved by expanding relatively low-powered outgoing Pulse energy through a shared, coaxial transmit/receive telescope. ARM NIPL system specifications, and specific unit optical designs are discussed. Data normalization and calibration techniques are presented. A multiple cloud boundary detection algorithm is also described. These techniques in tandem represent an operational value added processing package used to produce normalized data products for Cloud and aerosol research and the historical ARM data archive.

  13. Billie's eyes.

    PubMed

    Dunning, S E

    1993-03-01

    The author, a nurse, is personally opposed to abortion; however, her earlier encounter with a victim of an illegal abortion has prevented her from joining campaigns to reinstate bans on abortion rights. The woman, "Billie," presented to an inner-city Chicago hospital in 1970 with hemorrhaging. She had delayed going for treatment because she feared being imprisoned for having obtained an abortion. She rapidly entered septic shock, with hypotension, confusion, and hallucinations. Physicians removed her infected uterus and ovaries. Subsequent kidney failure necessitated the transfer of this young woman to another hospital where she could receive dialysis. The author was unable to obtain follow-up information on whether Billie survived. She remains haunted by the memory of Billie's wide, frightened eyes as she was placed in the ambulance. It is this memory, and the knowledge that desperate women like Billie will find someone, somewhere to perform an illegal abortion, that is behind the author's reluctant support for the right to choose.

  14. Finding an Eye Care Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information > Finding an Eye Care Professional Finding an Eye Care Professional Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific ...

  15. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  16. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008). PMID:27630594

  17. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008). PMID:27630594

  18. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008).

  19. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008).

  20. National Eye Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision science and eye health fun with videos, optical illusions, and more. View the site Request for ... español NEI FAQs Eye Health Resources Studies, print materials and more. National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) ...

  1. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000111.htm Eye muscle repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle problems that ...

  2. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  3. Fluorescent eye test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The fluorescent eye test is useful in determining if there is a scratch or other problem with the surface ... has thoroughly covered the eye a cobalt blue light is then directed on the eye. The light ...

  4. Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-12-01

    The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity.

  5. Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  6. A Validation Study of the Korean-Ruminative Response Scale in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyoung Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Korean version of Ruminative Response Scale (K-RRS) for Korean adolescents. Methods A community sample of 1220 adolescents was recruited from middle schools and high schools. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, and additional analyses were performed to assess the reliability and validity of the K-RRS. Results An exploratory factor analysis of a sample of adolescents (n=550) yielded a three factor structure: 'depressive rumination', 'reflective pondering', and 'brooding'. Confirmatory factor analyses of another sample of adolescents (n=530) supported the three-factor model for the K-RRS. The K-RRS was found to have good internal consistency and construct validity. Conclusion Our results suggest that K-RRS is a valid measurement to assess rumination in adolescents, as well as in adults. PMID:26508962

  7. Calibration of an eye oximeter with a dynamic eye phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabili, A.; Bardakci, D.; Helling, K.; Matyas, C.; Muro, S.; Ramella-Roman, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about the eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as Diabetic Retinopathy. Recently we have realized an instrument capable of measuring oxygenation in the retina using six different wavelengths and capable of measuring blood flow using speckle-based techniques. The calibration of such instrument is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose we have realized an in vitro model of the human eye. The artificial eye is composed of four layers: the retina vessels, the choroids, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and the sclera. The retina vessels are modeled with 150 μm tube connected to a micro-pump delivering 34 μl/min. The micro-tube, the pump, and a blood reservoir were connected in a closed circulatory system; blood oxygenation in the vessel could be modified using an external oxygen reservoir. The optical properties of all other layers were mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer and ink as an absorber. The absorption coefficient μa and the scattering coefficient µs of these layers were independently measured using an integrating sphere. Absorption and scattering coefficient of all layers were modified before experimental measurements and a Monte Carlo program was finally used to model the experimental results.

  8. Differences in endothelial function between Korean-Asians and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Jongeun; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The vascular endothelium plays an integral role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, including the regulation of blood flow, vascular tone, and platelet aggregation. The aim of this study was to see if there were any differences in endothelial function between Koreans and Caucasians. Material/Methods This was accomplished by 2 measures of endothelial function – the response to local heat and the response to vascular occlusion. Ten Caucasian and 10 Korean male and female subjects participated (<35 years old). Endothelial function was assessed by the skin blood flow response to local heat using a thermode for 6 minutes at 3 temperatures (38°C, 40°C and 42°C) and by vascular occlusion for 4 minutes followed by release and measurement of skin blood flow for 2 minutes. Results When applying 6 minutes of local heat at 3 different temperatures (38°C, 40°C, and 42°C), the skin blood flows were significantly higher for all temperatures in Caucasians as compared with Koreans, with peak blood flow of 223±48.1, 413.7±132.1, and 517.4±135.8 flux in Caucasians and 126.4±41.3, 251±77.9, and 398±97.2 flux in Koreans, respectively (p=0.001). Results of this study support the idea that the skin blood flow response to occlusion was significantly higher in Caucasians (peak 411.9±88.9 flux) than Koreans (peak 332.4±75.8 flux) (p=0.016). Conclusions These findings suggest that Koreans may have lower endothelial function than Caucasians, which may be explained, in part, by genetic variations between the 2 ethnic groups. PMID:22648248

  9. Korean Folk Music in Your Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Barbara G.

    2008-01-01

    Koreans are a growing minority in the United States. Worldwide, it is believed that more than seventy million people speak Korean, approximately as many as who speak Italian. The music of Korea offers a delightful addition to the general music classroom. There are several reasons why Korean music is not readily accessible to most general music…

  10. Korean Books and FRBR: An Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeong-Hyen; Moon, Ji-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the characteristics of Korean books by analysing their "work types" based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) model. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,000 Korean books were randomly chosen from the Korean National Bibliography (KNB) 2008 at the National…

  11. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  12. Determination of representative dimension parameter values of Korean knee joints for knee joint implant design.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dai Soon; Tao, Quang Bang; Todo, Mitsugu; Jeon, Insu

    2012-05-01

    Knee joint implants developed by western companies have been imported to Korea and used for Korean patients. However, many clinical problems occur in knee joints of Korean patients after total knee joint replacement owing to the geometric mismatch between the western implants and Korean knee joint structures. To solve these problems, a method to determine the representative dimension parameter values of Korean knee joints is introduced to aid in the design of knee joint implants appropriate for Korean patients. Measurements of the dimension parameters of 88 male Korean knee joint subjects were carried out. The distribution of the subjects versus each measured parameter value was investigated. The measured dimension parameter values of each parameter were grouped by suitable intervals called the "size group," and average values of the size groups were calculated. The knee joint subjects were grouped as the "patient group" based on "size group numbers" of each parameter. From the iterative calculations to decrease the errors between the average dimension parameter values of each "patient group" and the dimension parameter values of the subjects, the average dimension parameter values that give less than the error criterion were determined to be the representative dimension parameter values for designing knee joint implants for Korean patients.

  13. Eye movements of second language learners when reading spaced and unspaced Chinese text.

    PubMed

    Shen, Deli; Liversedge, Simon P; Tian, Jin; Zang, Chuanli; Cui, Lei; Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Rayner, Keith

    2012-06-01

    The effect of spacing in relation to word segmentation was examined for four groups of non-native Chinese speakers (American, Korean, Japanese, and Thai) who were learning Chinese as second language. Chinese sentences with four types of spacing information were used: unspaced text, word-spaced text, character-spaced text, and nonword-spaced text. Also, participants' native languages were different in terms of their basic characteristics: English and Korean are spaced, whereas the other two are unspaced; Japanese is character based whereas the other three are alphabetic. Thus, we assessed whether any spacing effects were modulated by native language characteristics. Eye movement measures showed least disruption to reading for word-spaced text and longer reading times for unspaced than character-spaced text, with nonword-spaced text yielding the most disruption. These effects were uninfluenced by native language (though reading times differed between groups as a result of Chinese reading experience). Demarcation of word boundaries through spacing reduces non-native readers' uncertainty about the characters that constitute a word, thereby speeding lexical identification, and in turn, reading. More generally, the results indicate that words have psychological reality for those who are learning to read Chinese as a second language, and that segmentation of text into words is more beneficial to successful comprehension than is separating individual Chinese characters with spaces.

  14. Infant eyes: A window on cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Aslin, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Eye-trackers suitable for use with infants are now marketed by several commercial vendors. As eye-trackers become more prevalent in infancy research, there is the potential for users to be unaware of dangers lurking “under the hood” if they assume the eye-tracker introduces no errors in measuring infants’ gaze. Moreover, the influx of voluminous datasets from eye-trackers requires users to think hard about what they are measuring and what these measures mean for making inferences about underlying cognitive processes. The present commentary highlights these concerns, both technical and interpretive, and reviews the five articles that comprise this Special Issue. PMID:22267956

  15. A real-life illusion of assimilation in the human face: eye size illusion caused by eyebrows and eye shadow

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Kazunori; Matsushita, Soyogu; Tomita, Akitoshi; Yamanami, Haruna

    2015-01-01

    Does an assimilative illusion like the Delboeuf illusion occur in the human face? We investigated factors that might influence the perceived size of the eyes in a realistic face. Experiment 1 manipulated the position of the eyebrows (high or low), the presence/absence of eye shadow, and the viewing distance (0.6 m or 5 m), then measured the perceived eye size using a psychophysical method. The results showed that low eyebrows (i.e., closer to the eyes) make the eyes appear larger, suggesting that the assimilation of eyes into the eyebrows is stronger when the eye-eyebrow distance is shorter. The results also demonstrated that the application of eye shadow also makes the eyes look larger. Moreover, the effect of eye shadow is more pronounced when viewed from a distance. In order to investigate the mechanism of the eye size illusion demonstrated in Experiment 1, Experiment 2 measured the magnitude of the Delboeuf illusion at a viewing distance of 0.6 m or 5 m, with or without gray gradation simulating the eye shadow that was used in Experiment 1. The experiment demonstrated that the Delboeuf illusion is modulated by viewing distance and gradation in the same way as the eye size illusion. These results suggest that the eye size illusion induced by the eyebrows and the Delboeuf illusion involve the same mechanism, and that eye shadow causes the assimilation of the eyes into itself and enhances assimilation between the eyes and the eyebrows. PMID:25852522

  16. Lens of Eye Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael Wesley

    2015-03-23

    An analysis of LANL occupational dose measurements was made with respect to lens of eye dose (LOE), in particular, for plutonium workers. Table 1 shows the reported LOE as a ratio of the “deep” (photon only) and “deep+neutron” dose for routine monitored workers at LANL for the past ten years. The data compares the mean and range of these values for plutonium workers* and non-routine plutonium workers. All doses were reported based on measurements with the LANL Model 8823 TLD.

  17. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  18. Eating for Your Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  19. Relationship among eye temperature measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of...

  20. Schizophrenia and the eye

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Steven M.; Rosen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Although visual processing impairments are common in schizophrenia, it is not clear to what extent these originate in the eye vs. the brain. This review highlights potential contributions, from the retina and other structures of the eye, tovisual processing impairments in schizophrenia and high-risk states. A second goal is to evaluate the status of retinal abnormalities as biomarkers for schizophrenia. The review was motivated by known retinal changes in other disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis), and their relationships to perceptual and cognitive impairments, and disease progression therein. The evidence reviewed suggests two major conclusions. One is that there are multiple structural and functional disturbances of the eye in schizophrenia, all of which could be factors in the visual disturbances of patients. These include retinal venule widening, retinal nerve fiber layer thinning, dopaminergic abnormalities, abnormal ouput of retinal cells as measured by electroretinography (ERG), maculopathies and retinopathies, cataracts, poor acuity, and strabismus. Some of these are likely to be illness-related, whereas others may be due to medication or comorbid conditions. The second conclusion is that certain retinal findings can serve as biomarkers of neural pathology, and disease progression, in schizophrenia. The strongest evidence for this to date involves findings of widened retinal venules, thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer, and abnormal ERG amplitudes. These data suggest that a greater understanding of the contribution of retinal and other ocular pathology to the visual and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia is warranted, and that retinal changes have untapped clinical utility. PMID:26345525

  1. Eye Injury Prevention for the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha S; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Mackey, David A

    2016-05-01

    Each year an estimated 3.3 to 5.7 million pediatric eye injuries occur worldwide. It is widely reported that 90% of ocular injuries are preventable. Our aim was to identify legislation and policies, education, and mandatory eye protection strategies that have successfully contributed to reducing rates of children's eye injuries. A literature search was conducted using the terms "pediatric" or "children" or "adolescent" and "ocular" or "eye" and "protection" or "injury prevention." Articles were retrieved based on titles and abstracts and assessed in the context of our research question. Strategies identified aimed at reducing ocular trauma fell into 3 broad categories: legislation and policies, education, and personal eye protection. Policies including restrictions on the sale and supply of certain consumer products, mandatory vehicle seatbelts, and laminated windscreens in vehicles have assisted in reducing children's eye injuries. Educational tools aimed at children and their caregivers have been effective in changing attitudes to eye health and safety. Effective pediatric eye injury prevention systems require a multifactorial approach combining legislation, policies, standards, education, and personal eye protection to limit exposure to ocular hazards. A paucity of standardized measurement and lack of funding have limited advances in the field of children's eye injury prevention. Improved eye injury surveillance and research funding along with collaboration with health care providers are important components for strategies to prevent pediatric ocular trauma. PMID:27183290

  2. Evaluations and geometrical measurements of the human eye in order to establish the design parameters for the customized contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, A. T.; Besnea, D.; Constantin, V.; Spanu, A.; Ciobanu, R.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the usual methods and means for geometrical evaluation and measurement for the anterior pole of the eyeball applied in studies conducted on real patients. The results were centralized, evaluated and presented in a summary in the paper. The purpose of the studies is to determine the range of dimensional values of the anterior pole of the human eyeball for the parameterization of the devices and checking tools when manufacturing the contact lenses.

