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Sample records for korean nonsmoking males

  1. Reactions to secondhand smoke by nonsmokers of Korean descent: clash of cultures?

    PubMed

    Hughes, Suzanne C; Usita, Paula M; Hovell, Melbourne F; Richard Hofstetter, C

    2011-08-01

    Koreans hail from a culture where men's smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure were the norm. Little is known about how nonsmokers of Korean descent respond to smokers in the United States. In 2007-2008, trained moderators conducted eight focus groups with nonsmokers (n = 47) of Korean descent in San Diego. Participants discussed their personal experiences and views concerning SHS. Most participants detected SHS quickly and disliked the smell. Their reactions differed by gender, age, and how well they knew the smoker. Reactions ranged from passive (e.g., tolerating SHS or staring) to assertive (moving or asking the smoker to stop smoking). Younger participants were more tolerant than older participants. Participants appeared caught between two cultures. Despite high awareness, they struggled with how to avoid SHS in a manner befitting of their social status and Korean values. Culturally sensitive programs are needed for immigrants such as Koreans in the United States.

  2. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-07-01

    The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking.

  3. Non-Smoking Male Adolescents' Reactions to Cigarette Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K.; Cameron, Linda D.; Reiter, Paul L.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. Methods A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11–17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2×2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer) using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. Results The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were “very much” discouraged, p<.001). Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. Conclusions Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels. PMID:23950861

  4. Changes in and factors affecting second-hand smoke exposure in nonsmoking Korean Americans in California: a panel study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeongsu; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hughes, Suzanne; Irvin, Veronica L; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated changes in and factors affecting second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in a panel study of nonsmokers. This study was based on data from a larger study of tobacco use among a representative sample of adults of Korean descent residing in California. Participants included 846 males and 1,399 females who were nonsmokers at baseline (2005-2006) and at follow-up (2007-2009). Participants were selected by probability sampling and were interviewed by telephone. At baseline, 50.0% were exposed to any SHS, and at follow-up 2 years later, 60.4% were exposed to any SHS (p < .001). SHS exposure at baseline was associated with acculturation, employment, spousal smoking, and having a friend who smoked (p < .001). Employment, spousal smoking, and other family members smoking were associated with SHS at follow-up (p < .001). The odds ratio of SHS in the employed group declined from 2.01 at baseline to 1.53 at follow-up, that of the group having a smoking spouse increased from 1.88 to 2.36, and that of the group having other family members smoking increased from 1.20 to 1.69. We showed that SHS exposure increased among Korean American nonsmokers in California, and the most important variables explaining the change in SHS exposure involved smoking among others with whom the subject is associated. These findings could be used as objective evidence for developing public health policies to reduce SHS exposure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Evaluation of Serum Cotinine Cut-Off to Distinguish Smokers From Nonsmokers in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yang, Song-Hyun; Moon, Chul-Jin; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cotinine has been widely used as an objective marker to identify current smokers. We conducted this study to address the absence of Korean studies investigating the efficacy of immunoassays and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Methods Serum specimens were obtained from 120 subjects. They were randomly chosen to represent a broad distribution of urine cotinine levels based on a retrospective review of questionnaires and results of urine cotinine levels. We determined serum cotinine levels using the IMMULITE 2000 XPi Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) and LC-MS/MS (API-4000, Applied Biosystems, USA). Correlation was analyzed between IMMULITE serum cotinine, urine cotinine, and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels. ROC curve was analyzed to identify the optimal IMMULITE serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Results IMMULITE serum cotinine levels correlated with both urine cotinine and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels, with correlation coefficients of 0.958 and 0.986, respectively. The optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for distinguishing current smokers from nonsmokers was 13.2 ng/mL (95.7% sensitivity, 94.1% specificity) using IMMULITE. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the use of LC-MS/MS for the measurement of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for the IMMULITE immunoassay. Our results could provide guidelines for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers in the Korean population. PMID:27374707

  6. The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo; Kim, Tae-Hyung

    2014-09-01

    Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Using nationwide stratified random sampling, 8,596 participants aged ≥ 40 years of age with available spirometry results were recruited. After selecting participants who never smoked, the duration of exposure to secondhand smoke was assessed based on the KNHANES questionnaire. The prevalence of COPD was 6.67% in participants who never smoked. We divided the participants who had never smoked into those with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. The group exposed to secondhand smoke was younger with less history of asthma and tuberculosis, higher income, and higher educational status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that secondhand smoke did not increase the prevalence of COPD. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of COPD between participants who had never smoked with or without exposure to secondhand smoke in our study. Thus, secondhand smoke may not be an important risk factor for the development of COPD in patients who have never smoked.

  7. The effects of secondhand smoke on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmoking Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woong Jun; Song, June Seok; Park, Dong Won; Kwak, Hyun Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Kim, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Jang Won; Yoon, Ho Joo; Shin, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Smoking is widely acknowledged as the single most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the risk of COPD in nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the association of secondhand smoke exposure with COPD prevalence in nonsmokers who reported never smoking. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) conducted from 2008 to 2010. Using nationwide stratified random sampling, 8,596 participants aged ≥ 40 years of age with available spirometry results were recruited. After selecting participants who never smoked, the duration of exposure to secondhand smoke was assessed based on the KNHANES questionnaire. Results The prevalence of COPD was 6.67% in participants who never smoked. We divided the participants who had never smoked into those with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. The group exposed to secondhand smoke was younger with less history of asthma and tuberculosis, higher income, and higher educational status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis determined that secondhand smoke did not increase the prevalence of COPD. Conclusions There was no significant difference in the prevalence of COPD between participants who had never smoked with or without exposure to secondhand smoke in our study. Thus, secondhand smoke may not be an important risk factor for the development of COPD in patients who have never smoked. PMID:25228837

  8. The environment modifies the relationship between social networks and secondhand smoke exposure among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul and California.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Vollinger, Robert E; Latkin, Carl; Juon, Hee-Soon; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Young; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-03-01

    This study compared risks of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) among Korean nonsmokers in Seoul, South Korea and California, United States. Social networks were hypothesized to contain more smokers in Seoul than in California, and smokers were hypothesized to produce more secondhand smoke in Seoul than California, as Seoul's policies and norms are less restrictive. Telephone interviews were conducted with Korean adults in Seoul (N = 500) and California (N = 2830). In all, 69% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 64-74) of Koreans and 31% (95% CI = 29-33) of Korean Americans reported any SHSe. A total of 44% (95% CI = 40-47) of Korean family members smoked versus 29% (95% CI = 28-30) of Korean American family members (t = 7.84, P < .01). A 25% to 75% increase in the proportion of family members that smoked corresponded with a 13% (95% CI = 5-21) higher probability of any SHSe among Koreans compared with 6% (95% CI = 2-10) among Korean Americans. Network interventions in combination with policies and/or health campaigns may help reduce SHSe globally.

  9. Association between blood lead levels and blood pressures in a non-smoking healthy Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Rae; Ko, Ki Dong; Hwang, In Cheol; Suh, Heuy Sun; Kim, Kyoung Kon

    2017-09-01

    The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) has been performed every 3 years in Korea to help prevent cardiovascular mortality in the general population. Previous studies showed an association between blood lead levels and cardiovascular mortality. In order to assess the relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure in the healthy general population, we investigated whether blood lead levels were related to blood pressure in a non-smoking healthy population without any known medical diseases in the 2013 KNHANES. 896 (mean age 40.55±13.83 years; body mass index 23.06±3.33 kg/m(2)) subjects who had no known diseases were included among 8018 subjects. Exclusion criteria were: hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, cerebrovascular events, renal insufficiency, liver cirrhosis, thyroid dysfunction, any cardiovascular or renal disease, and any malignancy. Blood pressures were measured three times by sphygmomanometers, 5 min apart. Blood pressures were then expressed as the average between the second and third values. Height, weight, waist circumferences and blood pressure, as well as total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), white blood cell count and blood lead levels were measured. In addition, dietary components were analysed by 24 hour recall. The association between log blood lead levels and systolic/diastolic pressure was stronger after it was controlled for age, sex, education, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p=0.048, 0.002). Furthermore, the association between log blood lead levels and systolic pressure (p=0.048) and diastolic pressure (p=0.002) was more evident when controlled for age, sex, education, BMI, waist circumference, FPG, AST and ALT. Blood lead levels are significant determinants of systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  10. The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage in healthy non-smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T; Eskenazi, B; Baumgartner, A; Marchetti, F; Young, S; Weldon, R; Anderson, D; Wyrobek, A

    2006-03-08

    The trend for men to have children at older ages raises concerns that advancing age may increase the production of genetically defective sperm, increasing the risks of transmitting germ-line mutations. We investigated the associations between male age and sperm DNA damage and the influence of several lifestyle factors in a healthy non-clinical group of 80 non-smokers (age: 22-80) with no known fertility problems using the sperm Comet analyses. The average percent of DNA that migrated out of the sperm nucleus under alkaline electrophoresis increased with age (0.18% per year, p=0.006); but there was no age association for damage measured under neutral conditions (p=0.7). Men who consumed >3 cups coffee per day had {approx}20% higher % tail DNA under neutral but not alkaline conditions compared to men who consumed no caffeine (p=0.005). Our findings indicate that (a) older men have increased sperm DNA damage associated with alkali-labile sites or single-strand DNA breaks, and (b) independent of age, men with substantial daily caffeine consumption have increased sperm DNA damage associated with double-strand DNA breaks. DNA damage in sperm can be converted to chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations after fertilization increasing the risks for developmental defects and genetic diseases among offspring.

  11. Relationship between Secondhand Smoking with Depressive Symptom and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Non-Smoker Adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Gim, Wook; Yoo, Jun-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Goo, Ae-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Research suggests that mental health is affected not only by smoking, but also by secondhand smoking. But the most researches have been conducted in North America and/or Europe. We examined whether this relationship remains evident within the South Korean population. Specifically, we investigated the effect of secondhand smoking on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. We analyzed data from 6,043 non-smoking adults who participated in the 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We compared the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in 3,006 participants who were exposed to secondhand smoking in the office or at home with 3,037 non-exposed participants. In unadjusted logistic regression analysis, secondhand smoking exposure group had more suicidal ideations than no secondhand smoking exposure (16.1% vs. 12.2%; odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.241-1.804), but risk of depressive symptoms was not significantly different between two groups (15.2% vs. 12.2%; OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.997-1.460). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, Among those exposed to secondhand smoking, the OR for depressive symptoms was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.866-1.299) and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.139-1.802) for suicidal ideation. Overall, secondhand smoking at home was significantly related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Among females, secondhand smoking exposure at home only (not in the office) was related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Exposure to secondhand smoking, especially at home, may be associated with an increase in especially in female depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among adults in South Korea.

  12. Decrease in the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers between 2009 and 2011 following implementation of stricter smoking regulations.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Hyoung; Lee, Chae Kwan; Kim, Kun Hyung; Son, Byung Chul; Kim, Jeong Ho; Suh, Chun Hui; Kim, Se Yeong; Yu, Seung Do; Kim, Sue Jin; Choi, Wook Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Yeong Beom; Park, Seok Hwan; Lee, Soo Woong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if there was an association between the implementation of smoking regulation policies and the urine cotinine concentrations of Korean non-smokers. The subjects of this study were 4612 non-smoking Korean citizens (aged 19 or older) selected from the first stage of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research from 2009 to 2011. Cotinine concentrations in urine were measured by GC-MS (limit of detection: 0.05 ng/mL). Changes in the urine cotinine concentration were analyzed using a weighted general linear model and linear regression and values were shown as geometric mean (GM). The GM urine cotinine concentration decreased over time (2.92 ng/mL in 2009, 1.93 ng/mL in 2010, and 1.25 ng/mL in 2011). The total decrease in the subjects' urine cotinine concentration between 2009 and 2011 was 2.79 ng/mL, representing a relative decrease of 54.7%. The decrease in GM urine cotinine concentration in each subgroup ranged from 2.17 ng/mL to 3.29 ng/mL (relative decreases of 46.4% and 62.8%, respectively), with the largest absolute reductions in subjects in the following groups: females, aged 40-49 years, detached residence type, no alcohol consumption, employed, secondhand smoke exposure. All groups had negative regression coefficients, all of which were significant (p < 0.001). Our results provide indirect indicators of the effectiveness of smoking regulation policies including the revision of the National Health Promotion Act in Korea.

  13. Cerebrovascular Disease and Stroke in Korean Male Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Chung, Joonho; Hyun, Dongkeun; Kim, Eunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and stroke in Korean male adolescents. Materials and Methods The authors reviewed all medical certificates, medical records, and radiologic images from the examinations of Korean military conscription from January 2008 to May 2011. Results Of the 101156 examinees, 40 had CVD and stroke during adolescence. The overall prevalence and incidence of CVD and stroke was 39.54 cases per 100000 adolescents and 2.08 cases per 100000 adolescents per year, respectively and these were similar to the worldwide data. There were 3 cases of aneurysm, 3 cases of dural arteriovenous fistula, 11 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 4 cases of cavernous hemangioma, 4 cases of cerebrovascular infarction, 16 cases of Moyamoya disease, and 1 case of missing data. The incidence of arteriovenous malformation (0.57 cases per 100000 adolescents per year) was lower than the incidence for the worldwide general population. The incidence of Moyamoya disease was higher than that in any other country (15.82 cases per 100000 adolescents, vs. 0.83 cases per 100000 adolescents per year). Conclusion We observed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, each accounting for approximately half of cases, and high incidence of Moyamoya disease with low incidence of arteriovenous malformation in Korean male adolescents. PMID:22476988

  14. Male Smokers' and Non-Smokers' Response Inhibition in Go/No-Go Tasks: Effect of Three Task Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaoting; Zan, Xiangyi; Jin, Ge; Maes, Joseph H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition plays a major role in many addictive behaviors. However, in studies using go/no-go tasks, findings regarding the presence of response inhibition deficits in nicotine-dependent individuals are mixed. This might be due to differences between studies on a number of task parameters. Here we aimed to identify task conditions under which go/no-go task performance deficits can be observed in smokers and to characterize the nature of such deficits. Sixty-one male students (30 smokers, 31 non-smokers) performed a go/no-go task while independently manipulating three task parameters: (1) percentage no-go trials (50% or 25%), (2) stimulus presentation time (600 ms or 200 ms), and (3) nature of no-go stimuli (cigarette related or cigarette unrelated). Three measures, reaction time on go trials and percentage correct responses on go and no-go trials, served as performance indicators. Under 200-ms but not 600-ms stimulus presentation conditions, the smokers responded faster on go trials and made more errors on both go and no-go trials than the non-smokers did. These differences occurred irrespective of the percentage of no-go trials and nature of no-go stimuli. The accuracy differences disappeared after controlling for the response time differences, suggesting a strong speed-accuracy trade-off. This study contributes to unraveling the conditions under which smokers display impaired inhibition performance and helps to characterize the nature of this impairment. Under task conditions prompting fast responding, smokers are more prone to increase response speed and to make more errors than non-smokers. PMID:27500831

  15. Male Smokers' and Non-Smokers' Response Inhibition in Go/No-Go Tasks: Effect of Three Task Parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiaoting; Zan, Xiangyi; Jin, Ge; Maes, Joseph H R

    2016-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition plays a major role in many addictive behaviors. However, in studies using go/no-go tasks, findings regarding the presence of response inhibition deficits in nicotine-dependent individuals are mixed. This might be due to differences between studies on a number of task parameters. Here we aimed to identify task conditions under which go/no-go task performance deficits can be observed in smokers and to characterize the nature of such deficits. Sixty-one male students (30 smokers, 31 non-smokers) performed a go/no-go task while independently manipulating three task parameters: (1) percentage no-go trials (50% or 25%), (2) stimulus presentation time (600 ms or 200 ms), and (3) nature of no-go stimuli (cigarette related or cigarette unrelated). Three measures, reaction time on go trials and percentage correct responses on go and no-go trials, served as performance indicators. Under 200-ms but not 600-ms stimulus presentation conditions, the smokers responded faster on go trials and made more errors on both go and no-go trials than the non-smokers did. These differences occurred irrespective of the percentage of no-go trials and nature of no-go stimuli. The accuracy differences disappeared after controlling for the response time differences, suggesting a strong speed-accuracy trade-off. This study contributes to unraveling the conditions under which smokers display impaired inhibition performance and helps to characterize the nature of this impairment. Under task conditions prompting fast responding, smokers are more prone to increase response speed and to make more errors than non-smokers.

  16. Comparison of Spermatozoa Quality in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers of Iranian Infertile Couples

    PubMed Central

    Aryanpur, Mahshid; Tarahomi, Majid; Sharifi, Hooman; Heydari, Gholamreza; Hessami, Zahra; Akhoundi, Mohamadmehdi; Masjedi, Mohamad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking has a negative effect on fertility and sperm quality. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of smoking on sperm quality and the related parameters such as sperm concentration, morphology and motility. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 infertile men with at least one year history of idiopathic infertility, who admitted to the Avicenna Infertility Center, Tehran, Iran. A complete history including smoking habits and other diseases was obtained and semen analysis was performed for all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16 and t test and Mann-whitney tests with a significance level of α= 0.05. Results Comparison of sperm parameters in the two groups of smoker and nonsmoker subjects showed that active smoking (p=0.04) and cigarette consumption even in small amounts (p=0.03) decreased sperm concentration, However, no significant correlation was detected between smoking status and morphology or motility of sperms. Conclusion This study failed to find a significant correlation between sperm analysis and smoking status except for sperm concentration, which was significantly decreased in the active smokers ,even in those consuming small amounts of tobacco. This finding propounds that tobacco consumption may negatively affect fertility. PMID:25101159

  17. Korean American males' interracial contact experiences during serious leisure activity

    Treesearch

    KangJae Jerry Lee; David. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated serious leisure among Korean Americans and examined the ways in which Koreans' marginalized status impact their pursuit of serious leisure and participation patterns in the context of recreational sports. Face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 Korean basketball players and 4 soccer players.

  18. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression in Korean males.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jun-Young; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2011-07-01

    The psychological impacts of premature ejaculation (PE), which include guilt, anxiety, and distress, have been well established in Western countries. However, in Asia, although a substantial number of epidemiological studies have surveyed the prevalence of PE, researchers have not thoroughly investigated the relationship between PE and depression, or have defined PE properly. We studied the association between PE and depression and other psychological disturbances, in a Korean cohort by applying an appropriate definition for PE and validated outcome measures of depression. METHODS.  A total of 956 males (≥20 years) were initially approached via an Internet survey company. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire requesting detailed medical and sexual histories, which included questions from the Erectile Function Domain score in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of PE was evaluated using two different definitions-self-assessed PE and presumed PE. Presumed PE was defined as a short ejaculation time (an estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time ≤5 minutes), an inability to control ejaculation, and the presence of distress resulting from PE. Ejaculation-related questionnaire, the IIEF-EF, and BDI. A total of 334 men were evaluated. The prevalence of PE was 10.5% according to the Presumed PE definition, whereas by self-assessment, it was 25.4%. Self-assessed PE patients suffered from various psychological problems, such as depression, low self-esteem, bother, and low sexual satisfaction. Even after excluding erectile dysfunction (ED) subjects, a significant relationship was found between self-assessed PE and depression. Moreover, after further classification of the Self-assessed PE group, we found that subjects included in this group, but not in the Presumed PE group, suffered more from psychological burden than any other members of the cohort. Korean men with subjective

  19. Effects of sulfur dioxide on pulmonary function in healthy nonsmoking male subjects aged 55 years and older

    SciTech Connect

    Rondinelli, R.C.A.; Koenig, J.Q.; Marshall, S.G.

    1987-04-01

    To determine whether normal nonsmoking individuals aged 55 years or greater have heightened bronchial reactivity to inhaled SO/sub 2/, ten male subjects, 55 to 73 year of age, were exposed for 20 min at rest and 10 min during moderate exercise on a treadmill to the following: 1) NaCl droplet aerosol, or 2) 1.0 ppm of SO/sub 2/ and NaCl droplet aerosol. Seven of the subjects also were exposed to 0.5 ppm SO/sub 2/ and NaCl droplet aerosol. Significant decreases in forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV/sub 1/) were seen 2-3 min post-exercise following all three test modes. The reduction in FEV/sub 1/ seen after NaCl aerosol + 1.0 ppm SO/sub 2/ was significantly greater than that seen after NaCl aerosol alone. The results show that men aged 55 years or older are somewhat more sensitive to NaCl aerosol + 1.0 ppm SO/sub 2/ than similarly exposed normal adolescents, but not nearly as sensitive as asthmatic subjects. This study also demonstrates that investigations of air pollutants and exercise can be undertaken in subjects of this age.

  20. COMT polymorphism modulates the resting-state EEG alpha oscillatory response to acute nicotine in male non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, H.; Smith, D.; de la Salle, S.; Choueiry, J.; Impey, D.; Philippe, T.; Dort, H.; Millar, A.; Daigle, M.; Albert, P. R.; Beaudoin, A.; Knott, V.

    2015-01-01

    Performance improvements in cognitive tasks requiring executive functions are evident with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, and activation of the underlying neural circuitry supporting these cognitive effects is thought to involve dopamine neurotransmission. As individual difference in response to nicotine may be related to a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that strongly influences cortical dopamine metabolism, this study examined the modulatory effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on the neural response to acute nicotine as measured with resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations. In a sample of 62 healthy non-smoking adult males, a single dose (6 mg) of nicotine gum administered in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was shown to affect α oscillatory activity, increasing power of upper α oscillations in frontocentral regions of Met/Met homozygotes and in parietal/occipital regions of Val/Met heterozygotes. Peak α frequency was also found to be faster with nicotine (vs. placebo) treatment in Val/Met heterozygotes, who exhibited a slower α frequency compared to Val/Val homozygotes. The data tentatively suggest that interindividual differences in brain α oscillations and their response to nicotinic agonist treatment are influenced by genetic mechanisms involving COMT. PMID:26096691

  1. COMT polymorphism modulates the resting-state EEG alpha oscillatory response to acute nicotine in male non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Bowers, H; Smith, D; de la Salle, S; Choueiry, J; Impey, D; Philippe, T; Dort, H; Millar, A; Daigle, M; Albert, P R; Beaudoin, A; Knott, V

    2015-07-01

    Performance improvements in cognitive tasks requiring executive functions are evident with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, and activation of the underlying neural circuitry supporting these cognitive effects is thought to involve dopamine neurotransmission. As individual difference in response to nicotine may be related to a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that strongly influences cortical dopamine metabolism, this study examined the modulatory effects of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on the neural response to acute nicotine as measured with resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations. In a sample of 62 healthy non-smoking adult males, a single dose (6 mg) of nicotine gum administered in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was shown to affect α oscillatory activity, increasing power of upper α oscillations in frontocentral regions of Met/Met homozygotes and in parietal/occipital regions of Val/Met heterozygotes. Peak α frequency was also found to be faster with nicotine (vs. placebo) treatment in Val/Met heterozygotes, who exhibited a slower α frequency compared to Val/Val homozygotes. The data tentatively suggest that interindividual differences in brain α oscillations and their response to nicotinic agonist treatment are influenced by genetic mechanisms involving COMT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  2. An anthropometric analysis of Korean male helicopter pilots for helicopter cockpit design.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonsup; Jung, Kihyo; Jeong, Jeongrim; Park, Jangwoon; Cho, Jayoung; Kim, Heeeun; Park, Seikwon; You, Heecheon

    2013-01-01

    This study measured 21 anthropometric dimensions (ADs) of 94 Korean male helicopter pilots in their 20s to 40s and compared them with corresponding measurements of Korean male civilians and the US Army male personnel. The ADs and the sample size of the anthropometric survey were determined by a four-step process: (1) selection of ADs related to helicopter cockpit design, (2) evaluation of the importance of each AD, (3) calculation of required sample sizes for selected precision levels and (4) determination of an appropriate sample size by considering both the AD importance evaluation results and the sample size requirements. The anthropometric comparison reveals that the Korean helicopter pilots are larger (ratio of means = 1.01-1.08) and less dispersed (ratio of standard deviations = 0.71-0.93) than the Korean male civilians and that they are shorter in stature (0.99), have shorter upper limbs (0.89-0.96) and lower limbs (0.93-0.97), but are taller on sitting height, sitting eye height and acromial height (1.01-1.03), and less dispersed (0.68-0.97) than the US Army personnel. The anthropometric characteristics of Korean male helicopter pilots were compared with those of Korean male civilians and US Army male personnel. The sample size determination process and the anthropometric comparison results presented in this study are useful to design an anthropometric survey and a helicopter cockpit layout, respectively.

  3. Sex differences of COPD phenotypes in nonsmoking patients

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yoonki; Ji, Wonjun; An, Soojeong; Han, Seon-Sook; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence about sex-related phenotypes of COPD. However, the sex differences in COPD mainly result from smokers. This study evaluated the sex differences in nonsmoking patients with COPD, focusing on structural changes in the lungs in airway diseases and emphysema. Methods Ninety-seven nonsmoking patients, defined as having <1 pack-year of lifetime cigarette smoking, diagnosed with COPD were selected from a Korean COPD cohort. Emphysema extent and mean wall area percentage (WA%) on computed tomography were compared between the male and female groups. Results The 97 patients with COPD included 62 females and 35 males. Emphysema index was significantly lower (3.5±4.2 vs 6.2±5.7, P<0.01) and mean WA% on computed tomography was significantly higher (71.8%±5% vs 69.4%±5%, P<0.01) in females than in males, after adjusting for age, body mass index, history of biomass exposure, and postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (% of predicted). Conclusion WA% was higher and emphysema extent was lower in nonsmoking females with COPD than in nonsmoking males with COPD. These findings suggest that males may be predisposed to an emphysema phenotype and females may be predisposed to an airway phenotype of COPD. PMID:27524891

  4. Arsenic exposures alter clinical indicators of anemia in a male population of smokers and non-smokers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Faruque; Medina, Sebastian; Santella, Regina M; Islam, Tariqul; Lauer, Fredine T; Alam, Nur; Eunus, Mahbubul; Rahman, Mizanour; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Ahsan, Habib; Graziano, Joseph H; Liu, Ke Jian; Burchiel, Scott W

    2017-09-15

    Drinking water arsenic (WAs) exposure has been linked to a number of detrimental health outcomes including anemia, primarily among pregnant women. Little is known about the effects of arsenic (As) on hematological disorders among men. We have examined the role of As exposure on hematological indicators of anemia in a group of men exposed to a wide range of As in their drinking water. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation among 119 healthy men in the Health Effects of As Longitudinal Study (HEALS) cohort, in rural Bangladesh. The participants are part of an ongoing study focused on evaluating the influence of As and smoking on immune function. Samples were collected at recruitment and analyzed for water As, urinary As (UAs) and UAs metabolites to assess As exposure. Blood samples were also collected at recruitment and assayed immediately for hematological parameters. We found that increased WAs levels were associated with decreased red blood cell counts [β=-0.13, p<0.0001] as well as hematocrit packed cell volumes [β=-0.68, p=0.008] following adjustment for age, smoking, body mass index and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts. Other measures of As exposure (UAs and its metabolites) demonstrated similar associations. Slightly stronger effects were observed among smokers. We also observed an effect of As on hemoglobin among smokers in relation to UAs [β=-0.54, p<0.05]. Our analysis revealed effects of As exposure on hematological indicators of anemia in a group of healthy male smokers and non-smokers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Male smoker and non-smoker responses to television advertisements on the harms of secondhand smoke in China, India and Russia.

    PubMed

    Murukutla, Nandita; Bayly, Megan; Mullin, Sandra; Cotter, Trish; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-02-01

    Mass media campaigns can play an important role in strengthening support for smoke-free policies and reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Identifying anti-SHS advertisements that are effective in diverse cultural contexts may allow for resource sharing in low- and middle-income countries. A convenience sample of 481 male cigarette smokers and non-smokers in three high tobacco burden and culturally dissimilar countries (India, China and Russia) viewed and rated five anti-SHS ads. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 'Message Acceptance', 'Negative Emotion', 'Perceived Effectiveness' and 'Behavioral Intentions'. Smokers and non-smokers in all countries consistently rated the strong graphic, health harm ads as the most effective, and the 'informational' ad as the least effective overall: the graphic ad 'Baby Alive' was at least 1.8 times more likely than the informational ad 'Smoke-free works' to receive positive ratings on all four outcomes (all P < 0.001). Graphic, health harm messages about SHS exposure have the greatest universal appeal and are the most effective in motivating changes in behavioral intentions. Similarity in reactions between smokers and non-smokers, and across countries, suggests that resource sharing and the use of a single graphic ad targeted at smokers and non-smokers would be cost-efficient strategies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Bioequivalence of diclofenac injection formulations assessed in Korean males.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Shin, W G

    2005-11-01

    A bioequivalence study of diclofenac injection (test formulation (diclofenac potassium): HANA, reference formulation (diclofenac sodium): Shinpoong) was conducted in 18 healthy male Korean volunteers who received each medicine at a dose of 75 mg in a 2 x 2 crossover study. There was a one-week washout period between the doses. Plasma concentrations of diclofenac were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography over a period of 24 hours after the i.m. injection. AUC0-24 (the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0-24 hours) was calculated by the linear-log trapezoidal method. Cmax (maximum plasma drug concentration) and tmax (time to reach Cmax) were compiled from the plasma concentration-time data. Analysis of variance was carried out using logarithmically transformed AUC0-24 and Cmax, and non-transformed tmax. There were no significant differences between the medications in AUC0-24 and Cmax. The point estimates and 90% confidence intervals for AUC0-24 (parametric) and Cmax (parametric) were 0.973 (0.8971 to 1.0557) and 0.993 (0.9452-1.0451), respectively, satisfying the bioequivalence criteria of the European Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products and the US Food and Drug Administration Guidelines. The corresponding value for tmax was 0.75 (0.00 to 1.00). Moreover, the modified Pitman-Morgan's adjusted F-test indicated that the bioavailabilities of diclofenac in the two medications were comparable regarding intra- and interindividual variability. Therefore, these results indicate that the two medications of diclofenac are bioequivalent and, thus, may be prescribed interchangeably.

  7. Leveling the Playing Field: First Generation Korean American Males and School Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the manner in which extracurricular activities impacted the acculturation of first-generation adolescent males. Specifically, the project focused on the influence of organized high school soccer on the development of first-generation adolescent Korean American males. Eight adolescent participants, ranging in age from fourteen…

  8. Leveling the Playing Field: First Generation Korean American Males and School Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the manner in which extracurricular activities impacted the acculturation of first-generation adolescent males. Specifically, the project focused on the influence of organized high school soccer on the development of first-generation adolescent Korean American males. Eight adolescent participants, ranging in age from fourteen…

  9. Relationship between Occupational Stress and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Korean Male Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Gi; Kim, Kyoo-Sang; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Yoo, Seung-Won

    2013-07-04

    A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). However, the association of WMSDs with job stress has not yet been fully studied in Korean male firefighters. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of WMSDs in almost all Korean male firefighters and to clarify the effect of job stress on the occurrence of WMSDs. The study design was cross-sectional, and 21,466 firefighters were recruited. The study design included a structured questionnaire to assess general characteristics, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (optional KOSS-26), Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and WMSDs. The chi-square test, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to look for a correlation between general characteristics and job stress, and the occurrence of WMSD. Back pain is the most common WMSD. Among the job stress subgroup, physical environment, job demands, organizational system, occupational climate, lack of reward and job insecurity were related to the occurrence of WMSDs. However, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict were not related to the occurrence of WMSDs. Job stress was related to the occurrence of WMSDs in Korean male firefighters. To reduce the occurrence of WMSDs, a job stress management program may be required.

  10. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  11. A Comparison of Dietary Intakes between Male and Female Korean American College Students: A Two Generation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Chick F.; Lew, PoLong; Schwartz, Miriam; Poon, George; An, JaeYoon; Lee, Jina; Chan, Katie; Li, Kenneth; Cheung, Yuen Ting; Luong, Duyen; Davis, Rebecca; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook; Kim, Samuel Saychang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the differences in dietary intakes between two generations, male and female Korean American college students with their respective parents, living in the Los Angeles Areas. This study compared dietary nutrient intakes between old Koreans (KO) (n=28, average age: 53.4[plus or minus]6.4 years, with 13 males…

  12. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19-Year-Old Male from 2008 to 2009: A Study Based on Korean Conscription -National and Geographic Prevalence of Herniated Intervertebral Disc in Korean 19YO Male-

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. Materials and Methods We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. Results The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk-do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. Conclusion In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD. PMID:23918557

  13. Prevalence and geographic distribution of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19-year-old male from 2008 to 2009: a study based on Korean conscription -national and geographic prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19YO male-.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-09-01

    This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk- do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.

  14. Clinical characteristics of male and female Korean patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jiwon; Lee, Jaejoon; Ahn, Joong Kyoung; Park, Eun-Jung; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Koh, Eun-Mi

    2015-03-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of systemic lupus erythematosus between male and female Korean patients. A retrospective analysis was performed at a single tertiary hospital from August 1994 to May 2010. Male patients were matched with two to three female patients based on age and disease duration. Organ damage was assessed using the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SLICC/ACR DI). Fifty-three male patients were compared with 150 female patients. Renal disorders were found more frequently in male patients at disease onset (p < 0.001); the adjusted odds ratio (OR) demonstrated a significant sex preponderance for renal manifestations (OR, 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62 to 6.57). Diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis and end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis during the disease course were more prevalent in male patients (p = 0.025 and p < 0.001, respectively). The risk for requiring long-term dialysis was significantly higher in male than in female patients (OR, 4.02; 95% CI, 1.07 to 15.06), as was the mean SLICC/ACR DI (1.55 ± 1.35 vs. 1.02 ± 1.57, respectively; p = 0.028). Our data demonstrate that Korean patients with lupus have characteristics similar to those of cohorts reported previously. Male patients had significantly higher incidences of renal manifestations and organ damage.

  15. Receptivity to tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking male students in an urban setting in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Saito, Junko; Yasuoka, Junko; Poudel, Krishna C; Foung, Ly; Vilaysom, Somphone; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco marketing is a contributing factor to adolescent smoking, and now targeting adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. Especially, promotional items with tobacco brand logos have a great impact on adolescent smoking. The authors evaluated whether receptivity to tobacco marketing is associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking male students in Lao PDR. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires among 526 non-smoking male students in grades 8th and 11th (aged 12-19 years) in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR. The authors investigated receptivity to tobacco marketing by three measurements: awareness of tobacco marketing, recognition of tobacco marketing messages and owning/being willing to use promotional items. The authors then conducted multiple logistic regression analysis to determine whether marketing receptivity had an independent association with smoking susceptibility, which is defined as the absence of a firm decision not to smoke. About 20% of the participants were susceptible to smoking. Recognition of marketing messages was significantly associated with susceptibility to smoking (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.08), as was any owning/being willing to use promotional items with recognition of marketing messages (OR=2.39, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.24). In contrast, any owning/being willing to use promotional items without any recognition of marketing messages was not significantly associated with susceptibility. A significant association was detected between smoking susceptibility and marketing receptivity, which has been little explored in previous research in low-income countries. Owning/being willing to use promotional items was associated with smoking susceptibility only when there is also recognition of marketing messages.

  16. The Temperament and Character of Korean Male Conscripts with Military Maladjustment-A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Bu

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recently, an increasing number of Korean male conscripts have been retiring because of military maladjustment despite the presence of qualifying medical and psychological screening tests in the Korean army. These problems suggest the presence of a common personality problem. To further examine this possibility, the present study used Cloninger's psychobiological model to investigate the temperament and character of soldiers suffering from military maladjustment. Methods Seventy-nine maladjusted male conscripts and eighty-seven controls enrolled at the 1596th unit from April 2011 to June 2012 participated in the present study. To measure participant personality, we used the Korean version of the Temperament and Character Inventory, Revised-Short. We used logistic regression analysis to examine the association between TCI-RS scores and risk of military maladjustment. Results The maladjustment group had a lower rank, socioeconomic status, education level, and a shorter duration of military service than the control group. The harm avoidance and self-transcendence scores were significantly higher in the maladjustment group, with lower scores for reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness scores. However, of these measures, only low cooperativeness was associated with an increased risk of military maladjustment. Conclusion These results suggest that a low level of cooperativeness can predict military inadequacy. Maladjusted male conscripts may have different personality characteristics from normals. To validate our results, further follow-up or cohort studies with a larger sample will be required. PMID:23798960

  17. Complete workplace indoor smoking ban and smoking behavior among male workers and female nonsmoking workers' husbands: a pseudo cohort study of Japanese public workers.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hama, Hitomi; Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    A pseudo cohort study using national cross-sections (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010) was conducted to examine differences in smoking prevalence under different smoking ban policies such as a complete workplace indoor smoking ban (early or recent implementation) and a partial smoking ban among male public workers and husbands of female nonsmoking public workers. The effectiveness of smoking bans was estimated by difference-in-differences (DID) with age group stratification. The results varied considerably by age and implementation period. Although DID estimates (positive value of DID estimate represents smoking cessation percentage) for both smoking bans on total male smoking were not significant, the over-40 age group indicated a significant DID estimate of 5.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) for the recent smoking ban. For female workers' husbands' smoking, the over-40 age group indicated positive, but not significant, DID estimates for the early and recent smoking bans of 7.2 (-4.7, 19.2) and 8.4 (-2.0, 18.7), respectively. A complete indoor workplace smoking ban, particularly one recently implemented among public office workers aged over 40, may reduce male workers' smoking and female workers' husbands' smoking compared with a partial smoking ban, but the conclusion remains tentative because of methodological weaknesses in the study.

  18. Complete Workplace Indoor Smoking Ban and Smoking Behavior among Male Workers and Female Nonsmoking Workers' Husbands: A Pseudo Cohort Study of Japanese Public Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Takahiro; Hama, Hitomi; Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Ito, Yuri; Ioka, Akiko; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    A pseudo cohort study using national cross-sections (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010) was conducted to examine differences in smoking prevalence under different smoking ban policies such as a complete workplace indoor smoking ban (early or recent implementation) and a partial smoking ban among male public workers and husbands of female nonsmoking public workers. The effectiveness of smoking bans was estimated by difference-in-differences (DID) with age group stratification. The results varied considerably by age and implementation period. Although DID estimates (positive value of DID estimate represents smoking cessation percentage) for both smoking bans on total male smoking were not significant, the over-40 age group indicated a significant DID estimate of 5.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) for the recent smoking ban. For female workers' husbands' smoking, the over-40 age group indicated positive, but not significant, DID estimates for the early and recent smoking bans of 7.2 (−4.7, 19.2) and 8.4 (−2.0, 18.7), respectively. A complete indoor workplace smoking ban, particularly one recently implemented among public office workers aged over 40, may reduce male workers' smoking and female workers' husbands' smoking compared with a partial smoking ban, but the conclusion remains tentative because of methodological weaknesses in the study. PMID:24783199

  19. Differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wonjun; Lim, Myoung Nam; Bak, So Hyeon; Hong, Seok-Ho; Han, Seon-Sook; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kim, Woo Jin; Hong, Yoonki

    2016-11-02

    Although tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), more than one-fourth of COPD patients are non-smokers. In this cross-sectional study, the differences in COPD phenotypes between non-smokers and smokers in male subjects were investigated and were focused on structural lung changes using a quantitative assessment of computed tomography (CT) images. They divided male participants with COPD, from a Korean cohort near a cement plant, into non-smokers and smokers by a cutoff of a 5 pack-year smoking history. Clinical characteristics, including age, body mass index (BMI), spirometry results, history of biomass smoke exposure, and CT measurements, were compared between the two groups. Emphysema index (EI) and mean wall area percentage (MWA %) were used to evaluate the structural lung changes on volumetric CT scans. The non-smoker group (n = 49) had younger patients and had a greater BMI than the smoker group (n = 113) (P < .05). Spirometry results, including post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s, were comparable between the two groups. More smokers had emphysema than non-smokers (EI 10.0 vs. 6.5, P < .001), but after accounting the potential confounders in model analysis, the difference was borderline significance (P = .051). In the subgroup of biomass smoke-exposed subjects, MWA% was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers (MWA 69.1 vs. 65.3, P = .03), while EI was not statistically different (EI 7.1 vs. 10.4, P = .52). Non-smoker males with COPD were younger and had a greater BMI than the smokers. Tobacco smoke exposure seemed to be associated with an emphysema-predominant phenotype, while biomass smoke exposure exhibited a significant interaction with tobacco smoking in an airway-predominant phenotype. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Korean male smokers' perceptions of tobacco control policies in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Seog; Nam, Kyoung A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary data analysis is to report Korean male smokers' perceptions of tobacco control policies in the United States. Descriptive data from four focus groups held in New York City in 2003 are presented. Focus group interviews were used to collect data, and the two investigators independently analyzed all four recorded group sessions. Korean male immigrants living in New York City area were recruited, and 22 volunteered to participate. Exclusion criteria included immigration to the United States before age 12, no smoking history, and use of chemical substance other than tobacco. Korean men differed in perceptions of the policies based on smoking status and length of U.S. residency. Among current smokers, recent immigrants had difficulty understanding smoking restrictions, whereas longtime residents complained of price increases. Both groups suggested that policies target the tobacco industry and do not target smokers. In contrast, former smokers supported more regulation of public smoking and suggested use of more aggressive antismoking campaigns. Public policymakers should take into consideration cultural attitudes and beliefs about smoking behavior in the design and implementation of tobacco control policies that affect ethnic groups whose cultural and value orientations may differ from the mainstream.

  1. Alcohol consumption and sexually transmitted disease risk behavior: partner mix among male Korean university students.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Celentano, D D; Crum, R M

    1998-02-01

    In Asia, where men frequently have sex with prostitutes, there is a direct and statistically significant dose-response relationship between frequency of sex with prostitutes and HIV-1 seroprevalence. Young Korean men are reported to routinely have sex with prostitutes. Findings are reported from an examination of alcohol consumption and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behavior as related to prostitute visits and sex partner mix among 1095 representative male Korean university students aged 17-32 years, of mean age 22.1 years, during 1993-94. The men were drawn from 4 universities in Seoul. 25.8% of surveyed university students had visited prostitutes, 17.6% at least 2 times, and 12.9% had sexual experiences with both prostitutes and girlfriends. Heavier alcohol consumption was significantly related to multiple visits to prostitutes and to sexual experiences with both prostitutes and girlfriends.

  2. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.

  3. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L.; Park, Chang G.; Quinn, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t =−6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  4. Promoting Nonsmoker Activism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auth, Joanne Buhl

    1983-01-01

    People are becoming more aware of the dangers of smoking, but nonsmokers still find it difficult to avoid inhaling second-hand smoke. Ways to separate smokers from nonsmokers in public places and to get smokers to refrain from smoking in the presence of nonsmokers are discussed. (IS)

  5. Promoting Nonsmoker Activism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auth, Joanne Buhl

    1983-01-01

    People are becoming more aware of the dangers of smoking, but nonsmokers still find it difficult to avoid inhaling second-hand smoke. Ways to separate smokers from nonsmokers in public places and to get smokers to refrain from smoking in the presence of nonsmokers are discussed. (IS)

  6. Comparison of temperament and character between early- and late-onset Korean male pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Suck Won; Grant, Jon E

    2009-12-01

    We investigated differences in temperament and character between early and late onset Korean pathological gamblers to identify whether the age of onset of pathological gambling (PG) could discriminate PG subtypes, like in alcoholism. Male subjects (N = 104) with DSM-IV PG were tested with Cloninger's temperament and character inventory (TCI). We divided patients into two groups: early onset (N = 34) with gambling problems before reaching 25 years old, and late onset (N = 70) with gambling after the age of 25. Early-onset patients showed a higher score in novelty seeking (NS) and harm avoidance (HA), but lower scores of self-transcendence. There was no difference in reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, or cooperativeness between two groups. After adjusting for age differences by ANCOVA (using age as a covariate), the early onset group showed a significantly higher score in both HA (F₁,₁₀₁ = 4.932, P = 0.029) and NS (F₁,₁₀₁ = 3.948, P = 0.050) but not in any other TCI dimensions. Early- and late-onset Korean male pathological gamblers showed several distinct differences in temperament and character, indicating that age of onset may help discriminate PG subgroups.

  7. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract on busulfan-induced dysfunction of the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Eun-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lim, Kwang Yong; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Jang, Minhee; Park, Seong Kyu; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-07-01

    Anticancer agents induce a variety of adverse effects when administered to cancer patients. Busulfan is a known antileukemia agent. When administered for treatment of leukemia in young patients, busulfan could cause damage to the male reproductive system as one of its adverse effects, resulting in sterility. We investigated the effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) on busulfan-induced damage and/or dysfunction of the male reproductive system. We found that administration of busulfan to mice: decreased testis weight; caused testicular histological damage; reduced the total number of sperm, sperm motility, serum testosterone concentration; and eventually, litter size. Preadministration of KRGE partially attenuated various busulfan-induced damages to the male reproductive system. These results indicate that KRGE has a protective effect against busulfan-induced damage to the male reproduction system. The present study shows a possibility that KRGE could be applied as a useful agent to prevent or protect the male reproductive system from the adverse side effects induced by administration of anticancer agents such as busulfan.

  8. Dietary Silicon Intake of Korean Young Adult Males and Its Relation to their Bone Status.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Accumulated data suggests a positive effect of silicon on bone health; however, limited research exists on the silicon content of foods. To further the understanding of the relationship between dietary silicon intake and bone health, a food composition database of commonly consumed foods in Korea is required. For quantitative data on the intake levels of silicon, we analyzed the silicon content of 365 food items commonly consumed in Korea using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following microwave-assisted digestion. To investigate the dietary silicon intake status and to examine the potential role of dietary silicon intake in the bone status of men, a total of 400 healthy Korean adult males aged 19-25 were observed for their diet intake and calcaneus bone density using the 24-h recall method and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Clinical markers reflecting bone metabolism such as serum total alkaline phosphatase, N-mid osteocalcin, and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide concentrations were also analyzed. Silicon intake of the subjects was estimated as 37.5 ± 22.2 mg/day. Major food sources of dietary silicon in the Korean male were cereal and cereal products (25.6 % of total silicon intake), vegetables (22.7 %), beverages and liquors (21.2 %), and milk and milk products (7.0 %). Silicon intake correlated positively with age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, and alcohol intake. After adjusted for age, weight, energy intake, protein intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, smoking cigarettes, and regular exercise status, daily total silicon intake had no correlation with calcaneus bone density and the bone metabolism markers, but silicon intake from vegetables had a positive correlation with serum total alkaline phosphatase activity, a bone formation maker. These findings show the possible positive relationship between dietary silicon intake from vegetables and the bone formation of young adult males. Further

  9. A study on the predictors of Korean male students' intention to receive human papillomavirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong Sil; Park, Seungmi

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to survey the current state of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and the predictors of vaccination intention among Korean male students of high school (ages 15-19) and university (ages 17-27). Human papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted infectious agent causing uterine cervical, anal, and/or penile cancer and genital warts in males and females. Infection rate of human papillomavirus increases from the age when sexual intercourse first occurs. Therefore, motivation to receive human papillomavirus vaccination is needed to protect infection. Cross-sectional descriptive survey was performed only in male students. They are less aware of human papillomavirus than females, because human papillomavirus vaccination has been targeted on females for preventing cervical cancer in Korea. Data were collected using a self-reporting questionnaire for male high school and university students sampled from a city in Korea. Human papillomavirus vaccine-related knowledge, health beliefs, demographic, and sexual history information variables relating to intentions to vaccinate were assessed. The human papillomavirus vaccination rate was very low and the levels of knowledge and health beliefs were low. The significant predictors that raised the intention of human papillomavirus vaccination were a university student, experience of sexual intercourse and perceiving the benefits of human papillomavirus vaccination. To promote human papillomavirus vaccination, educational programming targeting males should include health beliefs and knowledge, emphasising that vaccination is important to prevent uterine cervical cancer and to role as a preventative measure against common male diseases. Male high school students should be included as a major target population for school human papillomavirus education programmes, as they are at the age of commencing sexual intercourse. In addition, public health policies including human papillomavirus vaccination in the national

  10. Effects of Family Meal Frequency on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Elderly Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, Tchae-Won; JUNG, Min-Ju; LEE, Jun-Woo; KIM, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background In the case of the elderly who highly depend on family, serious health problems can be caused due to the reduction of family meals. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the fundamental data for management of cardiovascular disease, one of the major causes of death in elderly Koreans, by investigating the effects of family meal frequency on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly males and females. Methods The raw data of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) were utilized. Data of 1,236 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood, blood pressure, nutrients and total energy intake. For collected data, using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0, the mean and standard deviation, and the path coefficient between groups through a multi-group analysis by structural equation model were checked Results As family meal frequency increased, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in Korean elderly males were likely to decrease, which led to conflicting results with those of Korean elderly females. Conclusion Frequent family meal makes a positive effect on reducing several risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly. PMID:26060777

  11. Effects of Family Meal Frequency on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Elderly Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tchae-Won; Jung, Min-Ju; Lee, Jun-Woo; Kim, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    In the case of the elderly who highly depend on family, serious health problems can be caused due to the reduction of family meals. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the fundamental data for management of cardiovascular disease, one of the major causes of death in elderly Koreans, by investigating the effects of family meal frequency on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly males and females. The raw data of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) were utilized. Data of 1,236 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood, blood pressure, nutrients and total energy intake. For collected data, using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0, the mean and standard deviation, and the path coefficient between groups through a multi-group analysis by structural equation model were checked. As family meal frequency increased, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in Korean elderly males were likely to decrease, which led to conflicting results with those of Korean elderly females. Frequent family meal makes a positive effect on reducing several risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly.

  12. Abdominal obesity and structure and function of the heart in healthy male Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jung-Woo; Sung, Joong Kyung; Lee, Jun-Won; Youn, Young Jin; Ahn, Min-Soo; Ahn, Sung Gyun; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yoon, Junghan; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Jang-Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although central obesity is a more powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than general obesity, there is limited information on structural and functional changes of the heart in central obesity. Therefore, we evaluated the association between abdominal obesity and geometric and functional changes of the heart in healthy males. A total of 1460 healthy males aged 40 to 70 years without known CVD from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population were included. All individuals underwent conventional 2-dimensional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging to measure left atrial (LA) and left ventricle (LV) geometry and function. Increasing tertiles of waist circumference (WC) were associated with stepwise increases in LA volume, LV end-diastolic dimension, LV mass to height2, deceleration time of E wave, and lower E/A ratio (all P trends <0.001). In multivariable logistic regression models, the odds ratios for LA enlargement, LV hypertrophy, LV enlargement, and diastolic dysfunction comparing the upper tertile of WC (>89 cm) to the lowest tertile (<82 cm) were 2.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.24–3.54), 3.65 (95% CI 2.54–5.26), 4.23 (95% CI 2.61–6.87), and 1.75 (95% CI 1.37–2.22), respectively. LV ejection fraction and relative wall thickness were not increased with increasing WC. The association between WC and LA enlargement, LV enlargement, and diastolic dysfunction persisted after stratification by body mass index tertiles. Central obesity may be a stronger predictor than general obesity of geometric and functional changes in the LV and LA. PMID:27684832

  13. Masturbation and its relationship to sexual activities of young males in Korean military service.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y J; Lee, W H; Rha, K H; Xin, Z C; Choi, Y D; Choi, H K

    2000-04-01

    This study examined the masturbatory experiences and other sexual activities of young Korean males in military service. The actual status of masturbation and its relationship to sexual activity questionnaire. A total of 1,212 young males among military personnel in Korea were interviewed with sexuality questionnaires on masturbation, sexual intercourse and personal characteristics. We divided these subjects into four groups according to the age of initiation of masturbation and analyzed the relationship between masturbation and other sexual activities. The mean age of subjects was 22.03 +/- 1.22 (19-27) years. The percentage of men who reported ever having masturbated was 98.1% (1189/1212) and the average age of initiation of masturbation was 14.26 +/- 1.66 years. So we divided 1,212 males into four groups on the basis of the average age below and above one standard deviation. Overall, 67.7% (821/1212) had experienced sexual intercourse, and significantly, the earlier the initiation age of masturbation, the higher the coitus rate in each group (p < 0.05). About 21.5% of the men who were not virgins had experienced their first sexual intercourse with prostitutes. The mean age of first coitus, the incidence of sexually transmitted disease (STD) and the frequency of masturbation were closely linked to the initiation age of masturbation, respectively (p < 0.05). A masturbatory guilt feeling was seen in about 10.9% (132/1212) and there was no significant difference according to the types of religious worship (p = 0.227). On the basis of this study, sexual activities generally increased accordingly as the beginning of masturbation was earlier. Coital incidence in this study was 67.7% for young males in Korean military service, and 21.5% of them had their first sexual intercourse with prostitutes. Prostitution still plays an important role in the sexual lives of males in Korea. The incidence of STD was over 10% and homosexual manifestation was seen in 1.07% of subjects

  14. Surface models of the male urogenital organs built from the Visible Korean using popular software

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Sun; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Byeong-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have a small file size, so they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Thus, surface models of male urogenital organs can be effectively applied to an interactive computer simulation and contribute to the clinical practice of urologists. To create high-quality surface models, the urogenital organs and other neighboring structures were outlined in 464 sectioned images of the Visible Korean male using Adobe Photoshop; the outlines were interpolated on Discreet Combustion; then an almost automatic volume reconstruction followed by surface reconstruction was performed on 3D-DOCTOR. The surface models were refined and assembled in their proper positions on Maya, and a surface model was coated with actual surface texture acquired from the volume model of the structure on specially programmed software. In total, 95 surface models were prepared, particularly complete models of the urinary and genital tracts. These surface models will be distributed to encourage other investigators to develop various kinds of medical training simulations. Increasingly automated surface reconstruction technology using commercial software will enable other researchers to produce their own surface models more effectively. PMID:21829759

  15. Influence of the parent-adolescent relationship on condom use among South Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Seok; Kim, Kevin H; Doswell, Willa M

    2007-12-01

    This study examined the mediating role of condom self-efficacy between the parent-adolescent relationship and the intention to use condoms with a submodel based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Male students aged 18-25 years (n = 176) were recruited from a university in Seoul, South Korea, using a flyer and self-referral in 2004. A sample of 170 male students was retained for the final data analyses as six subjects had incomplete data on more than one instrument. Condom self-efficacy completely mediated the prediction of intention to use condoms by the quality of the mother-son relationship. However, condom self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms. Only an indirect effect between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms existed. The suggested sex education programs should develop culture-specific, theory-based, and family-based interventions in order to reduce risky sexual behavior among South Korean adolescents.

