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Sample records for korean rural population

  1. C-reactive Protein Concentration Is Associated With a Higher Risk of Mortality in a Rural Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Koh, Sang-Baek; Ahn, Song Vogue; Lee, Tae-Yong; Ryu, So Yeon; Song, Jae-Sok; Choe, Hong-Soon; Lee, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, has been widely used as a preclinical marker predictive of morbidity and mortality. Although many studies have reported a positive association between CRP and mortality, uncertainty still remains about this association in various populations, especially in rural Korea. Methods A total of 23 233 middle-aged participants (8862 men and 14 371 women) who were free from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and acute inflammation (defined by a CRP level ≥10 mg/L) were drawn from 11 rural communities in Korea between 2005 and 2011. Blood CRP concentration was analyzed as a categorical variable (low: 0.0-0.9 mg/L; intermediate: 1.0-3.0 mg/L; high: 3.1-9.9 mg/L) as well as a continuous variable. Each participant’s vital status through December 2013 was confirmed by death statistics from the National Statistical Office. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the independent association between CRP and mortality after adjusting for other risk factors. Results The total quantity of observed person-years was 57 975 for men and 95 146 for women, and the number of deaths was 649 among men and 367 among women. Compared to the low-CRP group, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of the intermediate group was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.40) for men and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.61) for women, and the corresponding values for the high-CRP group were 1.98 (95% CI, 1.61 to 2.42) for men and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.95) for women. Similar trends were found for CRP evaluated as a continuous variable and for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Higher CRP concentrations were associated with higher mortality in a rural Korean population, and this association was more prominent in men than in women. PMID:27744669

  2. Rural and Rural Farm Population: 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1989

    1989-01-01

    An estimated 64,798,000 persons, or 25% of the population of the United States, lived in rural areas in 1988. Rural areas include open countryside and places with fewer than 2,500 inhabitants not in the suburbs of large cities. This report presents demographic data on the rural population, pointing out that comparison with 1987 data suggests a…

  3. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  4. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  5. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  6. Population dynamics of rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bariabagar, H

    1978-01-01

    2 rounds of the national sample surveys, conducted by the central statistical office of Ethiopia during 1964-1967 and 1969-1971, provide the only comprehensive demographic data for the country and are the basis for this discussion of rural Ethiopia's population dynamics. The population of Ethiopia is predominantly rural. Agglomerations of 2000 and over inhabitants constitute about 14% of the population, and this indicates that Ethiopia has a low level of urbanization. In rural Ethiopia, international migration was negligent in the 1970's and the age structure can be assumed to be the results of past trends of fertility and mortality conditions. The reported crude birthrate (38.2), crude death rate (12.3) and infant mortality rate (90) of rural Ethiopia fall short of the averages for African countries. Prospects of population growth of rural Ethiopia would be immense. At the rate of natural increase of between 2.4 and 3.0% per annum, the population would double in 24-29 years. Regarding population issues, the programs of the National Democratic Revolution of Ethiopia faces the following main challenging problems: 1) carrying out national population censuses in order to obtain basic information for socialist planning; 2) minimizing or curtailing the existing high urban growth rates; 3) reducing rapidly growing population; and 5) mobilizing Ethiopian women to participate in the social, economic and political life of the country in order to create favorable conditions for future fertility reduction.

  7. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  8. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for the analysis of caffeine in foods by HPLC was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The caffeine contents of 1202 products available from Korean markets were analysed. A consumption study was conducted by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-12, to estimate the caffeine intakes of the Korean population. The mean intakes of caffeine from all sources in the general population and consumers were 67.8 and 102.6 mg day(-1) for all age groups, respectively. The 95th percentile intakes of the general population and consumers were 250.7 and 313.7 mg day(-1), respectively. In those aged 30-49 years, the caffeine intakes of the general population and consumers were highest at 25.5% (101.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 36.6% (0.9 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively, compared with the maximum recommended daily intake (400 mg day(-1)) for adults. In the general population, the main contributors to the total caffeine intake were carbonated beverage for the younger age groups and coffee for the adults. These data provide a current perspective on caffeine intake in the Korean population.

  9. Whole genome sequencing of 35 individuals provides insights into the genetic architecture of Korean population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to a significant decline in the costs associated with next-generation sequencing, it has become possible to decipher the genetic architecture of a population by sequencing a large number of individuals to a deep coverage. The Korean Personal Genomes Project (KPGP) recently sequenced 35 Korean genomes at high coverage using the Illumina Hiseq platform and made the deep sequencing data publicly available, providing the scientific community opportunities to decipher the genetic architecture of the Korean population. Methods In this study, we used two single nucleotide variant (SNV) calling pipelines: mapping the raw reads obtained from whole genome sequencing of 35 Korean individuals in KPGP using BWA and SOAP2 followed by SNV calling using SAMtools and SOAPsnp, respectively. The consensus SNVs obtained from the two SNV pipelines were used to represent the SNVs of the Korean population. We compared these SNVs to those from 17 other populations provided by the HapMap consortium and the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) and identified SNVs that were only present in the Korean population. We studied the mutation spectrum and analyzed the genes of non-synonymous SNVs only detected in the Korean population. Results We detected a total of 8,555,726 SNVs in the 35 Korean individuals and identified 1,213,613 SNVs detected in at least one Korean individual (SNV-1) and 12,640 in all of 35 Korean individuals (SNV-35) but not in 17 other populations. In contrast with the SNVs common to other populations in HapMap and 1KGP, the Korean only SNVs had high percentages of non-silent variants, emphasizing the unique roles of these Korean only SNVs in the Korean population. Specifically, we identified 8,361 non-synonymous Korean only SNVs, of which 58 SNVs existed in all 35 Korean individuals. The 5,754 genes of non-synonymous Korean only SNVs were highly enriched in some metabolic pathways. We found adhesion is the top disease term associated with SNV-1 and Nelson syndrome is

  10. Erythrocyte thiopurine methyltransferase activity in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jang, I J; Shin, S G; Lee, K H; Yim, D S; Lee, M S; Koo, H H; Kim, H K; Sohn, D R

    1996-11-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is the enzyme responsible for the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs. The enzyme, present in human red blood cells (RBC), is known to exhibit genetic polymorphism and interethnic differences in its activity have been demonstrated. We have studied the role of TPMT polymorphism in Koreans and compared enzyme activity between this and other ethnic groups. In a population of 360 unrelated healthy Korean subjects TPMT activity showed a large interindividual variation ranging from 3.2 to 22.9 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1 with a median value of 12.0 and mode of 11.0 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1. The enzyme activity was higher in male subjects than that in female (median values; 12.2 vs 11.2, 95% confidence interval of the difference; -2.1, 4.0 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1). All subjects had detectable TPMT activity, but contrary to previous reports in other ethnic groups, this was distributed unimodally. The median RBC TPMT activity was very similar to values found in Caucasian populations, higher than in Floridian blacks and lower than that of a Norwegian Saami population.

  11. Rural and urban populations of China.

    PubMed

    Bai, J

    1986-10-01

    In China, the percentage of urban population rose from 13.26 in 1953 to 20.6 in 1982, indicating progress in industrialization. Because China's definitions of rural and urban have changed over the years, as well as the criteria for instituting cities and towns, the development of China's rural and urban population has been inaccurately portrayed. Furthermore, different places interpret these criteria differently. Thus, problems in statistics of rural and urban populations include different criteria in 1) the number of towns, 2) the number of town inhabitants, and 3) classifying towns. The following guidelines should be used to classify cities and towns as well as urban and rural populations. The features of a city should include being a 1) center of industry, commerce, culture, education, science, transportation, and commodity interflow; 2) place where the nonagricultural population lives in compact communities; and 3) place where the nonagricultural population does not exceed 20%. The city area should not be too large; it should include 1) areas necessary for the present city construction, 2) the living quarters of workers and staff members close to the urban district, 3) the production bases of indispensable nonstaple food near an urban district, and 4) areas economically associated with it. The author defines city size types as: 1) megalopolises have over 1 million inhabitants, 2) large cities have 1/2-1 million, 3) medium-sized cities have 300-500,000, 4) small cities have below 200-300,000. In China, towns and small cities differ only in their size and leadership. To unify the statistical criterion of rural and urban populations, 1) the city and under the jurisdiction of a certain city or town should be calculated 1st to indicate how many inhabitants a certain city or town has, and 2) the city is divided into the neighborhood population (which is urban) and the township population (which is rural).

  12. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

  13. Renewed population growth in rural America.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K M

    1998-01-01

    This chapter documents the fact that "nonmetropolitan America has experienced widespread population gain and net in-migration since 1990. This contrasts with the trend evident through most of this century.... However, this deconcentration has been selective and tempered by economic period effects. Future nonmetropolitan demographic change is likely to be even more dependent on migration because recent rural fertility patterns, together with age structure shifts, have diminished the contribution natural increase can make to rural growth. This increasing dependence on migration, coupled with the greater integration of nonmetropolitan areas into the national and international system, makes rural America increasingly sensitive to national and global economic, political, and social forces."

  14. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27560364

  15. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27560364

  16. The influence of rapid rural-urban migration on Korean national fertility levels.

    PubMed

    Lee, B S; Farber, S C

    1985-01-01

    A autoregressive model is applied to personal migration and pregnancy histories recorded in the 1974 Korean World Fertility Survey to assess the adaptation effect of rural-urban migration on migrant fertility and national fertility levels. The objective of this study is to provide policy makers in developing nations with a model that will enable them to quantify the effects of rapid urbanization on the fertility level of migrant women and thus on national fertility levels. The fertility of rural-urban migrants is on the average lower than that of rural stayers; this study supports the adaptation hypothesis and indicates that rural-urban migrants experienced a significant reduction in 5 year fertility rates from those of comparable rural stayers after migration to the urban area. In addition, the city specific effects of migration on fertility are of considerable importance; migrants to larger cities adapt more over their lifetime than migrants to smaller cities. The completed adaptation by postmarital, rural-urban migrants is largest among migrants who are least educated. The autoregressive model controls the fertility level at the beginning of the observed period; it is assumed that this is a proxy for family size preferences. Results show that the completed fertility of migrant women with less than 4 years of school is 1.9 children fewer than that of comparable rural stayers, 1 child fewer for migrant women with 4 to 6 years of school, and .8 children fewer for migrant women with at least 6 years of school. For Korea, the overall effects on national fertility of rural-urban migration represent a reduction of 1.79 births per woman for the 1965-1970 period; it is estimated that the 945,400 rural-urban women migrants of this period would avoid, on average, 71,300 births annually for their expected average 24 years of urban life.

  17. The conducting and reporting of rural health research: rurality and rural population issues.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A; Burley, M; McGrail, M R; Drysdale, M; Jones, R; Rickard, C M

    2005-01-01

    Rurality and rural population issues require consideration when conducting and reporting on rural health research. A first article focused on the planning stage of the research. The objective of this article is to explore conducting and reporting issues that require attention when undertaking rural health research. The privacy of participants, the collection of data, the cultural traditions of Indigenous communities, the dissemination of results, and giving something back to the community, are all aspects of conducting and reporting rural health research that require attention. Procedures such as identifying the characteristics of the population, attention to safety issues when collecting data, the use of local liaison persons and acknowledging the ownership of intellectual property, increase the quality of the research outcomes. They are issues that are relevant to both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Procedures are available to address issues of particular concern in developing appropriate methods for rural health research. While we have concentrated on Australian issues, and possible solutions, rural localities in many other countries may face similar issues. In any rural setting, paying attention to issues that may affect the conducting and reporting of rural health research will hopefully result in studies that support the continued improvement of health in rural communities.

  18. Fine-scale map of encyclopedia of DNA elements regions in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Ke, Xiayi; Hong, Sungwoo; Jang, Hye-Yoon; Park, Kyunghee; Kim, Sook; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Yeun-Du; Song, Okryeol; Rho, Na-Young; Lee, Moon Sue; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Jaeheup; Kim, Young J; Yang, Jun-Mo; Song, Kyuyoung; Kimm, Kyuchan; Weir, Bruce; Cardon, Lon R; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hwang, Jung-Joo

    2006-09-01

    The International HapMap Project aims to generate detailed human genome variation maps by densely genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEPH, Chinese, Japanese, and Yoruba samples. This will undoubtedly become an important facility for genetic studies of diseases and complex traits in the four populations. To address how the genetic information contained in such variation maps is transferable to other populations, the Korean government, industries, and academics have launched the Korean HapMap project to genotype high-density Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions in 90 Korean individuals. Here we show that the LD pattern, block structure, haplotype diversity, and recombination rate are highly concordant between Korean and the two HapMap Asian samples, particularly Japanese. The availability of information from both Chinese and Japanese samples helps to predict more accurately the possible performance of HapMap markers in Korean disease-gene studies. Tagging SNPs selected from the two HapMap Asian maps, especially the Japanese map, were shown to be very effective for Korean samples. These results demonstrate that the HapMap variation maps are robust in related populations and will serve as an important resource for the studies of the Korean population in particular.

  19. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  20. HLA-B*15 diversity in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Jeon, H; Park, J Y

    2000-11-01

    Alleles in the HLA-B*15 group encode molecules belonging to several serologic subgroups, B15 (B62, B63, B75, B76, B77) and B70 (B71, B72), representing many of the most problematic types to assign in routine clinical typing laboratories due to their serologic cross-reactivity resulting from structural similarity. More than 25% of Koreans express HLA-B molecules encoded by the HLA-B*15 alleles. To further characterize HLA-B*15 in this population, B*15-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) hybridization analysis using 39 digoxigenin-labeled probes were applied to DNA samples obtained from 237 B15/B70 serologically positive unrelated individuals. Nine B*15 alleles were identified. B*1501 was the most frequent allele (64.8%) followed by B*1511 (14.1%), B*1507 (8.6%), and B*1518 (5.5%) comprising more than 90% of B*15-positive samples. B62 molecules encoded by 4 of the identified alleles (B*1501, B*1507, B*1525, and B*1527) could not be discriminated by serologic reaction patterns. Among the fifteen B15/B70 apparent homozygotes, eight were heterozygotes carrying two different B*15 alleles. Several B*15 alleles exhibited strong associations with specific Cw, DRB1, and A allelic types (e.g., B*1507-Cw3 (22/22); B*1507-DRB1*04 (21/22), B*1507-A24 (17/22)). The data obtained in this study confirmed B*15 diversity in the study population and will be useful in hematopoietic stem cell donor searches as well as in determining the supplementary DNA typing strategy for B15/B70-positive samples in this population.

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwancheol; Kim, Soo Wong; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Choo, Myung-Soo; Kim, Seon-Ok; Lee, Moo Song

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Psychometric properties of the overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) were recently examined. However, since the cross-cultural adaptation of a non-English version of the OAB-q has never been demonstrated, we evaluated the psychometric properties of a Korean version of the OAB-q in a Korean population with OAB. Methods A prospective cohort study involving 116 women with 58 OAB and 58 control subjects was performed and convergent validity was assessed. Total and subscale OAB-q scores of the control and OAB groups were compared to their sensitivity to score changes before and after administering anti-cholinergic medication for 12 weeks. Short form 36 and King's health questionnaire (KHQ) were also used for comparison or correlation. Results Assessment of face validity showed that the Korean version of the OAB-q was reasonable with OAB-q subscale scores being significantly different between the control and patient groups. Significant correlation (range, -0.29 to -0.81) was found between the OAB-q scores and KHQ results for the OAB patients. Cronbach's alpha coefficients (range, 0.77 to 0.95) indicated excellent internal consistency and test-retest analysis involving 35 OAB patients showed that each questions as well as subscale scores were reproducible. Each score of OAB-q also showed statistically significant sensitivity to changes following anti-muscarinic treatment for OAB (n=27, P<0.001 except for social, P=0.059). Conclusions The Korean version of the OAB-q is a valid and reliable instrument to measure outcomes in Korean patients with OAB. PMID:22816048

  2. Personality Traits and Body Mass Index in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Unjin; Roh, Seung-Ju; Cho, Nam H.; Shin, Chol; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. Methods We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0±9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3±3.0 kg/m2) and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0±15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8±3.4 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β = 0.032, P<0.05). BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β = −0.026, P<0.05). Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β = −0.072, agreeableness β = 0.068) and waist circumference (openness to experience: β = −0.202, agreeableness: β = 0.227) (P<0.05). Conclusion Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention

  3. DROUGHT AND POPULATION MOBILITY IN RURAL ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark; Mueller, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Significant attention has focused on the possibility that climate change will displace large populations in the developing world, but few multivariate studies have investigated climate-induced migration. We use event history methods and a unique longitudinal dataset from the rural Ethiopian highlands to investigate the effects of drought on population mobility over a ten-year period. The results indicate that men's labor migration increases with drought and that land-poor households are most vulnerable. However, marriage-related moves by women also decrease with drought. These findings suggest a hybrid narrative of environmentally-induced migration that recognizes multiple dimensions of adaptation to environmental change. PMID:22523447

  4. DROUGHT AND POPULATION MOBILITY IN RURAL ETHIOPIA

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Significant attention has focused on the possibility that climate change will displace large populations in the developing world, but few multivariate studies have investigated climate-induced migration. We use event history methods and a unique longitudinal dataset from the rural Ethiopian highlands to investigate the effects of drought on population mobility over a ten-year period. The results indicate that men’s labor migration increases with drought and that land-poor households are most vulnerable. However, marriage-related moves by women also decrease with drought. These findings suggest a hybrid narrative of environmentally-induced migration that recognizes multiple dimensions of adaptation to environmental change. PMID:22523447

  5. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  6. Positive trends of public attitudes toward epilepsy after public education campaign among rural korean residents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, In-Kyu; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Sei-Jong; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2003-04-01

    To assess trends of public attitudes toward epilepsy in Korea, two surveys were performed in the same village using a common questionnaire before and after the schedule of public education on epilepsy. Cross-sectional studies were conducted by means of a door-to-door interview, in which all residents over 19 yr of age living in the survey area were targeted. Vehicles for the educational campaign took the form of lectures and small group discussions. The understanding of epilepsy among Korean respondents appeared to be not only based more on supernatural or superstitious thinking, but was also less comparable to that of other studies. The attitudes toward epilepsy also were far more negative in Korean rural areas than in other countries. The false belief that "epilepsy can not be treated" was the factor that contributed most to negative attitudes. Although a positive trend was obvious not only in understanding the cause of epilepsy but also in attitudes toward epilepsy, the majority of respondents still remain unchanged in their misunderstanding of and negative attitudes toward epilepsy. To ameliorate the social stigma against epilepsy in Korea, continuous and repetitive educational efforts as well as the sympathy of the lay societies regarding epilepsy would be needed.

  7. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate against pathogen populations in poultry litters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae Ho; Park, Chul; Choi, In Hag

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate as litter amendments on ammonia, soluble reactive phosphorus, and pathogen populations in poultry litters. Methods Increasing levels of Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate were applied onto the surface of rice hull as a top-dress application; untreated rice hulls served as controls. Results: Treatment with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone resulted in lower litter pH (p < 0.05), as compared with that of the controls. There were some differences (p < 0.05) between treatments with Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate alone and controls at 2–4 wk (not at 1 wk). Ammonia levels reduced on an average by 29%, 30%, and 32% for 10 g, 20 g Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate, and aluminum sulfate alone, respectively, as compared with controls at 4 wk. During the experiment, Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate or aluminum sulfate treatment had an effect (p < 0.05) on soluble reactive phosphorus content, as compared with the controls (not at 4 wk). A decrease in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli was observed (p < 0.05) in litter amended with both Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate and aluminum sulfate alone, as compared with the control, except at 1–3 wk for Salmonella enterica and 1 wk and 4 wk for Escherichia coli, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that using Korean Red Ginseng marc with aluminum sulfate (blends), which act as acidifying agents by reducing the pH of the litter, was equally effective as aluminum sulfate in reducing the environmental impact. PMID:26869836

  8. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot. PMID:17135023

  9. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot.

  10. Social Dimensions of Mental Illness among Rural Elderly Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Jon; Turner, Howard B.

    1988-01-01

    Conducted statewide poll (N=743) in Kentucky to examine rural mental health. Results indicated that while physical health tended to be poorer among rural populations, when health was held constant there was inverse relationship between age and depression. Findings suggest that rural elderly are no more likely to be depressed than urban…

  11. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  12. The Educational Effects of Rapid Rural Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peggy J.; Green, Bernal L.

    Rapid population growth in rural areas has confronted rural communities and particularly rural educational systems with a number of problems. Sudden, large increases in students crowd school facilities and strain budgets. The different values, attitudes, and orientations toward education of the newcomers act as a catalyst for changes and can cause…

  13. Urbanization, roads, and rural population change in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Rudel, T K; Richards, S

    1990-01-01

    "Like many developing countries Ecuador has experienced extensive ubanization in the past twenty-five years as well as a shift in the pattern of rural population change between the 1960s and 1970s. Rural places with difficult access to cities (without roads and located far from cities) gained population during the 1960s but lost population during the 1970s. Rural places with easy access to cities (i.e., located near cities or on all-weather roads) continued to gain population during the 1970s. The explanation for the differential ability of rural places to retain their population during the 1970s focuses on increases in labor circulation by peasants and growth in the numbers of small, urban-oriented manufacturing and agricultural enterprises in accessible rural areas. The article concludes with a discussion on the implications of these findings for policies to reduce rates of rural-urban migration."