  3. Eye point-of-regard system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    System measures intersection of line of sight and eye point of regard /EPR/ for a human operator in visual scanning system. Device measures two head to reference angles with EPR system and adds them with eye to head angles, yielding a dc signal proportional to picture plane coordinates.

  4. A pilot exome-wide association study of age-related cataract in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Chae, Joo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Dae; Kim, Heon

    2016-05-01

    Age-related cataract (ARC) is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. A previous study reported that genetic factors could explain approximately 50% of the heritability of cataract. However, a genetic predisposition to ARC and the contributing factors have not yet been elucidated in the Korean population. In this study, we assessed the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of ARC in Koreans, including 156 cataract cases and 138 healthy adults. We conducted an exome-wide association study using Illumina Human Exome-12v1.2 platform to screen 244,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). No SNPs reached exome-wide significance level of association (P < 1×10(-6)). B3GNT4 rs7136356 showed the most significant association with ARC (P = 6.54×10(-5)). Two loci (MUC16 and P2RY2) among the top 20 ARC-associated SNPs were recognized as probably linked to cataractogenesis. Functions of these genes were potentially related to regulating dehydration or homeostasis of the eyes, and showed a potential association with dry eye disease. This finding suggests that mucin- and dry eye disease-related genes may play a significant role in cataractogenesis. Our study provides insight into the genetic predisposition of ARC in Koreans. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm the results of this study. PMID:27533928

  5. Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young

    2013-01-01

    The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

  6. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  7. Effects of yogic eye exercises on eye fatigue in undergraduate nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Dol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic eye exercises on eye fatigue in undergraduate nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study used a pretest-posttest design with a non-equivalent control group. Forty undergraduate nursing students were selected by convenience sampling, with 20 assigned to an exercise group and 20 assigned to a control group. The yogic eye exercise intervention was performed for 60 minutes, two days a week for 8 weeks. It consisted of 8 steps: palming, blinking, sideways viewing, front and sideways viewing, rotational viewing, up and down viewing, preliminary nose tip gazing, and near and distant viewing. Eye fatigue was measured using a questionnaire for evaluating ocular fatigue. [Results] The exercise-group measurements revealed a significantly decreased eye-fatigue score compared with that of the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic eye exercises could reduce the eye fatigue score in undergraduate nursing students. PMID:27390422

  8. Effects of yogic eye exercises on eye fatigue in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Dol

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to investigate the effects of yogic eye exercises on eye fatigue in undergraduate nursing students. [Subjects and Methods] The study used a pretest-posttest design with a non-equivalent control group. Forty undergraduate nursing students were selected by convenience sampling, with 20 assigned to an exercise group and 20 assigned to a control group. The yogic eye exercise intervention was performed for 60 minutes, two days a week for 8 weeks. It consisted of 8 steps: palming, blinking, sideways viewing, front and sideways viewing, rotational viewing, up and down viewing, preliminary nose tip gazing, and near and distant viewing. Eye fatigue was measured using a questionnaire for evaluating ocular fatigue. [Results] The exercise-group measurements revealed a significantly decreased eye-fatigue score compared with that of the control group. [Conclusion] These findings indicate that yogic eye exercises could reduce the eye fatigue score in undergraduate nursing students. PMID:27390422

  9. The evil eye: a cautious look.

    PubMed

    Berger, Allan S

    2013-09-01

    This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence.

  10. The evil eye: a cautious look.

    PubMed

    Berger, Allan S

    2013-09-01

    This article analyzes the superstition of the evil eye from a psychosocial perspective. The commonly employed antidotes to the evil eye are discussed. These include knock on wood, kenehora, and various other culturally prescribed protective measures. The sin of envy, the role of God, Scripture, and Satan are examined. The author concludes with a statement of his own way of dealing with the evil eye and its underlying essence. PMID:21267658

  11. Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes.

  12. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  13. Two Causative Constructions in Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong-Ik

    1993-01-01

    Two types of causative constructions in Korean behave differently both syntactically and semantically. This paper presents the syntactic differences between syntactic causative constructions and morphological causative constructions in terms of merger process of argument structures, and in the Case assignment in the two constructions in terms of…

  14. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

  15. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  16. National Identity in Korean Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyojeong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of national identity has evolved during the last half century within the Korean social studies curriculum. There have been seven curricular revisions since the first national curriculum was released in 1955. Each time the concept of national identity was changed with the biggest changes to this concept within the last two iterations of…

  17. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  18. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  19. Korean Basic Course: Area Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

  20. A KOREAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, SAMUEL E.; AND OTHERS

    ALTHOUGH THE PURPOSE OF THIS DICTIONARY IS TO "GIVE A FULL AND ACCURATE PORTRAYAL OF THE BASIC NATIVE KOREAN VOCABULARY," SOME OF THE COMMON AND USEFUL CHINESE AND EUROPEAN LOANWORDS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED AS WELL. THE AUTHORS (SAMUEL E. MARTIN, YANG HA LEE, AND SUNG-UN CHANG) HAVE FOLLOWED THE HANKUL SPELLING CONVENTIONS OF THE "UNIFIED SYSTEM" AND…

  1. Korean preschoolers' advanced inhibitory control and its relation to other executive skills and mental state understanding.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seungmi; Lewis, Charlie

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed executive function and mental state understanding in Korean preschoolers. In Experiment 1, forty 3.5- and 4-year-old Koreans showed ceiling performance on inhibition and switching measures, although their performance on working memory and false belief was comparable to that of Western children. Experiment 2 revealed a similar advantage in a sample of seventy-six 3- and 4-year-old Koreans compared with sixty-four age-matched British children. Korean children younger than 3.5 years of age showed ceiling effects on some inhibition measures despite more stringent protocols and the link between executive function and mental state understanding was not as strong as in the British sample. The results raise key questions about the nature and development of the executive system and its relation to social understanding. PMID:18269510

  2. Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-04-29

    In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit.

  3. Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-04-29

    In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit. PMID:21316057

  4. Heartfelt empathy? No association between interoceptive awareness, questionnaire measures of empathy, reading the mind in the eyes task or the director task

    PubMed Central

    Ainley, Vivien; Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-01-01

    Interoception, defined as afferent information arising from within the body, is the basis of all emotional experience and underpins the ‘self.’ However, people vary in the extent to which interoceptive signals reach awareness. This trait modulates both their experience of emotion and their ability to distinguish ‘self’ from ‘other’ in multisensory contexts. The experience of emotion and the degree of self/other distinction or overlap are similarly fundamental to empathy, which is an umbrella term comprising affect sharing, empathic concern and perspective-taking (PT). A link has therefore often been assumed between interoceptive awareness (IA) and empathy despite a lack of clear evidence. To test the hypothesis that individual differences in both traits should correlate, we measured IA in four experiments, using a well-validated heartbeat perception task, and compared this with scores on several tests that relate to various aspects of empathy. We firstly measured scores on the Index of Interpersonal Reactivity and secondly on the Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. Thirdly, because the ‘simulationist’ account assumes that affect sharing is involved in recognizing emotion, we employed the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task’ for the recognition of facial expressions. Contrary to expectation, we found no significant relationships between IA and any aspect of these measures. This striking lack of direct links has important consequences for hypotheses about the extent to which empathy is necessarily embodied. Finally, to assess cognitive PT ability, which specifically requires self/other distinction, we used the ‘Director Task’ but found no relationship. We conclude that the abilities that make up empathy are potentially related to IA in a variety of conflicting ways, such that a direct association between IA and various components of empathy has yet to be established. PMID:25983715

  5. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity.

  6. The concurrent use of three implicit measures (eye movements, pupillometry, and event-related potentials) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Kerry; Coderre, Emily; Bosley, Laura; Buz, Esteban; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have seen the advent and proliferation of the use of implicit techniques to study learning and cognition. One such application is the use of event-related potentials (ERPs) to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge. Other implicit assessment techniques that may be well-suited to other testing situations or to use with varied participant groups have not been used as widely to study receptive vocabulary knowledge. We sought to develop additional implicit techniques to study receptive vocabulary knowledge that could augment the knowledge gained from the use of the ERP technique. Specifically, we used a simple forced-choice paradigm to assess receptive vocabulary knowledge in normal adult participants using eye movement monitoring (EM) and pupillometry. In the same group of participants, we also used an N400 semantic incongruity ERP paradigm to assess their knowledge of two groups of words: those expected to be known to the participants (high-frequency, familiar words) and those expected to be unknown (low-frequency, unfamiliar words). All three measures showed reliable differences between the known and unknown words. EM and pupillometry thus may provide insight into receptive vocabulary knowledge similar to that from ERPs. The development of additional implicit assessment techniques may increase the feasibility of receptive vocabulary testing across a wider range of participant groups and testing situations, and may make the conduct of such testing more accessible to a wider range of researchers, clinicians, and educators.

  7. Temporal integration in diseased eyes.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamade, S

    We examined critical duration for visual acuity in eyes with central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular edema (ME) and glaucoma. Critical duration for visual acuity is the minimum period of time to perceive the acuity chart of his best. Visual acuity was measured at several limited exposure durations and the results were then compared with that of normal eyes. The acuity target was a single Landolt ring. The size, direction, and exposure duration of the target were computer controlled. The mean critical duration for visual acuity of the CSR and ME groups was 1.78 s and 2.69 s. These were significantly longer than that of the normal group (0.62 s). The critical duration of the glaucoma group was 0.42 s, which was not significantly prolonged. Critical duration for the increment or static threshold was measured for the purpose of comparison, and no significant differences were found between the diseased eyes (the CSR and ME groups) and the normal eyes, although the thresholds were significantly higher in the diseased eyes. Next, fixation movements which occurred during visual acuity testing were observed in order to investigate their role in acuity testing. In both normal and ME eyes the frequency and amplitude of microsaccades were smaller while the visual acity chart was shown. This suggests that microsaccades play no positive role in the reading of acuity charts, and that they bear little relation to the phenomenon of critical duration for visual acuity. From these results we hypothesized that in the CSR and ME groups the X-type ganglion cells send incomplete information to the central neural system. Thus, a longer time is required to obtain complete information before responding. Furthermore, one glaucoma case suggested that in diseased eyes in which mainly the Y-cell systems are damaged, temporal specificity in visual acuity for shorter exposure duration may reveal different response patterns. PMID:9112193

  8. Temporal integration in diseased eyes.

    PubMed

    Kono, M; Yamade, S

    We examined critical duration for visual acuity in eyes with central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular edema (ME) and glaucoma. Critical duration for visual acuity is the minimum period of time to perceive the acuity chart of his best. Visual acuity was measured at several limited exposure durations and the results were then compared with that of normal eyes. The acuity target was a single Landolt ring. The size, direction, and exposure duration of the target were computer controlled. The mean critical duration for visual acuity of the CSR and ME groups was 1.78 s and 2.69 s. These were significantly longer than that of the normal group (0.62 s). The critical duration of the glaucoma group was 0.42 s, which was not significantly prolonged. Critical duration for the increment or static threshold was measured for the purpose of comparison, and no significant differences were found between the diseased eyes (the CSR and ME groups) and the normal eyes, although the thresholds were significantly higher in the diseased eyes. Next, fixation movements which occurred during visual acuity testing were observed in order to investigate their role in acuity testing. In both normal and ME eyes the frequency and amplitude of microsaccades were smaller while the visual acity chart was shown. This suggests that microsaccades play no positive role in the reading of acuity charts, and that they bear little relation to the phenomenon of critical duration for visual acuity. From these results we hypothesized that in the CSR and ME groups the X-type ganglion cells send incomplete information to the central neural system. Thus, a longer time is required to obtain complete information before responding. Furthermore, one glaucoma case suggested that in diseased eyes in which mainly the Y-cell systems are damaged, temporal specificity in visual acuity for shorter exposure duration may reveal different response patterns.

  9. General factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun-Ja; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment considers the situations and characteristics of the exposure environment and host. Various physiological variables of the human body reflects the characteristics of the population that can directly influence risk exposure. Therefore, identification of exposure factors based on the Korean population is required for appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that a handbook about general exposure factors will be used by professionals in many fields as well as the risk assessors of the health department. The process of developing the exposure factors handbook for the Korean population will be introduced in this article, with a specific focus on the general exposure factors including life expectancy, body weight, surface area, inhalation rates, amount of water intake, and soil ingestion targeting the Korean population. The researchers used national databases including the Life Table and the 2005 Time Use Survey from the National Statistical Office. The anthropometric study of size in Korea used the resources provided by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In addition, direct measurement and questionnaire surveys of representative samples were performed to calculate the inhalation rate, drinking water intake, and soil ingestion.