  16. Association between serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the association between the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. We examined the relationship between the TG/HDL ratio and sarcopenia in 879 elderly males ≥60years who participated in the 2010-2011 KNHANES. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by the weight (%), which is >1 SD below the mean for young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across the TG/HDL ratio quartiles (Q1: ≤1.4, Q2: 1.5-2.4, Q3: 2.5-3.8 and Q4: ≥3.9) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia significantly increased in accordance with TG/HDL ratio quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio for sarcopenia was 2.10 (1.12-3.91) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. TG/HDL ratio was positively related with a higher risk of sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrient intake and bone health status of Korean male college students as related to smoking situations.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun-Jung; Cho, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary habits, nutrient intake, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in Korean male collegians as related to smoking situation. One hundred sixty one young adult males at the age of 20-26 participated in this study. The subjects were divided into four groups: non smoker (n=42), light smoker (n=34), moderate smoker (n=49) and heavy smoker (n=36). The anthropometric characteristics, smoking situations, dietary habits and nutrient intakes were observed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism markers including serum alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and N-mid osteocalcin (OC) were analyzed. There were no significant differences in height, weight, BMI, energy and calcium intake among the four groups. Iron intake of moderate and heavy smoker was significantly lower than that of light smoker. Heavy smokers consumed significantly lower vitamin C than moderate smokers, and their coffee consumption and lifetime alcohol consumption were significantly highest among the 4 groups. QUS parameters and serum ALP were not significantly different among the four groups. Serum OC levels were significantly lower in heavy and non smoker group compared to the moderate smoker group. In conclusion, heavy smokers in young male collegians had undesirable lifestyle and dietary habits, like as high consumption of coffee and alcohol, and low intake of Fe and vitamin C. Although, there was no significant difference in their current bone status from the other groups, these undesirable factors with heavy smoking may affect their bone health in the long term.

  18. Classification of Upper Body Shapes Among Korean Male Wheelchair Users to Improve Clothing Fit.

    PubMed

    Park, Jangwoon; Park, Kwangae; Lee, Baekhee; You, Heecheon; Yang, Chungeun

    2017-07-27

    The upper body shape is an important factor to be considered in customized suit jacket design. The present study is intended to identify the lateral upper body shapes of wheelchair users in a sagittal plane. Anthropometric data of 144 Korean male wheelchair users were collected using a tape measure and photography. Three lateral upper body shapes were identified by cluster analysis: convex back with largely protruded abdomen (31%), convex back with flat abdomen (36%), and straight back with moderately protruded abdomen (33%). Discriminant functions were constructed for the three lateral upper body shape groups, and their overall and cross-validated classification accuracies were identified as 94.4% and 89.6%, respectively. The present study found that the wheelchair users have more convex back (67%) and protruded abdomen (64%) shapes than non-wheelchair individuals. The lateral upper body shapes and discriminant functions identified in the study can be applied to a custom production process of suit jacket design for wheelchair users.

  19. Asymmetry of the Isokinetic Trunk Rotation Strength of Korean Male Professional Golf Players

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Kang, Si Hyun; Hwang, Junah

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is side to side difference of the trunk rotation muscle in Korean male professional golf players. Healthy controls who did not play golf were also evaluated and compared with professional golf players. Method Fifty-one professional golf players and 50 healthy controls participated in this study. Bilateral isokinetic trunk rotation strength that represented the aiming side and non-aiming side trunk rotator function in a golf swing and other parameters were evaluated using the Biodex System III Isokinetic Dynamometer at angular velocities of 30, 60, and 120 degree per second. Results The professional golf players' peak torque and total work on their aiming sides were significantly higher than on their non-aiming side at all angular velocities. Additionally, the golf players' peak torque on their aiming side was significantly higher than those of the healthy controls only at the 60 degree per second angular velocity, but there was a slight and consistent trend in the others. Finally, the difference between the aiming side and the non-aiming side of the professional golf players and the healthy controls was also significant. Conclusion The aiming side rotation strength of the male professional golf players was higher than that of non-aiming side. The controls showed no side-to-side differences. This finding is attributed to the repetitive training and practice of professional golf players. A further study is needed to investigate if the strengthening of the trunk rotation muscle, especially on the aiming side, could improve golf performance. PMID:23342315

  20. Bioequivalence study of two imatinib formulations after single-dose administration in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jung, J A; Kim, N; Yang, J-S; Kim, T-e; Kim, J-R; Song, G-S; Kim, H; Ko, J W; Huh, W

    2014-12-01

    Imatinib mesylate is effective for chronic myeloid leukaemia and gastrointestinal tumours. We aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a 200-mg imatinib tablet compared to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in order to meet the regulatory requirements for marketing in Korea.An open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-treatment cross-over study was conducted in 28 healthy Korean male volunteers. Subjects were administered a 200-mg imatinib tablet and 2×100-mg imatinib tablets under a fasting state according to a randomly assigned order with a 2-week wash-out period. Serial blood samples were collected up to 72 h post-dose. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using non-compartmental methods.A total of 28 subjects were enrolled and 23 subjects completed the study. There were no serious adverse events during the study. 23 mild to moderate adverse events were reported (11 events with 200-mg imatinib vs. 12 events with 2×100-mg imatinib) and subjects recovered without sequelae. The Cmax value was 922.8±318.8 μg/L at 3.15 h for 200-mg imatinib tablet, and 986.3±266.0 μg/L at 2.91 h for the 2×100-mg imatinib tablet. The AUClast of 200-mg and 2×100-mg tablets were 13 084.3±39.1 and 14 131.7±3 826.2 h · μg/L, respectively. The geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) for Cmax and AUClast were 0.9121 (0.8188, 1.0161) and 0.9558 (0.8685, 1.0519), respectively.A newly developed 200-mg imatinib tablet was bioequivalent to 2×100-mg imatinib tablets in healthy Korean subjects. A single-dose of either of the 2 formulations was generally well tolerated.

  1. Association between IRS1 Gene Polymorphism and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Case-Control Study in Korean Males

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Kang, Won Sub; Park, Jin Kyung; Kim, Young Jong; Nam, Min; Kim, Jong Woo; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway is thought to play an important role in brain development. Altered levels of IGFs and their signaling regulators have been shown in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. In this study, we investigated whether coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) of the insulin receptor substrates (IRS1 and IRS2), key mediators of the IGF pathway, were associated with ASD in Korean males. Two cSNPs (rs1801123 of IRS1, and rs4773092 of IRS2) were genotyped using direct sequencing in 180 male ASD patients and 147 male control subjects. A significant association between rs1801123 of IRS1 and ASD was shown in additive (p = 0.022, odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.46–0.95) and dominant models (p = 0.013, OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37–0.89). Allele frequency analysis also showed an association between rs1801123 and ASD (p = 0.022, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46–0.94). These results suggest that IRS1 may contribute to the susceptibility of ASD in Korean males. PMID:27483248

  2. Characterization of Korean Male Breast Cancer Using an Online Nationwide Breast-Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Young; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Park, Hyung Seok; Lim, Seung Taek; Jung, Yongsik; Ko, Byung Kyun; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and the survival rate in male breast cancer (MBC) patients in Korea over a 31-year period. Additionally, we analyzed the overall survival (OS) rate of a group of MBC matched to females with breast cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 400 Korean patients who were treated for MBC from 1978 to 2009. Patient demographics and clinical information were routinely documented throughout the study period. Survival and prognostic factors were evaluated. Each MBC patient was matched with 5 female breast cancer (FBC) patients based on 7 characteristics and we compared the OS rates between the 2 groups. For MBC cases, the median follow-up was 72 months and the 5-year OS rate was 85.9%. In univariate analyses, the prognostic factors influencing OS were age (more than 60 years, P <0.001), tumor size (>2 cm, P = 0.007), and having a negative progesterone receptor (PR) status (P = 0.042). Only the age (P = 0.028) and tumor size (P = 0.024) were significant prognostic factors for OS in multivariate analysis. After matching, we had 260 male patients matched to 1300 female patients for analysis. Compared with cases among females, the rate of mastectomy was higher among MBC cases and tumors, which were almost invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs), were more likely to be located in the central part of the breast. For MBC cases, the percentage of adjuvant radiation therapy was low compared with female cases. The primary hormone therapy agent used was tamoxifen. The 5-year OS rates were similar in MBC compared with FBC (91.0% vs. 92.6%, P = 0.300). We found that only the age (more than 60 years) and tumor size were independent prognostic factors of survival in MBC. The prognosis for MBC is similar to that for FBC given similar stage and hormone-receptor status. PMID:27100414

  3. Heavy Alcohol Consumption with Alcoholic Liver Disease Accelerates Sarcopenia in Elderly Korean Males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Chang, U Im; Choi, Sooa; Jung, Yun Duk; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Although a few studies have reported that sarcopenia is associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), no studies have investigated this association in a large sample representative of the elderly Korean population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study that used data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) on subjects aged 65 years and older. Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle index (SMI) more than 1 SD below the gender-specific mean for young adults; SMI was calculated as the appendicular muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht2). Heavy alcohol consumption was defined as consuming at least 210 g/week, and elevated liver enzymes were defined as alanine aminotransferase levels of at least 32 U/L or aspartate aminotransferase levels of at least 34 U/L. ALD was defined as heavy alcohol consumption and elevated liver enzymes. Results The mean age of the 1,151 elderly males was 71.6 ± 0.2 years, and the prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption was 11.8% (136 subjects). SMI did not differ between the non-heavy and heavy alcohol consumer groups (7.1 ± 0.0 kg/m2 vs. 7.3 ± 0.1 kg/m2, respectively, P = 0.145). However, after stratifying by the presence of liver disease and heavy alcohol consumption and adjusting for other confounders in the multivariate logistic regression, SMI was significantly lower among heavy alcohol consumers with ALD (all P < 0.05). Additionally, two-way ANOVA showed a significant interaction between heavy alcohol consumption and liver disease (P = 0.011). Conclusion Sarcopenia was accelerated in the elderly male ALD group, with a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and liver disease. PMID:27655344

  4. The apparent metabolizable energy requirement of male Korean native ducklings from hatch to 21 days of age.

    PubMed

    Wickramasuriya, S S; Yoo, J; Kim, J C; Heo, J M

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) requirement of Korean native ducklings for hatch to 21 d of age. A total of 336 one-day-old male Korean native ducklings were used in a completely randomized design having 8 dietary treatments to provide a range of AME content from 2,600 to 3,300 kcal/kg (i.e., 100 kcal/kg disparity). Eight experimental diets containing varying levels of AME were formulated to meet the NRC (1994) nutrient specifications. Ducklings were randomly allocated to 48 pens (6 replicates per treatment and 7 ducklings per pen) and were offered their respective diets on an ad libitum basis for the period of study. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly to calculate feed conversion ratio, energy intake, and protein intake. Two ducklings per pen (n = 6) were euthanized via cervical dislocation to weigh empty body and drumsticks at the conclusion of the experiment. Data were fitted to both linear-plateau and quadratic-plateau models for estimation of the AME requirements for Korean native ducklings for hatch to 21 d of age. The estimated AME requirements were 2,953, 3,007, and 2,950 kcal AME/kg diet for maximum daily gain, daily feed intake, and for minimum feed conversion ratio, respectively. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Dietary taurine and nutrient intake and dietary quality by alcohol consumption level in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Kim, So Young; Park, So Yoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is related to various negative healthy consequences. To investigate difference of taurine intake according to the alcohol consumption level, we studied body composition, intake of dietary nutrients including taurine, and dietary quality in Korean male college students that were divided according to their alcohol consumption level. Surveys were conducted using a questionnaire and a 3-day recall method for assessing dietary intake in 220 male college students residing in Incheon, Korea. The subjects were divided into two groups by alcohol consumption level: heavy drinking group (average drinking over 5 cans (355 ml) of beer or 7 shots (45 ml) of soju) and light drinking group (average drinking less than 5 cans of beer or 7 shots of soju or not drinking any alcohol at all at one time during the previous month). The average body mass index (BMI) in the heavy drinking group was significantly higher compared to the light drinking group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between heavy and light drinking group. With regard to the dietary quality evaluation of the subjects, the nutrient densities (ND) of carbohydrate, niacin, vitamin C, and zinc in the heavy drinking group were significantly lower than those of the light drinking group. Therefore, continuous nutrition education for heavy drinking Korean male college students may be needed to improve balanced nutritional status and further studies such as case-control study or taurine intervention study are required to know the relationship between dietary taurine intake and alcohol consumption.

  6. The Psychopathological Influence of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in Korean Male : An Analysis of Multiphasic Personal Inventory Test Results

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Shim, Yu Shik; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon; Lee, Myoung Seok

    2013-01-01

    Objective There are few published studies which have documented psychopathological abnormalities in patients with of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychopathological influence of AIS in Korean 19-year-old males. Methods The authors compared the Korean military multiphasic personal inventory (KMPI) military profiles of 105 AIS cases (more than 10 degrees of Cobb's angle without surgical treatment) with the KMPI profiles of 108 normal controls. The AIS group was split depending on Cobb's angle to further evaluate this relation by the severity of AIS. Results A significantly decreased result on the faking-good response scale and an significantly increased result on the faking-bad response were observed in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.012). The neurosis scale results, including anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms, were significantly increased in the AIS group compared to the control (p<0.010). The severity level of personality disorder and schizophrenia were also significantly increased in the AIS group (p<0.010). Differences in KMPI scale scores were not related to the severity of AIS. Conclusion Young males with AIS tend to have abnormal results on the multiphasic personal inventory test compared to normal volunteers, suggesting that AIS may be related to psychopathology in the young male group in Korea. Although these psychopathology in AIS were differently observed compared to normal controls, but not interfered with military life. Clinicians are recommended to pay attention the psychopathological traits of patients with AIS. PMID:23440382

  7. EBUS-FNA of a station seven lymph node: an unusual presentation of a young nonsmoker male with hemoptysis and subcarinal lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Brett Matthew; Mahooti, Sepi

    2015-03-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EBUS-FNA) is a safe and minimally invasive bronchoscopic technique that allows both visualization and cytologic sampling with a high diagnostic yield in a patient with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Besides the most common indication of staging for a patient with a primary lung carcinoma, EBUS-FNA can be used to identify benign infectious and noninfectious processes as well as lymphoma and malignancy of unknown primary. Triaging of procured specimen for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic ancillary studies requires appropriate clinical information at the time of rapid on site evaluation (ROSE) of smears. This case report demonstrates a young, previously healthy nonsmoker presenting clinically with cough, hemoptysis, and a 1.7 cm enlarged subcarinal lymph node by imaging. EBUS-FNA obtained smears from the lymph node revealed a pleomorphic population of smaller cells with a low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio and prominent nucleoli, and larger cells had nuclei with bizarre shapes, mitoses, multinucleation, enlarged nucleoli, and pigmentation in a background of lymphocytes. The cytomorphologic and immunohistochemical workup of this case confirmed the unexpected diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. This result was a complete surprise to the clinical team managing the patient and prompted a thorough clinical workup. Subcarinal lymphadenopathy with metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause is rare. This case report highlights how ROSE and appropriate triaging of specimen were crucial in appropriately working up this case. We also survey the literature to review the reported unusual presentations of metastatic melanoma.

  8. South Korean Male Adolescents' Internal and External Influences in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesa, Rachel Louise

    2014-01-01

    South Korean adolescents' motivation for high academic achievement is strongly influenced by extraordinary parental support, pressures to achieve, and the practice of utilizing both public and private learning environments in South Korea. To remain competitive, educational leaders may benefit from observations of other countries' academic…

  9. South Korean Male Adolescents' Internal and External Influences in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesa, Rachel Louise

    2014-01-01

    South Korean adolescents' motivation for high academic achievement is strongly influenced by extraordinary parental support, pressures to achieve, and the practice of utilizing both public and private learning environments in South Korea. To remain competitive, educational leaders may benefit from observations of other countries' academic…

  10. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-08-07

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future.

  11. A study on seasonal variation of skin parameters in Korean males.

    PubMed

    Song, E J; Lee, J A; Park, J J; Kim, H J; Kim, N S; Byun, K S; Choi, G S; Moon, T K

    2015-02-01

    The physiological characteristics of the skin are varied greatly, depending on gender, age, region and race, and many dermatologic researches have been performed through various research methods. This study aimed to examine how Korean men's skin conditions were influenced by temperature or humidity changes caused by seasonal rotations. A total of 100 healthy Korean men, age range 20-59 years, participated in the study for both summer and winter. We compared on the characteristics of skin between summer and winter. The skin hydration, skin pH and TEWL were evaluated on the forehead, cheek and forearm. The skin sebum content of the glabella, nasal ala and cheek was measured using Sebumeter(®) (SM810, Courage+Khazaka, Germany). Cutometer(®) (MPA 580 Courage+Khazaka, Germany) the elasticity was measured by on the cheeks, and PRIMOS lite(®) (Phase shift Rapid in vivo Measurement of Skin, GFMesstechnik GmbH, Germany) was used to evaluate wrinkles on crow's feet. Lastly, in addition, the skin pore of the face was measured using the Janus(®) (PSI, Korea) which is a facial analysis system. The results were as follows: the comparison of hydration in summer and winter shows significant differences in their forehead, cheeks and forearm. The pH values of the skin surface were generally higher in winter, and significantly different on each site, and the sebum content was higher in summer than in winter. As a result of the pore measurement, the summer showed more pores compared to the winter, and there was a statistically significant difference in skin pores between summer and winter. The sensitivity measured by stinging test increases significantly more in winter than in summer. However, there were no seasonal differences in wrinkles and skin brightness. The skin surface pH, TEWL, sebum content, hydration, elasticity, wrinkles, skin pore and skin sensitivity vary with seasons and body regions in Korean men. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  12. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is suspected to be the most prevalent male sexual complaint, and the prevalence of PE is considerably high also in the younger generation. We investigated the PE prevalence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed text revision; DSM-IV-TR) definition and the risk factors of PE in Korean young men via Internet survey. Subjects (n = 3980) aged from 20 to 59, who performed sexual intercourse more than once a month during the past 6 months were asked to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of questions on general, medical, and sexual history related to ejaculation. A total of 600 subjects were included in this study. PE prevalence was found to be 18.3%. Prevalences were not significantly different across age groups, after excluding subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Educational level, marital status and duration, average income, sexual orientation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and circumcision status showed no difference in the PE and non-PE groups. Partners perceived satisfaction rates were 45.0% in the PE group and 63.9% in the non-PE group. Significant differences were found between the PE and non-PE groups in terms of ED, obesity, and depression prevalence. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors of PE were age and the frequency of conversations with partners about sexual intercourse. This Internet-based study is limited because participants probably represent a selected population of Internet users with non-representative educational and socioeconomic profiles. This study is the first to report the prevalence of both self-reported PE and PE on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR definition in the Korean population. This study demonstrates that PE in Korea is as prevalent as it is in European countries and the United States.

  13. The Annual Changes of Clinical Manifestation of Androgenetic Alopecia Clinic in Korean Males and Females: A Outpatient-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Woo Sun; Son, In Pyeong; Yeo, In Kwon; Park, Kui Young; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Beom Joon; Seo, Seong Jun; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2013-01-01

    Background Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is characterized by the local and gradual transformation of terminal scalp hair into vellus hair, which has a shorter and thinner shaft. There are no studies that analyze annual changes in age, patterns, family history, and associated disease. Objective We investigated the severity of hair loss, age of onset, the frequency of family history, and past medical histories in Korean patients with AGA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2010. Results The age of onset was also gradually decreased from 34.1±10.1 years to 31.6±10.9 years between 2006 and 2010. In female patients, specific annual changes were not observed. Hamilton-Norwood Type IIIv AGA was most common in male patients and Ludwig Type I AGA was most common in female patients at all times between 2006 and 2010. The majority of patients with AGA had a family history of baldness and was most commonly associated with a paternal pattern of inheritance. Seborrheic dermatitis was the most common associated disease in male and female patients. Conclusion Our results show the possibilities that the average age of onset is decreasing. The period of the present study was only 5 years, which is not sufficient for the precise determination of onset age for AGA. Clearly, a long-term study is needed. PMID:23717009

  14. The effects of sole vibration stimulation on Korean male professional volleyball players' jumping and balance ability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective.

  15. The effects of sole vibration stimulation on Korean male professional volleyball players’ jumping and balance ability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Min, Kyoung-Ok; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Soon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in jumping ability and lower limb balance ability elicited by plyometric training and vibration exercise, of volleyball players with and without ankle injuries, which frequently occur among Korean professional volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight volleyball players were divided into the following groups: plyometric with ankle injury (PAI) group; plyometric with non-ankle injury (PAN) group; vibrator with ankle injury (VAI) group; and vibrator with non-ankle injury (VAN) group. After exercise and whole body vibration stimulation, their vertical jumping abilities, side step, and static equilibrium ability were measured. [Results] The vibration exercise group which had experienced ankle injuries showed significant improvements in the sidestep test after the intervention compared to before the intervention. In vertical jumping as well, significant improvements were observed in the VAI group and the VAN group following vibration exercise. In the balance ability test, significant improvesments in the PAN group and the PAI group were observed after the intervention. According to the results of the right side, there was significant change in the left/back side test and the right/back side test before and after the intervention; and in the test of one-leg standing with eyes closed, there were significant group, timing, and interaction effects. [Conclusions] The training method which effectively improved the jumping ability of volleyball players was plyometric training, and for balance ability improvement, whole body vibration exercise was effective. PMID:27313344

  16. Risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmoking Illinois residents.

    PubMed

    Keller, J E; Howe, H L

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmokers. The Illinois State Cancer Registry was used to identify all nonsmoking lung cancer cases diagnosed between 1985 and 1987. Subjects were classified as nonsmokers only if their medical record specifically stated that they had never smoked during their lifetime. These cases were compared with nonsmoking colon cancer cases. White male nonsmoking lung cancer cases were more likely to have worked in the construction industry than controls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.3] and to have worked in the bus service and urban transit industry (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.0-6.9), in the trucking service industry (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6), and in blast furnaces, steelworks, and rolling and finishing mills (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.6). White female cases were more likely to have worked as registered nurses than were the controls (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.5). Negative associations between lung cancer and farming were found in both white males (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5-0.7) and white females (OR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.01-0.6). Several other less plausible associations between employment and lung cancer were also found. To determine whether urban residence and associated air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers, rates among nonsmokers in Cook County were compared with those in the remainder of Illinois. Cook County rates of nonsmoking lung cancer were elevated among white females and nonwhite females, but not among males. Residences of the white female and nonwhite female lung cancer cases were mapped to determine whether clustering within Chicago had occurred. The absence of observable clustering suggests that the excess of female lung cancer cases in Cook County is not attributable to pollution.

  17. Different but Similar: Computer Use Patterns between Young Korean Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Keol; Meier, Ellen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to identify and describe new trends and gender differences in the use of computers and the Internet in South Korea. In this mixed-method study, both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used. Results indicated that both males and females used computers generally for four purposes: social networking, personal…

  18. Different but Similar: Computer Use Patterns between Young Korean Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Keol; Meier, Ellen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to identify and describe new trends and gender differences in the use of computers and the Internet in South Korea. In this mixed-method study, both quantitative and qualitative techniques were used. Results indicated that both males and females used computers generally for four purposes: social networking, personal…

  19. Birth order and sibling sex ratio in homosexual transsexual South Korean men: Effects of the male-preference stopping rule.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray; Kim, Tae-Suk; Pae, Chi-Un; Lee, Chul

    2007-10-01

    Two biodemographic variables - birth order and sibling sex ratio - have been examined in several Western samples of homosexual transsexual men. The results have consistently shown that homosexual transsexuals have a later birth order and come from sibships with an excess of brothers to sisters; the excess of brothers has been largely driven by the number of older brothers and hence has been termed the fraternal birth order effect. In the present study the birth order and sibling sex ratio were examined in an Asian sample of 43 homosexual transsexual men and 49 heterosexual control men from South Korea. Although the transsexual men had a significantly late birth order, so did the control men. Unlike Western samples, the Korean transsexuals had a significant excess of sisters, not brothers, as did the control men, and this was largely accounted for by older sisters. It is concluded that a male-preference stopping rule governing parental reproductive behavior had a strong impact on these two biodemographic variables. Future studies that examine birth order and sibling sex ratio in non-Western samples of transsexuals need to be vigilant for the influential role of stopping rules, including the one identified in the present study.

  20. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hee Won; Baek, Sora; Lim, Jae Young

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm³), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm²) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in female farmers, while only with AMM (r = 0.181; P < 0.01) in male farmers. In terms of fat mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all components of the trunk fat mass (r = 0.142-0.424; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in male and premenopausal female farmers, while only with VFM (r = 0.132; P < 0.05) in postmenopausal females. Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed that AMM in male and post-menopausal female farmers was closely associated with spinal BMD. There may be positive associations between trunk muscle and fat mass and spinal BMD with sexual dimorphism, and abdominal wall muscle mass was an explanatory variable closely related to spinal BMD in Korean farmers. Registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829.

  1. The Association between Trunk Body Composition and Spinal Bone Mineral Density in Korean Males versus Females: a Farmers' Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was proposed to identify the association of trunk body composition with spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean male and female farmers. A total of 523 Korean farmers (259 males, 44 premenopausal females, and 220 postmenopausal females) were recruited. Computed tomography scans were acquired at the mid-L4 vertebral level, and total trunk muscle mass (TMM, cm3), back muscle mass (BMM), and abdominal wall muscle mass (AMM), total trunk fat mass (TFM), visceral fat mass (VFM), and subcutaneous fat mass (SFM) were assessed. Spinal BMD (g/cm2) was estimated from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the L4 level. In terms of muscle mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all the components of the trunk muscle mass (r = 0.171-0.360; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in female farmers, while only with AMM (r = 0.181; P < 0.01) in male farmers. In terms of fat mass, spinal BMD was significantly correlated with all components of the trunk fat mass (r = 0.142-0.424; P < 0.05, P < 0.001) in male and premenopausal female farmers, while only with VFM (r = 0.132; P < 0.05) in postmenopausal females. Adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed that AMM in male and post-menopausal female farmers was closely associated with spinal BMD. There may be positive associations between trunk muscle and fat mass and spinal BMD with sexual dimorphism, and abdominal wall muscle mass was an explanatory variable closely related to spinal BMD in Korean farmers. Registered at the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, http://cris.nih.go.kr), number KCT0000829. PMID:27550488

  2. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): < 90 cm, n = 141), obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p < 0.01), the exception being the intake of plant lipid and of animal calcium. In the obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p < 0.05). There were positive correlations between dietary taurine intake, weight and hip circumference (p < 0.05) in the normal group. However, there was no significant correlation between dietary taurine intake and anthropometric and body composition data in the obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.

  3. The Association between Involuntary Smoking Exposure with Urine Cotinine Level and Blood Cadmium Level in General Non-Smoking Populations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, Seunghyun; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong Uk; Yoon, Jin Ha

    2017-04-01

    Unintentional environmental exposure to toxicants is associated with an aggravated health status of the general population. Involuntary smoking (IS) exposure is one of the main routes to involuntary toxicants exposure. However, few studies have attempted to understand the environmental cadmium exposure by IS exposure in the general, non-smoking population. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between blood cadmium level and IS level according to gender and age. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV-VI data that included heavy metal and urine cotinine sampling with IS exposure history. The final analysis comprised 3,493 adults (1,231 males and 2,262 females) and 395 adolescents (210 males and 185 females). Linear regression was performed to estimate the association between self-reported IS exposure with urine cotinine level and blood cadmium level in non-smokers with gender and age group stratification. In final regression model, the effect values (B) (standard errors [SE]) between blood cadmium and urine cotinine level in men was 0.0004 (0.0001) and 0.0006 (0.0002) in adults and adolescents, the B (SE) in women was 0.0006 (0.0002) and 0.0016 (0.0006) in adults and adolescents. Our study revealed, for the first time, a significant association between blood cadmium and IS exposure in non-smokers. Greater efforts are needed to improve environmental justices of the general population from IS, considering the severe harmful effects of involuntary exposure to even a low level of cadmium. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  4. The Acute Exercise-Induced Inflammatory Response: A Comparison of Young-Adult Smokers and Nonsmokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastelein, Tegan E.; Donges, Cheyne E.; Mendham, Amy E.; Duffield, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined postexercise inflammatory and leukocyte responses in smokers and nonsmokers, as well as the effects of cigarette smoking on the acute postexercise inflammatory and leukocyte response in habitual smokers. Method: Eleven recreationally active male smokers and 11 nonsmokers matched for age and aerobic fitness were…

  5. A case-control study on the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status and life stress of functional constipation patients in Korean male college students.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong-Soon; Park, Ji-Yeon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    Constipation is a common gastrointestinal symptom in Korea as well as in Western countries. This study was performed to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrient status, and life stress of functional constipation (FC) patients in Korean male college students. Research data were collected in 2008 and a total of 104 male students (52 with FC patients and 52 healthy controls without FC) were included. FC patients were defined by the codes for the Rome Modular Questionnaire and healthy controls without FC were matched for age, height, weight and BMI. A self-administered life stress score and 3-day recall method were used to assess life stress level and dietary intake, respectively. The averages of age, height, weight, body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) of male students were 23.4 years, 174.1 cm, 71.9 kg, 19.0 % and 23.7 kg/m2, respectively. Average intake of dietary taurine was 126.8 mg/day in FC patients and 105.1 mg/day in control group. The average intake of total calorie (p<0.05), plant protein (p<0.01), plant fat (p<0.001), carbohydrate (p<0.05), plant calcium (p<0.05) of FC patients were significantly higher compared to control group. The average total life stress score (p<0.01), economy problem score (p<0.05), future problem score (p<0.05) and value problem score (p<0.05) of FC patients were significantly higher compared to control group. These results may suggest that FC patients show a higher life stress score and intake of some nutrient such as total calorie, plant protein, plant fat, carbohydrate and plant calcium in Korean male college students. Therefore, a further large-scale study is needed about correlation between life stress and nutrients intake including dietary taurine.

  6. Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…

  7. Perceived Risks of Certain Types of Cancer and Heart Disease among Asian American Smokers and Non-Smokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Feeley, Rosemary M.; Thomas, Priya

    2002-01-01

    Assessed Asian Americans' knowledge levels regarding the health risks of tobacco use. Surveys of Korean, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Cambodian smokers and nonsmokers indicated that most respondents recognized the association between smoking and increased risk for lung, mouth, throat, and esophageal cancer and heart disease. There were significant…

  8. Relative bioavailability of levodropropizine 60 mg capsule and syrup formulations in healthy male Korean volunteers: a singledose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-way crossover study.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Won; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Jo, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Cho, Young-Wuk; Yim, Sung-Vin; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-02-01

    Levodropropizine is an oral non-opioid anti-tussive drug used in treatment of cough. A new generic 60 mg capsule formulation of levodropropizine has recently been developed. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the test (capsule) formulation and reference (syrup) formulation of levodropropizine (60 mg) in healthy, fasted, male Korean volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study conducted in healthy male Korean volunteers in the fasted state at Kyung Hee University Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). A single oral dose of the test or reference formulation was followed by a 1-week washout period, after which subjects received the alternative formulation. Blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after study drug administration. Plasma concentration of levodropropizine was determined using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/ MS) method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs for C(max), AUC(0-12h) and AUC(0-∞) were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (80 - 125%, according to the guidelines of the Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea FDA)). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study based on vital sign measurements, laboratory analysis (blood biochemistry, hematology, hepatic function and urinalysis) and subject interviews concerning adverse events (AEs). A total of 36 male Korean subjects (mean (SD) age, 23.9 (2.4) years (range 19 - 30 years); height, 176.2 (6.1) cm (range 161 - 190 cm); weight, 69.8 (9.1) kg (range 54.0 - 92.2 kg); body mass index, 22.4 (2.1) kg/m2 (range 19.1 - 28.3 kg/m2)) was enrolled and completed the study. The mean values for C(max), t(max), AUC(0-12h), and AUC(0-∞) with the test formulation of levodropropizine were 331.51 ng/ml, 0.60 hours, 784.32 ng×h/ml, and 825.82 ng×h/ml, respectively; for the reference

  9. Predicting the Permanent Safe Donor Area for Hair Transplantation in Koreans with Male Pattern Baldness according to the Position of the Parietal Whorl

    PubMed Central

    Na, Young Cheon; Moh, Jae Seong; Lee, Seung Yong; You, Seung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background The most crucial factor in hair transplantation for male pattern baldness (MPB) patients is the efficient utilization of the donor-recipient ratio. However, there is no known factor that scientifically predicts the rate of progression of alopecia or indicates a permanently safe donor area. Methods The study considered 1,008 Korean adult males with MPB; of these, it excluded 56 males with an absence of parietal whorls (PWs). The authors investigated the distance from the vertical bimeatal line (VM) to the PW, from the PW to the upper border of the helical rim (HR), and the distance from the PW to the occipital fringe (OF) in 952 subjects with a PW. Furthermore, we examined the distance from the PW to the OF considering the duration of alopecia and age in 322 subjects with vertex alopecia. Results The distance between the VM and PW varied from 1.5 to 11 cm, with an average distance of 6.25 cm. The PW-HR distance ranged from 3.4 to 17.5 cm, and the average distance was 7.79 cm. The PW-OF distance ranged from 0.5 to 5.5 cm, and the average distance was 2.37 cm. Conclusions For the PW, very large variations existed in the vertical direction. The position of the PW could predict the progression range of the total alopecia of the vertex. Alopecia mostly progresses within 6 cm of the PW toward the occipital side. PMID:24883280

  10. Effects of Korean red ginseng on semen parameters in male infertility patients: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Choe, Sangmin; Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on semen parameters in male infertility patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A total of 80 male infertility patients with varicocele were recruited from April 2011 to February 2012. The subjects were then divided into the following four groups: non-varicocelectomy (V)+placebo (P) group, V+P group, non-V+KRG group (1.5-g KRG daily), and V+KGR group (1.5-g KRG daily). Semen analysis was performed and hormonal levels were measured in each treatment arm after 12 weeks. All groups but not the non-V+P group, showed significant improvements in sperm concentrations, motility, morphology, and viability at the end of the study. However, there were no significant differences in serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone among groups. The incidence of adverse events was low, and all events were assumed to be unrelated to the treatments administered. Although the exact mechanism by which KRG improves spermatogenesis remains unclear, KRG may be a useful agent for the treatment of male infertility. Nevertheless, additional studies to evaluate the optimal dose and duration of treatment are needed.

  11. Less Healthy Dietary Pattern is Associated with Smoking in Korean Men According to Nationally Representative Data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hyun; Park, Sang Shin; Seo, Ah-Ram; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Bae, Woo Kyung; Lee, Yong Joo; Yim, Eunji

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between smoking and nutrient intake has been widely investigated in several countries. However, Korea presents a population with a smoking rate of approximately 50% and dietary consumption of unique foods. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of dietary patterns with smoking in Korean men using a nationally representative sample. The study subjects were comprised of 4,851 Korean men over 19 yr of age who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hr recall method. The smoking group comprised 2,136 men (46.6%). Five dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis: 'sugar & fat', 'vegetables & seafood', 'meat & drinks', 'grains & eggs', and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products.' Current smokers showed a more significant 'sugar & fat' pattern (P = 0.001) while significantly less of the 'vegetables & seafood' and 'potatoes, fruits and dairy products' patterns (P = 0.011, P < 0.001, respectively). As found in similar results from Western studies, Korean male smokers showed less healthy dietary patterns than nonsmokers. Thus, the result of this study underlines the need for health professionals to also provide advice on dietary patterns when counseling patients on smoking cessation. PMID:23772151

  12. COPD in Nonsmokers: Reports from the Tunisian Population-Based Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Denguezli, Meriam; Daldoul, Hager; Harrabi, Imed; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Coton, Sonia; Burney, Peter; Tabka, Zouhair

    2016-01-01

    Background It’s currently well known that smoking and increasing age constitute the most important risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, little is known about COPD among nonsmokers. The present study aimed to investigate prevalence, risk factors and the profiles of COPD among nonsmokers based on the Tunisian Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study. Methods 807 adults aged 40 years+ were randomly selected from the general population. We collected information about history of respiratory disease, risk factors for COPD and quality of life. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed for assessment of COPD. COPD diagnostic was based on the post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio, according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. The lower limit of normal (LLN) was determined as an alternative threshold for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Results and Conclusions Among 485 nonsmokers, 4.7% met the criteria for GOLD grade I and higher COPD. These proportions were similar even when the LLN was used as a threshold. None of the nonsmokers with COPD reported a previous doctor diagnosis of COPD compared to 7.1% of smokers. Nonsmokers accounted for 45.1% of the subjects fulfilling the GOLD spirometric criteria of COPD. Nonsmokers were predominately men and reported more asthma problems than obstructed smokers. Among nonsmokers significantly more symptoms and higher co-morbidity were found among those with COPD. Increasing age, male gender, occupational exposure, lower body mass index and a previous diagnosis of asthma are associated with increased risk for COPD in nonsmokers. This study confirms previous evidence that nonsmokers comprise a substantial proportion of individuals with COPD. Nonsmokers with COPD have a specific profile and should, thus, receive far greater attention to prevent and treat chronic airway obstruction. PMID:27010214

  13. Association of aggressive behavior in Korean male schizophrenic patients with polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter promoter and catecholamine-O-methyltransferase genes.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Park, Doo Byung; Na, Chul; Kee, Baik Seok; Lee, Young Sik

    2004-11-30

    The incidence of aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia is higher than in the general population. Among particular gene polymorphisms posited to be involved in psychiatric disorders, the catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and serotonin transporter (5-HTTPR) genes have been the focus of recent research on aggression. In this study, we hypothesized that both the COMT and the 5-HTTPR genotypes may be dependent on and related to aggression in Korean patients with schizophrenia. The subjects were 168 unrelated male schizophrenic patients diagnosed according to DSM-IV. Among two psychiatric hospital staff and medical university students, 158 unrelated male subjects with no lifetime history of psychiatric disorders were recruited to establish the COMT and 5-HTTPR genotype distribution in the general population. All episodes of aggression from the last discharge to readmission were rated. The Total Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) score (sum of the scores of all episodes of aggression), highest OAS score (highest individual episode score, 0-16), OAS category, and OAS category score (mean score within each category) were recorded. There were statistically significant effects of COMT genotype on the mean OAS 4 (physical aggression against other people) score and the highest OAS score. The most predictive was the OAS 4 score. There was a statistically significant effect of 5-HTTPR genotype on mean total score. Thus, the COMT gene is associated with the severity of aggression and with physical aggression against other people, whereas the 5-HTTPR gene is associated with the summary score of all episodes of aggression.

  14. The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio Is Associated with Coronary Artery Calcification in Asymptomatic Korean Males: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Su-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a significant systemic predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The coronary artery calcium score (CACS) reflects coronary artery calcification and is an independent risk factor for coronary artery stenosis. In the present study, we explored the relationship between the NLR and CACS in terms of subclinical inflammation and coronary artery calcification. Materials and Methods. We evaluated males and females who did not have CVD, diabetes, high blood pressure, or high fasting blood sugar levels. We measured white blood cell, neutrophil, lymphocyte counts, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in blood samples. We also obtained CACSs using coronary multidetector computed tomography. Results. Multivariate logistic regression showed that older age was significantly associated with a higher CACS (P < 0.001); males had higher CACSs than females (P < 0.001); and the higher the TG level, the higher the CACS (P = 0.019). The NLR of males, but not females, was significantly associated with the CACS. Conclusion. An independent association between the NLR and CACS was thus evident in healthy adult males after adjusting for other CVD risk factors. Therefore, the NLR is a significant predictor of potential CVD in male subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:28280728

  15. Enhanced knee joint function due to accelerated rehabilitation exercise after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery in Korean male high school soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myungchun; Sung, Dong Jun; Lee, Joohyung; Oh, Inyoung; Kim, Sojung; Kim, Seungho; Kim, Jooyoung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted on Korean male high school soccer players who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) to identify the effects of an accelerated rehabilitation exercise (ARE) program on knee joint isometric strength, thigh circumference, Lysholm score, and active balance agility. We assigned eight test participants each to a physical therapy group (PTG) and an accelerated rehabilitation exercise group (AREG), and compared differences between the groups. Both the PTG and AREG showed significant increases in 30° away and 60° toward isometric strength after treatment. In addition, significant differences were observed in these strength tests between the two groups. Both groups also showed significant increases in thigh circumference, Lysholm score, and active balance agility after treatment, but no significant differences were observed between the two groups. We conclude that the ARE treatment was more effective for improving isometric strength of the knee joint than that of physical therapy, and that an active rehabilitation exercise program after ACLR had positive effects on recovery performance of patients with an ACL injury and their return to the playing field. PMID:26933657

  16. Exfoliative cytology of oral mucosa among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers: a cytomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Aghababaie, Mahbobeh; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Asadi-Shekaari, Majid; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Farzad; Gandjalikhan Nassab, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate keratinization as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic changes of oral epithelial cells among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers through exfoliative cytology technique. Smears of buccal mucosa and mouth floor were collected from 300 males (100 smokers, 100 opium addicts and 100 non-smokers). The nucleus and cytoplasm sizes were determined using image analysis software. Data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test on SPSS version 13 statistical software. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. The results revealed statistically significant differences in cellular and nuclear size and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio between smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers in different age groups. The mean size of the nucleus compared to that of cytoplasm was significantly higher in smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers after correction for age. The results of this study indicate different rates of epithelial cell keratinization in oral cavity among smokers, opium addicts and non-smokers. Also, our results suggest a possible relationship between the number of cigarettes per day, daily opium consumption and an increase in the rate of cellular proliferation of oral mucosal cells. The present study indicated a decrease in cellular diameter as well as an increase in nuclear diameter and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio in smears taken from both smokers and opium addicts compared to non-smokers.

  17. It's Others, Not the Police: Smoking, Reprimand, and Fines among Adults of Korean Descent in California

    PubMed Central

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Ayers, John W.; Hughes, Suzanne; Kang, Sunny

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study assesses the association of immediate social and legal reprimand and current smoking status among Californians of Korean descent. Design Data were drawn from a population-based probability sample using a telephone survey conducted by bilingual, professional interviewers (N=2085). About 85.0% of eligible respondents completed interviews and 86.3% of participants preferred to be interviewed in Korean. Main Outcome Measure Smoking status was measured using CDC criteria, ever smoked 100 cigarettes and currently smoke every day or some days. Results and Conclusion Reports of immediate criticism by others in several settings was associated with non-smoking, but likelihood of immediate legal penalties was unrelated. Participants were far less likely to expect legal than social sanction. Results were replicated after controlling for reinforcers of smoking and ecologically relevant variables including models of smoking, primary group social support for smoking, acculturation, gender, acculturation by gender (male) interaction, age, and education. It may be efficacious to target public health interventions encouraging appropriate social sanctions of smoking in public among persons of Korean descent, and to encourage strict enforcement of legal penalties for smoking in public places. PMID:20496979

  18. Caffeine's Influence on Nicotine's Effects in Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Melissa D.; Kleykamp, Bethea A.; Jennings, Janine M.; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if nicotine's effects are influenced by caffeine in nonsmoking, moderate-caffeine consuming individuals (N=20). Methods The first 3 sessions included one of 3 randomly ordered, double-blind caffeine doses (0, 75, or 150 mg, oral [po]) and 2 single-blind nicotine gum doses (2 and 4 mg) in ascending order. The fourth session (single blind) repeated the 0 mg caffeine condition. Results Nicotine increased heart rate and subjective ratings indicative of aversive effects, and decreased reaction times. These effects were independent of caffeine dose and reliable across sessions. Conclusions In nonsmokers, nicotine effects are not influenced by moderate caffeine doses. PMID:17555378

  19. Bioequivalence Study of a New Fixed-dose Combination Tablet Containing S-Amlodipine Nicotinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in Healthy Korean Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Oh, Mi Jin; Hwang, Hyun Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Geun Hyeog; Cho, Yun-Seok; Lee, Sun Young; Kang, Soo Yeon; Cho, Kyung Hee; Lee, Yun Young; Lee, Yun Jeong; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2017-07-01

    A fixed-dose combination (FDC) pill of amlodipine (relatively old calcium channel blocker as dihydropyridine) and olmesartan (relatively new angiotensin II receptor blocker) is used for hypertension that is not adequately controlled with a single-formulation drug. Because the FDC is a one-pill formulation, and amlodipine and olmesartan have different mechanisms of action, it is expected to improve patients' medication compliance and have an increased blood pressure-lowering efficacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety profile and the bioequivalence of two different FDC formulations [amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil 10/40 mg (reference product) and S-amlodipine nicotinate/olmesartan medoxomil 5/40 mg (test product)]. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, 2-treatment, 2-way, and 2-period crossover study, including a 3-week washout period, was performed in 32 healthy Korean male volunteers. To analyze the concentration of S-amlodipine or olmesartan, plasma samples were collected up to 144 hours after the dose for S-amlodipine and 48 hours after the dose for olmesartan. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including the Cmax and the area under the curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-last) for the time versus concentration plot, were calculated. Analysis of variance for bioequivalence was conducted using Cmax and AUC0-last converted to log scale, and the mean ratios and 90% CIs were determined. Safety data included analysis of adverse events (AEs), vital signs, physical examinations, clinical laboratory test, and 12-lead ECGs. Of the 32 enrolled participants, 29 healthy volunteers completed the study. For both S-amlodipine and olmesartan, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were all within the acceptable range for regulatory bioequivalence. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of Cmax and AUC0-last were 0.8766 to 0.9760 and 0.8288 to 0.9224, respectively, for S-amlodipine and 0.9097 to 1.1229 and 0.8904 to 1

  20. Characterization of Korean Male Breast Cancer Using an Online Nationwide Breast-Cancer Database: Matched-Pair Analysis of Patients With Female Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Young; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Park, Hyung Seok; Lim, Seung Taek; Jung, Yongsik; Ko, Byung Kyun; Nam, Seok Jin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to review the characteristics and the survival rate in male breast cancer (MBC) patients in Korea over a 31-year period. Additionally, we analyzed the overall survival (OS) rate of a group of MBC matched to females with breast cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 400 Korean patients who were treated for MBC from 1978 to 2009. Patient demographics and clinical information were routinely documented throughout the study period. Survival and prognostic factors were evaluated. Each MBC patient was matched with 5 female breast cancer (FBC) patients based on 7 characteristics and we compared the OS rates between the 2 groups. For MBC cases, the median follow-up was 72 months and the 5-year OS rate was 85.9%. In univariate analyses, the prognostic factors influencing OS were age (more than 60 years, P <0.001), tumor size (>2 cm, P = 0.007), and having a negative progesterone receptor (PR) status (P = 0.042). Only the age (P = 0.028) and tumor size (P = 0.024) were significant prognostic factors for OS in multivariate analysis. After matching, we had 260 male patients matched to 1300 female patients for analysis. Compared with cases among females, the rate of mastectomy was higher among MBC cases and tumors, which were almost invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs), were more likely to be located in the central part of the breast. For MBC cases, the percentage of adjuvant radiation therapy was low compared with female cases. The primary hormone therapy agent used was tamoxifen. The 5-year OS rates were similar in MBC compared with FBC (91.0% vs. 92.6%, P = 0.300). We found that only the age (more than 60 years) and tumor size were independent prognostic factors of survival in MBC. The prognosis for MBC is similar to that for FBC given similar stage and hormone-receptor status.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Rosuvastatin, Telmisartan, and Amlodipine in Healthy Male Korean Subjects: A Randomized, Open-label, Multiple-dose, 2-period Crossover Study.