  14. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  15. Body Mass Index and Mortality among Korean Elderly in Rural Communities: Kangwha Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seri; Yi, Sang-Wook; Sull, Jae Woong; Hong, Jae-Seok; Jee, Sun Ha; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may differ by ethnicity, but its exact nature remains unclear among Koreans. The study aim was to prospectively examine the association between BMI and mortality in Korean. Methods 6166 residents (2636 men; 3530 women) of rural communities (Kangwha County, Republic of Korea) aged 55 and above were followed up for deaths from 1985–2008. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results During the 23.8 years of follow-up (an average of 12.5 years in men and 15.7 years in women), 2174 men and 2372 women died. Men with BMI of 21.0–27.4 and women with BMI of 20.0–27.4 had a minimal risk for all-cause mortality. A lower BMI as well as a higher BMI increased the hazard ratio of death. For example, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios associated with BMI below 16, and with BMI of 27.5 and above, were 2.4 (95% CI = 1.6–3.5) and 1.5 (95% CI = 1.1–1.9) respectively, in men, compared to those with BMI of 23.0–24.9. This reverse J-curve association was maintained among never smokers, and among people with no known chronic diseases. Higher BMI increased vascular mortality, while lower BMI increased deaths from vascular diseases, cancers, and, especially, respiratory diseases. Except for cancers, these associations were generally weaker in women than in men. Conclusions A reverse J-curve association between BMI and all-cause mortality may exist. BMI of 21–27.4 (rather than the range suggested by WHO of 18.5–23 for Asians) may be considered a normal range with acceptable risk in Koreans aged 55 and above, and may be used as cut points for interventions. More concern should be given to people with BMI above and below a BMI range with acceptable risk. Further studies are needed to determine ethnicity-specific associations. PMID:25719567

  16. Rural transport and population mobility in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Leinbach, T R

    1983-04-01

    Some aspects of mobility behavior were examined within a group of Indonesian village areas. Specifically, the objectives were to investigate for samples of residents the characteristics and locations of extra village employment; the nature of select short, repetitive trip activities with respect to frequency, distance, and mode of travel; and the characteristics of transport ownership and usage in the mobility behavior. The characteristics of contact and movement behavior were compared between a group of villages located on the fringe of large urban areas and another more rural and remote group of villages. Movement behavior was examined in conjunction with and as a possible impact of improved and new rural feeder road construction under the Cash Incentive Rural Works Program of the Indonesia government. The data were obtained from interviews at households in the immediate hinterlands of the feeder road improvements. The selected households were all located within 3 kilometers of the road projects, for few residences were found beyond this distance in the various areas. Proximity to an urban area did not greatly influence the total number of individuals who had obtained outside employment, for the totals were quite similar. And there was no evidence to support the idea that the kotamadya with the largest population in the urban fringe groups had drawn more rural individuals in search of employment opportunities than those kotamadya with smaller proportions. The data did show that many more individuals in the urban fringe groups tended to seek employment either in the nearest kotamadya or other large cities. Nearly 50% in the urban fringe groups working outside found employment in various kotamadya whereas, on the average, only 25% in the more remote, rural groups did so. In general, the information gathered reveals that extravillage employment is quite low in these very poor areas and that, rather than size of city, the information about those opportunities in

  17. Population level mental distress in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of a situational analysis for a research programme on the integration of mental health care into primary care (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care-PRIME), we conducted a baseline study aimed at determining the broad indicators of the population level of psychosocial distress in a predominantly rural community in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1497 adults selected through a multi-stage random sampling process. Population level psychosocial distress was evaluated by estimating the magnitude of common mental disorder symptoms (CMD; depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms reaching the level of probable clinical significance), harmful use of alcohol, suicidality and psychosocial stressors experienced by the population. Results The one-month prevalence of CMD at the mild, moderate and severe threshold levels was 13.8%, 9.0% and 5.1% respectively. The respective one-month prevalence of any suicidal ideation, persistent suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 13.5%, 3.8% and 1.8%. Hazardous use of alcohol was identified in 22.4%, significantly higher among men (33.4%) compared to women (11.3%). Stressful life events were widespread, with 41.4% reporting at least one threatening life event in the preceding six months. A similar proportion reported poor social support (40.8%). Stressful life events, increasing age, marital loss and hazardous use of alcohol were associated with CMD while stressful life events, marital loss and lower educational status, and CMD were associated with suicidality. CMD was the strongest factor associated with suicidality [e.g., OR (95% CI) for severe CMD = 60.91 (28.01, 132.48)] and the strength of association increased with increase in the severity of the CMD. Conclusion Indicators of psychosocial distress are prevalent in this rural community. Contrary to former assumptions in the literature, social support systems seem relatively weak and stressful life events common

  18. Estimation of carrier frequencies of six autosomal-recessive Mendelian disorders in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Jung; Lee, Seung-Tae; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Ji, Yongick; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2012-02-01

    Although many studies have been performed to identify mutations in Korean patients with various autosomal-recessive Mendelian disorders (AR-MDs), little is known about the carrier frequencies of AR-MDs in the Korean population. Twenty common mutations from six AR-MDs, including Wilson disease (WD), non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL), glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia), phenylketonuria (PKU), congenital hypothyroidism (CH), and congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH) were selected to screen for based on previous studies. A total of 3057 Koreans were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by confirmation using the Sanger sequencing. We found 201 and 8 carriers with either one or two mutations in different genes, respectively, yielding a total carrier frequency of 1 in 15 (6.7%). Of the six AR-MDs, NSHL has the highest carrier frequency followed by WD, CH, CLAH, GSD Ia, and PKU. As carrier screening tests are becoming prevalent and the number of mutations known and tested is rising, a priori data on the carrier frequencies in different ethnic groups is mandatory to plan a population screening program and to estimate its efficiency. In light of this, the present results can be used as a basis to establish a screening policy for common AR-MRs in the Korean population. PMID:22170460

  19. A Rural Taxonomy of Population and Health-Resource Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi; Mueller, Keith J; Vaughn, Thomas; Ullrich, Fred

    2015-03-01

    This policy brief reports the newly developed taxonomy of rural places based on relevant population and health-resource characteristics; and discusses how this classification tool can be utilized by policy makers and rural communities. Key Findings. (1) We classified 10 distinct types of rural places based on characteristics related to both demand (population) and supply (health resources) sides of the health services market. (2) In descending order, the most significant dimensions in our classification were facility resources, provider resources, economic resources, and age distribution. (3) Each type of rural place was distinct from other types of places based on one or two defining dimensions.

  20. Analysis of extended haplotype in Korean cattle (Hanwoo) population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dajeong; Choi, Bong Hwan; Cho, Yong Min; Chai, Han Ha; Jang, Gul Won; Gondro, Cedric; Jeoung, Yeoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-09-01

    Korean cattle (Hanwoo) are categorized into three breeds based on color: brown, brindle, and black. Among these breeds, brown Hanwoo has been subjected to intensive selection to improve meat traits. To identify genetic traces driven by recent selection in brown Hanwoo, we scanned the genomes of brown and brindle Hanwoo using a bovine SNP chip. We identified 17 candidate selection signatures in brown Hanwoo and sequenced four candidate regions from 10 individuals each of brown and brindle Hanwoo. In particular, non-synonymous SNPs in the ADSL gene (K88M, L189H, and R302Q) might have had mutational effects on protein structure as a result of altering the purine pathway during nucleotide breakdown. The ADSL gene was previously reported to affect meat quality and yield in livestock. Meat quality and yield are main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, and our results support a potential causal influence of non-synonymous SNPs in the ADSL gene. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 514-519].

  1. Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Nam, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Yun-Jung; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jang, Myoung-Kuk; Carp, Richard I; Lee, Ho-Dong; Ju, Young-Ran; Ahn Jo, Sangmee; Park, Keun-Yong; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2004-01-01

    Human prion protein gene (PRNP) has been considered to be involved in the susceptibility of humans to prion diseases. Polymorphisms of methionine (Met)/valine (Val) at codon 129 and of glutamic acid (Glu)/lysine (Lys) at codon 219 are thought to play an important role in susceptibility to sporadic, iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Although the genotype distribution of polymorphisms in PRNP open reading frame (ORF) has been reported in many European populations, among Asian groups, it has been reported only in the Japanese population. We examined the PRNP polymorphisms in 529 healthy Koreans. We observed that genotype frequencies at codon 129 was 94.33% Met/Met, 5.48% Met/Val, and 0.19% Val/Val with an allele frequency of 0.971:0.029 Met:Val, and that genotype frequencies at codon 219 was 92.06% Glu/Glu, 7.94% Glu/Lys, and 0% Lys/Lys with an allele frequency of 0.96:0.04 Glu:Lys. The frequencies of the Glu/Glu genotype ( chi(2)=10.075, P=0.0015) and of the Glu allele ( chi(2)=9.486, P=0.0021) at codon 219 were significantly higher in the Korean population than the Japanese population. In addition, the genotype frequency of heterozygotes (12.7%) at codons 129 or/and 219 was significantly lower in Koreans than in people from Great Britain ( chi(2)=89.52, P<0.0001). The deletion rate of one octarepeat (R2 deletion) was 0.38%, with 99.62% undeleted homozygotes and 0% deleted homozygote. To our knowledge, the R2 octarepeat deletion has never been found in people from countries other than Korea. The data of PRNP polymorphism at codon 219 suggest that Koreans may be more sensitive to sporadic CJD than the Japanese population.

  2. Rural and urban traffic fatalities, vehicle miles, and population density.

    PubMed

    Clark, David E; Cushing, Brad M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of population density on the rates of motor vehicle mortality in rural and urban areas, while controlling for vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Rural and urban data for traffic mortality, VMT, and population were obtained for each state from the Federal Highway Administration for 1998-2000. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of population density, VMT per capita, southern location, and presence of a trauma system on mortality. Variation in rural mortality rate (per 100,000 population) was proportional to rural VMT per capita, but population density and southern location were also independent predictors, together accounting for 91% of this variation. Variation in urban mortality rates was not affected by population density, but urban rates were also higher in the south. The exposure-based rural mortality rate (deaths per 100 million VMT) was inversely proportional to population density, which along with southern location explained 41% of the variation from state to state. The presence of a state trauma system did not measurably affect mortality. After controlling for VMT and southern location, state population density was a moderately strong predictor of rural but not urban traffic mortality rates.

  3. TERT Polymorphism rs2853669 Influences on Lung Cancer Risk in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Soo; Do, Sook Kyung; Choi, Jin Eun; Lee, Shin Yup; Lee, Jaehee; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Jae Yong

    2015-10-01

    Short telomeres are known as one of the risk factors for human cancers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association between 6 polymorphisms, which were related with short telomere length in the Korean population, and lung cancer risk using 1,100 cases and 1,096 controls. Among the 6 polymorphisms, TERT rs2853669 was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk under a recessive model (odds ratio [OR]=1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.81, P=0.02). The effect of rs2853669 on lung cancer risk was significant in younger individuals (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.18-2.54, P=0.005) and adenocarcinoma (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.07-2.07, P=0.02). Our results suggest that a common functional promoter polymorphism, TERT rs2853669, may influence both telomere length and lung cancer risk in the Korean population.

  4. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  5. Genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 gene in the Korean population with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-12-15

    The TMPRSS3 gene (DFNB8/10), which encodes a transmembrane serine protease, is a common hearing loss gene in several populations. Accurate functions of TMPRSS3 in the hearing pathway are still unknown, but TMPRSS3 has been reported to play a crucial role in inner ear development or maintenance. To date, 16 pathogenic mutations have been identified in many countries, but no mutational studies of the TMPRSS3 gene have been conducted in the Korean hearing loss population. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 in 40 unrelated Korean patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss to identify the aspect and frequency of TMPRSS3 gene mutations in the Korean population. A total of 22 variations were detected, including a novel variant (p.V291L) and a previously reported pathogenic mutation (p.A306T). The p.A306T mutation which has been detected in only compound heterozygous state in previous studies was identified in homozygous state for the first time in this study. Moreover, the clinical evaluation identified bilateral dilated vestibules in the patient with p.A306T mutation, and it suggested that p.A306T mutation of the TMPRSS3 gene might be associated with vestibular anomalies. In conclusion, this study investigated that only 2.5% of patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss were related to TMPRSS3 mutations suggesting low prevalence of TMPRSS3 gene in Korean hearing loss population. Also, it will provide the information of genotype-phenotype correlation to understand definite role of TMPRSS3 in the auditory system.

  6. More missing teeth are associated with poorer general health in the rural Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Dong; Merchant, Anwar T; Lee, Sung-Kook; Song, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang Gyu; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between missing teeth and general health conditions in elderly Korean people. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a health-screening program supported by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea in a local region of Sungju-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do from 2000 to 2006. The participants were 3611 in number (1494 males and 2117 females) aged 60 years and over. The outcome variable was the number of missing teeth in the mouth determined by dental examination; general medical examination included blood pressure, body height and weight to compute body mass index (BMI). Laboratory investigations included aspartate transaminase (AST), hemoglobin (HB), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and total cholesterol (CHOL). Demographic factors and smoking status were obtained from questionnaires by an interviewer. Multiple regression models were used as a statistical analysis. The subjects were classified into three groups according to the number of missing teeth (<8, 8-18, and >18). In unadjusted analyses individuals with more missing teeth, had poorer general health status (higher blood pressure, higher levels of AST, FPG, and CHOL, and higher BMI in females). In multiple regression models with the number of missing teeth as an outcome, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and HB in males were statistically significant after adjusting for age and smoking. In females, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and BMI were positively associated with the number of missing teeth. The number of missing teeth was positively related to poorer general health status such as blood pressure, FPG, CHOL, after adjusting for age and smoking in the rural elderly in Korea.

  7. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. Methods The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Results Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. Conclusion The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform. PMID:25349827

  8. A multicenter retrospective analysis of the clinical features of pernicious anemia in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Song, Ik-Chan; Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Han-Jo; Bae, Sang-Byung; Lee, Kyu-Taek; Yang, Young-Jun; Park, Suk-Young; Cho, Do-Yeun; Kim, Nae Yu; Cho, In-Sung; Jo, Deog-Yeon

    2013-02-01

    To determine the approximate incidence and clinical features of pernicious anemia in a Korean population, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data for patients with pernicious anemia who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2010 at five hospitals in Chungnam province. Ninety-seven patients were enrolled, who accounted for 24% of patients with vitamin B(12) deficiency anemia. The approximate annual incidence of pernicious anemia was 0.3 per 100,000. The median age was 66 (range, 32-98) yr, and the male/female ratio was 1.25. Anemia-associated discomfort was the most common symptom (79.4%), followed by gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms (78.4% and 38.1%, respectively). Pancytopenia was found in 36 patients (37.1%), and autoimmune disorders were found in 15 patients (15.5%). Antibody to intrinsic factor was detected in 62 (77.5%) of 80 patients examined, and antibody to parietal cells was detected in 35 (43.2%) of 81 patients examined. Of the 34 patients who underwent tests for Helicobacter pylori, 7 (12.5%) were positive. The anemia-associated and gastrointestinal symptoms resolved completely in all patients after intramuscular injection of cobalamin, whereas neurological symptoms remained in some. In conclusion, pernicious anemia is less frequent in Koreans than in Western populations; however, the clinical features of this disorder in Koreans do not differ from those of Western cases. PMID:23400269

  9. A Multicenter Retrospective Analysis of the Clinical Features of Pernicious Anemia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ik-Chan; Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Han-Jo; Bae, Sang-Byung; Lee, Kyu-Taek; Yang, Young-Jun; Park, Suk-Young; Cho, Do-Yeun; Kim, Nae Yu; Cho, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    To determine the approximate incidence and clinical features of pernicious anemia in a Korean population, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data for patients with pernicious anemia who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2010 at five hospitals in Chungnam province. Ninety-seven patients were enrolled, who accounted for 24% of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. The approximate annual incidence of pernicious anemia was 0.3 per 100,000. The median age was 66 (range, 32-98) yr, and the male/female ratio was 1.25. Anemia-associated discomfort was the most common symptom (79.4%), followed by gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms (78.4% and 38.1%, respectively). Pancytopenia was found in 36 patients (37.1%), and autoimmune disorders were found in 15 patients (15.5%). Antibody to intrinsic factor was detected in 62 (77.5%) of 80 patients examined, and antibody to parietal cells was detected in 35 (43.2%) of 81 patients examined. Of the 34 patients who underwent tests for Helicobacter pylori, 7 (12.5%) were positive. The anemia-associated and gastrointestinal symptoms resolved completely in all patients after intramuscular injection of cobalamin, whereas neurological symptoms remained in some. In conclusion, pernicious anemia is less frequent in Koreans than in Western populations; however, the clinical features of this disorder in Koreans do not differ from those of Western cases. PMID:23400269

  10. The polymorphism of Knops blood group system in Korean population and their relationship with HLA system.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyun; Oh, Sohee; Shin, Sue; Park, Jeong Su; Roh, Eun Youn; Song, Eun Young; Park, Myoung Hee; Han, Kyou Sup; Chang, Ju Young

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this report is to provide baseline gene frequencies of Knops blood group in the complement receptor 1 gene (CR1) in Korean population. In addition, possible relationship between the CR1 polymorphism and HLA specificities were studied, because the two systems had principal importance in immunity. CR1, which contains Knops antigens, was investigated by PCR-direct sequencing from 238 cord blood from Koreans. HLA data was archived from the enrolled cord blood units. Among the 7 SNPs, only 4843 (for KCAM antigen) and 4223 (for Yk(a)) nucleotide positions showed polymorphism. The genotype frequencies of KCAM were A/A (62.2%), A/G (33.2%), and G/G (4.6%); Yk(a) were C/C (29.4%), C/T (50%), and T/T (20.6%). KCAM (A/A) associated with HLA-DRB1(∗)13 (p=0.003, P(c)=0.0513); KCAM (G/G) with HLA-A(∗)30 (p<0.001, P(c)=0.0012). The Knops blood group system in Korean population has no diversity, except SNPs for KCAM and Yk(a), and the genotype of KCAM related with specific HLA alleles.

  11. Variance in disease risk: rural populations and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, W D; Lipka, A E; Fogleman, A J; Delfino, K R; Malhi, R S; Hendricks, B

    2016-07-01

    Over 19% of the US population resides in rural areas, where studies of disease risk and disease outcomes are difficult to assess due to smaller populations and lower incidence. While some studies suggest rural disparities for different chronic diseases, the data are inconsistent across geography and definitions of rurality. We reviewed the literature to examine if local variations in population genomic diversity may plausibly explain inconsistencies in estimating disease risk. Many rural communities were founded over 150 years ago by small groups of ethnically and ancestrally similar families. These have since endured relative geographical isolation, similar to groups in other industrialized nations, perhaps resulting in founder effects impacting local disease susceptibility. Studies in Europe and Asia have found that observably different phenotypes may appear in isolated communities within 100 years, and that genomic variation can significantly vary over small geographical scales. Epidemiological studies utilizing common "rural" definitions may miss significant disease differences due to assumptions of risk homogeneity and misinterpretation of administrative definitions of rurality. Local genomic heterogeneity should be an important aspect of chronic disease epidemiology in rural areas, and it is important to consider for designing studies and interpreting results, enabling a better understanding of the heritable components of complex diseases. PMID:27334395

  12. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  13. Association of serum ferritin with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus in the South Korean general population according to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Young-Il

    2011-10-01

    We examined the association of serum ferritin levels with metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the adult South Korean population using data from the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 6311 adults older than 20 years who participated in the 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of at least 3 of the following: elevated blood pressure, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated serum triglycerides, elevated plasma glucose, and abdominal obesity. Diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose of at least 126 mg/dL. Insulin resistance was determined using the homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance. In a representative sample of the adult Korean population, MS was more prevalent in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of serum ferritin concentrations in women following adjustments for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of serum ferritin concentrations in premenopausal women and men. The geometric means of fasting insulin and insulin resistance determined using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in the fourth serum ferritin quartiles of postmenopausal women and men were significantly higher compared with those in the first quartile of the respective groups. The present study demonstrates that elevated serum ferritin concentrations are associated with an increased risk of MS and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the adult South Korean population.