  10. Reliability and validity of Leicester Cough Questionnaire Korean version.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Min; Jung, In-Chul; Kang, Weechang; Kim, Seung-Su; Yeo, Yoon; Park, Yang-Chun

    2014-06-01

    The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a self-administered questionnaire developed in England and validated for reliability. We developed a Korean translation of this questionnaire by applying a sequential forward and backward translation approach. The purpose of this study is to validate the Korean version of the LCQ (LCQ-K) in Korean patients with chronic cough. A multicenter prospective study was undertaken with 100 chronic cough patients who consented to participate in the study. The LCQ-K includes eight physical items, seven psychological items, and four social items. Visual analog scale (VAS) of cough, Borg Cough Scale (BCS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as external comparators. Participants included 52 women and 48 men with ages ranging from 18 years to 69 years. The concurrent validity comparing LCQ-K to VAS, BCS, and SF-36 yielded statistically significant Pearson correlation coefficients. The LCQ-K showed good reliability in three domains, with Cronbach's α coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.87 (total: 0.91). Test-retest reliability was investigated with single measure intraclass correlation coefficients, which were found to be practically and statistically significant (p = 0.005). Responsiveness was validated by effective size ranging from 1.16 to 1.40 in each domain. LCQ-K is a reliable, valid, and responsive disease-specific questionnaire for assessing symptoms and quality of life of Korean patients with chronic cough. PMID:24906688

  11. General Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun-Ja; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun-Hye; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment considers the situations and characteristics of the exposure environment and host. Various physiological variables of the human body reflects the characteristics of the population that can directly influence risk exposure. Therefore, identification of exposure factors based on the Korean population is required for appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that a handbook about general exposure factors will be used by professionals in many fields as well as the risk assessors of the health department. The process of developing the exposure factors handbook for the Korean population will be introduced in this article, with a specific focus on the general exposure factors including life expectancy, body weight, surface area, inhalation rates, amount of water intake, and soil ingestion targeting the Korean population. The researchers used national databases including the Life Table and the 2005 Time Use Survey from the National Statistical Office. The anthropometric study of size in Korea used the resources provided by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In addition, direct measurement and questionnaire surveys of representative samples were performed to calculate the inhalation rate, drinking water intake, and soil ingestion. PMID:24570802

  12. Ancient-to-modern secular changes in Korean stature.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Oh, Chang Seok; Kim, Yi-Suk; Hwang, Young-Il

    2012-03-01

    Statural growth in human populations is a sensitive indicator of socio-economic well-being, and improvements in socio-economic status are reflected in secular increases in adult height. In the present study, we investigated the statures of historical Korean societies to show how stature changed over time. Applying Fujii's equation, derived from modern Japanese, to the measurement of femora removed from 15th- to 19th-century Joseon tombs, the average heights of Korean adults during the Joseon dynasty were estimated to be 161.1 ± 5.6 cm and 148.9 ± 4.6 cm for males and females, respectively. Plotting statures for successive historical societies against time revealed that Korean heights remained relatively unchanged through to the end of the 19th century, a pattern that differs from that seen in many Western countries in which stature transiently decreases after the Middle Ages. In contrast, a sharp increase in Korean stature was observed at the beginning of the 20th century, similar to trends seen in other nations (although exact timing varies in different countries). There were no accompanying changes of stature sexual dimorphism. The data reported in this study reflect the unique historical experience of Korea; the relative isolation of Joseon society, the late onset of modernization (at the end of the 19th century), and the later occurrence of industrialization (during the 1960s). PMID:22270697

  13. Opaque Contact Lens For Tracking Motion Of Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zografos, James L., II; Gibson, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    Opaque contact lens facilitates measurements of movements of eye; particularly, torsional movements. Lens, marked with pair of indices at diameter of 0.5 mm, provides stable, high-contrast reference for measurements of angular position and velocity of eye by use of video-image-analysis techniques. Intended for use in experiments on response of eye to vestibular balance mechanism.

  14. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  15. Diabetes - eye care

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - care ... until the problem is very bad. Your health care provider can catch problems early if you get ... doctor (ophthalmologist). Choose an eye doctor who takes care of people with diabetes. Your eye exam may ...

  16. Diabetes and eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye that can lead to blindness Macular edema: blurry vision due to fluid leaking into the ... in your retina (neovascularization) or you develop macular edema, treatment is usually needed. Eye surgery is the ...

  17. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and comfortable as possible until help arrives. continue Chemical Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it ...

  18. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than 20,000 workplace eye injuries happen each year. Injuries on the job often ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reports that workplace eye injuries cost an estimated $300 million a year in ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology ... Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology ...

  20. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  1. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  2. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  3. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  4. The Korean Diaspora. Historical and Sociological Studies of Korean Immigration and Assimilation in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-chan, Ed.

    This anthology presents some results of recent research on Korean immigration to and assimilation in America. The essays address three major questions concerned with problems of immigration and assimilation: (1) What caused the immigration of Koreans to the Hawaiian Islands and the United States mainland? (2) How has the Korean experience in…

  5. Astronaut Preflight Cardiovascular Variables Associated with Vascular Compliance are Highly Correlated with Post-Flight Eye Outcome Measures in the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Syndrome Following Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, Christian; Ploutz-Snyder, R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of the first VIIP case occurred in 2005, and adequate eye outcome measures were available for 31 (67.4%) of the 46 long duration US crewmembers who had flown on the ISS since its first crewed mission in 2000. Therefore, this analysis is limited to a subgroup (22 males and 9 females). A "cardiovascular profile" for each astronaut was compiled by examining twelve individual parameters; eleven of these were preflight variables: systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, percentage body fat, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, use of anti-lipid medication, fasting serum glucose, and maximal oxygen uptake in ml/kg. Each of these variables was averaged across three preflight annual physical exams. Astronaut age prior to the long duration mission, and inflight salt intake was also included in the analysis. The group of cardiovascular variables for each crew member was compared with seven VIIP eye outcome variables collected during the immediate post-flight period: anterior-posterior axial length of the globe measured by ultrasound and optical biometry; optic nerve sheath diameter, optic nerve diameter, and optic nerve to sheath ratio- each measured by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), intraocular pressure (IOP), change in manifest refraction, mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and RNFL of the inferior and superior retinal quadrants. Since most of the VIIP eye outcome measures were added sequentially beginning in 2005, as knowledge of the syndrome improved, data were unavailable for 22.0% of the outcome measurements. To address the missing data, we employed multivariate multiple imputation techniques with predictive mean matching methods to accumulate 200 separate imputed datasets for analysis. We were able to impute data for the 22.0% of missing VIIP eye outcomes. We then applied Rubin's rules for collapsing the statistical results across our 200 multiply imputed data sets to assess the canonical

  6. Development of system using beam's eye view images to measure respiratory motion tracking errors in image-guided robotic radiosurgery system.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Shiomi, Hiroya; Iwata, Hiromitsu; Taguchi, Junichi; Okawa, Kohei; Kikuchi, Chie; Inada, Kosaku; Iwabuchi, Michio; Murai, Taro; Koike, Izumi; Tatewaki, Koshi; Ohta, Seiji; Inoue, Tomio

    2015-01-08

    The accuracy of the CyberKnife Synchrony Respiratory Tracking System (SRTS) is considered to be patient-dependent because the SRTS relies on an individual correlation between the internal tumor position (ITP) and the external marker position (EMP), as well as a prediction method to compensate for the delay incurred to adjust the position of the linear accelerator (linac). We aimed to develop a system for obtaining pretreatment statistical measurements of the SRTS tracking error by using beam's eye view (BEV) images, to enable the prediction of the patient-specific accuracy. The respiratory motion data for the ITP and the EMP were derived from cine MR images obtained from 23 patients. The dynamic motion phantom was used to reproduce both the ITP and EMP motions. The CyberKnife was subsequently operated with the SRTS, with a CCD camera mounted on the head of the linac. BEV images from the CCD camera were recorded during the tracking of a ball target by the linac. The tracking error was measured at 15 Hz using in-house software. To assess the precision of the position detection using an MR image, the positions of test tubes (determined from MR images) were compared with their actual positions. To assess the precision of the position detection of the ball, ball positions measured from BEV images were compared with values measured using a Vernier caliper. The SRTS accuracy was evaluated by determining the tracking error that could be identified with a probability of more than 95% (Ep95). The detection precision of the tumor position (determined from cine MR images) was < 0.2 mm. The detection precision of the tracking error when using the BEV images was < 0.2mm. These two detection precisions were derived from our measurement system and were not obtained from the SRTS. The median of Ep95 was found to be 1.5 (range, 1.0-3.5) mm. The difference between the minimum and maximum Ep95 was 2.5mm, indicating that this provides a better means of evaluating patient-specific SRTS

  7. Eye Movements Reveal Mental Looking through Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Kurt; Hartmann, Matthias; Martarelli, Corinna S.; Mast, Fred W.

    2016-01-01

    People often make use of a spatial "mental time line" to represent events in time. We investigated whether the eyes follow such a mental time line during online language comprehension of sentences that refer to the past, present, and future. Participants' eye movements were measured on a blank screen while they listened to these…

  8. Eye Movement Analysis of Second Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Huana; Thompson, Richard A.

    An investigation was undertaken to measure objectively children's eye movements to determine whether the effect of fatigue of the average school day decreases eye movement efficiency, suggesting that children might benefit more from reading instruction in the morning than in the afternoon. Using a photoelectric instrument designed to graph eye…

  9. Health literacy in Korean immigrants at risk for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Rush, Elizabeth; Henry, Shayna

    2013-06-01

    Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in Korean immigrants has highlighted the need for better prevention efforts. Health literacy is an important predictor in the utilization of preventative health measures, however little is known about health literacy in Korean immigrants. This study examined DM risk factors in a sample of 145 at-risk Korean immigrants, their level of health literacy, and associations between health literacy and DM risk factors. Findings indicated a high prevalence of DM risk factors and a low level of health literacy in the sample. Health literacy was correlated with English proficiency, acculturation, and lower waist to hip ratios among all participants, and with lower blood glucose levels among highly acculturated participants. Korean immigrants who are less acculturated may have lower health literacy than those who are more acculturated. Thus, linguistically and culturally sensitive health education should be incorporated into diabetes prevention efforts.

  10. Military confidence building on the Korean Peninsula: possible first steps toward cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Vannoni, M.

    1997-05-01

    The Korean Peninsula is one of the world`s most tense military confrontational sites. Nearly 2 million North Korean, South Korean, and U.S. troops face each other along the 255-km long military demarcation line. Confidence building measures (CBMs), particularly military ones, that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment where a peace regime might be negotiated. In spite of the present high level of mutual distrust, steps can still be taken to prepare for future development and implementation of CBMs. This paper defines some simple and specific first steps toward CBMs that might be useful on the Korean Peninsula.

  11. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  12. Eye - foreign object in

    MedlinePlus

    ... to gently flush it out with water or eye drops. If that does not work, try touching a second cotton-tipped swab to the object to remove it. If the object is on the white of the eye, try gently rinsing the eye with water or ...

  13. Eye Movements during Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

  14. Saccadic eye movement during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uri, John J.; Linder, Barry J.; Moore, Thomas P.; Pool, Sam L.; Thornton, William E.

    1989-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements were studied in six subjects during two Space Shuttle missions. Reaction time, peak velocity and accuracy of horizontal, visually-guided saccades were examined preflight, inflight and postflight. Conventional electro-oculography was used to record eye position, with the subjects responding to pseudo-randomly illuminated targets at 0 deg and + or - 10 deg and 20 deg visual angles. In all subjects, preflight measurements were within normal limits. Reaction time was significantly increased inflight, while peak velocity was significantly decreased. A tendency toward a greater proportion of hypometric saccades inflight was also noted. Possible explanations for these changes and possible correlations with space motion sickness are discussed.