    PubMed

    Son, Mijeong; Guk, Jinju; Kim, Yukyung; Woo Chae, Dong; Heo, Young-A; Soh, Dongjun; Park, Kyungsoo

    2016-08-01

    Rosuvastatin, a hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor; telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker; and amlodipine, a calcium channel inhibitor, are commonly prescribed together for the treatment of hypertension nonresponsive to monotherapy and accompanied by dyslipidemia. However, the pharmacokinetic interactions among these 3 substances are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions among rosuvastatin, telmisartan, and amlodipine in a healthy Korean male population. In both parts of this randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, 2-part, 2-period crossover study, subjects aged 19 to 55 years were enrolled. In part 1, each subject received rosuvastatin 20 mg with and without 2 fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablets of telmisartan/amlodipine 40/5 mg, once daily for 9 consecutive days. In part 2, each subject received 2 FDC tablets of telmisartan/amlodipine 40/5 mg with and without rosuvastatin 20 mg, once daily for 9 consecutive days. In both parts, there was a 13-day washout period between treatments. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected up to 72 hours after the last dose in subjects who received rosuvastatin only, and up to 144 hours after the last dose in subjects who received telmisartan/amlodipine with or without rosuvastatin. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed via interviews and physical examinations. Forty-eight subjects were enrolled, of whom 19 in part 1 and 22 in part 2 completed the study. In Part 1, the 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (coadministration of rosuvastatin and telmisartan/amlodipine to monotherapy with rosuvastatin) of the primary pharmacokinetic parameters (AUCτ and Cmax,ss) were: rosuvastatin, 1.1436 to 1.3059 and 1.8970 to 2.3514, respectively; and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, 0.8441 to 1.0200 and 1.1971 to 1.5457. In part 2, the 90% CIs of the GMRs (coadministration to monotherapy with telmisartan/amlodipine) were: telmisartan, 1.1204 to 1.4228 and 0

  2. Inspiratory Muscle Performance of Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance.

    PubMed

    Formiga, Magno F; Campos, Michael A; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2017-09-26

    Smoking has potential deleterious effects on respiratory muscle function. Smokers may present with reduced inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. We compared inspiratory muscle performance of nonsmokers with that of former smokers without overt respiratory problems via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance. This study was performed on 42 healthy subjects between the ages of 30 and 79 y (mean ± SD of 56.5 ± 14.4 y). Fourteen male and 7 female former smokers were matched to nonsmokers based on sex, age, height, and weight. Subjects completed a questionnaire about their health and current smoking status. Testing included the best of 3 or more consistent trials. The Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance measurements included maximal inspiratory pressure measured from residual volume as well as sustained maximal inspiratory pressure and inspiratory duration measured from residual volume to total lung capacity during a maximal sustained inhalation. No significant difference in inspiratory performance of the entire group of former smokers compared with nonsmokers was found. However, separate sex analyses found a significant difference in sustained maximal inspiratory pressure between male former smokers and nonsmokers (518.7 ± 205.0 pressure time units vs 676.5 ± 255.2 pressure time units, P = .041). We found similar maximal inspiratory pressure between former smokers and nonsmokers via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance, but the significant difference in sustained maximal inspiratory pressure between male former smokers and nonsmokers suggests that the sustained maximal inspiratory pressure may have greater discriminatory ability in assessing the effects of smoking on inspiratory muscle performance. Further investigation of the effects of smoking on inspiratory performance via the Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance is warranted. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties of the oral sarpogrelate hydrochloride controlled-release tablet in healthy male Korean subjects.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jin Ah; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Kim, Tae-Eun; Lee, Soo-Youn; Huh, Wooseong; Lee, Jae Won; Jun, Hun; Ko, Jae-Wook

    2013-07-01

    A new controlled-release formulation of sarpogrelate, a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtype 2 antagonist that blocks serotonin-induced platelet aggregation, has been developed for once-daily administration. This study evaluated the effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties of controlled-release sarpogrelate (sarpogrelate CR) in healthy volunteers. A randomized, open-label, two-period, two-treatment crossover study was performed in healthy male Korean subjects. Following an overnight fast, a single dose of sarpogrelate CR 300 mg was administered either in the fasted condition or immediately after a high-fat breakfast. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental analysis. Tolerability was determined using clinical laboratory testing and physical examination, including vital sign measurements, electrocardiography, and interviews with the volunteers regarding adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy subjects were enrolled, 23 of whom completed the study (mean [range] age, 26 years [21-45]; weight, 68.1 kg [56.0-79.9]; body mass index, 22.1 kg/m(2) [18.8-25.0]). Sarpogrelate C(max) and AUC(last) were decreased In the fed condition compared with those in the fasted condition, with geometric mean ratios (90% CI) of 0.4868 (0.4041-0.5864) and 0.7394 (0.6809-0.8028), respectively. T(max) was delayed from 0.75 to 4.0 hours after a high-fat meal, but the fed condition exhibited a similar elimination profile to that of the fasted condition. The most commonly reported AE was headache (n = 2), and other AEs were reported in 1 subject each. All of the AEs were considered mild in intensity, and the participants recovered without treatment. Compared with the administration of sarpogrelate CR 300 mg in the fasted condition, administration with food was associated with a decreased rate and extent of absorption, as assessed by C(max) and AUC(last), respectively. The drug was well-tolerated by the healthy subjects in this study. Copyright © 2013

  4. Associations Between Socio-demographic Characteristics and Healthy Lifestyles in Korean Adults: The Result of the 2010 Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong; Choi, Seong Woo; Han, Mi Ah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors. Methods We analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifestyle as a combination of four modifiable healthy behaviors: non-smoking, moderate alcohol consumption, regular walking, and a healthy weight. We calculated the prevalence rates and odds ratios of each healthy behavior and healthy lifestyle according to socio-demographic and regional characteristics. Results The prevalence rates were as follows: non-smoking, 75.0% (53.7% in men, 96.6% in women); moderate alcohol consumption, 88.2% (79.7% in men, 96.9% in women); regular walking, 45.0% (46.2% in men, 43.8% in women); healthy weight, 77.4% (71.3% in men, 73.6% in women); and a healthy lifestyle, 25.5% (16.4% in men, 34.6% in women). The characteristics associated with a low prevalence of healthy lifestyle were male gender, younger age (19 to 44 years of age), low educational attainment, married, living in a rural area, living in the Chungcheong, Youngnam, or Gwangwon-Jeju region, and poorer self-rated health. Conclusions Further research should be implemented to explore the explainable factors of disparities for socio-demographic and regional characteristics to engage in the healthy lifestyle among adults. PMID:24744828

  5. Tolerance for and potential indicators of second-hand smoke exposure among nonsmokers: a comparison of self-reported and cotinine verified second-hand smoke exposure based on nationally representative data.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Bo Yoon; Lim, Min Kyung; Yun, E Hwa; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Park, Eun Young; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the extent to which self-reported exposure to SHS underestimates the actual exposure to SHS and what factors are associated with a tolerance for SHS exposure in the Korean setting where the smoke-free policy is incomplete. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol drinking and smoking was collected for 7948 nonsmokers aged ≥ 19 years from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Self-reported and cotinine verified SHS exposures were compared. Potential factors associated with cotinine verified but not self-reported SHS exposures were assessed using a logistic regression model. Self-reported SHS exposure significantly underestimated the actual SHS exposure as determined by cotinine verification (kappa coefficient: 0.1066). At younger age, frequent alcohol drinking in females and a longer smoking duration in males were positively associated with cotinine verified exposure but not with the self-reported SHS exposure; they were also positively associated with cotinine verified exposure irrespective of self-reported SHS exposure. Our findings show a tolerance for smoking in Korea. The current partial ban on smoking does not fully protect people from exposure to SHS. Smoking should be banned in all public places. In addition, efforts to de-normalize smoking in the Korean culture need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative bioavailability and tolerability of two formulations of bicalutamide 50-mg tablets: a randomized-sequence, open-label, two-period crossover study in healthy Korean male subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghwan; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Cho, Joo-Youn; Shin, Sang-Goo; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2010-12-01

    Bicalutamide is an oral nonsteroidal antiandrogenic drug used in the treatment of prostate cancer. A new generic 50-mg tablet formulation of bicalutamide has recently been developed. This study evaluated the relative bioavailability and tolerability of the new generic formulation of bicalutamide 50-mg tablets (test) and the currently marketed formulation (reference) in healthy Korean male subjects. The study was conducted to meet Korean regulatory requirements for authorization to market the generic formulation. This was a randomized-sequence, open-label study in which healthy Korean male subjects (aged 20-55 years) received single doses of the test and reference formulations in a 2-period crossover fashion, with a 6-week washout period between doses. Blood samples for the determination of plasma bicalutamide concentrations were obtained at regular intervals over 672 hours after dose administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using noncompartmental methods. Relative bioavailability was evaluated by comparing the log-transformed C(max) and AUC(0-672) of the 2 formulations; Korean regulatory requirements for the assumption of bioequivalence were met if the 90% CIs fell within the range of 0.80 to 1.25. Tolerability was assessed based on physical examinations, vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and adverse events (AEs) (spontaneously reported or observed by investigators). Of 47 volunteers screened for inclusion, 38 were enrolled and 32 completed the study (mean [SD] age, 24.9 [3.7] years; mean height, 173.8 [6.2] cm; mean weight, 66.1 [7.1] kg). Median T(max) was 24 hours for both formulations. The C(max) of the test and reference formulations was 1176.2 (191.6) and 1118.9 (209.5) μg/L, respectively. The corresponding values for AUC(0-672) were 277,503 (66,865) and 271,961 (75,597) μg · h/L. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of log-transformed C(max) and AUC(0-672) were 1.00 to 1.11 and 0.99 to 1

  7. Dimensions of impulsive behavior in adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Fields, Sherecce; Collins, Christine; Leraas, Kristen; Reynolds, Brady

    2009-10-01

    Robust associations have been identified between impulsive personality characteristics and cigarette smoking during adolescents, indicating that impulsive behavior may play an important role in the initiation of cigarette smoking. The present study extended this research by using laboratory behavioral assessments to explore relationships between three specific dimensions of impulsive behavior (impulsive decision-making, inattention, and disinhibition) and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants were male and female adolescent smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 50). Adolescent smokers were more impulsive on a measure of decision-making; however, there were significant smoking status by gender interaction effects for impulsive inattention and disinhibition. Male smokers were most impulsive on the measure of inattention, but male smokers were least impulsive on the measure of disinhibition. Correlations between biomarkers of smoking and impulsive inattention and disinhibition were found for females but not males. The current findings, coupled with previous findings (Reynolds et al., 2007), indicate there may be robust gender difference in associations between certain types of impulsive behavior and cigarette smoking during adolescence.

  8. Pharmacokinetic interaction between rosuvastatin and olmesartan: a randomized, open-label, 3-period, multiple-dose crossover study in healthy Korean male subjects.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyerang; Son, Hankil; Lee, Donghwan; Chang, HeeChul; Yun, Chohee; Park, Kyungsoo

    2014-08-01

    Rosuvastatin has been widely used in combination with olmesartan for the treatment of dyslipidemia accompanied by hypertension. With no information currently available on the interaction between the 2 drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the influence of rosuvastatin on olmesartan and vice versa when the 2 drugs were coadministered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of coadministration of the rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and the olmesartan 40-mg tablet and the associated drug-drug interaction in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a randomized, open-label, 3-period, multiple-dose crossover study. Eligible subjects were aged 20 to 50 years and within 20% of their ideal body weight. After being randomly assigned to 6 groups of equal number, subjects received each of the following 3 formulations once a day for 7 consecutive days with an 8-day washout period between the formulations: rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet, olmesartan 40-mg tablet, and coadministration of the rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet and the olmesartan 40-mg tablet. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for rosuvastatin, its active metabolite (N-desmethyl rosuvastatin), and olmesartan. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Among the 36 enrolled subjects, 34 completed the study (mean [range] age, 28.6 [23-49] y; mean [range] weight, 66.4 [52.2-78.7] kg). The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters for the coadministration of the 2 drugs to the mono-administration of each drug were 85.14% to 96.08% for AUCτ and 81.41% to 97.48% for Css,max for rosuvastatin, and 77.55% to 89.48% for AUCτ and 75.62% to 90.12% for Css,max for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin; those values were 95.61% to 102.57% for AUCτ and 91.73% to 102.98% for Css,max for olmesartan. Dizziness was the most frequently noted adverse drug

  9. The Association of Lung Age with Smoking Status in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hye Young; Lee, Sang Wha; Shim, Kyung Won; Chun, Hyejin; Kim, Joo Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung age, calculated from sex, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and height, was developed to illustrate premature changes to the lungs and could be used to motivate smoking cessation. However, this method has not been tested in association with smoking in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of lung age with smoking and other factors in Korean males. Methods We reviewed the records of 1,100 healthy men who visited a health promotion center at Ewha Womans University Medical Center from January 2008 to June 2009. Lung age was calculated from FEV1 and normal predictive values of spirometry according to age in the Korean population. The difference between lung age and chronological age was evaluated in relation to smoking status, weight, body mass index, waist, muscle mass, fat mass, and exercise. Results The age difference was significantly higher in current smokers than in non-smokers (12.47 ± 19.90 vs. 7.30 ± 19.52, P < 0.001). Additionally, the age difference was positively correlated with life time pack-year (β = 0.223; P < 0.001) and fat mass (β = 0.462; P < 0.001). Lung age increased 1 year for 4.48 pack-year increase or for 2.16% increase in fat mass. Conclusion We found a significant relationship between lung age and both smoking status and fat mass in healthy Korean males. Lung age may be a useful tool for motivating cessation of cigarette smoking and management of risk factors related to obesity. PMID:24501668

  10. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Magnan, Renee E; Köblitz, Amber R; McCaul, Kevin D

    2013-04-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers' perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers' self-descriptions and nonsmokers' perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers' perceptions rather than smokers' reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker.

  11. Subjective effects of transdermal nicotine among nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Baschnagel, Joseph S; Hawk, Larry W

    2010-04-01

    The subjective experience of nicotine, which may be influenced by personality traits as well as environmental factors, may be important for understanding the factors associated with the initiation and maintenance of nicotine dependence. The present study examined the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine among a relatively large sample (n = 91; 44 women) of college-aged nonsmokers. Using a placebo controlled, double-blind, within-subjects design, nicotine's effects were examined at rest and again after participants completed a sustained attention task. Sex and personality factors (Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Approach; BIS/BAS Scales; Carver & White, 1994) were examined as potential moderators. Overall, the effects of nicotine were generally modest and unpleasant. In the context of the cognitive task, nicotine increased nausea and negative affect but reduced fatigue, relative to placebo. In contrast, effects of nicotine during the initial 4 hr of patch administration, in which participants were in their natural environments, were moderated by individual differences in behavioral approach. Neither behavioral inhibition nor gender reliably moderated any subjective effects of nicotine. The present work suggests transdermal nicotine exerts only modest, mostly negative effects among nonsmokers. Future work should examine both contextual and personality moderators in large samples of participants who are exposed to nicotine through multiple routes of administration.

  12. Cotinine concentrations in semen, urine, and blood of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Vine, M F; Hulka, B S; Margolin, B H; Truong, Y K; Hu, P C; Schramm, M M; Griffith, J D; McCann, M; Everson, R B

    1993-01-01

    Cotinine levels in the semen, urine, and blood of 88 male smokers and nonsmokers, aged 18 to 35, were analyzed via radioimmunoassay. Detectable cotinine levels were found in all three body fluids, and cotinine levels in all three fluids were highly correlated. Cotinine levels in semen and blood were of similar magnitude; cotinine levels in urine were an order of magnitude or more higher. In all three fluids, cotinine levels increased with an increase in cigarette smoke exposure. PMID:8363014

  13. Sex Effects on Smoking Cue Perception in Non-Smokers, Smokers, and Ex-Smokers: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur; Borgwardt, Stefan; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males). Participants performed a block-design functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm contrasting smoking with control cue video exposures. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, voxel-based morphometry of gray matter (GM), and tract-based spatial statistics of white matter (WM). First, the global effect regardless of current smoking status revealed higher activation in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for females compared to males. Second, the analysis according to current smoking status demonstrated higher activation in female vs. male smokers vs. non-smokers in the superior frontal gyrus, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and precuneus, and higher activation in female vs. male ex-smokers vs. non-smokers in the right precentral gyrus, in the right insula and ACC. No structural differences were found in GM or WM. The current study identifies gender-related brain functional differences in smokers and ex-smokers compared to non-smokers. The current work can be considered as a starting point for future investigations into gender differences in brain responses to cigarette-related cues.

  14. Higher leukocyte subpopulation counts in healthy smoker industrial workers than in nonsmoker industrial workers: possible health consequences.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, M Azam; Stakkestad, Jacob A; Drabløs, Per Arne

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains free radicals, which cause injury to endothelial cells and oxidize bioactive components in the blood. Neutrophils, a subpopulation of leukocytes, contain the enzyme myeloperoxidase that mediates production of hypochlorous acid during oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether smoker industrial workers had significantly higher neutrophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers. We collected blood samples from 183 apparently healthy male and 30 female industrial workers. We obtained blood cell counts, measured the concentration of plasma aminothiols and determined the concentration of serum and erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 in the samples. Smoker industrial workers had significantly higher neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively). Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in smoker industrial workers were higher than in nonsmoker industrial workers (p = 0.001 and p = 0.03). Our study demonstrates that smoker industrial workers have higher neutrophil counts than nonsmoker industrial workers. Therefore, our observations suggest that smokers may become more easily prone to chronic inflammation than nonsmokers. About 84% of the study participants were male subjects; therefore, our findings may be more representative for men than women. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The relationship of physical activity (PA) and walking with sarcopenia in Korean males aged 60 years and older using the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3), 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Although a variety of studies have reported the association between age related changes in muscle mass and the functional impairments of the elderly, few have reported on the modifiable lifestyle factors that are related to sarcopenia. Three thousand five hundred ninety-eight men in nationally representative cross-sectional, population-representative sampled survey using data from the KNHANES IV aged 19 years and older who completed a body composition using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. To determine whether there are any associations between physical activities, nutritional status and sarcopenia were examined in 1156 men among those over 60 years of age. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was calculated as the sum of skeletal muscle in the arms and legs. Sarcopenia was defined as the ASM/Ht(2) of less than two standard deviations (SD) below the sex-specific normal mean for the younger reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean men aged 60 years and older was 9.9%. Sarcopenia was negatively associated with the third quartile (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.20-0.80) and fourth quartile of PA (OR=0.24, 95% CI=0.11-0.52), and negatively associated with the highest quartile of protein intake (OR=0.32, 95% CI=0.14-0.76). In logistic regression models, sarcopenia was negatively associated with walking PA (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.29-0.83) after an adjustment for age, smoking habits, alcohol drinking, family income, education status and protein intake. Sarcopenia was associated with PA, especially walking PA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between Peer Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Smoking among Adolescent Nonsmokers: A National Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and peer cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 65,753 nonsmokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. A total of 3.8% of the Korean adolescents were ‘ever e-cigarette’ users and 1.2% were current users. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for current and ever e-cigarette use compared to those whose closest friends were non-smokers ranged from 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82–2.30) to 5.50 (95% CI, 4.77–6.34), and from 2.23 (95% CI, 1.77–2.81) to 7.82 (95% CI, 5.97–10.25) for those who had ‘some’ close friends to ‘most/all’ friends who smoked, respectively. The slopes of the adjusted ORs for e-cigarette use in ‘never smokers’ were more than twice as steep as those in ‘former smokers’, showing a significant interaction effect between the proportion of smoking closest friends and cigarette smoking status (never or former smokers) (p<0.001 for interaction). Peer cigarette smoking had a significant association with e-cigarette use in adolescent nonsmokers, and this association was greater on never smokers than former smokers. PMID:27695093

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetic evaluation of two formulations of bicalutamide 50-mg tablets: an open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, two-period crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeungHwan; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Bo-Hyung; Shim, Jun-Hwa; Yoon, Seo-Hyun; Shin, Sang-Goo; Jang, In-Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2009-12-01

    Bicalutamide is an oral nonsteroidal antiandrogen drug used during hormone ablation therapy for prostate cancer. A new generic formulation of bicalutamide has been developed. This study was conducted to meet Korean and US regulatory requirements for the marketing of the generic 50-mg tablet formulation of bicalutamide. To this end, the pharmacokinetic properties of the new (test) formulation were compared with those of the currently marketed (reference) formulation. Tolerability was also evaluated. An open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male volunteers. Subjects received either the test or reference formulation of bicalutamide 50-mg tablets in the first period and crossed over to the alternative formulation in the second period. Serial blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were taken over 672 hours after dosing. Plasma concentrations of bicalutamide were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters, including AUC(0-672h), were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Log-transformed C(max) and AUC(0-672h) for the 2 formulations were compared. Tolerability was monitored based on laboratory tests, ECGs, vital signs, and physical examinations. Of the 34 subjects initially enrolled, 33 completed the study. The mean (SD) age, height, and weight of participants were 25.8 (4.1) years, 173.6 (5.7) cm, and 68.9 (7.8) kg, respectively. The median T(max) was 36.0 hours for both formulations. The mean (SD) t(1/2), C(max), and AUC(0-672h) for the reference formulation were 135.4 (28.6) hours, 933.2 (169.2) microg/L, and 215,680.1 (48,753.4) microg x h/L, respectively. Corresponding values for the test formulation were 134.3 (30.7) hours, 946.7 (179.9) microg/L, and 221,708.8 (54,935.1) microg x h/L. The 90% CIs for the mean ratios (test/reference) of log-transformed C(max) and AUC(0-672h) were 0.97 to 1.06 and 0.98 to 1.07, respectively. Twelve adverse events were reported for each formulation, none

  18. Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    This study examines the proportion and characteristics of smokers who smoke in cars with nonsmokers across four countries and the potentially modifiable correlates of this behavior. Respondents included a total of 6,786 current adult smokers from Wave 6 (September 2007-February 2008) of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a random digit-dial telephone survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Reports of smoking in cars with nonsmokers ranged from a low of 29% in Australia and the United Kingdom, to 34% in Canada, and to a high of 44% in the United States. Daily smokers who were from the United States, male, and younger were the most likely to smoke in cars with nonsmokers. Several potentially modifiable factors were also found to be related to this behavior, including smoke-free homes and beliefs about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure to nonsmokers. A considerable proportion of smokers continue to smoke in cars with nonsmokers across the four countries, particularly in the United States. Public health campaigns should educate smokers about the hazards of cigarette smoke exposure and promote the need for smoke-free cars. These findings provide a foundation of evidence relevant for jurisdictions that are considering banning smoking in cars.

  19. Predictors of smoking in cars with nonsmokers: Findings from the 2007 Wave of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the proportion and characteristics of smokers who smoke in cars with nonsmokers across four countries and the potentially modifiable correlates of this behavior. Methods: Respondents included a total of 6,786 current adult smokers from Wave 6 (September 2007–February 2008) of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a random digit-dial telephone survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Results: Reports of smoking in cars with nonsmokers ranged from a low of 29% in Australia and the United Kingdom, to 34% in Canada, and to a high of 44% in the United States. Daily smokers who were from the United States, male, and younger were the most likely to smoke in cars with nonsmokers. Several potentially modifiable factors were also found to be related to this behavior, including smoke-free homes and beliefs about the dangers of cigarette smoke exposure to nonsmokers. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of smokers continue to smoke in cars with nonsmokers across the four countries, particularly in the United States. Public health campaigns should educate smokers about the hazards of cigarette smoke exposure and promote the need for smoke-free cars. These findings provide a foundation of evidence relevant for jurisdictions that are considering banning smoking in cars. PMID:20156887

  20. Ozone response relationships in healthy nonsmokers

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Hebel, J.R.; Chatham, M.D.

    1985-07-01

    Significant concentration responses were observed in FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75, SGaw, IC, and TLC in 20 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers exposed randomly to 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 ppm O/sub 3/. In addition, significant response changes for FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 were shown with time over the 2-h exposure. Intermittent, heavy exercise (VE, 68 L/min) lasting 14 min was employed every 30 min during exposure. Inspection of the concentration and time response curves suggests that the threshold for the group response is at or below 0.15 ppm O/sub 3/. Six subjects experienced decreases greater than 5% in FEV1 or greater than 15% in SGaw at 0.15 ppm. This concentration is only slightly higher than the 1-h O/sub 3/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard. A dose-related response was also seen for cough, nose and throat irritation, and chest discomfort. The work load, length of exposure, and individual sensitivity must be considered for establishing a safe O/sub 3/ exposure level.

  1. Ozone-response relationships in healthy nonsmokers

    SciTech Connect

    Kulle, T.J.; Sauder, L.R.; Hebel, J.R.; Chatham, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Significant concentration responses were observed in FVC1 FEV1, FEF 25-75, SGaw, IC, and TLC in 20 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers exposed randomly to 0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25 ppm O3. In addition, significant response changes for FVC1 FEV1, FEF25-75 were shown with time over the 2-h exposure. Intermittent, heavy exercise (VE1 68L/min) lasting 14 min was employed every 30 min during exposure. Inspection of the concentration and time-response curves suggests that the threshold for the group response is at or below 0.15 ppm O/sub 3/. Six subjects experienced decreases > 5% in SGaw at 0.15 ppm. The concentration is only slightly higher than the 1-h O/sub 3/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard. A dose-related response was also seen for cough, nose and throat irritation, and chest discomfort. The work load, length of exposure, and individual sensitivity must be considered for establishing a safe O/sub 3/ exposure level.

  2. Korean Americans' Perceptions and Attitudes toward People with Disabilities: Determination of Inclusion Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferko, Doreen J. K.; Jung, Woo; Kim, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Korean Americans' perceptions of disabilities. Participants were 147 Korean Americans, male and female, between the ages of 18 and 70. Participants were recruited from Korean churches and educational organizations such as schools and local universities in California. Results showed conflicting perceptions…

  3. Predicting young adulthood smoking among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Jennifer R; Berg, Carla J; Windle, Rebecca C; Windle, Michael

    2012-07-01

    To examine predictors of smoking in young adulthood among (1) adolescent nonsmokers and (2) adolescent smokers. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal study of adolescents to young adulthood in 1988-1998. Predictors of smoking in young adulthood among adolescent nonsmokers included less education, being unmarried in adulthood, lower family social support, non-smoking parents, and increased alcohol use over time. Predictors of smoking in young adulthood among adolescent smokers included lower family social support, more adolescent friends who used drugs, and slower decreases in depressive symptoms over time. Distinct factors predict smoking initiation versus maintenance among young adults.

  4. Predicting young adulthood smoking among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Jennifer R.; Berg, Carla J.; Windle, Rebecca C.; Windle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined predictors of smoking in young adulthood among (1) adolescent nonsmokers and (2) adolescent smokers. Methods Data were analyzed from a longitudinal study of adolescents to young adulthood in 1988-1998. Results Predictors of smoking in young adulthood among adolescent nonsmokers included less education, being unmarried in adulthood, lower family social support, nonsmoking parents, and increased alcohol use over time. Predictors of smoking in young adulthood among adolescent smokers included lower family social support, more adolescent friends who used drugs, and slower decreases in depressive symptoms over time. Conclusions Distinct factors predict smoking initiation versus maintenance among young adults. PMID:22488404

  5. The effect of education on decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain: a longitudinal study in Korean male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Park, Sang Hoon; Jeon, Hea Rim; Kim, Mun-Gyu; Lee, Se-Jin; Kim, Sang Ho; Ok, Si Young; Kim, Soon Im

    2014-01-01

    Background Neck and shoulder pain is fairly common among adolescents in Korea and results in significant health problem. The aims of this prospective study was to identify the effects of education, in terms of recognition of this issue and posture correction, on prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain in Korean adolescents. Methods A prospective, observational cohort design was used. The 912 students from two academic high schools in the city of Seoul were eligible for the current study and 887 completed this study. After a baseline cross-sectional survey, students listened to a lecture about cervical health, focusing on good posture, habits, and stretching exercises to protect the spine, and were encouraged by their teachers to keep the appropriate position. And follow-ups were conducted 3 months later, to evaluate the effect of education. Results The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain was decreased 19.5% (from 82.5 to 66.4%). The baseline mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were 19.9/100 (95% CI, 18.1-21.7) and 31.2/100 (95% CI, 28.7-33.2), respectively. On the follow-up survey, the mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were decreased significantly by 24.1 and 21.7%, respectively, compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Of the 570 students reporting neck and shoulder pain, 16.4% responded that they had experienced improvement during the 3 months. Conclusions Education; recognition of this issue and posture correction, for cervical health appeared to be effective in decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain at a 3 month follow-up. PMID:25301193

  6. Insomnia in North Korean Refugees: Association with Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Jin G.; Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Lee, So Hee; Yu, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prevalence of insomnia and its clinical characteristics in North Korean refugees. Methods North Korean refugees living in South Korea (48 males, 129 females; mean age 38.22±12.24 years) and South Koreans (112 males, 203 females; mean age 39.48±10.32 years) completed the following questionnaires: the Self-reported Questionnaire on Insomnia, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Trauma Exposure Check List for North Korean Refugees, and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). Results North Korean refugees had insomnia more often than South Koreans did (38.42% vs. 8.89%). Depression combined with insomnia was also more prevalent in North Korean refugees (28.25% vs. 3.17%). Compared with South Koreans with insomnia, North Korean refugees with insomnia showed higher CES-D scores. The North Korean refugees with insomnia had experienced a larger number of traumatic events, and had higher CES-D and IES-R scores compared to North Korean refugees without insomnia. Insomnia in North Korean refugees was also associated with the presence of significant depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Conclusion Insomnia was common in North Korean refugees and was closely associated with depressive and PTSD symptoms. Our study suggests that complaints of insomnia may indicate more severe psychopathology, especially in refugees. PMID:26766948

  7. Impact of Norm Perceptions and Guilt on Audience Response to Anti-Smoking Norm PSAs: The Case of Korean Male Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine how norm appeals and guilt influence smokers' behavioural intention. Design: Quasi-experimental design. Setting: South Korea. Method: Two hundred and fifty-five male smokers were randomly assigned to descriptive, injunctive, or subjective anti-smoking norm messages. After they viewed the norm messages, their norm perceptions,…

  8. Reference values of fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide among non-smokers and current smokers.

    PubMed

    Torén, Kjell; Murgia, Nicola; Schiöler, Linus; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2017-08-25

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is used to assess of airway inflammation; diagnose asthma and monitor adherence to advised therapy. Reliable and accurate reference values for FENO are needed for both non-smoking and current smoking adults in the clinical setting. The present study was performed to establish reference adult FENO values among never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. FENO was measured in 5265 subjects aged 25-75 years in a general-population study, using a chemiluminescence (Niox ™) analyser according to the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Atopy was based on the presence of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to common inhalant allergens (measured using Phadiatop® test). Spirometry without bronchodilation was performed and forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expired volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to FVC values were obtained. After excluding subjects with asthma, chronic bronchitis, spirometric airway obstruction and current cold, 3378 subjects remained. Equations for predictions of FENO values were modelled using nonparametric regression models. FENO levels were similar in never-smokers and former smokers, and these two groups were therefore merged into a group termed "non-smokers". Reference equations, including the 5th and 95th percentiles, were generated for female and male non-smokers, based on age, height and atopy. Regression models for current smokers were unstable. Hence, the proposed reference values for current smokers are based on the univariate distribution of FENO and fixed cut-off limits. Reference values for FENO among respiratory healthy non-smokers should be outlined stratified for gender using individual reference values. For current smokers separate cut-off limits are proposed.

  9. Effects of transdermal nicotine on prose memory and attention in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, D V; Petros, T

    2005-01-17

    Previous research investigating cognitive effects of nicotine has produced mixed findings partly due to the use of abstaining smokers and cigarettes as a delivery system. The present study examined effects of nicotine delivered via a transdermal patch on prose memory and sustained attention in male smokers (n=25) and nonsmokers (n=22), who were randomly assigned to either a placebo or a nicotine condition. All groups were matched on their verbal ability and gross personality characteristics (state/trait anxiety levels, extroversion-introversion, and impulsivity level). In the nicotine condition, smokers were treated with a 21-mg transdermal patch, while nonsmokers received a 7-mg nicotine patch. Six hours following patch application, their performance was assessed on a computerized prose memory task and the Rapid Visual Information Processing task (RVIP) in a counterbalanced order and double-blind fashion. The results demonstrated that smokers in the placebo group recalled a significantly greater number of propositions than their counterparts in the nicotine group. Nonsmokers in the nicotine condition also remembered significantly more of the prose material than smokers in the same condition and showed a trend towards better recall of propositions of medium importance in the nicotine condition in comparison to the nonsmokers in the placebo group. No between-group differences were found on the RVIP task. A significant effect of time was found for systolic blood pressure and heart rate. The results cannot be interpreted using the arousal theory of nicotine effects on attention and are explained on the basis of a dose-dependent nicotinic action possibly recruiting cholinergic cortical projections.

  10. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Pharmacokinetic interaction between rosuvastatin and telmisartan in healthy Korean male volunteers: a randomized, open-label, two-period, crossover, multiple-dose study.

    PubMed

    Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Lee, Donghwan; Roh, Hyerang; Son, Hankil; Guk, Jinju; Jang, Seong Bok; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo

    2014-08-01

    Rosuvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, and telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, are commonly prescribed in combination for the treatment of dyslipidemia accompanied by hypertension. However, the nature of the pharmacokinetic interaction between the 2 drugs is not clearly understood. The goal of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between rosuvastatin and telmisartan in a healthy Korean population. This was a randomized, 2-part, open-label, 2-period, crossover, multiple-dose study, with each part composed of different subjects between the ages of 20 and 55 years. In part 1, each subject received rosuvastatin 20 mg with and without telmisartan 80 mg once daily for 6 consecutive days. In part 2, each subject received telmisartan 80 mg with and without rosuvastatin 20 mg once daily for 6 consecutive days. In both parts, there was a 16-day washout period between mono- and coadministration. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hours after the last dose. Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated through interviews and physical examinations. In part 1, the 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios for the primary pharmacokinetic parameters for coadministration of the 2 drugs to monoadministration of each drug were 1.0736-1.2932 for AUCτ and 1.7442-2.3229 for Cmax,ss for rosuvastatin and 0.9942-1.1594 for AUCτ and 1.3593-1.7169 for Cmax,ss for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, whereas in part 2, the CIs were 1.0834-1.2672 for AUCτ and 1.1534-1.5803 for Cmax,ss for telmisartan. The most frequently noted AE was cough in part 1, which occurred in 2 subjects receiving the combination therapy, and oropharyngeal pain in part 2, which occurred in 3 subjects receiving the combination therapy. All reported AEs were mild or moderate, and there was no significant difference in incidence between the treatments. These findings demonstrated that rosuvastatin and telmisartan mutually affected each other

  12. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer: risk in nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, John S; Gesell, Thomas F

    2002-07-01

    Lung cancer is a disease that is almost entirely caused by smoking; hence, it is almost totally preventable. Yet there are a small percentage of cases, perhaps as many as 5 to 15%, where there are other causes. Risk factors identified for this other group include passive smoking, occupational exposure to certain chemicals and ionizing radiation, diet, and family history of cancer. In the United States cigarette smoking is on the decline among adults, occupational exposures are being reduced, and people are being made more aware of appropriate diets. These changes are gradually resulting in a reduced risk for this disease. Lung cancer in the U.S. may, therefore, eventually become largely a disease of the past. It remains important, however, to continue to study the cause(s) of lung cancer in non-smokers, particularly never smokers. Because of our interest in the effects of residential radon exposure on the development of lung cancer in non-smokers, we conducted a critical review of the scientific literature to evaluate this issue in detail. Strict criteria were utilized in selecting studies, which included being published in a peer reviewed journal, including non-smokers in the studied populations, having at least 100 cases, and being of case-control design. A total of 12 individual studies were found that met the criteria, with 10 providing some information on non-smokers. Most of these studies did not find any significant association between radon and lung cancer in non-smokers. Furthermore, data were not presented in sufficient detail for non-smokers in a number of studies. Based on the most recent findings, there is some evidence that radon may contribute to lung cancer risk in current smokers in high residential radon environments. The situation regarding the risk of lung cancer from radon in non-smokers (ex and never) is unclear, possibly because of both the relatively limited sample size of non-smokers and methodological limitations in most of the individual

  13. Early Korean War Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  14. Conflicting role of sarcopenia and obesity in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon

    2014-01-01

    To determine the impact of sarcopenia and obesity on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including data from health interviews, health examinations, nutritional questionnaires, and laboratory findings. Laboratory data included pulmonary function assessment and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry results. Sarcopenia was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was defined by body mass index. Male COPD patients were then classified into 4 groups according to the presence of sarcopenia and obesity. In male patients with COPD, the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be 29.3%, and that of sarcopenic obesity was 14.2%. Furthermore, 22.5% of the patients observed in this study had impaired QOL. Following multivariable statistical analysis, both sarcopenia and obesity were independent risk factors for worsening lung function. Adjusted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were the lowest in the sarcopenic obesity group. Sarcopenia was also associated with more subjective activity limitation and poorer QOL; however obesity was related to less subjective limitation and better QOL after multivariable analysis. Adjusted value of QOL was the lowest in sarcopenic subjects without obesity, and the highest in obese subject without sarcopenia. Both sarcopenia and obesity were found to be associated with worsening lung function in male COPD patients. However, obesity was positively correlated with improved QOL while sarcopenia was negatively correlated with QQL.

  15. Lung cancer in a nonsmoking underground uranium miner.

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, K B; James, D S; Mohs, K; Kornfeld, M

    2001-01-01

    Working in mines is associated with acute and chronic occupational disorders. Most of the uranium mining in the United States took place in the Four Corners region of the Southwest (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah) and on Native American lands. Although the uranium industry collapsed in the late 1980s, the industry employed several thousand individuals who continue to be at increased risk for developing lung cancers. We present the case of a 72-year-old Navajo male who worked for 17 years as an underground uranium miner and who developed lung cancer 22 years after leaving the industry. His total occupational exposure to radon progeny was estimated at 506 working level months. The miner was a life-long nonsmoker and had no other significant occupational or environmental exposures. On the chest X-ray taken at admission into the hospital, a right lower lung zone infiltrate was detected. The patient was treated for community-acquired pneumonia and developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Respiratory failure worsened and the patient died 19 days after presenting. On autopsy, a 2.5 cm squamous cell carcinoma of the right lung arising from the lower lobe bronchus, a right broncho-esophageal fistula, and a right lower lung abscess were found. Malignant respiratory disease in uranium miners may be from several occupational exposures; for example, radon decay products, silica, and possibly diesel exhaust are respiratory carcinogens that were commonly encountered. In response to a growing number of affected uranium miners, the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1990 to make partial restitution to individuals harmed by radiation exposure resulting from underground uranium mining and above-ground nuclear tests in Nevada. PMID:11333194

  16. Conflicting Role of Sarcopenia and Obesity in Male Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Jung, Hoon; Lee, Sung-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of sarcopenia and obesity on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Research Design and Methods Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including data from health interviews, health examinations, nutritional questionnaires, and laboratory findings. Laboratory data included pulmonary function assessment and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry results. Sarcopenia was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was defined by body mass index. Male COPD patients were then classified into 4 groups according to the presence of sarcopenia and obesity. Results In male patients with COPD, the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be 29.3%, and that of sarcopenic obesity was 14.2%. Furthermore, 22.5% of the patients observed in this study had impaired QOL. Following multivariable statistical analysis, both sarcopenia and obesity were independent risk factors for worsening lung function. Adjusted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were the lowest in the sarcopenic obesity group. Sarcopenia was also associated with more subjective activity limitation and poorer QOL; however obesity was related to less subjective limitation and better QOL after multivariable analysis. Adjusted value of QOL was the lowest in sarcopenic subjects without obesity, and the highest in obese subject without sarcopenia. Conclusions Both sarcopenia and obesity were found to be associated with worsening lung function in male COPD patients. However, obesity was positively correlated with improved QOL while sarcopenia was negatively correlated with QQL. PMID:25353344

  17. Korean women's breast cancer experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Eun Ok; Park, Young Sook

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore cultural meanings of breast cancer among Korean women in South Korea. A descriptive longitudinal study using methodological triangulation was conducted, and only qualitative findings are presented in this article. Ten Korean women who were newly diagnosed with a plan of surgery and subsequent chemotherapy, who did have severe fatigue at the time of recruitment, were recruited through Seoul National University Hospital. Data were collected using in-depth, 2-hour interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The themes emerged through the analysis process included: (a) "I did wrong," (b) "I cannot ask male physicians." (c) "I don't want to show the operation site to my husband." and (d) "I do household tasks by myself." The overriding theme was marginalization of the women within the context of their patriarchal culture. The findings suggest that culture is an important context circumscribing women's health/illness experience.

  18. Passive smoking and lung cancer in nonsmoking women.

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, R C; Alavanja, M C; Hock, E T; Loy, T S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The causes of lung cancer among nonsmokers are not clearly understood. To further evaluate the relation between passive smoke exposure and lung cancer in nonsmoking women, we conducted a population-based, case-control study. METHODS. Case patients (n = 618), identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry for the period 1986 through 1991, included 432 lifetime nonsmokers and 186 ex-smokers who had stopped at least 15 years before diagnosis or who had smoked for less than 1 pack-year. Control subjects (n = 1402) were selected from driver's license and Medicare files. RESULTS. No increased risk of lung cancer was associated with childhood passive smoke exposure. Adulthood analyses showed an increased lung cancer risk for lifetime nonsmokers with exposure of more than 40 pack-years from all household members (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 1.8) or from spouses only (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0, 1.7). When the time-weighted product of pack-years and average hours exposed per day was considered, a 30% excess risk was shown at the highest quartile of exposure among lifetime nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS. Ours and other recent studies suggest a small but consistent increased risk of lung cancer from passive smoking. Comprehensive actions to limit smoking in public places and worksites are well-advised. PMID:1443304

  19. Psychosocial profiles of adolescent nonsmokers in the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Phongsavan, Philayrath; Smith, Ben John; Chey, Tien; Gilmete, Mercedes; Havea, Drew; Bauman, Adrian Ernest

    2011-01-01

    Studies examining adolescent smoking have focused on at-risk individuals, while overlooking the psychosocial profiles of those adolescents who have managed to remain nonsmokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that positive emotions such as happiness may be associated with the adoption of healthy practices, but limited evidence has emerged from developing countries. This study examined the association between non-smoking and positive emotions and psychosocial correlates in 3 large population samples of Pacific youths (N = 5659) living in Tonga, Vanuatu, and Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia. Across all 3 samples, being confident was significantly associated with nonsmoking and being happy (Tonga, odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12-1.73; Vanuatu, OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.02-1.63; Pohnpei, OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.60-3.34). Some cross-country differences in relationships were found in the associations between societal factors (ie, perceived connections with school, teachers, and peers, and perceived community importance and involvement) and nonsmoking and happiness. Findings have implications for developing innovative strategies aimed at preventing smoking uptake and suggest the need for focusing on identifying the determinants of nonsmoking and measuring positive emotions.

  20. Lung cancer in lifetime nonsmoking men – results of a case-control study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, M; Gerken, M; Kreienbrock, L; Wellmann, J; Wichmann, H E

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of lung cancer among nonsmoking men are few. This case–control study was conducted among lifetime nonsmoking men between 1990 and 1996 in Germany to examine lung cancer risk in relation to occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, residential radon, family history of cancer and previous lung disease. A total of 58 male cases with confirmed primary lung cancer and 803 male population controls who had never smoked more than 400 cigarettes in their lifetime were personally interviewed by a standardized questionnaire. In addition, 1-year radon measurements in the living and bedroom of the subjects' last dwelling were carried out. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Having ever worked in a job with known lung carcinogens was associated with a two-fold significantly increased lung cancer risk (OR = 2.2; Cl = 1.0–5.0), adjusted for age and region. The linear trend test for lung-cancer risk associated with radon exposure was close to statistical significance, demonstrating an excess relative risk for an increase in exposure of 100 Bq m−3 of 0.43 (P = 0.052). Nonsignificantly elevated effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in public transportation and in social settings were observed. No associations with a family history of cancer or previous lung diseases were found. Our results indicate that occupational carcinogens and indoor radon may play a role in some lung cancers in nonsmoking men. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11139328

  1. OUTCOME OF ROTATOR CUFF REPAIR IN SNYDER TYPE Cl AND C2 LESIONS, CONSIDERING SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Sérgio Correa Pinto; Luciano, Lessandro Gesser; Zotto, Crischiman Dal; Vieira, Felipe Fantozzi; Klassen, Ralf; Rodrigues, Airton; Neto, Francisco José dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of smoking on the results from surgical repair of Snyder type C1 and C2 complete lesions of the rotator cuff. Methods: We evaluated 166 patients who had undergone surgical treatment for Snyder type C1 and C2 complete lesions of the rotator cuff, between June 2002 and December 2006. The inclusion criteria were a minimum follow-up period of 24 months and the absence of previous surgery on the affected shoulder. Patients with other associated injuries were excluded. We evaluated smoking and nonsmoking patients in accordance with the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). Female patients (119) predominated over male patients (47), and the mean age was 57 years (38 to 78). Out of the 166 patients evaluated, 21 were classified as smokers and 145 as nonsmokers. The final results were evaluated using the UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) criteria and statistical analysis was performed using the Epi Info® software. Results: According to the UCLA criteria, smokers had a final average of 32.6 points, while non-smokers had 33.8. Postoperative statistical analysis revealed a difference between the two groups, such that non-smoking patients had a better outcome. Conclusion: Smoking interferes with the final results from repairs of small and medium-sized lesions of the rotator cuff. PMID:27026963

  2. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case-control and ten hospital-based case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57-1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54-2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001). Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women.

  3. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case–control and ten hospital-based case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57–1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54–2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001). Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. PMID:27284248

  4. Perceptions of smokers influence nonsmoker attitudes and preferences for interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Amanda J.; Magnan, Renee E.; Köblitz, Amber R.; McCaul, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, we examined nonsmokers’ perceptions of smokers and consequences of the perceptions. In Study 1, smokers answered questions about their sense of self, dependence on smoking, and motivation to quit. Nonsmokers answered questions about their perceptions of these characteristics. Differences between smokers’ self-descriptions and nonsmokers’ perceptions were observed. Study 2 asked nonsmokers to judge two types of smokers for which the descriptions were based on Study 1 findings. Results showed that nonsmokers held a more negative attitude about and were less willing to engage in different close relationships with the smoker who was described in terms of nonsmokers’ perceptions rather than smokers’ reports. Attitude mediated the relationship between type of smoker and willingness to date a smoker. PMID:23734065

  5. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    PubMed Central

    Lipan, Leontina; Hojjati, Mohammad; El-Zaeddi, Hussein; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Lucía; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice. PMID:28231176

  6. A Study of Predictive Factors Affecting Health: Promoting Behaviors of North Korean Adolescent Refugees.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Yun, Hyo-Young; Park, Hyunchun; Yu, Shi-Eun

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the factors that could affect the health-promoting behaviors of North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Questions about their sociodemographic variables, subjective health status, healthy living habits, and health-promoting behaviors were asked. Statistically significant differences were found in religion (t=2.30, p<0.05), having family members in South Korea (t=2.02, p<0.05), and subjective health status (t=4.96, p<0.01). Scores on health-responsible behaviors were higher with higher age (t=2.90, p<0.01) and for subjects without family or friends (t=2.43, p<0.05). Higher physical-activity behaviors were observed in males (t=3.32, p<0.01), in those with better subjective health status (t=3.46, p<0.05) and lower body mas index (t=3.48, p<0.05), and in smokers (t=3.17, p<0.01). Nutritional behaviors were higher in those who followed a religion (t=2.17, p<0.05). Spiritual growth behaviors were higher in those who followed a religion (t=4.21, p<0.001), had no family in South Korea (t=2.04, p<0.05), and had higher subjective health status (t=5.74, p<0.01). Scores on interpersonal relationships and stress-management behaviors were higher for those with higher subjective health status. A multiple regression analysis showed greater effects on health-promoting behaviors when subjective health status was better. Older people and non-smokers exhibited more health-responsible behaviors, while more physical-activity behaviors and spiritual growth activities were observed when subjective health status was better. Interpersonal relationship behaviors had positive effects on those with good subjective heath status and on non-smokers. Based on the results of the current study, an alternative was suggested for promoting health in North Korean adolescent refugees.

  7. Smokers vs. nonsmokers in the work place: clearing the air.

    PubMed

    Massengill, D; Petersen, D J

    As the antismoking movement grows, employees are becoming more vociferous about their right to a work environment free from tobacco smoke and its toxic effects. In response to these concerns, ordinances regulating smoke in public places and in some cases banning it altogether have been passed in several states and some cities. Likewise, courts have addressed the issue of nonsmokers' rights in the work place. In the following article, the authors examine the scope of regulation thus far and the prospect of future regulation on smoking in the work place. They also examine court, National Labor Relations Board, and arbitration decisions that have dealt with the rights of smokers and nonsmokers.

  8. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis: a disease commoner in non-smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, C P

    1977-01-01

    The smoking habits of 18 patients with extrinsic allergic alveolitis, 22 with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, and 75 patients with sarcoidosis were compared with the smoking habits of the normal population of the Prairie Region for 1973. The patients were diagnosed at the same two hospitals over the four-year period November 1971--75 and were of comparable age. Non-smoking was significantly associated with allergic alveolitis in men and the three cases in women were all non-smokers. For the other two diseases, smoking habits were similar to those of the local population. PMID:594937

  9. Tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposures in smokers and nonsmokers exposed to cigarette or waterpipe tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Ghada; Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005-2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78-2.58 in CS and 0.21-1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01-0.60 in CS wives, 0.05-0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day.

  10. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Exposures in Smokers and Nonsmokers Exposed to Cigarette or Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.; Carmella, Steven G.; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The causal relationship between tobacco smoking and a variety of cancers is attributable to the carcinogens that smokers inhale, including tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). We aimed to assess the exposure to TSNAs in waterpipe smokers (WPS), cigarette smokers (CS), and nonsmoking females exposed to tobacco smoke. Methods: We measured 2 metabolites, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAl-Gluc) in the urine of males who were either current CS or WPS, and their wives exposed to either cigarette or waterpipe smoke in a sample of 46 subjects from rural Egypt. Results: Of the 24 current male smokers, 54.2% were exclusive CS and 45.8% were exclusive WPS. Among wives, 59.1% reported exposure to cigarette smoke and 40.9% to waterpipe smoke. The geometric mean of urinary NNAL was 0.19 ± 0.60 pmol/ml urine (range 0.005–2.58) in the total sample. Significantly higher levels of NNAL were observed among male smokers of either cigarettes or waterpipe (0.89 ± 0.53 pmol/ml, range 0.78–2.58 in CS and 0.21–1.71 in WPS) compared with nonsmoking wives (0.04 ± 0.18 pmol/ml, range 0.01–0.60 in CS wives, 0.05–0.23 in WPS wives, p = .000). Among males, CS had significantly higher levels of NNAL compared with WPS (1.22 vs. 0.62; p = .007). However, no significant difference was detected in NNAL levels between wives exposed to cigarette smoke or waterpipe smoke. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers levels of NNAL were higher than WPS levels in males. Exposure to tobacco smoke was evident in wives of both CS and WPS. Among WPS, NNAL tended to increase with increasing numbers of hagars smoked/day. PMID:22573723

  11. Effect of the potent CYP2D6 inhibitor sarpogrelate on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol in healthy male Korean volunteers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Lee, Joeng Kee; Park, Jung Bae; Kim, Yang-Weon; Lee, Sukhyang; Oh, Euichaul; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2015-03-01

    1. Recently, we demonstrated that sarpogrelate is a potent and selective CYP2D6 inhibitor in vitro. Here, we evaluated the effect of sarpogrelate on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metoprolol in healthy subjects. 2. Nine healthy male subjects genotyped for CYP2D6*1/*1 or *1/*2 were included in an open-label, randomized, three treatment-period and crossover study. A single oral dose of metoprolol (100 mg) was administered with water (treatment A) and sarpogrelate (100 mg bid.; a total dose of 200 mg and treatment B), or after pretreatment of sarpogrelate for three days (100 mg tid.; treatment C). Plasma levels of metoprolol and α-hydroxymetoprolol were determined using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Changes in heart rate and blood pressure were monitored as pharmacodynamic responses to metoprolol. 3. Metoprolol was well tolerated in the three treatment groups. In treatment B and C groups, the AUCt of metoprolol increased by 53% (GMR, 1.53; 90% CI, 1.17-2.31) and by 51% (1.51; 1.17-2.31), respectively. Similar patterns were observed for the increase in Cmax of metoprolol by sarpogrelate. However, the pharmacodynamics of metoprolol did not differ significantly among the three treatment groups. 4. Greater systemic exposure to metoprolol after co-administration or pretreatment with sarpogrelate did not result in clinically relevant effects. Co-administration of both agents is well tolerated and can be employed without the need for dose adjustments.

  12. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  13. Smile arcs of Caucasian and Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Keun; Rashid, Robert G; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to measure and compare the smile arcs (tooth and lip arcs) of young Caucasian and Korean subjects. Two hundred subjects (100 male and 100 female) were selected from Caucasian and Korean students. Class photographs taken with a digital camera showing the subjects with a posed smile were used for this study. Curves were rendered as semitransparent overlays, which were manipulated over the images using Adobe Photoshop to determine the best fit for tooth and lip arcs. There were statistically significant differences due to ethnicity and gender. Mean lip arcs had greater curvature than mean tooth arcs.

  14. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)—a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage—and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. Methods: This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Results: Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components. PMID:27606111

  15. Smokers vs. Nonsmokers: Toward an Understanding of Their Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Joanne M.; Bell, Roger A.

    This research was conducted to contribute to the general knowledge concerning differences between smokers and nonsmokers. The data were obtained from a major epidemiologic study conducted in 1973 in the southeastern United States. A survey instrument composed of 403 questions and administered to 2029 randomly selected adults was designed to elicit…

  16. Smokers vs. Nonsmokers: Toward an Understanding of Their Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Joanne M.; Bell, Roger A.

    This research was conducted to contribute to the general knowledge concerning differences between smokers and nonsmokers. The data were obtained from a major epidemiologic study conducted in 1973 in the southeastern United States. A survey instrument composed of 403 questions and administered to 2029 randomly selected adults was designed to elicit…

  17. American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation Curriculum Programs on Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carol, Julia

    1989-01-01

    Suggests prevention is the best cure for smoking, and the goal is a generation of nonsmokers. Includes a description of an antismoking documentary and curriculum, "Death in the West." Claims the organization, Teens as Teachers, furnishes role models for younger children's programs. (NL)

  18. Factors Influencing Openness to Future Smoking among Nonsmoking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Weaver, Amy E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the correlates of youth tobacco use in terms of nonsmoking adolescents' openness to future smoking, a secondary analysis of the 2000 and 2004 Indiana Youth Tobacco Survey (IYTS) was conducted. Methods: A representative sample of 1416 public high school students in grades 9-12 and 1516 public middle school students in…

  19. Factors Influencing Openness to Future Smoking among Nonsmoking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Weaver, Amy E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the correlates of youth tobacco use in terms of nonsmoking adolescents' openness to future smoking, a secondary analysis of the 2000 and 2004 Indiana Youth Tobacco Survey (IYTS) was conducted. Methods: A representative sample of 1416 public high school students in grades 9-12 and 1516 public middle school students in…

  20. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Medicine Seoul, Korea * S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SUM ARY Urban rats captured in Seoul and four nearby Korean cities were found to have...rattus, urban Korean cities, 1980. . . . 15 Table 2. Isolation of Hantaan virus from antigen-positive wild house rats, Korea , 1980 .... ........... .. 16...Figures Figure 1. Map of Seoul City, South Korea and metropolitan area showing locations of urban Korean hemorrhagic fever cases, andRattu s positive

  1. Prospects from Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    South Korea , China, the United States and, to a lesser extent, Japan and Russia will be examined to determine prospects from Korean reunification...the “tilt” of a unified Korea , and with it, the future Northeast Asian strategic environment. 1 PROSPECTS FROM KOREAN REUNIFCATION Throughout most of...the 20th century, the Korean people have yearned for the establishment of an independent and unified Korea . Before World War II, this was denied to

  2. Association between second-hand smoke and psychological well-being amongst non-smoking wageworkers in Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Jin; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Park, Shin-Goo; Lee, Bum-Joon; Moon, So-Hyun; Park, Sung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been responsible for more than 0.6 million deaths and 10.9 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) lost in never smokers in 2004. The world health organization (WHO) reported smoking-related death of 58,000 per year in South Korea. There is recent emerging evidence of the associations of SHS exposure with anxiety or depression and poor mental health. Although exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with various physical health conditions and mental health, we are unaware of any studies examining its association with psychological well-being as mental factor. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported exposure to SHS and well-being among non-smoking wageworkers. The Third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS, 2011) was conducted on a representative sample of economically active population aged 15 years or over, who were either employees or self-employed at the time of interview. In this study, after removing inconsistent data, 19,879 non-smoking wageworkers among 60,054 workers were participated. Psychological well-being was measured through the WHO-Five Well-Being Index (1998 version). Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association of SHS exposure with psychological well-being. The unadjusted OR of poor psychological well-being (OR: 1.594, 95 % CI: 1.421-1.787) was significantly higher for SHS exposure group compared to non-exposure group. Multiple logistic regression analysis results indicated that these relationships were still significant after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted OR: 1.330, 95 % CI: 1.178-1.502). Exposure to SHS was associated with poor well-being measured by the WHO-5 well-being index, indicating the importance of reducing SHS exposure at the workplace for psychological well-being amongst non-smoking wageworkers.