  14. The Rural Developmentally Disabled, An Underserved Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, Dale; West, Sibyl

    1980-01-01

    Examining problems that confront developmentally disabled persons in rural areas, this article includes the current definition of developmental disabilities, discusses preventive measures, points out some considerations to be made in the establishment of appropriate professional diagnostic and treatment services, and examines public and private…

  15. Volatility and Growth in Populations of Rural Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollebaek, Dag

    2010-01-01

    This article uses unique community-level data aggregated from censuses of associations to analyze growth and volatility in rural populations of grassroots associations. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) shows that the two main paths to growth were (1) centralization in polycephalous (multicentered) municipalities and (2) population growth…

  16. [The preventable losses because of rural population mortality].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The common and special issues of mortality in the Republic of Bashkortostan are established The analysis of tendencies and ratio of leading causes of gender proportions of mortality of urban and rural population established that in comparison with the national data the characteristics of the Republic of Bashkortostan are determined by higher life span rate of rural population and lower share in the structure of mortality due to traumas and intoxications, digestive apparatus diseases and neoplasms. At the same time, the quality of diagnostics in the Republic of Bashkortostan is inadequate due to large share of inaccurately specified states. The expertise survey revealed high degree of preventability of losses related to high mortality of rural population. The reserves to decrease preventable mortality of rural population are established on the basis of calculated preventability coefficients. The possibility of decreasing mortality of main classes of death causes based on the mathematical modeling is analyzed. It is demonstrated that in the Republic of Bashkortostan the mortality rate will significantly decrease only concerning cardiovascular disease and external causes. The coefficients of preventability of death main causes of rural population of the Republic of Bashkortostan are analyzed.

  17. Assessment of the dietary intake of propylene glycol in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, EunA; Lee, Gun Young; Yun, Sang Soon; Kang, TaeSeok

    2016-08-01

    An improved method for the analysis of propylene glycol (PG) in foods using a gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID), with confirmation by GC-MS, was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The PG concentrations in 1073 products available in Korean markets were determined. PG was detected in 74.1% of the samples, in a concentration range from the limit of detection (n.d., 0.39 μg ml(-1)) to 12,819.9 mg kg(-1). The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2011-2013 reported the mean intake levels of PG from all sources by the general population and consumers were 26.3 mg day(-1) (0.52 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 34.3 mg day(-1) (0.67 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. The 95th percentile intake levels of the general population and consumers were 123.6 mg day(-1) (2.39 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 146.3 mg day(-1) (2.86 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively. In all groups of the general population, breads were the main contributors to the total PG intake. These reports provide a current perspective on the daily intake of PG in the Korean population. PMID:27389111

  18. Prediction Model for Gastric Cancer Incidence in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohee; Shin, Aesun; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Park, Junghyun; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jeongseon; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background Predicting high risk groups for gastric cancer and motivating these groups to receive regular checkups is required for the early detection of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is was to develop a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence based on a large population-based cohort in Korea. Method Based on the National Health Insurance Corporation data, we analyzed 10 major risk factors for gastric cancer. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to develop gender specific prediction models for gastric cancer development, and the performance of the developed model in terms of discrimination and calibration was also validated using an independent cohort. Discrimination ability was evaluated using Harrell’s C-statistics, and the calibration was evaluated using a calibration plot and slope. Results During a median of 11.4 years of follow-up, 19,465 (1.4%) and 5,579 (0.7%) newly developed gastric cancer cases were observed among 1,372,424 men and 804,077 women, respectively. The prediction models included age, BMI, family history, meal regularity, salt preference, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity for men, and age, BMI, family history, salt preference, alcohol consumption, and smoking for women. This prediction model showed good accuracy and predictability in both the developing and validation cohorts (C-statistics: 0.764 for men, 0.706 for women). Conclusions In this study, a prediction model for gastric cancer incidence was developed that displayed a good performance. PMID:26186332

  19. Establishment of a resource population of SLA haplotype-defined Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Ok; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Yu-Joo; Cho, In-Cheol; Lee, Sung-Soo; Ko, Moon-Suck; Park, Chankyu; Smith, Douglas M; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2010-05-01

    The highly polymorphic porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or the swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), has been repeatedly associated with variations in swine immune response to pathogens and vaccines as well as with production traits. The SLA antigens are also important targets for immunological recognition of foreign tissue grafts. We recently established a resource population of Korean native pigs as models for human transplantation and xenotransplantation research. In this study, 115 animals derived from three generations of the Korean native pigs were genotyped for three SLA class I (SLA-2, SLA-3 and SLA-1) and three SLA class II loci (DRB1, DQB1, DQA) using PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) at the allele group resolution. A total of seven SLA haplotypes (Lr-5.34, Lr-7.23, Lr-31.13, Lr-56.23, Lr-56.30, Lr-59.1, Lr-65.34), comprising six unique class I and five unique class II haplotypes, were characterized in the founding animals. Class I haplotype Lr-65.0 and class II haplotype Lr-0.34 were novel; and together with Lr-56.0 these haplotypes appeared to be breed-specific. In the progeny population, Lr-7.23 and Lr-56.30 appeared to be the most prevalent haplotypes with frequencies of 34.7% and 31.6%, respectively; the overall homozygosity was 27.4%. This resource population of SLA-defined Korean native pigs will be useful as large animal models for various transplantation and xenotransplantation experiments, as well as for dissecting the roles of SLA proteins in swine disease resistance and production traits.

  20. Predictive Value of Antiviral Effects in the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the General Korean Population with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae-Jun; Oh, In Hwan; Kim, Sang Bae; Kim, Jung Wook; Lee, Chang Kyun; Jang, Jae Young; Lee, Ju-Seog; Kim, Byung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The benefit of oral antiviral therapy in preventing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the general population is not well understood. We used a novel prediction method to estimate the risk of HCC in the Korean population based on various treatment guidelines. Methods The 5-year risk of HCC following antiviral therapy was calculated using an HCC risk prediction model. A virtual cohort that represented Koreans (>40 years old) with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was established using the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antiviral indications tested were the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines as well as a new extended indication (serum HBV DNA >2,000 IU/mL regardless of serum aminotransferase level). Results A total of 993,872 subjects were infected with HBV in the general Korean population. Over a 5-year period, 2,725 HCC cases were predicted per 100,000 persons (0.55%/yr). When the cohort was treated based on the Korean NHI, the EASL, and the newly extended indications, HCC risks decreased to 2,531 (−7.1%), 2,089 (−23.3%), and 1,122 (−58.8%) cases per 100,000 persons, respectively (p<0.0001). Conclusions Simulated risk prediction suggests that extending of oral antiviral indication may reduce the HCC risk in the general population. PMID:27282260

  1. DUOX2 Mutations Are Frequently Associated With Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Park, Jong-Ho; Park, June-Hee; Park, Hyung-Doo; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background Most cases with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are usually sporadic, while about 20% of the cases are caused by genetic defects. Little information is available regarding the mutation incidence and genetic heterogeneity of CH in Koreans. We aimed to determine the mutation incidence of CH in newborn screenings (NBS) and to evaluate the frequency and spectrum of mutations underlying CH. Methods A total of 112 newborns with thyroid dysfunction were enrolled from 256,624 consecutive NBS. Furthermore, 58 outpatients with primary CH were added from an endocrine clinic. All coding exons of TSHR, PAX8, TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2, and SCL5A5 were sequenced. Results The mutation incidence of CH was estimated to be 1 in 6,580 newborns. A total of 36 different mutations were identified in 53 cases. The overall mutation positive rate was 31%. The DUOX2 mutations were the most prevalent in both newborns and outpatients. Seven different recurrent mutations [p.G488R (n=13), p.A649E (n=3), p.R885Q (n=3), p.I1080T (n=2), and p.A1206T (n=2) in DUOX2; p.Y138X (n=9) in DUOXA2; and p.R450H (n=5) in TSHR) were identified as the mutations underlying CH. Conclusions The mutation incidence of CH was considerably higher than expected in the Korean newborn population. This study revealed seven different recurrent mutations underlying CH. We conclude that DUOX2 mutations are a frequent cause of CH in the Korean population. PMID:26709262

  2. Association between Expression Quantitative Trait Loci and Metabolic Traits in Two Korean Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Myungguen; Cho, Seong Beom

    2014-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies consider genes that are located closest to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are highly significant for those studies. However, the significance of the associations between SNPs and candidate genes has not been fully determined. An alternative approach that used SNPs in expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) was reported previously for Crohn’s disease; it was shown that eQTL-based preselection for follow-up studies was a useful approach for identifying risk loci from the results of moderately sized GWAS. In this study, we propose an approach that uses eQTL SNPs to support the functional relationships between an SNP and a candidate gene in a genome-wide association study. The genome-wide SNP genotypes and 10 biochemical measures (fasting glucose levels, BUN, serum albumin levels, AST, ALT, gamma GTP, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol) were obtained from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) consortium. The eQTL SNPs were isolated from the SNP dataset based on the RegulomeDB eQTL-SNP data from the ENCODE projects and two recent eQTL reports. A total of 25,658 eQTL SNPs were tested for their association with the 10 metabolic traits in 2 Korean populations (Ansung and Ansan). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by eQTL and non-eQTL SNPs showed that eQTL SNPs were more likely to be associated with the metabolic traits genetically compared with non-eQTL SNPs. Finally, via a meta-analysis of the two Korean populations, we identified 14 eQTL SNPs that were significantly associated with metabolic traits. These results suggest that our approach can be expanded to other genome-wide association studies. PMID:25493549

  3. Association of CACNA1C Variants with Bipolar Disorder in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soojin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Geum, Dongho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have suggested an association between CACNA1C and susceptibility of bipolar disorder. In this study, we examined the association of CACNA1C variants with bipolar disorder in the Korean population. Methods We selected 2 CACNA1C single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely, rs723672 and rs1051375, based on their functions and minor allele frequencies described in previous studies. Genotypes of these 2 SNPs were analyzed by extracting DNA from blood samples collected from 287 patients with bipolar disorder and 340 healthy controls. Results Genotype frequencies of both rs723672 and rs1051375 SNPs were significantly different in patients and controls (p=0.0462 and 1.732E-14, respectively). Dominant, recessive, and allele models showed significant differences between patients and controls with respect to the rs1051375 SNP (p=1.72E-11, 4.17E-10, 4.95E-16, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggested that CACNA1C SNPs rs723672 and rs1051375 were associated with bipolar disorder in the Korean population. In addition, our results highlighted the importance of CACNA1C in determining susceptibility to bipolar disorder. PMID:27482248

  4. Relationships of Mental Disorders and Weight Status in the Korean Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sunwoo, Young-Kyung; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Park, Jong-Ik; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Jin-Yeong; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Maeng Je

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between weight status and mental disorders, including depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder. A total of nationally representative 6,510 subjects aged 18-64 yr was interviewed in face-to-face household survey. Response rate was 81.7%. Mental disorders were diagnosed using the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI). The subjects reported their heights and weights. After adjusting for age and gender, the lifetime diagnosis of depressive disorder had a significant association with only the underweight group (odds ratio [OR], 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-2.38). The association between underweight and depressive disorder was the strongest for subjects with a high education level (OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.2-2.56), subjects with a married/cohabiting status (OR, 1.94, 95% CI, 1.17-3.22) and smokers (OR, 2.58, 95% CI, 1.33-4.98). There was no significant association between obesity and depressive disorder in Korea. But there was a significant association between the underweight group and depressive disorder. The relationship between obesity and mental disorder in a Korean population was different from that in a Western population. These results suggest that the differences of traditional cultures and races might have an important effect on the associations between the weight status and mental disorders. PMID:21218038

  5. Recapitulation of genome-wide association studies on body mass index in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, K W; Oh, B

    2012-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for multiple disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Recently, a genome-wide association study for body mass index (BMI) was conducted in 249 796 individuals of European ancestry by the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium. They identified 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and 18 new loci associated with BMI at the genome-wide significance level (P<5 × 10⁻⁸). Because the prevalence and severity of obesity vary among ethnic groups, it is worthy to investigate these results in another ethnic population. We examined the BMI association of 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) out of the 32 in 8842 individuals from the Korean Association Resource data, and found 12 SNPs to be associated with BMI in the Korean population. Eight loci, rs10968576 (BDNF), rs3817334 (MTCH2), rs1558902 (FTO), rs571312 (MC4R), rs543874 (SEC16B), rs987237 (TFAP2B), rs2867125 (TMEM18) and rs7138803 (FAIM2), were previously known obesity susceptibility loci, and the remaining four loci, rs1514175 (TNNI3K), rs206936 (NUDT3), rs4771122 (MTIF3) and rs2241423 (MAP2K5), were newly identified as BMI loci by the GIANT study. Further, all 12 SNPs showed the same direction of effect on BMI between the two ethnic groups, suggesting a similar genetic architecture governing the obesity.

  6. On Constructing Ageing Rural Populations: "Capturing" the Grey Nomad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is ageing, with forecasts predicting this ageing is likely to be particularly severe in the rural areas of more developed countries. These forecasts are developed from nationally aggregated census and survey data and assume spatial homogeneity in ageing. They also draw on narrow understandings of older people and construct…

  7. Genetic variants and signatures of selective sweep of Hanwoo population (Korean native cattle)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taeheon; Cho, Seoae; Seo, Kang Seok; Chang, Jongsoo

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been many studies of native Korean cattle, Hanwoo, there have been no selective sweep studies in these animals. This study was performed to characterize genetic variation and identify selective signatures. We sequencedthe genomes of 12 cattle, and identified 15125420 SNPs, 1768114 INDELs, and 3445 CNVs. The SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs were similarly distributed throughout the genome, and highly variable regions were shown to contain the BoLA family and GPR180, which are related to adaptive immunity. We also identified the domestication footprints of the Hanwoo population by searching for selective sweep signatures, which revealed the RCN2 gene related to BPV resistance. The results of this study may contribute to genetic improvement of the Hanwoo population in Korea. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(7):346-351] PMID:23884100

  8. RARB and STMN2 polymorphisms are not associated with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Hae-Jung; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Carp, Richard I; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PRNP) can affect the susceptibility of humans to prion diseases. Recently, aside from PRNP, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of two candidate genes for susceptibility to human prion diseases have been identified by human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the British population. One SNP of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB), which is correlated with prion disease incubation time in mice, was associated with human prion diseases such as variant and iatrogenic CJD in the British population. The other SNP of the gene that encodes SCG10 (STMN2), which is related to clinical onset of sporadic CJD, was also associated with variant CJD and kuru. In order to investigate whether two polymorphisms located in upstream of RARB and STMN2 are associated with sporadic CJD in the Korean population, we compared genotype and allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in 217 sporadic CJD patients and 216 healthy Koreans. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies in upstream of the RARB and STMN2 polymorphisms were not significantly different between healthy controls and Korean sporadic CJD patients. This finding indicates that the two SNPs are not correlated with genetic susceptibility to sporadic CJD in the Korean population. This is the first genetic association study of RARB and STMN2 with sporadic CJD in an Asian population.

  9. Population and forensic genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region variation from six major provinces in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2015-07-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 704 unrelated individuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. In addition to our earlier survey of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroup variation, a total of 560 different haplotypes characterized by 271 polymorphic sites were identified, of which 473 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity and random match probability were 0.9989 and 0.0025, respectively. According to the pairwise comparison of the 704 control region sequences, the mean number of pairwise differences between individuals was 13.47±6.06. Based on the result of mtDNA control region sequences, pairwise FST genetic distances revealed genetic homogeneity of the Korean provinces on a peninsular level, except in samples from Jeju Island. This result indicates there may be a need to formulate a local mtDNA database for Jeju Island, to avoid bias in forensic parameter estimates caused by genetic heterogeneity of the population. Thus, the present data may help not only in personal identification but also in determining maternal lineages to provide an expanded and reliable Korean mtDNA database. These data will be available on the EMPOP database via accession number EMP00661.

  10. Prevalence of immediate-type food allergy in Korean schoolchildren: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Chae, Yoomi; Park, Yong Mean; Han, Man Yong; Lee, Kee-Jae; Kim, Ja Kyoung; Yang, Eun Seok; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevalence and causes of food allergy (FA) vary by geographic location, large well-designed epidemiological studies in Asia are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immediate-type FA in the general population of Korean schoolchildren. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using a stratified two-stage cluster-sampling design. In this survey, children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years were randomly selected, and the presence of FA was determined by a questionnaire survey and assessment of specific IgE. After adjustment for missing data, 3907 children aged 6-7 years and 3975 students aged 12-13 years who completed the questionnaire were included in this study. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of confirmed immediate-type FA was 0.3%, and the prevalence of possible immediate-type FA was 0.3%. By contrast, 0.6 and 1.0% of children aged 12-13 years had confirmed immediate-type FA and possible immediate-type FA, respectively. In 6- to 7-year-old children, egg was the most frequent causative food associated with a confirmed or possible immediate-type FA. In 12- to 13-year-old children, crustaceans were the most frequent cause of confirmed immediate-type FA, and fruit was most frequently involved in possible immediate-type FA. This is the first nationwide population-based study of FA in Korean schoolchildren. Unlike in western countries, the prevalence of immediate-type FA seems to be low. In 12- to 13 year-old children with confirmed immediate-type FA, peanuts/tree nuts are not common causes, whereas crustaceans are frequent triggers. PMID:23394505

  11. Population pressure, intensification of agriculture, and rural-urban migration.

    PubMed

    Salehi-isfahani, D

    1993-04-01

    "In this paper I provide an analytical basis for why labor absorption [in agriculture] may improve with higher population density. My argument is in two parts. First, analysing agriculture in isolation, I use the Boserup insight to show that higher population density is associated with more intensive techniques of land use. Second, using a two-sector model, I show that the rate of labor absorption (defined as the rate of natural population growth minus the rate of rural-urban migration) increases with the intensity of land use." Cross-sectional data for Iran are used to illustrate the model.

  12. Vulnerability of Korean water resources to climate change and population growth.

    PubMed

    Chang, H; Franczyk, J; Im, E-S; Kwon, W-T; Bae, D-H; Jung, I-W

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater availability is affected by changes in climate and growth. We assessed the freshwater vulnerability for five major Korean river basins for 2015 and 2030. We used a regional climate model based on the IPCC SRES A2 scenario, US Geological Survey's Precipitation Rainfall Simulation Model, and population and industrial growth scenarios for impact assessment. The model simulation results suggest increasing spatial and temporal variations of water stress for the basins that are already developed. While freshwater is more vulnerable to growth scenarios than the climate change scenario, climate change alone could decrease mean annual runoff by 10% in four major river basins by 2030. As the first national assessment of climate change, we suggest possible adaptive water resource management and policy strategies for reducing climate related risks in Korea.

  13. Analysis of population structure among Korean and Japanese Legionella pneumophila isolates using hsp60 sequences.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Geun; Kim, Byoung Jun; Kim, Hee-Youn; Yun, Yeo-Jun; Ko, Kwan Soo; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kook, Yoon-Hoh

    2012-08-01

    The population structure of Korean (150 strains) and Japanese (92 strains) Legionella pneumophila isolates along with 18 reference strains were investigated using hsp60 sequence (1647 bp) analysis. Twelve clonal subgroups (hsP-I to hsP-X and hsF-I and hsF-II) were designated on the hsp60 tree, inferred from representative sequences using the neighbor-joining method. Some of the isolates showed unique subgroups depending on the source of isolates, including hsP-I, hsF-I, and hsF-II from cooling tower water, and subgroups hsP-VIII and hsP-X from circulating hot water bath. These subgroups may be useful for epidemiological studies to chase or specify sources of infection in Korea and Japan. PMID:22672106

  14. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Korean Patients with Acute Infections 

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyang-Ki; Bae, In-Gyu; Choi, Won Suk; Hur, Jian; Jin, Sung Joon; Kim, Shin-Woo; Kwon, Ki Tae; Lee, Sang-Rok; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2016-01-01

    Background For more effective and safer usage of antibiotics, the dosing strategy should be individualized based on the patients’ characteristics, including race. The aim of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of piperacillin and tazobactam in Korean patients with acute infections. Materials and Methods At least four consecutive 2/0.25 g or 4/0.5 g doses of piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) were intravenously infused over 1 h every 8 h for patients with creatinine clearance (CLcr) ≤50 ml/min or CLcr >50 mL/min, respectively. Blood samples from 33 patients at a steady-state were taken pre-dose and at 0 min, 30 min, and 4-6 h after the fourth infusion. The population PK analysis was conducted using a non-linear mixed-effects method. A likelihood ratio test was used to select significant covariates, with significance levels of P <0.05 for selection and P <0.01 for elimination. Results Both piperacillin PK and tazobactam PK were well described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. Creatinine clearance and body weight, as covariates on clearance (CL) and volume of central compartment (V1), were selected among the covariates possibly affecting PK parameters of both drugs. CL was defined as CL = 2.9 + 4.03 × CLcr /47 for piperacillin and CL = 1.76 + 4.81 × CLcr /47 for tazobactam. V1 was defined as V1 = 19.5 × weight/60 for piperacillin and V1 = 22.6 × weight/60 for tazobactam. Conclusion The PK profiles of TZP at a steady-state in Korean patients with acute infections were well described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. Both piperacillin and tazobactam clearances were significantly influenced by creatinine clearance. PMID:27659435

  15. Normal Echocardiographic Measurements in a Korean Population Study: Part II. Doppler and Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Oh; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Seong-Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Lee, Mi-Rae; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Shin, Gil Ja; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Woo-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic and functional evaluation with Doppler and tissue Doppler study as a part of comprehensive echocardiography is essential but normal reference values have never been reported from Korean normal population especially according to age and sex. Methods Using Normal echOcaRdiographic Measurements in a KoreAn popuLation study subjects, we obtained normal reference values for Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography including tricuspid annular velocities according to current guidelines and compared values according to gender and age groups. Results Mitral early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) velocity as well as E/A ratio were significantly higher in women compared to those in men. Conversely, mitral peak systolic and late diastolic annular velocity in both septal and lateral mitral annulus were significantly lower in women compared to those in men. However, there were no significant differences in both septal and lateral mitral early diastolic annular (e') velocity between men and women. In both men and women, mitral E velocity and its deceleration time as well as both E/A and E/e' ratio considerably increased with age. There were no significant differences in tricuspid inflow velocities and tricuspid lateral annular velocities between men and women except e' velocity, which was significantly higher in women compared to that in men. However, changes in both tricuspid inflow and lateral annular velocities according to age were similar to those in mitral velocities. Conclusion Since there were significant differences in Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic variables between men and women and changes according to age were even more considerable in both gender groups, normal Doppler echocardiographic values should be differentially applied based on age and sex. PMID:27358707

  16. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer.