  15. The effects of sole vibration stimulation on Korean male professional volleyball players' jumping and balance ability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective. PMID:27313344

  16. The effects of sole vibration stimulation on Korean male professional volleyball players’ jumping and balance ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective. PMID:27313344

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Young Hee; Rim, Hyo Deog; Won, Seung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) is a self-report measure of early maladaptive schemas and is currently in its third revision; it is available in both long (YSQ-L3) and short (YSQ-S3) forms. The goal of this study was to develop a Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and establish its psychometric properties in a Korean sample. Methods A total of 542 graduate medical students completed the Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and several other psychological scales. A subsample of 308 subjects completed the Korean YSQ-S3 both before and after a 2-year test-retest interval. Correlation, regression, and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the data. Results The internal consistency of the 90-item Korean YSQ-S3 was 0.97 and that of each schema was acceptable, with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.90. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.46 to 0.65. Every schema showed robust positive correlations with most psychological measures. The confirmatory factor analysis for the 18-factor structure originally proposed by Young, Klosko, and Weishaar (2003) showed that most goodness-of-fit statistics were indicative of a satisfactory fit. Conclusion These findings support the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the YSQ-S3. PMID:26207121

  18. Psychometric properties of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale: a Korean version.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun S; Gulick, Elsie E; Kim, Seong-Ho; Seo, Hong-Gwan

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is considerably more common among Korean American male individuals compared with all U.S. males, but no reliable and valid nicotine withdrawal scale has been available to measure withdrawal symptoms from the Korean American perspective, which is the aim of the present study. Translation and back-translation of the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (MNWS) was conducted to obtain a measure consistent with the Korean cultural understanding of smoking withdrawal symptoms. Following satisfactory interrater agreements, the Korean version (MNWS-K) was administered to 118 Korean American male smokers. Data were analyzed for internal consistency reliability and stability as well as construct validity. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory for the total scale and factors (.88, .88, .79) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total score over a 1-month period was fair (r = .51). Exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation yielded two factors. Together, Factor I, early-occurring disturbances in mental functioning, and Factor II, disturbances in physiological functioning and late-occurring disturbances in mental functioning, explained 66% of the variance in the scale. Theoretically related variables to the MNWS-K, number of smoking quit attempts and self-efficacy, showed modest but statistically significant correlations with the MNWS-K total and factored scales. Satisfactory internal consistency coefficients together with the validity findings suggest the MNWS-K warrants use with the Korean American population. PMID:18020169

  19. HUMAN EYE OPTICS: Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu

    2009-02-01

    An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Kim, Soo Wong; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Choo, Myung-Soo; Kim, Seon-Ok; Lee, Moo Song

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Psychometric properties of the overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) were recently examined. However, since the cross-cultural adaptation of a non-English version of the OAB-q has never been demonstrated, we evaluated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the OAB-q in a Korean population with OAB. Methods A prospective cohort study involving 116 women with 58 OAB and 58 control subjects was performed and convergent validity was assessed. Total and subscale OAB-q scores of the control and OAB groups were compared to their sensitivity to score changes before and after administering anti-cholinergic medication for 12 weeks. Short form 36 and King's health questionnaire (KHQ) were also used for comparison or correlation. Results Assessment of face validity showed that the Korean version of the OAB-q was reasonable with OAB-q subscale scores being significantly different between the control and patient groups. Significant correlation (range, -0.29 to -0.81) was found between the OAB-q scores and KHQ results for the OAB patients. Cronbach's alpha coefficients (range, 0.77 to 0.95) indicated excellent internal consistency and test-retest analysis involving 35 OAB patients showed that each questions as well as subscale scores were reproducible. Each score of OAB-q also showed statistically significant sensitivity to changes following anti-muscarinic treatment for OAB (n=27, P<0.001 except for social, P=0.059). Conclusions The Korean version of the OAB-q is a valid and reliable instrument to measure outcomes in Korean patients with OAB. PMID:22816048

  1. Automatic dry eye detection.

    PubMed

    Yedidya, Tamir; Hartley, Richard; Guillon, Jean-Pierre; Kanagasingam, Yogesan

    2007-01-01

    Dry Eye Syndrome is a common disease in the western world, with effects from uncomfortable itchiness to permanent damage to the ocular surface. Nevertheless, there is still no objective test that provides reliable results. We have developed a new method for the automated detection of dry areas in videos taken after instilling fluorescein in the tear film. The method consists of a multi-step algorithm to first locate the iris in each image, then align the images and finally analyze the aligned sequence in order to find the regions of interest. Since the fluorescein spreads on the ocular surface of the eye the edges of the iris are fuzzy making the detection of the iris challenging. We use RANSAC to first detect the upper and lower eyelids and then the iris. Then we align the images by finding differences in intensities at different scales and using a least squares optimization method (Levenberg-Marquardt), to overcome the movement of the iris and the camera. The method has been tested on videos taken from different patients. It is demonstrated to find the dry areas accurately and to provide a measure of the extent of the disease. PMID:18051131

  2. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  3. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  4. Two Cases of Human Thelaziasis and Brief Review of Korean cases

    PubMed Central

    Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yoo, Ji Myong

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to describe 2 cases of human thelaziasis (HT) which occurred in Gyeongsangnam- do and to briefly review the previously reported Korean cases. A 58-year old woman, residing in Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, came to Gyeongsang National University Hospital (GNUH) complaining of foreign body sensation and itching of the right eye in March 2000. Total 6 adult nematodes of Thelazia callipaeda (2 males and 4 females) were detected in her right eye. A 80-year old man, residing in Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, came to GNUH complaining of foreign body sensation, itching, and pain of the right eye in December 2007. A total of 5 worms (4 females and 1 degenerated) were removed from his right eye. We analyzed characteristics of the total 39 Korean HT cases reported to date, including the present 2 cases. Most of the cases (71.8%) occurred in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do before 2000, and 21 cases (53.8%) were males and 18 (46.2%) were females. The prevalence was higher in younger ages below 30 years (48.7%) than 31-60 years (41.0%) and over 61 years (10.3%). The seasonal prevalence showed a higher incidence in autumn (43.6%) than in other seasons. Most of the cases (94.9%) were conjunctival sac infections and only 2 (5.1%) were intraocular cases. The present 2 HT cases are the first reported cases in Gyeongsangnam-do. Some characteristics of Korean HT cases were analyzed. PMID:22072826

  5. A Study of Mental Health Literacy Among North Korean Refugees in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future. PMID:25652712

  6. The Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yoonmi; Jeong, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Won Kee

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) in Korean children aged from 6 to 12 years old and the suitability of and potential for clinical application of the CSBI in Korean population. Methods The participants consisted of 158 typically growing children and 122 sexually abused children. The subjects were evaluated using the Korean version of the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC). Internal consistency was examined as a measure of reliability. To investigate the concurrent validity, Pearson's correlations were calculated. One-way ANCOVA was used to demonstrate discriminant validity. Results The Cronbach's α value was 0.84. The CSBI total score was moderately correlated with the CBCL subscales and mildly correlated with the sexual concern subscale of the TSCYC. The total score of the CSBI for the sexually abused children group was significantly higher than that of typically growing children group. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the Korean version of the Child Sexual Abuse Inventory (CSBI) is a reliable and valid tool. It can be applied in the clinical field for assessing the sexual behavior of Korean children aged from 6 to 12 who are suspected to have been sexually abused. PMID:24474981

  7. Korean Education and Foreign Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Central Education Research Inst., Seoul.

    Since the problems facing Korean education arise from very complicated factors, it was felt that the objective views of foreign observers would undoubtedly be of great help in efforts to solve them. In this connection, the Central Education Research Institute held a Seminar on Korean Education with the participation of foreign agencies in Korea…

  8. The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

  9. College Psychotherapy at a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Choi, Mi Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In the online interview presented in this article, two Korean counselors offer comments to questions regarding issues faced at a Korean University. They reflected on their roles and some of the many topics faced that included: (1) student misunderstanding about counseling needs, and how counseling questionnaires and the counselor helps them; (2)…

  10. Small Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of small business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter small business in an economy which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant small business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean…

  11. 21 CFR 886.1510 - Eye movement monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1510 - Eye movement monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1510 - Eye movement monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and...

  14. 21 CFR 886.1510 - Eye movement monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and...

  15. 21 CFR 886.1510 - Eye movement monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eye movement monitor. 886.1510 Section 886.1510...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1510 Eye movement monitor. (a) Identification. An eye movement monitor is an AC-powered device with an electrode intended to measure and...

  16. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances or toxins in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals of selected regions in the eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier. Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam (e.g., at a wavelength of 600 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  17. Fourth Graders' Cognitive Processes and Learning Strategies for Reading Illustrated Biology Texts: Eye Movement Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Yu-Cin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that multiple representations can improve science reading comprehension. This facilitation effect is premised on the observation that readers can efficiently integrate information in text and diagram formats; however, this effect in young readers is still contested. Using eye-tracking technology and sequential analysis,…

  18. Koreans in Japan: A Minority's Changing Relationship with Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okano, Kaori H.

    2004-01-01

    Koreans form the largest ethnic minority group in Japan. The present study explores the situation of Korean pupils in Japanese schools by analyzing recent changes in four areas:(1) governmental and school-level policies, (2) school level programs targeted at Korean children, (3) Korean pupils' academic achievements and (4) their micro-level…

  19. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  20. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  1. New instruments for dry eye diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Norihiko; Komuro, Aoi; Maruyama, Kunio; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    Several non-invasive techniques for dry eye diagnosis have been developed in the past decade. These include quantitative assessment of tear volume, tear film stability, tear dynamics, and integrity of ocular surface epithelium. A combination of meniscometry and interferometry is useful for proving focal dry eye, by confirming whether or not tears at the meniscus have an effect on the ocular surface. Interferometer is also useful to evaluate tear dynamics on soft contact lenses. Fluorophotometry is useful for assessing the severity of dry eye from the view point of corneal epithelial barrier function and measuring the tear turnover rate. Both video-meibography and meibometry are useful for screening meibomian gland dysfunction. The advances in these techniques accumulate knowledge regarding pathophysiology of dry eye and allow precise diagnosis of dry eye. More targeted treatment will become feasible based on the clearer pathophysiology.

  2. Production of Korean Case Particles in a Korean-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of Korean case particles in a Korean-English bilingual child with specific language impairment (SLI). The child's production of four types of Korean case particles were compared to those of three typically developing children during probe and storytelling tasks. The Korean-English bilingual…

  3. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  4. Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye

    SciTech Connect

    Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu

    2009-02-28

    An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

  5. LASIK and dry eye.

    PubMed

    Toda, Ikuko

    2007-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most common complications after laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The clinical signs of post-LASIK dry eye include positive vital staining of ocular surface, decreased tear film breakup time and Schirmer test, reduced corneal sensitivity, and decreased functional visual acuity. The symptoms and signs last at least 1 month after LASIK. Although the mechanisms for developing post-LASIK dry eye are not completely understood, loss of corneal innervation by flap-making may affect the reflex loops of the corneal-lacrimal gland, corneal-blinking, and blinking-meibomian gland, and blinking-meibomian gland, resulting in decreased aqueous and lipid tear secretion and mucin expression. As LASIK enhancement by flap-lifting induces less dry eye symptoms and signs than first surgery, it is suggested that other factors rather than loss of neurotrophic effect may be involved in the mechanisms of post-LASIK dry eye. The treatments of dry eye include artificial tears, topical cyclosporine, hot compress, punctal plugs, and autologous serum eye drops. For patients with severe preoperative dry eye, a combination of punctal plugs and serum eye drops is required to be used before surgery.

  6. Pre- and Post-Head Processing for Single- and Double-Scrambled Sentences of a Head-Final Language as Measured by the Eye Tracking Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaoka, Katsuo; Asano, Michiko; Miyaoka, Yayoi; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Using the eye-tracking method, the present study depicted pre- and post-head processing for simple scrambled sentences of head-final languages. Three versions of simple Japanese active sentences with ditransitive verbs were used: namely, (1) SO[subscript 1]O[subscript 2]V canonical, (2) SO[subscript 2]O[subscript 1]V single-scrambled, and (3)…

  7. Asian values scale: comparisons of Korean and Korean-American high school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2006-02-01

    This study was intended to examine mean differences on the Asian Values Scale between Korean and Korean-American high school students. For 199 Korean and 217 second generation Korean-American high school students, means on emotional self-control and collectivism were significantly different. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of Korean high school students (M=4.5, SD=0.6) and second-generation Korean-American high school students (M=3.9, SD=0.5) indicated significant differences (p<.001). This present study contrasts directly with Kim, Atkinson, and Yang's past findings of no differences between first- and second-generation Asian college students. PMID:16673975

  8. Molecular characterization of Korean rabies virus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Nam; Hong, Gyeong-Soo; Kang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Yoon-I; Cho, Soo-Dong; Song, Jae-Young

    2011-01-01

    The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) of 11 Korean rabies virus (RABV) isolates collected from animals diagnosed with rabies between 2008 and 2009 were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Six isolates originated from domestic animals (cattle and dogs) and five were obtained from wild free-ranging raccoon dogs. The similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the N gene among all Korean isolates ranged from 98.1 to 99.8%, while those of the G gene ranged from 97.9 to 99.3%. Based on the nucleotide analysis of the N and G genes, the Korean RABV isolates were confirmed as genotype I of Lyssavirus and classified into four distinct subgroups with high similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean isolates were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025B and 857r strains, which were isolated from rabid raccoon dogs in Eastern China and Russia, respectively. These findings suggest that the Korean RABV isolates originated from a rabid raccoon dog in Northeastern Asia. Genetic analysis of the Korean RABV isolates revealed no substitutions at several antigenic sites, indicating that the isolates circulating in Korea may be pathogenic in several hosts. PMID:21368564

  9. Study on the Korean adult cranial capacity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y I; Lee, K H; Choi, B Y; Lee, K S; Lee, H Y; Sir, W S; Kim, H J; Koh, K S; Han, S H; Chung, M S

    1995-08-01

    Cranial capacity was measured in Korean adult skulls. The cavity was filled with rice seeds and the volume of the seeds were measured in a graduated cylinder. The results were 1470 +/- 107 (mean +/- standard deviation) in male and 1317 +/- 117 cc in female skulls. These values were in good accordance with those previously reported. In addition, regression formulae were obtained with the product of the length, breadth, and height of the skull as an independent parameter and the measured capacity as a dependent one. With known external measurements, the expected cranial capacity was as follows: when using baso-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 307.5 + 333 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) female: capacity = -12.0 + 435 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) and, when using auriculo-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 214.6 + 429 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height) female: capacity = 131.6 + 461 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height). PMID:8593202

  10. An Eye for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity as an excellent starting point for investigations related to the eye. Involves making a simple model of the vertebrate eye to illustrate the formation of an upside-down image on the retina by the lens. Links to investigations in numerous science disciplines including astronomy, genetics, biology, earth science, and…

  11. Photorefraction of the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  12. Eye tissues study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Genina, Elina A.; Lakodina, Nina A.