  3. Otoacoustic Emissions in Smoking and Nonsmoking Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Koziel, Magdalena; Kochanek, Krzysztof; Skarzynski, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigates the usefulness of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs) in detecting small changes in the hearing of young smoking adults. Methods Otoacoustic emissions were acquired from the ears of 48 young adults (age, 20 to 27 years). The dataset was divided into two groups, smoking (24 persons/48 ears) and nonsmoking (24 persons/48 ears). The level of smoking was relatively small in comparison to previous studies, an average of 3.8 years and 8.7 cigarettes per day. In each ear three OAE measurements were made: TEOAEs, DPOAEs, and spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs). Pure tone audiometry and tympanometry were also conducted. Audiometric thresholds did not differ significantly between the datasets. Half-octave-band values of OAE signal to noise ratios and response levels were used to assess statistical differences. Results Averaged data initially revealed that differences between the two study groups occurred only for TEOAEs at 1 kHz. However when the datasets were divided into ears with and without SOAEs more differences became apparent, both for TEOAEs and DPOAEs. In ears that exhibited SOAEs, both smokers and nonsmokers, there were no statistically significant differences between evoked OAEs; however in all ears without SOAEs, evoked OAEs were higher in the ears of nonsmokers, by as much as 5 dB. These differences were most prominent in the 1-2 kHz range. Conclusion A general decrease in OAE levels was found in the group of smokers. However, in ears which exhibited SOAEs, there was no difference between the evoked OAEs of smokers and nonsmokers. We conclude that smoking had not yet measurably affected the ears of those with acute hearing (i.e., those who exhibit SOAEs). However, in ears without SOAEs, smokers exhibited smaller evoked OAE amplitudes than nonsmokers, even though their audiometric thresholds were within the norm. PMID:26622946

  4. Genre-specific media and perceptions of personal and social risk of smoking among South Korean college students.

    PubMed

    So, Jiyeon; Cho, Hyunyi; Lee, Jinro

    2011-05-01

    The smoking rate among adult men in South Korea is one of the highest in the world, standing at about 53%. Although various mass media-based educational initiatives have been taken to reduce this rate, their contribution toward the smoking risk perceptions of South Koreans has not been investigated. This study examined the association between genre-specific media exposure and personal and social risk perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers. Data from a survey of 558 South Korean college students (39% smokers) show that genre-specific media exposure differentially predicts personal and social risk perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers. News media exposure predicted smokers' personal risk perceptions, whereas entertainment media exposure predicted nonsmokers' personal risk perceptions. Exposure to a hybrid genre, health infotainment, predicted social risk perceptions, but not personal risk perceptions, of both smokers and nonsmokers. High rates of exposure to medical documentary were associated with low personal risk perceptions of nonsmokers, but not smokers. These results collectively suggest that mixed-media strategies may effectively address perceptions of personal and social risk of smoking. Suggestions for future research, and theoretical and practical implications, are offered.

  5. Salivary alcohol dehydrogenase in non-smoking and smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Khan, Noman; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p < 0.01), whereas two- to threefold lower levels of Mg was found in blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.

  7. Mutagenic activity of overnight urine from healthy non-smoking subjects.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Lupi, Silvia; Pulliero, Alessandra; Gregorio, Pasquale; Saia, Bruno Onofrio; Clonfero, Erminio

    2007-03-01

    Urinary mutagenicity was evaluated in relation to environmental mutagen exposure (i.e., diet, indoor/outdoor activities, residential area etc.) on the day prior to sample collection, and also considering factors that contribute to the variability of Salmonella mutagenicity assay results. Overnight urine samples from 283 healthy non-smoking residents of northeast Italy (46% males, 20-62 years) were analyzed for mutagenicity on sensitive Salmonella typhimurium strain YG1024 with S9 mix employing the preincubation version of the plate incorporation assay (i.e., the Salmonella reverse mutation test). Urinary mutagenicity varied between 0.02 and 9.84 rev/ equiv. ml, and 7% of samples were positive (i.e., sample elicited a two-fold increase in revertants). There was an evident increase in mutagenicity in subjects with increased intake of mutagen-rich meals (n = 80) (P < 0.01 and positive urine 13% vs. 5%, P = 0.025). Indoor-exposed subjects (n = 65) also showed a higher percentage of positive urine (14% vs. 5%, P = 0.015). In particular, those subjects exposed to cooking fumes the previous evening (n = 28) revealed higher urinary mutagenicity (P = 0.035, positive urine 25% vs. 5%, P < 0.001) than non-indoor exposed. The sources of variability of the mutagenicity assay, mainly the histidine content of the urine concentrate (z = 4.06, P < 0.0001), and to a lesser extent bacterial inoculum size (z = 2.33, P = 0.019), also significantly influenced urinary mutagenicity values. In a linear multiple regression analysis, their effects were still significant (i.e., histidine content P = 0.026 and inoculum size P = 0.021), but the effects of diet, indoor exposure, and other environmental exposures (i.e., traffic and heating system exhausts, residential area) were not. It is concluded that the previous day's exposure to mutagen-rich meals and cooking fumes may influence the presence of mutagenic activity in the overnight urine of non-smoking subjects. This mutagenic activity, which

  8. Spoken Korean: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukoff, Fred

    This text is designed for students planning to learn spoken Korean. Ten lessons and two review sections based on cultural experiences commonly shared by Koreans are included in the text. Grouped in series of five lessons, the instructional materials include (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  9. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  10. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) occurred for the first time in Korea , 1951, although it had previously been known to both the Japanese and Russians...After Korean war, the disease has been fixed in the areas of DMZ as an endemic one, and from 100 to 400 cases have been being reportee every year

  11. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  12. Koreans in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two questions about Koreans in business are left unanswered in this article. First, what will happen to Korean entrepreneurship if monopoly capitalism continues to extend its influence into all branches of the economy. The second question concerns the issue of race relations. (Author/AM)

  13. Long-term ambient ozone concentration and the incidence of asthma in nonsmoking adults: The Ahsmog study

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, W.F.; Abbey, D.E.; Nishino, N.; Lebowitz, M.D.

    1999-02-01

    The authors conducted a prospective study of a cohort of 3091 nonsmokers, ages 27 to 87 years, to evaluate the association between long-term ambient ozone exposure and development of adult-onset asthma. Over a 15-year period, 3.2% of males and 4.3% of females reported new doctor diagnoses of asthma. For males, they observed a significant relationship between report of doctor diagnosis of asthma and 20-year mean 8-h average ambient ozone concentration. The authors observed no such relationship for females. Other variables significantly related to development of asthma were a history of ever-smoking for males, and for females, number of years worked with a smoker, age, and a history of childhood pneumonia or bronchitis. Addition of other pollutants to the models did not diminish the relationship between ozone and asthma for males. These data suggest that long-term exposure to ambient ozone is associated with development of asthma in adult males.

  14. Exposure to secondhand smoke in Italian non-smokers 5 years after the Italian smoking ban.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Gallus, Silvano; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Colombo, Paolo; Fernández, Esteve; Manzari, Marco; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    No data on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are available on a national level in Italy. To assess the prevalence of exposure to SHS in indoor public places, home and cars in non-smoking Italian population, we conducted a survey 5 years after the national smoking ban. In 2010, we conducted a survey on a representative sample of the Italian population aged≥15 years. Analyses were conducted on 2365 non-smokers. Current (during the previous week) self-reported exposure to SHS was assessed in public places, at home and in private cars. The prevalence of SHS exposure in any setting (excluding workplaces) was 31.2%. SHS exposure was 10.2% in public places, 15.6% at home and 17.9% in cars. The corresponding estimates among the young (15-24 years) were 54.2% in any setting, 21.4% in public places, 27.1% at home and 32.9% in cars. By multivariate analysis, males, the young, subjects from southern Italy and former smokers were more frequently exposed in any setting. The Italian smoking ban substantially decreased SHS exposure. However, specific subpopulations, including the young, are still frequently exposed both in public and private places. We observed a relatively high SHS exposure in private vehicles. Thus, further control to improve compliance with the smoking ban and an extension of the smoke-free legislation to motor vehicles are needed.

  15. Relationship of hemoglobin A1c to mortality in nonsmoking insurance applicants.

    PubMed

    Stout, Robert L; Fulks, Michael; Dolan, Vera F; Magee, Mark E; Suarez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Determine the relationship between hemoglobin A1c value and 5-year, all-cause mortality in nonsmoking life insurance applicants. By use of the Social Security Master Death Index, mortality was examined in 286,443 non-smoking insurance applicants aged 40 and up for whom blood samples for hemoglobin A1c were submitted to the Clinical Reference Laboratory. Results were stratified by hemoglobin A1c value, gender and age bands 40 to 59, 60 to 69 and 70 and up. Increased mortality is apparent at hemoglobin A1c values of 6% and above, is linear, and on a percentage basis decreases with age. Hemoglobin A1c values less than 5% also are associated with increased mortality. Absolute mortality rates for females with elevated hemoglobin A1c are generally lower than rates for males, although mortality relative to the gender-specific reference group with hemoglobin A1c of 5% to 5.9% is generally the same for both. The importance of even small elevations of hemoglobin A1c above 5.9% is apparent. For screening, it is the degree of blood sugar elevation as measured by hemoglobin A1c rather than any diagnostic label that is critical in risk assessment.

  16. Levels of caffeine and its metabolites among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2009-2010 were used to estimate the levels of caffeine and 14 of its metabolite among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers after adjustments were made for other factors that affect observed caffeine levels. In this study, when adjusted for daily caffeine intake, adjusted levels (AGM) of caffeine and its metabolites were not found to be statistically significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers. AGMs for caffeine and all of its metabolites were found to be statistically significantly higher (p < 0.01) among females aged ≥ 12 years than males. For caffeine, 1,3-dimethylxanthine, and 1,7-dimethylxanthine, those aged ≥ 20 years had statistically significantly higher (p < 0.01) AGM than those aged 12-19 years but the reverse was true for 7-methylxanthine and 3,7-dimethylxanthine (p ≤ 0.02). The order of the AGMs by race/ethnicity was non-Hispanic whites > Hispanics > non-Hispanic blacks and most of the differences were statistically significant, at least between non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks (p < 0.01). In general, there was a statistically significant positive association between the levels of caffeine and its metabolites and body mass index as well as daily caffeine intake. However, the levels of 7-methylxanthine were negatively associated with body mass index. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Murray, Donna E

    2015-07-16

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal) on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow). Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age) smokers (n = 34) and non-smokers (n = 27) were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age) was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain.

  18. Comparison of Regional Brain Perfusion Levels in Chronically Smoking and Non-Smoking Adults

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Murray, Donna E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with numerous abnormalities in brain neurobiology, but few studies specifically investigated the chronic effects of smoking (compared to the acute effects of smoking, nicotine administration, or nicotine withdrawal) on cerebral perfusion (i.e., blood flow). Predominately middle-aged male (47 ± 11 years of age) smokers (n = 34) and non-smokers (n = 27) were compared on regional cortical perfusion measured by continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance studies at 4 Tesla. Smokers showed significantly lower perfusion than non-smokers in the bilateral medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, bilateral superior temporal gyri, left posterior cingulate, right isthmus of cingulate, and right supramarginal gyrus. Greater lifetime duration of smoking (adjusted for age) was related to lower perfusion in multiple brain regions. The results indicated smokers showed significant perfusion deficits in anterior cortical regions implicated in the development, progression, and maintenance of all addictive disorders. Smokers concurrently demonstrated reduced blood flow in posterior brain regions that show morphological and metabolic aberrations as well as elevated beta amyloid deposition demonstrated by those with early stage Alzheimer disease. The findings provide additional novel evidence of the adverse effects of cigarette smoking on the human brain. PMID:26193290

  19. Intake and blood concentrations of folate and their association with health-related behaviors in Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Jang, Han-Byul; Han, Young-Hee; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kim, Heon; Hyun, Taisun

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess folate intake, and serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations, and investigate the association between folate status and health-related behaviors among Korean college students. A total of 169 students, aged between 18 and 27 years, participated in this study. Dietary intake data were collected by trained interviewers using a 24-hour recall method for three non-consecutive days in 2009. Information on health-related behaviors was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. Serum and RBC folate concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. The average intakes of folate were 456 µgDFE and 347 µgDFE in male and female students, respectively. While the average serum folate concentration was significantly lower in male students (8.9 ng/mL) compared to female students (12.5 ng/mL), RBC concentrations were not significantly different between male (398.6 ng/mL) and female students (405.3 ng/mL). In male students, low serum folate concentrations were associated with total folate intake less than the Estimated Average Requirement, non-use of folic acid supplements, smoking, alcohol drinking at least once a week and low physical activity. In female students, low serum folate concentrations were associated with smoking and alcohol drinking at least two drinks at a time and BMI ≥ 25. Alcohol drinking and low physical activity were also associated with low RBC folate concentrations in both male and female students. In order to improve folate nutritional status of college students, the practice of desirable health-related behaviors, such as non-smoking, moderate alcohol drinking, regular physical activity, and maintenance of healthy BMI should be encouraged along with consumption of folate-rich foods and supplements.

  20. Intake and blood concentrations of folate and their association with health-related behaviors in Korean college students

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Han-Byul; Han, Young-Hee; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kim, Heon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess folate intake, and serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations, and investigate the association between folate status and health-related behaviors among Korean college students. A total of 169 students, aged between 18 and 27 years, participated in this study. Dietary intake data were collected by trained interviewers using a 24-hour recall method for three non-consecutive days in 2009. Information on health-related behaviors was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. Serum and RBC folate concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. The average intakes of folate were 456 µgDFE and 347 µgDFE in male and female students, respectively. While the average serum folate concentration was significantly lower in male students (8.9 ng/mL) compared to female students (12.5 ng/mL), RBC concentrations were not significantly different between male (398.6 ng/mL) and female students (405.3 ng/mL). In male students, low serum folate concentrations were associated with total folate intake less than the Estimated Average Requirement, non-use of folic acid supplements, smoking, alcohol drinking at least once a week and low physical activity. In female students, low serum folate concentrations were associated with smoking and alcohol drinking at least two drinks at a time and BMI ≥ 25. Alcohol drinking and low physical activity were also associated with low RBC folate concentrations in both male and female students. In order to improve folate nutritional status of college students, the practice of desirable health-related behaviors, such as non-smoking, moderate alcohol drinking, regular physical activity, and maintenance of healthy BMI should be encouraged along with consumption of folate-rich foods and supplements. PMID:23766883

  1. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  2. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  3. Comparison of the Respiratory Microbiome in Healthy Nonsmokers and Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Beck, James M.; Schloss, Patrick D.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Crothers, Kristina; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Flores, Sonia C.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Ghedin, Elodie; Huang, Laurence; Jablonski, Kathleen; Kleerup, Eric; Lynch, Susan V.; Sodergren, Erica; Twigg, Homer; Young, Vincent B.; Bassis, Christine M.; Venkataraman, Arvind; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Weinstock, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Results from 16S rDNA-encoding gene sequence–based, culture-independent techniques have led to conflicting conclusions about the composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome. Objectives: To compare the microbiome of the upper and lower respiratory tract in healthy HIV-uninfected nonsmokers and smokers in a multicenter cohort. Methods: Participants were nonsmokers and smokers without significant comorbidities. Oral washes and bronchoscopic alveolar lavages were collected in a standardized manner. Sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding genes was performed, and the neutral model in community ecology was used to identify bacteria that were the most plausible members of a lung microbiome. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-four participants were enrolled. Most bacteria identified in the lung were also in the mouth, but specific bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus, Methylobacterium, and Ralstonia species were disproportionally represented in the lungs compared with values predicted by the neutral model. Tropheryma was also in the lung, but not the mouth. Mouth communities differed between nonsmokers and smokers in species such as Porphyromonas, Neisseria, and Gemella, but lung bacterial populations did not. Conclusions: This study is the largest to examine composition of the lower respiratory tract microbiome in healthy individuals and the first to use the neutral model to compare the lung to the mouth. Specific bacteria appear in significantly higher abundance in the lungs than would be expected if they originated from the mouth, demonstrating that the lung microbiome does not derive entirely from the mouth. The mouth microbiome differs in nonsmokers and smokers, but lung communities were not significantly altered by smoking. PMID:23491408

  4. Comparison of Army Flight School Performance in Smokers and Nonsmokers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    memory function in smokers, and Hull (1924) found an increase in arithmetic ability among smokers compared to nonsmokers. Ague ’ (1974) found that smokers...9 Bibliography Ague ’, C. 1974. Cardiovascular variables, skin conductance and time estimation: Changes after the administration of small doses of...Relation to the Tasks of Today’s Aircrew . North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Report No. AGARD-CP-152. (February) Elgerot, A. 1976. Note on selective

  5. Perception of nasal pungency in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

    1982-10-01

    Two experiments explored the difference in common chemical sensitivity between smokers and nonsmokers. The first experiment confirmed and extended our previous finding that smokers have a higher threshold than nonsmokers for a short-latency, reflex transitory apnea in response to a nasal irritant (carbon dioxide). The experiment revealed that even short periods of smoking (6-10 min) just before the measurement will further impair the smokers's sensitivity to an irritant. Application of the novel scaling technique magnitude matching, whereby persons judged the perceived magnitude of various levels of an irritant, odorant, and tone in the same session, implied that smokers actually perceive irritation less keenly than nonsmokers. The psychophysical functions for pungency in the two groups suggested that the insensitivity may arise from conductive factors (e.g., thickening of the mucus barrier) rather than from neural factors. The results of the scaling and those for the threshold for transitory apnea showed excellent quantitative agreement and indicated that the threshold for the reflex occurred at a criterion level of perceived pungency.

  6. Residential radon and environmental burden of disease among Non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Noh, Juhwan; Sohn, Jungwoo; Cho, Jaelim; Kang, Dae Ryong; Joo, Sowon; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer was the second highest absolute cancer incidence globally and the first cause of cancer mortality in 2014. Indoor radon is the second leading risk factor of lung cancer after cigarette smoking among ever smokers and the first among non-smokers. Environmental burden of disease (EBD) attributable to residential radon among non-smokers is critical for identifying threats to population health and planning health policy. To identify and retrieve literatures describing environmental burden of lung cancer attributable to residential radon, we searched databases including Ovid-MEDLINE, -EMBASE from 1980 to 2016. Search terms included patient keywords using 'lung', 'neoplasm', exposure keywords using 'residential', 'radon', and outcomes keywords using 'years of life lost', 'years of life lost due to disability', 'burden'. Searching through literatures identified 261 documents; further 9 documents were identified using manual searching. Two researchers independently assessed 271 abstracts eligible for inclusion at the abstract level. Full text reviews were conducted for selected publications after the first assessment. Ten studies were included in the final evaluation. Global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)(95 % uncertainty interval) for lung cancer were increased by 35.9 % from 23,850,000(18,835,000-29,845,000) in 1900 to 32,405,000(24,400,000-38,334,000) in 2000. DALYs attributable to residential radon were 2,114,000(273,000-4,660,000) DALYs in 2010. Lung cancer caused 34,732,900(33,042,600 ~ 36,328,100) DALYs in 2013. DALYs attributable to residential radon were 1,979,000(1,331,000-2,768,000) DALYs for in 2013. The number of attributable lung cancer cases was 70-900 and EBD for radon was 1,000-14,000 DALYs in Netherland. The years of life lost were 0.066 years among never-smokers and 0.198 years among ever-smoker population in Canada. In summary, estimated global EBD attributable to residential radon was 1,979,000 DALYs for both sexes in 2013

  7. Sequential occurrence of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome in a non-smoker female patient.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pawan; Dash, Devijyoti; Mittal, Richa; Chhabra, Sunil K

    2017-05-01

    The combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) syndrome is a unique and an under-recognized disorder characterized by emphysema in the upper lobes and interstitial fibrosis in the lower lobes of the lung. It occurs predominantly in males and almost exclusively in smokers. This rare combination of a restrictive and an obstructive mechanical defect carries a poorer prognosis than either of the two components. We present a case of CPFE syndrome in a non-smoker female patient who developed lower lobe emphysema subsequent to development of interstitial fibrosis. The case was remarkable for the extreme rarity of several presenting features, namely, a lower lobe occurrence of emphysema subsequent to pre-existent interstitial fibrosis, female gender and absence of a history of smoking. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    AD-A<m 761 KOREA UNIV SEOUL COLL OF MEDICINE KOREAN HEM0RRHA6IC FEVER.(U) MAR 80 H W LEE UNCLASSIFIED ICFI F/6 6/5 DAM017-79-6-9<*55 NL...I» > I,,iu. •Uli ••-. SUMMARY There were 364 hospitalized cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) in 1979 in Korea . Lee et al...STANDARDS-1963-A ?H "LEVEtf® AD <o KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC F EVER A D A 09 47 Final Report HO WANG LEE, M. D. March 1980 i MIL. IIB«I . Mm k iw

  9. The potential hazardous effect of exposure to iron dust in Egyptian smoking and non-smoking welders.

    PubMed

    Gobba, Naglaa Abd El Khalik; Hussien, Abdel-Maksoud A; Sharawy, Dalia E El; Hussein, Mohammed Abdalla

    2017-04-04

    Exposure to iron dust and welding fumes is widespread and may increase the risk of lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to identify associations between exposure to iron/ welding fumes and the levels of inflammatory parameters and allergic mediators among 120 Egyptian males. Forty non-smoking and 40 smoking Egyptian welders as well as 40 healthy volunteers who were never exposed to welding fumes and non-smoking were enrolled in the study. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) that were assessed at the shift of work in the working days revealed an impairment in lung function with the smoking workers showing the worse results, followed by the non-smoking ones as compared to the healthy volunteers. Moreover, the results of the present study showed a significant increase in serum iron and immunoglobulin E, as well as plasma thiobarbaturic acid reactive substances, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), haptoglobin, interleukin-2, nterleukin-6 and interleukin-23 histamine, lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-3 and calcitonin. Additionally, the results revealed significant decrease in plasma α-1-antitrypsin and serum transferrin, as well as blood activities of antioxidant enzymes, viz., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase (as compared with control group. However, there was a non-significant change in arginase and α-L-fucosidase in smoking and non-smoking welders exposed to iron dust and welding fumes. In conclusion, occupational exposure to iron dust and welding fumes increase lung inflammation risk among Egyptian blacksmith workers, a condition that worsen upon smoking.

  10. Joint Effect of Cigarette Smoking and Body Mass Index on White Blood Cell Count in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cho, A-Ra; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Shin-Hye; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background White blood cell count is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Several lifestyle and metabolic factors such as cigarette smoking and obesity are known to be associated with an elevated white blood cell count. However, the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count has not yet been fully described. Methods We explored the joint effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on white blood cell count using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding variables in a population-based, cross-sectional study of 416,065 Korean adults. Results Cigarette smoking and body mass index have a dose-response relationship with a higher white blood cell count, but no synergistic interaction is observed between them (men, P for interaction=0.797; women, P for interaction=0.311). Cigarette smoking and body mass index might have an additive combination effect on high white blood cell count. Obese male smokers were 2.36 times more likely and obese female smokers 2.35 times more likely to have a high white blood cell count when compared with normal body mass index non-smokers. Conclusion Cigarette smoking and body mass index are independently associated with an elevated white blood cell count in both men and women. PMID:28360982

  11. Career Maturity Growth Curve and Sex-Role Stereotypes of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Choi, Wonseok; Goh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the career maturity growth curve of Korean Adolescents from 4th grade to 12th grade. The participants consisted of 3,241 male and 3,029 female students from the Korea Youth Panel Survey, a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korean adolescents. The present study explored the shape of the career maturity…

  12. Career Maturity Growth Curve and Sex-Role Stereotypes of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Choi, Wonseok; Goh, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the career maturity growth curve of Korean Adolescents from 4th grade to 12th grade. The participants consisted of 3,241 male and 3,029 female students from the Korea Youth Panel Survey, a nationwide longitudinal study of South Korean adolescents. The present study explored the shape of the career maturity…

  13. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts...Pyongyang Domestic Service, 23 Dec 86) l Commentary on White Paper About Kumgangsan Dam (Cho Tu-ul; Pyongyang Domestic Service, 26 Dec 86) 3 Party...ruin. /8309 CSO: 4110/056 INTER-KOREAN AFFAIRS COMMENTARY ON WHITE PAPER ABOUT KUMGANGSAN DAM SK280105 Pyongyang Domestic Service in Korean 1150

  14. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Korea has fortified all the frontline areas, building underground positions and concealing various weapons. It is even constructing gun positions...also noted that North Korean Frog missiles and self-propelled guns posted just north of the DMZ can hit Seoul directly. North Korean engineer...being major figures in radical student movement. They include U Su- chin , 22, of Songgyung- wan University who is also chairman of the radical student

  15. Koreans in Japan: Their Influence on Korean-Japanese Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    realization that their homeland was a far cry from heaven. More and more people came to see 23 the reality, that food and shelter were not readily available...exclusive or militant but are strongly individualistic and perservering , and they are adaptable and disunited. 84 The Korean disposition is attributed to the...District in China are surprised that they maintain the Korean style of living almost completely, speaking Korean, eating Korean food , living in ondol

  16. Use of diet pills and amphetamines to lose weight among smoking and nonsmoking high school seniors.

    PubMed

    Gritz, E R; Crane, L A

    1991-01-01

    Used data on 3,305 high school seniors collected as part of the 1984 Monitoring the Future project to examine the relationships among cigarette use, diet pill use, and use of amphetamines for weight loss. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to report use of all three substances. In addition, Whites were more likely than Blacks to use all three substances. Both female and male smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to use diet pills. Amphetamine use for weight loss was positively related to smoking among females, but not among males. The relationships between smoking and diet pill use, and smoking and amphetamine use to lose weight, were maintained when race, sex, and other drug use were controlled simultaneously. Two explanations for these relationships are considered. The first is that smoking is related to the use of most other licit and illicit drugs. The second explanation is that there is a greater preoccupation with weight among smokers, with weight concerns potentially motivating the initiation of smoking.

  17. American Influence on Korean Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-chan

    1982-01-01

    Discusses American influences on Korean education, considering the influence of American Protestant missionaries (1886-1945), relationship between American military government and Korean education, and educational cooperation between Korea and America since 1948. (JN)

  18. A comparative study on mortality patterns among Koreans, Korean-Chinese and Chinese.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Wen, Y

    1999-08-01

    In order to understand the causal mechanism of disease aggregates peculiar to place and ethnicity, mortality data of Yanji city, China (1993) were collected, examined for validity and analyzed. Age standardized, age specific mortality rates and ten leading causes of death were compared with 1993 Korean mortality statistics. Age standardized mortality rates for both sexes were highest in Korean-Chinese followed by Koreans and Chinese (the lowest). Out of ten leading causes of death (54%-70% of the total deaths), seven for male and six causes of death for female were common in all groups. Korean-Chinese females had more similar patterns to Chinese females than males did. Differences in mortality rates by causes of death among groups suggested that hypertensive diseases and respiratory tuberculosis were associated with ethnicity, homicide/injuries inflicted by others, diabetes mellitus and chronic renal disease with environment, and others with both ethnicity and environment. These results suggest that a few causes of death were attributed to either ethnicity or environment whereas most of the ten leading causes of deaths were attributed to mixed impacts of both ethnicity and environment.

  19. [Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].

    PubMed

    Bizoń, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is constantly exposed to xenobiotics. This will include exogenous substances from environmental pollution such as heavy metals and lifestyle such as smoking, which may lead to impaired functioning of many organs. The liver and kidney are the critical organs in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver and kidney damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as alanine aminopeptidase (AAP). AAP is a marker for early detection of acute kidney damage, and presence of AAP derive mainly from proximal tubular brush-border. Activity of AAP in urine allows to assess the damage resulting from the nephrotoxic exposure to heavy metals. In the serum AAP is mainly from hepatic. Activity of AAP may be useful to identify liver cancer. The investigation was shown, that AAP activity in the blood is used to detect hepatic cholestasis and congestive jaundice. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and urine. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material collected from the control group and smelters was divided into subgroups of nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic and cadmium were determined in urine using FAAS method (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in the acetylate flame on the SOLAAR M6. The activity of AA was determined in blood and in urine. The results showed a 9-fold

  20. Effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in healthy nonsmoking Saudi adults

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Syed Shahid; Ahmed, Shaikh Mujeeb; Al Hadlaq, Ahmad; Marzouk, Amir

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is an emerging marker of inflammation in respiratory diseases. However, it is affected by a number of confounding factors. We aimed to study the effect of drinking Arabian Qahwa on FENO in non-smoking Saudi healthy adults. METHODS: We recruited 12 nonsmoker healthy male adults aged 36.6 ± 2.7 (21-50) years. All subjects were free from acute respiratory infections or allergies and had normal ventilatory functions and serum IgE levels. At 8 am in the morning, their baseline values of FENO were recorded. They had not taken tea or coffee in the morning and had taken similar light breakfast. They were given three cups of Arabian Qahwa to drink and then after every 30 minutes, serial levels of FENO were recorded. RESULTS: Average FENO levels at baseline were 28.73 ± 9.33 (mean ± SD) parts per billion (ppb). The mean FENO levels started to decrease significantly after 30 minutes of drinking Arabian Qahwa (P=0.002). This decrease in FENO level was further observed till two hours after Qahwa drinking and then it started to increase in next 90 minutes but still was significantly lower than the baseline (P=0.002). The mean FENO level recorded after 4 hours was 27.22 ± 10.22 (P=0.039). CONCLUSIONS: FENO levels were significantly lowered by intake of Arabian Qahwa and this effect remains for about 4 hours. Therefore, history of recent Qahwa intake and abstinence is essential before performance of FENO and its interpretation. PMID:22924074

  1. Tolerance to repeated nicotine administration on performance, subjective, and physiological responses in nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Heishman, S J; Henningfield, J E

    2000-10-01

    When administered acutely to nonsmokers, nicotine's effects on performance are inconsistent, perhaps because of suboptimal dosing or initial dysphoria that could interfere with performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if a range of nicotine doses administered for 8 days to nonsmokers would enhance psychomotor and cognitive abilities and to document the development of nicotine tolerance or sensitization. Twelve male volunteers, who reported ever smoking five cigarettes or less, participated in 8 consecutive experimental days in which they were administered four doses of nicotine polacrilex gum each day in this order: 0, 2, 4, and 8 mg. Performance, subjective, and physiological measures were assessed before and after each dose. Plasma nicotine concentration ranged from 6.9 to 11.5 ng/ml following the 8 mg dose. Nicotine increased rate of responding and decreased response time on working memory (digit recall); however, accuracy was impaired. Nicotine also decreased accuracy on visual scanning and attention (two-letter search), and the 8 mg dose impaired gross motor coordination (circular lights). Tolerance did not develop to the performance impairing effects of nicotine. Nicotine produced dose-related increases in ratings of dysphoria and negative mood, including tension, anxiety, nervousness, turning of stomach, and sedation. Tolerance developed to some, but not all, of these aversive effects. Tolerance also was not observed to the increased cardiovascular measures. Although tolerance developed to some of the aversive effects of nicotine, performance enhancement was not observed. These data do not support the hypothesis that nicotine-induced performance enhancement contributes to the reinforcing effects of tobacco use during the early stages of dependence development.

  2. Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with a Lower Prevalence of Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Screened by OGTT than Non-Smoking in Chinese Men with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peizhu; Lu, Jun; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Juming; Weng, Jianping; Ji, Linong; Shan, Zhongyan; Liu, Jie; Tian, Haoming; Ji, Qiuhe; Zhu, Dalong; Ge, Jiapu; Lin, Lixiang; Chen, Li; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhigang; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yang, Wenying; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Different studies have produced conflicting results regarding the association between smoking and diabetes mellitus, and detailed analysis of this issue in Chinese males based on nationwide samples is lacking. We explored the association between cigarette smoking and newly-diagnosed diabetes mellitus (NDM) in Chinese males using a population-based case-control analysis; 16,286 male participants without previously diagnosed diabetes were included. Prediabetes and NDM were diagnosed using the oral glucose tolerance test. The cohort included 6,913 non-smokers (42.4%), 1,479 ex-smokers (9.1%) and 7,894 current smokers (48.5%). Age-adjusted glucose concentrations (mmol/L) were significantly lower at fasting and 120 min in current smokers than non-smokers (5.25 vs. 5.30, 6.46 vs. 6.55, respectively, both P < 0.01). After adjustment for demographic and behavioral variables (age, region, alcohol consumption status, physical activity, education, and family history of diabetes), logistic regression revealed significant negative associations between smoking and NDM in males of a normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.75, P = 0.007; waist circumference < 90 cm: AOR = 0.71, P = 0.001) and males living in southern China (AOR = 0.75, P = 0.009), but not in males who were overweight/obese, males with central obesity, or males living in northern China. Compared to non-smokers, current smokers were less likely to be centrally obese or have elevated BP (AOR: 0.82 and 0.74, both P < 0.05), and heavy smokers (≥ 20 pack-years) were less likely to have elevated TG (AOR = 0.84, P = 0.012) among males of a normal weight. There were no significant associations between quitting smoking and metabolic disorders either among males of a normal weight or males who were overweight/obese. In conclusion, smokers have a lower likelihood of NDM than non-smokers among Chinese males with a lower BMI/smaller waist. PMID:26954355

  3. The Association between Involuntary Smoking Exposure with Urine Cotinine Level and Blood Cadmium Level in General Non-Smoking Populations

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Unintentional environmental exposure to toxicants is associated with an aggravated health status of the general population. Involuntary smoking (IS) exposure is one of the main routes to involuntary toxicants exposure. However, few studies have attempted to understand the environmental cadmium exposure by IS exposure in the general, non-smoking population. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between blood cadmium level and IS level according to gender and age. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV–VI data that included heavy metal and urine cotinine sampling with IS exposure history. The final analysis comprised 3,493 adults (1,231 males and 2,262 females) and 395 adolescents (210 males and 185 females). Linear regression was performed to estimate the association between self-reported IS exposure with urine cotinine level and blood cadmium level in non-smokers with gender and age group stratification. In final regression model, the effect values (B) (standard errors [SE]) between blood cadmium and urine cotinine level in men was 0.0004 (0.0001) and 0.0006 (0.0002) in adults and adolescents, the B (SE) in women was 0.0006 (0.0002) and 0.0016 (0.0006) in adults and adolescents. Our study revealed, for the first time, a significant association between blood cadmium and IS exposure in non-smokers. Greater efforts are needed to improve environmental justices of the general population from IS, considering the severe harmful effects of involuntary exposure to even a low level of cadmium. PMID:28244280

  4. Korean nursing students' intention to migrate abroad.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunjoo; Moon, Mikyung

    2013-12-01

    Migration of Korean nurses has continued with changing patterns and reasons. However, detailed studies of migration among Korean nursing students are limited. This study examined the intention, reasons, and preferences of migration among Korean nursing students. This study also identified priorities and barriers to the decision of nursing students to migrate and work abroad. A descriptive study using a questionnaire was used for this study. A total of 717 nursing students from four BSN programs and three diploma programs at nursing schools in D city and K province of South Korea were included in the analysis. According to the results, 69.8% of respondents intended to migrate abroad, if possible, or absolutely in the future. The score for females who answered "yes, if possible" regarding the intention to migrate was significantly higher, compared to males. More than 64% of respondents eventually want to return to Korea after migration. The two most common reasons for migration were economic reason (salary) (29.7%) and "professional development (28.2%)". Half of all respondents preferred the US as the destination country of migration (50.5%). "Working condition" was the most prevalent reason for the decision regarding the destination and the place to work. More than 71% of respondents selected "the lack of language proficiency" as a barrier to migration. Economic reason was not as strong as in the past to explain migration of Korean nursing students. Most Korean nursing students want to return back with professional development and higher degree. Even permanent migration and return migration of nurses are an inevitable part of globalization, positive and negative aspects of migration between donor as well as destination countries should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An aggressive non-small cell lung cancer in nonsmokers: A case report of an unusual presentation of micropapillary lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Aixa Dones; Manzano, Kelvin Rivera; González, Ricardo Fernández; Adorno Fontánez, José R; Hernández, Ricardo A; Gonález Del Rosario, Modesto; Rodríguez, Rafael Vicens; Nieves Scharon, Joel E

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of an unusual fast growing lung micropapillary-predominant adenocarcinoma in a nonsmoker male patient without pre-existing lung disease. Adenocarcinomas have been described to be slow growing tumors, however our patient presented a fast-growing rate over a period of 21 days. When the patient failed broad spectrum antibiotic coverage, malignancy became part of the differential diagnosis. Once malignancy was detected, prompt identification and treatment was started in order to improve prognosis of the patients.

  6. Long work hours and obesity in Korean adult workers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as <40, 40-48 (reference), 49-60, and >60 hours per week. In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.

  7. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Avoidance Among Pregnant African-American Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Susan M.; Murray, Kennan D.; Nabil El-Khorazaty, M.; Gantz, Marie G.; Kiely, Michele; Best, Dana; Joseph, Jill G.; El-Mohandes, Ayman A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy contributes to adverse infant health outcomes. Limited previous research has focused on identifying correlates of ETS avoidance. This study sought to identify proximal and more distal correlates of ETS avoidance early in pregnancy among African-American women. Methods From a sample of low-income, black women (n=1044) recruited in six urban, prenatal care clinics (July 2001–October 2003), cotinine-confirmed nonsmokers with partners, household/family members, or friends who smoked (n=450) were identified and divided into two groups: any past-7-day ETS exposure and cotinine-confirmed ETS avoidance. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with ETS avoidance. Data were initially analyzed in 2004. Final models were reviewed and revised in 2007 and 2008. Results Twenty-seven percent of pregnant nonsmokers were confirmed as ETS avoiders. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the odds of ETS avoidance were increased among women who reported household smoking bans (OR=2.96; 95% CI=1.83, 4.77; p<0.0001), that the father wanted the baby (OR=2.70; CI=1.26, 5.76; p=0.01), and that no/few family members/friends smoked (OR=3.15; 95% CI=1.58, 6.29; p<0.001). The odds were decreased among women who had a current partner (OR= 0.42; 95% CI=0.23, 0.76; p<0.01), reported any intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR= 0.43; 95% CI=0.19, 0.95; p<0.05), and reported little social support to prevent ETS exposure (OR= 0.50; 95% CI=0.30, 0.85; p=0.01). Parity, emotional coping strategies, substance use during pregnancy, partner/household member smoking status, and self-confidence in avoiding ETS were significant in bivariate, but not multivariate analyses. Conclusions Social contextual factors were the strongest determinants of ETS avoidance during pregnancy. Results highlight the importance of prenatal screening to identify pregnant nonsmokers at risk

  8. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants.

  9. Utility of urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) to demonstrate increased lung epithelial permeability in non-smokers exposed to outdoor secondhand smoke

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Holland, Nina T.; Balmes, John R.; Hall, Daniel B.; Bernert, J. Thomas; Vena, John E.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Naeher, Luke P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the utility of urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) as a biomarker of increased lung epithelial permeability in non-smokers exposed to outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS). Methods Twenty-eight healthy non-smoking adults visited outdoor patios of a restaurant and a bar where non-participants smoked and an open-air control with no smokers on three weekend days in a crossover study; subjects visited each site once for three hours. Urine samples were collected at baseline, immediately post-exposure, and next-morning, and analyzed for CC16. Changes in CC16 across location-types or with cigarette count were analyzed using mixed-effect models, stratified by gender. Results Urinary CC16 was higher in males (n=9) compared to females (n=18) at all measurement occasions (p<0.002), possibly reflecting prostatic contamination. Urinary CC16 from pre-exposure to post-exposure was higher following visits to restaurant and bar sites compared to the control among females but this increase did not reach statistical significance. Post-exposure to pre-exposure urinary CC16 ratios among females increased with cigarette count (p=0.048). Exposure-related increases in urinary CC16 were not seen among males. Conclusion Urinary CC16 may be a useful biomarker of increased lung epithelial permeability among female non-smokers; further work will be required to evaluate its applicability to males. PMID:22805990

  10. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) occurred for the first time in Korea , 1951, although it had previously been known to both the Japanese and Russians...After Korean war, the disease has been fixed in the areas of DMZ as an endemic one, and from 100 to 300 cases have been reported every year. The aims...but in 1971 affected the middle districts and in 1972 invaded the southern parts of South Korea . The number of patients and the areas of KHF in 1972

  11. [Rate of recurrence of duodenal ulcer in smokers and nonsmokers].

    PubMed

    Bretzke, G

    1988-07-15

    In 70 patients (35 non-smokers and smokers each) with an endoscopically established duodenal ulcer the number of recidivations was investigated. In this case in the group of smokers an inclination to recidivations was found which was nearly double the size. Patients with a great consumption of nicotine per day were particularly affected. Apart from this the question was investigated whether the form of the ulcer has any influence on the frequency of recidivations. No remarkable differences between the forms of ulcer round, irregular, oval and linear could be proved. The economic disadvantages by inability to work considerably differ in the two groups. The number of days at which was not worked on account of putting the patients on the sick-list is nearly thrice as great in the group of smokers.

  12. Mucociliary clearance mechanism in smoking and nonsmoking normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Isawa, T.; Teshima, T.; Hirano, T.; Ebina, A.; Konno, K.

    1984-03-01

    Mucociliary clearance mechanisms were evaluated in 17 normal subjects visually and qualitatively by radioaerosol inhalation cinescintigraphy of the lung, and quantitatively by calculating the following indices: (a) overall or regional lung retention ratio; (b) airway deposition ratio; (c) airway retention ratio; (d) airway clearance efficiency; and (e) alveolar deposition ratio. The inhaled aerosol deposited homogeneously throughout the lungs, and mucus transport was always cephalad in direction and constant in velocity, although a temporary stasis of mucus was seen in smokers. Overall lung retention ratio was significantly smaller and airway deposition ratio was significantly larger in the smokers than in nonsmokers, but there was no difference between the groups in airway retention ratio or airway clearance efficiency. There was an inverse relationship between alveolar deposition ratio and cigarette consumption. Mucociliary clearance mechanisms were well maintained in the normal subjects, but in the smokers inhaled aerosol tended to deposit more proximally.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Sundeep S; Barnes, Peter J

    2009-08-29

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoking is established as a major risk factor, but emerging evidence suggests that other risk factors are important, especially in developing countries. An estimated 25-45% of patients with COPD have never smoked; the burden of non-smoking COPD is therefore much higher than previously believed. About 3 billion people, half the worldwide population, are exposed to smoke from biomass fuel compared with 1.01 billion people who smoke tobacco, which suggests that exposure to biomass smoke might be the biggest risk factor for COPD globally. We review the evidence for the association of COPD with biomass fuel, occupational exposure to dusts and gases, history of pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic asthma, respiratory-tract infections during childhood, outdoor air pollution, and poor socioeconomic status.

  14. Adverse health effects of air pollutants in a nonsmoking population.

    PubMed

    Pope, C A

    1996-07-17

    Utah Valley has provided an interesting and unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of respirable particulate air pollution (PM10). Residents of this valley are predominantly nonsmoking members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The area has moderately high average PM10 levels with periods of highly elevated PM10 concentrations due to local emissions being trapped in a stagnant air mass near the valley floor during low-level temperature inversion episodes. Due to a labor dispute, there was intermittent operation of the single largest pollution source, an old integrated steel mill. Levels of other common pollutants including sulfur dioxide, ozone, and acidic aerosol are relatively low. Studies specific to Utah Valley have observed that elevated PM10 concentrations are associated with: (1) decreased lung function; (2) increased incidence of respiratory symptoms; (3) increased school absenteeism; (4) increased respiratory hospital admissions; and (5) increased mortality, especially respiratory and cardiovascular mortality.

  15. Analysis of lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A Vikramsimha; Killampalli, Lakshmi Keerthana; Prakash, A Ravi; Naag, Sushma; Sreenath, G; Biraggari, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in maintaining the cell membrane integrity. Lipid profile is a panel of blood tests that serve as an initial medical screening for abnormalities in lipids and approximate risk for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatitis, etc., The present study evaluates the alterations in lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers and aims to achieve a correlation between them. The study is an in vitro type of cross-sectional study with 25 oral cancer patients, 25 chronic smokers (habit persisting for 15 years or more), and 15 nonsmokers as control group. Blood samples had been collected, and triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were analyzed using a lipid profile kit and an autoanalyzer. The results were analyzed using the unpaired t-test and ANOVA test (P < 0.05). There was a significant increase in TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL and decrease in HDL in the smokers group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A significant increase in LDL, but a decrease in values of HDL, VLDL, TG, and TC was observed in the cancer patients group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). There is an inverse relationship between serum lipid profile in smokers and cancer patients. The decrease in lipid profile in cancer patients might be due to their increased utilization of lipids by neoplastic cells in membrane biogenesis. Therefore, a decrease in lipid profile in smokers can be assumed that they might be more prone to develop cancerous conditions.

  16. Indoor heating sources and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking women.

    PubMed

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Belanger, Kathleen; Bracken, Michael B; Beckett, William S; Holford, Theodore R; Gent, Janneane F; McSharry, Jean-Ellen; Leaderer, Brian P

    2005-05-01

    Secondary heating appliances are important indoor sources of air pollution, including particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). We hypothesized that the use of secondary heating sources increases respiratory symptoms in women living in nonsmoking households and specifically that concentrations of SO2 and NO2 emitted from heating sources are associated with respiratory symptoms. Mothers who delivered babies at 12 hospitals in Connecticut and Virginia (1993-1996) were enrolled. There were 888 women who contributed symptom and exposure information during the winter heating season (15 October to 15 April), for a total of 9783 reporting periods (median = 12 reporting periods per woman, interquartile range 11-12). Adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of effects of source use and measured concentrations on rate of days with symptoms were obtained using generalized estimating equations for a log-linear Poisson model, controlling age, education, race, history of allergies, number of children, dwelling type, and residence state. In adjusted models, each hour-per-day increase in kerosene heater use is associated with an increase in wheezing (RR = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.11). Each hour of fireplace use is associated with increased cough (1.05; 1.01-1.09), sore throat (1.04; 1.00-1.08), and marginally with chest tightness (1.05; 0.99-1.12). Each 10 ppb increase in SO2 (a proxy for sulfate aerosol) is associated with increased wheezing (1.57; 1.10-2.26) and chest tightness (1.32; 1.01-1.71). Emissions from fireplaces, gas space heaters, and kerosene heaters may contribute to respiratory symptoms in a population of nonsmoking women.

  17. Nicotine and attention: event-related potential investigations in nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Knott, Verner; Shah, Dhrasti; Fisher, Derek; Millar, Anne; Prise, Stephanie; Scott, Terri Lynn; Thompson, Mackenzie

    2009-01-01

    Research into the effects of nicotine and smoking on cognition has largely confirmed the subjective reports of smoking in smokers on mental functions, showing smoking abstinence to disrupt and smoking/nicotine to restore cognitive functioning. Evidence of performance improvements in nonsmokers has provided partial support for the absolute effects of nicotine on cognitive processes, which are independent of withdrawal relief, but the mechanisms underlying its pro-cognitive properties still remain elusive. The attentional facilitation frequently reported with smoking/nicotine may be indirectly related to its diffuse arousal-enhancing actions, as evidenced by electroencephalographic (EEG) fast frequency power increments, or it may reflect nicotine's direct modulating effects on specific neural processes governing stimulus encoding, selection and rejection. Event-related potential (ERP) components extracted during the performance of cognitive tasks have proven to be sensitive to early pre-attentive and later attention-dependent processes that are not otherwise reflected in behavioral probes. To date, the majority of ERP studies have been conducted with smokers using passive non-task paradigms or relatively non-demanding "oddball" tasks. This paper will emphasize our recent ERP investigations with acute nicotine polacrilex (6 mg) administered to nonsmokers, and with a battery of ERP and behavioral performance paradigms focusing on intra- and inter-modal selective attention and distraction processes. These ERP findings of nicotine-augmented early attentional processing add support to the contention that nicotine may be be used by smokers as a "pharmacological tool" for tuning cognitive functions relating to the automatic and controlled aspects of sensory input detection and selection.

  18. Analysis of lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, A. Vikramsimha; Killampalli, Lakshmi Keerthana; Prakash, A. Ravi; Naag, Sushma; Sreenath, G.; Biraggari, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipids play an important role in maintaining the cell membrane integrity. Lipid profile is a panel of blood tests that serve as an initial medical screening for abnormalities in lipids and approximate risk for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatitis, etc., The present study evaluates the alterations in lipid profile in cancer patients, smokers, and nonsmokers and aims to achieve a correlation between them. Materials and Methods: The study is an in vitro type of cross-sectional study with 25 oral cancer patients, 25 chronic smokers (habit persisting for 15 years or more), and 15 nonsmokers as control group. Blood samples had been collected, and triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were analyzed using a lipid profile kit and an autoanalyzer. The results were analyzed using the unpaired t-test and ANOVA test (P < 0.05). Results: There was a significant increase in TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL and decrease in HDL in the smokers group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). A significant increase in LDL, but a decrease in values of HDL, VLDL, TG, and TC was observed in the cancer patients group when compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There is an inverse relationship between serum lipid profile in smokers and cancer patients. The decrease in lipid profile in cancer patients might be due to their increased utilization of lipids by neoplastic cells in membrane biogenesis. Therefore, a decrease in lipid profile in smokers can be assumed that they might be more prone to develop cancerous conditions. PMID:28182070

  19. Associations between healthy lifestyles and health outcomes among older Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Seungah H; Kim, Hae-Young

    2016-06-01

    Healthy lifestyles have been found to be positively associated with physical and mental health outcomes in later life. Although multiple health behaviors have the potential to enhance health among older adults, little is known about a multiple behavior approach. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between multiple healthy lifestyles and health outcomes among Korean older adults. The study sample consisted of 3844 Korean older adults aged 65 years and older from a cross-section sample being followed in the nationally representative dataset, the 2012 Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Healthy lifestyles included non-smoking, normal drinking, physical activity and normal weight. Adjusting for covariates (age, sex, marital status, education, household income and having chronic condition), a multivariate logistic regression was carried out to examine self-rated health, disability, cognitive impairment and depression as four individual health outcomes. Compared with respondents with no healthy lifestyle factors, respondents with at least one healthy lifestyle factor had better self-rated health, respondents with at least two healthy lifestyle factors had reduced risk of disability, and respondents with at least three healthy lifestyle factors had reduced risk of cognitive impairment. Interestingly, having just two or three healthy lifestyle factor was associated with reduced risk of depression. These results suggest that older Koreans with more healthy lifestyles are healthier than those with less healthy lifestyles. Also, the association between multiple healthy lifestyle factors and health outcomes is different by specific health outcome, showing different mechanisms between multiple healthy lifestyle factors and each health outcome. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; ●●: ●●-●●. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Individualized Risk Prediction Model for Lung Cancer in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohee; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Ji An; Lim, Hyunsun; Han, Jun Tae; Park, Il Su; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Jin Soo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Korea. The objective of the present study was to develop an individualized risk prediction model for lung cancer in Korean men using population-based cohort data. Methods From a population-based cohort study of 1,324,804 Korean men free of cancer at baseline, the individualized absolute risk of developing lung cancer was estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. We checked the validity of the model using C statistics and the Hosmer–Lemeshow chi-square test on an external validation dataset. Results The risk prediction model for lung cancer in Korean men included smoking exposure, age at smoking initiation, body mass index, physical activity, and fasting glucose levels. The model showed excellent performance (C statistic = 0.871, 95% CI = 0.867–0.876). Smoking was significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in Korean men, with a four-fold increased risk in current smokers consuming more than one pack a day relative to non-smokers. Age at smoking initiation was also a significant predictor for developing lung cancer; a younger age at initiation was associated with a higher risk of developing lung cancer. Conclusion This is the first study to provide an individualized risk prediction model for lung cancer in an Asian population with very good model performance. In addition to current smoking status, earlier exposure to smoking was a very important factor for developing lung cancer. Since most of the risk factors are modifiable, this model can be used to identify those who are at a higher risk and who can subsequently modify their lifestyle choices to lower their risk of lung cancer. PMID:23408946

  1. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  2. Decline of lung function and development of chronic airflow limitation: a longitudinal study of non-smokers and smokers in Busselton, Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Peat, J K; Woolcock, A J; Cullen, K

    1990-01-01

    Data collected during seven population health surveys over 18 years in Busselton, Western Australia, were examined to determine the effect of smoking on lung function and to investigate the development of chronic airflow limitation. Lung function was measured and details of respiratory illness and smoking histories were collected from subjects attending surveys at three year intervals from 1966 to 1984. Data from ex-smokers and asthmatic patients (diagnosis based on answer to questionnaire) were excluded. Regression of height adjusted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) on age was calculated individually for 759 non-smokers and 225 regular smokers with four or more observations. Decline in height adjusted FEV1 was similar for men and women. In smokers the rate of decline in FEV1 was greater than in non-smokers and was related to the amount smoked, to the extent that a smoker could expect a 20-30% greater rate of decline than a non-smoker of the same age. Chronic airflow limitation (defined as FEV1/FEV less than 65% or FEV1 less than 65% predicted on at least two occasions) was common, occurring in 24% of men and 18% of women who were regular smokers and in 5% of male and 8% of female non-smokers. These figures are higher than those reported in other populations, especially for women and for non-smokers. Not all chronic airflow limitation was associated with respiratory symptoms, confirming that the condition may be unrecognised until it is advanced. PMID:2321175

  3. Differences between nicotine-abstinent smokers and non-smokers in terms of visuospatial attention and inhibition before and after single-blind nicotine administration.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N A; Böcker, K B E; Deschamps, P K H; Kemner, C; Kenemans, J L

    2014-09-26

    The cholinergic system is implicated in visuospatial attention and inhibition, however the exact role is still unclear. Two key mechanisms in visuospatial attention are bias and disengagement. Bias refers to neuronal signals that enhance the sensitivity of the sensory cortex, disengagement is the decoupling of attention. Previous studies suggest that nicotine affects disengagement and (related) inhibition. However the exact relation is still unknown. Furthermore, nicotine-abstinence in 'healthy' smokers may resemble some anomalies of visuospatial attention and inhibition as seen in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Smokers and non-smokers (32 male students) performed in a visuospatial cueing (VSC) task, to assess bias and disengagement, and in a stop-signal task (SST) to assess inhibition. It was expected that nicotine abstinent smokers compared to non-smokers, would show poor disengagement (indicated by an enhanced validity effect) and poor inhibitory control (indicated by an enhanced stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)). It was expected that nicotine would positively affect disengagement and inhibition: hypothesis 1 stated that this effect would be larger in smokers as opposed to non-smokers, in terms of smoking-related deficient inhibitory control. Hypothesis 2 stated the exact opposite, in terms of drug-tolerance. Results indicated no baseline differences. Nicotine enhanced inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers. Integrating the results, nicotine-abstinent smokers do not seem to resemble ADHD patients, and do not seem to smoke in order to self-medicate a pre-existing deficit pertaining to mechanisms of visuospatial attention and inhibition. Nicotine may affect inhibition more in non-smokers relative to smokers, consistent with a drug-tolerance account.