  17. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Heat capacity (HC) has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA) in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1), two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3), and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4). HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement.

  18. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer. PMID:25339056

  19. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Heat capacity (HC) has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA) in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1), two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3), and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4). HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement. PMID:26529594

  20. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Heat capacity (HC) has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA) in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1), two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3), and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4). HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement. PMID:26529594

  1. CD58 polymorphisms associated with the risk of neuromyelitis optica in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a serious inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD), characterized by the inflammation and demyelination of optic nerves and spinal cords, which subsequently leads to the loss of function. In a previous genome-wide association study, cluster of differentiation 58 (CD58) region was found to be susceptible for the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Caucasian, and the association between CD58 variants and MS was replicated in Americans. However, no study has been conducted to explore the possible association between CD58 and NMO yet. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association of CD58 polymorphisms with the risk of NMO in a Korean population. Methods Using TaqMan assay, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 98 NMO patients and 237 normal controls (N = 336). Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find a possible association between CD58 polymorphisms and NMO. Results The analysis results showed that 6 variations (rs2300747, rs1335532, rs12044852, rs1016140, CD58_ht1, and CD58_ht3) showed significant associations (P = 0.002 ~ 0.008, Pcorr = 0.01 ~ 0.04). Conclusion The genetic variations in CD58 may be associated with the susceptibility of NMO in a Korean population. Based on previous studies, we suspect that the A allele of rs2300747 may decrease CD58 RNA expression, thus increasing NMO risk. Also, we deduced that the G allele of rs1016140 caused an increase of T cell activity, which in turn eased the access of AQP4 antibody into central nervous system (CNS) and ultimately leading to NMO development. PMID:24655566

  2. Urinary benzophenone concentrations and their association with demographic factors in a South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hui-Seung; Ko, Ahra; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Kyung, Min-Sik; Moon, Gui Im; Park, Jae-Hong; Lee, Hee-Seok; Suh, Jin-Hyang; Lee, Jung-Mi; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Kim, Kisok; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-08-01

    Benzophenone (BP) and its derivatives are widely used in various cosmetics, personal care products, and food packaging ink. The use of BP has raised concerns about the potential health risks associated with its endocrine-disrupting effects. This study evaluated urinary concentrations of BP derivatives in a national sample of the South Koreans population aged 6-89 years. From July to September in each 2010 and 2011, 1576 urine samples were collected. Urinary concentrations of benzophenone-1 (BP-1), benzophenone-2 (BP-2), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4), benzophenone-8 (BP-8), and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-OH-BP) were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detection rate for BP-1 and 4-OH-BP were 56% [limit of detection (LOD) 0.59ng/mL] and 88% (LOD 0.04ng/mL), respectively, whereas those for BP-2, BP-3, BP-4, and BP-8 were all below 25%. The geometric means of urinary BP-1 and 4-OH-BP concentrations were 1.24ng/mL and 0.45ng/mL, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that concentrations of BP-1 in and of 4-OH-BP in adults were associated with sex and age. The BP-1 and 4-OH-BP concentration of children and adolescents was associated with sex, age, income, and current area of residence. The correlation was observed between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives, which is an important indication of exposure biomarkers and the metabolic pathways from BP-3. This is the first national study to evaluate the presence of BP derivatives in urine samples from the South Korean population, stratified by demographic factors. PMID:27155137

  3. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  4. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  5. Infecundity and subfertility among the rural population of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaghiorghis, H

    1991-10-01

    A 1980-81 survey of the rural population of Ethiopia found high levels of infecundity and subfertility, although there was considerable variation by region, ethnicity and age of women. Higher levels of infecundity were geographically concentrated in a broad belt that ran from the south and south-west of the country, across to the north-east. The analyses suggest that infecundity is influenced by ecological factors, more than by ethnicity.

  6. Founder haplotype analysis of Fanconi anemia in the Korean population finds common ancestral haplotypes for a FANCG variant.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Yonggoo; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae-Chul; Park, In Yang; Park, Mi Sun

    2015-05-01

    A common ancestral haplotype is strongly suggested in the Korean and Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), because common mutations have been frequently found: c.2546delC and c.3720_3724delAAACA of FANCA; c.307+1G>C, c.1066C>T, and c.1589_1591delATA of FANCG. Our aim in this study was to investigate the origin of these common mutations of FANCA and FANCG. We genotyped 13 FA patients consisting of five FA-A patients and eight FA-G patients from the Korean FA population. Microsatellite markers used for haplotype analysis included four CA repeat markers which are closely linked with FANCA and eight CA repeat markers which are contiguous with FANCG. As a result, Korean FA-A patients carrying c.2546delC or c.3720_3724delAAACA did not share the same haplotypes. However, three unique haplotypes carrying c.307+1G>C, c.1066C > T, or c.1589_1591delATA, that consisted of eight polymorphic loci covering a flanking region were strongly associated with Korean FA-G, consistent with founder haplotypes reported previously in the Japanese FA-G population. Our finding confirmed the common ancestral haplotypes on the origins of the East Asian FA-G patients, which will improve our understanding of the molecular population genetics of FA-G. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association between disease-linked mutations and common ancestral haplotypes in the Korean FA population.

  7. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Nonobese Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Chin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging problem in Asia, but little is known about the disease in the nonobese population. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and the factors associated with it in a nonobese Korean population and to compare the clinical characteristics of nonobese and obese subjects with NAFLD. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from 2,058 subjects who participated in a medical checkup program. Results The prevalence of NAFLD was 12.4% (213/1,711) in the nonobese population. A higher body mass index (BMI), higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values, higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, triglyceride concentrations 150 mg/dL, and hyperuricemia were independently associated with the presence of NAFLD in the nonobese subjects. Compared with the obese subjects with NAFLD, the nonobese subjects with NAFLD were composed of a higher proportion of females and had lower BMIs, smaller waist circumferences, lower HOMA-IR values, and fewer metabolic irregularities. Conclusions Higher BMIs, HOMA-IR values, ALT levels, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia were associated with NAFLD in the nonobese subjects. Clinicians should be particularly aware of the possibility of NAFLD in nonobese Asian people. PMID:26260755

  8. Association between Self-Reported Smoking and Hemoglobin A1c in a Korean Population without Diabetes: The 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Several Western studies have revealed that among non-diabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are higher in smokers than non-smokers. While studies conducted in Western populations consistently support this association, a recent meta-analysis reported that studies carried out in non-Western populations, including studies of Chinese, Egyptian, and Japanese-Americans, did not detect any significant differences in HbA1c levels between smokers and non-smokers. Objectives We assessed the association between smoking habits and HbA1c levels in the general Korean adult population using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. Methods A total of 10,241 participants (weighted n=33,946,561 including 16,769,320 men and 17,177,241 women) without diabetes were divided into four categories according to their smoking habits: never smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 6,349/19,105,564), ex-smokers (unweighted n/ weighted n= 1,912/6,207,144), current light smokers (<15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=1,205/5,130,073), and current heavy smokers (≥15 cigarettes per day, unweighted n/ weighted n=775/3,503,781). Results In age- and gender-adjusted comparisons, the HbA1c levels of each group were 5.52 ± 0.01% in non-smokers, 5.49 ± 0.01% in ex-smokers, 5.53 ± 0.01% in light smokers, and 5.61 ± 0.02% in heavy smokers. HbA1c levels were significantly higher in light smokers than in ex-smokers (p = 0.033), and in heavy smokers compared with light smokers (p < 0.001). The significant differences remained after adjusting for age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, heavy alcohol drinking, hematocrit, college graduation, and waist circumference. Linear regression analyses for HbA1c using the above-mentioned variables as covariates revealed that a significant association between current smoking and HbA1c (coefficient 0.021, 95% CI 0.003–0.039, p = 0.019). Conclusions Current smoking was

  9. Evaluation of Serum Cotinine Cut-Off to Distinguish Smokers From Nonsmokers in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yang, Song-Hyun; Moon, Chul-Jin; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cotinine has been widely used as an objective marker to identify current smokers. We conducted this study to address the absence of Korean studies investigating the efficacy of immunoassays and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Methods Serum specimens were obtained from 120 subjects. They were randomly chosen to represent a broad distribution of urine cotinine levels based on a retrospective review of questionnaires and results of urine cotinine levels. We determined serum cotinine levels using the IMMULITE 2000 XPi Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) and LC-MS/MS (API-4000, Applied Biosystems, USA). Correlation was analyzed between IMMULITE serum cotinine, urine cotinine, and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels. ROC curve was analyzed to identify the optimal IMMULITE serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Results IMMULITE serum cotinine levels correlated with both urine cotinine and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels, with correlation coefficients of 0.958 and 0.986, respectively. The optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for distinguishing current smokers from nonsmokers was 13.2 ng/mL (95.7% sensitivity, 94.1% specificity) using IMMULITE. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the use of LC-MS/MS for the measurement of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for the IMMULITE immunoassay. Our results could provide guidelines for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers in the Korean population. PMID:27374707

  10. The Rise of Poverty in Rural America. Population Trends and Public Policy, Number 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.

    Dramatic demographic and socioeconomic shifts have occurred in rural areas over the last decade, increasing poverty among America's rural population. Analysis of the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey indicates that outmigration from rural areas, which has grown steadily since 1980, reached almost 1,000,000 between 1986 to 1987. Those…

  11. Allele Frequencies of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Related to the Body Burden of Heavy Metals in the Korean Population and Their Ethnic Differences

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Sang-Yong; Lim, Ji-Ae; Kim, Yong-Dae; Choi, Byung-Sun; Hwang, Myung Sil; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the body burden of heavy metals in Koreans, to provide Korean allele frequencies of selected SNPs, and to assess the difference in allele frequencies with other ethnicities. The candidate-gene approach method and genome-wide association screening were used to select SNPs related to the body burden of heavy metals. Genotyping analysis of the final 192 SNPs selected was performed on 1,483 subjects using the VeraCode Goldengate assay. Allele frequencies differences and genetic differentiations between the Korean population and Chinese (CHB), Japanese (JPT), Caucasian (CEU), and African (YIR) populations were tested by Fisher’s exact test and fixation index (FST), respectively. The Korean population was genetically similar to the CHB and JPT populations (FST < 0.05, for all SNPs in both populations). However, a significant difference in the allele frequencies between the Korean and CEU and YIR populations were observed in 99 SNPs (60.7%) and 120 SNPs (73.6%), respectively. Ten (6.1%) and 26 (16.0%) SNPs had genetic differentiation (FST > 0.05) among the Korean-CEU and Korean-YIR comparisons, respectively. The SNP with the largest FST value between the Korean and African populations was cystathionine-β-synthase rs234709 (FST: KOR-YIR, 0.309; KOR-CEU, 0.064). Our study suggests that interethnic differences exist in SNPs associated with heavy metals of Koreans, and it should be considered in future studies that address ethnic differences in heavy-metal concentrations in the body and genetic susceptibility to the body burden of heavy metals. PMID:27437086

  12. The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-05-01

    The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population.

  13. Relationship between Social Network and Stage of Adoption of Gastric Cancer Screening among the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between social support and stages of adoption of cancer screening. Here we investigated associations between both structural and functional aspects of social support and stages of adoption of gastric cancer screening in the general population of Korea. The study population was derived from the 2011 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. Data were analyzed from 3,477 randomly selected respondents aged 40-74 years. Respondents were classified according to their stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening: precontemplation (13.2%), contemplation (18.0%), action/maintenance (56.1%), relapse risk (8.5%), and relapse stage (4.1%). Respondents with larger social networks were more likely to be in the contemplation/action/maintenance, or the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation stage (OR=1.91, 95%CI: 1.52-2.91; p for tend=0.025). Emotional and instrumental supports were not associated with any stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening. However, respondents who reported receiving sufficient informational support were more likely to be in the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation, or the contemplation/action/maintenance stage (p for trend=0.016). Interventions involving interactions between social network members could play an important role in increasing participation in gastric cancer screening.

  14. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27-0.46) and 0.37 (0.28-0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35-3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19-0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12-0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18-0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11-0.71); 0.27 (0.13-0.54); 0.45 (0.25-0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  15. Population growth and social change: a note on rural society.

    PubMed

    Barnabas, A P

    1974-01-01

    Changing social conditons, particularly in rural areas, often create a feeling of normlessness. For such major changes as family limitation to be accepted in rural India, those involved must understand the total social change which will be necessary. In rural areas today the desire for motherhood is a matter of being accepted. A barren woman suffers social ostracism; folk tales tell of even animals refusing to eat a meal prepared by a barren woman. A women with a large family is particularly respected, especially if they are well provided for. The other reasons given for having large numbers of children are family survival, care in old age, increase in family income, to get more share in the property, to follow the community pattern, and to make the home happier. There is a rationale for most of these. High infant and child mortality account for the family survival, The only security the parents have is the children. More children increase the family share in a joint-family land-holding. Raising the age at marriage for girls has often been suggested as a population control measure, but what is the girl to do until 19? Rural parents do not feel their obligations to their daughter have been discharged until she is married and it is the parents who are blamed if no arrangments have been made. The idea of her becoming educated is not socially acceptable and rural boys are reluctant to marry educated girls. India's values pertaining to divorce, widow remarriage, and abortion are already undergoing change. Migration to the cities is bringing about change. Looking to the cities may bring about modernization, but the fact that the young men are the ones moving away is leading a lack of leadership in the villages. To bring about the social conditions favorable to modernization agriculture should be modernized, reducing the need for labor; factories should be built in rural areas to take up this slack in agricultural employment, and perhaps it would become acceptable for

  16. The effect of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption on serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jisuk; Park, Pil Sook; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2015-02-01

    Caffeine, a commonly consumed food constituent, is known to exert beneficial physiological effects in humans. There is a lack of comprehensive population data for the effects of caffeine intake on urate metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether coffee, tea, and caffeine intake influences serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. We enrolled 9,400 participants in this study. An assessment of various dietary intake amounts of substances such as coffee and tea was performed using a food frequency questionnaire. The content of caffeine was calculated from coffee (74 mg/cup) and tea (15 mg/cup) intake information from the past year. Multivariate logistic regression models, multiple linear regression models, and analysis of covariance were applied to identify any association of dietary intake with serum uric acid levels or the risk of hyperuricemia. No trends for coffee, tea, or caffeine intake were found according to each quintile with serum uric acid in males, although there were weak, marginally significant trends between the content of coffee and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level in females (p = 0.07 for both). Tea intake in males and caffeine intake in females were significantly different between non-hyperuricemia and hyperuricemia (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively). In addition, a significant association of serum uric acid level with tea intake in males (β = 0.0006, p = 0.02) and with tea intake and caffeine intake in females (β = 0.0003, p = 0.04 and β = 0.0006, p = 0.02, respectively) was observed. There was no effect of coffee, tea, or caffeine intake on the risk of hyperuricemia in either males or females. This study suggests that caffeine consumption might have an effect on serum uric acid in females. However, coffee, tea, and caffeine intake amounts were not associated with the risk of hyperuricemia.

  17. The Functionality of Facial Appearance and Its Importance to a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jun; Park, Jang Wan; Kim, Jeong Min; Park, Sun Hyung; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong; Shin, Jun Ho

    2013-01-01

    Background Many people have an interest in the correction of facial scars or deformities caused by trauma. The increasing ability to correct such flaws has been one of the reasons for the increase in the popularity of facial plastic surgery. In addition to its roles in communication, breathing, eating, olfaction and vision, the appearance of the face also plays an important role in human interactions, including during social activities. However, studies on the importance of the functional role of facial appearance. As a function of the face are scare. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the importance of the functions of the face in Korea. Methods We conducted an online panel survey of 300 participants (age range, 20-70 years). Each respondent was administered the demographic data form, Facial Function Assessment Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and standard gamble questionnaires. Results In the evaluation on the importance of facial functions, a normal appearance was considered as important as communication, breathing, speech, and vision. Of the 300 participants, 85% stated that a normal appearance is important in social activities. Conclusions The results of this survey involving a cross-section of the Korean population indicated that a normal appearance was considered one of the principal facial functions. A normal appearance was considered more important than the functions of olfaction and expression. Moreover, a normal appearance was determined to be an important facial function for leading a normal life in Korea. PMID:24286044

  18. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19-40, 41-60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05-1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99-1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  19. Genetic analysis of genes related to tight junction function in the Korean population with non-syndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-A; Kim, Ye-Ri; Sagong, Borum; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Bae, Jae Woong; Kim, Jeongho; Lee, Jinwook; Park, Hong-Joon; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are essential components of eukaryotic cells, and serve as paracellular barriers and zippers between adjacent tissues. TJs are critical for normal functioning of the organ of Corti, a part of the inner ear that causes loss of sensorineural hearing when damaged. To investigate the relation between genes involved in TJ function and hereditary loss of sensorineural hearing in the Korean population, we selected the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes as candidates for gene screening of 135 Korean individuals. The TJP2 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), lies at the DFNA51 locus on chromosome 9. The CLDN14 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), lies at the DFNB29 locus on chromosome 21. In the present study, we conducted genetic analyses of the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes in 87 unrelated patients with ADNSHL and 48 unrelated patients with either ARNSHL or potentially sporadic hearing loss. We identified two pathogenic variations, c.334G>A (p.A112T) and c.3562A>G (p.T1188A), and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TJP2 gene. We found eight non-pathogenic variations in the CLDN14 gene. These findings indicate that, whereas mutation of the TJP2 gene might cause ADNSHL, CLDN14 is not a major causative gene for ARNSHL in the Korean population studied. Our findings may improve the understanding of the genetic cause of non-syndromic hearing loss in the Korean population.

  20. Novel FLG null mutations in Korean patients with atopic dermatitis and comparison of the mutational spectra in Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Myungshin; Park, Young Min

    2015-09-01

    Filaggrin is essential for the development of the skin barrier. Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin have been identified as major predisposing factors for atopic disorders. Molecular analysis of the FLG gene in this study showed nine null and one unclassified mutation in 13 of 81 Korean patients with atopic dermatitis (AD): five novel null mutations (i.e. p.S1405*, c.5671_5672delinsTA, p.W1947*, p.G2025* and p.E3070*); four reported null mutations (i.e. c.3321delA, p.S1515*, p.S3296* and p.K4022*); and one unclassified mutation (i.e. c.306delAAAGCACAG). These variants are nonsense, premature termination codon or in-frame deletion expected to cause loss-of-function of FLG. Genotype-phenotype correlation is not obvious in Korean AD patients with FLG null mutations. According to a review of the mutational spectra of the FLG gene in the Asian populations, FLG null mutations appeared to be unique in each population but some mutations such as p.R501*, c.3321delA, p.S1515*, p.S3296* and p.K4022* were commonly found in at least two of the selected Asian populations including Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Singaporean Chinese or Taiwanese. Further investigations on a larger group of Korean AD would be necessary to elucidate its clinical pathogenesis and mutational spectrum related to specific FLG null mutations for AD.