    2001-08-01

    Theoretical and in vitro and in vivo experimental study of spectral and polarization characteristics of the human and rabbit eye tissues are presented. The possibility of control of optical properties of eye cornea, lens and sclera is discussed and realized experimentally for glucose solution as the refractive index matching factor.

  13. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, 2016 Protecting your eyes from injury is one of the most basic things you can do to keep your vision healthy throughout your life. You may be somewhat aware of the possible ...

  14. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — are ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , a ...

  15. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  16. The North Korean nuclear dilemma.

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2004-01-01

    The current nuclear crisis, the second one in ten years, erupted when North Korea expelled international nuclear inspectors in December 2002, then withdrew from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), and claimed to be building more nuclear weapons with the plutonium extracted from the spent fuel rods heretofore stored under international inspection. These actions were triggered by a disagreement over U.S. assertions that North Korea had violated the Agreed Framework (which froze the plutonium path to nuclear weapons to end the first crisis in 1994) by clandestinely developing uranium enrichment capabilities providing an alternative path to nuclear weapons. With Stanford University Professor John Lewis and three other Americans, I was allowed to visit the Yongbyon Nuclear Center on Jan. 8, 2004. We toured the 5 MWe reactor, the 50 MWe reactor construction site, the spent fuel pool storage building, and the radiochemical laboratory. We concluded that North Korea has restarted its 5 MWe reactor (which produces roughly 6 kg of plutonium annually), it removed the 8000 spent fuel rods that were previously stored under IAEA safeguards from the spent fuel pool, and that it most likely extracted the 25 to 30 kg of plutonium contained in these fuel rods. Although North Korean officials showed us what they claimed was their plutonium metal product from this reprocessing campaign, we were not able to conclude definitively that it was in fact plutonium metal and that it came from the most recent reprocessing campaign. Nevertheless, our North Korean hosts demonstrated that they had the capability, the facility and requisite capacity, and the technical expertise to produce plutonium metal. On the basis of our visit, we were not able to address the issue of whether or not North Korea had a 'deterrent' as claimed - that is, we were not able to conclude that North Korea can build a nuclear device and that it can integrate nuclear devices into suitable delivery systems. However

  17. Multifractal analysis of the Korean agricultural market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hongseok; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2011-11-01

    We have studied the long-term memory effects of the Korean agricultural market using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. In general, the return time series of various financial data, including stock indices, foreign exchange rates, and commodity prices, are uncorrelated in time, while the volatility time series are strongly correlated. However, we found that the return time series of Korean agricultural commodity prices are anti-correlated in time, while the volatility time series are correlated. The n-point correlations of time series were also examined, and it was found that a multifractal structure exists in Korean agricultural market prices.

  18. Preventive Health Services Utilization Among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongmo; Casado, Banghwa Lee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the use of preventive health services among Korean American adults. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 212 Korean Americans in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. Guided by the Andersen's behavioral model, the authors examined whether predisposing (age, gender, marital status, household size, education), enabling (income, health insurance, English proficiency, citizenship, social network), and need (health status) factors are predictive of Korean Americans' preventive health services utilization. A binomial logistic regression showed that younger age, male, noncitizen, low income, no insurance, a larger family network, and better perceived health were associated with decreased odds of using preventive health services. PMID:27171558

  19. Factors Influencing the Dysmenorrhea among Korean Adolescents in Middle School.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ga Eul; Cha, Nam Hyun; Sok, Sohyune R

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R(2) was 0.282, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 28.2%. The factor found to have the most influence on dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents was stress, followed by health status, onset of dysmenorrhea, consecutive days of menstruation, and dietary habits. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating dysmenorrhea in Korean middle school adolescents are essential in order to reduce their level of stress, improve their perceived health status, and help them to maintain regular dietary habits. Reflecting on the recent trend of female students menstruating at a younger age, public health education courses and counseling programs should offer customized methods for alleviating dysmenorrhea.

  20. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for the analysis of caffeine in foods by HPLC was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The caffeine contents of 1202 products available from Korean markets were analysed. A consumption study was conducted by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-12, to estimate the caffeine intakes of the Korean population. The mean intakes of caffeine from all sources in the general population and consumers were 67.8 and 102.6 mg day(-1) for all age groups, respectively. The 95th percentile intakes of the general population and consumers were 250.7 and 313.7 mg day(-1), respectively. In those aged 30-49 years, the caffeine intakes of the general population and consumers were highest at 25.5% (101.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 36.6% (0.9 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively, compared with the maximum recommended daily intake (400 mg day(-1)) for adults. In the general population, the main contributors to the total caffeine intake were carbonated beverage for the younger age groups and coffee for the adults. These data provide a current perspective on caffeine intake in the Korean population.

  1. Variation of seismic source parameters around the southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H. M.; Sheen, D. H.; Kang, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we determined seismic source parameters from 557 events with ML≥1.6 that occurred in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula from 2001 to 2013. A total of 7,267 S-wave trains on three-component seismograms recorded at broadband seismic stations were used for measuring the corner frequency, Brune stress drop and moment magnitude by using the iterative method of Jo and Baag (2001) based on the methods of Snoke (1987) and Andrews (1986). The SNR were calculated for each seismogram to exclude the possible contamination of the records by noise and/or instrumental malfunctioning. For the stable correction of attenuation, we tested several Q factors from the previous studies on those for the Korean Peninsula and found Kim (2007) gave the best result. In this study, as shown by Shi et al. (1998), the stress drop tended to decrease with decreasing seismic moment from the magnitude 3.5. Although there was large scatter in stress drop, however, the stress drops seemed to be constant for the larger events and the average stress drop was estimated to around 45.5 bar. It is interesting that there was a variation in stress drops depending on earthquake location: stress drops of the earthquakes occurred in the East Sea (Japan Sea) and the southwestern part of North Korea were relatively lower than those for the events occurred at other region in the southern Korean Peninsula.

  2. Weekend work and depressive symptoms among Korean employees.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kong, Jung-Ok; Jang, Tae-Won; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan; Kim, Inah

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between weekend work and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of Korean employees. Subjects were 29 171 employees of companies in Korea. Data were obtained as part of the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey. Depressive symptoms were measured as a score of ≤7 on the World Health Organization Well-being Index. The association between weekend work and depressive symptoms was quantified using logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographic and work-related factors including the number of hours worked per week and stratified by gender. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher in employees who reported working at least one weekend day in the past month than in employees who reported working no weekend days in the past month. After controlling for confounders, including the number of hours worked per week, 1-4 days of weekend work in the past month (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] of 1.36 [1.18-1.57] in males and 1.32 [1.12-1.58] in females) and >4 days of weekend work in the past month (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] of 1.45 [1.19-1.78] in males and 1.36 [1.07-1.73] in females) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Weekend work was related with a significant increase in the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Korean workers. PMID:25290039

  3. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension.

  4. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  5. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension. PMID:26449129

  6. Evaluation of treatment for dry eye with 2-hydroxyestradiol using a dry eye rat model

    PubMed Central

    Oonishi, Erina; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: 2-hydroxy estradiol (2-OHE2) is a catechol derivative of 17β -Estradiol (E2) and it is synthesized from E2 catalyzed by cytochrome P4501A1. Previous studies reported that 2-OHE2 is a physiologic antioxidant in lipoproteins, liver microsomes, and the brain. Catechol derivatives show an anti-inflammatory effect through the inhibition of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PGS) activity. Corneal erosion caused by dry eye is related to an increase in oxidative stress and inflammation in ocular surface cells. We investigated the therapeutic effects of 2-OHE2 on corneal damage caused by dry eye. Methods: Steroidal radical scavenging activity was confirmed through the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. PGS activity was measured using the COX Fluorescent Activity Assay Kit. To evaluate the effect of 2-OHE2 on the treatment for dry eye, 2-OHE2 was applied as an eye drop experiment using dry eye model rats. Results: 2-OHE2 scavenged tyrosyl radical and possibly suppressed oxidative stress in corneal epithelial cells. In addition, 2-OHE2 inhibited PGS activity, and 2-OHE2 is probably a competitive inhibitor of PGS. Corneal PGS activity was upregulated in the dry eye group. Therefore, 2-OHE2 eye drops improved corneal erosion in dry eye model rats. Conclusions: 2-OHE2 is a candidate for the treatment of dry eye through the suppression of inflammation and oxidative stress in the cornea. PMID:27186071

  7. Dosimetry and physical treatment planning for iodine eye plaque therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Alberti, W.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Muskalla, K.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The dosimetry of eye plaques loaded with iodine-125 seeds (type 6702) was performed by means of computer calculations and measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Measurements of the depth dose distribution (2-25.5 mm) along the transverse axis of a single seed were performed in water equivalent phantom material. The transverse axis attenuation and geometry factor F(r) was obtained by applying a least squares fit to the measured data. Based on the resulting radial dose function, a computer program was developed which calculates dose distributions within the eye for arbitrary loading and placement of the eye plaque. The computational results were verified by TLD measurements in an eye phantom.

  8. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergies or hay fever Infections, bacterial or viral ( conjunctivitis or pink eye) Chemical irritants (such as chlorine ... to help with allergies. Pink eye or viral conjunctivitis causes a red or bloodshot eye and excessive ...

  9. The Relationship between Neuroticism, Hopelessness, and Depression in Older Korean Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bum Jung; Linton, Kristen; Cho, Sean; Ha, Jung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the relationship between neuroticism, hopelessness, and depression among older Korean immigrants. To extend this line of research, this study aimed to examine the effects of neuroticism and hopelessness in predicting depression among older Korean immigrants. Methods Data for this study came from a survey of 220 first generation Korean immigrants aged 65 years or older in Los Angeles County in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews with trained social workers using a structured questionnaire translated into Korean. All interviews were conducted in Korean. The neuroticism sub-scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to assess neuroticism (EPQN). Hopelessness was measured by the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). Depression was measured by the 20-item Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. Results The study found that age (β = .26, p< .01), gender (β = -.13, p< .01), income (β = -.13, p< .01), neuroticism (β = .51, p< .01), and hopelessness (β = .15, p< .01) were significant predictors of depression. Conclusion The study provides preventive strategies that would help in the development of depression-reduction services or programs for the population, especially for those living with neuroticism and hopelessness. PMID:26727476

  10. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  11. Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Choe, Myoung-Ae

    2004-02-01

    In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior.

  12. Current Developments in Sino-Korean Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1977-01-01

    This article examines and evaluates studies in the field of Sino-Korean linguistics appearing primarily since 1955. Discussions focus on how studies were developed, the current state, and what problems exise. A bibliography is included. (CHK)

  13. Advocacy for eye care

    PubMed Central

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D; Ramasamy, Dhivya

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services – such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support – either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy. PMID:22944745

  14. Neuroimaging of eye position reveals spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Becker, Elisabeth; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Conjugate eye deviation describes the tonic horizontal deviation of the eyes in acute stroke patients. Here we investigate whether measuring patients' eye-in-head position in clinical magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scans obtained at admission shows a specific relationship to spatial neglect. We investigated 124 continuously admitted subjects with unilateral, first-ever left- or right-sided stroke. To control for the possibility that the degree of eye deviation is related to lesion size rather than spatial neglect, overall lesion volume was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Horizontal eye-in-head deviation on clinical brain scans appeared to be associated with spatial neglect rather than with brain damage per se. In contrast to the subject groups without the disorder, the patients with spatial neglect showed an eye-in-head position that was significantly deviated towards the ipsilesional right. Evaluation of eye-in-head position on clinical scans thus may be an additional helpful tool for diagnosing spatial neglect, particularly in the very early period of the stroke.