  4. Comparison of Salivary pH, Buffering Capacity and Alkaline Phosphatase in Smokers and Healthy Non-Smokers: Retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad T; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2016-08-01

    Saliva contains alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-a key intracellular enzyme related to destructive processes and cellular damage-and has buffering capacity (BC) against acids due to the presence of bicarbonate and phosphate ions. Smoking may have deleterious effects on the oral environment due to pH changes which can affect ALP activity. This study aimed to evaluate the salivary pH, BC and ALP activity of male smokers and healthy non-smokers. This retrospective cohort study took place between August 2012 and December 2013. A total of 251 healthy male non-smokers and 259 male smokers from Hamadan, Iran, were selected. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each participant and pH and BC were determined using a pH meter. Salivary enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric assay. Mean salivary pH (7.42 ± 0.48 and 7.52 ± 0.43, respectively; P = 0.018) and BC (3.41 ± 0.54 and 4.17 ± 0.71; P = 0.001) was significantly lower in smokers compared to non-smokers. Mean ALP levels were 49.58 ± 23.33 IU/L among smokers and 55.11 ± 27.85 IU/L among non-smokers (P = 0.015). Significantly lower pH, BC and ALP levels were observed among smokers in comparison to a healthy control group. These salivary alterations could potentially be utilised as biochemical markers for the evaluation of oral tissue function and side-effects among smokers. Further longitudinal studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of smoking on salivary components.

  5. Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…

  6. Internet Addiction and Psychiatric Symptoms among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Keum Seong; Hwang, Seon Young; Choi, Ja Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to identify the independent factors associated with intermittent addiction and addiction to the Internet and to examine the psychiatric symptoms in Korean adolescents when the demographic and Internet-related factors were controlled. Methods: Male and female students (N = 912) in the 7th-12th grades were…

  7. Do Human Rights Exist for Korean Gay Men and Lesbians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Gahyun

    All talk of sex was taboo in Korean society until the middle of this century. Only during the last decade has sexuality been a topic of discussion, but still the discourse was dominated by traditional male views regarding sex. Today, the number of homosexuals living openly is growing, and active debate about homosexuality in Korea is now emerging.…

  8. Internet Addiction and Psychiatric Symptoms among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Keum Seong; Hwang, Seon Young; Choi, Ja Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to identify the independent factors associated with intermittent addiction and addiction to the Internet and to examine the psychiatric symptoms in Korean adolescents when the demographic and Internet-related factors were controlled. Methods: Male and female students (N = 912) in the 7th-12th grades were…

  9. A Comparison of Mortality Rates in a Large Population of Smokers and Non-smokers: based on the Presence or Absence of Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, John W; Blaha, Michael J; Rivera, Juan J; Budoff, Matthew J; Khan, Atif N; Shaw, Leslee J; Berman, Daniel S; Raggi, Paolo; Min, James K; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Nasir, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To further study the interplay between smoking status, Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) and all-cause mortality. Background Prior studies have not directly compared the relative prognostic impact of CAC in smokers versus non-smokers. In particular, while zero CAC is a known favorable prognostic-marker, whether smokers without CAC have as good a prognosis as non-smokers without CAC is unknown. Given computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer appears effective in smokers, the relative prognostic implications of visualizing any CAC versus no CAC on such screening also deserve study. Methods Our study cohort consisted of 44,042 asymptomatic individuals referred for non-contrast cardiac CT (age 54±11 years, 54% males). Subjects were followed for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results Approximately 14% (n=6020) of subjects were active smokers at enrollment. There were 901 deaths (2.05%) overall, with increased mortality in smokers vs. non-smokers (4.3% vs. 1.7%, p<0.0001). Smoking remained a risk factor for mortality across increasing strata of CAC scores (1-100, 101-400, and >400). In multivariable analysis within these strata, we found mortality hazard ratios (HRs) of 3.8 (95% CI, 2.8-5.2), 3.5 (2.6-4.9), and 2.7 (2.1-3.5), respectively, in smokers compared to nonsmokers. At each stratum of elevated CAC score, mortality in smokers was consistently higher than mortality in non-smokers from the CAC stratum above. However, among the 19,898 individuals with CAC=0, the mortality HR for smokers without CAC was 3.6 (95% CI, 2.3-5.7), compared to non-smokers without CAC. Conclusion Smoking is a risk factor for death across the entire spectrum of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Smokers with any coronary calcification are at significantly increased future mortality risk than smokers without CAC. However, the absence of CAC may not be as useful a “negative risk factor” in active smokers; as this group has mortality

  10. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JAPAN Report on 30th Anniversary of Chongnyon (KCNA, 24, 31 May 85) " NODONG SINMUN Report 99 Anniversary Marked Abroad 10° Briefs Taekwondo ...KOREA/KOREANS IN JAPAN BRIEFS TAEKWONDO FEDERATION HEAD LEAVES—Pyongyang, 29 May (KCNA)--Mr Choe Hong-hui, president of the International Taegwondo

  11. Korean Phrase Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This is a brief guide to Korean pronunciation and phrases, prepared for U.S. Navy personnel. Expressions are grouped according to the following headings: (1) emergency expressions; (2) general expressions; (3) personal needs; (4) location and terrain; (5) roads and transportation; (6) communications; (7) letters, numbers, size, time, etc.; (8)…

  12. Finite Control in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kum Young

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…

  13. ACOUSTIC PHONETICS OF KOREAN,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    utilize the spectrographic data and subsequent analysis in a better description of the phonology of Korean. Although the scope of the present...automatic speech recognition require accurate knowledge of the phonology of the language as a theoretical basis. The present study aims to develop a phonology which will provide such a basis for the advanced studies. (Author)

  14. The role of the non-smoker in enforcing smoke-free laws.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Schoretsaniti, Sotiria; Patelarou, Evridiki; Filippidis, Filippos T; Connolly, Gregory N; Tountas, Yiannis

    2011-02-01

    Compliance with laws making certain environments smoke free has focused mainly on smokers' behavior, while the role of non-smokers has scarcely been investigated. Our cross-sectional study interviewed 4043 adults (2037 smokers and 2006 non-smokers) in the general population of Greece during April 2009. Non-smokers reported that they would actively work for compliance with the law. The non-smokers were older, more educated (odds ratio, OR 1.4), and were more likely to be annoyed by the smell of environmental tobacco smoke (OR 2.4) or report that it irritates their eyes (OR 1.8). Policymakers should evaluate how non-smokers could actively support smoke-free laws through reporting of violations using media campaigns that inform them of their rights, and other measures.

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke in the nonsmoking section of a restaurant: a case study.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, R A; Finn, D; Tomkins, B A; Maskarinec, M P

    2001-12-01

    This study tested the concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) components in a small restaurant/pub with smoking and nonsmoking areas-a facility outfitted with a heat-recovery ventilation system and directional airflow. The ETS levels in the nonsmoking area were compared with those in other similar restaurants/pubs where indoor smoking is altogether prohibited. The results indicate that ETS component concentrations in the nonsmoking section of the facility in question were not statistically different (P < 0.05) from those measured in similar facilities where smoking is prohibited. The regulatory implications of these findings are that ventilation techniques for restaurants/pubs with separate smoking and nonsmoking areas are capable of achieving nonsmoking area ETS concentrations that are comparable to those of similar facilities that prohibit smoking outright.

  16. Differences in cardiovascular mortality in smokers, past-smokers and non-smokers: findings from the FRENA registry.

    PubMed

    Suriñach, J M; Alvarez, L R; Coll, R; Carmona, J A; Sanclemente, C; Aguilar, E; Monreal, M

    2009-09-01

    The influence of smoking on outcome in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is controversial. Even less is known about its influence in patients with cerebrovascular (CVD), or peripheral artery (PAD) disease. FRENA is an ongoing, observational registry of consecutive outpatients with symptomatic CAD, CVD, or PAD. We reviewed their cardiovascular mortality according to smoking status. As of May 2008, 2501 patients had been enrolled in FRENA. Of these, 439 (18%) were current smokers, 1086 (43%) past-smokers, 976 (39%) had never smoked. Current- and past-smokers were 10 years younger, more often males, and more likely to have chronic lung disease, but had diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, or renal insufficiency less often than non-smokers. Over a mean follow-up of 14 months, 123 patients died (cardiovascular death, 68). On univariate analysis, current smokers had a significantly lower rate of cardiovascular death: 1.1 (95% CI: 0.4-2.4) per 100 patient-years in current smokers; 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2-2.8) in past-smokers; 3.5 (95% CI: 2.5-4.7) in non-smokers, with no differences between patients with CAD, CVD or PAD. Mean age at cardiovascular death was 82+/-6.4; 70+/-9.9 and 67+/-15 years, respectively. On multivariate analysis, smoking status was not independently associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular death. Current and past-smokers with CAD, CVD or PAD had a less than half cardiovascular mortality than those who never smoked, but this may be explained by the confounding effect of additional variables. They died over 10 years younger than non-smokers. 2009 European Federation of Internal Medicine.

  17. Longitudinal study of household smoking ban adoption among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Suzanne C; Corcos, Isabel A; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F; Irvin, Veronica L

    2009-11-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the adoption of bans on smoking in private homes. This longitudinal study examined: (1) the prevalence of home smoking bans at baseline, (2) the incidence and predictors of new ban implementation by follow-up, and (3) the reasons for banning smoking and the difficulties with enforcement. The sample consisted of 1360 adults of Korean descent residing in California who were interviewed by telephone (in English/Korean) at baseline during 2001-2002 and re-interviewed in 2006-2007. Data analyses were conducted in 2007-2008. The proportion of respondents with a complete household smoking ban grew from 59% at baseline to 91% by the follow-up interview. Among the 552 respondents who did not have a ban at baseline, 84% had adopted a ban by follow-up. Three baseline factors independently predicted ban adoption during the follow-up period: the presence of a nonsmoking respondent or spouse, the presence of nonsmoking family members, and respondent's belief that secondhand smoke caused lung cancer. The most highly rated reasons for banning smoking were as follows: because smoke annoys others, to protect family members, to avoid the odor, to discourage youth from smoking, and to encourage smokers to quit. Finally, respondents indicated that they would find it most difficult to ask their parent-in-law not to smoke. The proportion of households with smoking bans increased substantially, but households with smokers or family members who smoke remained less likely to implement bans. The importance of culturally sensitive programs to promote household bans cannot be overstated.

  18. North Korean Paradoxes. Circumstances, Costs, and Consequences of Korean Unification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    paper) 1. Korean reunification question (1945- ) 2. Korea (North)-Economic policy. 3. Korea (North)--Politics and government. 4. Security, International...order@rand.org Preface This monograph, focusing on North Korea , analyzes some of the economic, political, and security issues associated with Korean ...Northeast Asia. iii iv North Korean Paradoxes This research was performed within the International Security and Defense Policy Center of the RAND National

  19. Naval Cooperation After Korean Unification,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    Korean Unification _ ’ - < ~ ■::-■;-■’ "’&■ ■ *>’ -■ ■’■ I Analyses for Defense Analyses Center for Korea ... Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) held a workshop in Washington, DC, from December 4 to 6, 1995, to examine the prospects for U.S.- Korean ... Korean Navy, coastal missions are certain to continue. Korea will still require defense of its coastlines; regulatory missions to enforce

  20. Social capital and self-rated health among older Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jung; Harris, Lesley Maradik

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate determinants of self-rated health and describe their association with social capital and socioeconomic characteristics among older Korean immigrants. A cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants (aged 60 years and older) was conducted in Los Angeles county. Independent variables included age, gender, marital status, income of the older Koreans, and social capital included social norms, trust, partnership with the community, information sharing, and political participation. Self-rated health was the dependent variable. Descriptive analyses were done to show group differences in self-rated health and logistic regression analyses to identify determinants of self-rated health. Gender (male), high income, and high levels of information sharing were significant determinants of high self-rated health status among older Korean immigrants. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that gender, income, and information sharing are directly associated with the self-rated health status of older Korean immigrants.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among Nonsmokers: Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Oh, Heeyoung; Lee, Ye-Eun

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD among non-smoking adults, and to investigate the risk factors that affect disease occurrence. The data from the 5th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHNES) has been used, and 5,489 non-smoking adults aged between 40 to 79 years with diagnosable FEV1/FVC were selected therefrom as the subjects of this study. The prevalence of COPD in non-smokers was observed to be 6.9%. The development of the COPD showed statistically significant difference among groups; males showed about 2.54 times (95% CI: 1.410∼146.612) higher rates compared to females, subjects aged 70-79 showed about 3.08 times (95% CI: 1.823∼11.437) higher rates compared to those aged 40-49, subjects whose education level was elementary school or less showed about 5.36 times (95% CI: 1.341∼21.393) higher rates compared to those who are college or more, and subjects who are middle school showed about 4.72 times (95% CI: 1.374∼16.217) higher rates compared to the college or more. It is confirmed that development of the COPD in non-smokers reach significance. For the prevention of the disease, there is a need to identify COPD-related risk factors in males and the elderly and provide appropriate nursing intervention, and to develop health-related education programs for those with low educational background to take in order to promote the improvement of lung health.

  2. HIV needle risk behaviors and drug use: a comparison of crack-smoking and nonsmoking injection drug users in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Carlson, R G; Falck, R S; Wang, J; Siegal, H A; Rahman, A

    1999-01-01

    This study compares the drug use and needle risk behaviors among 733 crack-smoking injection drug users (IDUs) and 518 nonsmoking IDUs. Participants were recruited in Dayton and Columbus, Ohio, for the Cooperative Agreement for AIDS Community-Based Outreach/Intervention Research Program from 1992 to 1996. Crack-smoking IDUs were more likely to be male, African-American, and 30 to 40 years of age, but less likely to be married or living with a sex partner compared to nonsmokers. Daily crack users were less likely to be daily injectors but more likely to use alcohol daily when compared to non-crack users and less-than-daily crack smokers. IDUs who smoked crack less than daily were more likely to have injected with needles and syringes used by others. There is an urgent need for additional research on the relationship between drug injection and crack smoking as well as improved HIV risk-reduction interventions that include drug abuse treatment components focusing on issues surrounding crack-cocaine addiction.

  3. Nicotine Differentially Modulates Antisaccade Eye-Gaze Away from Emotional Stimuli in Nonsmokers Stratified by Pre-Task Baseline Performance

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Nathaniel J.; Gilbert, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and objective Studies indicate that nicotine enhances some aspects of attention and executive functioning and attenuates the attentional salience of emotionally negative distractors. The purpose of this study was to assess whether nicotine can enhance executive control over prepotent responses in emotional contexts in nonsmokers and whether such enhancement is greater in individuals with low baseline performance. Methods The antisaccade task (AST) measures the inhibition of the tendency to glance in the direction of the onset of a visual stimulus and thus is an index of control over prepotent responses. Ten male and 14 female nonsmokers wore a nicotine and placebo patch on counterbalanced days that included emotional picture primes and targets. Results There were significant beneficial effects of nicotine on antisaccade reaction time (RT). These beneficial effects occurred in individuals with poor- and average-baseline performance, but not in high baseline performers. In slow baseline-RT individuals nicotine reduced RTs associated with negative targets in the left visual field (VF) and reduced RTs associated with positive and neutral targets in the right VF. In contrast, in the average baseline group, nicotine reduced RTs for positive targets in both VFs and neutral targets in the left VF. Conclusions The results suggest that nicotine may produce its effects by enhancing executive functions and that the differential effects as a function of VF, target emotion, and group may also reflect lateralized differences in the effects of nicotine on brain reactivity to emotional stimuli. PMID:22955567

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Calcium Profile in Whole Saliva From Smokers and Non-Smokers with Chronic Generalized Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Shashikanth; Kashyap, Rajesh; Maiya, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Measures of in vivo calcium status are important in understanding the mineralization capacity as it is an essential mineral component of both teeth and bone; and also play a vital role in the lipid profile and hormonal balance. Aim To evaluate the existence of any disturbances in calcium metabolism and absorption induced by smoking, by quantitatively assessing the variations in the salivary calcium level between smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis and relating to their periodontal status. Materials and Methods A total of 50 male patients were selected and categorized as Group I (smokers with chronic generalized periodontitis) and Group II (non-smoker/ non-tobacco users with chronic generalized periodontitis). Clinical parameters such as Calculus Index and Community Periodontal Index were assessed. Subsequently two ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected and subjected to biochemical analysis for the estimation of salivary calcium which was carried out in the next 20 min. Results Salivary calcium levels were significantly higher in Group I (2.2700) compared to Group II (1.7260). Higher calculus index and CPI index score were also seen in Group I when compared to Group II. Conclusion Elevated salivary calcium level among the Group I emphasize the decreased calcium absorption efficiency among the smokers. High salivary calcium content hardens plaque more rapidly, indirectly influencing the level of oral hygiene. PMID:26155563

  5. Differences in the activation of abdominal muscles during trunk extension between smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Hyung; Kim, Laurentius Jongsoon

    2016-05-13

    Many studies reported that the morbidity of the respiratory and circulatory diseases is higher among smokers than non-smokers. Some recent studies reported the effects of smoking on the musculoskeletal system. However, it is difficult to generalize the experimental environment because it is different from activities of daily living environment. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in the activation of abdominal muscles during trunk extension between smokers and non-smokers. The subjects were 30 healthy adults (15 smokers and 15 non-smokers). The percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) values of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique and transversus abdominis(IO&TrA) were measured using the surface electromyography System. The results showed no significant differences in the %MVIC of RA and EO between smokers and non-smokers. However, the %MVIC of IO&TrA showed a significant difference between smokers and non-smokers. The %MVIC of IO&TrA of non-smokers was higher. The non-smokers showed greater activation of deep abdominal muscles than smokers did.

  6. The effects of nicotine on intrusive memories in nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Kirsten A; Cougle, Jesse R

    2013-12-01

    Correlational research suggests that smoking increases risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though such research by nature cannot rule out third variable explanations for this relationship. The present study used an analogue trauma film design to experimentally test the effects of nicotine on the occurrence of intrusive memories. Fifty-four healthy nonsmokers were randomly assigned to ingest either a nicotine or placebo lozenge before viewing a film depicting motor vehicle accidents. Participants recorded intrusive memories immediately after the film and for a week via diary. Participants in the nicotine condition reported significantly more intrusive memories immediately after watching the film, yet no group differences emerged on intrusions or intrusion-related distress reported during the following week. Among participants low in dispositional rumination, those who had ingested a nicotine lozenge reported more intrusions in the subsequent week than those in the placebo condition. These findings provide novel experimental evidence for the role of nicotine in increasing risk of PTSD and suggest that nicotine may contribute to trauma-related rumination but not heightened reactivity to trauma cues.

  7. Involuntary bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in nonsmoking heterogeneous human population

    SciTech Connect

    Krotoszynski, B.K.; O'Neill, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical bioaccumulation in nonsmoking heterogeneous human population was determined by a noninvasive expired air technique. Ubiquitous and nonubiquitous environmental pollutants were isolated and identified and the respective distribution and inhalation hazards were evaluated. Attempts were made to isolate and identify the state of health related expired air constituents. The selected 291 environmental pollutants or the total estimated bioaccumulation, were distributed among the heterogenous and homogenous study populations as the constituents of the respective chemical bioaccumulation. The bioaccumulation of the environmental pollutants observed in the heterogenous population, including controls, prediabetics and diabetics, consisted of 176 compounds or 60.5% of the total estimated bioaccumulation. The constituents of this bioaccumulation are termed ubiquitous pollutants because they have accumulated in the heterogenous population as the result of the prolonged body exposures irrespectively of the residence, age, height, weight, sex, occupation, diet and the state of health of the exposed individuals. The major contribution to the bioaccumulation in the heterogenous population arose from 150 hydrocarbons (85.2% of total bioaccumulation) which presents serious exposure health hazards to this population. This is supported by the known toxicity and the possible mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of these hydrocarbons. Such health hazards will augment with the increasing utilization of petroleum products in industry and automobiles. (JMT)

  8. Periodontitis and gestational diabetes mellitus in non-smoking females.

    PubMed

    Chokwiriyachit, Anyarat; Dasanayake, Ananda P; Suwannarong, Waraporn; Hormdee, Doosasee; Sumanonta, Gunniga; Prasertchareonsuk, Witoon; Wara-Aswapati, Nawarat; Combellick, Joan; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2013-07-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Periodontal disease is associated with increased levels of inflammatory mediators and may be a risk factor for GDM. The authors aimed to examine the association between periodontitis and GDM among non-smoking pregnant females. This case-control study included 50 females who were diagnosed with GDM and 50 age- and hospital-matched females without diabetes in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Full-mouth periodontal examinations were performed during pregnancy by two calibrated dentists who were unaware of the case-control status. Periodontitis was defined as ≥1 site with probing depth (PD) ≥5 mm and clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥2 mm at the same site. Serum samples were collected to measure C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 levels. Analyses were performed using conditional logistic regression. Fifty percent of the case females had periodontitis compared to 26% of the controls. Females with GDM had significantly higher mean PD and CAL, more sites with bleeding on probing, and increased levels of CRP compared to the controls. Periodontitis was significantly associated with GDM (odds ratio = 3.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.19 to 7.56). The association remained significant with additional adjustment for family history of diabetes, prepregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy. The results suggest that periodontitis is associated with GDM. Therefore, clinicians should assess periodontal conditions of pregnant females.

  9. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Nonsmoking Adolescents in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P.; Kioko, David M.; Ogwell Ouma, Ahmed E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the prevalence and determinants of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adolescents in 9 West African countries. Methods. We conducted a pooled analysis with nationally representative 2006 to 2009 Global Youth Tobacco Survey data. We used descriptive statistics to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure and inferential statistics using a multivariable logistic regression model to determine factors associated with SHS exposure. We investigated average marginal effect results that show the probability of SHS exposure, adjusting for all other attributes. Results. SHS exposure inside the home ranged from 13.0% to 45.0%; SHS exposure outside the home ranged from 24.7% to 80.1%. Parental or peer smoking behaviors were significantly associated with higher probability of SHS exposure in all 9 countries. Knowledge of smoking harm, support for smoking bans, exposure to antismoking media messages, and receptivity of school tobacco education were significantly associated with higher SHS exposure in most countries. Conclusions. West African policymakers should adopt policies consistent with Article 8 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and its guidelines and public health education to promote smoke-free households. PMID:26180960

  10. Study of the elemental composition of saliva of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Poles, Antônio A; Balcão, Victor M; Chaud, Marco V; Vila, Marta M D C; Aranha, Norberto; Yoshida, Valquíria M H; Oliveira, José M

    2016-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a serious public health problem. According to data from the World Health Organization, it is estimated that currently more than 1.2 billion people worldwide do tobacco use and that smoking-related diseases are responsible for about 6 million deaths each. With attention to this, it is necessary to seek preventive and prognostic of trying to reduce these numbers and alert the public in general about the danger and the harm caused by its use. Thus, the objective of the research work undertaken was to evaluate and compare the chemical composition of collected saliva samples of smokers and nonsmokers by X-ray Fluorescence analyses. 32 individuals were selected, 16 of which used cigarette on a daily basis and the other 16 had never smoked. Saliva was collected with the help of a (sterile) disposable Pasteur pipette and samples sent to the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory at UNISO (LAFINAU), where analyzes were carried out. Individuals who agreed to participate in the study answered a questionnaire to define their profile of inclusion and signed an informed consent form (CEP Protocol no. 831.753 of 09/10/2014). The results clearly showed that there are differences in the concentrations of chemical elements in the saliva of smokers and non-smokers. The biggest discrepancies were found at concentrations of the chemical elements Sulfur, Phosphorus, Chlorine and Potassium, and smaller differences in the concentration of the elements Calcium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Titanium, Vanadium and Nickel. In only one saliva sample, and in quite low amounts, arsenic was detected. The results indicate that smoking produces more significant changes in the saliva of women than in men, increasing the concentration of some elements in the saliva of female smokers, much more than in the male smokers. The cigarette usage time also appears to exert a greater influence on the composition of the saliva of women than in men, indicating that the damage caused by cigarette

  11. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  12. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-23

    Clique’s Crimes Against Taekwondo Group Exposed (KCNA, 18 Jan. 87) 45 SOUTH KOREA POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Editorial Denounces Two Kims Control of...meeting. It said, "In order to prevent another war and consolidate peace on the penin- sula, the meeting should be realized as early as possible." Kim...military confrontation and tension prevailing on the Korean peninsula, promote trust and unity between the north and the south, prevent war, ensure peace

  13. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Ship To Investigate Krill Fishing in Antarctic (YONHAP, 24 Nov 86) , 77 INTERNATIONAL COMMENTARY Daily on U.S.-Beijing, Pyongyang-Moscow Relations...maintenance of friendly relations is the "supreme objective," he added. /12913 CSO: 4100/061 76 S. KOREA/FOREIGN RELATIONS SHIP TO INVESTIGATE KRILL ...the Southern Korean port city of Pusan for the Antarctic Ocean to investigate possibilities of fishing for Krill , the fisheries office announced. The

  14. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-25

    enormous political offensive, will carry out parliamentary democracy._ We ought to know clearly that they possibly do not care whether societ^a V^ X ...uphold. Such advocacy is at best an act of abusing parliamentar - ians’ right to immunity from censuring on the Assembly floor. They echo the demands of...wives at Chongwadae, the presidential residence. Chon chatted with the foreign diplomats on the South-North Korean Red Cross talks held in Seoul Tuesday

  15. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-13

    socialist state. The Korean people who attend him as their great leader are the happiest and most proud people . 79 Johannese Pilane, chief of the northern...happiness of the people and per- formed immortal feats for the accomplishment of the cause of making the whole world independent in a long period of...Anniversary Banquet Held 70 - d - Briefs Chongnyon Traders Arrive 72 FOREIGN RELATIONS Solidarity With Palestinian People , Struggle Noted (KCNA

  16. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    needed in.the production of var- ious guns and tanks to the South Korean puppets and have had Japanese war munition monopolist enterprises directly...emergency measures or from guns and bayonets. The puppet’s oppressive frenzy is the manifestation of his extreme fear and uneasiness. Today, the...the long-term office of the dictatorial regime and those who can survive only by smashing this scheme. A gun -and-bayonet suppressive offense is the

  17. Korean Dermatological Association.

    PubMed

    Ro, B I

    1998-12-01

    The Korean Dermatological Association (KDA) was founded on October 27, 1945. The first annual meeting was held on November 15, 1947, and meetings have been held twice a year since 1975. The KDA 50th Annual Spring Meeting was on April 15-16, 1998. Korean Journal of Dermatology, the official journal of the KDA, was first published in 1960 and has been published bimonthly since 1978. Annals of Dermatology (Seoul), the English journal, was first published in 1989 and has been published quarterly since 1995. The American residency and specialty board system was introduced in 1954. Board specialty examination of dermatology candidates by the KDA requires four years of residency. Three hundred and twenty residents are now in the training course in the fifty-nine resident training approved hospitals this year. KDA has seven regional dermatological societies; Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Honam, Chungchong, Jeonbuk, and Kangwon. KDA has had eleven research subcommittees since 1981. There are two associated societies of the KDA; the Korean Society for Investigative Dermatology was founded in 1991, and the Korean Society for Medical Mycology was founded in 1994. The Korea-Japan Joint Meeting of Dermatology has been held every two years since 1979 and the Korea-China Joint Meeting of Dermatology and Mycology has been held since 1996. About three hundred papers were presented at the 49th Annual Autumn Meeting on October 21-23, 1997. These included special lectures, invited lectures, educational lectures, oral presentations, and posters. About five hundred dermatologists participated in that meeting. KDA joined the International League of Dermatological Societies in 1973 with forty-seven members. There are around 1200 members of the KDA including 320 residents in 1998.

  18. Determinants of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in South Korean children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Vermeulen, Roel; Lenters, Virissa; Cho, Soo-Hun; Strickland, Paul T; Kang, Daehee

    2009-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dominant sources of the urinary pyrene metabolite, 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), in South Korean children. Urine samples were collected from 102 non-smoking children (aged 10-14). Urinary 1-OHPG was assayed by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, following immuno-affinity purification using monoclonal antibody 8E11. Urinary cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, was measured by GC/MS. Information on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, diet, fuel type for heating home, and other possible sources of PAH exposure was collected by self-administered questionnaires. Mean (+/-SE) 1-OHPG levels were 1.64 (+/-0.06) ng/ml (range 0.04-3.27 ng/ml). Two multiple linear regression analyses (differing in how ETS was approximated: by parental smoking or urinary cotinine) revealed a positive association between urinary 1-OHPG levels and parental smoking at home (P = 0.007), log urinary cotinine (P = 0.165), frequent grilled (shell)fish consumption (P = 0.061), and living in a commercial/other zone (P = 0.007) versus a residential or industrial zone. No consistent associations were found between 1-OHPG and the child's sex, grilled meat consumption, or fuels used to heat the home. These results support that ETS, frequent grilled fish consumption, and the ambient environment are important predictors of urinary 1-OHPG levels in South Korean children.

  19. The pattern and prevalence of hypodontia in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Chung, C J; Han, J-H; Kim, K-H

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern and prevalence of hypodontia in the Korean population along with its association with the dental and skeletal polymorphisms. The diagnostic materials including casts, panoramic radiographs, and lateral cephalograms of 1622 Korean subjects (611 males, 1011 females) were used to evaluate the pattern and prevalence of hypodontia as well as its association with the congenital absence of the third molar. The changes in the tooth size and skeletal characteristics of the hypodontia group were evaluated using cast/cephalometric analysis and compared with the standard values of normal occlusion in Koreans. The prevalence of hypodontia in Koreans was 11.2%. The mandibular lateral incisor and second premolar were the most frequently absent. Congenital absence of the third molar was observed more frequently in the hypodontia group than in the non-hypodontia group. The prevalence of hypodontia in Class III malocclusion was significantly higher than in Class I or Class II malocclusion. The pattern and prevalence of hypodontia can vary in different ethnic groups. In Koreans, the special features of hypodontia were its association with a higher level of congenital missing third molars and skeletal Class III malocclusion.

  20. Social contexts of momentary craving to smoke among Korean American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jimi; Cerrada, Christian J; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Dunton, Genevieve; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-05-01

    Korean American emerging adult (KAEA) smokers represent a culturally and developmentally unique population constituted of primarily light, intermittent smokers. Sociocultural contexts might play an important role in contributing to instances of acute cigarette craving and motivation to smoke in this population; yet, research testing such hypotheses is scant. The current study tests whether and how social contexts are associated with the craving among KAEA smokers. Seventy-eight daily KAEA smokers, who smoke 4+ cigs/day, participated in a 7-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in which participants responded to both signal-contingent (random) and event-contingent (smoking) prompts to answer surveys on their mobile phones (prompt-level n=1377; 603 random +774 smoking prompts). Nicotine dependence was measured at baseline; cigarette craving, negative affect, presence of others smoking, social contexts were measured with EMA. Modeling of within-participant variation and covariation showed that being with Korean friends (vs. alone) was associated with increased levels of momentary craving. This association between Korean friends and craving disappeared when adjusted for presence of others smoking, which was a strong predictor of momentary craving. The positive association between Korean friends and craving was amplified immediately prior to smoking (vs. non-smoking random) instances. Being with Korean friends might serve as a culturally-specific salient smoking cue, which might have been learned throughout their smoking history. Our data also showed that increased craving associated with Korean friends may represent social settings that primarily involve cigarette smoking. Given our findings on cigarette use among KAEA's social network, addressing cigarette use as a group behavior might be a fruitful intervention strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nasal mucociliary transportability of male and female smokers.

    PubMed

    Uzeloto, Juliana Souza; Ramos, Dionei; C F Freire, Ana Paula; G D Christofaro, Diego; M C Ramos, Ercy

    2017-04-08

    Female smoker's present increased susceptibility to several diseases when compared to the opposite gender. However, there are no studies showing differences in nasal mucociliary transport behavior between male and female smokers. To compare the nasal mucociliary transportability in male and female smokers and non-smokers, taking into consideration age, anthropometric data, smoking load and pulmonary function. The analysis included 139 individuals (33 men and 37 women smokers and 32 men and 37 women non-smokers). All participants answered an initial interview to obtain personal data and smoking load. Anthropometric data and carbon monoxide in the exhaled air were assessed. Individuals also performed pulmonary function test and Saccharin Transit Time test. To compare saccharin transit time values between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, stratification of all independent variables was performed (sociodemographic, smoking and respiratory variables) into two categories: below and above the median values. There was no difference between men and women, smokers and non-smokers, regarding nasal mucociliary transportability. Significant differences were only observed between non-smokers. Among those with less forced vital capacity values (<97.37% of predicted), women presented mucociliary transport faster than men. Moreover, it was observed influence of BMI and COex (women smokers), FCV and FEV1 (men non-smokers) and FEF25-75% (women non-smokers) on saccharin transit time values. Based on the findings of this study, nasal mucociliary transport in male and female adult smokers, apparently healthy, are similar. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared,…

  3. Teaching English Pronunciation to Koreans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Barbara

    This guide provides teachers of Korean children and adults with information on the problems Koreans encounter in learning to pronounce English. Principles of contrastive analysis and error analysis are used to give insight into these pronunciation problems. The first section dealing with problem sounds covers the following: (1) an explanation of…

  4. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  5. Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

  6. Korean Advanced Course: Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the fifth in a series of seven readers designed for continuation training in the Defense Language Institute's Basic Course in Korean. Twelve articles, drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970, focus on Korean letters, life, and customs. The reader is to be used for development of…

  7. Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

  8. The unintended target: assessing nonsmokers' reactions to gain- and loss-framed antismoking public service announcements.

    PubMed

    Wong, Norman C H; Harvell, Lindsey A; Harrison, Kylie J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined nonsmokers' emotional responses and intentions to promote smoking cessation after exposure to a gain- or loss-framed antismoking public service announcement (PSA). Participants were 183 nonsmokers, and results reveal that gain- and loss-framed antismoking PSAs elicited different types and levels of affect as a function of the message theme for the antismoking PSA. Although secondhand smoke PSAs elicited higher levels of anger toward smokers and fear of secondhand smoke, smoking addiction PSAs tended to elicit more guilt among nonsmokers. Elicited emotions were significant predictors of intentions, and overall, loss-framed appeals worked better than gain-framed appeals at increasing nonsmokers' intentions to talk to friends who smoke about quitting.

  9. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. PMID:25506057

  10. Different resting-state functional connectivity alterations in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Yan; Sun, Yawen; Ding, Weina; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA.

  11. Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

  12. Acculturation of Korean Residents in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Don Chang

    This report explores the acculturation of Korean residents; both Korean families and Korean American families who reside in an academic community (Athens, Georgia) and an urban community (Atlanta, Georgia). The study is based on the view that Korean residents in the United States are a distinctive subgroup that has not yet been studied in terms of…

  13. Can you please put it out? Predicting non-smokers' assertiveness intentions at work.

    PubMed

    Aspropoulos, Eleftherios; Lazuras, Lambros; Rodafinos, Angelos; Eiser, J Richard

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed to identify the psychosocial predictors of non-smoker employee intentions to ask smokers not to smoke at work. The predictive effects of past behaviour, anticipated regret, social norms, attitudinal, outcome expectancy and behavioural control beliefs were investigated in relation to the Attitudes-Social influence-self-Efficacy (ASE) model. Data were collected from Greek non-smoker employees (n=137, mean age=33.5, SD=10.5, 54.7% female) in 15 companies. The main outcome measure was assertiveness intention. Data on participants' past smoking, age, gender and on current smoking policy in the company were also collected. The majority of employees (77.4%) reported being annoyed by exposure to passive smoking at work, but only 37% reported having asked a smoker colleague not to smoke in the last 30 days. Regression analysis showed that the strongest predictor of non-smokers' assertiveness intentions was how often they believed that other non-smokers were assertive. Perceived control over being assertive, annoyance with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at work and past assertive behaviour also significantly predicted assertiveness intentions. Assertiveness by non-smoker employees seems to be guided mainly by normative and behavioural control beliefs, annoyance with SHS exposure at work, and past behaviour. Interventions to promote assertiveness in non-smokers might benefit from efficacy training combined with conveying the messages that the majority of other non-smokers are frequently annoyed by exposure to SHS, and that nearly half of all non-smokers are assertive towards smokers.

  14. Benzene levels in ambient air and breath of smokers and nonsmokers in urban and pristine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Gruenke, L.D.; Craig, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39 ppb, n = 21). In SF, benzene in smokers' breath (6.8 +/- 3.0 ppb) was greater than in nonsmokers' breath (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) and smokers' ambient air (3.3 +/- 0.8 ppb). In SB the same pattern was observed: benzene in smokers' breath was higher than in nonsmokers' breath and ambient air. Benzene in SF nonsmokers' breath was greater than in SB nonsmokers' breath. Marijuana-only smokers had benzene breath levels between those of smokers and nonsmokers. There was little correlation between benzene in breath and number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet. Of special interest was the finding that benzene in breath of SF nonsmokers (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) was greater than that in nonsmokers ambient air (1.4 +/- 0.1 ppb). The same was true in SB, where benzene in nonsmokers breath was greater than ambient air (1.8 +/- 0.2 ppb versus 1.0 +/- 0.1 ppb on d 1 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppb versus 0.23 +/- 0.18 ppb on d 2). This suggests an additional source of benzene other than outdoor ambient air.

  15. EVALUATION OF CLINICAL PERIODONTAL CONDITIONS IN SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    Luzzi, Lucinara Ignez Tavares; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; Passanezi, Euloir; Sant'ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Cestari, Tânia Mary

    2007-01-01

    Given that tobacco smoking habit is a risk factor for periodontal diseases, the aim of this study was to compare clinical periodontal aspects between smokers and non-smokers. The clinical status were assessed in 55 patients, 29 smokers and 26 non-smokers, aged 30 to 50 years, with mean age of 40. The clinical parameters used were: probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession (GR) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) for arches (upper and lower) and teeth (anterior and posterior). Tooth loss was also evaluated in both groups. Multiple regression analysis showed: tendency of greater probing depth and clinical attachment level means for smokers; greater amount of plaque in smokers in all regions; greater gingival index means for non-smokers with clinical significance (p<0.05) in all regions. Although, without statistical significance, the analysis showed greater gingival bleeding index means almost always for non-smokers; similar gingival recession means in both groups and tendency of upper tooth loss in smokers and lower tooth loss in non-smokers. The findings of this study showed that clinical periodontal parameters may be different in smokers when compared to non-smokers and that masking of some periodontal signs can be a result of nicotine's vasoconstrictor effect. PMID:19089190

  16. Neural activity related to the processing of increasing monetary reward in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Martin-Soelch, C; Missimer, J; Leenders, K L; Schultz, W

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated the processing of increasing monetary reward in nonsmoking and smoking subjects. The choice of the subject populations has been motivated by the observation of differences between nonsmokers and smokers in response to rewarding stimuli in a previous study. Subjects performed a pattern recognition task with delayed response, while rCBF was measured with [H215O] PET. Correct responses to the task were reinforced with three different amounts of monetary reward. The subjects received the sum of the rewards at the end of the experiment. The results show that a cortico-subcortical loop, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the cingulate gyrus and the thalamus is involved in processing increasing monetary reward. Furthermore, the striatal response differentiates nonsmokers from smokers. Thus, we found significant correlations between rCBF increases in striatum and increasing monetary reward and between striatal rCBF increases and mood in nonsmokers, but not in smokers. Moreover, no significant mood changes among the different monetary rewards could be observed in smokers. We infer that the response of the striatum to reward is related to changes in subjective feelings. The differences between smokers and nonsmokers confirm our previous conclusions that the association between blood flow, performance, mood and amount of reward is more direct in nonsmokers.

  17. Minnesota plan for nonsmoking and health: multidisciplinary approach to risk factor control.

    PubMed

    Dean, A G; Shultz, J M; Gust, S W; Harty, K C; Moen, M E

    1986-01-01

    In 1981, the Minnesota Department of Health began a long-term program to control risk factors for the major health problems of the State as determined by an expert committee. The methods chosen to initiate programs were social, economic, and epidemiologic background research and a multidisciplinary statewide planning process. Smoking was considered the most important problem. During 1983-84, department staff members analyzed the epidemiology and economics of smoking in Minnesota and reviewed the literature on methods of smoking control. They and a multidisciplinary technical committee prepared a coordinated plan to increase the prevalence of nonsmoking in Minnesota. The 39 recommendations address mass communication and marketing, educational programs in schools, public and private regulation, economic disincentives through taxation, and funding of programs and evaluation of results. The Minnesota Plan for Nonsmoking and Health was released in September 1984. During the first half year, the plan provided material for formation of a coalition of health organizations to promote nonsmoking. In June 1985, the Minnesota Legislature passed the Omnibus Nonsmoking and Disease Prevention Act, which provides $4 million over 2 years for promotion of nonsmoking through education, regulation, and public communications. These intervention activities will be funded by a portion of a 5-cent increase in cigarette excise tax. The foundations have been laid for what may be the most comprehensive statewide nonsmoking program in the United States.

  18. Perceptions of e-cigarettes: a comparison of adult smokers and non-smokers in a Mechanical Turk sample.

    PubMed

    Bauhoff, Sebastian; Montero, Adrian; Scharf, Deborah

    2017-05-01

    Given plans to extend its regulatory authority to e-cigarettes, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) urgently needs to understand how e-cigarettes are perceived by the public. To examine how smoking status impacts adult perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. We used Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a "crowdsourcing" platform, to rapidly survey a large (n = 796; female = 381; male = 415), diverse sample of adult ever (44%) and never smokers (56%), including ever (28%) and never (72%) users of e-cigarettes. Smokers and non-smokers learned about e-cigarettes primarily through the internet and conversations with others. Ever smokers were more likely than never smokers, and female current smokers were more likely than female former smokers, to have learned about e-cigarettes from point of sale advertising (p's < 0.05) and to believe that e-cigarettes help smokers quit (ps < 0.05). Among never users of e-cigarettes, current smokers were more likely than never smokers and former smokers to report that they would try e-cigarettes in the future (ps < 0.01). Current smokers' top reason for wanting to try e-cigarettes was to quit or reduce smoking (56%), while never and former smokers listed curiosity. In contrast, female current smokers' top reason for not trying e-cigarettes was health and safety concerns (44%) while males were deterred by expense (44%). Adult smokers and non-smokers have different perceptions and expectations of e-cigarettes. Public health messages regarding e-cigarettes may need to be tailored separately for persons with and without a history of using conventional cigarettes. Tailoring messages by gender within smoker groups may also improve their impact.

  19. The association between lifetime cigarette smoking and dysphonia in the Korean general population: findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Haewon

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between current smoking and lifetime amount smoked and the incidence of dysphonia using data from a national cross-sectional survey that represents the Korean population. Subjects were 3,600 non-institutionalised civilian adults over the age of 19 (1,501 males and 2,099 females) who completed the laryngeal examination of the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For lifetime amount smoked, subjects were classified as light smokers (≤26.7 pack years), medium smokers (26.7-40.5 pack years), heavy smokers (40.5-55.5 pack years), and very heavy smokers (55.5-156 pack years) based on pack years (packs smoked per day × years as a smoker). The odds ratio (OR) for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (age, gender, level of education, income, occupation, alcohol consumption and pain/discomfort during the last two weeks), current smokers had a 1.8 times (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.17-2.68]) higher risk for self-reported voice problems than non-smokers. Moreover, current smokers had a 1.6 times (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.02-2.38]) higher risk of laryngeal disorder (p < 0.05). In terms of pack years, very heavy smokers were significantly more likely to have laryngeal disorder, while self-reported voice problems were significantly more likely for heavy smokers but not very heavy smokers. The results of this study imply that chronic smoking has a significant relationship with dysphonia. Longitudinal studies are required in future work to verify the causality between lifetime smoking amount and dysphonia.

  20. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  1. Prospects from Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-29

    Samuel S. Kim (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan Press, 2004), 1-2. 2 Seung -Ho Joo, “Korean Foreign Relations Toward The Twenty-First Century...Reunification,” Asian Affairs: An American Review (Winter 1999): 195-207. 53 Seung -Ho Joo, American Asian Review, 131 54 Pollack and Lee, 87. 55 Suk- hee ...S. Kim , The Two Koreas And The Great Powers, 98. 74 Snyder, NBR Analysis, 54. 75 Suk- hee Han, 137-139. 76 Victor D. Cha, “Defensive Realism and

  2. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Kwon, Ojin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM) treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%), low back (13.3%), elbow, and ankle (8.4%) injuries were most common. Joint (41.6%) and muscle (30.7%) were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%), chuna manual therapy (16.0%), physical therapy (15.2%), taping (9.0%), and cupping (7.8%) to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%). This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine. PMID:27651819

  3. Feasibility of Translaminar Screw Placement in Korean Population: Morphometric Analysis of Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyuk; Kurniawan, Ferry; Lee, Junho; Jeon, Jae Kyun; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement in Koran population, and compare the acceptance rate using previously reported data in American population. Materials and Methods The translaminar lengths, thickness, heights, and sagittal-diagonal measurements were performed. The feasibility analysis was performed using unilateral and bilateral 3.5 mm cervical screw placement on the CT scans within 0.5 mm of safety margin. We also performed radiographic analysis of the morphometric dimensions and the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement at C3-C7. Results Korean population had similar or significantly shorter translaminar lengths and thickness (lengths and thickness in C7 among males; lengths in C6-C7 and thickness in C4 among females) than American population, but had similar or significantly longer translaminar heights and sagittal-diagonal measurements (heights in C3-C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C6 among males; heights in C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C7 among females). Unilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C4-C6 were significantly smaller between Korean and American female population. Bilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3 and C5-C6 were significantly larger between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American female population. Conclusion The feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement is different depending on different ethnics. Subaxial cervical unilateral translaminar screw placement among Korean male population and bilateral placement at C4-C7 among Korean female population are more acceptable than American population. PMID:25510760

  4. Measurement of aesthetic proportions in the profile view of Koreans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jong Hwan; Jang, Yong Ju; Park, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2009-02-01

    We have evaluated the usefulness of direct soft tissue measurements in profile photographs for determining the nasal proportions and angles of young Korean individuals and those of rhinoplasty patients, and we compared these findings with existing norms of Caucasian populations. We retrospectively compared preoperative profile measurements of nasal length, nasal tip projection, dorsal height, radix height, nasolabial angle, and nasofrontal angle in 123 patients who underwent rhinoplasty, with measurements in 21 young Korean adults. Rhinoplasty patients were grouped by preoperative diagnosis as deviated nose without saddle or hump, saddle nose, hump nose, and low radix. The young Koreans had a nasal length to nasal tip projection to dorsal height to radix height ratio of 2:0.97:0.61:0.28. Dorsal height differed significantly among groups of rhinoplasty patients. Those with low radix had the lowest dorsal and radix height, whereas those with saddle nose had the smallest nasal tip projection. The average nasolabial and nasofrontal angles were 78.5 degrees and 82.7 degrees, respectively, in young male Koreans and 126.0 degrees and 133.6 degrees, respectively, in young female Koreans. In the deviated nose group, all parameters except for nasofrontal angle were significantly changed after rhinoplasty. In the saddle nose group, nasal tip projection and dorsal height were significantly increased, whereas, in the hump nose group, nasal tip projection and nasolabial angle were significantly altered. Direct soft tissue measurement on profile photographs is useful for assessing nasal characteristics and postrhinoplasty outcomes. Compared with Caucasians, young Koreans had relatively lower dorsum and radix and more acute nasolabial angle, but similar nasofrontal angle.

  5. Korean Affairs Report No. 299

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-11

    certainly win victory. Ladies and gentlemen, the South Korean masses and the Latin American masses are close freinds fighting in the same ranks of the...DAILY ON ’WEAK-KNEED’ ROK DIPLOMACY SK151246 Seoul TONG-A ILBO in Korean 15 Jul 83 p 2 iArticle from the column "Tidbits"] IText] Yi Ki-chu, political...Korean 16 Jul 83 p 2 lEditorial: "The Dignity of the Constitution"] [Text] We are observing the 35th Constitution Day. On 17 July 1948, our

  6. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Supriya; Gupta, Sharat; Singh, Sharanjeet; Kumar, Avnish

    2017-07-01

    Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18-35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p<0.05) decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced mid-expiratory flow rate (FEF25-75%) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) compared with those of the comparison group. The extent of deterioration in lung function of brick kiln workers was associated with the duration of exposure. In workers with >8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV1 (1.92 L), FVC (2.01 L), FEF25-75% (2.19 L/s) and PEFR (4.81 L/s) were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  7. Risk factors for lung cancer in non-smokers in Xuanwei County of China

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Q.; Chen, W.; Chen, H.; He, X.Z. )

    1993-06-01

    Tobacco smoking and some types of occupational exposures have consistently been considered as important etiologic factors of lung cancer in industrial countries. At the First World Conference of Lung Cancer (Wyndwer, 1983), it was stressed that more attention should be paid to finding out the causes of lung cancer in non-smokers. In Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, annual lung cancer death rate was 27.7 per 100,000 in males, among China's highest, and 25.3 per 100,000 in females, the China's highest. The female's lung cancer death rate in Xuanwei County was even much higher than that of the same period in USA white women (ECACM, 1979; Mulvihill, 1976). Marked district variation in cancer mortality exists within Xuanwei County. The county can be divided into high-, medium- and low-mortality areas. Over 90% of the population are farmers. The local residents traditionally burned three major kinds of fuels: smoky coal, smokeless coal and wood, for heating and cooking. The three lung cancer high mortality areas, including Chengguan, Rongcheng and Laibin communes, mainly burned the smoky coal from Laibin smoky-coal mine. The fuel was burned in a shallow, unventilated fire pit in the floor of the dwelling. Fuel burning in shallow unventilated pits has resulted in high indoor air pollution levels. The concentrations of airborne particles (pm 10) inside houses during smoky coal and wood combustion were very high. Indoor concentration of suspended particulates and dichloromethane extractable organics were 24.4mg/m3 and 17.6mg/m3 in burning of smoky coal; 22.3mg/m3, 12.3mg/m3 for burning wood; and 1.8mg/m3, 0.5mg/m3 for burning of smokeless coals.

  8. Traumatic experiences and mental health of north korean refugees in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Woo-Teak; Yu, Shi-Eun; Cho, Young-A; Eom, Jin-Sup

    2008-12-01

    This study was conducted at Hanawon-a government sponsored educational facility for the settlement of North Korean refugees during their initial phase in South Korea-in 2004 to explore their mental health status and traumatic experiences in North Korea and during their escape period. A survey was conducted in November 2004 with 62 North Korean refugees at Hanawon, and the Trauma Checklist was used to measure their traumatic experiences. To measure their psychological-mental health status, the Personality Assessment Inventory was administered. In comparison with the traumatic experiences of the North Korean refugees found in the study conducted in 2001 at Hanawon using the same methods, the current study showed a relatively lower frequency of traumatic experiences among the participants. The Personality Assessment Inventory results revealed that the study participants scored higher than average South Koreans in all clinical scales. Particularly, their mania (62.51) and schizophrenia (61.75) scores were above 60, a clinically meaningful score. In the gender comparison, the males exhibited meaningfully higher levels of alcohol problem, non-support, and warmth scale scores. Compared to the 2001 study, the overall traumatic experiences among North Korean refugees participated in this study. But continous support is necessary for their successful adaptation to South Korean Society have declined. The North Korean refugees at Hanawon experienced difficulties maintaining their mental health and the men in particular requested more intensive care and support for this purpose.