  1. The Disadvantage to the Rural Population in Earthquake Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.

    2014-12-01

    Scenario calculations show that the rural population is more vulnerable to earthquake disasters because of their comparatively weak building stock. For calculating damage due to strong ground shaking, the building stock is modeled separately for different countries and in each country separately in three settlement size classes. It is generally understood that cities contain more buildings that are resistant to strong shaking than villages. A corollary of this observation is that villagers are more likely to be killed by their collapsing homes than city dwellers. The quantitative excess of the vulnerability of villagers compared to city dwellers varies as a function of the following parameters: (1) Country, (2) epicentral distance, and (3) earthquake magnitude, in addition to the quality of the built environment. For estimating quantitatively the difference of mortality in villages compared to cities, we used the building stock as modeled in the earthquake loss estimating tool QLARM. For the scenario calculations, the epicenters and depths of recent large or damaging earthquakes were selected and their magnitudes were set to M7.5, in cases where the magnitude of the historic event had been smaller. The countries for which we estimated the excess rural mortality included: Algeria, China, Greece, Guatemala, India, Iran, Mexico and Turkey. In all of these countries and for all distances the mortality rate was found to be larger in the villages. Depending on the parameters (1), (2) and (3), the percentage of fatalities in villages was higher by 20% to 97% than in cities. In the case of Greece, where the QLARM data are the most detailed, a clear function of the per cent of fatalities as a function of settlement size emerged. Because indigenous peoples live typically in small settlements, these findings mean that the indigenous population is exposed to a greater earthquake risk than the average population. Although it is understandable that earthquake risk mitigation has

  2. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  3. Malnutrition is associated with depression in rural elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Zamane; Mokhtari, Habibollah; Sadooghi, Zahra; Meamar, Rokhsareh; Chitsaz, Ahmad; Moeini, Mina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aging induces physiological changes and affects all of organs. Nutritional status and mental health deteriorate with aging. As malnutrition and depression are main problem in elderly this study was performed to assess the association between malnutrition and depression among rural elderly. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and seventy rural elderly aged over 60 years were examined in a cross-sectional study by systematic sampling method and using mini nutritional assessment (MNA), which is a standard questionnaire for evaluating nutrition status. Depression was evaluated by a validated questionnaire in the elderly. Correlation between Socio-demographic characteristic, diseases, and nutrition status was obtained by t-test, Chi-square test and logistic regression in elderly population. Results: Mean ± SD age was 70.6 ± 7.3 years. Frequency of malnutrition was similar in both genders. According to MNA, 3.8% of subjects suffered from malnutrition, 32.7% were at risk of malnutrition and 63.5% were well-nourished. Nutrition status correlated with body mass index (P = 0.028) and depression (P = 0.001). The risk of severe depression in patients with malnutrition was 15.5 times higher than non-depressed persons (odd ratio: 15.5; 95% CI: 2.9-82.5). Conclusion: Depression could act as a powerful risk for malnutrition in elderly population that it should be controlled by physicians. PMID:23961277

  4. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  5. Poverty Catchments: Migration, Residential Mobility, and Population Turnover in Impoverished Rural Illinois Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, Matt; Newbold, K. Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Research has thoroughly documented how out-migration of the educated and skilled from rural areas leaves behind a poorer population and creates pockets of rural poverty. Recently, studies have recognized that the poor are also geographically mobile and that poverty migration patterns can reinforce rural poverty concentrations. In this process,…

  6. Women, population and development: rural women's passage to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Villareal, F L

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program

  7. Women, population and development: rural women's passage to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Villareal, F L

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program

  8. Forensic and population genetic analyses of eighteen non-CODIS miniSTR loci in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Han Jun; Kim, Ki Cheol; Yoon, Cha Eun; Kim, Wook

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the variation of eighteen miniSTR loci in 411 randomly chosen individuals from Korea to increase the probability that a degraded sample can be typed, as well as to provide an expanded and reliable population database. Six multiplex PCR systems were developed (multiplex I: D1S1677, D2S441 and D4S2364; multiplex II: D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045; multiplex III: D12S391, D16S3253 and D20S161; multiplex IV: D3S4529, D8S1115 and D18S853; multiplex V: D6S1017, D11S4463 and D17S1301; multiplex VI: D5S2500, D9S1122 and D21S1437). Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated to evaluate the suitability and robustness of these non-CODIS miniSTR systems. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were observed, except for D4S2364, D5S2500 and D20S161 loci. A multidimensional scaling plot based on allele frequencies of the six miniSTR loci (D1S1677, D2S441, D4S2364, D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045) showed that Koreans appeared to have most genetic affinity with Chinese and Japanese than to other Eurasian populations compared here. The combined probability of match calculated from the 18 miniSTR loci was 2.902 × 10(-17), indicating a high degree of polymorphism. Thus, the 18 miniSTR loci can be suitable for recovering useful information for analyzing degraded forensic casework samples and for adding supplementary genetic information for a variety of analyses involving closely related individuals where there is a need for additional genetic information.

  9. Association between handgrip strength and cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between handgrip strength and mild cognitive impairment in elderly adults. [Subjects] Study participants included 2,982 adults (1,366 males and 1,616 females), aged 65 years or older. [Methods] This population-based cross-sectional study used the baseline database from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. [Results] The odds ratio for mild cognitive impairment showed a significant linear decrease in relation to the quartile of handgrip strength, independent of potential covariates, in both men and women. Moreover, after excluding incident cases of mild cognitive impairment, the results showed that greater handgrip strength was associated with higher cognitive function scores in the elderly. [Conclusion] The findings presented here suggest that handgrip strength is associated with a risk of mild cognitive impairment in the Korean elderly. Moreover, greater handgrip strength is associated with higher cognitive function in cognitively normal elderly individuals.

  10. Shifts in the distribution of rural population in the non-Chernozem zone of the RSFSR.

    PubMed

    Igudina, A I; Ioffe, G V

    1986-04-01

    "Rural population change within the Non-Chernozem zone of the RSFRS [Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic] is examined over the period 1959-79 at several levels of analysis: the Non-Chernozem zone as a whole, its major economic regions, individual oblasts, individual rayons and individual farms and rural places. The overriding tendency at all levels of analysis has been the increasing spatial concentration of rural population." The authors observe that "this concentration assumes a variety of forms, from the concentration of rural population in the suburban zones of large cities and the immediate surroundings of rayon seats to a decline in the number of rural places (from 180,000 in 1959 to 118,000 in 1979) and the growth of local centers against a general background of rural population decline. The authors hint that the observed tendency is a positive development, in keeping with the policy of converting Soviet agriculture to a more intensive path of development."

  11. Polymorphism of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Affects the Clinical Phenotypes of Ischemic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Don; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Su Kang; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Je, Goun; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Chung, Seung Joon; Yeo, Jin Ah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2293054 [Ile734Ile], rs1047735 [His902His], rs2293044 [Val1353Val], rs2682826 (3'UTR) of nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) are associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke. Methods We enrolled 120 ischemic stroke patients and 314 control subjects. Ischemic stroke patients were divided into subgroups according to the scores of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Survey (NIHSS, <6 and ≥6) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI, <60 and ≥60). SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer, and HelixTree programs were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p-values. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to analyze genetic data. Results No SNPs of the NOS1 gene were found to be associated with ischemic stroke. However, in an analysis of clinical phenotypes, we found that rs2293054 was associated with the NIHSS scores of ischemic stroke patients in codominant (p=0.019), dominant (p=0.007), overdominant (p=0.033), and log-additive (p=0.0048) models. Also, rs2682826 revealed a significant association in the recessive model (p=0.034). In allele frequency analysis, we also found that the T alleles of rs2293054 were associated with lower NIHSS scores (p=0.007). Respectively, rs2293054 had a significant association in the MBI scores of ischemic stroke in codominant (p=0.038), dominant (p=0.031), overdominant (p=0.045), and log-additive (p=0.04) models. Conclusion These results suggest that NOS1 may be related to the clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke in Korean population. PMID:26949676

  12. Seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) in a Korean population: comparison of two commercial anti-HEV assays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as an important cause of epidemic and sporadic acute viral hepatitis worldwide. This study investigated the seroprevalence of anti-HEV in a Korean population and compared the performance of two commercially available anti-HEV assays. Methods A total 147 health-check examinees were randomly sampled as matched to the age- and sex- adjusted standard population based on the Korean National Census of 2007. Serum immunoglobulin G anti-HEV was determined by using the Genelabs assay (Genelabs, Singapore) and the Wantai assay (Wantai, Beijing, China). Results The overall anti-HEV seroprevalence was 23.1% (95% CI, 16.1-30.1%) using the Wantai assay and 14.3% (95% CI, 8.3-20.3%) using the Genelabs assay. Only 12 samples (8.1%) were positive for anti-HEV as measured by both assays; agreement between the two assays was poor (kappa value of 0.315). The anti-HEV seroprevalence increased with age from 2% and 3% in the people younger than 20-years-of-age to 34.6% and 42.3% in those over 59-years-of-age by the Genelabs and Wantai assay, respectively. Conclusions The HEV seroprevalence in Korean population is about 20% overall, with seroprevalence increasing in this population with increasing age. There was poor concordance in the results of the Genelabs and Wantai assays, which warrants further study concerning a reliable diagnostic test for the diagnosis of hepatitis E. PMID:22726615

  13. Dementing illnesses in rural populations: the need for research and challenges confronting investigators.

    PubMed

    Keefover, R W; Rankin, E D; Keyl, P M; Wells, J C; Martin, J; Shaw, J

    1996-01-01

    Expansion of the world's elderly populations has increased concerns about aging-related medical disorders like Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In the United States, one fourth of those older than age 65 and at greatest risk for developing dementia live in rural environments that may influence its manifestation. The objectives of this study were to determine the need for and potential benefits of further epidemiological research concerning dementia and similar disorders in rural U.S. populations and to identify pertinent methodological issues related to rural dementia research. This study employed a National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE) document search based on the key words "cognitive disorders," "dementia," "Alzheimer's disease," and "rural," followed by recovery of literature resources references in the bibliographies of selected articles. Nineteen studies focusing on dementia or related disorders in rural settings have been reported from around the world. While four of these were conducted in the United States, only one rural dementia prevalence study has been undertaken in this country. Because of methodological variability, comparisons of prevalence estimates between these rural studies, as well as with those from urban investigations, is difficult. Nonetheless, there is reason to believe that certain potentially dementing illnesses are more common in rural populations. There is also evidence to suggest that the screening instruments commonly used in such studies tend to misclassify rural elders as "false positive" dementia cases. Information regarding dementing disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease, in rural populations is scarce. Preliminary observations that dementia may be more common in rural settings and that rural families are more likely to maintain their dementing elders in the community imply that further rural dementia research could yield important insights into the risk factors for these illnesses, the variables influencing their

  14. Ocular injury: Prevalence in different rural population of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, A K

    2013-12-01

    This population based cross-sectional study was conducted on 8283 persons of all ages in five districts, selected conveniently, to assess the magnitude of ocular injuries, their causes and consequences in rural Bangladesh. Six Upazilas from five districts and from each Upazila one Union was selected randomly. One village, the ultimate cluster, was then selected conveniently from each Union. All people (n = 8283) in the 8 villages were then surveyed. Out of 8283 population (ranging from 1-120 years) surveyed, 167(2%) had history and/or evidence of past ocular trauma with a yearly incidence of 6.2 per 1000 per year. Study demonstrated a female predominance with male to female ratio being roughly 4:5. Majority (82%) had at least one episode of trauma in their life-time with mean age at 1st trauma being 20 years. Nearly 40% of the traumas were caused by blunt objects followed by penetrating object (22.3%) and sharp instrument (18.1%) with home being the primary place of occurrence (55.1%). Evidence of ocular trauma was found on eye-lid (15%), conjunctiva (11.4%) and cornea (10.2%) as scars. The older participants (≥ 30 years), females, illiterates, agriculture labors, housewives and household workers were more likely to receive trauma. Majority (86.8%) of the subjects received treatment following injury. The median time lapsed between injuries and receiving first treatment was 5 days and that between injury and visiting an eye-specialist was 18 days. Self-treatment and treatment from over-the-counter comprised 45% and 42.1% respectively followed by eye-specialists (25.5%), village quack (22.8%), graduate doctors (19.3%) and traditional healers (6.9%). About 87% received conservative management, with 12.4% needing hospitalization. Most of the injured (92.8%) and non-injured (95.2%) eyes had normal vision before trauma as informed by the respondents. Following trauma, 18% had impaired, 10.7% severely impaired vision and about 6% were blind. Job abstinence due to trauma

  15. Population Migration in Rural Areas, January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

    This bibliography consists of 87 entries of materials related to population trends in rural and nonmetropolitan areas. This collection is the result of a computerized search of the AGRICOLA database. The bibliography covers topics of rural population change, migration and migrants, farm labor supplies and social conditions, and different patterns…

  16. The Church's Concern for Communities with a Rural Nonfarm Population in the Northeast U. S. A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, George A., Ed.; And Others

    A workshop was held in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to determine how the Lutheran Church might best serve the rural nonfarm population of the Northeast. Some of the topics discussed were: (1) the rural nonfarm family, (2) community development, and (3) serving a heterogeneous population. Attention was focused on psychological problems that can…

  17. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  18. A rapid method for simultaneous screening of multi-gene mutations associated with hearing loss in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Sagong, Borum; Baek, Jeong-In; Oh, Se-Kyung; Na, Kyung Jin; Bae, Jae Woong; Choi, Soo Young; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is a congenital disease with a high prevalence, and patients with hearing loss need early diagnosis for treatment and prevention. The GJB2, MT-RNR1, and SLC26A4 genes have been reported as common causative genes of hearing loss in the Korean population and some mutations of these genes are the most common mutations associated with hearing loss. Accordingly, we developed a method for the simultaneous detection of seven mutations (c.235delC of GJB2, c.439A>G, c.919-2A>G, c.1149+3A>G, c.1229C>T, c.2168A>G of SLC26A4, and m.1555A>G of the MT-RNR1 gene) using multiplex SNaPshot minisequencing to enable rapid diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss. This method was confirmed in patients with hearing loss and used for genetic diagnosis of controls with normal hearing and neonates. We found that 4.06% of individuals with normal hearing and 4.32% of neonates were heterozygous carriers. In addition, we detected that an individual is heterozygous for two different mutations of GJB2 and SLC26A4 gene, respectively and one normal hearing showing the heteroplasmy of m.1555A>G. These genotypes corresponded to those determined by direct sequencing. Overall, we successfully developed a robust and cost-effective diagnosis method that detects common causative mutations of hearing loss in the Korean population. This method will be possible to detect up to 40% causative mutations associated with prelingual HL in the Korean population and serve as a useful genetic technique for diagnosis of hearing loss for patients, carriers, neonates, and fetuses.

  19. [Species composition and main populations spatial distribution pattern in Korean pine broadleaved forest in Xiaoxing' An Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Hou, Hong-Ya; Wang, Li-Hai

    2013-11-01

    Taking the Korean pine broadleaved forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China as test object, this paper studied the species composition and diameter class structure, and by using point pattern analysis, analyzed the spatial distribution pattern and spatial association of the main populations. In the Reserve, there were a total of 16 species with diameter greater than 1 cm in tree layer, and great differences were observed in the densities of main populations. Coniferous trees such as Pinus koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis were dominant. The diameter class structure of the populations presented as an inverse "J" curve, indicating a good regeneration across the community. The main populations were mostly in aggregated distribution pattern, except that the P. koraiensis populations at the scales of 19-21 m and 44 m as well as the Acer tegmentosum populations close to the largest research scale were in random distribution. The P. koraiensis populations at all research scales were approximately in random distribution, and had the minimum aggregation. A. nephrolepis, Tilia amurensis, and A. tegmentosum populations all presented a random distribution trend. Except that the P. koraiensis and A. nephrolepis at 2-3 m scale and the A. nephrolepis and A. tegmentosum populations at 37-81 m scale had significant positive association, no significant associations were observed between other populations. All the tree species presented an overall non-significant positive association. PMID:24564130

  20. National survey of prevalent HIV strains: limited genetic variation of Korean HIV-1 clade B within the population of Korean men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gab Jung; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Shin, Bo Gyeong; Kee, Mee Kyeong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Kim, Sung Soon

    2008-06-01

    The evolution of HIV is the result of an explosive combination of factors-a high rate of mutation, replication dynamics, frequent recombination, and natural selection. To understand the evolution of the distinctive Korean HIV-1 B clade, we investigated the characteristics of the genetic variation of the HIV-1 subtype B env gene within the group of Korean men who have sex with men (MSM). From 1985 to 2005, 700 HIV-1-infected Koreans were sequenced at the V1 to V5 region of the HIV-1 env gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, 560 isolates were identified as HIV-1 subtype B, and 489 of the 560 isolates were HIV-1 Korean clade B. Based on epidemiologic investigation, 249 of 700 HIV-1-infected patients were HIV-1 subtype B-infected MSM. Interestingly, the proportion of the GPGS motif in MSM infected by Koreans was 1.6 times higher than in MSM infected by foreigners, and the genetic expansions of diversity and divergence for HIV-1 subtype B in Korean MSM were 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. This was much lower than those observed in other countries. Therefore, our findings imply that the HIV strains in this group were closely related. This result may be helpful for understanding the evolution of the distinct HIV-1 Korean B clade.

  1. The evolution of rural hospitals viewed through a population ecology framework.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, Amy K; Powers, Thomas L

    2008-01-01

    Rural hospitals face formidable environmental challenges and have experienced closure rates higher than those of their urban counterparts. However, many of these rural hospitals appear to be surviving by developing interorganizational relationships that include network formation, absorption into investor-owned systems, and contract management arrangements. The concept of population ecology has been applied to organizational survival and can be used to examine health care organizations and specifically explain the evolution of rural hospitals. In this paper concepts from population ecology are used to explain the survival of rural hospitals and how new organizational structures are being developed to compensate for environmental changes. PMID:19042511

  2. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Is Independently Inversely Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Healthy, Non-Obese Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ock, So Young; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Bu Kyung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Shim, Jee-Seon; Lee, Myung Ha; Yoon, Young Me

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in serum and insulin resistance in the healthy Korean population. Methods We conducted this cross-sectional analysis in 1,807 healthy Korean people (628 men and 1,179 women) aged 30 to 64 years in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiologic Research Center study. All participants were assessed for 25(OH)D, fasting glucose, and insulin levels, and completed a health examination and lifestyle questionnaire according to standard procedures. Insulin resistance was defined as the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance higher than the 75 percentile. Results Compared to those in the highest tertile (≥14.3 ng/mL), the odds ratio (OR) for insulin resistance was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.86) for the 1st tertile (<9.7 ng/mL) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.08 to 1.62) for the 2nd tertile (9.7 to 14.3 ng/mL) after adjusting for age, gender, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical exercise, season, and cohort. After stratification of the subjects by adiposity, these associations remained only in non-obese subjects (lowest tertile vs. highest tertile, multivariable OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.56). Conclusion Serum 25(OH)D has an independent inverse association with insulin resistance in the healthy, non-obese Korean population, even among people with vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:27535642

  3. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  4. Rural community development in China and the industrial shift of the rural population: summary of an international symposium.

    PubMed

    Shao, X

    1991-01-01

    As a summary of an international symposium on rural community development in China, commentary on China's rural reform, the industrial development of the rural population, and urbanization of the rural population and rural population control is provided. The successful reform that has occurred since the Party's 3rd Plenary session of the 11th Central Committee has been the implementation of the household joint production contract responsibility system. Farmers are enthusiastic about their right to land management. Recent focus on the declines and fluctuations in agricultural output has raised many questions. Suggestions have been made to raise agricultural prices and increase investment. Public ownership should remain with household management. The security of longterm ownership of land by individuals is not available, hence individuals are unwilling to make longterm investment. Another opinion was that the stagnation in production was temporary and a course of development; the cause was population pressure. Suggested future development after reforms should involve development of the village social structure. Communities already have a stable social system of blood ties and an administrative system organized by the party, government, and the economy. Communities with these characteristics could invest in the large-scale farming equipment which smaller households cannot afford, and take responsibility for land allocation and management and financial transactions. The role of the community would be a difficult one in balancing income distribution and expanding community benefits. The 2nd major influence on rural development has been growth in rural nonindustrial production in the small town enterprise. The urban policies of household registration and employment limit growth to rural enterprises which may use backward production technology and produce second-rate products. Eventually, rural industry will become both complementary and supplementary to the national

  5. Association of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with homozygous genotypes at PRNP codons 129 and 219 in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Nam-Ho; Jin, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Jae-Il; Carp, Richard I; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2005-12-01

    Human prion protein gene (PRNP) is considered an important gene in determining the incidence of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. Polymorphisms of PRNP at codon 129 in Europeans and codon 219 in Japanese may play an important role in the susceptibility to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD); data regarding codon 129 in the Japanese population have led to divergent interpretations. In order to determine which, if any, of the PRNP genotypes in Korean people are associated with sporadic CJD, we examined the genotype and allelic distributions of human PRNP polymorphisms in 150 patients with sporadic CJD. All Korean sporadic CJD patients were Met/Met at codon 129, Glu/Glu at codon 219 and undeleted at the octarepeat region of PRNP. Our study showed significant differences in genotype frequency of PRNP at codon 129 (chi 2=8.8998, P=0.0117) or 219 (chi 2=12.6945, P=0.0004) between sporadic CJD and normal controls. Furthermore, the genotype frequency of the heterozygotes for codons 129 and/or 219 showed a significant difference between the normal population and sporadic CJD patients (chi 2=21.0780, P<0.0001).

  6. Perception of young doctors towards service to rural population in Bihar.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ranjeet Kumar

    2012-08-01

    With the launch of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), rural health is being given more attention than ever before but health of the rural population is still in the hands of handful of qualified doctors. To know the willingness of young doctors to serve rural population and factors associated with their decision, 176 participants (101 students and 75 interns) of a medical college of Bihar were interviewed during the period July 2005 to December 2006. Only 9.1% participants showed their willingness to serve in rural area despite the fact that 38.6% of them had a rural background, parent(s) of 19.9% had rural occupation and 30.1% subjects had their primary schooling in villages. Rural background (X2 = 22.54, df = 1, p < 0.001) and primary schooling in villages (p = 0.004) were found to be associated significantly with those willing to serve rural population. Whereas land and house property in village (87.5%), village located near towns (81.2%), less competition (62.5%) and need for a job (56.2%) were prime factors in willing medicos, poor living conditions in rural area and lack of professional future (96%), priority for postgraduation (90.6%) and tough working conditions (89.4%) were found to be main factors for reluctance. No significant difference (X2 = 0.929, df = 1, p = 0.335) was seen in the perception of students and interns. Willingness in young doctors to serve rural population is dismal in the present situation. To make them work for rural health, effective efforts to redress all the factors are urgently needed.