  15. Eye-wall resection.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Miller, T; Crawford, J B

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the ocular retention rates, visual results, and metastases in uveal tumors managed with eye-wall resection techniques. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of uveal tumors selected for eye-wall resection with the surgical procedures performed by a single surgeon. All enucleation specimens were reviewed by one author. Both parametric and non-parametric analysis of data was performed. RESULTS: A total of 132 eyes were scheduled for eye-wall resection surgery. Mean patient age was 52 years (range, 11 to 86 years). Tumors involved the iris alone in 17 cases, the iris-ciliary body in 53, the ciliary body alone in 16, and the choroid (ciliochoroidal, iris-ciliary body-choroid, or choroid) in 46 cases. A total of 114 eyes harbored melanomas; tumors located more posteriorly were more likely to have epithelioid cells (P < .05). Mean follow-up was 6 years. Mean number of clock hours in iris and iris-ciliary body tumors was 3.5. In tumors that involved the choroid, the mean largest diameter was 12.6 mm and the mean thickness was 8.2 mm. Ninety-three (70%) of 132 eyes were retained. Histologic assessment of surgical margins did not correlate with either evidence of tumor in enucleated eyes or metastatic disease. Surgical margins of tumors located more anteriorly were more likely to be clear on histologic evaluation (P < .05). Approximately 56% of retained eyes had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better; visual results were significantly better in tumors located more anteriorly (P < .05). All retained eyes with iris tumors had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. In tumors that involved the choroid, 8 of 25 retained eyes kept visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Metastases developed in 8 patients; all metastatic events developed in patients with tumors that involved the choroid, and 7 of 8 were mixed cell melanomas. CONCLUSIONS: Seventy percent of eyes were retained, and 56% of these had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Only 7% of patients

  16. Eye movements and information geometry.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Reiner

    2016-08-01

    The human visual system uses eye movements to gather visual information. They act as visual scanning processes and can roughly be divided into two different types: small movements around fixation points and larger movements between fixation points. The processes are often modeled as random walks, and recent models based on heavy tail distributions, also known as Levý flights, have been used in these investigations. In contrast to these approaches we do not model the stochastic processes, but we will show that the step lengths of the movements between fixation points follow generalized Pareto distributions (GPDs). We will use general arguments from the theory of extreme value statistics to motivate the usage of the GPD and show empirically that the GPDs provide good fits for measured eye tracking data. In the framework of information geometry the GPDs with a common threshold form a two-dimensional Riemann manifold with the Fisher information matrix as a metric. We compute the Fisher information matrix for the GPDs and introduce a feature vector describing a GPD by its parameters and different geometrical properties of its Fisher information matrix. In our statistical analysis we use eye tracker measurements in a database with 15 observers viewing 1003 images under free-viewing conditions. We use Matlab functions with their standard parameter settings and show that a naive Bayes classifier using the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix provides a high classification rate identifying the 15 observers in the database. PMID:27505658

  17. Tuning Eye-Gaze Perception by Transitory STS Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Saitovitch, Ana; Popa, Traian; Lemaitre, Hervé; Rechtman, Elza; Lamy, Jean-Charles; Grévent, David; Calmon, Raphael; Meunier, Sabine; Brunelle, Francis; Samson, Yves; Boddaert, Nathalie; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Processing eye-gaze information is a key step to human social interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that superior temporal sulcus (STS) is highly implicated in eye-gaze perception. In autism, a lack of preference for the eyes, as well as anatomo-functional abnormalities within the STS, has been described. To date, there are no experimental data in humans showing whether it is possible to interfere with eye-gaze processing by modulating STS neural activity. Here, we measured eye-gaze perception before and after inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the posterior STS (pSTS) in young healthy volunteers. Eye-gaze processing, namely overt orienting toward the eyes, was measured using eye tracking during passive visualization of social movies. Inhibition of the right pSTS led participants to look less to the eyes of characters during visualization of social movies. Such effect was specific for the eyes and was not observed after inhibition of the left pSTS nor after placebo TMS. These results indicate for the first time that interfering with the right pSTS neural activity transitorily disrupts the behavior of orienting toward the eyes and thus indirectly gaze perception, a fundamental process for human social cognition. These results could open up new perspectives in therapeutic interventions in autism. PMID:26946130

  18. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0

  19. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0

  20. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  1. Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education. Korean Studies Series, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong-kyu, Lee

    This book examines the religious and philosophical factors historically affecting Korean higher education, and the characteristics of contemporary Korean higher education in relation to organizational structure, leadership, and organizational culture. The book is organized into 4 parts, with 11 chapters. Part One focuses on identifying the problem…

  2. Phonological Development of Word-Initial Korean Obstruents in Young Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of word-initial Korean obstruents (i.e. stops, affricates and fricatives). Korean obstruents are characterized by a three-way contrast among stops and affricates (i.e. fortis, aspirated and lenis) and a two-way fricative contrast (i.e. fortis and lenis). All these obstruents are voiceless word-initially.…

  3. Clear Speech Production and Perception of Korean Stops and the Sound Change in Korean Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The current dissertation investigated clear speech production of Korean stops to examine the proposal that the phonetic targets of phonological categories are more closely approximated in hyperarticulated speech. The investigation also considered a sound change currently underway in Korean stops: younger speakers of the Seoul dialect produce the…

  4. Segmentation method of eye region based on fuzzy logic system for classifying open and closed eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Wan; Lee, Won Oh; Kim, Yeong Gon; Hong, Hyung Gil; Lee, Eui Chul; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-03-01

    The classification of eye openness and closure has been researched in various fields, e.g., driver drowsiness detection, physiological status analysis, and eye fatigue measurement. For a classification with high accuracy, accurate segmentation of the eye region is required. Most previous research used the segmentation method by image binarization on the basis that the eyeball is darker than skin, but the performance of this approach is frequently affected by thick eyelashes or shadows around the eye. Thus, we propose a fuzzy-based method for classifying eye openness and closure. First, the proposed method uses I and K color information from the HSI and CMYK color spaces, respectively, for eye segmentation. Second, the eye region is binarized using the fuzzy logic system based on I and K inputs, which is less affected by eyelashes and shadows around the eye. The combined image of I and K pixels is obtained through the fuzzy logic system. Third, in order to reflect the effect by all the inference values on calculating the output score of the fuzzy system, we use the revised weighted average method, where all the rectangular regions by all the inference values are considered for calculating the output score. Fourth, the classification of eye openness or closure is successfully made by the proposed fuzzy-based method with eye images of low resolution which are captured in the environment of people watching TV at a distance. By using the fuzzy logic system, our method does not require the additional procedure of training irrespective of the chosen database. Experimental results with two databases of eye images show that our method is superior to previous approaches.

  5. Eye Tracking Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.

    2012-01-01

    The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics1, promote early identification2, and inform treatment3. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms4-7. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance8 and abnormal brain functioning9, particularly during the processing of social information1,10-11. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities2,12-13. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties. PMID:22491039

  6. LASIK eye surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... For clear vision, the eye's cornea and lens must bend (refract) light rays properly. This allows images to be focused on ...

  7. Anatomy of the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  8. Multimodal eye recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  9. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... Once you have eye disease caused by diabetes, you need to see an ophthalmologist. ... feel stinging when the drops are first placed. You may have a ... using a bright light. The doctor can then see areas that may ...

  10. Using Eye Makeup

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a moving vehicle. Do not separate your mascara-clumped lashes with sharp items. If you tend ... all eye makeup at night before sleeping, especially mascara that can stick to the lashes. Brush a ...

  11. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  12. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  13. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choosing Safe Toys this Holiday Dec 02, 2015 Digital Glasses For Lazy Eye Nov 19, 2015 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  14. Fungal Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  15. Eye Injuries in Sports

    MedlinePlus

    ... these injuries can be prevented. Overall, basketball and baseball cause the most eye injuries, followed by water ... involve body contact. Some high-risk sports are baseball, basketball, hockey, football, lacrosse, tennis and other racquet ...

  16. Health care utilization and hypertension management in community-based elderly Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Hirsch, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Despite the nation-wide efforts to improve the health status of minority immigrants, studies documenting the outcomes of these efforts are lacking. The purpose of this study is to examine health care utilization and hypertension management in community-based elderly Korean immigrants to the US In this descriptive study, 70 elderly Korean immigrants were recruited from a Korean senior center and church. Health care utilization was assessed with a self-report questionnaire and hypertension management was ascertained through the objective measurement of blood pressure and a self-report questionnaire. Result indicated that 87 % of elderly Korean immigrants received regular health check-ups. Although their hypertension was not managed effectively, all participants with a diagnosis of hypertension were aware of it and were taking blood pressure medications. This study provides an overview of health care utilization and hypertension management in elderly Korean immigrants as well as ideas on ways to reach out to minority older adults for further health promoting interventions.

  17. Structural Neural Substrates of Reading the Mind in the Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Sawada, Reiko; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2016-01-01

    The ability to read the minds of others in their eyes plays an important role in human adaptation to social environments. Behavioral studies have resulted in the development of a test to measure this ability (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version; Eyes Test), and have demonstrated that this ability is consistent over time. Although functional neuroimaging studies revealed brain activation while performing the Eyes Test, the structural neural substrates supporting consistent performance on the Eyes Test remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the Eyes Test and analyzed structural magnetic resonance images using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in healthy participants. Test performance was positively associated with the gray matter volumes of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule (temporoparietal junction), and precuneus in the left hemisphere. These results suggest that the fronto-temporoparietal network structures support the consistent ability to read the mind in the eyes. PMID:27148008

  18. Eye movements during reading: some current controversies.

    PubMed

    Starr, M S.; Rayner, K

    2001-04-01

    For many researchers, eye-movement measures have become instrumental in revealing the moment-to-moment activity of the mind during reading. In general, there has been a great deal of consistency across studies within the eye-movement literature, and researchers have discovered and examined many variables involved in the reading process that affect the nature of readers' eye movements. Despite remarkable progress, however, there are still a number of issues to be resolved. In this article, we discuss three controversial issues: (1) the extent to which eye-movement behavior is affected by low-level oculomotor factors versus higher-level cognitive processes; (2) how much information is extracted from the right of fixation; and (3) whether readers process information from more than one word at a time.

  19. Eye Protection in Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Intended to help reduce the number of school eye injuries in New Jersey, this document begins with a brief review of existing legislation regarding eye protection in educational institutions and a list of elements essential in an eye safety program. Second, eye protection equipment is examined in terms of: the advantages of safety spectacles over…

  20. Cross-language parafoveal semantic processing: Evidence from Korean-Chinese bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiping; Yeon, Junmo; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Yan, Ming

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed at testing cross-language cognate and semantic preview effects. We tested how native Korean readers who learned Chinese as a second language make use of the parafoveal information during the reading of Chinese sentences. There were 3 types of Korean preview words: cognate translations of the Chinese target words, semantically related noncognate words, and unrelated words. Together with a highly significant cognate preview effect, more critically, we also observed reliable facilitation in processing of the target word from the semantically related previews in all fixation measures. Results from the present study provide first evidence for semantic processing from parafoveally presented Korean words and for cross-language parafoveal semantic processing. PMID:26122894

  1. An information flow among industry sectors in the Korean stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Oh, Tamina; Kim, Hoyong; Kwon, Okyu

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the information flow among 22 industry sectors in the Korean stock market by using the symbolic transfer entropy (STE) method. We consider the daily index of 22 industry sectors in the Korean Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) from January 3, 2000 to March 30, 2012. We measure the degree of asymmetry in the information flow and the amount of information flow among the industry sectors before, during, and after the subprime crisis in order to analyze how to relate them to the market crisis. We find that the amount of information flow and the number of connectedness during the financial crisis in the Korean stock market are higher than those before and after the market crisis. In addition, we find the role of the insurance sector, which is related to risk management, increases as information source after the crisis.

  2. Eye Tracking Studies of Normative and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatekin, Canan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of eye tracking measures (saccades, smooth-pursuit eye movements, fixations during scene and face perception, and pupillary dilation) to study typical and clinical populations of children and adolescents and evaluates the use of these measures. The studies are evaluated with a focus on points that may be of general…

  3. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior of Korean American Dry Cleaner Couples

    PubMed Central

    Sukyung, Ju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Eunice, Lee; Arlene, Miller

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe and compare lifestyle physical activity (leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity), using both self-report and an objective measure of step counts, in self-employed Korean American married couples working together at dry cleaners, and (2) examine the relationship between self-report and objective measures of physical activity. Design and Sample Seventy couples participated in this cross-sectional, descriptive, face-to-face interview survey. Measures Two self-reports (28-item Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors Physical Activity Questionnaire and Tecumseh Occupational Physical Activity Questionnaire) and one objective measure (New Lifestyles-800 pedometer) were used. Results The husbands spent significantly more time than their wives in moderate- to vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity (207 vs. 122 minutes/week) and occupational physical activity (2,585 vs. 1,065 minutes/week). Most couples (91%) met recommended levels of physical activity based on their occupational physical activity. Pedometer steps correlated significantly only with leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions Study findings suggest that to increase physical activity in Korean American couples who work in a small business, moderate-intensity lifestyle physical activity interventions across leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity will be more successful than traditional leisure-time interventions. In addition, results suggest that there is a need for interventions that target both members of the married couple. PMID:22092460

  4. The Association of Metabolic Syndrome with Diabetic Retinopathy: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tai Kyong; Won, Jae Yon; Shin, Jeong Ah; Park, Yong-Moon; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Park, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Aims To explore gender differences and associations between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Korean adults aged 40 years and older with diabetes. Methods We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2012). In total, 2,576 type 2 diabetic participants, aged 40 and older, were evaluated. Seven standard retinal fundus photographs were obtained after pupil dilation in both eyes. DR was graded using the modified Airlie House classification system. Vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) included proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement, proposed in 2009, by the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between MetS and its individual components with DR and VTDR. Results After controlling for confounders, MetS was not associated with DR in men or women. Moreover, the risk for DR or VTDR did not increase with increasing MetS components. However, high waist circumference was significantly inversely associated with VTDR (adjusted odds ratio = 0.36; 95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.93) only in men. Conclusions MetS was not associated with DR or VTDR in a Korean diabetic population. However, among MetS components, it seems that abdominal obesity was inversely associated with VTDR in Korean diabetic men. PMID:27275953

  5. Culture-Loaded Expressions in Korean EFL Students' Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Yongjae Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the inevitability of native culture-loaded expressions in Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language students' compositions. Cultures, both native and target play a major role in forming ideas in any communicative situation. Thus, Korean EFL students' compositions all reveal without exception the traits of Korean culture. (Author/VWL)

  6. Korean Cultural Influences on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunsalus, Ae-Jung Chang; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the effect of Korean culture on the results of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) by comparing profiles of 147 Korean and 132 American college students. Results indicate that MCMI-III personality profile differences exist between Korean and American college students. Discusses implications for mental health…

  7. Lexical Use in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Mi Yang

    2009-01-01

    Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20 male…

  8. 76 FR 45395 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ..., 1950, the Korean peninsula erupted in conflict, becoming the front line of an intensifying Cold War...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8695 of July 26, 2011 National Korean War... than ever. We remember our common values and shared suffering during the Korean War, and we continue...