  9. Determination of representative dimension parameter values of Korean knee joints for knee joint implant design.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Dai Soon; Tao, Quang Bang; Todo, Mitsugu; Jeon, Insu

    2012-05-01

    Knee joint implants developed by western companies have been imported to Korea and used for Korean patients. However, many clinical problems occur in knee joints of Korean patients after total knee joint replacement owing to the geometric mismatch between the western implants and Korean knee joint structures. To solve these problems, a method to determine the representative dimension parameter values of Korean knee joints is introduced to aid in the design of knee joint implants appropriate for Korean patients. Measurements of the dimension parameters of 88 male Korean knee joint subjects were carried out. The distribution of the subjects versus each measured parameter value was investigated. The measured dimension parameter values of each parameter were grouped by suitable intervals called the "size group," and average values of the size groups were calculated. The knee joint subjects were grouped as the "patient group" based on "size group numbers" of each parameter. From the iterative calculations to decrease the errors between the average dimension parameter values of each "patient group" and the dimension parameter values of the subjects, the average dimension parameter values that give less than the error criterion were determined to be the representative dimension parameter values for designing knee joint implants for Korean patients.

  10. Increased nitric oxide in exhaled air: an early marker of asthma in non-smoking aluminium potroom workers?

    PubMed Central

    Lund, M; Oksne, P; Hamre, R; Kongerud, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study exhaled nitric oxide (NO) as a marker of airway inflammation caused by potroom exposure, hypothesising that (a) workers exposed to potroom pollutants would have higher concentrations of NO in expired air than control subjects employed at the same plant but working outside of the potroom atmosphere, and (b) that concentrations of exhaled NO in potroom employees might be positively associated with concentrations of fluoride and exposure to dust.
METHODS—A study group comprising 186 male subjects (aged 24-63 years), employed in the potrooms of one Norwegian aluminium smelter, and 40 comparable control subjects (aged 25-60 years) recruited from the same plant, were examined by measurements of exhaled and nasal concentrations of NO, spirometry, and a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms as a part of an annual health surveillance programme. Estimates of exposure to fluorides and dust for selected job categories were obtained by means of personal samplers carried by the workers.
RESULTS—In the non-smokers, the concentrations of exhaled NO were higher in the potroom workers than in the controls (median (interquartile range) 9.3 (6.2-15.6) v 5.7 (4.6-8.3) ppb, p=0.001). The two groups did not differ in spirometry and asthma-like symptoms. Non-smoking potroom workers with asthma-like symptoms had higher concentrations of exhaled NO than those with no symptoms (median (interquartile range) 21.0 (19.3-41.4) v 8.5 (5.9-12.8) ppb, p=0.001), but had comparable spirometric values. In subjects who smoked, the concentrations of exhaled NO did not differ significantly between potroom workers and controls (median (interquartile range) 4.6 (3.3-8.0) v 4.0 (3.4-5.1) ppb. Exhaled NO was not significantly associated with either duration of employment or routine measurements of dust and fluorides.
CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to potroom pollutants is associated with increased concentrations of exhaled NO in non-smoking subjects. Nitric oxide in exhaled

  11. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people ("everyday" and "everyday or sometimes") were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62-1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79-4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality due to SHS exposure may be higher in smokers than

  12. Disparity and Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Japanese Employees, Particularly Smokers vs. Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Colwell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring disparities in secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is important for tailoring smoke-free policies to the needs of different groups. We examined disparity and trends in SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers at Japanese workplaces between 2002 and 2012. Methods A total of 32,940 employees in nationally representative, population-based, repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2002, 2007 and 2012 in Japan was analyzed. Adjusted rate ratios for workplace SHS exposure from other people (“everyday” and “everyday or sometimes”) were calculated according to covariates, using log-binomial regression models with survey weights. In this survey, employees who do not smoke at workplace are defined as workplace-nonsmokers; and those smoke at workplace are used as workplace-smokers. SHS exposure for smokers does not involve their own SHS. Results While everyday SHS exposure prevalence in workplace-nonsmokers decreased markedly (33.2% to 11.4%), that in workplace-smokers decreased only slightly (63.3% to 55.6%). Workplace-smokers were significantly more likely to report everyday SHS exposure than workplace-nonsmokers, and the degree of association increased over time: compared with the nonsmokers (reference), covariates-adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval) for the smokers increased from 1.70 (1.62–1.77) in 2002 to 4.16 (3.79–4.56) in 2012. Similar results were observed for everyday or sometimes SHS exposure. Compared with complete workplace smoking bans, partial and no bans were consistently and significantly associated with high SHS exposure among both nonsmokers and smokers. We also observed disparities in SHS exposure by employee characteristics, such as age group and worksite scale. Conclusions Although overall SHS exposure decreased among Japanese employees between 2002 and 2012, the SHS exposure disparity between nonsmokers and smokers widened. Because smokers reported more frequent SHS exposure than nonsmokers, subsequent mortality

  13. Menstrual and reproductive factors in association with lung cancer in female lifetime nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jocelyn M; Lacey, James V; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ji, Bu-Tian; Hou, Lifang; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Blair, Aaron; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zheng, Wei

    2008-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is irrefutably the strongest risk factor for lung cancer; however, approximately 25% of cases worldwide occur among nonsmokers. The age-adjusted annual incidence rate of lung cancer in Shanghai, a region where relatively few women smoke cigarettes, is one of the highest in the world. To help further elucidate the etiology of lung cancer among nonsmokers, the authors examined hormonal factors among women who were lifetime nonsmokers. They analyzed data from the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study, which recruited Chinese women aged 40-70 years between 1996 and 2000 from selected urban communities. The current analysis included 71,314 women (n = 220 cases) who were lifetime nonsmokers and had no history of cancer at baseline. Later age at menopause (> or =51 vs. <46 years; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40, 1.00), longer reproductive period (> or =36 vs. <31 years; HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.93), higher parity (> or =4 vs. 0 children; HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.90), and intrauterine device use (HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.86) were associated with decreased risks of lung cancer. This large prospective study suggests a potential role for hormonal factors in the etiology of lung cancer among nonsmoking women.

  14. Self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke and positive urinary cotinine in pregnant nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Paek, Yu Jin; Kang, Jeong Bae; Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Do-Hoon; Seong, Moon-Woo; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cho, Jung Jin; Song, Hong Ji; Park, Kyung Hee; Kim, Chan Ho; Ko, Jeong Ah

    2009-06-30

    This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between self-reported exposure status to second-hand smoke and urinary cotinine level in pregnant nonsmokers. We recruited pregnant nonsmokers from the prenatal care clinics of a university hospital and two community health centers, and their urinary cotinine concentrations were measured. Among a total of 412 pregnant nonsmokers, the proportions of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke and positive urinary cotinine level were 60.4% and 3.4%, respectively. Among those, 4.8% of the participants who reported exposure to second-hand smoke had cotinine levels of 40 ng/mL (the kappa value = 0.029, p = 0.049). Among those who reported living with smokers (n = 170), "smoking currently permitted in the whole house" (vs. not permitted at home) was associated with positive urinary cotinine in the univariable analysis. Furthermore, this variable showed a significant association with positive urinary cotinine in the stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis [Odds ratio (OR), 15.6; 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 2.1-115.4]. In the current study, the association between self-reported exposure status to second-hand smoke and positive urinary cotinine in pregnant nonsmokers was poor. "Smoking currently permitted in the whole house" was a significant factor of positive urinary cotinine in pregnant nonsmokers. Furthermore, we suggest that a complete smoking ban at home should be considered to avoid potential adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes due to second-hand smoke.

  15. Crossing the smoking divide for young adults: expressions of stigma and identity among smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    McCool, Judith; Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George; Gifford, Heather

    2013-02-01

    Denormalizing campaigns reframe smoking as an unappealing behavior, more likely to lead to social exclusion than inclusion. Social identity theory suggests this strategy will reinforce smoke-free norms and, as these become mainstream, decrease smoking prevalence. However, little is known about how these campaigns affect perceptions of smoking among young adult smokers and nonsmokers, or behavior toward smokers. A qualitative study was conducted to a) explore how smokers and smoking were perceived in an environment where smoking has become an increasingly unacceptable social behavior and b) examine whether and how this environment stigmatized smokers. About 14 group discussions and 4 in-depth interviews involving 86 participants, aged between 18 and 24 and of Māori, Pacific, and NZ European ethnicities, were conducted as part of a wider study examining young adults' responses to tobacco branding and plain packaging. The themes identified illustrated how nonsmokers' perception of smoking as illogical and self-destructive supported harsh reactions, including stigmatizing behaviors that antagonized smokers. Nonsmokers, who recognized smoking's addictiveness, were more empathic and less judgmental of smokers. Including empathic content in smoking denormalizing campaigns may reduce judgmental reactions that inadvertently create a gulf between status of young adult smokers and nonsmokers. A supportive/empathic tobacco-control denormalization approach could enhance young adult smokers' willingness to make the transition from smoker to smoke free and elicit stronger support for their efforts from nonsmokers.

  16. Korean Affairs Report No. 282

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-17

    realised. The U.S. imperialists and the South Korean puppet clique are making the South Korean economy more dependent and driving the people into the...long people have seen that, with short- sighted political outlooks, you try to make parliamentary politics work only for the relations between the...It is true that a sense of danger generally makes people unite, but, on the other hand, sometimes it implants a sense of defeat among the people

  17. Korean Affairs Report No. 300.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reporter said: 10 The United States has heightened with each passing day the strategic position of the Korean Peninsula, claiming that Korea is "its...people were undergoing all tribulations under the Japanese imperialists’ colonial rule, served the Japanese imperialists as their running dog ...Korea in an attempt to per- petuate the division of Korea and have the South Korean authorities recognized . CSO: 4100/188 25 N. KOREA/POLITICS AND

  18. Standardization of Korean nursing terminology.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyang-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Wha; Kim, Won-Ock; Kim, Ok-Soo; Lee, Young-Whee; Park, Ho-Ran; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, In-Sook; Park, Young-Joo; Park, Young-Im

    2006-01-01

    Korean nursing terminology was standardized to improve sharing and exchange of nursing data and information. English nursing terms were collected from existing nursing terminology, journal articles, nursing records, text books, and nursing/medical dictionaries, translated into Korean and were tested for their validity. More than 9000 terms were standardized and published on a website for further feedback from the users. This study will contribute to communication within the nursing community and with other health care professionals.

  19. Estimating radiation risk induced by CT screening for Korean population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Won Seok; Yang, Hye Jeong; Min, Byung In

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to estimate the radiation risks induced by chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) screening for healthcare and to determine the cancer risk level of the Korean population compared to other populations. We used an ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator to compute the organ effective dose induced by CT screening (chest, low-dose chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis CT). A risk model was applied using principles based on the BEIR VII Report in order to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) using the Korean Life Table 2010. In addition, several countries including Hong Kong, the United States (U.S.), and the United Kingdom, were selected for comparison. Herein, each population exposed radiation dose of 100 mSv was classified according to country, gender and age. For each CT screening the total organ effective dose calculated by ImPACT was 6.2, 1.5, 5.2 and 11.4 mSv, respectively. In the case of Korean female LAR, it was similar to Hong Kong female but lower than those of U.S. and U.K. females, except for those in their twenties. The LAR of Korean males was the highest for all types of CT screening. However, the difference of the risk level was negligible because of the quite low value.

  20. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  1. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  2. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Roscoe, R.J.; Steenland, K.; Halperin, W.E.; Beaumont, J.J.; Waxweiler, R.J.

    1989-08-04

    Radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, are a continuing cause for concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of US veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality ratio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled.

  3. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress.

  4. Prevalence and etiological profile of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Tariq; Singh, Ravindra Kumar; Kant, Surya; Shukla, Amitabh Das; Chandra, Alok; Srivastava, Rajneesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking has been recognized as the most important risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for a long time, but recent studies have shown that nonsmokers also contribute to a significant proportion of COPD. This study was performed to find out the proportion of nonsmoker individuals among COPD patients and to determine various etiologies in nonsmoker COPD patients. Materials and Methods: This study was an observational cross-sectional study conducted in Department of Pulmonary Medicine, MLN Medical College, Allahabad. A total of 200 COPD patients, aged >18 years of either gender with COPD, diagnosed by clinical and spirometric criteria (GOLD guideline) were included in the study. Results: Of the 200 COPD patients, the proportion of nonsmoker patients was 56.5%, and the smoker was 43.5%. Among 113 nonsmoker COPD patients, maximum number of patients (69.03%) belonged to low socioeconomic status but most important and statistically significant risk factor was exposure to biomass smoke (53.98%), other significant risk factors were treated pulmonary tuberculosis (32.74%), and long-standing asthma (14.16%). Risk factors that were not statistically significant were occupational exposure (9.73%), exposure to outdoor air pollution (3.54%), and lower respiratory tract infection during childhood (1.77%). The patients who were exposed to more than one risk factors, developed COPD at an earlier age. Conclusions: This study revealed that nonsmokers contribute a significant proportion of COPD patients. Multiple risk factors other than smoking also play a major role in the development of COPD, particularly exposure to biomass smoke, treated pulmonary tuberculosis, and long-standing asthma. PMID:28360458

  5. Trends in exposure to second hand smoke at home among children and nonsmoker adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-01-15

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012 were used to evaluate trends in exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) at home among children aged 3-11 years and nonsmoker adolescents aged 12-19 years. A total of 12,815 children and 10,269 adolescents were included in the analyses. Serum cotinine was used as a biomarker for exposure to SHS at home. Regression models with log10 transformed values of serum cotinine as dependent variables and age, race/ethnicity, NHANES survey year, and family poverty income ratio as a surrogate measure of socioeconomic status were used in models for those with and without exposure to SHS at home. In addition, for those with exposure to SHS at home, number of smokers smoking inside home and number of cigarettes smoked at home every day were also used as independent variables. There was a biennial increase of 1.05 ng/L in adjusted serum cotinine levels for children with exposure to SHS at home over the period of 1999-2012. Serum cotinine levels among nonsmoker adolescents with exposure to SHS at home did not change over time. When there was no exposure to SHS at home, there was a statistically significant downward trend for serum cotinine levels for both children and nonsmoker adolescents. Serum cotinine levels attributable to SHS exposure increased with age among nonsmoker adolescents (p≤0.02) but decreased with age among children (p<0.01). For a unit decrease in family poverty income ratio, SHS exposure as measured by serum cotinine levels (Table 6) increased by 1.18 ng/L among children and by 1.30 ng/L among nonsmoker adolescents. In general, observed serum cotinine levels associated with SHS exposure at home were higher for children than they were for nonsmoker adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chun, In-Ae; Park, Jong; Ro, Hee-Kyung; Han, Mi-Ah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Food insecurity has been suggested as being negatively associated with healthy behaviors and health status. This study was performed to identify the associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data used were the 2011 Community Health Survey, cross-sectional representative samples of 253 communities in Korea. Food insecurity was defined as when participants reported that their family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat in the past year. Healthy behaviors were considered as non-smoking, non-high risk drinking, participation in physical activities, eating a regular breakfast, and maintaining a normal weight. Multiple logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association between food insecurity and healthy behaviors. RESULTS The prevalence of food insecurity was 4.4% (men 3.9%, women 4.9%). Men with food insecurity had lower odds ratios (ORs) for non-smoking, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82), participation in physical activities, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.59-0.74), whereas they had a higher OR for maintaining a normal weight, 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.30), than men with food security. Women with food insecurity had lower ORs for non-smoking, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.66-0.89), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72-0.88). For men, ORs for obesity were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70-0.87) for overweight and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.39-0.82) for mild obesity. For women, the OR for moderate obesity was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.14-3.63) as compared with normal weight. CONCLUSIONS Food insecurity has a different impact on healthy behaviors. Provision of coping strategies for food insecurity might be critical to improve healthy behaviors among the population. PMID:26244083

  7. RNA-seq analysis of lung adenocarcinomas reveals different gene expression profiles between smoking and nonsmoking patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yafang; Xiao, Xiangjun; Ji, Xuemei; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma is caused by the combination of genetic and environmental effects, and smoking plays an important role in the disease development. Exploring the gene expression profile and identifying genes that are shared or vary between smokers and nonsmokers with lung adenocarcinoma will provide insights into the etiology of this complex cancer. We obtained RNA-seq data from paired normal and tumor tissues from 34 nonsmoking and 34 smoking patients with lung adenocarcinoma (GEO: GSE40419). R Bioconductor, edgeR, was adopted to conduct differential gene expression analysis between paired normal and tumor tissues. A generalized linear model was applied to identify genes that were differentially expressed in nonsmoker and smoker patients as well as genes that varied between these two groups. We identified 2273 genes that showed differential expression with FDR<0.05 and |logFC| >1 in nonsmoker tumor versus normal tissues; 3030 genes in the smoking group; and 1967 genes were common to both groups. Sixty-eight and 70 % of the identified genes were downregulated in nonsmoking and smoking groups, respectively. The 20 genes such as SPP1, SPINK1, and FAM83A with largest fold changes in smokers also showed similar large and highly significant fold changes in nonsmokers and vice versa, showing commonalities in expression changes for adenocarcinomas in both smokers and nonsmokers for these genes. We also identified 175 genes that were significantly differently expressed between tumor samples from nonsmoker and smoker patients. Gene expression profile varied substantially between smoker and nonsmoker patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Smoking patients overall showed far more complicated disease mechanism and have more dysregulation in their gene expression profiles. Our study reveals pathogenetic differences in smoking and nonsmoking patients with lung adenocarcinoma from tran-scriptome analysis. We provided a list of candidate genes for further study for disease

  8. RNA-seq analysis of lung adenocarcinomas reveals different gene expression profiles between smoking and nonsmoking patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafang; Xiao, Xiangjun; Ji, Xuemei; Liu, Bin; Amos, Christopher I

    2015-11-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma is caused by the combination of genetic and environmental effects, and smoking plays an important role in the disease development. Exploring the gene expression profile and identifying genes that are shared or vary between smokers and nonsmokers with lung adenocarcinoma will provide insights into the etiology of this complex cancer. We obtained RNA-seq data from paired normal and tumor tissues from 34 nonsmoking and 34 smoking patients with lung adenocarcinoma (GEO: GSE40419). R Bioconductor, edgeR, was adopted to conduct differential gene expression analysis between paired normal and tumor tissues. A generalized linear model was applied to identify genes that were differentially expressed in nonsmoker and smoker patients as well as genes that varied between these two groups. We identified 2273 genes that showed differential expression with FDR < 0.05 and |logFC| >1 in nonsmoker tumor versus normal tissues; 3030 genes in the smoking group; and 1967 genes were common to both groups. Sixty-eight and 70% of the identified genes were downregulated in nonsmoking and smoking groups, respectively. The 20 genes such as SPP1, SPINK1, and FAM83A with largest fold changes in smokers also showed similar large and highly significant fold changes in nonsmokers and vice versa, showing commonalities in expression changes for adenocarcinomas in both smokers and nonsmokers for these genes. We also identified 175 genes that were significantly differently expressed between tumor samples from nonsmoker and smoker patients. Gene expression profile varied substantially between smoker and nonsmoker patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Smoking patients overall showed far more complicated disease mechanism and have more dysregulation in their gene expression profiles. Our study reveals pathogenetic differences in smoking and nonsmoking patients with lung adenocarcinoma from transcriptome analysis. We provided a list of candidate genes for further study for disease

  9. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  10. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  11. Ethnic Attachment among Second Generation Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joann; Min, Pyong Gap

    1999-01-01

    Describes the levels of second-generation Korean-American adolescents' (n=approximately 237) cultural, social, and psychological dimensions of attachment and examines the major factors highly correlated with two of the dimensions of ethnic attachment: use of the Korean language and Korean friendships. Findings support the view that high levels of…

  12. Processing of the Korean Eojoel Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Nam, Kichun; Gordon, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Korean writing is a syllabary where spaces occur between phrases rather than between words. This characteristic of Korean allows different types of information in Korean sentences to be dissociated in ways that are not possible in the languages that have been the focus of most psycholinguistic research, thereby providing new opportunities to…

  13. Koreans in America. In America Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Wayne; Kim, Hyung-chan

    The immigration of Koreans to the United States is traced from 1903, and the contributions Korean Americans have made to the United States are identified in this book which is part of a series for children. The number of Korean immigrants, small for many years, increased dramatically with the easing of government restrictions in the 1960s, until,…

  14. Select Bibliography of the Korean War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses various resources on the history of the Korean War that include, but are not limited to, works from the North Korean perspective, "standard" accounts from a western perspective that identify U.S. and South Korean shortcomings, and works on the secrecy around U.S. special operations. Provides a detailed bibliography. (CMK)

  15. Korean Folk Music in Your Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Barbara G.

    2008-01-01

    Koreans are a growing minority in the United States. Worldwide, it is believed that more than seventy million people speak Korean, approximately as many as who speak Italian. The music of Korea offers a delightful addition to the general music classroom. There are several reasons why Korean music is not readily accessible to most general music…

  16. Korean Geodetic VLBI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Kim, T.; Han, S.; Kwak, Y.; Oh, H.; Yi, S.; Bae, M.; Kim, K.; Moon, J.; Park, J.

    2009-04-01

    A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) for the project named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately. The KVG has started officially since October, 2008. The construction of all system will be completed by the end of 2011. In Korea, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has already promoted Korean VLBI Network (KVN) project dedicated to radio astronomy since 2001, and three 21-m diameter antennas have been constructed at Seoul, Ulsan, and Jeju Island. Although their receivers have not yet been fully installed, the antenna is designed to be able to receive 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands simultaneously. In parallel with the KVN project, the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) has been planning to construct their own VLBI antenna dedicated to geodetic measurements since 2001 to maintain the Korean Geodetic Datum accurately on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). It also aims at a fundamental station in East Asia and will contribute to the better determination of the ITRF there. A grand design for KVG project realizing NGII's plan has been proposed by the Ajou University under the collaborations with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan (NICT), National Astronomical Observatory, Japan (NAO), and the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan (GSI). The design of KVG antenna follows the VLBI2010 except for receiving frequencies and the diameter; VLBI2010 is the guideline for next generation's geodetic VLBI system compiled by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The antenna is designed to be able to receive 2, 8, 22, and 43 GHz bands simultaneously in order to carry out geodetic VLBI observations not only with current geodetic VLBI stations equipped with 2/8 GHz receivers but also

  17. Investigating Two-, Three-, and Four-Factor Structures of the Korean PCL-R in Serious Offenders.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Ji Seun; Lee, Soo Jung

    2016-05-01

    There is no published work on different factor structures of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for Korean offenders. The current study compared the two-, three-, and four-factor structures of the Korean version of the PCL-R. A total of 451 adult male serious offenders were included. The results suggested that both three- and four-factor models offered the best overall fit to the data. To gain better insight into the construct and predictive validities of the Korean version of the PCL-R, we recommend further analysis of the three- and four-factor models with recidivism and inmates' implicit aggression levels.

  18. LUNG TUMOR KRAS AND TP53 MUTATIONS IN NONSMOKERS REFLECT EXPOSURE TO PAH-RICH COAL COMBUSTION EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung Tumor KRAS and TP53 Mutations in Nonsmokers Reflect Exposure to PAH-Rich
    Coal Combustion Emissions

    Use of smoky coal in unvented homes in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China, is associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking females. Such women have the highest...

  19. ALTERNATE PATHWAY TO LUNG CANCER INDICATED BY KRAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN NONSMOKERS EXPOSED TO INDOOR SMOKY COAL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternate Pathway to Lung Cancer Indicated by KRAS and P53 Mutations in Nonsmokers Exposed to Indoor Smoky Coal Emissions

    Use of smoky coal in unvented homes in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China, is
    associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking females. Such wome...

  20. Comparisons of Attitudes of Smoking and Nonsmoking Teachers toward Smoking Education in Schools and the Health Consequences of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, C. Wayne; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study of teachers in rural eastern Kentucky compared the attitudes of smokers and nonsmokers toward: (1) the impact of smoking on health; (2) adequacy of smoking education and school regulations; and (3) usefulness of sources of information about the risks of smoking. Teachers who smoked viewed smoking as less hazardous than did nonsmokers. (PP)

  1. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

  2. ALTERNATE PATHWAY TO LUNG CANCER INDICATED BY KRAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN NONSMOKERS EXPOSED TO INDOOR SMOKY COAL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternate Pathway to Lung Cancer Indicated by KRAS and P53 Mutations in Nonsmokers Exposed to Indoor Smoky Coal Emissions

    Use of smoky coal in unvented homes in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China, is
    associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking females. Such wome...

  3. LUNG TUMOR KRAS AND TP53 MUTATIONS IN NONSMOKERS REFLECT EXPOSURE TO PAH-RICH COAL COMBUSTION EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung Tumor KRAS and TP53 Mutations in Nonsmokers Reflect Exposure to PAH-Rich
    Coal Combustion Emissions

    Use of smoky coal in unvented homes in Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, China, is associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking females. Such women have the highest...

  4. Peer Influence, Images of Smokers, and Beliefs about Smoking among Preadolescent Nonsmokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragesser, Sarah L.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.; Swaim, Randall C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test whether perceived peer influence is related to image of a typical smoker, and whether image of a typical smoker is associated with beliefs about the effects of smoking among preadolescent nonsmokers. Two hundred and ninety-two preadolescents completed a survey indicating their perceptions of the…

  5. The Vilification of Smokers: Students' Perceptions of Current Smokers, Former Smokers, and Nonsmokers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Kathleen; Katona, Chris; Brosh, Joanne; Shull, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    Smokers are increasingly stigmatized in our society. Pressures to limit public smoking have mounted, and there is evidence of discrimination against smokers in the workplace. This study examined how current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers were differentially characterized by students drawn from a suburban high school and college. Students…

  6. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  7. Acute effects of nicotine on processing of complex stimuli in smokers and nonsmokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkrider, Ashley; Hedrick, Mark

    2001-05-01

    Effects of nicotine in the auditory system of normal-hearing smokers and nonsmokers were investigated both behaviorally and physiologically. Discrimination of consonant-vowel speech in quiet and noise was assessed in the presence and absence of a transdermal nicotine patch by measuring categorical boundaries and mismatch negativity (MMN). Data indicate that the effects of nicotine on both behavioral and physiological measures increased with an increase in severity of nicotine-induced symptoms. Smokers showed improved CV discrimination in quiet and noise with nicotine. Additionally, smokers exhibited more measurable and significantly sharper boundaries as well as larger MMN areas than nonsmokers in quiet and noise for both placebo and nicotine sessions. MMN data acquired for both quiet and noise, and behavioral data acquired in quiet, indicate that smokers show the greatest improvements in discrimination during nicotine exposure, followed by symptomatic nonsmokers. Asymptomatic nonsmokers show little improvement with nicotine and, on occasion, show decrements in performance. These data may contribute to our understanding of the role of nAChRs in the auditory system, the neural mechanisms that underlie the recognition of sound in quiet and noise, and mechanisms mediating improved information processing and enhanced cognitive performance that serve as reinforcement for continued tobacco use by smokers.

  8. Targeting African American Nonsmokers to Motivate Smokers to Quit: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Scherber, Robyn M.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans bear a disproportionate health burden from smoking but are less likely than other populations to engage in cessation treatment. Intervening on adult nonsmokers residing with a smoker might represent an innovative approach to motivate smokers to engage in smoking behavior change. Twelve focus groups were conducted with African…

  9. Stressful Life Events and Psychosomatic Symptoms among Students Smokers and Non-smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodaj, Arta; Simic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the rate of stressful life events and psychosomatic symptoms among students smokers and non-smokers and examine the predictive contribution of stress and smoking to subjective health status. Methods were conducted on a convenience sample of 200 students from the University of Mostar, with a median age of…

  10. Targeting African American Nonsmokers to Motivate Smokers to Quit: A Qualitative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Scherber, Robyn M.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans bear a disproportionate health burden from smoking but are less likely than other populations to engage in cessation treatment. Intervening on adult nonsmokers residing with a smoker might represent an innovative approach to motivate smokers to engage in smoking behavior change. Twelve focus groups were conducted with African…

  11. Non-Smoker Exposure to Secondhand Cannabis Smoke. I. Urine Screening and Confirmation Results

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Edward J.; Bigelow, George E.; Herrmann, Evan S.; Mitchell, John M.; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Increased cannabis potency has renewed concerns that secondhand exposure to cannabis smoke can produce positive drug tests. A systematic study was conducted of smoke exposure on drug-free participants. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes (5.3% THC in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3) in a sealed chamber. Six non-smokers were seated with smokers in an alternating manner. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Non-smoking participant specimens (collected 0–34 h) were analyzed with four immunoassays at different cutoff concentrations (20, 50, 75 and 100 ng/mL) and by GC-MS (LOQ = 0.75 ng/mL). No presumptive positives occurred for non-smokers at 100 and 75 ng/mL; a single positive occurred at 50 ng/mL; and multiple positives occurred at 20 ng/mL. Maximum THCCOOH concentrations by GC-MS for non-smokers ranged from 1.3 to 57.5 ng/mL. THCCOOH concentrations generally increased with THC potency, but room ventilation substantially reduced exposure levels. These results demonstrate that extreme cannabis smoke exposure can produce positive urine tests at commonly utilized cutoff concentrations. However, positive tests are likely to be rare, limited to the hours immediately post-exposure, and occur only under environmental circumstances where exposure is obvious. PMID:25326203

  12. Effects of Nicotine on Attention and Inhibitory Control in Healthy Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Nicholas D.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine improves cognitive functioning in smokers and psychiatric populations, but its cognitive-enhancing effects in healthy nonsmokers are less well understood. Nicotine appears to enhance certain forms of cognition in nonsmokers, but its specificity to subtypes of cognition is not known. This study sought to replicate and extend previous findings on the effects of nicotine on cognitive performance in healthy nonsmokers. Healthy young adults (N=40, 50% female) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, repeated-measures experiment examining the effects of 7mg transdermal nicotine or placebo. Participants completed tests of attention (Attention Network Test), behavioral inhibition (stop signal task, Stroop test), reward responsiveness (signal detection task) and risk-taking behavior (Balloon Analogue Risk Taking task (BART)). Physiological (heart rate, blood pressure) and subjective (Profile of Mood States; POMS, Drug Effects Questionnaire; DEQ) measures were also obtained. Nicotine significantly improved performance only on the Stroop test, but it impaired performance on one aspect of the Attention Network Test, the orienting effect. Nicotine produced its expected effects on physiologic and subjective measures, within the intended time course. The findings of this study contribute to a growing literature indicating that nicotine differentially affects specific subtypes of cognitive performance in healthy nonsmokers. PMID:21480731

  13. Smokers Show Lower Levels of Psychological Well-Being and Mindfulness than Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Pereira, Laís Helena

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness is defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness is associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, lower negative affect and rumination. Conversely, evidence suggests a relationship between nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to compare the levels of Mindfulness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) between smokers and non-smokers. Ninety seven smokers and eighty four non-smokers participated in the study (n = 181). The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-BR) and the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS) were used. In all the factors of SWBS, the total scores in the FFMQ-BR and in the facets of Observing and Non-Reactivity, the non-smokers scored higher than the smokers. This study suggests that smokers present lower levels of Mindfulness and SWB than non-smokers. Consequently, we propose that Mindfulness-Based Interventions (MBI) may help smokers deal with treatment and abstinence by increasing their level of SWB. PMID:26270556

  14. Comparison of elastolytic activity in lung lavage from current, ex- and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Smith, S F; Guz, A; Burton, G H; Cooke, N T; Tetley, T D

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have an increased risk of developing a wide variety of lung diseases compared to non-smokers, and there have been many studies of the possible biochemical changes underlying this increased susceptibility. However, although epidemiological and physiological studies have shown that in the ex-smoker, the risk of smoking-related lung diseases falls between that of current and non-smokers, the biochemical and cellular mechanisms responsible for this intermediate status have not been investigated. In the present study, therefore, the extracellular elastolytic activities in lung lavage fluid from current, ex- and non-smokers have been compared. Elastolytic enzyme activity was investigated, since it is significantly elevated in lung lavage from smokers, and because it has been implicated in the development of pulmonary emphysema. In the subjects studied, extracellular elastolytic activities in lung lavage from ex-smokers were intermediate between those from current and non-smokers. There was no correlation between the time of abstinence from smoking, or the number of pack-years smoked and the extracellular elastolytic activities in ex-smokers' lung lavage. Elastolytic activity may remain elevated in ex-smokers' lungs for a number of reasons, including the persistence of particulate matter which may activate phagocytic cells on the lung surface. The possible significance of the raised elastolytic activity remains to be fully determined.

  15. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in nonsmokers by occupation and exposure: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Bang, Ki Moon

    2015-03-01

    This review gives an overview on recent reports of various occupations associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and exposures to associate with COPD among nonsmokers. Recent research has focused on identifying occupations with increased risk of COPD and exposures associated with COPD among nonsmokers based on national health survey data in the United States and studies in other countries. Recently reported prevalence of COPD among nonsmokers was 2.8% in the United States and the prevalence in other countries varied from 2% to 4.2%. The newly identified occupations with high COPD prevalence include machine operators, construction trades, financial record processing, cotton workers, farm machinery workers, construction workers, and bus drivers. The results of various studies among nonsmokers show that some occupations are associated with an increased risk of developing COPD, but no exact causes are reported. More research is needed to confirm the newly identified occupations associated with an increased risk of COPD and to identify causal risk factors. To reduce the prevalence of COPD in the workplace, etiologic research and preventive interventions should focus on occupations at risk for occupational exposures.

  16. Effects of nicotine on attention and inhibitory control in healthy nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Wignall, Nicholas D; de Wit, Harriet

    2011-06-01

    Nicotine improves cognitive functioning in smokers and psychiatric populations, but its cognitive-enhancing effects in healthy nonsmokers are less well understood. Nicotine appears to enhance certain forms of cognition in nonsmokers, but its specificity to subtypes of cognition is not known. This study sought to replicate and extend previous findings on the effects of nicotine on cognitive performance in healthy nonsmokers. Healthy young adults (N = 40, 50% women) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, repeated measures experiment examining the effects of 7 mg transdermal nicotine or placebo. Participants completed tests of attention (Attention Network Test), behavioral inhibition (stop signal task, Stroop test), reward responsiveness (signal detection task), and risk-taking behavior (Balloon Analogue Risk Task). Physiological (heart rate, blood pressure) and subjective (Profile of Mood States, Drug Effects Questionnaire) measures were also obtained. Nicotine significantly improved performance only on the Stroop test, but it impaired performance on one aspect of the Attention Network Test, the orienting effect. Nicotine produced its expected effects on physiologic and subjective measures within the intended time course. The findings of this study contribute to a growing literature indicating that nicotine differentially affects specific subtypes of cognitive performance in healthy nonsmokers.

  17. LONG-TERM INHALABLE PARTICLES AND OTHER AIR POLLUTANTS RELATED TO MORTALITY IN NONSMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term ambient concentrations of inhalable particles less than 10 microm in diameter (PM10) (1973- 1992) and other air pollutants-total suspended sulfates, sulfur dioxide, ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide-were related to 1977-1992 mortality in a cohort of 6,338 nonsmoking Cali...

  18. Workplace exposure to secondhand smoke among non-smoking hospitality employees.

    PubMed

    Lawhorn, Nikki A; Lirette, David K; Klink, Jenna L; Hu, Chih-Yang; Contreras, Cassandra; Ajori Bryant, Ty-Runet Pinkney; Brown, Lisanne F; Diaz, James H

    2013-02-01

    This article examines salivary cotinine concentrations to characterize secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smoking hospitality employees (bar and casino employees and musicians who perform in bars) who are exposed to SHS in the workplace. A pre-post test study design was implemented to assess SHS exposure in the workplace. The convenience sample of 41 non-smoking hospitality employees included 10 controls (non-smoking hospitality employees not exposed to SHS in the workplace). The findings demonstrate that post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed to SHS in the workplace are significantly higher than controls who work in smoke-free venues. Findings also suggested a statistically significant increase between pre- and post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed in the workplace. No statistically significant difference was noted across labor categories, suggesting that all exposed employees are at increased risk. The study results indicate that non-smoking hospitality employees exposed to SHS in the workplace have significantly higher cotinine concentration levels compared with their counterparts who work in smoke-free venues. Findings from other studies suggest that these increased cotinine levels are harmful to health. Given the potential impact on the health of exposed employees, this study further supports the efforts of tobacco prevention and control programs in advocating for comprehensive smoke-free air policies to protect bar and casino employees.

  19. Effects of Intravenous Nicotine on Prepulse Inhibition in Smokers and Nonsmokers: Relationship with Familial Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Drobes, David J.; MacQueen, David A.; Blank, Melissa D.; Saladin, Michael E.; Malcolm, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale The reinforcing properties of nicotine may be, in part, derived from its ability to enhance certain forms of cognitive processing. Several animal and human studies have shown that nicotine increases prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex. However, it remains unclear whether these effects are related to smoking susceptibility. Objectives The current study examined the effects of intravenously delivered nicotine on PPI in smokers and nonsmokers, as well as its association with a quantitative index of familial smoking. Methods The sample consisted of 30 non-smokers and 16 smokers, who completed an initial assessment, followed on a separate day by a laboratory assessment of PPI prior to and following each of two intravenous nicotine infusions. Separate doses were used in smoker and non-smoker samples. Results Analyses indicated that both nicotine infusions acutely enhanced PPI among non-smokers, and this enhancement was positively related to the degree of smoking among first and second-degree relatives. Smokers also displayed PPI enhancement after receiving the first infusion, but this effect was unrelated to familial smoking. Conclusions These data suggest that the PPI paradigm may have utility as an endophenotype for cognitive processes which contribute to smoking risk. PMID:23624809

  20. Acute effects of nicotine on processing of complex stimuli in smokers and nonsmokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkrider, Ashley; Hedrick, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Effects of nicotine in the auditory system of normal-hearing smokers and nonsmokers were investigated both behaviorally and physiologically. Discrimination of consonant-vowel speech in quiet and noise was assessed in the presence and absence of a transdermal nicotine patch by measuring categorical boundaries and mismatch negativity (MMN). Data indicate that the effects of nicotine on both behavioral and physiological measures increased with an increase in severity of nicotine-induced symptoms. Smokers showed improved CV discrimination in quiet and noise with nicotine. Additionally, smokers exhibited more measurable and significantly sharper boundaries as well as larger MMN areas than nonsmokers in quiet and noise for both placebo and nicotine sessions. MMN data acquired for both quiet and noise, and behavioral data acquired in quiet, indicate that smokers show the greatest improvements in discrimination during nicotine exposure, followed by symptomatic nonsmokers. Asymptomatic nonsmokers show little improvement with nicotine and, on occasion, show decrements in performance. These data may contribute to our understanding of the role of nAChRs in the auditory system, the neural mechanisms that underlie the recognition of sound in quiet and noise, and mechanisms mediating improved information processing and enhanced cognitive performance that serve as reinforcement for continued tobacco use by smokers.

  1. A difference in the composition of bronchial mucus between smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Kollerstrom, N; Lord, P W; Whimster, W F

    1977-01-01

    The ratio of the amount of sulphated to sialic acid mucin (Su/Si) in the mucous glands of the human tracheobronchial tree has been investigated in seven smokers and seven non-smokers. The two mucins were studied in histological sections stained by the high iron diamine/Alcian blue pH 2-5 sequence and assessed by a point-counting method. Su/Si was greater in the smokers than in the non-smokers, who were almost completely distinguished by this ratio. A decrease in the ratio with each generation of branching from the trachea down the inferior lingular bronchial segmental pathway was seen in both the smoking and non-smoking groups. Analysis of the logarithm of Su/Si showed the smoking group means to be 2-3 times that of the non-smokers at each generation, and over both groups the average decrease down successive generations was given by a factor of 0-9. PMID:867327

  2. Taxonomic review of the genus Isometopus (Hemiptera: Miridae: Isometopinae) from the Korean Peninsula, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junggon; Jung, Sunghoon

    2016-07-08

    The genus Isometopus is reviewed from the Korean Peninsula with a new species: I. jejuensis sp. nov. I. japonicus Hasegawa, 1946 is also reported from South Korea for the first time. Genital structures of male and female of I. japonicus are illustrated and described for the first time. Last instar of I. japonicas is also described. Biological notes such as host plants and morphological characters are provided with the photographs and illustrations. A key to the Korean Isometopus species is also provided.

  3. Evidence of genotoxicity in lymphocytes of non-smoking alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant public health issue. Epidemiological studies conducted on different populations consistently showed that consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with cytogenetic damages and higher risk for several types of cancer. However, the interpretation of many cytogenetic studies resulted complicated because some confounding factors, such as smoking habit, are not always taken into account. In the present study, the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNs) in cultured human lymphocytes was assessed on 15 alcoholic and 15 non-alcoholic control male subjects. Moreover, considering the implication of the Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility to alcoholic liver diseases, we considered an important issue to evaluate the relationship between these gene polymorphisms and the cytogenetic damage. In our sample we exclusively considered individuals that did not smoke nor consume drugs for a period of at least 2 years prior to the analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in the frequency of SCEs/cell (P = 0.001), RI value (P = 0.001), CAs (P = 0.002) and CAB (P = 0.002). Vice versa, no significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in terms of MNs frequency and CBPI value. In both samples, no statistically significant association was found between the analysed GSTs gene polymorphisms and the frequencies of MNs, SCEs and CAs. Finally, among alcoholics we found a positive correlation between SCEs and CAs frequencies and the duration of alcohol abuse.

  4. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Hazard for Smoking and Non-Smoking Bar and Nightclub Employees

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. Objective To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, we recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to 5 employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5, 8.5) µg/m3 and 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) µg/m3 in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6, 16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a 2-fold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval 23%, 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2%, 19%) increase in smoking employees. Conclusions Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues. PMID:22273689

  5. Greater gains from smoke-free legislation for non-smoking bar staff in Belfast.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Finian; Devlin, Anne; McElwee, Gerry; Gavin, Anna

    2009-12-01

    In April 2007, smoke-free legislation was enacted in workplaces throughout N. Ireland. The effects of this legislation on bar workers' health and their exposure to second-hand smoke at home, work and social environment, and their attitudes to the legislation before and after its implementation remain to be documented. A self-completed questionnaire of bar staff in 35 Belfast bars, before (March 2007, n = 110) and after the legislation (July 2007, n = 110). Smokers (excluding 'social smokers') made up 41.6% of respondents. After the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, the reductions in the proportion of bar workers reporting various respiratory symptoms ranged from 1.3% to 18.6% for smokers and from 21.9% to 33.2% for non-smokers. Likewise, the reductions for various sensory symptoms ranged from 7.3% to 17.7% for smokers and from 29.6% to 46.8% for non-smokers. Reduction in wheeze, cough and throat symptoms after the legislation were much greater for non-smokers than smokers. The proportion of bar staff who reported satisfaction with the legislation remained unchanged across the surveys. Decreases in perceived exposure to second-hand smoke occurred at work, home and in social settings. After the legislation's enactment, a majority of bar workers felt the workplace was healthier (98%). These first findings show reduced reported symptoms among bar workers, both smokers and non-smokers, after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in N. Ireland, though greater among non-smokers. There was also a reported fall in the hours of second-hand smoke exposure in the home for this group of workers which has a high prevalence of smokers.

  6. Decreased expression of intelectin 1 in the human airway epithelium of smokers compared to nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Brendan J; Harvey, Ben-Gary; De, Bishnu P; Vanni, Holly; Crystal, Ronald G

    2008-10-15

    Lectins are innate immune defense proteins that recognize bacterial cell wall components. Based on the knowledge that cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of infections, we hypothesized that cigarette smoking may modulate the expression of lectin genes in airway epithelium. Affymetrix microarrays were used to survey the expression of lectin genes in large airway epithelium from nine nonsmokers and 20 healthy smokers and in small airway epithelium from 13 nonsmokers and 20 healthy smokers. There were no changes (>2-fold change; p < 0.05) in lectin gene expression among healthy smokers compared with nonsmokers except for down-regulation of intelectin 1, a lectin that binds to galactofuranosyl residues in bacterial cell walls (large airway epithelium, p < 0.01; small airway epithelium, p < 0.01). This was confirmed by TaqMan RT-PCR in both large (p < 0.05) and small airway epithelium (p < 0.02). Immunohistochemistry assessment of airway biopsies demonstrated that intelectin 1 was expressed in secretory cells, while Western analysis confirmed the decreased expression of intelectin 1 in airway epithelium of healthy smokers compared with healthy nonsmokers (p < 0.02). Finally, compared with healthy nonsmokers, intelectin 1 expression was also decreased in small airway epithelium of smokers with lone emphysema and normal spirometry (n = 13, p < 0.01) and smokers with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 14, p < 0.01). In the context that intelectin 1 plays a role in defense against bacteria, its down-regulation in response to cigarette smoking is another example of the immunomodulatory effects of smoking on the immune system and may contribute to the increase in susceptibility to infections observed in smokers.

  7. Decreased Expression of Intelectin 1 in the Human Airway Epithelium of Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers*

    PubMed Central

    Carolan, Brendan J.; Harvey, Ben-Gary; De, Bishnu P.; Vanni, Holly; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Lectins are innate immune defense proteins that recognize specific bacterial cell wall components. Based on the knowledge that cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of bacterial infections, we hypothesized that cigarette smoking may modulate the expression of lectin genes in airway epithelium. Affymetrix microarrays were used to survey expression of lectin genes in large airway epithelium from 9 nonsmokers and 20 healthy smokers and in small airway epithelium from 13 nonsmokers and 20 healthy smokers. There were no changes (>2-fold change, p<0.05) in lectin gene expression among healthy smokers compared to nonsmokers except for a striking down regulation of intelectin 1, a lectin that binds to galactofuranosyl residues in the cell walls of bacteria (large airway epithelium, p<0.01; small airway epithelium, p<0.01). This was confirmed by TaqMan RT-PCR in both large (p<0.05) and small airway epithelium (p<0.02). Immunohistochemistry assessment of airway biopsies demonstrated that intelectin 1 was expressed in secretory cells, while Western analysis confirmed the decreased expression of intelectin 1 in airway epithelium of healthy smokers compared to healthy nonsmokers (p<0.02). Finally, compared to healthy nonsmokers, intelectin 1 expression was also decreased in small airway epithelium of smokers with lone emphysema with normal spirometry (n= 13, p<0.01) and smokers with established COPD (n= 14, p<0.01). In the context that intelectin 1 is an epithelial molecule that likely plays a role in defense against bacteria, its down regulation in response to cigarette smoking is another example of the immunomodulatory effects of smoking on the immune system and may contribute to the increase in susceptibility to infections observed in smokers, including those with COPD. PMID:18832735

  8. Secondhand tobacco smoke: an occupational hazard for smoking and non-smoking bar and nightclub employees.

    PubMed

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-09-01

    In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Between 2007 and 2009, the authors recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to five employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Median (IQR) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5-8.5) μg/m(3) and 0.2 (0.1-0.7) μg/m(3) in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6-16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5-5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a twofold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% CI 23% to 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2% to 19%) increase in smoking employees. Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues.

  9. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Se Hyung; Hong, Sung Noh; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Dong Il; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Jeon, Hae Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Now colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in males and the fourth most common cancer in females in Korea. Since most of colorectal cancers occur after the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are one of the most effective methods to prevent colorectal cancer. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish Korean guideline for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The guideline was developed by the Korean Multi-Society Take Force and we tried to establish the guideline by evidence-based methods. Parts of the statements were draw by systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Herein we discussed epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea and optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations. PMID:22741131

  10. The North Korean standard of living during the famine.

    PubMed

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    For decades, North Korea has been one of the world's most secluded societies. Due to a lack of reliable statistics, little analytical research has been done on the well-being of those who suffer most under totalitarianism: the North Korean people. By considering height data as a sensitive indicator of the North Korean standard of living, we explain what has historically influenced the welfare of children in different regions. Using cross-sectional data from 1997 when the peak of the infamous famine coincided with extreme environmental influences, we primarily test a number of socioeconomic hypotheses that have been proposed in the literature. Of these, the public distribution system and local harvest conditions-which may reflect black and gray market activity-were found as having a positive and statistically significant effect on height outcomes. Furthermore, from a biological point of view, males and older birth cohorts seem to have suffered more during the famine of the 1990s.

  11. Secondhand smoke exposure in cars and rooms: trend comparisons among subpopulations of nonsmoking U.S. middle and high school students.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Russell K; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2014-06-01

    Young people in the United States are exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) primarily in 2 settings: homes and cars. Recently, researchers reported that the prevalence of U.S students exposed to SHS in cars decreased from 2000 to 2009; however, comparisons of trends across school levels, gender, and racial/ethnic groups were not assessed. Moreover, no studies have examined trends of exposure to SHS in rooms. We used data from the 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009 waves of the National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of U.S. middle and high school students. For SHS in cars and rooms, we identified exposure trends among nonsmokers from 2000 to 2009 and compared trends across subpopulations with binary logistic regression. We identified significant downward linear trends in SHS in cars and rooms for nearly all measured subpopulations of nonsmoking students from 2000 to 2009. SHS exposure in cars and rooms declined at a significantly greater rate for males than for females. SHS exposure in cars declined at a significantly greater rate for non-Hispanic (NH) Blacks than for NH Whites. SHS exposure in rooms declined at a significantly greater rate for NH Whites than for Hispanics and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. Although prevalence of exposure to SHS in cars and rooms among nonsmoking U.S. middle and high school students has declined from 2000 to 2009, the rates of decline were not equal across genders and racial/ethnic groups. Identification of these differing rates of exposure can help the public health community advocate for interventions focused on reducing adolescent SHS exposure.

  12. The prevalence and patient characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers in Vietnam and Indonesia: An observational survey.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Viet, Nhung; Yunus, Faisal; Nguyen Thi Phuong, Anh; Dao Bich, Van; Damayanti, Triya; Wiyono, Wiwien Heru; Billot, Laurent; Jakes, Rupert W; Kwon, Namhee

    2015-05-01

    An estimated 25-40% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have never smoked. We investigated the prevalence and patient characteristics of COPD in non-smokers from Vietnam and Indonesia. This population-based cross-sectional survey of participants from urban and rural Vietnam and Indonesia used a stratified multistage cluster sampling design, with sample and population weights applied to ensure representativeness. Participants were female or male (recruited in the ratio 2:1) non-smokers, 40 years or older and able to perform a spirometry test. Spirometry was performed at a single study visit. Other clinical information was collected via standardized questionnaires. The 1506 evaluable participants were approximately equally distributed between Vietnam and Indonesia, and rural and urban areas. Overall prevalence of COPD was found to be 6.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7-8.3), with almost three times higher prevalence in men than women (12.9% (95% CI: 9.1-18.0) vs 4.4% (95% CI: 3.0-6.5)). We found higher rates of COPD in Vietnam than Indonesia (8.1% (95% CI: 5.8-11.3) vs 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8-8.3)), with a particularly high prevalence in urban Vietnam (11.1% (95% CI: 8.1-15.1)). Very few participants (6%) diagnosed to have COPD during the study had been previously diagnosed with COPD. Respiratory symptoms and lower health-related quality of life were more common in participants with COPD. The prevalence of COPD in non-smoking individuals from rural and urban Vietnam and Indonesia was 6.9%, of which a significant proportion (94%) were previously undiagnosed. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. Politics in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    aspect o£ its uniqueness was the open debate between President Truman and General MacArthur con- cernin9 the war’s military and political objectives...NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEG~ POLITICS IN THE KOREAN WAR Course II Essay LTC Paul N. DunnlClass of 1994 COURSE II SEMINAR...to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Politics in the Korean War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  14. Korean Interpersonal Patterns: Implications for Korean/American Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Jerrold J.

    A descriptive field study was conducted in Seoul, Korea, to assess Korean interpersonal communication. The data for the study were collected through observations of interpersonal communication patterns among students in university classes, between faculty and students as well as among various faculty members, among business people, and between the…

  15. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  16. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  17. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

  18. The effect of western adaptation of Hispanic-Americans on their assessment of Korean facial profiles

    PubMed Central

    Toureno, Leo; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Bayome, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine Korean facial profile preferences based on lip position as assessed by Hispanic-Americans of varying western adaptation levels and to determine whether the age and sex of the rater had any influence. Methods For this study, 132 Hispanic-Americans and 68 Caucasians of varying age, sex and western adaptation levels volunteered to rate their preference of Korean male and female facial silhouettes having lips ranging from retruding to protruding. The Hispanic-Americans were also asked to complete a Bidimensional Acculturation Scale questionnaire to determine their western adaptation status: low-acculturated Hispanics (LAH; lesser western-adapted Hispanic participants) or high-acculturated Hispanics (HAH; higher western-adapted Hispanic participants). Results The LAHs preferred significantly more retruded lip positions (p < 0.05) while HAHs showed some similarities with Caucasian participants in the results for the Korean male profile, even though HAHs preferred more retruded lip positions for the Korean female profile than Caucasians did (p < 0.05). The age and sex of raters did not influence the preference of facial profiles (p > 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that Hispanic-Americans prefer a flatter Korean lip profile. It would be prudent for orthodontists to offer patients the option of altering lip profile through orthodontic and/or orthognathic surgery treatments. PMID:24511513

  19. The effect of western adaptation of Hispanic-Americans on their assessment of Korean facial profiles.

    PubMed

    Toureno, Leo; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Bayome, Mohamed; Park, Jae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    To determine Korean facial profile preferences based on lip position as assessed by Hispanic-Americans of varying western adaptation levels and to determine whether the age and sex of the rater had any influence. For this study, 132 Hispanic-Americans and 68 Caucasians of varying age, sex and western adaptation levels volunteered to rate their preference of Korean male and female facial silhouettes having lips ranging from retruding to protruding. The Hispanic-Americans were also asked to complete a Bidimensional Acculturation Scale questionnaire to determine their western adaptation status: low-acculturated Hispanics (LAH; lesser western-adapted Hispanic participants) or high-acculturated Hispanics (HAH; higher western-adapted Hispanic participants). The LAHs preferred significantly more retruded lip positions (p < 0.05) while HAHs showed some similarities with Caucasian participants in the results for the Korean male profile, even though HAHs preferred more retruded lip positions for the Korean female profile than Caucasians did (p < 0.05). The age and sex of raters did not influence the preference of facial profiles (p > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that Hispanic-Americans prefer a flatter Korean lip profile. It would be prudent for orthodontists to offer patients the option of altering lip profile through orthodontic and/or orthognathic surgery treatments.