  7. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  8. Etiology and Features of Eyes with Rubeosis Iridis among Korean Patients: A Population-Based Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yun Cheol; Hwang, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the etiology and features of the eyes with rubeosis iridis among Korean patients. Materials and Methods This study is a retrospective review of 533 Korean patients with rubeosis iridis who visited an eye hospital in Seoul, Korea. We defined rubeosis iridis as visible blood vessels on the iris surface detected during a slit-lamp examination. All cases were reviewed for age at the time of diagnosis, medical history, the most likely cause of rubeosis iridis, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure. Results The most commonly observed cause of rubeosis iridis was diabetic retinopathy (DR; n = 337, 63.2%), followed by retinal vein occlusion (RVO; n = 101, 18.9%), ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS; n = 24, 4.5%), retinal detachment (n = 17, 3.2%), and uveitis (n = 15, 2.8%). The cause was classified as miscellaneous in 18 cases (3.4%); in 21 eyes (3.9%), the cause was not clear. Age at the time of rubeosis iridis diagnosis was lower in patients with DR (56.5 years) than in those with RVO (61.0 years) and OIS (64.8 years; P < 0.01). Intraocular pressure of the eyes with DR (37.3 mmHg) and RVO (39.5 mmHg) was higher than that of the eyes with OIS (25.8 mmHg; P < 0.01). Conclusion In our population-based single center study, DR was the leading cause of rubeosis iridis followed by RVO and OIS among Korean patients. The clinical characteristics of the eyes with rubeosis iridis differed according to etiology. This finding may be useful when assessing eyes with rubeosis iridis. PMID:27490797

  9. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  10. Correlates of Breast-Feeding in a Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Michelle B.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Desvarieux, Moise; Duval, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of education and employment with breast-feeding initiation and duration in rural mothers, in the context of environmental, social, and intrapersonal factors. Methods: Data from a telephone survey of 414 mothers from rural Minnesota were examined with regression analyses. Results: Education and employment had…

  11. Substance Abuse in Rural African-American Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.

    More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…

  12. [Spatial autocorrelation of genetic structure of Prunus padus population in broadleaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-Min; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Zheng-Feng; Ye, Wan-Hui; Hao, Zhan-Qing

    2014-02-01

    All 396 Prunus padus individuals of the population with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were sampled in a 25 hm2 broadleaved Korean pine forest plot of Changbai Mountains and divided into three DBH classes: 1-3 cm, 3-10 cm, and >10 cm. They were then genotyped using microsatellite loci. The spatial autocorrelation of their genetic structure was analyzed at different distance classes and life stages. The results showed that positive autocorrelation mainly occurred at scales less than 70 m, while negative autocorrelation occurred at scales larger than 110 m. The spatial genetic structure (SGS) at different life stages was similar due to limited pollen/seed dispersal and asexual reproduction. No significant self-thinning occurred in the studied population. PMID:24830226

  13. Developing and Managing a Rural School Psychological Service in a Sparsely Populated Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Jonathan M.

    Three years of intensive activity, which characterized the development and management of the rural psychological service, are overviewed. Five adjacent rural school district superintendents proposed a project to determine the feasibility of providing psychological and social work services in a sparsely populated area. Planning Phase 1 sought to…

  14. Conflicts and Contestations. Rural Populations' Perspectives on the Second Homes Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    In response to demands to restructure and diversify their economies, many rural communities have welcomed the expanding phenomenon of second homes. However, while the second home owners bring new resources to the host communities, the literature also suggests that large second home populations in rural communities provide fertile ground for a…

  15. Family Structure among Urban, Rural and Farm Populations: Classic Sociological Theory Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Don E.; Albrecht, Stan L.

    1996-01-01

    Draws on classic sociological theories of Durkheim, Tonnies, and others to suggest that many urban-rural differences found in the past were actually farm-nonfarm differences. Analysis of Current Population Survey data reveals few differences in family structure between urban and rural nonfarm residents, but extensive differences between these and…

  16. An Evaluation Of Forced Relocation of Population Due to Rural Community Development. Research Bulletin 1073.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Ted L.; Wright, Cathy J.

    To examine sociological response to rural development projects requiring forced population relocation, a study was conducted of a small, rural farming community in central Ohio which had been disrupted as a result of a large scale (approximately 8,100 acres) development project. A sample of 72 subjects was taken from the affected community (37…

  17. Reference ranges for urinary levels of testosterone and epitestosterone, which may reveal gonadal function, in a Korean male population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kwon, Woonyong; Suh, Sungill; Cheong, Jae Chul; In, Moon Kyo; Chung, Bong Chul; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n=337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n=18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana. PMID:24333796

  18. Genetic variations in KIFC1 and the risk of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease in a Korean population: an association analysis.

    PubMed

    Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Bae, Joon Seol; Park, Byung-Lae; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Uh, Soo-Taek; Park, Choon-Sik; Shin, Hyoung Doo

    2012-05-01

    Modest effects of genes in various pathways are significant in the etiology of complex human diseases, including aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). By functioning as a relevant component of respiratory processes, the human kinesin family member C1 (KIFC1) is hypothesized to play a role in AERD pathogenesis. A case-control analysis was carried out by comparing the genotype distribution of six KIFC1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms between 93 AERD cases and 96 aspirin-tolerant asthma controls in a Korean population. After controlling for confounds, logistic and regression models via various modes of genetic inheritance facilitated the association analysis. Initial results revealed significant association at 0.05 level of significance between several KIFC1 variations and AERD (P = 0.01-0.05, OR = 1.81-1.90) as well as fall rate of forced expiratory volume in the 1st second, an important diagnostic marker of airways constriction (P = 0.04-0.05). However, the signals were not deemed significant after multiple testing corrections (P (corr) > 0.05). Although the results do not support a major role of KIFC1 in AERD pathogenesis in a Korean asthma cohort, further replication and validation studies are required to clarify the current findings. PMID:22201025

  19. Density of rural population in an Indian situation: a contemporary approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Gosal, R P

    1986-01-01

    The spatial patterns in the density of rural population in an area are a function of the complex interplay of physical, economic, social, and technological forces. However, natural forces play a more prominent role than others in this respect. This is especially true of the developing world where application of modern technologies is limited and economies are predominantly agricultural in nature. This paper establishes quantitatively the superiority of the physical environment in effecting spatial patterns in the density of the rural population in Punjab. Only 3 variables taken from natural setup, rainfall, soil, and water, jointly explain over 53% of the spatial variance in the density of the rural population in Punjab. This clearly proves the supremacy of physical forces over others in determining spatial patterns in the density of the rural population in an agricultural area of the developing world. However, the concept needs further testing in some similar areas to establish its validity on a wider scale.

  20. Population Trends in Rural Downstate Illinois. Rural Research Report. Volume 22, Issue 4, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Norman; Harger, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    Rural areas are undergoing a significant transition with both opportunities and challenges that will require effective management and investment strategies by all levels of government. Since 2007, the recession has magnified long-term shifts in employment and economic activity, especially in rural areas. The employment structure continues to…

  1. Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 2008–2009, which was conducted for 3 years (2007–2009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications. PMID:24472185

  2. Health and health care of rural populations in the UK: is it better or worse?

    PubMed Central

    Watt, I S; Franks, A J; Sheldon, T A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To review available evidence on the problems facing rural health care in the UK. In particular, to determine whether the health of rural populations is worse than that of town dwellers and how the quality of health care is influenced by rurality. CRITERIA FOR INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION OF ARTICLES--A wide variety of publications and data sources were used. A number of computerised databases with different specialisations (for example medical, health care management) were used to identify relevant published articles. In addition, reports, reviews, and surveys produced by agencies for local circulation were identified by approaching academic, service, and voluntary bodies thought likely to have an interest in rural health. Although this "grey" literature is not subject to peer review, the relative lack of relevant UK publications made it a useful data source for illustrative purposes. Similarly, published articles based on rural health in other developed countries were used when UK data were lacking. CONCLUSIONS--Although the evidence concerning the health and health care of the UK rural populations is suggestive, it is very general and further research is needed. Levels of urban health seem to be generally worse than in rural areas, but contradictions do exist. The evidence on quality of care suggests that service accessibility is a central problem, and rural populations have poorer access than others. Within rural populations, such disadvantage is not uniformly experienced--it affects some groups more than others. In addition, the NHS does not seem to have a consistent policy about whether rurality should influence resource allocation, and how it should be incorporated. PMID:8138762

  3. Things Korean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  4. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. J.; Lee, I. K.; Piao, M. Y.; Gu, M. J.; Yun, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. H.; Baik, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March. PMID:26950877

  5. Easterlin's fertility theory and population adjustment and regulation in rural China.

    PubMed

    Li, J

    1997-01-01

    The author considers some approaches which could be used to solve China's rural population problems through integrating Easterlin's fertility theory and certain characteristics of changes in China's rural population fertility. American demographer R.A. Easterlin conceptualized the meaning of fertility revolution with consideration of the overall modernization process. His theory is described. However, both effective family planning policies and attention to the impact of non-policy factors upon fertility changes are needed to resolve China's rural population problems. Community development and women's participation in Luo Chuan and Yong Shou, Shaanxi Province; the establishment of a social security support system for the elderly in Shandong Province; collective economy and rural urbanization in Southern Jiangsu Province; and improving the quality of family planning technical services are discussed.

  6. Genetic analysis of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 gene polymorphisms in gouty arthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Sung; Kim, Yunsuek; Park, Geon; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Hyun Sook

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Gout is a common inf lammatory arthritis triggered by the crystallization of uric acid in the joints. Serum uric acid levels are highly heritable, suggesting a strong genetic component. Independent studies to confirm the genetic associations with gout in various ethnic populations are warranted. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in the ABCG2 and SLC2A9 genes with gout in Korean patients and healthy individuals. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 109 patients with gout and 102 healthy controls. The diagnosis of gout was based on the preliminary criteria of the America College of Rheumatology. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples. We identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) changes in the ABCG2 and SLC2A9 genes using a direct sequencing technique. rs2231142 in ABCG2 and rs6449213 and rs16890979 in SLC2A9 and nearby regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Patients with gout had significantly higher A/A genotype (29.3% vs. 4.9%, respectively) and A allele (52.8% vs. 26.5%, respectively) frequencies of rs2231142 in ABCG2 than did controls (χ2 = 29.42, p < 0.001; odds ratio, 3.32; 95% confidence interval, 2.11 to 5.20). We found novel polymorphisms (c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A) in the SLC2A9 gene. The univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A SNPs were significantly higher in patients than in controls. Conclusions: We demonstrated a significant association between rs2231142 in the ABCG2 gene and gout and identified novel SNPs, c.881A>G and c.1002+78G>A, in the SLC2A9 gene that may be associated with gout in a Korean population. PMID:26552468

  7. TeleFIT: Adapting a Multidisciplinary, Tertiary-Care Pediatric Obesity Clinic to Rural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Boles, Katherine A.; Jordan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric obesity occurs most frequently in underserved communities where families have difficulty accessing healthcare. Disproportionate obesity rates in rural children denote significant disparities warranting innovative solutions. However, intensive, tertiary-care treatment options outlined in recent expert recommendations may not be available to families living in rural areas. Telemedicine may be useful for providing pediatric obesity treatment to rural families. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a new outreach program (TeleFIT), which placed telemonitors in four rural satellite clinics to increase access to a pediatric obesity clinic (Brenner Families In Training [FIT]). Before TeleFIT began, of five patients from rural counties enrolled in treatment over a 1-year period, all dropped out by their third visit. Within the first year of TeleFIT, the number of rural patients increased nearly threefold (to 14) and increased again in the second year by an additional 16 new patients (n=35). Preliminary outcomes indicate comparable attrition rates and improvement in weight status compared with patients in conventional treatment. Telemedicine allows rural families to access intensive obesity treatment from local pediatric offices, eliminating geographic barriers. Systems delivering state-of-the-art care in rural areas have tremendous potential for reducing health disparities in rural populations. Further research is needed to test the efficacy of such interventions. PMID:22356527

  8. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2015-01-01

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population. PMID:26729146

  9. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2015-12-30

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945-1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.

  10. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945-1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population. PMID:26729146

  11. Exceptional Brain Aging in a Rural Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Jeffrey; Michael, Yvonne; Calvert, James; Leahy, Marjorie; Crawford, Debbie; Kramer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Context: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring…

  12. Service Delivery to Southern Black Population in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnock, Theo J.

    Planning for viable rural communities must seek elements inherent in a well-kept American home: lights, water, telephone, employment of the household head, children in school, access to transportation, sufficient food, clothing, health care, recreation, etc. If a community falls short in these necessities, the "needs gap" is where effective…

  13. Rural and urban differences in metabolic profiles in a Cameroonian population

    PubMed Central

    Lissock, Clarisse Noël Ayina Ayina; Sobngwi, Eugène; Ngassam, Eliane; Ngoa Etoundi, Laurent Serge

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The difference between modern lifestyle in urban areas and the traditional way of life in rural areas may affect the population's health in developing countries proportionally. In this study, we sought to describe and compare the metabolic (fasting blood sugar and lipid profile) profile in an urban and rural sample of a Cameroonian population, and study the association to anthropometric risk factors of obesity. Methods 332 urban and 120 rural men and women originating from the Sanaga Maritime Department and living in the Littoral Region in Cameroon voluntarily participated in this study. In all participants, measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure systolic (SBP) and blood pressure diastolic (DBP), resting heart rate (RHR), blood glucose and lipids was carried out using standard methods. Total body fat (BF%) was measured using bio-impedancemetry. Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations were calculated using the Friedwald formula. World Health Organization criteria were used to define high and low levels of blood pressure, metabolic and anthropometric factors. Results The highest blood pressure values were found in rural men. Concerning resting heart rate, only the youngest women's age group showed a significant difference between urban and rural areas (79 ± 14 bpm vs 88 ± 12 bpm, p = 0.04) respectively. As opposed to the general tendency in our population, blood glucose was higher in rural men and women compared to their urban counterparts in the older age group (6.00 ± 2.56 mmol/L vs 5.72 ± 2.72 mmol/L, p = 0.030; 5.77 ± 3.72 vs 5.08 ± 0.60, p = 0,887 respectively). Triglycerides (TG) were significantly higher in urban than rural men (1.23 ± 0.39 mmol/L vs 1.17 ± 0.64 mmol/L, p = 0.017). High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels were higher in rural compared to urban men (2.60 ± 0.10 35mmol/L vs 1.97

  14. An analysis of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and its significance on osteoarthritis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Je; Ahn, Hee-Yun; Hong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study was conducted in order to analyze the effects of sarcopenia on age-related osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee in a Korean population. Methods: All the Korean subjects who visited the Yeungnam University Medical Center Health Promotion Center between 2008 and 2012 in order to undergo a routine medical examination were enrolled. A total of 5,723 young, healthy people (2,959 males, 2,764 females) enrolled as normal subjects and 23,473 subjects (13,006 males and 10,467 females) were included for evaluation of the effects of sarcopenia on OA. There were 266 subjects who followed-up bioelectrical impedance analysis at a 4-year interval. Of 327 subjects enrolled in this study, knees with anteroposterior X-rays were assessed according to the Kellgren-Lawrence (K/L) grade. Results: Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) showed a steady decrease with the advance of age (p < 0.01), but SMI showed strong positive correlation with BMR (r = 0.72, β = 30.96, p < 0.01). During the 4-year interval, BMR showed a significant decrease with aging (p < 0.01), consistently with the decrease of SMI. Knees with normal SMI were prone to be designated as K/L grade 0 or 1; however, subjects with sarcopenia showed a trend toward the higher K/L grade, classified as knee radiological osteoarthritis (ROA) (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results of this study may indicate that sarcopenia as age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass is interactively correlated with the presence and severity of age-related OA. PMID:26976151

  15. Rural California Communities: Trends in Latino Population and Community Life. JSRI Statistical Brief No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allensworth, Elaine; Rochin, Refugio I.

    The relationships among community characteristics and community well-being were examined for all 366 rural California communities with a population of 1,000-2,000. High proportions of Latinos and new immigrants in a community population were positively related to unemployment, percent children, and employment in agriculture, and negatively related…

  16. Breast cancer survival gap between urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship, Poland, in 2001–2002. Population study.

    PubMed

    Krzyżak, Michalina; Maślach, Dominik; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Juczewska, Marzena; Rabczenko, Daniel; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Szpak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in breast cancer 5-year relative survival rates between the urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship in 2001-2002, before the introduction of the Population Screening Programme in 2006. The analysis was based on 659 breast cancer cases diagnosed in 2001-2002 and registered in CR in Białystok (Voivodship Cancer Registry). Relative survival and relative excess of risk of death after 5 years of diagnosis as function of age and stage among urban and rural women population were calculated. The results showed that survival rates in Podlaskie Voivodship were low (69.4%) in comparison to the European average (79.4%), and they differed between urban and rural areas. Patients living in rural areas had a much lower survival rate than those living in urban areas at local and regional stage of disease, whereas survivals were higher at the metastatic stage. In all age groups considered in the study, the survivals in rural areas were lower than in urban areas. The multivariate analysis confirmed that both the cancer stage and place of residence are independent prognostic factors. Relationship with age was not confirmed. The research results indicate low curability of breast cancer in Podlaskie Voivodship, and significant differences between urban and rural areas. These results need to be considered in the planning and monitoring of further intervention in order to increase the effectiveness of prevention and treatment standards for more disadvantaged rural areas. It is particularly significant when implementing the National Cancer Control Programme.

  17. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, A

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple

  18. Differences in tuberculosis incidence rates in township and in rural populations in Ntcheu District, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, A; Harries, A D; Salaniponi, F M

    1999-01-01

    There has been a large upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly as a result of the co-existing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Malawi has had a well-run National TB Control Programme (NTP) with good registration and recording of cases. For some years the NTP has had the impression that TB in the country is concentrated around townships and is less prevalent in the rural areas. This impression was investigated in a rural district (Ntcheu District) in Malawi. Data on new TB cases were collected from the district TB register for the years 1992-96 and average annual TB incidence rates per 100,000 for semi-urban and rural populations were calculated for this period. There was a significantly higher incidence of TB, particularly amongst cases with smear-negative pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB, in the semi-urban population compared with the rural population. Possible explanations could be higher HIV seroprevalence rates in semi-urban areas compared with rural areas, under-diagnosis at health centres or poor access to medical facilities for rural people.