  9. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  10. Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

  11. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  12. Religious Factors Historically Affecting Premodern Korean Elite/Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the historical influences of Confucianism and Buddhism on Korean culture and to explore the religions' impact on Korean higher education. Three questions comprised the research: 1) What are the characteristics of Buddhism and Confucianism in Korean cultural history? 2) How did Buddhism have an effect on…

  13. Syllable and Letter Knowledge in Early Korean Hangul Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the development of Korean consonant-vowel (CV) syllable identification, consonant and vowel letter knowledge, and their relationships to phonological awareness and the reading of regular Hangul words among Korean kindergartners as a 6-month longitudinal study. Results showed that Korean children identified CV syllables better…

  14. Student Perceptions of Effective Foreign Language Teachers: A Quantitative Investigation from a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bruce D.; Lock, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    The present study uses a questionnaire instrument to measure the importance that students from a Korean university place on a wide range of effective foreign language teacher attributes. Respondents to the present study placed high importance on rapport attributes such as friendliness, care, and patience; and delivery attributes which included the…

  15. Exploration of Korean Students' Scientific Imagination Using the Scientific Imagination Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mun, Jiyeong; Mun, Kongju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We…

  16. The Role of the Situation Model for Rereading Benefits in Korean-German Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hong Im; Wippich, Werner

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether rereading effects transfer across two different languages at the passage level. Fluent Korean-German bilinguals read passages twice either in the same language or a different language, and passages shared either words or situations. The dependent measure was the overall reading time for the second passage reading.…

  17. The Change of Work Value Endorsement among Korean Adolescents and Its Association with Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bora; Landberg, Monique; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how the endorsement of work values changed over time and investigated the role of socioeconomic status in the development of work values. A 5-year longitudinal sample of Korean adolescents was used. Three work values were measured: Extrinsic reward, working conditions, and personal development. Findings indicate that Korean…

  18. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. PMID:22845631

  19. Reduction of cat eye movements using retrobulbar botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Zimm, J; Yanik, G M; Evans, L; Marchese, A

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effects of a single retrobulbar injection of Botulinum toxin on the motility of cat eyes. Four cats were sedated and the opposite eye served as a control. Eye movements were plotted by reflecting a laser beam from a mirror fixed to the cornea. We found the mean degrees of deviation per eye per day and summarized these results as mean degrees of deviation per eye per week +/- standard deviation. Statistical analysis was accomplished using Student's t test for independent measures, since measurement of the treated eye pairs was done in a randomized manner on different test days. (table; see text) These results indicate that a single retrobulbar dose of Botulinum toxin can produce a paralysis of the ocular musculature lasting in excess of four weeks in a specific and reproducible manner. In addition, this methodology should prove useful in future experiments in which ocular motility might prove to be a technical concern. PMID:1919273

  20. Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T. Rowan; Teel, Danielle F. W.; Jacobs, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Although the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the adult eye has been studied, there are no data collected from the human infant eye. A chromatic retinoscope was used to measure cyclopleged infant and adult refractions with four pseudomonochromatic sources (centered at 472, 538, 589, and 652 nm) and with polychromatic light. The LCA of the infant eyes between 472 and 652 nm was a factor of 1.7 greater than the LCA found in the adult group: infant mean=1.62 D, SD±0.14 D; adult mean=0.96 D, SD±0.17 D. The elevated level of LCA in infant eyes is consistent with the greater optical power of the immature eye and indicates similar chromatic dispersion in infant and adult eyes. The implications for visual performance, defocus detection, and measurement of refraction are discussed. PMID:18758552

  1. Language used by Korean and Korean American children to describe emotional reactions to illness and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Hwan; Foster, Roxie; Sufen Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Most children experience emotional distress during hospitalization. However, existing instruments for assessing emotional status in hospitalized children have limitations. To address this, the authors determine the language that Korean and Korean American children use to describe emotions that may relate to illness and hospitalization. Using a descriptive exploratory design, projective method, and card sort, the study is conducted in six Korean ethnic churches in the Midwest metropolitan area of United States and uses a convenience sample consisting of 94 children, ages 7 to 12 years. Fifteen English emotion words and 13 Korean emotion words are chosen by at least 50% of the Korean-American and Korean children, and children's emotional responses are expressed differently in Korean and English. Health care providers should be cautious about direct translation, because cultural nuances can convey different meanings in another language. In preparation for the rapid growth of minority children in the United States, health care providers should understand cultural perspectives related to minority children's experiences of health and illness and provide linguistically and culturally appropriate care.

  2. Acoustic characteristics of Korean stops in Korean child-directed speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2005-04-01

    A variety of cross-linguistic studies have documented that the acoustic properties of speech addressed to young children include exaggeration of pitch contours and acoustically salient features of phonetic units. It has been suggested that phonetic modifications of child-directed speech facilitate young children's speech perception by providing detailed phonetic information about the target word. While there are several studies reporting vowel modifications in speech to infants (i.e., hyper-articulated vowels), there has been relatively little research about consonant modifications in speech to young children (except for VOT). The present study examines acoustic properties of Korean stops in Korean mothers' speech to their children aged 29 to 38 months (N=6). Korean tense, lax, and aspirated stops are all voiceless in word-initial position, and are perceptually differentiated by several acoustic parameters including VOT, f0 of the following vowel, and the amplitude difference of the first and second harmonics at the voice onset of the following vowel. This study compares values of these parameters in Korean motherese to those in speech to adult Koreans from same speakers. Results focus on the acoustic properties of Korean stops in child-directed speech and how they are modified to help Korean young children learn the three-way phonetic contrast.

  3. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    PubMed

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  4. Temporal eye movement strategies during naturalistic viewing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Helena X.; Freeman, Jeremy; Merriam, Elisha P.; Hasson, Uri; Heeger, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The deployment of eye movements to complex spatiotemporal stimuli likely involves a variety of cognitive factors. However, eye movements to movies are surprisingly reliable both within and across observers. We exploited and manipulated that reliability to characterize observers’ temporal viewing strategies. Introducing cuts and scrambling the temporal order of the resulting clips systematically changed eye movement reliability. We developed a computational model that exhibited this behavior and provided an excellent fit to the measured eye movement reliability. The model assumed that observers searched for, found, and tracked a point-of-interest, and that this process reset when there was a cut. The model did not require that eye movements depend on temporal context in any other way, and it managed to describe eye movements consistently across different observers and two movie sequences. Thus, we found no evidence for the integration of information over long time scales (greater than a second). The results are consistent with the idea that observers employ a simple tracking strategy even while viewing complex, engaging naturalistic stimuli. PMID:22262911

  5. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  6. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  7. COMPU-EYE: a high resolution computational compound eye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woong-Bi; Jang, Hwanchol; Park, Sangjun; Song, Young Min; Lee, Heung-No

    2016-02-01

    In nature, the compound eyes of arthropods have evolved towards a wide field of view (FOV), infinite depth of field and fast motion detection. However, compound eyes have inferior resolution when compared with the camera-type eyes of vertebrates, owing to inherent structural constraints such as the optical performance and the number of ommatidia. For resolution improvements, in this paper, we propose COMPUtational compound EYE (COMPU-EYE), a new design that increases acceptance angles and uses a modern digital signal processing (DSP) technique. We demonstrate that the proposed COMPU-EYE provides at least a four-fold improvement in resolution.

  8. Errors in Inflectional Morphemes as an Index of Linguistic Competence of Korean Heritage Language Learners and American Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic competence in Korean of Korean heritage language learners (HLLs), compared to English-speaking non-heritage language learners (NHLLs) of Korean. It is unclear and controversial as to whether heritage languages learners are exposed to early but are interrupted manifest as L1 competence or share more…

  9. The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

  10. Penetrating eye injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B C

    1989-01-01

    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated at the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital over four years (1 January 1982-31 December 1985) was undertaken. A total of 202 penetrating eye injuries were seen of which 68 (34%) were in children under the age of 15 years. Airgun, dart, and knife injuries accounted for 28 (41%) of the injuries. Thirty seven patients (54%) achieved a good visual result (6/12 or better) and eight (12%) had enucleations. The period of inpatient treatment ranged from two to 18 days. From the analysis of the activities at the time of the injury, many of the injuries can be considered to be preventable. PMID:2705791

  11. Measuring dwell time percentage from head-mounted eye-tracking data--comparison of a frame-by-frame and a fixation-by-fixation analysis.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Cardon, Greet; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Although analysing software for eye-tracking data has significantly improved in the past decades, the analysis of gaze behaviour recorded with head-mounted devices is still challenging and time-consuming. Therefore, new methods have to be tested to reduce the analysis workload while maintaining accuracy and reliability. In this article, dwell time percentages to six areas of interest (AOIs), of six participants cycling on four different roads, were analysed both frame-by-frame and in a 'fixation-by-fixation' manner. The fixation-based method is similar to the classic frame-by-frame method but instead of assigning frames, fixations are assigned to one of the AOIs. Although some considerable differences were found between the two methods, a Pearson correlation of 0.930 points out a good validity of the fixation-by-fixation method. For the analysis of gaze behaviour over an extended period of time, the fixation-based approach is a valuable and time-saving alternative for the classic frame-by-frame analysis. PMID:25529829

  12. Validation of western Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody assays in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee-Won; Hur, Mina; Yun, Yeo-Min

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is endemic in Korea, and serology testing is widely performed. The aim of this study was to validate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of Korean and Western serological assays for H. pylori detection in Korean adults. The 114 Korean adults who visited our centre over a 6-month period for the evaluation of H. pylori infection using the urea breath test (UBT) were enrolled in this prospective study. Anti-H. pylori IgG was measured using three commercially available immunoassays: Genedia H. pylori ELISA (Green Cross Medical Science), Chorus helicobacter IgG (DIESSE Diagnostica Senese) and Vidas H. pylori IgG (bioMérieux). Positive UBT findings were obtained in 40.6% of included subjects. The sensitivities and the specificities of Vidas, Chorus and Genedia were 89.7%, 100% and 100% and 85.5%, 75.4% and 80.7%, respectively. We found no differences in sensitivity between the Vidas and Chorus (P=0.125), Chorus and Genedia (P=0.125) and Vidas and Genedia (P=1.000) assays. There were also no differences in specificity between the Vidas and Chorus (P=0.070), Chorus and Genedia (P=0.508) and Vidas and Genedia (P=0.549) assays. In Korean adults, the Genedia H. pylori ELISA, Chorus helicobacter IgG and Vidas H. pylori IgG assays exhibited a high concurrence rate with similar diagnostic accuracy. Thus, both the Korean and Western non-invasive assays are reliable for serodiagnosis of H. pylori in Korean individuals.

  13. Lessons of the North Korean crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarr, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The crisis involving North Korea`s suspected nuclear weapon program is over, at least for now. Pyongyang has agreed to suspend its decision to withdraw from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and to assume its obligations allowing continued International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections of its nuclear facilities, although it has yet to accept IAEA {open_quotes}special{close_quotes} inspections of suspect nuclear sites. In exchange, North Korea obtained a few specific commitments from the United States - nuclear non-aggression, for example - as well as hints of longer-term benefits such as high-level US-North Korean talks extending to other topics, the cancellation of the US-South Korean {open_quotes}Team Spirit{close_quotes} military exercise, the right to reciprocal inspections in South Korea and an influx of South Korean and Japanese investment, provided North Korea meets its obligations under the NPT.

  14. Eye Tracker Development On The Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Richard M.; Thomas, Melvin L.; Wetzel, Paul A.

    1989-09-01

    To achieve the full potential of an area-of-interest (A0I) display requires that a high resolution area be accurately aligned with the direction of gaze. Two methods of eye position measurement with the Fiber Optic Helmet Mounted Display (FOHMD) have been developed and are described. This paper describes requirements necessary for successful eye tracking in aircraft simulators and introduces two approaches to monitoring eye position. In order to measure eye position over a wide field of view with sufficient accuracy, the oculometer must be able to measure various types of eye movements and also provide sufficient information to distinguish between eye movements and associated artifacts such as eye blinks and any anomalies introduced by spurious reflections or movement of the oculometer optics relative to the eye. In addition, the device must take into account variations in pupil size caused by changes in scene brightness and distinguish between pupil image displacements caused by actual eye movements or helmet slip. Under development are two oculometers that monitor both the center of the pupillary image and the corneal reflection and which possess both high temporal and spatial resolution.