  20. A Case Study: How Twenty-One Koreans Perceive America. World Education Monograph Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Byungchai Cora

    Twenty-one Koreans were interviewed concerning their perceptions of America. In the spring of 1977, 9 men and 12 women between the ages of 20 and 50 from the greater Hartford and Storrs area in Connecticut participated in this case study. The males interviewed included five graduate students, three undergraduates, and one government scientist.…

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, factorial structure validity, and convergent validity of a Korean version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale adapted for children (K-SWLS-C). Participants consisted of 653 elementary school students (48% were male). The internal consistency of the…

  2. Career Choice among Second-Generation Korean-Americans: Reflections of a Cultural Model of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun-Young

    1993-01-01

    Examines the pattern of career choice among 23 female and 17 male Korean-American college students in California, and analyzes how this pattern reflects their immigrant parents' cultural model of success and subsequent educational strategies. Explores the model as a family and community force, and considers its costs. (SLD)

  3. Use of the Transtheoretical Model to Predict Stages of Smoking Cessation in Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Lee, Young Ja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Smoking is popular among Korean male high school adolescents, with the prevalence of 20.7% differing markedly with the type of school, being 16.3% and 27.6% in academic and vocational technical high schools, respectively. The purpose of this study was to identify significant variables that predict stages of smoking cessation among…

  4. Use of the Transtheoretical Model to Predict Stages of Smoking Cessation in Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Lee, Young Ja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Smoking is popular among Korean male high school adolescents, with the prevalence of 20.7% differing markedly with the type of school, being 16.3% and 27.6% in academic and vocational technical high schools, respectively. The purpose of this study was to identify significant variables that predict stages of smoking cessation among…

  5. Career Choice among Second-Generation Korean-Americans: Reflections of a Cultural Model of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun-Young

    1993-01-01

    Examines the pattern of career choice among 23 female and 17 male Korean-American college students in California, and analyzes how this pattern reflects their immigrant parents' cultural model of success and subsequent educational strategies. Explores the model as a family and community force, and considers its costs. (SLD)

  6. Psychometric Characteristics of the Korean Version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale Adapted for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, factorial structure validity, and convergent validity of a Korean version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale adapted for children (K-SWLS-C). Participants consisted of 653 elementary school students (48% were male). The internal consistency of the…

  7. Analyses of Receptive and Productive Korean EFL Vocabulary: Computer-Based Vocabulary Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Scott Sungki

    2013-01-01

    The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…

  8. Analyses of Receptive and Productive Korean EFL Vocabulary: Computer-Based Vocabulary Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Scott Sungki

    2013-01-01

    The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…

  9. Temporal Trends of Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Nonsmoking Workers in the United States (NHANES 2001-2010).

    PubMed

    Wei, Binnian; Bernert, John T; Blount, Benjamin C; Sosnoff, Connie S; Wang, Lanqing; Richter, Patricia; Pirkle, James L

    2016-10-01

    The workplace is one of the major locations outside of the home for nonsmokers' exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). New policies in many U.S. states and localities restrict or prohibit smoking in the workplace, and information on current trends in the exposure of nonsmokers to SHS across various occupational groups is therefore needed. We evaluated temporal trends in SHS exposure among nonsmoking workers in the United States and identified those occupations with workers with the highest levels of SHS exposure. We combined serum cotinine (sCOT) measurements and questionnaire data from five survey cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES: 2001-2010). Trends in SHS exposure by occupations were determined from percent changes and least-squares geometric means (LSGMs) of sCOT concentrations computed using sample-weighted multiple regression models. Between NHANES 2001-2002 and NHANES 2009-2010, LSGMs of sCOT levels had changed -25% (95% CI: -39, -7%) in nonsmoking workers. The largest decrease was identified among food preparation workers [-54% (95% CI: -74, -19%)], followed by white-collar [-40%, (95% CI: -56, -19%)] and blue-collar workers (-32%, 95% CI: -51, -5%). LSGMs of sCOT remained highest in food preparation workers in all survey cycles, but the gap between occupations narrowed in the latest survey cycle (2009-2010). For example, the gap in LSGMs of sCOT between food preparation and science/education workers dropped > 70% during 2000 to 2010. During the period from 2001 to 2010, the overall SHS exposure in nonsmoking workers declined with substantial drops in food preparation/service and blue-collar workers. Although disparities persist in SHS exposure, the gaps among occupations have narrowed. Wei B, Bernert JT, Blount BC, Sosnoff CS, Wang L, Richter P, Pirkle JL. 2016. Temporal trends of secondhand smoke exposure: nonsmoking workers in the United States (NHANES 2001-2010). Environ Health Perspect 124:1568-1574;

  10. GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor availability in smokers and nonsmokers: Relationship to subsyndromal anxiety and depression

    PubMed Central

    Esterlis, Irina; Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Batis, Jeffery C.; Bois, Frederic; Kloczynski, Tracy A.; Stiklus, Stephanie M.; Perry, Edward; Tamagnan, Gilles D.; Seibyl, John P.; Makuch, Robert; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O’Malley, Stephanie; Staley, Julie K.

    2009-01-01

    Many smokers experience subsyndromal anxiety symptoms while smoking and during acute abstinence, which may contribute to relapse. We hypothesized that cortical gamma aminobutiric acid A – benzodiazepine receptor (GABAA-BZR) availability in smokers and nonsmokers might be related to the expression of subsyndromal anxiety, depressive, and pain symptoms. Cortical GABAA-BZRs were imaged in 15 smokers (8 men; 7 women), and 15 healthy age and sex-matched nonsmokers, and 4 abstinent tobacco smokers (3 men; 1 woman) using [123I]iomazenil and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured using the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depressive Symptoms (CES-D). The cold pressor task was administered to assess pain tolerance and sensitivity. The relationship between cortical GABAA-BZR availability, smoking status and subsyndromal depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as pain tolerance and sensitivity, were evaluated. Surprisingly, there were no statistically significant differences in overall GABAA-BZR availability between smokers and nonsmokers, or between active and abstinent smokers; however, cortical GABAA-BZR availability negatively correlated with subsyndromal state anxiety symptoms in nonsmokers but not in smokers. In nonsmokers, the correlation was seen across many state anxiety brain areas [parietal (r=−.47, p=.03), frontal (r=−.46, p=.03), anterior cingulate (r=−.47, p=.04), temporal (r=−.47, p=.03), occipital (r=−.43, p=.05) cortices, and cerebellum (r=−.46, p=.04)], trait anxiety [parietal (r=−.72, p=.02), frontal (r=−.72, p=.02), and occipital (r=−.65, p=.04) cortices] and depressive symptoms [parietal (r=− .68; p=.02), frontal (r=−.65; p=.03), anterior cingulate (r=−.61; p=.04), and temporal (r=−.66; p=.02) cortices]. The finding that a similar relationship between GABAA-BZR availability and anxiety symptoms was not observed

  11. GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor availability in smokers and nonsmokers: relationship to subsyndromal anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Esterlis, Irina; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Batis, Jeffery C; Bois, Frederic; Kloczynski, Tracy A; Stiklus, Stephanie M; Perry, Edward; Tamagnan, Gilles D; Seibyl, John P; Makuch, Robert; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O'Malley, Stephanie; Staley, Julie K

    2009-12-01

    Many smokers experience subsyndromal anxiety symptoms while smoking and during acute abstinence, which may contribute to relapse. We hypothesized that cortical gamma aminobutyric acid(A)-benzodiazepine receptor (GABA(A)-BZR) availability in smokers and nonsmokers might be related to the expression of subsyndromal anxiety, depressive, and pain symptoms. Cortical GABA(A)-BZRs were imaged in 15 smokers (8 men and 7 women), and 15 healthy age and sex-matched nonsmokers, and 4 abstinent tobacco smokers (3 men; 1 woman) using [(123)I]iomazenil and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Anxiety and depressive symptoms were measured using the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depressive Symptoms (CES-D). The cold pressor task was administered to assess pain tolerance and sensitivity. The relationship between cortical GABA(A)-BZR availability, smoking status, and subsyndromal depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as pain tolerance and sensitivity, were evaluated. Surprisingly, there were no statistically significant differences in overall GABA(A)-BZR availability between smokers and nonsmokers or between active and abstinent smokers; however, cortical GABA(A)-BZR availability negatively correlated with subsyndromal state anxiety symptoms in nonsmokers but not in smokers. In nonsmokers, the correlation was seen across many brain areas with state anxiety [parietal (r = -0.47, P = 0.03), frontal (r = -0.46, P = 0.03), anterior cingulate (r = -0.47, P = 0.04), temporal (r = -0.47, P = 0.03), occipital (r = -0.43, P = 0.05) cortices, and cerebellum (r = -0.46, P = 0.04)], trait anxiety [parietal (r = -0.72, P = 0.02), frontal (r = -0.72, P = 0.02), and occipital (r = -0.65, P = 0.04) cortices] and depressive symptoms [parietal (r = -0.68; P = 0.02), frontal (r = -0.65; P = 0.03), anterior cingulate (r = -0.61; P = 0.04), and temporal (r = -0.66; P = 0.02) cortices]. The finding that a similar relationship

  12. The Impact of Flavor Descriptors on Nonsmoking Teens' and Adult Smokers' Interest in Electronic Cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Saul; Sembower, Mark A; Pillitteri, Janine L; Gerlach, Karen K; Gitchell, Joseph G

    2015-10-01

    Smokers switching completely from combustible cigarettes to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are likely to reduce health risk, suggesting that e-cigarettes should be made appealing to adult smokers. However, uptake of e-cigarettes by nonsmoking teens would add risk without benefit and should be avoided. Although e-cigarette flavors may appeal to adult smokers, the concern is that flavors might attract nonsmoking teens. Nonsmoking teens (n = 216, ages 13-17, no tobacco in past 6 months) and adult smokers (n = 432, ages 19-80, smoking 3+ years; could have used e-cigarettes) were recruited from an Internet research panel. In assessments completed online (May 22, 2014 to June 13, 2014), participants indicated their interest (0-10 scale) in e-cigarettes paired with various flavor descriptors. These were mixed (order balanced) with similar flavor offerings for ice cream and bottled water to mask the focus on e-cigarettes and validate the assessment. Mixed models contrasted interest between teens and adults and among adults by e-cigarette history. Nonsmoking teens' interest in e-cigarettes was very low (mean = 0.41 ± 0.14 [SE] on 0-10 scale). Adult smokers' interest (1.73 ± 0.10), while modest, was significantly higher overall (p < .0001) and for each flavor (most p values < .0001). Teen interest did not vary by flavor (p = .75), but adult interest did (p < .0001). Past-30-day adult e-cigarette users had the greatest interest in e-cigarettes, and their interest was most affected by flavor. Adults who never tried e-cigarettes had the lowest interest, yet still higher than nonsmoking teens' interest (p < .0001). The e-cigarette flavors tested appealed more to adult smokers than to nonsmoking teens, but interest in flavors was low for both groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. National Identity in Korean Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyojeong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of national identity has evolved during the last half century within the Korean social studies curriculum. There have been seven curricular revisions since the first national curriculum was released in 1955. Each time the concept of national identity was changed with the biggest changes to this concept within the last two iterations of…

  14. Korean Basic Course. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, B. Nam

    Volume Two of the Korean Basic Course contains Units 29 through 47. Most units consist of (1) a basic dialog, (2) notes on the basic dialog, (3) additional vocabulary and phrases, (4) grammar notes, (5) drills, (6) a supplementary dialog for comprehension, (7) a narrative for comprehension and reading, and (8) exercises. Two of the last units…

  15. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  16. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  17. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  18. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

  19. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

  20. A KOREAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, SAMUEL E.; AND OTHERS

    ALTHOUGH THE PURPOSE OF THIS DICTIONARY IS TO "GIVE A FULL AND ACCURATE PORTRAYAL OF THE BASIC NATIVE KOREAN VOCABULARY," SOME OF THE COMMON AND USEFUL CHINESE AND EUROPEAN LOANWORDS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED AS WELL. THE AUTHORS (SAMUEL E. MARTIN, YANG HA LEE, AND SUNG-UN CHANG) HAVE FOLLOWED THE HANKUL SPELLING CONVENTIONS OF THE…

  1. Korean Basic Course: Area Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

  2. Effects of nicotine on electroencephalographic (EEG) and behavioural measures of visual working memory in non-smokers during a dual-task paradigm.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Derek J; Knobelsdorf, Amy; Jaworska, Natalia; Daniels, Richelle; Knott, Verner J

    2013-01-01

    Research in smokers has shown that nicotine may have the ability to improve certain aspects of cognitive performance, including working memory and attention, processes which implicate frontal and frontal-parietal brain networks. There is limited research on the cognitive effects of nicotine and their associated neural underpinnings in non-smokers. This study examined the effects of acute nicotine on a working memory task alone or combined with a visual detection task (single- and dual-task conditions) using electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings and behavioural performance measures. Twenty non-smokers (13 females; 7 males) received nicotine gum (6 mg) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, repeated measures design. Spectral EEG, together with response speed and accuracy measures, were obtained while participants completed a series of N-Back tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. Nicotine failed to exert any significant effects on performance measures, however, EEG changes were observed, primarily in frontal recordings, which varied with memory load, task condition and hemisphere. These findings, discussed in relation to previous studies in smokers, support the notion that nicotine may modulate central executive systems and contribute to smoking behaviour.

  3. The influence of cigarette smoking on blood and salivary super oxide dismutase enzyme levels among smokers and nonsmokers-A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jenifer, Haziel Diana; Bhola, Sarthak; Kalburgi, Veena; Warad, Shivaraj; Kokatnur, Vijayalaxmi M

    2015-04-01

    To determine the influence of smoking on blood and salivary superoxide dismutase enzyme levels among smokers, and to demonstrate the significant alterations in the levels of superoxide dismutase in association with patient age, periodontal disease status, smoking duration, and smoking frequency. This study also aimed to evaluate the use of saliva as a biological fluid for disease diagnosis. Ninety males aged 25-56 years were selected and included 30 smokers, 30 nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis, and 30 healthy controls. Clinical parameters such as the gingival index, pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Blood and saliva samples were collected and superoxide dismutase enzyme levels were analyzed using spectrophotometric assay. Superoxide dismutase enzyme levels in the blood and saliva were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers and the controls (p < 0.05). A significant correlation existed between superoxide dismutase levels and clinical parameters. There was also a significant positive correlation between blood and salivary superoxide dismutase levels among the three groups. Systemic and local antioxidant status is affected by periodontal disease and by the impact of smoking. The increased blood and salivary superoxide dismutase enzyme levels in smokers may be an adaptive defense mechanism to counteract the increased reactive oxygen species production induced by smoking. This study emphasizes the importance of saliva as an easy noninvasive tool in diagnosing patients who are more prone to precancerous lesions and conditions, and its importance in patient education and motivation programs for smoking cessation.

  4. Internal exposure to trace elements in non-smoking residents living in a northern Taiwan industrial city.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tser-Sheng; Wu, Chin-Ching

    2011-12-01

    A total of 94 (54 males, 40 females) healthy adult residents living in an industrial city in northern Taiwan were recruited to study their exposure to industrial metals by measuring their blood levels of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and W. All participants were non-smokers without obvious direct occupational exposure to these elements, although by working in administrative sectors in industrial facilities their indirect or potential exposure was increased. The average concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and W in blood were 0.30, 1.49, 15.1, 3.84, 2.73, 21.1, 204, 3.2, 0.76, 51.1, and 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. These values were significantly higher than reference values reported for the general population, in some cases exceeding those of occupationally exposed workers. The principal component and correlation analyses among blood element levels suggested that the predominant sources of exposure were glass manufacturing and traffic-related sources. Despite of some limitations, the study demonstrates that the residents in this industrial area may suffer adverse chronic health effects attributable to exposures to these elements.

  5. Effects of acute nicotine on event-related potential and performance indices of auditory distraction in nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Knott, Verner J; Bolton, Kiley; Heenan, Adam; Shah, Dhrasti; Fisher, Derek J; Villeneuve, Crystal

    2009-05-01

    Although nicotine has been purported to enhance attentional processes, this has been evidenced mostly in tasks of sustained attention, and its effects on selective attention and attentional control under conditions of distraction are less convincing. This study investigated the effects of nicotine on distractibility in 21 (11 males) nonsmokers with event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral performance measures extracted from an auditory discrimination task requiring a choice reaction time response to short- and long-duration tones, with and without imbedded deviants. Administered in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, nicotine gum (6 mg) failed to counter deviant-elicited behavioral distraction characterized by longer reaction times and increased response errors. Of the deviant-elicited ERP components, nicotine did not alter the P3a-indexed attentional switching to the deviant, but in females, it tended to diminish the automatic processing of the deviant as shown by a smaller mismatch negativity component, and it attenuated attentional reorienting following deviant-elicited distraction, as reflected by a reduced reorienting negativity ERP component. Results are discussed in relation to attentional models of nicotine and with respect to future research directions.

  6. Time course of nicotine and cotinine incorporation into samples of nonsmokers' beard hair following a single dose of nicotine polacrilex.

    PubMed

    Bernert, John T; Alexander, Joseph R; Sosnoff, Connie S; McGuffey, James E

    2011-01-01

    Hair nicotine and cotinine have been proposed as longer-term markers of exposure to secondhand smoke. In this study, we evaluated the rate and extent of nicotine and cotinine deposition into beard hair among six male nonsmokers following a single exposure to 4 mg of nicotine in Nicorette(®) (nicotine polacrilex) gum. We collected beard hair samples daily for 12 days following exposure and urine samples for 6 days after exposure. Using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis, we found that both nicotine and cotinine could be detected in beard samples within 24 h of the exposure and reached a maximum of about 71 pg nicotine and 47 pg cotinine/mg hair, respectively, within 1-2 days, followed by a gradual decline. Compared to beard hair concentrations, nicotine, cotinine, and hydroxycotinine were excreted in urine at much higher levels and also peaked on the day after exposure (mean ± SD urine cotinine = 300 ± 183 ng/mL). Our results confirmed that both nicotine and cotinine can be measured in beard hair samples following a single dose of nicotine. However, both the time-course and extent of deposition of these analytes in beard hair in this study differed from the results reported previously from a similar evaluation.

  7. Nonsmoking, non-alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency-induced emphysema in nonsmokers with healed spontaneous pneumothorax, identified by computed tomography of the lungs.

    PubMed

    Bense, L; Lewander, R; Eklund, G; Hedenstierna, G; Wiman, L G

    1993-02-01

    This case-control study is based on an investigation of 27 nonsmoking patients with radiologically verified spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) and ten healthy never-smoker control subjects. The posteroanterior and lateral radiographs of patients and control subjects were normal. They were all submitted to the same clinical, laboratory, and radiologic examinations, including computed tomography (CT) of the lungs, with the aim of detecting any parenchymatous lung changes. Emphysema-like changes (ELCs) were detected on CT in 22 (81 percent) of the 27 patients, and if the ELC cases detected during interventional surgery are added, the frequency increases to 24/27 (89 percent). In 20 patients with unilateral SP, at least one ELC was found in 13 of the 20 SP-affected lungs, but only in five of the 20 lungs that were not diagnosed as having SP (p < 0.05). ELCs were found more frequently in the upper than in the lower lung regions (p < 0.05) and more frequently in the radiologically peripheral than in central regions (p < 0.001). No ELC was detected in the control group on CT. No alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency was found in the 27 nonsmoking patients with radiologically verified SP who had ELCs despite the absence of these known promoters of emphysema.

  8. Double dissociation of working memory and attentional processes in smokers and non-smokers with and without nicotine.

    PubMed

    Grundey, Jessica; Amu, Rosa; Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Batsikadze, Georgi; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine has been shown to affect cortical excitability measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation in smoking and non-smoking subjects in different ways. In tobacco-deprived smokers, administration of nicotine restores compromised cortical facilitation while in non-smokers, it enhances cortical inhibition. As cortical excitability and activity are closely linked to cognitive processes, we aimed to explore whether nicotine-induced physiological alterations in non-smokers and smokers are associated with cognitive changes. Specifically, we assessed the impact of nicotine on working memory performance (n-back letter task) and on attentional processes (Stroop interference test) in healthy smokers and non-smokers. Both tasks have been shown to rely on prefrontal areas, and nicotinic receptors are relevantly involved in prefrontal function. Sixteen smoking and 16 non-smoking subjects participated in the 3-back letter task and 21 smoking and 21 non-smoking subjects in the Stroop test after the respective application of placebo or nicotine patches. The results show that working memory and attentional processes are compromised in nicotine-deprived smokers compared to non-smoking individuals. After administration of nicotine, working memory performance in smokers improved, while non-smoking subjects displayed decreased accuracy with increased number of errors. The effects have been shown to be more apparent for working memory performance than attentional processes. In summary, cognitive functions can be restored by nicotine in deprived smokers, whereas non-smokers do not gain additional benefit. The respective changes are in accordance with related effects of nicotine on cortical excitability in both groups.

  9. Health Information in Korean (한국어)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Electroencephalogram) - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Lumbar Puncture - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Neuromuscular Disorders EMG and Nerve Conduction Tests - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  10. Implicit attitudes toward smoking: how the smell of cigarettes influences responses of college-age smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Glock, Sabine; Kovacs, Carrie; Unz, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    The habit of smoking may have automatic behavioral components guided by implicit attitudes. Smokers' attitudes toward smoking should thus be less negative than nonsmokers', so that a salient smoking cue (smell) is able to activate positive aspects of these attitudes. An affective priming task was used to explore this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, smokers and nonsmokers showed equally negative implicit attitudes, irrespective of smell. Smokers exposed to the cigarette smell did, however, display generally slower responses than nonsmokers, suggesting attentional bias. This could have implications for smoking policies in contexts where attentional factors affect performance.

  11. Comparing salivary cotinine concentration in non-smokers from the general population and hospitality workers in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Moncada, Albert; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to compare the pattern of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) among non-smokers in the general population and in hospitality workers. We used the adult (16-64 years) non-smokers of two independent studies (general population and hospitality workers) in Spain. We assessed the exposure to SHS by means of questionnaire and salivary cotinine concentration. The salivary cotinine concentration by sex, age, educational level, day of week of saliva collection, and exposure to SHS were always higher in hospitality workers than in the general population. Our results indicated that non-smoker hospitality workers have higher levels of exposure to SHS than general population.

  12. Cancer of the larynx in non-smoking alcohol drinkers and in non-drinking tobacco smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bosetti, C; Gallus, S; Franceschi, S; Levi, F; Bertuzzi, M; Negri, E; Talamini, R; La Vecchia, C

    2002-01-01

    The separate effect of alcohol and tobacco on laryngeal cancer was analysed in two case–control studies from Italy and Switzerland, comprising 40 non-smoking and 68 non-drinking cases, and 160 non-smoking and 161 non-drinking controls. The multivariate odds ratio was 2.46 for heavy drinkers non-smokers, and 9.38 for current smokers non-drinkers. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 516–518. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600469 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12189548

  13. From rest to stressed: endothelin-1 levels in young healthy smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Alexandra B; Toli, Eirini; Gomez, Yessica-Haydee; Mutter, Andrew F; Eisenberg, Mark J; Mantzoros, Christos S; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2015-09-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor produced by vascular endothelial cells, and a known marker of endothelial dysfunction. However, the acute and chronic effects of smoking and nicotine gum on the ET-1 response to acute physical stress in young healthy smokers have not been investigated. Healthy smokers (n=35) and non-smokers (n=35) underwent an exercise test to exhaustion (maximal oxygen consumption) on a treadmill. Smokers were assessed a) after 12h smoking abstinence (termed chronic smoking), b) immediately after smoking one cigarette (termed acute smoking), and c) immediately after chewing nicotine gum. Blood was drawn immediately pre-exercise, and 3 minutes post-exercise. During exercise, cardiorespiratory parameters were obtained breath-by-breath using an automated metabolic cart. Plasma ET-1 levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent-assay. The above protocol was designed to incorporate exercise as a vascular stressor to reveal changes that would not be detected at rest. Mean age was 28.6±7.2 years and body mass index (BMI) was 23.6±3.2 kg/m(2). Post-exercise ET-1 levels were significantly lower than pre-exercise levels in non-smokers (P<0.001) and smokers under all three conditions (P=0.005, P<0.001, P=0.001, respectively). There were no differences in post-exercise ET-1 levels between non-smokers and smokers under all three conditions, however the absolute and relative decrease in ET-1 levels was significantly smaller in chronic smokers compared with non-smokers (P=0.007 and P=0.004). Chronic smokers had a significantly lower exercise-induced change in tidal volume (P=0.050), fraction of expired CO2 (P=0.021), oxygen consumption (P=0.005), carbon dioxide elimination (P=0.004) and peak expiratory flow (P=0.003) compared with non-smokers. Furthermore, the decrease in ET-1 observed in non-smokers in response to exercise was significantly associated with exercise induced-changes in inspiratory time, time for a tidal volume cycle

  14. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  15. Adolescent smokers show decreased brain responses to pleasurable food images compared with nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Luks, Tracy L; Dryden, Wendy Y; Rait, Michelle A; Simpson, Gregory V

    2011-08-01

    Nicotine acts on the mesocorticolimbic circuits of the brain leading to the release of dopamine. Repeated elevations of dopamine in the brain may cause smokers to become less sensitive to "natural reinforcers." To test the theory that adolescents with low nicotine exposure may already have decreased activation when exposed to a natural reinforcer, we looked at the effect of visual cues representing "pleasurable" food on light adolescent smokers compared with nonsmokers. Twelve adolescent light smokers (aged 13-17 years, smoked 1-5 cigarettes/day) and 12 nonsmokers (aged 13-17 years, never smoked a cigarette) from the San Francisco Bay Area underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. During scanning, they viewed blocks of photographic images representing pleasurable foods (sweet, high fat, and salty foods) and control cues. Smokers reported smoking a mean of 3.6 cigarettes/day. There was no difference in body mass index between groups (24.1 vs. 24.0, respectively, p = .99). Food images elicited greater activations in nonsmokers in multiple areas including the insula (T = 4.38, p < .001), inferior frontal region (T = 5.12, p < .001), and rolandic operculum (T = 6.18, p < .001). There were no regions where smokers demonstrated greater blood oxygenation level-dependent activations compared with nonsmokers when viewing food versus neutral images. The finding of decreased activation to pleasurable food among adolescent light smokers supports the theory that these adolescents are displaying decreased sensitivity to at least one natural reinforcer. This also supports the theory that nicotine may affect the brain early in the trajectory of smoking, thus underscoring the need for early intervention among adolescent smokers.

  16. Quantitation of Cotinine in Nonsmoker Saliva Using Chip Based Nanoelectrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, Bruce A; Van Berkel, Gary J; Jenkins, Roger A; Counts, Richard Wayne

    2006-01-01

    A new analytical procedure was developed for the quantitation of nonsmoker salivary cotinine. Small volumes of saliva were diluted with water, fortified with cotinine-d{sub 3} (internal standard), then passed through small extraction columns. The analyte and internal standard were eluted with 0.1% (v/v) acetic acid/acetonitrile. Aliquots of each extract were analyzed directly, without chromatographic separation, using chip-based (NanoMate{sup TM}) nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated detection limit was 0.49 ng cotinine/mL saliva. This method was used to quantify salivary cotinine collected from nonsmoking human subjects living in one of three environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure categories or 'cells': 1. smoking home/smoking workplace; 2. smoking home/nonsmoking workplace; and 3. nonsmoking home/smoking workplace. Samples were collected during five sequential days, including Saturday, as part of a larger study to evaluate potential variability in exposure to ETS. Salivary cotinine measurements were made for the purpose of excluding misclassified smokers and for comparison with known levels of exposure to airborne nicotine in each exposure category. The concentrations observed were consistent with those reported from other large studies reported elsewhere. A non-parametric statistical test was applied to the data within each cell. No statistically significant differences were found between the mean cotinine concentrations collected on a weekday as compared to those collected on a weekend day. When the non-parametric test was applied to the three cells, a statistically significant difference was observed between cell 1 compared to cells 2 and 3. The salivary cotinine concentrations were thus statistically invariant over a five-day exposure period, and they were greatest under the conditions of smoking home and smoking workplace.

  17. Smoking or My Job? US Media Coverage of Nonsmoker-Only Hiring Policies

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Cadman, Brie; Offen, Naphtali; Malone, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Media advocacy plays a critical role in tobacco control, shaping the content of news in ways that generate public support for tobacco control. We examined US media coverage of nonsmoker-only hiring policies, which have little US public support, exploring the extent to which tobacco control advocates and experts have engaged the media on this controversial issue. Methods We searched online media databases (Lexis Nexis, Access World News, and Proquest) for articles published from 1995–2013, coding retrieved items through a collaborative, iterative process. We analyzed the volume, type, provenance, prominence, content and slant of coverage. Results We found 1,159 media items on nonsmoker-only hiring policies, most published in local newspapers in regions where such policies were enacted. The most common reason given for implementing such policies was to reduce healthcare costs. Most news items offered reasons both to support and oppose such policies; thus, the slant of the majority of news items was neutral or mixed. Tobacco control advocates or experts were infrequently cited or quoted in news items, and rarely authored opinion pieces. Those who expressed opinions were more likely to support than oppose nonsmoker-only hiring policies, for economic and health reasons. Ethical concerns about the policies were seldom raised. Conclusions As presented in the media, nonsmoker-only hiring policies were primarily framed in terms of business cost savings and had little connection to health initiatives. Tobacco control advocates were rarely quoted and their positions were not consistent. Given their intrusiveness and the lack of strong evidence that such business policies actually do improve worker health, tobacco control advocates may feel that the status quo is preferable to engaging on a policy that the majority of Americans dislike. PMID:26632824

  18. Olfactory and erectile dysfunction association in smoking and non-smoking men.

    PubMed

    Özmen, Süay; Dülger, Seyhan; Çoban, Soner; Özmen, Ömer Afşın; Güzelsoy, Muhammed; Dikiş, Özlem Şengören; Akdeniz, Önder

    2016-06-01

    The studies evaluating the effect of smoking on olfaction reveals opposite results. In vitro and animal studies and epidemiological evidence from volunteers and patients, demonstrated the association between olfaction and erectile functions. In smoking man the reduction of olfactory acuity could adversely affect sexuality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between erectile dysfunction (ED) and olfactory dysfunction (OD) by comparing a group of healthy adult men with a group of smoking adult men. This prospective study involved 62 volunteers, who were recruited and divided into two groups; one consisted of 35 smoking adult men, and the other included 27 healthy non-smoking men. All participants in both groups were examined in detail for any condition with the potential to cause OD. They all had a normal genitourinary system suffered from no circulatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease nor hyperlipidemia; they had no history of medication affecting genitourinary system. Butanol threshold test and sniffin' stick® (Burghart, Wedel; Germany) screening test was used to asses olfactory functions in both groups. Participants' sexual desire was assessed using an International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scale. The means of sniffin' sticks scores, butanol threshold scores and IIEF-5 scores were statistically higher in non-smoking group. Butanol threshold scores and sniffin' sticks scores are correlated statistically with IIEF-5 in non-smoking and smoking groups. This study found an association between olfaction and erectile function in smoking and non-smoking men. As far as we know this study is the third published study to show the relationship olfactory and erectile function. In the future studies electrophysiological olfactory methods could be used to confirm in large cohorts the results obtained by the psychophysical approach.

  19. Combined Exposure of Methylene Chloride and Carbon Monoxide in Smoking and Nonsmoking Paint Strippers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    plateau of about 7% COHb following an eight-hour time-weighted-average (TWA) exposure of approximately 1800 mg/m3 . The smokers dose response curve did...37 5 Dose Response Curve for Nonsmokers Considering Differences in COHb Increases on Both Exposure and Nonexposure Days...contains no human metabolism studies or studies on animals other than the rat. Ott et al. (17) found that the dose - response curve for humans J

  20. Greater Risk-Sensitivity of Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Young Smokers than in Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Adriana; Schonberg, Tom; Mumford, Jeanette; Kohno, Milky; Poldrack, Russell A.; London, Edythe D.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Despite a national reduction in the prevalence of cigarette smoking, ~19% of the adult U.S. population persists in this behavior, with the highest prevalence among 18–25-year-olds. Given that the choice to smoke imposes a known health risk, clarification of brain function related to decision-making, particularly involving risk-taking, in smokers may inform prevention and smoking cessation strategies. Objectives This study aimed to compare brain function related to decision-making in young smokers and nonsmokers. Methods The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) is a computerized risky decision-making task in which participants pump virtual balloons, each pump associated with an incremental increase in potential payoff on a given trial but also with greater risk of balloon explosion and loss of payoff. We used this task to compare brain activation associated with risky decision-making in smokers (n=18) and nonsmokers (n=25) while they performed the BART during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants were young men and women, 17–21 years of age. Results Risk level (number of pumps) modulated brain activation in the right dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices more in smokers than in nonsmokers; and smoking severity (Heaviness of Smoking Index) was positively related to this modulation in an adjacent frontal region. Conclusions Given evidence for involvement of the right dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices in inhibitory control, these findings suggest that young smokers have a different contribution of prefrontal cortical substrates to risky decision-making than nonsmokers. Future studies are warranted to determine whether the observed neurobiological differences precede or result from smoking. PMID:23644912

  1. Indoor Air Pollution and Risk of Lung Cancer among Chinese Female Non-Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lina; Liu, Li; Niu, Rungui; Zhao, Baoxing; Shi, Jianping; Li, Yanli; Scheider, William; Su, Jia; Chang, Shen-Chih; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate indoor particulate matter (PM) level and various indoor air pollution exposure, and to examine their relationships with risk of lung cancer in an urban Chinese population, with a focus on non-smoking women. Methods We conducted a case-control study in Taiyuan, China, consisting of 399 lung cancer cases and 466 controls, of which 164 cases and 218 controls were female non-smokers. Indoor PM concentrations, including PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10 and TSP, were measured using a particle mass monitor. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after adjusting for age, education, annual income and smoking. Results Among non-smoking women, lung cancer was strongly associated with multiple sources of indoor air pollution 10 years ago, including heavy exposure to ETS at work (aOR=3.65), high frequency of cooking (aOR=3.30), and solid fuel usage for cooking (aOR=4.08) and heating (aORcoal stove=2.00). Housing characteristics related to poor ventilation, including single-story, less window area, no separate kitchen, no ventilator and rarely having windows open, are associated with lung cancer. Indoor medium PM2.5 concentration was 68ug/m3, and PM10 was 230ug/m3. PM levels in winter are strongly correlated with solid fuel usage for cooking, heating and ventilators. PM1 levels in cases are more than 3-time higher than that in controls. Every 10 ug/m3 increase in PM1 is associated with 45% increased risk of lung cancer. Conclusions Indoor air pollution plays an important role in the development of lung cancer among non-smoking Chinese women. PMID:23314675

  2. The etiology of lung cancer in nonsmoking females in Harbin, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, X D; Lin, C Y; Sun, X W; Shi, Y B; Lin, Y J

    1996-03-01

    A case-control study of female lung adenocarcinoma in Harbin, China involving interviews with 120 cases of nonsmoking females, matched 1:1 with controls, showed that high coal use, indoor air pollution, exposure to coal dust, frequent frying and deep frying food, and a history of lung cancer in the family were statistically significant risk factors for female adenocarcinoma. High personal income, spacious living quarters, and frequent consumption of carrots were protective factors for adenocarcinoma.

  3. Environmental and biological monitoring of benzene in traffic policemen, police drivers and rural outdoor male workers.

    PubMed

    Manuela, Ciarrocca; Francesco, Tomei; Tiziana, Caciari; Assunta, Capozzella; Lara, Scimitto; Nadia, Nardone; Giorgia, Andreozzi; Barbara, Scala; Maria, Fiaschetti; Carlotta, Cetica; Valeria, Di Giorgio; Pia, Schifano Maria; Gianfranco, Tomei; Angela, Sancini

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate exposure to benzene in urban and rural areas, an investigation into personal exposure to benzene in traffic policemen, police drivers and rural (roadmen) male outdoor workers was carried out. Personal samples and data acquired using fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city were used to measure personal exposure to benzene in 62 non-smoker traffic policemen, 22 police drivers and 57 roadmen. Blood benzene, urinary trans-trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) and S-phenyl-mercapturic acid (S-PMA) were measured at the end of work shift in 62 non-smoker traffic policemen, 22 police drivers and 57 roadmen and 34 smoker traffic policemen, 21 police drivers and 53 roadmen. Exposure to benzene was similar among non-smoker traffic policemen and police drivers and higher among non-smoker urban workers compared to rural workers. Blood benzene, t,t-MA and S-PMA were similar among non-smoker traffic policemen and police drivers; blood benzene and t,t-MA were significantly higher in non-smoker urban workers compared to rural workers. Significant increases in t,t-MA were found in smokers vs. non-smokers. In non-smoker urban workers airborne benzene and blood benzene, and t,t-MA and S-PMA were significantly correlated. This study gives an evaluation of the exposure to benzene in an urban area, comparing people working in the street or in cars, to people working in a rural area. Benzene is a certain carcinogen for humans. The results we showed should lead to more in-depth studies about the effects on health of these categories of workers.

  4. Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking casino patrons.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin E; Kliris, Jen; Murphy, Lois; Carmella, Steven G; Han, Shaomei; Link, Carrie; Bliss, Robin L; Puumala, Susan; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiologic data have shown increased risks of lung cancer in nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). We measured biomarkers in urine samples from nonsmokers before and after a 4-h visit to a casino where smoking is allowed. The tobacco-specific lung carcinogen, NNK [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone] is a constituent of ETS. Urinary metabolites of NNK, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Gluc), are excellent biomarkers of human uptake of NNK and NNAL. NNAL, as with NNK, is a potent pulmonary carcinogen. Subjects collected a spot urine sample before the casino visit and all urine samples for the 24-h period starting after the visit. We analyzed samples for creatinine, total cotinine (cotinine and cotinine-glucuronide), and total NNAL (NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc). Paired samples showed statistically significant mean increases in total cotinine (0.044 nmol/mg creatinine, P < 0.0001) and total NNAL (0.018 pmol/mg creatinine, P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that exposure of nonsmokers to ETS in a commercial setting results in uptake of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen.

  5. Direct observations of parenting and real-time negative affect among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Participants were 9th- and 10th-grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months via ecological momentary assessment. Among both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for nonsmokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects.

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  7. Environmental exposure and HPV infection may act synergistically to induce lung tumorigenesis in nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ya-Wen; Lin, Frank Cheau-Feng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Hsu, Nan-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of lung tumorigenesis have focused on smokers rather than nonsmokers. In this study, we used human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative lung cancer cells to test the hypothesis that HPV infection synergistically increases DNA damage induced by exposure to the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and contributes to lung tumorigenesis in nonsmokers. DNA adduct levels induced by B[a]P in HPV-positive cells were significantly higher than in HPV-negative cells. The DNA adduct formation was dependent on HPV E6 oncoprotein expression. Gene and protein expression of two DNA repair genes, XRCC3 and XRCC5, were lower in B[a]P-treated E6-positive cells than in E6-negative lung cancer cells. The reduced expression was also detected immunohistochemically and was caused by increased promoter hypermethylation. Moreover, mutations of p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genes in lung cancer patients were associated with XRCC5 inactivation. In sum, our study indicates that HPV E6-induced promoter hypermethylation of the XRCC3 and XRCC5 DNA repair genes and the resultant decrease in their expression increases B[a]P-induced DNA adducts and contributes to lung tumorigenesis in nonsmokers. PMID:26918347

  8. Smoking-Related Beliefs and Susceptibility among U.S. Youth Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    El-Toukhy, Sherine; Choi, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine racial/ethnic disparities in smoking beliefs and susceptibility in a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth nonsmokers (N = 21,931). Methods Weighted regression models were used to examine smoking-related beliefs and susceptibility by race/ethnicity adjusting for demographics, exposure to pro-tobacco advertising and promotions, parental guidance against tobacco use, and peer norms. Results Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, racial/ethnic minority youth endorsed pro-smoking beliefs and were susceptible to smoking. Non-Hispanic Blacks, non-Hispanic Asians, and Hispanics embraced social benefits of smoking (ps < 0.05). Hispanics had lower perceptions of tobacco-related risks (AOR: 0.87) and were more susceptible to smoking (AOR: 1.56). Disparities in smoking beliefs and susceptibility persisted between minority and non-Hispanic White youth after adjusting for exposure to pro-tobacco advertising and promotions, parental guidance against tobacco use, and peer norms. Conclusions Smoking-related beliefs and susceptibility varied by race/ethnicity among youth nonsmokers after accounting for known predictors of youth smoking. Implications and Contribution Racial/ethnic disparities exist in smoking beliefs and susceptibility among youth nonsmokers. Endorsement of pro-smoking beliefs and smoking susceptibility lie beyond advertising, parental guidance, and peer norms. To reduce smoking initiation, examining and targeting individual and social factors associated with smoking beliefs and susceptibility among minority youth are warranted. PMID:26271160

  9. Differences in smokers and nonsmokers' assessments of an educational campaign about tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jenine K; Cohen, Elisia L; Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Luke, Douglas A

    2011-12-01

    The authors surveyed 1,998 Missourians to evaluate (a) awareness and (b) understanding of messages about the impact of tobacco use in Missouri, (c) belief in the accuracy of the messages, and (d) intention to vote for a tobacco tax increase on the basis of the messages. Using structural equation modeling, the relationships among these four constructs were evaluated. A comparison of smokers and nonsmokers indicated that these two groups were influenced by the messages in different ways, χ(2)(8) = 20.89, p < .05, and should be modeled separately. The nonsmokers' model demonstrated significant (p < .05) relationships between understanding the messages and belief in message accuracy (b = .41; R (2) = .17) and between belief in message accuracy and intention to vote in favor of the tobacco tax (b = .54; R (2) = .29). In the smokers' model, understanding the messages was not a statistically significant predictor of belief in message accuracy. However, belief in message accuracy had a significant and positive relationship with intention to vote in favor of the tax (b = .45; R (2) = .21). These findings indicate that media campaigns about tobacco use should approach smokers and nonsmokers differently.

  10. Recruitment and Retention of Smokers Versus Nonsmokers in an rTMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E; Brackman, Sharon; Mennemeier, Mark; Brown, Ginger; Landes, Reid D; Dornhoffer, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new frontier in the examination of addictive behaviors and perhaps the development of new interventions. This study examined differences in recruitment, eligibility, and retention among smokers and nonsmokers in an rTMS study. We modeled participant eligibility and study completion among eligible participants accounting for demographic differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to remain eligible for the study after the in-person screen (84.2% versus 57.4%; OR 4.0 CI: 1.0, 15.4, p=0.05) and to complete the study (87.5% versus 59.3%; OR=43.9 CI: 2.8, 687.2, p=0.007). The preliminary findings suggest that careful screening for drugs of abuse and brain abnormalities among smokers prior to administering rTMS is warranted. More research is needed concerning the prevalence of brain abnormalities in smokers. Smokers might need to be informed about a higher risk of incidental MRI findings. PMID:26436136

  11. Human abuse liability of the smoking cessation drug varenicline in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    McColl, S L; Burstein, A H; Reeves, K R; Billing, C B; Stolar, M; Sellers, E M

    2008-04-01

    Varenicline is an alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist developed as an aid for smoking cessation. This study evaluated varenicline's potential for abuse by smokers (n = 23) and nonsmokers (n = 22). The study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, double-dummy crossover design with five treatment periods: 15 and 30 mg amphetamine, 1 and 3 mg varenicline, and placebo. Following each treatment, the participants were assessed on aspects relating to potential abuse of the drug (e.g., drug liking, drug high, and drug monetary value). The positive effects measured for 3 mg varenicline were similar to those for the placebo, and significantly lower than those for amphetamine in both smokers and nonsmokers. Unpleasant effects were reported for 3 mg varenicline in both participant groups. For 1 mg varenicline, the overall patterns were similar, with the exception that the nonsmokers group showed some small positive effects balanced by some negative effects when compared with the effects of placebo. These findings lead to the conclusion that varenicline is unlikely to be abused.

  12. Simultaneous vitality and DNA-fragmentation measurement in spermatozoa of smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    De Bantel, A; Fleury-Feith, J; Poirot, C; Berthaut, I; Garcin, C; Landais, P; Ravel, C

    2015-03-01

    Because cigarette smoke is a powerful ROS producer, we hypothesized that the spermatozoa of smokers would be more at risk of having increased DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of non-smoking men. A cross-sectional study was performed on consenting smokers and non-smokers, consulting in an infertility clinic for routine sperm analysis. The application of a novel TUNEL assay coupled to a vitality marker, LIVE/DEAD®, allowed both DNA fragmentation and viability measurement within spermatozoa of participants to be analyzed by flow cytometry. The coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that non-smokers and smokers, respectively presented medians of 3.6% [0.6-36.8] and 3.3% [0.9-9.6] DNA fragmented spermatozoa among the living spermatozoa population (P > 0.05). No deleterious effect of smoking on spermatozoa was found in our study. More studies concerning potential mutagenic capacities of cigarette smoke on spermatozoa are necessary. In addition, the coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis may orient Assisted Reproductive Technology teams when confronted with patients having a high percentage of DNA-fragmented living spermatozoa. © 2014 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  13. Urinary metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in nonsmoking hospitality workers.

    PubMed

    Tulunay, Ozlem E; Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Zhang, Yan; Lemmonds, Charlotte; Murphy, Sharon; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2005-05-01

    Exposure of nonsmokers to environmental tobacco smoke results in increased risk for cancer and other diseases. In spite of this finding, some restaurants and bars continue to permit smoking. This study examined the uptake of nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a potent lung carcinogen, in nonsmokers who work in restaurants and bars that permitted smoking. Urine samples were collected for 24 hours on working and nonworking days and were analysed for total NNAL [the sum of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronides (NNAL-Glucs)], metabolites of NNK. In addition, urine samples were analysed for total nicotine (nicotine plus nicotine glucuronide), and total cotinine (cotinine plus cotinine-N-glucuronide). The results showed significant increases in urinary levels of total NNAL, total nicotine, and total cotinine on working days compared with nonworking days. The results of this study show that smoke exposure in bars and restaurants may have important health effects on nonsmoking employees, elicited by the increase in carcinogen levels.

  14. Effects of passive smoking on ischemic heart disease mortality of nonsmokers. A prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, C.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Suarez, L.; Criqui, M.H.; Wingard, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    The mortality attributable to ischemic heart disease as a result of cigarette smoking is greater of a community of older adults in southern California, the authors tested the hypothesis that nonsmoking women exposed to their husband's cigarette smoke would have an elevated risk of fatal ischemic heart disease. Married women aged 50-79 years who had never smoked cigarettes (n = 695) were classified according to the husband's self-reported smoking status at entry into the study: never, former, or current smoker. After 10 years, nonsmoking wives of current or former cigarette smokers had a higher total (p less than or equal to 0.05) and age-adjusted (p less than or equal to 0.10) death rate from ischemic heart disease than women whose husbands never smoked. After adjustment for differences in risk factors for heart disease, the relative risk for death from ischemic heart disease in nonsmoking women married to current or former cigarette smokers was 14.9 (p less than or equal to 0.10). These data are compatible with the hypothesis that passive cigarette smoking carries an excess risk of fatal ischemic heart disease.

  15. Nicotine-induced cortical activation among nonsmokers with moderation by trait cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Steven K; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; Jentink, Kade G; Drobes, David J; Evans, David E

    2016-06-01

    Considerable research suggests that nicotine enhances cognitive control-related processes (e.g., attention, memory) among nicotine-deprived smokers, both in terms of behavior and neural indices (e.g., ERP, slow-wave EEG). Nicotine may also increase cognitive control among nonsmokers, and this may vary as a function of trait cognitive control. It is important to examine the effects of nicotine on cognitive control-related processes among nonsmokers as these effects may provide a path for the initiation of smoking. The objectives of the study were to examine in nonsmokers (1) the effect of nicotine on resting cortical activity, an indirect measure of cognitive control, and (2) trait cognitive control as a moderator of nicotine-induced cortical activity changes. Eighty participants were given placebo and 7-mg nicotine patches in separate sessions for this counter-balanced, double-blind, within-subject study. Resting cortical activity was measured with EEG for a 3-min period with eyes opened. Average alpha-1 band power density values in frontal and central regions were lower during the nicotine versus placebo condition, which provides evidence of nicotine-induced cortical activation. Furthermore, those with lower self-reported cognitive control exhibited greater nicotine-induced reductions in alpha-1 power density values. These individual differences in nicotine-induced cortical activation are consistent with a model of nicotine self-medication whereby individuals with lower cognitive control may find smoking more reinforcing via amelioration of related cognitive deficits.

  16. Simultaneous Vitality and DNA-fragmentation measurement in spermatozoa of smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    De Bantel, A; Fleury-Feith, J; Poirot, C; Berthaut, I; Garcin, C; Landais, P; Ravel, C

    2014-08-30

    Background: Because cigarette smoke is a powerful ROS producer, we hypothesized that the spermatozoa of smokers would be more at risk of having increased DNA fragmentation than spermatozoa of non-smoking men. Methods: A Cross-Sectional Study was performed on consenting smokers and non-smokers, consulting in an infertility clinic for routine sperm analysis. The application of a novel TUNEL assay coupled to a vitality marker, LIVE/DEAD®, allowed both DNA fragmentation and viability measurement within spermatozoa of participants to be analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that non-smokers and smokers respectively presented medians of 3.6% [0.6-36.8] and 3.3% [0.9-9.6] DNA fragmented spermatozoa among the living spermatozoa population (p>0.05). Conclusion: No deleterious effect of smoking on spermatozoa was found in our study. More studies concerning potential mutagenic capacities of cigarette smoke on spermatozoa are necessary. In addition, the coupled vitality-DNA fragmentation analysis may orient Assisted Reproductive Technologies teams when confronted with patients having a high percentage of DNA-fragmented living spermatozoa. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society. Copyright © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  17. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  18. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  19. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  20. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  1. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  2. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  3. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  4. The Korean Diaspora. Historical and Sociological Studies of Korean Immigration and Assimilation in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-chan, Ed.

    This anthology presents some results of recent research on Korean immigration to and assimilation in America. The essays address three major questions concerned with problems of immigration and assimilation: (1) What caused the immigration of Koreans to the Hawaiian Islands and the United States mainland? (2) How has the Korean experience in…

  5. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  6. Phonological Acquisition of Korean Consonants in Conversational Speech Produced by Young Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minjung; Kim, Soo-Jin; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the phonological acquisition of Korean consonants using conversational speech samples collected from sixty monolingual typically developing Korean children aged two, three, and four years. Phonemic acquisition was examined for syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants. Results showed that Korean children acquired stops…

  7. The Korean Diaspora. Historical and Sociological Studies of Korean Immigration and Assimilation in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-chan, Ed.

    This anthology presents some results of recent research on Korean immigration to and assimilation in America. The essays address three major questions concerned with problems of immigration and assimilation: (1) What caused the immigration of Koreans to the Hawaiian Islands and the United States mainland? (2) How has the Korean experience in…

  8. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants' demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players.

  9. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  10. Association between common CYP1A2 polymorphisms and theophylline metabolism in non-smoking healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqing; Hu, Zheyi; Deng, Xun; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Zhongyi; Cheng, Ze-Neng

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 polymorphisms on theophylline metabolism in a non-smoking healthy male Chinese population. Four polymorphisms CYP1A2 1C (G-3860A), G-3113A, CYP1A2 1F (C-163A) and CYP1A2 1B (C-5347T) were screened in 238 unrelated male volunteers. Then, a single oral 200-mg dose of theophylline was administered to 37 volunteers, who were selected from 238 volunteers based on the CYP1A2 genotype. CYP1A2 activities were evaluated by plasma 1,7-dimethylxanthine/caffeine ratios (17X/137X) after administration of 100-mg caffeine. The plasma concentrations of theophylline, 17X and 137X were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The activity of CYP1A2 was lower in volunteers with the -3113 AA genotype compared with those with the -3113 AG genotype (0.35 ± 0.04 versus 0.48 ± 0.07, p = 0.016) or the -3113 GG genotype (0.35 ± 0.04 versus 0.58 ± 0.22, p = 0.037). CYP1A2 1F polymorphisms were associated with increased CYP1A2 activity in volunteers with -3860G/-3113G/5347C homozygosity (0.66 ± 0.24 versus 0.46 ± 0.05, p = 0.034). However, theophylline metabolism showed no difference among volunteers carrying different haplotype pairs. CYP1A2 genetic polymorphisms influenced CYP1A2 enzyme activity as measured by caffeine, but CYP1A2 gene polymorphisms appeared to have limited influence on theophylline metabolism in our study. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  11. Associations Between Household Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Health Problems Among Non-Smoking Adolescents in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee

    2017-03-25

    This study examined the association between household secondhand smoke exposure (HSHSE) and health status among non-smoking adolescents in Korea using two subsamples obtained from nationally representative cross-sectional secondary data: males (n = 25,653) and females (n = 31,187). Two self-reported HSHSE measures included exposure to household secondhand smoke during the week before the survey (yes or no) and number of days of HSHSE (1-7 days); and five self-reported health problems included asthma, perceived stress, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-rated health. For each subsample, this study performed (1) multivariate logistic regressions to examine HSHSE effects on asthma, depression, and suicidal ideation; and (2) multiple linear regressions to examine HSHSE effects on perceived stress and self-rated health. The rate and number of days of HSHSE were significantly higher among females (30.1% and 3.4 days) than among males (25.9% and 3.1 days). In both subsamples, HSHSE was associated with all five health problems (ORs 1.15-1.32; βs: 0.04-0.14). An increase in the number of days of HSHSE was positively associated with (1) greater perceived stress and poorer self-rated health in both subsamples (βs: 0.01-0.04), and (2) greater odds of asthma, depression, and suicidal ideation in the female subsample (ORs 1.03-1.12). Given the findings related to the strong associations (1) between HSHSE and physical, mental, and general health problems; and (2) between days of HSHSE and a greater number of health problems in females, health professionals should actively implement interventions that encourage adult smokers to stop smoking in their homes.