  19. Instructivo del Alfabetizador: Poblacion Rural (Reading and Writing Instruction: Rural Population).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This Mexican series of instructional materials is designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The reading/writing workbook is presented in two volumes along with a teacher's manual for an adult literacy program directed at rural inhabitants of Mexico.…

  20. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  1. Prevalence of alcohol and drug dependence in rural and slum population of Chandigarh: A community survey

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, B. S.; Arun, Priti; Bhargava, Rachna; Singh, Gurvinder Pal

    2007-01-01

    The present epidemiological survey was conducted by the department of psychiatry, Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh to estimate the pattern of alcohol and other substance dependence in rural and slum dwellers population of Chandigarh. In this survey 6.88% individuals of the total population surveyed (2992) fulfilled dependence criteria of ICD-10. Alcohol was the primary substance of dependence for majority of urban slum substance users and rural areas users. Age at first drug use was 20.89 ± 5.31 years (mean ± S.D) among rural population and 19.75 ± 5.4 years (mean ± SD) in urban slums. Majority of them reported having health related complications (85.71%) followed by family problems (77.31%) due to drug dependence. This survey reflects the need to intensify efforts at the community level to reach the unreached. PMID:20640064

  2. Development of Seven Microsatellite Markers Using Next Generation Sequencing for the Conservation on the Korean Population of Dorcus hopei (E. Saunders, 1854) (Coleoptera, Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun Jae

    2015-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for genetic structural analyses of Dorcus hopei, a stag beetle species, using next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping for regional populations. A total of 407,070,351 base pairs of genomic DNA containing >4000 microsatellite loci except AT repeats were sequenced. From 76 loci selected for primer design, 27 were polymorphic. Of these 27 markers, 10 were tested on three regional populations: two Chinese (Shichuan and Guangxi) and one Korean (Wanju). Three markers were excluded due to inconsistent amplification, genotyping errors, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). By multi-locus genotyping, the allele number, observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of seven microsatellite loci were ranged 2-10, 0.1333-1.0000, and 0.1228-0.8509, respectively. In an analysis on the genetic differentiation among regional populations including one Japanese population and one cross-breeding population, the individual colored bar-plots showed that both Chinese populations were closer to each other than to the Far East Asian populations. In Far East Asian populations, Wanju and Nirasaki populations could not be distinguished from each other because the frequency of genetic contents was very similar in some individuals of two populations. Moreover, the cross-breeding population contained all patterns of genetic contents shown in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese populations, compared with the genetic content frequency of each regional population. As a result, we examined whether the cross-breeding population might be a hybrid population, and might contain a possibility of interbreeding with Chinese populations in parental generations. Therefore, these markers will be useful for analyses of genetic diversity in populations, genetic relationships between regional populations, genetic structure analyses, and origin tests. PMID:26370965

  3. Development of Seven Microsatellite Markers Using Next Generation Sequencing for the Conservation on the Korean Population of Dorcus hopei (E. Saunders, 1854) (Coleoptera, Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun Jae

    2015-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for genetic structural analyses of Dorcus hopei, a stag beetle species, using next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping for regional populations. A total of 407,070,351 base pairs of genomic DNA containing >4000 microsatellite loci except AT repeats were sequenced. From 76 loci selected for primer design, 27 were polymorphic. Of these 27 markers, 10 were tested on three regional populations: two Chinese (Shichuan and Guangxi) and one Korean (Wanju). Three markers were excluded due to inconsistent amplification, genotyping errors, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). By multi-locus genotyping, the allele number, observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of seven microsatellite loci were ranged 2‒10, 0.1333‒1.0000, and 0.1228‒0.8509, respectively. In an analysis on the genetic differentiation among regional populations including one Japanese population and one cross-breeding population, the individual colored bar-plots showed that both Chinese populations were closer to each other than to the Far East Asian populations. In Far East Asian populations, Wanju and Nirasaki populations could not be distinguished from each other because the frequency of genetic contents was very similar in some individuals of two populations. Moreover, the cross-breeding population contained all patterns of genetic contents shown in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese populations, compared with the genetic content frequency of each regional population. As a result, we examined whether the cross-breeding population might be a hybrid population, and might contain a possibility of interbreeding with Chinese populations in parental generations. Therefore, these markers will be useful for analyses of genetic diversity in populations, genetic relationships between regional populations, genetic structure analyses, and origin tests. PMID:26370965

  4. The Prevalence and Risk Factors for Depression Symptoms in a Rural Chinese Sample Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinghu; Bi, Bo; Zheng, Liqiang; Li, Zhao; Yang, Hongmei; Song, Hongjie; Sun, Yingxian

    2014-01-01

    Background It is essential to understand how we can prevent and treat the epidemic of depression. Several studies have reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the urban population in China, but there is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of depression in rural populations. Objective To understand the prevalence of depression in a rural Chinese population and to analyze the risk factors for depression. Methods This study used a cross-sectional approach. A total of 11,473 subjects were surveyed and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief scales. Living conditions, per capita income, marital status, and information about dietary health and chronic disease status were assessed. Results The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the population was 5.9%. The prevalence in women (8.1%) was higher compared with men (3.5%) and also increased with age. The per capita income level, amount of sleep obtained per day, education level, weekly consumption of meat and beans or bean products, salt intake, and chronic disease status were associated with depressive symptoms. The quality of life of individuals with a score less than 10 points on the PHQ-9 was significantly better compared with individuals with a score greater than 10. Conclusion The prevalence of depressive symptoms among rural population is higher than some southern cities in China. Dietary patterns may be an important risk factor linked to this disorder in the Chinese rural population. PMID:24919087

  5. Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rudel, T I

    1991-01-01

    Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the

  6. Association of a Missense ALDH2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (Glu504Lys) With Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Hosik; Yoo, Koo Han; Kim, Young Ock

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a well-known gene involved in alcohol and aldehyde metabolism. Moreover, recent studies have reported associations between ALDH2 and age-related disorders. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disorder and genetic factors may contribute to its onset. In this study, we investigated the association of a well-studied ALDH2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs671, with the onset and clinical features of BPH. Methods A total of 222 BPH patients and 214 control subjects were genotyped. The clinical features of the BPH patients (prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen level, and International Prostatic Symptom Score) were analyzed. Results The results show that rs671 was only associated with the volume of BPH in genotype and allele frequencies (P<0.05). Conclusion We propose that rs671 is an Asian-specific SNP in ALDH2 that may affect the disease progression of BPH in the Korean population. PMID:24466463

  7. [A review of the family planning program in the third stage of the Korean population transition].

    PubMed

    Kong, S K; Cho, A J

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss the role of family planning in the fertility decline of the Republic of Korea. Age-specific fertility rates are presented for the years 1960-1985. Population projections for selected demographic indicators such as life expectancy, birth rate, death rate, and total fertility rate are projected up to the year 2020. The authors are concerned with below-replacement fertility, demographic aging, spatial distribution, population density, and implications for population policy and the direction of family planning programs. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. The Association between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here…

  9. Pedometer Readings and Self-Reported Walking Distances in a Rural Hutterite Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samra, Haifa Abou; Beare, Tianna; Specker, Bonny

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the accuracy with which a rural population reported daily walking distances using a 7-day activity recall questionnaire obtained quarterly compared to pedometer readings. Methods: Study participants were 48 Hutterite men and women aged 11-66 years. Findings: Pedometer-miles quartiles were associated with self-reported…

  10. Rural Renaissance in America? The Revival of Population Growth in Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.; Wheeler, Judith P.

    Presenting narrative and tabular documentation of the revival of population growth in remote, rural areas and the decline of growth in urban areas, this bulletin describes the characteristics of these shifts, considers their possible causes, and suggests some of the problems and potential benefits. Specifically, this report presents the following:…

  11. Social Capital Networking and Immigrant Populations in Rural Minnesota a Qualitative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeger-Hagemeister, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Combining social capital theory and immigration history and theory a qualitative study was conducted using a variation of Critical Incident Technique to identify the motivations of individuals in rural communities who championed community responses to the influx of large immigrant populations. Twenty-eight individuals identified as key champions…

  12. Dietary intake of fats and fatty acids in the Korean population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yeji; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kirang; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Kweon, Sanghui; Yang, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to estimate average total fat and fatty acid intakes as well as identify major food sources using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-1 (2013). SUBJECTS/METHODS Total fat and fatty acid intakes were estimated using 24-hour dietary recall data on 7,048 participants aged ≥ 3 years from the KNHANES VI-1 (2013). Data included total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), and n-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels. Population means and standard errors of the mean were weighted in order to produce national estimates and separated based on sex, age, income, as well as residential region. Major food sources of fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were identified based on mean consumption amounts of fat and fatty acids in each food. RESULTS The mean intake of total fat was 48.0 g while mean intakes of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were 14.4 g, 15.3 g, 11.6 g, 1.6 g, and 10.1 g, respectively. Intakes of MUFA and SFA were each higher than that of PUFA in all age groups. Pork was the major source of total fat, SFA, and MUFA, and soybean oil was the major source of PUFA. Milk and pork were major sources of SFA in subjects aged 3-11 years and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Perilla seed oil and soybean oil were main sources of n-3 FA in subjects aged ≥ 50 years and aged < 50 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Estimation of mean fatty acid intakes of this study using nationally represented samples of the Korean population could be useful for developing and evaluating national nutritional policies. PMID:26634055

  13. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  14. Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: results of a survey of emergency managers.

    PubMed

    Horney, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Mai; Cooper, John; Simon, Matthew; Ricchetti-Masterson, Kristen; Grabich, Shannon; Salvesen, David; Berke, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. One possible way to mitigate vulnerability to disasters in rural communities is to have a high-quality hazard mitigation plan in place. To understand the resources available for hazard mitigation planning and determine how well hazard mitigation plans in rural counties meet the needs of vulnerable populations, we surveyed the lead planning or emergency management official responsible for hazard mitigation plans in 96 rural counties in eight states in the Southeastern United States. In most counties, emergency management was responsible for implementing the county's hazard mitigation plan and the majority of counties had experienced a presidentially declared disaster in the last 5 years. Our research findings demonstrated that there were differences in subjective measures of vulnerability (as reported by survey respondents) and objective measures of vulnerability (as determined by US Census data). In addition, although few counties surveyed included outreach to vulnerable groups as a part of their hazard mitigation planning process, a majority felt that their hazard mitigation plan addressed the needs of vulnerable populations "well" or "very well." These differences could result in increased vulnerabilities in rural areas, particularly for certain vulnerable groups.

  15. Screening mammography uptake within Australia and Scotland in rural and urban populations

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Janni; Macleod, Catriona; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Woods, Laura M.; Henderson, Robert; Watson, Angus; Kyle, Richard G.; Hubbard, Gill; Mullen, Russell; Atherton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that rural populations had lower uptake of screening mammography than urban populations in the Scottish and Australian setting. Method Scottish data are based upon information from the Scottish Breast Screening Programme Information System describing uptake among women residing within the NHS Highland Health Board area who were invited to attend for screening during the 2008 to 2010 round (N = 27,416). Australian data were drawn from the 2010 survey of the 1946–51 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (N = 9890 women). Results Contrary to our hypothesis, results indicated that women living in rural areas were not less likely to attend for screening mammography compared to women living in urban areas in both Scotland (OR for rural = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29) and Australia (OR for rural = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01–1.31). Conclusions The absence of rural–urban differences in attendance at screening mammography demonstrates that rurality is not necessarily an insurmountable barrier to screening mammography. PMID:26844118

  16. Costs of mobile screening for diabetic retinopathy: a practical framework for rural populations.

    PubMed

    Lee, S J; McCarty, C A; Taylor, H R; Keeffe, J E

    2001-08-01

    Australia's rural and remote residents experience considerably higher hospitalisation and death rates due to diabetes than their metropolitan counterparts. There is clearly a need for improved diabetes care services in these areas and interventions that target conditions associated with diabetes will yield beneficial results for the community. All people with diabetes are at risk for diabetic retinopathy, which can cause vision loss and blindness. Although vision loss and blindness due to diabetes is nearly 100% preventable through regular eye examinations, 35% of Victoria's rural population with diabetes do not have their eyes examined on a regular basis. A pilot, mobile screening program for the early detection of diabetic eye disease was conducted in rural Victoria and proved to be a successful model of adjunct eye care for people with diabetes. Actual costs from the pilot screening were applied to a permanent model for rural eye care. At A$41 per participant, costs for mobile screening were competitive with Medicare rebate costs for eye examinations. The model addresses barriers of accessibility and availability, targets a portion of the rural population with diabetes that is not otherwise having eye examinations, and is cost-saving to the Government. PMID:11488703

  17. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: a study of rural versus urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, M.C.; Evans, M.B.; Kent, S.T.; Johnson, E.; Threadgill, S.L.; Tyson, S.; Becker, S.M.; Gohlke, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members’ concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities defined the term environment, their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health, specific priorities in their communities, and differences in urban versus rural populations. Study design A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. Methods A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included defining the term environment, how the environment may affect health, and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. Results There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. Conclusions This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study

  18. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  19. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-09-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  20. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  1. Educational Trends of the Rural and Urban Population of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarver, James D.; Stokes, C. Shannon

    Major trends in the educational status of Georgia's population were studied. These included recent changes in school enrollment of farm and nonfarm youths, and in adult educational attainment. Trends in school enrollment were studied for statewide, county, and regional differentials; and high school dropouts. Trends in educational attainment were…

  2. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND) in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8%) vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%), with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50) in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76) in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8%) with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4%) and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%), the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3) as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0). Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7%) then depression (18.4%) or any other aetiology. Conclusions

  3. Development of the Perceived Stress Inventory: A New Questionnaire for Korean Population Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eon Sook; Lee, Jun Hyung; Yang, Yun Jun; Cho, Jung Jin; Ahn, Gwiyeoroo; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Sung, Eunju

    2015-01-01

    Background Given emerging evidence of the association between stress and disease, practitioners need a tool for measuring stress. Several instruments exist to measure perceived stress; however, none of them are applicable for population surveys because stress conceptualization can differ by population. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Perceived Stress Inventory (PSI) and its short version for use in population surveys and clinical practice in Korea. Methods From a pool of perceived stress items collected from three widely used instruments, 20 items were selected for the new measurement tool. Nine of these items were selected for the short version. We evaluated the validity of the items using exploratory factor analysis of the preliminary data. To evaluate the convergent validity of the PSI, 387 healthy people were recruited and stratified on the basis of age and sex. Confirmatory analyses and examination of structural stability were also carried out. To evaluate discriminatory validity, the PSI score of a group with depressive symptoms was compared with that of a healthy group. A similar comparison was also done for persons with anxious mood. Results Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor construct (tension, depression, and anger) for the PSI. Reliability values were satisfactory, ranging from 0.67 to 0.87. Convergent validity was confirmed through correlation with the Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. People with depressive or anxious mood had higher scores than the healthy group on the total PSI, all three dimensions, and the short version. Conclusion The long and short versions of the PSI are valid and reliable tools for measuring perceived stress. These instruments offer benefits for stress research using population-based surveys. PMID:26634094

  4. [Asymptomatic hypertension in urban and rural population of the Posušje community, Bosnia & Herzegovina].

    PubMed

    Bešlić, Jozo; Pjevač, Neda; Potočki Kuravina, Vesna; Pjevač, Nada; Šakić, Vjera

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of newly detected asymptomatic hypertension in a random sample of urban and rural population of the Posušje community, and to assess the possible age and sex differences between these two population groups. The study included 2000 subjects that underwent blood pressure measurement. Elevated blood pressure was detected in 532 (26.60%) subjects that were divided into three groups according to the level of hypertension: mild, moderate and severe hypertension. Study results showed that there were no statistically significant age or sex differences according to the levels of asymptomatic hypertension, or between the urban and rural populations of the Posušje community.

  5. Association between exonic polymorphism (rs629849, Gly1619Arg) of IGF2R gene and obesity in Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seung-Ae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to obesity. A previous study suggested that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) may affect obesity and that IGFs regulate cellular signals by receptors that include the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R). In this research, the rs3743262 and rs2229765 SNPs of IGF1R gene and rs629849 and rs1805075 SNPs of IG-F2R gene were genotyped in 120 overweight and obese patients with a BMI≥23 kg/m2 (Body Mass Index) and 123 healthy controls with a BMI of 18.5–23.0 kg/m2. Genotyping of each SNP was performed by direct sequencing. Among tested SNPs in IGF1R and IGF2R genes, rs629849 SNP of IGF2R gene showed significant association with obesity (OR=1.86, 95% CI=1.02–3.40, P=0.044 in codominant1 model; OR=1.99, 95% CI=1.10–3.57, P=0.020 in dominant model; OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.13–3.31, P=0.013 in log-additive model). And allele distribution between the control group and overweight/obese group also showed significant difference (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.14–3.28, P=0.015). In conclusion, these results indicate that rs629849 SNP of IGF2R might be contributed to development of obesity in the Korean population. PMID:26535220

  6. The association between lifetime cigarette smoking and dysphonia in the Korean general population: findings from a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between current smoking and lifetime amount smoked and the incidence of dysphonia using data from a national cross-sectional survey that represents the Korean population. Subjects were 3,600 non-institutionalised civilian adults over the age of 19 (1,501 males and 2,099 females) who completed the laryngeal examination of the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For lifetime amount smoked, subjects were classified as light smokers (≤26.7 pack years), medium smokers (26.7–40.5 pack years), heavy smokers (40.5–55.5 pack years), and very heavy smokers (55.5–156 pack years) based on pack years (packs smoked per day × years as a smoker). The odds ratio (OR) for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (age, gender, level of education, income, occupation, alcohol consumption and pain/discomfort during the last two weeks), current smokers had a 1.8 times (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.17–2.68]) higher risk for self-reported voice problems than non-smokers. Moreover, current smokers had a 1.6 times (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.02–2.38]) higher risk of laryngeal disorder (p < 0.05). In terms of pack years, very heavy smokers were significantly more likely to have laryngeal disorder, while self-reported voice problems were significantly more likely for heavy smokers but not very heavy smokers. The results of this study imply that chronic smoking has a significant relationship with dysphonia. Longitudinal studies are required in future work to verify the causality between lifetime smoking amount and dysphonia. PMID:25945309

  7. Relationship of lean body mass with bone mass and bone mineral density in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-09-01

    We investigated association of lean body mass with bone mass (BM) and bone mineral density (BMD) according to gender and menopausal status in the general Korean population. Participants included 4,299 males and 5,226 females who were 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD and body composition. BMD was measured in the femur and lumbar spine. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was defined as the sum of the lean soft tissue masses for the arms and legs. Analysis was performed after categorizing participants into four groups (males <50 years, males ≥ 50 years, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females). In males, the highest ASM was observed in the 20-29-year group and then showed a gradual decrease as age increased, and BM and BMD showed similar patterns of change, while in females, ASM, BMD, and BM reached the peak level in the 40-49-year group and then decreased. In multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, the results showed an independent association of ASM with an increase in BM and BMD (P < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, total fat mass showed a significant association with BM (P < 0.05). These aforementioned relationships were commonly observed on both femur and lumbar spine in every group. Lean body mass showed an independent association with increased BM and BMD, regardless of gender, age in men, and menopausal status in women. PMID:24415174

  8. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    PubMed

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. PMID:26101336

  9. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS).

  10. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  11. Chinese Koreans complete demographic transition.

    PubMed

    Gu, Q; Zhao, F

    1992-02-01

    The 1990 national census disclosed that there were 1,920,597 Koreans in China. There number increased 21% from 1,110, 000 in 1953 to 1,350,000 in 1964. The transition to low birth rate, low mortality rate, and low growth rate started in the mid-1960s and it was completed by 1974. Chinese Korean population increased form 1,350,000 in 1964 to 1,770,000 in 1982, and to 1,920,000 in 1990. Between 1982 and 1990, the average annual growth rate of the Han population, with the promotion of the 1-child policy, was 1.3%, while that of the Korean population who were allowed to have 2 children was only 1.0%. The total fertility rate (TFR) of Korean women in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture decreased from 4.7 in 1965 to 1.9 in 1974, to 1.8 in 1981, and to 1.6 in 1983, and increasing to 1.9 in 1989. 89-90% of women were primiparas between 1973 and 1983. In 1989 in Jilin Province 71% of Korean women were primiparas, 26% were secundiparas, and 3% were tertiparas or had higher parity. The decelerated population growth of the Korean nationality is attributed to the popularization of compulsory education. Primary school became compulsory in 1952 and junior high school in 1958. The illiteracy rate of Koreans was only 11% in 1982, 21% lower than that of the Han nationality and 32% lower than that of other ethnic groups in China. The rate declined further to 7% in 1987. The illiteracy rate of Korean women in reproductive age was only 3%, while the national illiteracy rate of such women was 30%, and that of women in ethnic groups was 46%. The marriage age of Korean women was 20 in 1966 increasing to 23 by 1973 with the birth interval of over 5 years.

  12. Epidemiological surveillance of cystic echinococcosis in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Suárez, Carlos; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, María C

    2009-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego. In 1997, ulrasonography (US) was selected as the method of choice for the development of population surveys for epidemiological surveillance and early diagnosis in rural population. The aim of this work was to present the results of the epidemiological surveillance of CE by means of US in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina between 1997 and 2006. The ultrasonographic diagnostic was realized once a year. The population was stratified in children (4 to 17 years) and adults. From each individual, name, age, sex, actual residence and origin were registered. The images compatible with cysts were graded according to location, number and characteristics. A total of 1400 rural inhabitants were examined for CE. From the total of studied individuals, 27 (1.9%) exhibited images compatible with cysts on the abdominal ultrasound scan. Thirteen of these persons were finally diagnosed as having CE. The overall prevalence of CE was 0.9%. This value is in accordance with the decrease in the prevalence observed in the definitive host and the intermediate hosts (sheep and cattle). The absence of cases in children during the studied period, evidence no transmission of the disease to humans in the recent past.