  15. Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Construct an Eye Model for Fundus Viewing Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Yuan, Dongqing; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system. Methods We devised our schematic model eye based on Navarro's eye and redesigned some parameters because of the change of the corneal material and the implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Optical performance of our schematic model eye was compared with Navarro's schematic eye and other two reported physical model eyes using the ZEMAX optical design software. With computer aided design (CAD) software, we designed the 3D digital model of the main structure of the physical model eye, which was used for three-dimensional (3D) printing. Together with the main printed structure, polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) aspherical cornea, variable iris, and IOLs were assembled to a physical eye model. Angle scale bars were glued from posterior to periphery of the retina. Then we fabricated other three physical models with different states of ammetropia. Optical parameters of these physical eye models were measured to verify the 3D printing accuracy. Results In on-axis calculations, our schematic model eye possessed similar size of spot diagram compared with Navarro's and Bakaraju's model eye, much smaller than Arianpour's model eye. Moreover, the spherical aberration of our schematic eye was much less than other three model eyes. While in off- axis simulation, it possessed a bit higher coma and similar astigmatism, field curvature and distortion. The MTF curves showed that all the model eyes diminished in resolution with increasing field of view, and the diminished tendency of resolution of our physical eye model was similar to the Navarro's eye. The measured parameters of our eye models with different status of ametropia were in line with the theoretical value. Conclusions The schematic eye model we designed can well simulate the optical performance of the human eye, and the fabricated physical one can be used as a tool in fundus

  16. Self-Reported Utilization of Eye Care among Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES)

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Leo S.; Varma, Rohit; Paz, Sylvia H.; Lai, Mei Ying; Mazhar, Kashif; Andersen, Ronald M.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify the prevalence and determinants of self-reported eye care utilization in Latinos. Design Population-based ocular epidemiological study in Latinos age 40+ living in La Puente, California. Participants 5,455 participants. Methods Univariate, multivariable and stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predisposing, enabling and need variables associated with self-reported eye care utilization. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of self-reported utilization: eye care visit, having had a dilated examination in the past 12 months, ever having had a dilated examination, and odds ratios for factors associated with self-reported utilization. Results Overall, 36% of participants reported an eye care visit and 19% reported having a dilated examination in the past year. Fifty-seven percent reported ever having had a dilated eye examination. Greater eye care utilization was associated with older age, female gender, bilingual language proficiency (English and Spanish), more education, having health insurance, having a usual place for care, having a regular provider of care, greater number of co-morbidities, visual impairment, and lower vision-specific quality of life scores. Conclusions Increasing utilization and access to eye care for Latinos should be a priority because visual impairment has significant impacts on well-being and mortality. PMID:20018380

  17. Eye and head movements shape gaze shifts in Indian peafowl.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Platt, Michael L; Land, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Animals selectively direct their visual attention toward relevant aspects of their environments. They can shift their attention using a combination of eye, head and body movements. While we have a growing understanding of eye and head movements in mammals, we know little about these processes in birds. We therefore measured the eye and head movements of freely behaving Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) using a telemetric eye-tracker. Both eye and head movements contributed to gaze changes in peafowl. When gaze shifts were smaller, eye movements played a larger role than when gaze shifts were larger. The duration and velocity of eye and head movements were positively related to the size of the eye and head movements, respectively. In addition, the coordination of eye and head movements in peafowl differed from that in mammals; peafowl exhibited a near-absence of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which may partly result from the peafowl's ability to move their heads as quickly as their eyes. PMID:26486363

  18. What eye movements can tell us about sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Vasishth, Shravan; von der Malsburg, Titus; Engelmann, Felix

    2013-03-01

    Eye movement data have proven to be very useful for investigating human sentence processing. Eyetracking research has addressed a wide range of questions, such as recovery mechanisms following garden-pathing, the timing of processes driving comprehension, the role of anticipation and expectation in parsing, the role of semantic, pragmatic, and prosodic information, and so on. However, there are some limitations regarding the inferences that can be made on the basis of eye movements. One relates to the nontrivial interaction between parsing and the eye movement control system which complicates the interpretation of eye movement data. Detailed computational models that integrate parsing with eye movement control theories have the potential to unpack the complexity of eye movement data and can therefore aid in the interpretation of eye movements. Another limitation is the difficulty of capturing spatiotemporal patterns in eye movements using the traditional word-based eyetracking measures. Recent research has demonstrated the relevance of these patterns and has shown how they can be analyzed. In this review, we focus on reading, and present examples demonstrating how eye movement data reveal what events unfold when the parser runs into difficulty, and how the parsing system interacts with eye movement control. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:125-134. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1209 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  19. A Sketch of Language History in the Korean Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies. PMID:26024377

  20. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  1. Korean American Adolescent Depression and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. METHODS The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents’ depressive symptoms in 56 families. FINDINGS Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents’ perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts. PMID:18429840

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on Korean traditional multicolored paintwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Minchul; Kim, Dae-Woon; Choi, Jong-il; Chung, Yong-Jae; Kang, Dai-Ill; Hoon Kim, Gwang; Son, Kwang-Tae; Park, Hae-Jun; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2015-10-01

    Gamma irradiation can destroy fungi and insects involved in the bio-deterioration of organic cultural heritages. However, this irradiation procedure can alter optical and structural properties of historical pigments used in wooden cultural heritage paintings. The crystal structure and color centers of these paintings must be maintained after application of the irradiation procedure. In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on Korean traditional multicolored paintwork (Dancheong) for the preservation of wooden cultural heritages. The main pigments in Korean traditional wooden cultural heritages, Sukganju (Hematite; Fe2O3), Jangdan (Minium; Pb3O4), Whangyun (Crocoite; PbCrO4), and Jidang (Rutile; TiO2), were irradiated by gamma radiation at doses of 1, 5, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, changes in Commision Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) color values (L*, a*, b*) were measured using the color difference meter, and their structural changes were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The slightly change in less than 1 dE* unit by gamma irradiation was observed, and structural changes in the Dancheong were stable after exposure to 20 kGy gamma irradiation. In addition, gamma irradiation could be applied to painted wooden cultural properties from the Korean Temple. Based on the color values, gamma irradiation of 20 kGy did not affect the Dancheong and stability was maintained for five months. In addition, the fungicidal and insecticidal effect by less than 5 kGy gamma irradiation was conformed. Therefore, the optical and structural properties of Dancheong were maintained after gamma irradiation, which suggested that gamma irradiation can be used for the preservation of wooden cultural heritages painted with Dancheong.

  3. Liberation psychological implications for pastoral care of Korean military wives.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bocheol

    2010-01-01

    Native Korean women frequently suffer poverty, sexual violence, and Confucian gender discrimination. Once in America Korean military wives also experience racial and sexual oppression, intercultural familial conflicts and violence, and identity crisis and lead to feelings of isolation and non-belonging, a sense of anomie. Korean American pastors tend to understate and oversimplify the complexity of psychological and spiritual suffering of Korean military wives and overemphasize individual faith development as a solution. Liberation psychology evolved from an awareness of similar dehumanizing realities. The context-based perspective of liberation psychology offers a model to interpret and assist in the psychological and spiritual healing of Korean military wives. The healing power of conscientization offered in Liberation psychology for oppressed individuals encourages self-awakening suggesting it as an ideal interventional model to help Korean military wives and would be a useful approach for Korean American pastors. PMID:21404760

  4. A Database of Gene Expression Profiles of Korean Cancer Genome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Kyu; Chu, In-Sun

    2015-09-01

    Because there are clear molecular differences entailing different treatment effectiveness between Korean and non-Korean cancer patients, identifying distinct molecular characteristics of Korean cancers is profoundly important. Here, we report a web-based data repository, namely Korean Cancer Genome Database (KCGD), for searching gene signatures associated with Korean cancer patients. Currently, a total of 1,403 cancer genomics data were collected, processed and stored in our repository, an ever-growing database. We incorporated most widely used statistical survival analysis methods including the Cox proportional hazard model, log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier plot to provide instant significance estimation for searched molecules. As an initial repository with the aim of Korean-specific marker detection, KCGD would be a promising web application for users without bioinformatics expertise to identify significant factors associated with cancer in Korean. PMID:26523133

  5. A Review on Eye Movement Studies in Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements will be reviewed in various childhood…

  6. The Uses and Limitations of Eye-Movement Studies of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Miles A.

    Uses and limitations of eye-movement records as measures of reading performance are discussed. Research studies and findings are cited, standards for reliability and validity are given, and types of eye-movement measures are described. Research has demonstrated that eye movements are not causes but symptoms of reading proficiency; therefore,…

  7. Eye Movements and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaarder, Kenneth

    An explanation of visual perception is presented using physiological facts, analogies to digital computers, and analogies to the structure of written languages. According to the explanation, visual input is discontinuous, with the discontinuities mediated by and correlated with the jumps of the eye. This is analogous to the gated and buffer-stored…

  8. Through Students' Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean-Donaldson, Karen B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies how students perceive racism and its effects on student learning and whether antiracist/multicultural arts (ARMA) curricula can empower students to address racism in schools. Results show racism, through students' eyes, damages learning, attitudes, and behavior. ARMA positively effected students' ability to confront racism within their…

  9. Through Our Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narva, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Through Our Eyes was a multimedia performance created in collaboration with the author's five modern dance students. Through video, sound, and dance, the piece shows some ways race has affected their lives. The author did not set out at the beginning of the semester to make this project in her dance class. It was born out of a hard conversation,…

  10. Dynamic Eye Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Instructions (with diagrams and parts list) are provided for constructing an eye model with a pliable lens made from a plastic bottle which can vary its convexity to accommodate changing positions of an object being viewed. Also discusses concepts which the model can assist in developing. (Author/SK)

  11. [Eye and the pregnacy].

    PubMed

    Dima, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with changes in many organs and systems including the eyes. Sometimes in pregnancy may appear physiological and pathological ocular changes that may be associated with pre-existing problems. In such cases it is very important interdisciplinary collaboration gynecologist, ophthalmologist.

  12. Pursuit Eye Movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauzlis, Rich; Stone, Leland; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    When viewing objects, primates use a combination of saccadic and pursuit eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of the object of regard within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Although these movements involve widespread regions of the nervous system, they mix seamlessly in normal behavior. Saccades are discrete movements that quickly direct the eyes toward a visual target, thereby translating the image of the target from an eccentric retinal location to the fovea. In contrast, pursuit is a continuous movement that slowly rotates the eyes to compensate for the motion of the visual target, minimizing the blur that can compromise visual acuity. While other mammalian species can generate smooth optokinetic eye movements - which track the motion of the entire visual surround - only primates can smoothly pursue a single small element within a complex visual scene, regardless of the motion elsewhere on the retina. This ability likely reflects the greater ability of primates to segment the visual scene, to identify individual visual objects, and to select a target of interest.

  13. Eye of the Beholder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Art, like beauty, as the adage goes, is in the eye of the beholder. Art also is a living, breathing thing that evolves over time, so what is considered "art" is ever changing--how many of the great artists whose works today sell for fortunes were failures during their lifetime? The 20th century unknowingly gave birth to new variations of art that…

  14. Eyes for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  15. An eye for inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

  16. The Eyes Have It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards of working with the visual display systems of computers, in particular the eye problems associated with long-term use of video display terminals. Excerpts from and ordering information for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health report on such hazards are included. (JJD)

  17. Vowel production in Korean, Korean-accented English, and American English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jimin; Weismer, Gary

    2005-09-01

    The current study compares vowel formant frequencies and durations produced by ten native speakers of Korean, those same speakers producing American English vowels, and ten native speakers of American English. The Korean speakers were chosen carefully to have a minimum of 2 years, and maximum of 5 years residence in the United States; all speakers were between the ages of 22 and 27. In addition, the native speakers of Korean were chosen, by means of a small-scale dialect-severity experiment, from a larger pool of speakers to achieve some homogeneity in their mastery of English phonetics. The full vowel systems of both languages were explored, and a rate condition was included (conversational versus fast) to test the hypothesis that the English vowel space is modified by rate differently for native speakers of Korean who produce English, versus native speakers of English. Results will be discussed in terms of language- and rate-induced adjustments of the vowel systems under study.

  18. Immigration patterns, social support, and adaptation among Korean immigrant women and Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Grant, D

    1997-01-01

    There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies. PMID:9409069

  19. Skull growth of the Korean water deer, Hydropotes inermis argyropus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yungkun; Suzuki, Satoshi; Na, Ki-Jeong; Lee, Hang; Kimura, Junpei

    2013-07-31

    Craniomandibular traits of the water deer from the Korean peninsula were examined to assess size change in growth between age groups and sexes. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted based on 34 cranial and 11 mandibular measurements from both sexes. Statistical comparisons of skull measurements revealed a significantly different growth pattern between the sexes. For the male, the size change of the cranium and mandible was straight through age groups, constantly. On the other hand, the size of the cranium and mandible of the female was changed relatively steeper than that of the male in age groups 2 to 3, and the growth curves from age group 3 to 4 were more gradual than age groups 2 to 3. Principal component analysis showed that these 2 sexes have a similar trend. In the allometry analysis, there were differences in growth in 5 traits in both sexes. In conclusion, our study suggests that the male and the female Korean water deer had a similar trend for their growth, although there was a small difference of skull growth for age groups.

  20. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…