  12. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  13. The Economic Implications of Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The eventual reunification of the Korean peninsula will offer many challenges for...in the development of two very different governments and economies. The two Koreas are technically still at war; the Korean War ended with the signing...96 Korea actually began to become industrialized during the last fifteen years of Japanese occupation. The number of Koreans employed in heavy

  14. Air Power in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    was simply to expel the North Korean communists from the free country in the south called the Republic of Korea . The U.S. national objective was to... Korea reasoning that the forces could best be used elsewhere. During the three years prior to the Korean War, Truman’s policy toward the ROK was...increasing Chinese Communist interests in North Korea .4 On 10 March 1950, Truman was further warned that the North Koreans would “invade sometime in

  15. Operational Art Requirements in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Rhee, enough for defense but not enough to precipitate South Korean offensive actions to unify Korea .27 Adding to the tension in the region, the...percent of the Korean Peninsula. The United States decided to intervene in the defense of the South and proceeded to press the United Nations (U.N...the Korean War, these works primarily fall into three broad areas of scholarship: the American strategy concerning Korea and the Cold War

  16. Korean Defense Industry: Threat or Ally?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-22

    framework for defense industrial cooperation with Korea . While Senator Dixon eventually dropped his opposition and the Korean Fighter Program is now...US defense firms to transfer technology to Korean firms, the US Government must recognize two realities: first, Korea will develop indigenous...serious Korean competition in the foreseeable future. 8 It does not appear that the Korea defense industry is poised to take away significant market

  17. Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks.

  18. Nasalance scores for normal Korean-speaking adults and children.

    PubMed

    Park, Mikyong; Baek, William S; Lee, Eunkyung; Koh, Kyung S; Kim, Baek-Kyu; Baek, Rongmin

    2014-02-01

    There are numerous nasometric studies to date, including normative nasalance scores for various languages as well as nasometric differences in age, gender, race and region except the Korean language. In this regard, we sought to establish normative nasalance scores for Koreans. We created speech samples based on the everyday use of phonemes in the Korean language which were syntactically simple for children. In addition, we analysed nasometric features based on age and gender and confirmed test-retest reliability. The study included 108 children (54 girls and 54 boys, aged 7-11 years) and 108 adults (54 women and 54 men, aged 18-29 years) with normal articulation, resonance, voice and hearing. Nasometer II 6400 was used to measure the nasalance scores. The subjects read or repeated three speech stimuli, each consisting of 33, 36 and 24 syllables: (1) an oral passage devoid of nasal consonants, (2) an oro-nasal passage and (3) nasal sentences. For each stimulus, mean nasalance scores were obtained and gender or age dependence was analysed, using two-way analyses of variance. The mean nasalance scores for the oral passage, oro-nasal passage and nasal sentences were 11.69% (standard deviation (SD) 3.68), 34.04% (SD 4.88) and 63.72% (SD 6.07), respectively. Female speakers exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than male speakers on the oro-nasal passage (p = 0.000) and nasal sentences (p = 0.004). Children exhibited significantly higher nasalance scores than adults on nasal sentences (p = 0.000). The nasalance scores in children and females were a little higher. Korean normative data will provide reference information in the evaluation and treatment of resonance problems. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Burnout and its related factors in Korean dentists.

    PubMed

    Jin, Myoung-Uk; Jeong, Seong-Hwa; Kim, Eun-Kyong; Choi, Youn-Hee; Song, Keun-Bae

    2015-02-01

    Dentistry has been identified as one of the most stressful work environments. Knowledge of modifiable work-environment factors related to job stress could lead to a strategy and policy to provide a better work environment for dentists. The aims of this study were to examine the degree and distribution of burnout and to determine the factors associated with burnout subscale of Korean dentists. A cross-sectional survey of Korean dentists was conducted using a custom-designed and validated questionnaire that incorporated the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as well as questions regarding sociodemographic and job-related characteristics. A random sample of 1,000 dentists was selected from 13,207 registered dentists in the Korean Dental Association. The MBI-HSS scores were summarised in the three dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal sense of accomplishment. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of burnout and its related factors. The adjusted response rate was 45.9% (444/967). In the subscales of burnout, 41.2%, 55.9%, and 41.4% of respondents scored highly in emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation and poorly for personal sense of accomplishment, respectively. High burnout seems to be more likely to occur in association with some of the sociodemographic and job-related characteristics, especially younger age, male gender, without occupational calling, and unwilling to reselect a dentistry as a job. This study suggests that burnout is a common problem in Korean dentists and that occupational calling and willing to reselect a dentistry as a job are important factors for managing burnout. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Understanding employment barriers among older Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Chi, Iris; Yi, Jaehee

    2015-06-01

    This study involved an in-depth exploration of the employment barriers of older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles. This qualitative study used data obtained from 6 focus groups and 5 individual interviews. Participants were 36 older Korean immigrants living in Los Angeles, aged 50 years and older, and either unemployed or employed in part-time or full-time work. A grounded theory analytical approach and constant comparison method were used. Ten major themes emerged as employment barriers for older Korean immigrants and were categorized as stereotype, human capital, and acculturation barriers. Ageism among employers specific to Korean culture, lack of English proficiency, separation from U.S. culture, marginalization from both Korean and U.S. cultures, and lack of social networks were important themes. In addition, older Korean immigrants experienced multiple interconnected barriers. The findings highlight the importance of using a multidimensional approach to explore employment barriers among older Korean immigrants who face multiple obstacles in finding jobs. Implications for local governments and Korean communities and potential services to support employment opportunities for older Korean immigrants are discussed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Combined Operations in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-24

    Research Cfice, 1952. Ministry of National Defense , Republic of Korea . The History of United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Volume VI, Seou 1: 1977. ,-,h...committed to repelling the North Korean and Chinese armies from the Republic of Korea (ROK). The Korean War was not anticipated and neither was the extent...Coaal: tior War Early on 25 June Iz)50 the North Korean People- Army =_NKPA launched an overwhelming invasion into the Repu’Tli,: cf Korea . Pres-.i,ent

  2. Korean women's attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Pritham, U A; Sammons, L N

    1993-01-01

    A convenience sample of 40 native-born pregnant Korean women receiving prenatal care at a U.S. military facility in a major metropolitan area in Korea completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care. Responses revealed a family life characterized by positive maternal and paternal perceptions of the pregnancy and less preference for a male child than we had anticipated. Traditional beliefs in Tae Mong, a conception dream, and Tae Kyo, rituals for safe childbirth, were followed. Food taboos, including protein sources, were reported. Attitudes toward prenatal care services, care providers, and maternal health habits are described.

  3. Differential effects of dietary supplements on metabolomic profile of smokers versus non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is well-known to associate with accelerated skin aging as well as cardiovascular disease and lung cancer, in large part due to oxidative stress. Because metabolites are downstream of genetic variation, as well as transcriptional changes and post-translational modifications of proteins, they are the most proximal reporters of disease states or reversal of disease states. Methods In this study, we explore the potential effects of commonly available oral supplements (containing antioxidants, vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids) on the metabolomes of smokers (n = 11) compared to non-smokers (n = 17). At baseline and after 12 weeks of supplementation, metabolomic analysis was performed on serum by liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS and GC-MS). Furthermore, clinical parameters of skin aging, including cutometry as assessed by three dermatologist raters blinded to subjects' age and smoking status, were measured. Results Long-chain fatty acids, including palmitate and oleate, decreased in smokers by 0.76-fold (P = 0.0045) and 0.72-fold (P = 0.0112), respectively. These changes were not observed in non-smokers. Furthermore, age and smoking status showed increased glow (P = 0.004) and a decrease in fine wrinkling (P = 0.038). Cutometry showed an increase in skin elasticity in smokers (P = 0.049) but not in non-smokers. Complexion analysis software (VISIA) revealed decreases in the number of ultraviolet spots (P = 0.031), and cutometry showed increased elasticity (P = 0.05) in smokers but not non-smokers. Conclusions Additional future work may shed light on the specific mechanisms by which long-chain fatty acids can lead to increased glow, improved elasticity measures and decreased fine wrinkling in smokers' skin. Our study provides a novel, medicine-focused application of available metabolomic technology to identify changes in sera of human subjects with oxidative stress, and suggests that oral supplementation (in particular

  4. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Moyen, N E; Ganio, M S; Burchfield, J M; Tucker, M A; Gonzalez, M A; Dougherty, E K; Robinson, F B; Ridings, C B; Veilleux, J C

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for > 4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature (T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p >  .05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s(-1)) to 1.5 °C ΔT C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s(-1); p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s(-1); 1.5 °C ΔT C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s(-1); p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated (p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  5. Effect of passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers versus non-smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, N. E.; Ganio, M. S.; Burchfield, J. M.; Tucker, M. A.; Gonzalez, M. A.; Dougherty, E. K.; Robinson, F. B.; Ridings, C. B.; Veilleux, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    In non-smokers, passive heat stress increases shear stress and vasodilation, decreasing arterial stiffness. Smokers, who reportedly have arterial dysfunction, may have similar improvements in arterial stiffness with passive heat stress. Therefore, we examined the effects of an acute bout of whole-body passive heat stress on arterial stiffness in smokers vs. non-smokers. Thirteen smokers (8.8 ± 5.5 [median = 6] cigarettes per day for >4 years) and 13 non-smokers matched for age, mass, height, and exercise habits (27 ± 8 years; 78.8 ± 15.4 kg; 177.6 ± 6.7 cm) were passively heated to 1.5 °C core temperature ( T C) increase. At baseline and each 0.5 °C T C increase, peripheral (pPWV) and central pulse wave velocity (cPWV) were measured via Doppler ultrasound. No differences existed between smokers and non-smokers for any variables (all p > 0.05), except cPWV slightly increased from baseline (526.7 ± 81.7 cm · s-1) to 1.5 °C Δ T C (579.7 ± 69.8 cm · s-1; p < 0.005), suggesting heat stress acutely increased central arterial stiffness. pPWV did not change with heating (grand mean: baseline = 691.9 ± 92.9 cm · s-1; 1.5 °C Δ T C = 691.9 ± 79.5 cm · s-1; p > 0.05). Changes in cPWV and pPWV during heating correlated ( p < 0.05) with baseline PWV in smokers (cPWV: r = -0.59; pPWV: r = -0.62) and non-smokers (cPWV: r = -0.45; pPWV: r = -0.77). Independent of smoking status, baseline stiffness appears to mediate the magnitude of heating-induced changes in arterial stiffness.

  6. Temporal Trends of Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Nonsmoking Workers in the United States (NHANES 2001–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Binnian; Bernert, John T.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Wang, Lanqing; Richter, Patricia; Pirkle, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The workplace is one of the major locations outside of the home for nonsmokers’ exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). New policies in many U.S. states and localities restrict or prohibit smoking in the workplace, and information on current trends in the exposure of nonsmokers to SHS across various occupational groups is therefore needed. Objective: We evaluated temporal trends in SHS exposure among nonsmoking workers in the United States and identified those occupations with workers with the highest levels of SHS exposure. Methods: We combined serum cotinine (sCOT) measurements and questionnaire data from five survey cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES: 2001–2010). Trends in SHS exposure by occupations were determined from percent changes and least-squares geometric means (LSGMs) of sCOT concentrations computed using sample-weighted multiple regression models. Results: Between NHANES 2001–2002 and NHANES 2009–2010, LSGMs of sCOT levels had changed –25% (95% CI: –39, –7%) in nonsmoking workers. The largest decrease was identified among food preparation workers [–54% (95% CI: –74, –19%)], followed by white-collar [–40%, (95% CI: –56, –19%)] and blue-collar workers (–32%, 95% CI: –51, –5%). LSGMs of sCOT remained highest in food preparation workers in all survey cycles, but the gap between occupations narrowed in the latest survey cycle (2009–2010). For example, the gap in LSGMs of sCOT between food preparation and science/education workers dropped > 70% during 2000 to 2010. Conclusions: During the period from 2001 to 2010, the overall SHS exposure in nonsmoking workers declined with substantial drops in food preparation/service and blue-collar workers. Although disparities persist in SHS exposure, the gaps among occupations have narrowed. Citation: Wei B, Bernert JT, Blount BC, Sosnoff CS, Wang L, Richter P, Pirkle JL. 2016. Temporal trends of secondhand smoke exposure: nonsmoking workers

  7. Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Korean Semiconductor Workers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Park, Jungsun; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate cancer risks in the Korean semiconductor industry. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed in eight semiconductor factories between 1998 and 2008. The number of subjects was 113,443 for mortality and 108,443 for incidence. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated. Results The SMR of leukemia was 0.39 (95% Confidence Interval 0.08-1.14) in males (2 cases) and 1.37 (0.55-2.81) in females (7 cases). The SMR of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was 1.33 (0.43-3.09, 5 cases) in males and 2.5 (0.68-6.40, 4 cases) in females. The SIR of leukemia was 0.69 (0.30-1.37, 8 cases) in males and 1.28 (0.61-2.36, 10 cases) in females. The SIR of NHL in females was 2.31 (1.23-3.95, 13 cases) and that of thyroid cancer in males was 2.11 (1.49-2.89, 38 cases). The excess incidence of NHL was significant in female assembly operators [SIR=3.15 (1.02-7.36, 5 cases)], but not significant in fabrication workers. The SIR of NHL in the group working for 1-5 years was higher than the SIR of NHL for those working for more than five years. The excess incidence of male thyroid cancer was observed in both office and manufacturing workers. Conclusion There was no significant increase of leukemia in the Korean semiconductor industry. However, the incidence of NHL in females and thyroid cancer in males were significantly increased even though there was no definite association between work and those diseases in subgroup analysis according to work duration. This result should be interpreted cautiously, because the majority of the cohort was young and the number of cases was small. PMID:22953196

  8. Linguistic dimensions in descriptors expressing thermal sensation in Korean: 'warm' projects thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2010-07-01

    The present study was triggered by the inconsistency in verbal descriptors in English and Korean describing 'warm' and 'hot' in the thermal sensation scale. The purpose of this study was to examine the linguistic dimensions of the terms expressing 'ttatteuhada (warm)' and 'yakkan duptta (slightly hot)' in Korean. A total of 988 urban Koreans (479 males and 509 females) participated in a questionnaire survey consisting of six questions. The one-to-one survey was conducted indoors in December 2008. Our results showed that (1) 'warm' and 'slightly hot' in Korean are distinctive thermal descriptors; (2) 'warm' projects thermal comfort (80.4% of 988 respondents), but 'slightly hot' projects some thermal discomfort (54.3% of 988 respondents); (3) a slight thermally comfortable feeling was expressed as 'warm' (83.9% of 988 respondents), while a slight thermally uncomfortable feeling was seldom expressed as 'warm' (6.2% of 988 respondents) in mild heat environments; (4) the linguistic dimension within the term 'warm' was less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than that of the term 'slightly hot'. In summary, 'warm' in Korean connotes a thermally comfortable feeling. In the case of being a little thermally uncomfortable, Koreans project their thermal sensation through the term 'slightly hot', rather than 'warm'. In conclusion, thermal descriptors in the ISO 10551/ASHRAE scale, i.e., 'very cold-cold-cool-slightly cool-neutral-slightly warm-warm-hot-very hot', are not valid for the evaluation of mild hot environments in Korea. A new categorical scale is required in Korean considering the descriptors 'warm' and 'slightly hot'.

  9. Linguistic dimensions in descriptors expressing thermal sensation in Korean: `warm' projects thermal comfort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2010-07-01

    The present study was triggered by the inconsistency in verbal descriptors in English and Korean describing ‘warm’ and ‘hot’ in the thermal sensation scale. The purpose of this study was to examine the linguistic dimensions of the terms expressing ‘ ttatteuhada (warm)’ and ‘ yakkan duptta (slightly hot)’ in Korean. A total of 988 urban Koreans (479 males and 509 females) participated in a questionnaire survey consisting of six questions. The one-to-one survey was conducted indoors in December 2008. Our results showed that (1) ‘warm’ and ‘slightly hot’ in Korean are distinctive thermal descriptors; (2) ‘warm’ projects thermal comfort (80.4% of 988 respondents), but ‘slightly hot’ projects some thermal discomfort (54.3% of 988 respondents); (3) a slight thermally comfortable feeling was expressed as ‘warm’ (83.9% of 988 respondents), while a slight thermally uncomfortable feeling was seldom expressed as ‘warm’ (6.2% of 988 respondents) in mild heat environments; (4) the linguistic dimension within the term ‘warm’ was less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than that of the term ‘slightly hot’. In summary, ‘warm’ in Korean connotes a thermally comfortable feeling. In the case of being a little thermally uncomfortable, Koreans project their thermal sensation through the term ‘slightly hot’, rather than ‘warm’. In conclusion, thermal descriptors in the ISO 10551/ASHRAE scale, i.e., ‘very cold-cold-cool-slightly cool-neutral-slightly warm-warm-hot-very hot’, are not valid for the evaluation of mild hot environments in Korea. A new categorical scale is required in Korean considering the descriptors ‘warm’ and ‘slightly hot’.

  10. Normative study of the Korean-California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT).

    PubMed

    Kim, J K; Kang, Y

    1999-08-01

    As a normative study of the Korean version of the California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT), the present study examined the K-CVLT performances of 357 neurologically intact Koreans (181 males and 176 females) who were selected by stratified sampling reflecting the recent Korean census data. The factor analysis of the K-CVLT showed that the K-CVLT was a valid and useful tool for qualitatively assessing a number of theoretically meaningful processes and strategies underlying verbal memory. Norms were developed on the 22 memory indices separately for gender and age groups. Implications for the K-CVLT's factor analytic results are discussed, and the K-CVLT's normative data is compared with that of the CVLT.

  11. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking assessment 1 week later. After removing 35 students who reported smoking at the baseline assessment, regressions were used to examine ethnic effects on TPB constructs when predicting nonsmoking intentions. Caucasians had statistically significant higher nonsmoking intentions than African Americans. Further, subjective norms for Caucasians and attitudes for African Americans had small but significant relations to intention, but perceived behavioral control (PBC) was a strongly significant predictor for both ethnic groups. However, the prediction of nonsmoking intentions was not statistically moderated by ethnicity for any of the TPB constructs. This study suggests that the TPB may aid in understanding collegiate nonsmoking intentions and help begin to explain differences in smoking on the basis of ethnicity. Last, because of strong associations shown in this study, PBC should be considered when developing ethnic-specific smoking interventions in college students. PMID:19297301

  12. The Korean Question--Revisited.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    PAGE D/02Q P REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE I&. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 ...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete *U.S. 02-0rnf6nt PUtncla s fi 0102-LF-014-6602 Unclass’ife * ’ 3 5 33%1C EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE KOREAN...0. 1 Purpose *............. .........*0*60 3 Approach ....................... .** 3 Scope and Limitations .............. 3 Assumptions

  13. Surprise: The Korean Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-18

    theory through education ; a mre rigid approach toward decision making in foriegn policy; appropriate military doctrine; mobile and flexible forces. 20...TJUR 19 ARSTRAC7 (Contrwe on ,vvere of necesury end iderltIfy by block fnumber) Clearly m.ilitary surorise is arnng the greatest dangers a country ...SURPRISE: THE KOREAN CASE STUDY Clearly military surprise is among the greatest dangers a country can face. Despite a knowledge of this danger, responsible

  14. Korean speech sound development in children from bilingual Japanese-Korean environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoung Suk; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Yoon Mi; Kim, Hyun Gi; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Sun Jun

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates Korean speech sound development, including articulatory error patterns, among the Japanese-Korean children whose mothers are Japanese immigrants to Korea. The subjects were 28 Japanese-Korean children with normal development born to Japanese women immigrants who lived in Jeonbuk province, Korea. They were assessed through Computerized Speech Lab 4500. The control group consisted of 15 Korean children who lived in the same area. The values of the voice onset time of consonants /p(h)/, /t/, /t(h)/, and /k(*)/ among the children were prolonged. The children replaced the lenis sounds with aspirated or fortis sounds rather than replacing the fortis sounds with lenis or aspirated sounds, which are typical among Japanese immigrants. The children showed numerous articulatory errors for /c/ and /l/ sounds (similar to Koreans) rather than errors on /p/ sounds, which are more frequent among Japanese immigrants. The vowel formants of the children showed a significantly prolonged vowel /o/ as compared to that of Korean children (P<0.05). The Japanese immigrants and their children showed a similar substitution /n/ for /ɧ/ [Japanese immigrants (62.5%) vs Japanese-Korean children (14.3%)], which is rarely seen among Koreans. The findings suggest that Korean speech sound development among Japanese-Korean children is influenced not only by the Korean language environment but also by their maternal language. Therefore, appropriate language education programs may be warranted not only or immigrant women but also for their children.

  15. A study on the relationship between job stress and nicotine dependence in Korean workers.

    PubMed

    Son, Seung Rak; Choe, Byeong Moo; Kim, Seong Hwan; Hong, Young Seoub; Kim, Byoung Gwon

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine dependence and its severity are often determined by individuals' psychosocial factors.This study purposed to analyze how Korean workers' job stress is related with their nicotine dependence according to demographic and occupational characteristics in order to reduce smoking related to job stress and to establish objective indicators to be used in developing adequate smoking cessation strategies. The subjects of this study were 4,639 workers who replied to the questionnaire survey. In addition, 1,948 current smokers were separated from non-smokers and ex-smokers, and the relationship between job stress and nicotine dependence was analyzed with the current smoker group. Nicotine dependence was tested using Fagerström's Test of Nicotine Dependence, and stress was measured using a questionnaire on subjective stress felt by workers in their daily life and the short form of the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. The smoking rate was 54.1 % among men and 2.5 % among women. Nicotine dependence was significantly different according to interpersonal conflict, organization system and lack of reward (p < 0.05). As multivariate logistic analysis, job control, occupational climate and total stress score were statistical significant (p < 0.05). Job stress was found to be related with smoking status and nicotine dependence. Based on this result, it is suggested to enhance workers' welfare for health promotion in workplace by improving their working environment in order to reduce job stress and consequently to decrease the smoking rate.

  16. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  17. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  18. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an elderly urban Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Han-Ik; Eun Kim, Jung; Woong Kim, Ki; Jung Kim, Yu; Lee, Keun-Wook; Hyun Kim, Jee; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2011-09-01

    Research on the epidemiology of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is limited in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MGUS in an elderly urban Korean population. A random sample of 1118 Korean elders was selected from residents aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea 1 year from August 2005. We obtained plasma samples remaining after scheduled tests for the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. The mean age of the study population was 72 years (range, 65-97 years). To screen for MGUS, immunofixation and free light-chain (FLC) assays were performed. Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted MGUS prevalence rates in 680 responders were estimated as 3.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.6%], and the estimated age-adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 4.3% in men (95% CI = 1.9-6.6%) and 2.6% in women (95% CI = 1.0-4.2%). Abnormal FLC ratios were detected in 10% of MGUS cases. Multivariate analysis of 945 participants revealed that significant risk factors for MGUS included advanced age, male sex, hyperproteinemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and abnormal FLC ratio. MGUS is less prevalent among elderly Koreans (3.3%) than other races. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of MGUS in the Korean elderly population. Our findings should be confirmed with additional studies analyzing follow-up samples from 2010.

  19. Dietary supplementation patterns of Korean olympic athletes participating in the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongkyu; Kang, Seung-ki; Jung, Han-sang; Chun, Yoon-suck; Trilk, Jennifer; Jung, Seung Ho

    2011-04-01

    Athletes report frequent use of various dietary supplements (DSs). However, no study has examined DS use and antidoping knowledge in Korean Olympians. The objectives of this study were to obtain information about Korean Olympians' DS use during the training period for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games and immediately before their Olympic events, to obtain DS-intake reasons and DS providers, and to obtain information on athletes' doping education, knowledge, and educators. Korean Olympians completed 2 questionnaires 1 wk before the opening and within 1 wk after the closing of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Results showed that 79% of male and 82% of female Olympians take more than 1 DS during the training period and that vitamins and Oriental supplements are the 2 top-ranked DSs. Reasons for DS use were to improve recovery ability (66%) and muscle performance (22%), and sources of obtaining DSs were parents (36%) and coaches (35%). Furthermore, 79% of Korean Olympians reported receiving regular education on antidoping regulations from Olympic-sponsored education classes (64%) and coaches (15%). In conclusion, this study was the first to examine DS use and antidoping-related information in Korean Olympians. Because some herbal products contain substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, athletes should be cautious in using mixed Oriental supplements.

  20. Korean BAC library construction and characterization of HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB3.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Hye-Ja; Bok, Jeong; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Park, Chan; Kimm, KuChan; Oh, Bermseok; Lee, Jong-Young

    2006-07-31

    A human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed with high molecular weight DNA extracted from the blood of a male Korean. This Korean BAC library contains 100,224 clones of insert size ranging from 70 to 150 kb, with an average size of 86 kb, corresponding to a 2.9-fold redundancy of the genome. The average insert size was determined from 288 randomly selected BAC clones that were well distributed among all the chromosomes. We developed a pooling system and three-step PCR screen for the Korean BAC library to isolate desired BAC clones, and we confirmed its utility using primer pairs designed for one of the clones. The Korean BAC library and screening pools will allow PCR-based screening of the Korean genome for any gene of interest. We also determined the allele types of HLA-DRA and HLA-DRB3 of clone KB55453, located in the HLA class II region on chromosome 6p21.3. The HLA-DRA and DRB3 genes in this clone were identified as the DRA*010202 and DRB3*01010201 types, respectively. The haplotype found in this library will provide useful information in future human disease studies.

  1. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  2. The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

  3. Group Psychodrama for Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Kim, Soo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Psychodrama was first introduced in the Korean literature in 1972, but its generalization to college students did not occur until the 1990s. Despite findings from psychodrama studies with Korean college students supporting psychodrama as effective for developing and maintaining good interpersonal relationships, as well as decreasing anxiety and…

  4. College Psychotherapy at a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Choi, Mi Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In the online interview presented in this article, two Korean counselors offer comments to questions regarding issues faced at a Korean University. They reflected on their roles and some of the many topics faced that included: (1) student misunderstanding about counseling needs, and how counseling questionnaires and the counselor helps them; (2)…

  5. Russian Nonproliferation Policy and the Korean Peninsula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    the Committee for Foreign Relation of the Korean Association of Slavic Studies . Dr. Shin received his Ph.D. in political science from the Moscow...President Vladimir Putin and Its Significance for the Republic of Korea), Korean Slavic Studies , Vol. 19, No. 2, 2004, pp. 675-710. 28. Daehan

  6. Group Psychodrama for Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Kim, Soo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Psychodrama was first introduced in the Korean literature in 1972, but its generalization to college students did not occur until the 1990s. Despite findings from psychodrama studies with Korean college students supporting psychodrama as effective for developing and maintaining good interpersonal relationships, as well as decreasing anxiety and…

  7. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance,"…

  8. Development of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2003-01-01

    Five analyses using Korean college students (n=283, 700, 844, 306, 315) were conducted to develop the Korean Career Indecision Inventory. Five factors emerged consistently and were confirmed by factor analysis: lack of career information, lack of necessity recognition, lack of self-identity, indecisiveness, and external barriers. Reliability and…

  9. Culture and the Korean Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ki Sook

    This paper examines the relationship between Korean culture and the historical development of its kindergarten (preschool) curriculum. After reviewing the values that were emphasized in traditional Korean society, focusing on ethics, loyalty and filial piety, propriety, and gender roles, the paper provides examples of how these values influences…

  10. Birth outcomes of Korean women in Hawaii.

    PubMed Central

    Mor, J M; Alexander, G R; Kieffer, E C; Baruffi, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the end of the Korean War, immigration of Koreans to the United States has increased rapidly. In 1990, 11.6 percent of all Asians in the United States were of Korean ethnicity, and it is projected that Koreans will outnumber all other Asian groups, except Filipinos, in the United States by the year 2030. Despite the growing size of this population, very little is known about their health status. This study, using 1979-89 Hawaii vital record data, investigates the relationship between maternal sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care utilization factors, and birth outcomes among Koreans as compared with Caucasians. The ethnic term "Caucasian" is used in Hawaii's vital records and is synonymous with non-Hispanic whites. Korean mothers were more likely to be older and have lower educational attainment, and less likely to be adolescent, single, or to have received adequate prenatal care than Caucasian mothers. More than 80 percent of the Korean mothers were foreign born. Significantly higher risks for very preterm delivery (less than 33 weeks) and very low birth weight births were observed for Koreans as compared with Caucasians. Nativity had no effect on birth outcome in this population. The results of this study suggest that prevention of preterm birth is an important focus for improving pregnancy outcomes in this growing ethnic group. PMID:8341786

  11. Korean Education: Focusing on the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Richard A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Recounts a group of western educators' three-week tour of Korea, sponsored by the Korean Studies Workshop. The educators interviewed administrators, attended lectures, and visited elementary and secondary schools. Provides an excellent overview of the state of Korean K-12 education, including proposed curricular reforms. (MJP)

  12. Korean Education and Foreign Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Central Education Research Inst., Seoul.

    Since the problems facing Korean education arise from very complicated factors, it was felt that the objective views of foreign observers would undoubtedly be of great help in efforts to solve them. In this connection, the Central Education Research Institute held a Seminar on Korean Education with the participation of foreign agencies in Korea…

  13. College Psychotherapy at a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Choi, Mi Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In the online interview presented in this article, two Korean counselors offer comments to questions regarding issues faced at a Korean University. They reflected on their roles and some of the many topics faced that included: (1) student misunderstanding about counseling needs, and how counseling questionnaires and the counselor helps them; (2)…

  14. Korean Intermediate Course. Selected Newspaper Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this material is to provide reading matter for the last phase of the Defense Language Institute's extended and intermediate courses in Korean. (See ED 024 943 for the Korean Basic Course, Lesson Units 1-112.) The content of this volume is current, introduces important vocabulary not encountered elsewhere in the courses, and calls…

  15. Small Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of small business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter small business in an economy which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant small business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean…

  16. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  17. Children Negotiating Korean American Ethnic Identity through Their Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary study provides an interpretive reading of focus group interviews of four Korean American children in the Phoenix metropolitan area. It examines how these Korean American children are negotiating their ethnic identity as Korean Americans while learning Korean as a heritage language. It shows that maintaining heritage language is…

  18. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  19. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  20. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  1. Smoking in korean-chinese middle school students: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Soonbok E; Yun, Soon-Nyung; Cui, Wenying; Kim, Hyang

    2013-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is rising among Chinese adolescents, and adolescent smoking is a crucial public health issue. Despite the number of studies that have explored the prevalence and various aspects of adolescent smoking in China, we know of no data currently available on smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. This article studies the prevalence of smoking and factors affecting smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. Data were collected from six Korean-Chinese middle schools in the Yanbian region of Jilin, China. The differences in data from three groups (never-smokers, ever-smokers, and current smokers) were analyzed using χ2 tests and analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors affecting smoking behavior. Among the 2,116 participants, 7.3% of the boys and 3.7% of the girls were ever-smokers, and 7.2% of the boys and 0.8% of the girls were current smokers. Differences among groups in terms of gender, number of friends currently smoking, parental smoking behavior, academic performance, alcohol consumption, and intention not to smoke were all significant (p < .001, .05). Compared with never-smoking and ever-smoking students, currently smoking students perceived a significantly less antismoking environment (p = .000). The smoking rate was 2.24 times higher in boys than girls and was 11.57 times higher in students who had three smoking friends compared with those who had no smoking friends. The findings may help develop more effective intervention approaches to prevent adolescent smoking. Preventive programs should involve smoking parents by increasing the value they place on their children's nonsmoking behavior and equipping them to help deter adolescent smoking.

  2. Exposure to nitrosamines in thirdhand tobacco smoke increases cancer risk in non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Noelia; Özel, Mustafa Z; Lewis, Alastair C; Marcé, Rosa M; Borrull, Francesc; Hamilton, Jacqueline F

    2014-10-01

    In addition to passive inhalation, non-smokers, and especially children, are exposed to residual tobacco smoke gases and particles that are deposited to surfaces and dust, known as thirdhand smoke (THS). However, until now the potential cancer risks of this pathway of exposure have been highly uncertain and not considered in public health policy. In this study, we estimate for the first time the potential cancer risk by age group through non-dietary ingestion and dermal exposure to carcinogen N-nitrosamines and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) measured in house dust samples. Using a highly sensitive and selective analytical approach we have determined the presence of nicotine, eight N-nitrosamines and five tobacco-specific nitrosamines in forty-six settled dust samples from homes occupied by both smokers and non-smokers. Using observations of house dust composition, we have estimated the cancer risk by applying the most recent official toxicological information. Calculated cancer risks through exposure to the observed levels of TSNAs at an early life stage (1 to 6years old) exceeded the upper-bound risk recommended by the USEPA in 77% of smokers' and 64% of non-smokers' homes. The maximum risk from exposure to all nitrosamines measured in a smoker occupied home was one excess cancer case per one thousand population exposed. The results presented here highlight the potentially severe long-term consequences of THS exposure, particularly to children, and give strong evidence of its potential health risk and, therefore, they should be considered when developing future environmental and health policies.

  3. Hostility and Cigarette Use: A Comparison Between Smokers and Nonsmokers in a Matched Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Suzanne M.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Kahler, Christopher W.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the association between hostility—a personality trait reflective of negativity and cynicism toward others—and smoking in adolescents by measuring (a) several subcomponents of hostility, and (b) facial emotion processing ability, which has been previously linked to hostility. Methods: Participants (N = 241 aged 14–19) were 95 smokers and 95 demographically matched nonsmokers as well as 51 nonmatched smokers. All participants completed the Cook–Medley (C-M) hostility scale, which provides a general hostility score and 3 component scores (cynicism, hypersensitivity, and aggressive responding), and a facial emotion processing task. This task, designed to assess emotion recognition, requires quickly identifying the emotion of faces that gradually morph from neutral to high-intensity happy, angry, or fearful. Results: Independent sample t tests indicated that matched smokers scored significantly higher in cynicism and aggressive responding than nonsmokers. Among smokers, age of smoking onset was negatively correlated with general hostility and aggressive responding. All hostility scales were positively correlated with the intensity needed to recognize happy faces. Counterintuitively, smokers required a greater intensity to recognize angry faces than nonsmokers. No other relations between hostility/smoking status and facial emotion processing were observed. Conclusions: Aspects of hostility, particularly aggressive responding, may be a risk factor for early onset smoking. Although hostile participants exhibited a deficiency in their ability to recognize happiness in facial pictures, these results did not translate to differences in smoking status. This study elucidates some of the complex interrelations between hostility, emotion processing, and adolescent smoking, which may have implications for teen smoking prevention. PMID:24692670

  4. Effects of passive smoking on hypertension in rural Chinese nonsmoking women.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Li, Zhiwen; Chen, Sen; Yang, Na; Ren, Aiguo; Ye, Rongwei

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggest that active smoking is a risk factor for hypertension, but little is known about the effects of passive smoking on this condition. In China, female passive smoking is widespread and severe due to the high proportion of men who smoke, particularly in rural areas. This study assessed whether passive smoking is associated with increased risk of hypertension among nonsmoking women in rural China. A total of 392 nonsmoking women from a rural area of Shanxi Province (northern China) participated in this cross-sectional study. Data on female passive smoking, and other factors known to influence hypertension, were collected during face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association analyses after adjusting for potential confounders. In total, 162 of the 392 participants were hypertensive (41.3%); 118 participants (30.1%) reported exposure to passive smoking, of whom 88.4% were exposed to smoke in the home. After adjusting for age, BMI, education, occupation, drinking status, physical activity, and menopause status, passive smoking conferred an approximately two-fold risk increase of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio = 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.16, 3.39). The adjusted odds ratios for passive smoking exposure levels of one to three, four to six, and more than six occasions per week were 1.01 (0.39-2.62), 2.57 (1.05-6.30), and 2.59 (1.18-5.69), respectively. In rural areas of northern China, female passive smoking in the home is prevalent. Frequent exposure to secondhand smoke is a risk factor for hypertension among nonsmoking women, which suggests that measures should be taken to prevent passive smoking among this population.

  5. Altered antigenic profiling and infectivity of Porphyromonas gingivalis in smokers and non-smokers with periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Iris; Hutcherson, Justin A.; Lamont, Richard J.; Demuth, Donald R.; Gumus, Pinar; Nizam, Nejat; Buduneli, Nurcan; Scott, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smokers are more susceptible to periodontal diseases and are more likely to be infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis than non-smokers. Furthermore, smoking is known to alter the expression of P. gingivalis surface components and to compromise IgG generation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether IgG response to P. gingivalis is suppressed in smokers in vivo and whether previously established in vitro tobacco-induced phenotypic P. gingivalis changes would be reflected in vivo. Methods We examined the humoral response to several P. gingivalis strains as well as specific tobacco-regulated outer membrane proteins (FimA and RagB) by ELISA in biochemically-validated (salivary cotinine) smokers and non-smokers with chronic (CP, n = 13) or aggressive (AP, n = 20) periodontitis. We also monitored the local and systemic presence of P. gingivalis DNA by PCR. Results Smoking was associated with decreased total IgG responses against clinical (10512, 5607, and 10208C; all p < 0.05) but not laboratory (ATCC 33277, W83) P. gingivalis strains. Smoking did not influence IgG produced against specific cell surface proteins, although a non-significant pattern towards increased total FimA-specific IgG in CP subjects, but not AP subjects, was observed. Seropositive smokers were more likely to be infected orally and systemically with P. gingivalis (p < 0.001), as determined by 16S RNA analysis. Conclusions Smoking alters the humoral response against P. gingivalis, strengthening the evidence that mechanisms of periodontal disease progression in smokers may differ from non-smokers with the same disease classification. PMID:24147843

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke and periodontitis in U.S. non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Julie D; Ranney, Leah M; Wilder, Rebecca S; Sanders, Anne E

    2012-01-01

    The association of second hand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and periodontitis in non-smokers has not been confirmed using a biomarker of ETS exposure. To estimate periodontitis prevalence in non-smokers with detectable serum cotinine, and to investigate racial/ethnic and socioeconomic variation in ETS exposure in a representative sample of the U. S. adult population. Determining periodontitis risk indicators occurring with ETS appears to be a salient purpose as this study is the first of its kind to provide a link (a salivary biomarker) between second hand smoke and risk for periodontitis. Data were collected from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Subjects were 3,137 adults who had smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes and had not used other forms of tobacco. ETS exposure was classified as negligible (cotinine concentrations below sex and race/ethnicity cut-points for smokers), moderate (cotinine 0.5-<1.5 μg/mL) or high (cotinine ≥ 1.5 ng/mL). Periodontitis was classified according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) case definition for moderate-severe disease. Survey estimation procedures were used to estimate prevalence and odds ratios (OR) were from multivariable logistic regression models. ETS exposure was observed in 40.5% of subjects and 2.6% had periodontitis. ETS exposure was inversely associated with educational attainment and family income and was higher in non-Hispanic blacks than whites. After adjusting for age, sex and year of survey, adults with high ETS exposure (cotinine ≥ 1.5 ng/mL) had more than twice the odds of periodontitis as people with negligible exposure (OR=2.3, 95% confidence interval=1.3, 4.1). High ETS exposure was a risk indicator for periodontitis in lifetime non-smokers.

  7. Risk assessment for heart disease and workplace ETS exposure among nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, K

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 the U.S. Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) published a study of risk assessment for heart disease and lung cancer resulting from workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among nonsmokers. This assessment is currently being revised. The present article considers different possible approaches to a risk assessment for heart disease among nonsmokers resulting from workplace ETS exposure, reviews the approach taken by OSHA in 1994, and suggests some modifications to that approach. Since 1994 the literature supporting an association between ETS exposure and heart disease among never smokers (sometimes including long-term former smokers) has been strengthened by new studies, including some studies that have specifically considered workplace exposure. A number of these studies are appropriate for inclusion in a meta-analysis, whereas a few may not be due to methodological problems or problems in exposure definition. A meta-analysis of eight relative risks (either rate ratios or odds ratios) for heart disease resulting from workplace ETS exposure, based on one reasonable selection of appropriate studies, yields a combined relative risk of 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.41). This relative risk, which is similar to that used by OSHA in 1994, yields an excess risk of death from heart disease by age 70 of 7 per 1000 (95% CI 0.001-0.013) resulting from ETS exposure in the workplace. This excess risk exceeds OSHA's usual threshold for regulation of 1 per 1000. Approximately 1,710 excess ischemic heart disease deaths per year would be expected among nonsmoking U.S. workers 35-69 years of age exposed to workplace ETS. PMID:10592143

  8. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  9. E-cigarette advertising exposure and implicit attitudes among young adult non-smokers

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Chen, Qimei; Muranaka, Nicholas; Kehl, Lisa; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study tested whether exposure to e-cigarette advertising affects the subliminal—spontaneous or automatic—attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a more pleasant or safer alternative to cigarettes among non-smoking young adults. Methods 187 young adult (mean age = 21.9; SD = 4.1) current non-smokers who had never used an e-cigarette were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions that involved viewing magazine advertisements. Two of the 3 conditions were experimental conditions where thematically different [harm-reduction (“Health”) vs. social enhancement (“Social”) focused] e-cigarette ads were interspersed among ads of everyday objects. The third condition was the control condition in which participants viewed ads of everyday objects only. Participants provided data on explicit (e.g., harm perceptions) and implicit [e.g., Implicit Association Test (IAT), Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP)] measures after viewing the ads. Results Relative to the Control condition, participants in the Social condition showed 2.8 times higher odds of being open to using an e-cigarette in the future. Participants in the Health condition showed significantly higher implicit attitudes towards e-cigarettes as a safer alternative to cigarettes than participants in the Control condition. E-cigarette stimuli elicited more positive spontaneous affective reactions among participants in the Social condition than participants in the Health condition. Conclusions E-cigarette ads may implicitly promote e-cigarettes as a reduced-harm cigarette alternative. Marketing of e-cigarette use as a way to enhance social life or self-image may encourage non-smoking young adults to try e-cigarettes. Findings may inform regulations on e-cigarette marketing. PMID:27125661

  10. Secondhand smoke and adverse fetal outcomes in nonsmoking pregnant women: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Britton, John; Venn, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    To determine the risk of adverse fetal outcomes of secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmoking pregnant women. This was a systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. We searched Medline and Embase (to March 2009) and reference lists for eligible studies; no language restrictions were imposed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using random-effect models. Our search was for epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy in nonsmoking pregnant women. The main outcome measures were spontaneous abortion, perinatal and neonatal death, stillbirth, and congenital malformations. We identified 19 studies that assessed the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmoking pregnant women. We found no evidence of a statistically significant effect of secondhand smoke exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion (OR: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.88-1.54]; 6 studies). However, secondhand smoke exposure significantly increased the risk of stillbirth (OR: 1.23 [95% CI: 1.09-1.38]; 4 studies) and congenital malformation (OR: 1.13 [95% CI: 1.01-1.26]; 7 studies), although none of the associations with specific congenital abnormalities were individually significant. Secondhand smoke exposure had no significant effect on perinatal or neonatal death. Pregnant women who are exposed to secondhand smoke are estimated to be 23% more likely to experience stillbirth and 13% more likely give birth to a child with a congenital malformation. Because the timing and mechanism of this effect is not clear, it is important to prevent secondhand smoke exposure in women before and during pregnancy.

  11. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century.

  12. A comparative study of systemic carcinogen exposure in waterpipe smokers, cigarette smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Ibrahim, Iman; Bazzi, Asma; Fayad, Sanaa; Shihadeh, Alan L; Zaatari, Ghazi S; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-03-01

    In the past decade, waterpipe smoking-also known as hookah, shisha, narghileh-has increased among youth. The scarcity of rigorous studies linking waterpipe smoking to smoking-related diseases has hindered policy and regulatory efforts to confront the waterpipe epidemic. This study compares systemic carcinogen exposure between independent groups of exclusive waterpipe smokers, cigarette smokers and non-smokers. This study was conducted at the Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies (SCTS) in Aleppo, Syria, between 2010 and 2011. First morning urinary samples were collected from three groups of subjects; exclusive daily waterpipe smokers (n=24), exclusive daily cigarette smokers (n=23), and non-smokers (n=28). These samples were analysed for carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol (NNAL) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results show that waterpipe smokers are exposed to about 5-10 times greater NNAL than non-smokers. Mean (95% CI) free and total NNAL was 0.7 (0.3 to 1. 4) and 3.9 (1.6 to 9.5) pg/mL urine for non-smokers, 8.4 (4.8 to 14.8) and 33.0 (21.6 to 50.6) pg/mL urine for waterpipe smokers, and 10.7 (5.0 to 22.6) and 46.8 (27.6 to 79.3) pg/mL urine for cigarette smokers (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Daily waterpipe smokers were less exposed to NNAL than daily cigarette smokers, although the difference did not reach statistical significance for all measurements. These results provide the clearest indication to date about systemic exposure to harmful carcinogens associated with long-term waterpipe smoking. Such evidence can support policy and regulatory efforts designed to confront the emerging global waterpipe epidemic, as well as drive interventions aimed at increasing the public awareness about the cancer risk associated with waterpipe smoking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: disposition in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Haley, N J; Sepkovic, D W; Hoffmann, D

    1989-01-01

    We have evaluated differences in the elimination of cotinine, a major nicotine metabolite, in smokers who quit smoking and never-smokers who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) under controlled conditions. The mean biological half-life of cotinine in urine, collected from the nine smokers was 16.5 +/- 1.2 h, in never-smokers exposed to ETS, 27.3 +/- 1.9 h. Differences in the mode of uptake and absorption of nicotine and possible differences in nicotine metabolism may play roles in the clearance rate differences between smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:2751025

  14. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shona C.; Chen, Shan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rokicki, Slawa; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in public multi-unit housing (MUH) is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear. Methods We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.02 ng/ml) and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng). Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine. Results Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively). Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml), with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%). TSE in the home, car, and other peoples’ homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15–0.25), while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161), a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6%) compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4%) (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3) (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%). Conclusions Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population. PMID:27171392

  15. Validity of Self-Reported Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Non-Smoking Adult Public Housing Residents.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shona C; Chen, Shan; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Rokicki, Slawa; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in public multi-unit housing (MUH) is of concern. However, the validity of self-reports for determining TSE among non-smoking residents in such housing is unclear. We analyzed data from 285 non-smoking public MUH residents living in non-smoking households in the Boston area. Participants were interviewed about personal TSE in various locations in the past 7 days and completed a diary of home TSE for 7 days. Self-reported TSE was validated against measurable saliva cotinine (lower limit of detection (LOD) 0.02 ng/ml) and airborne apartment nicotine (LOD 5 ng). Correlations, estimates of inter-measure agreement, and logistic regression assessed associations between self-reported TSE items and measurable cotinine and nicotine. Cotinine and nicotine levels were low in this sample (median = 0.026 ng/ml and 0.022 μg/m3, respectively). Prevalence of detectable personal TSE was 66.3% via self-report and 57.0% via measurable cotinine (median concentration among those with cotinine>LOD: 0.057 ng/ml), with poor agreement (kappa = 0.06; sensitivity = 68.9%; specificity = 37.1%). TSE in the home, car, and other peoples' homes was weakly associated with cotinine levels (Spearman correlations rs = 0.15-0.25), while TSE in public places was not associated with cotinine. Among those with airborne nicotine and daily diary data (n = 161), a smaller proportion had household TSE via self-report (41.6%) compared with measurable airborne nicotine (53.4%) (median concentration among those with nicotine>LOD: 0.04 μg/m3) (kappa = 0.09, sensitivity = 46.5%, specificity = 62.7%). Self-report alone was not adequate to identify individuals with TSE, as 31% with measurable cotinine and 53% with measurable nicotine did not report TSE. Self-report of TSE in private indoor spaces outside the home was most associated with measurable cotinine in this low-income non-smoking population.

  16. Urinary Isothiocyanate Levels and Lung Cancer Risk Among Non-Smoking Women: a Prospective Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Fowke, Jay H.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-lan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Rothman, Nat; Yang, Gong; Chung, Fung-Lung; Zheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Aside from tobacco carcinogen metabolism, isothiocyanates (ITC) from cruciferous vegetables may induce apoptosis or steroid metabolism to reduce lung cancer risk. To separate the effect of these divergent mechanisms of action, we investigated the association between urinary ITC levels and lung cancer risk among non-smoking women. Methods We conducted a nested case-control within the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Subjects included 209 incident lung cancer cases who never used tobacco, and 787 individually matched non-smoking controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) summarizing the association between urinary ITC levels and lung cancer. Secondary analyses stratified the ITC-lung cancer analyses by menopausal status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes. Results Urinary ITC levels were not significantly associated with lower lung cancer risk among non-smoking women, regardless of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke or menopausal status. Furthermore, this association was not modified by GSTT1 genotype. However, an inverse association was suggested among women with a GSTM1-positive genotype (Q1: OR=1.0 (reference); Q2: OR=0.35 (0.14, 0.89); Q3: OR=0.47 (0.20, 1.10); Q4: OR=0.63 (0.35, 1.54), p-trend = 0.38)). In contrast, lung cancer risk was positively associated with urinary ITC levels among women with the GSTM1-null genotype (Q1: OR=1.0 (reference); Q2: OR=1.67 (0.80, 3.50); Q3: OR=1.54 (0.71, 3.33); Q4: OR=2.22 (1.05, 4.67), p-trend = 0.06)). Conclusion Urinary ITC levels were not associated overall with lower lung cancer risk among non-smoking women, but secondary analyses suggested an interaction between urinary ITC levels, GSTM1 genotype, and lung cancer risk. PMID:21122939

  17. Systemic inflammation in 222.841 healthy employed smokers and nonsmokers: white blood cell count and relationship to spirometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking has been linked to low-grade systemic inflammation, a known risk factor for disease. This state is reflected in elevated white blood cell (WBC) count. Objective We analyzed the relationship between WBC count and smoking in healthy men and women across several age ranges who underwent preventive medical check-ups in the workplace. We also analysed the relationship between smoking and lung function. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study in 163 459 men and 59 382 women aged between 16 and 70 years. Data analysed were smoking status, WBC count, and spirometry readings. Results Total WBC showed higher counts in both male and female smokers, around 1000 to 1300 cell/ml (t test, P < 0.001). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) was higher in nonsmokers for both sexes between 25 to 54 years (t test, P < 0.001). Analysis of covariance showed a multiple variable effect of age, sex, smoking status, body mass index on WBC count. The relationship between WBC blood count and smoking status was confirmed after the sample was stratified for these variables. Smokers with airway obstruction measured by FEV1% were found to have higher WBC counts, in comparison to smokers with a normal FEV1% among similar age and BMI groups. Conclusions Smoking increases WBC count and affects lung function. The effects are evident across a wide age range, underlining the importance of initiating preventive measures as soon as an individual begins to smoke. PMID:22613769

  18. Discrimination of synthesized English vowels by American and Korean listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Byunggon

    2004-05-01

    This study explored the discrimination of synthesized English vowel pairs by 27 American and Korean, male and female listeners. The average formant values of nine monophthongs produced by ten American English male speakers were employed to synthesize the vowels. Then, subjects were instructed explicitly to respond to AX discrimination tasks in which the standard vowel was followed by another one with the increment or decrement of the original formant values. The highest and lowest formant values of the same vowel quality were collected and compared to examine patterns of vowel discrimination. Results showed that the American and Korean groups discriminated the vowel pairs almost identically and their center formant frequency values of the high and low boundary fell almost exactly on those of the standards. In addition, the acceptable range of the same vowel quality was similar among the language and gender groups. The acceptable thresholds of each vowel formed an oval to maintain perceptual contrast from adjacent vowels. Pedagogical implications of those findings are discussed.

  19. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  20. A Situated Perspective on Bilingual Development: Preschool Korean-English Bilinguals' Utilization of Two Languages and Korean Honorifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Jung

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the increasing Korean population, there is still a paucity of studies examining emergent Korean bilingual children's dual-language development within their social contexts. In particular, no existing study has paid attention to the honorific system of Korean, which is one of the most important features in learning the Korean language.…