  13. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001), and also higher rates in the age groups of 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2-20.7, P < 0.001) and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P < 0.001) were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia. PMID:26866912

  14. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    NikNadia, NMN; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001), and also higher rates in the age groups of 1–3, 4–6 and 7–12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2–20.7, P < 0.001) and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3–16.6, P < 0.001) were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia. PMID:26866912

  15. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001), and also higher rates in the age groups of 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2-20.7, P < 0.001) and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P < 0.001) were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  16. Age- and Gender-Related Mean Hearing Threshold in a Highly-Screened Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun Hwi; Kim, Ju Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background In evaluating hearing disability in medicolegal work, the apportionment of age- and gender-related sensorineural hearing loss should be considered as a prior factor, especially for the elderly. However, in the literature written in the English language no studies have reported on the age- and gender-related mean hearing threshold for the South Korean population. Objective This study aimed to identify the mean hearing thresholds in the South Korean population to establish reference data and to identify the age- and gender-related characteristics. Methods This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2012, which was conducted by the Korean government, the data of which was disclosed to the public. A total of 15,606 participants (unweighted) representing 33,011,778 Koreans (weighted) with normal tympanic membrane and no history of regular or occupational noise exposure were selected and analyzed in this study. The relationship between the hearing threshold level and frequency, age, and gender was investigated and analyzed in a highly-screened population by considering the sample weights of a complex survey design. Results A gender ratio difference was found between the unweighted and the weighted designs: male:female, 41.0%: 59.0% (unweighted, participants) vs. 47.2%:52.8% (weighted, representing population). As age increased, the hearing threshold increased for all frequencies. Hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz showed a statistical difference between both genders for people older than 30, with the 4 kHz frequency showing the largest difference. This paper presents details about the mean hearing threshold based on age and gender. Conclusions The data from KNHANES 2010–2012 showed gender differences at hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz in a highly-screened population. The most significant gender difference in relation to hearing threshold was observed at 4 kHz. The hearing

  17. Positive and Negative Feedbacks and Free-Scale Pattern Distribution in Rural-Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Alados, Concepción L.; Errea, Paz; Gartzia, Maite; Saiz, Hugo; Escós, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Depopulation of rural areas is a widespread phenomenon that has occurred in most industrialized countries, and has contributed significantly to a reduction in the productivity of agro-ecological resources. In this study, we identified the main trends in the dynamics of rural populations in the Central Pyrenees in the 20th C and early 21st C, and used density independent and density dependent models and identified the main factors that have influenced the dynamics. In addition, we investigated the change in the power law distribution of population size in those periods. Populations exhibited density-dependent positive feedback between 1960 and 2010, and a long-term positive correlation between agricultural activity and population size, which has resulted in a free-scale population distribution that has been disrupted by the collapse of the traditional agricultural society and by emigration to the industrialized cities. We concluded that complex socio-ecological systems that have strong feedback mechanisms can contribute to disruptive population collapses, which can be identified by changes in the pattern of population distribution. PMID:25474704

  18. Establishment of reference intervals for von Willebrand factor antigen and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Hyun; Seo, Ja-Young; Bang, Sung-Hwan; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-04-01

    Establishment of reference intervals for coagulation molecules is important but is costly and sometimes not feasible. Since reference intervals from manufacturers or the literature are mostly out of date or involved Western populations, the authors determined reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight factors in a Korean population. VWF: Ag, factor VIII (FVIII), FII, FV, FVII, FIX, FX, FXI, and FXII were determined in Korean individuals visiting for routine checkup following the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) guidelines. Reagents by Diagnostica Stago were used on the STA Compact Analyzer (Diagnostica Stago). Exclusion criteria were medical history or laboratory findings that could affect the factor levels. Influence of demographic factors was analyzed. Mean +/- 2 x SD or central 95 percentile was used, as appropriate. We obtained data from 266 adults for VWF: Ag, 371 adults for FVIII, and minimum 136 adults for the rest. Reference interval for VWF was 51-176% (52-155% in blood group O and 71-186% for non-O). Reference interval for FVIII was 64-197% (55-150% in O and 77-205% in non-O). Reference interval for FII was 77-121%, FV 81-160%, FVII 68-149%, FIX 67-154%, FX 69-126%, FXI 59-138%, and FXII 48-177%. The medians of VWF: Ag, FVIII, and FIX were significantly higher in the elderly group (> or =60 years). We established local reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population according to the CLSI guidelines. Significantly, different reference intervals were obtained in blood group O vs. non-O for VWF: Ag and FVIII. The reference intervals obtained in this study could be adopted in other clinical laboratories after appropriate validation.

  19. Mortality-temperature thresholds for ten major population centres in rural Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Loughnan, Margaret; Nicholls, Neville; Tapper, Nigel

    2010-11-01

    Mortality-temperature relationships in small regional towns in Victoria, Australia, were used to ascertain whether the effects of high ambient temperatures documented in the literature for major population centres in Europe and America are also noted in small rural communities in Australia. The establishment of threshold temperatures in all major rural regions of Victoria indicate that hot weather results in an increase in mortality in persons aged 65 years and older. This adds considerable strength to the argument that human populations are vulnerable to heat events regardless of location. Heat alerts can be issued through local health and welfare agencies, to increase awareness of 'hot' weather as a health hazard for elderly people by providing education campaigns involving local authorities based on these simple thresholds. PMID:20797898

  20. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  1. The Preventive Effect of Head Injury by Helmet Type in Motorcycle Crashes: A Rural Korean Single-Center Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kang-Min; Noble, Jennifer; Kim, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Yong; Do, Han-Ho; Park, Sang-O; Lee, Kyeong-Ryong; Baek, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of this study was to determine the preventive effect on head injury by helmet type: full face helmet (FFH), open face helmet (OFH), and half-coverage helmet (HCH). Methods. This is a retrospective observational study of motorcycle crash victims between June 2012 and May 2015 in a rural town in Korea. We performed multiple linear regression to predict the effect of each type of helmet compared to unhelmeted status in preventing head injury using dependent variables based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and applied logistic regression modeling to compare the incidence of head injury. Results. Of the 738 patients, the number of FFH patients was 33.5%, followed by unhelmeted (27.8%), OFH (17.6%), and HCH (13.0%) patients. The FFH and OFH group had a lower head maximum AIS than unhelmeted group (coefficient: −0.368, 95% CI: −0.559 to −0.177 and coefficient: −0.235, 95% CI: −0.459 to −0.010, resp.) and only FFHs experienced a reduction effect of severe and minor head injury (OR: 0.206, 95% CI: 0.080 to 0.533 and OR: 0.589, 95% CI: 0.377 to 0.920, resp.). Conclusions. FFHs and OFHs reduce the risk of head injury, and FFHs have a more preventive effect on head injury in motorcycle crashes. PMID:27340652

  2. The Preventive Effect of Head Injury by Helmet Type in Motorcycle Crashes: A Rural Korean Single-Center Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kang-Min; Noble, Jennifer; Kim, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Yong; Do, Han-Ho; Park, Sang-O; Lee, Kyeong-Ryong; Baek, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of this study was to determine the preventive effect on head injury by helmet type: full face helmet (FFH), open face helmet (OFH), and half-coverage helmet (HCH). Methods. This is a retrospective observational study of motorcycle crash victims between June 2012 and May 2015 in a rural town in Korea. We performed multiple linear regression to predict the effect of each type of helmet compared to unhelmeted status in preventing head injury using dependent variables based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and applied logistic regression modeling to compare the incidence of head injury. Results. Of the 738 patients, the number of FFH patients was 33.5%, followed by unhelmeted (27.8%), OFH (17.6%), and HCH (13.0%) patients. The FFH and OFH group had a lower head maximum AIS than unhelmeted group (coefficient: -0.368, 95% CI: -0.559 to -0.177 and coefficient: -0.235, 95% CI: -0.459 to -0.010, resp.) and only FFHs experienced a reduction effect of severe and minor head injury (OR: 0.206, 95% CI: 0.080 to 0.533 and OR: 0.589, 95% CI: 0.377 to 0.920, resp.). Conclusions. FFHs and OFHs reduce the risk of head injury, and FFHs have a more preventive effect on head injury in motorcycle crashes. PMID:27340652

  3. Population genetic study for 24 STR loci and Y indel (GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification kit and PowerPlex® Fusion system) in 1000 Korean individuals.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Kicheol; Nam, Younhyoung; Park, Jihye; Lee, Jinmyung; Lee, Hyehyeon; Kwon, Hansol; Jin, Hanjun; Kim, Wook; Kim, Won; Lim, Sikeun

    2016-07-01

    Allele frequencies for 23 autosomal short tandem repeat loci (D3S1358, vWA, D16S539, CSF1PO, TPOX, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, TH01, FGA, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D2S441, D19S433, D22S1045, D10S1248, D1S1656, D12S391, D2S1338, SE33, Penta D, Penta E), 1 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat locus (DYS391) and Y indel were obtained from 1000 unrelated individuals of the Korean population. PMID:27497334

  4. A study of surgical management of diabetic limb complications among rural population.

    PubMed

    Madan, M; Naveen, T K; Balachandra, M

    2012-04-01

    Surgical complication of diabetes mellitus has been a common clinical problem among the rural population because of illiteracy and poor health education. The present study was undertaken to evaluate patients with respect to age, sex, presentation and to do other specific investigations. The patients were treated by conservative or surgical methods, and the outcome was monitored. The majority of the patients were males with peak age group in the sixth decade. Septic lesions were more than the neuropathic or the ischaemic lesions.

  5. Annual risk of tuberculosis infection in rural China: a population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Bai, Liqiong; Liu, Jianmin; Lu, Wei; Wang, Xinhua; Li, Xiangwei; Du, Jiang; Chen, Xinchun; Zhang, Haoran; Xin, Henan; Sui, Hongtao; Li, Hengjing; Su, Haoxiang; He, Jian; Pan, Shouguo; Peng, Hong; Xu, Zuhui; Catanzaro, Antonino; Evans, Thomas G; Zhang, Zongde; Ma, Yu; Li, Mufei; Feng, Boxuan; Li, Zhen; Guan, Ling; Shen, Fei; Wang, Zhijian; Zhu, Tao; Yang, Shumin; Si, Hongyan; Wang, Yi; Tan, Yunhong; Chen, Tianzhu; Chen, Chen; Xia, Yinyin; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Weiguo; Jin, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Prospective population data on the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) infection has been sparsely reported in the global literature.A population-based prospective study was conducted in rural China to investigate the annual risk of TB infection, and its persistence using serial tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and an interferon-γ release assay. In total, 13 580 eligible participants from four rural sites, identified as TST negative (<10 mm) or QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) (an interferon-γ release assay) negative from a baseline survey, were included in the first year's follow-up examination.The annual conversion rate of QFT among the study sites ranged between 2.1% and 4.9% (average 3.1%), and the incidence of TST conversion ranged between 6.0% and 31.1% (average 14.5%). During the second year's follow-up, infection persistence was investigated using 390 subjects with QFT conversions. Among them, 49.7% (164 out of 330) were found to be consistently QFT positive. Both the conversion and the persistence of QFT positivity were found to be significantly increased with increasing age.In conclusion, the annual TB infection rate was suggested to be ∼1.5% based on persistent positive results after QFT conversion in rural China. Therefore, infection control among those high-risk populations, including the elderly, should be prioritised for TB control in China. PMID:27230438

  6. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes. PMID:27273907

  7. The earnings experience of rural-urban migrants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, B S; Phillips, J M

    1997-01-01

    "Migration models in the Harris-Todaro tradition imply that urban informal sector earnings are less than rural sector earnings. Examining the situation for [South] Korea, we find that both urban formal and informal sector earnings exceed earnings opportunities in rural areas, making rural-urban migration the best decision for the individual and for the Korean economy in terms of maximizing output.... The implication for policy makers is that government efforts may be better directed toward mitigating the externalities caused by over-crowding, rather than attempting to influence population movements."

  8. Pharmacogenetic association with early response to intravitreal ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Dong Hyoun; Sagong, Min; Kim, In Taek

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether genetic factors that influence age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have an early pharmacogenetic effect on treating exudative AMD with ranibizumab in a Korean population. Methods A retrospective study of 102 patients (70 with typical neovascular AMD and 32 with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy) with exudative AMD treated with intravitreal ranibizumab monotherapy was conducted. Optical coherence tomography, fluorescein, and indocyanine green angiography were taken at the baseline. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) were recorded at the baseline and at each monthly visit. The genotypes of the polymorphisms in the known AMD susceptibility loci (CFH, AMRS2, HTRA1, VEGFA, and KDR) were determined, and association between their frequencies and the changes in the BCVA and the CSMT were evaluated. Results The mean baseline visual acuity was 0.96±0.59 logMAR (approximately 20/200 in the Snellen equivalent), and the mean number of injections was 3.87 before the month 6 visit. No association was observed between the change in BCVA and each genotype. For the changes in the CSMT, a significant difference was observed only with the VEGF-A (rs833069) gene. The decrease in the CSMT at month 3 for the major allele homozygote AA genotype, the heterozygote AG genotype, and the risk allele homozygote GG genotype was 25.66±85.40, 86.93±92.31, and 85.30±105.30 μm, respectively (p=0.012, p=0.044, and p=0.002 for AG, GG, and combined AG or GG genotype, respectively, compared to the AA genotype). This trend was maintained until month 6. Conclusions The VEGF-A (rs833069) polymorphism showed a significant association with the anatomic response to intravitreal ranibizumab. No significant difference was found between the genotype of the potential risk polymorphism for development of AMD and the early visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab. PMID:23559864

  9. Levels of selected trace metals in hair of urban and rural adult male population of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1995-02-01

    Human scalp hair as a biopsy material may well serve the purpose of estimating the degree of human exposure to environmental contaminants, especially trace metals. To this effect, the levels of trace metals in hair of various groups of population living in areas with varying extent of environmental exposure are generally compared together. Such comparative evaluations are important since they are unique for each group of population and probably reflect not only a number of factors of genetical, nutritional and environmental origin, but also indicate relationship with factors such as food, ambient air, drinking water, occupational exposure, age, race, sex and metabolic condition etc. Also there are some elements which are selectively deposited in hair and may thus provide clinical information on the level of exposure and toxication. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to collect base-line trace metal data on hair and to evaluate the metal levels as measure of the nutritional status of the relevant groups of urban and rural population in terms of industrial, agricultural and occupation exposure. For this purpose, scalp hair samples were obtained from donors belonging to urban adult male population from the city of Peshawer and a rural town, Jamrood and were investigated for three essential metals (Na, K and Zn) and four non-essential metals (Co, Hg, As and Ag) by AAS technique. The impact of urban and rural environments, including the food habits of individuals, on trace metal distribution in scalp hair of the two classes of population is then reviewed with reference to the literature data available from other parts of the world. 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Delivering free healthcare to rural Central Appalachia population: the case of the Health Wagon.

    PubMed

    Gardner, T; Gavaza, P; Meade, P; Adkins, D M

    2012-01-01

    Central Appalachia residents present unique healthcare challenges. This vulnerable population faces poor health status and low access to health care. 'The Health Wagon' was established to innovatively enhance access to health care for the poor and marginalized rural population of Central Appalachia. This article describes the operations of the Health Wagon, a full mobile medical clinic, in delivering free health care to those in rural Southwest Virginia in Central Appalachia. The Health Wagon provides a wide range of comprehensive healthcare services, such as acute and chronic disease management, laboratory and diagnostic services, medication assistance, dental and eye care and specialty clinics for marginalized, poor and disenfranchised patients living in the mountains of that region. In 2009, a total of 157 clinics were provided and 2900 patients were seen (3165 patient encounters) in addition to 268 telemedicine specialty consultations at no cost to the patients. The work of the Health Wagon has broken down a financial barrier to healthcare access and offers unique and profound opportunities to improve health and expand health care in rural Central Appalachia. PMID:22452285

  11. Geospatial Technology in Disease Mapping, E- Surveillance and Health Care for Rural Population in South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveenkumar, B. A.; Suresh, K.; Nikhil, A.; Rohan, M.; Nikhila, B. S.; Rohit, C. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2014-11-01

    Providing Healthcare to rural population has been a challenge to the medical service providers especially in developing countries. For this to be effective, scalable and sustainable, certain strategic decisions have to be taken during the planning phase. Also, there is a big gap between the services available and the availability of doctors and medical resources in rural areas. Use of Information Technology can aid this deficiency to a good extent. In this paper, a mobile application has been developed to gather data from the field. A cloud based interface has been developed to store the data in the cloud for effective usage and management of the data. A decision tree based solution developed in this paper helps in diagnosing a patient based on his health parameters. Interactive geospatial maps have been developed to provide effective data visualization facility. This will help both the user community as well as decision makers to carry out long term strategy planning.

  12. A spatial decision support tool for estimating population catchments to aid rural and remote health service allocation planning.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen; Berube, Myriam

    2011-12-01

    There is mounting pressure on healthcare planners to manage and contain costs. In rural regions, there is a particular need to rationalize health service allocation to ensure the best possible coverage for a dispersed population. Rural health administrators need to be able to quantify the population affected by their allocation decisions and, therefore, need the capacity to incorporate spatial analyses into their decision-making process. Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) can provide this capability. In this article, we combine geographical information systems (GIS) with a web-based graphical user interface (webGUI) in a SDSS tool that enables rural decision-makers charged with service allocation, to estimate population catchments around specific health services in rural and remote areas. Using this tool, health-care planners can model multiple scenarios to determine the optimal location for health services, as well as the number of people served in each instance.

  13. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, J.; Shaver, John; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers. Methodology LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and “outness,” and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals’ demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas. Results Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men. Conclusions The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients’ disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas. PMID:26731405

  14. Smokeless Tobacco Use and Periodontal Health in a Rural Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yong H.; Tatakis, Dimitris N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the reported effects of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the periodontium and high prevalence of ST use in rural populations and in men, studies on this specific topic are limited. The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation is to evaluate the periodontal health status of male ST users from a rural population. Methods Adult male residents of two rural Appalachian Ohio counties and daily ST users, with a unilateral mandibular oral ST keratosis lesion, were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire and received oral examination. Teeth present, ST keratosis lesion, plaque and gingival index, probing depth (PD), recession depth (RD), and attachment level were recorded. Statistical analysis compared ST-site mandibular teeth (teeth adjacent to the subject’s unilateral ST keratosis lesion) to NST-site teeth (contralateral corresponding teeth). Results This study includes 73 ST users. Recession prevalence is much greater in ST-site quadrants (36%) compared to NST-site quadrants (18%; P <0.001). Twice as many teeth had recession on ST-site (approximately 20%) than NST-site (approximately 10%; P = 0.0001). Average buccal RD on ST-site teeth did not differ from that on the NST-site teeth (P = 0.0875). Although average buccal attachment loss is greater on ST-site teeth (P = 0.016), the mean difference is <0.5 mm. When stratified by years of ST use, subjects using ST for 10 to 18 years exhibit the most differences between ST and NST sites, whereas subjects using ST for <10 years show no differences. Conclusion The results indicate that greater gingival recession prevalence and extent are associated with ST placement site in rural male ST users. PMID:20350155

  15. Does location matter? Rural vs urban outcomes after blood and marrow transplantation in a population-based Canadian cohort.

    PubMed

    Paulson, K; Lambert, P; Bredeson, C; Demers, A; Nowatzki, J; Richardson, E; Rubinger, M; Szwajcer, D; Seftel, M D

    2010-07-01

    Specialized health services, such as blood and marrow transplantation (BMT), are usually based in large urban centers. Previous research has suggested that rural patients undergoing BMT have a higher risk of death. We performed a cohort study using data from both the Manitoba BMT Program and the provincial Cancer Registry to determine whether patients from the rural areas would have inferior survival after BMT and whether rural patients have reduced access to BMT. A total of 463 adult Manitobans, who underwent BMT between January 1990 and December 2006, were assessed. We analyzed area of residence (rural vs urban), disease and BMT characteristics, and calculated the OS. Patients undergoing autologous and allogeneic transplants were analyzed separately. When adjusted for gender, age at BMT and year of BMT, area of residence was not a significant predictor of mortality. A relative survival analysis was also conducted, and area of residence was again not a significant predictor of mortality. To measure access to BMT in urban vs rural patients, we evaluated all patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) during this same period. Of 432 Manitobans diagnosed with HL, 182 (42%) were rural and 250 (58%) were urban. In contrast, 69% of patients undergoing transplant for HL were urban. In conclusion, using population-based data from a Canadian province, we were unable to show a survival disadvantage for rural patients after controlling for other variables. BMT utilization in rural populations deserves further study.

  16. PREVALENCE OF DIENTAMOEBA FRAGILIS AMONG AN ORANG ASLI POPULATION IN RURAL MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Hasim, Liyana; Moktar, Norhayati; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M

    2015-09-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a trichomonad parasite that can infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans causing gastrointestinal disease. Little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated the prevalence of D. fragilis by conducting a cross sectional study of an Orang Asli population in rural Malaysia. We examined stool samples from 150 participants for D. fragilis using Wheatley's trichrome stain and collected demographic data from each participant using a structured questionnaire. Five participants (3.3%) had D. fragilis in their stool; four of these were aged < 15 years; 3 were male and 2 were female. All participants with positive stool sample for D. fragilis were symptomatic; 3 had diarrhea and 2 had other gastrointestinal symptoms. D. fragilis is present in the study population. Further studies are needed to determine the virulence, pathogenicity and mode of transmission of D. fragilis in the study population. PMID:26863855

  17. Development of cardiac prescreening device for rural population using ultralow-power embedded system.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Subhamoy; Basak, Kausik; Mandana, K M; Ray, Ajoy K; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha

    2011-03-01

    The invention is inspired by the desire to understand the opportunities and expectations of developing economies in terms of healthcare. The designed system is a point-of-care (POC) device that can deliver heart-care services to the rural population and bridge the rural-urban divide in healthcare delivery. The product design incorporates several innovations including the effective use of adaptive and multiresolution signal-processing techniques for acquisition, denoising, segmentation, and characterization of the heart sounds (HS) and murmurs using an ultralow-power embedded Mixed Signal Processor. The device is able to provide indicative diagnosis of cardiac conditions and classify a subject into either normal, abnormal, ischemic, or valvular abnormalities category. Preliminary results demonstrated by the prototype confirm the applicability of the device as a prescreening tool that can be used by paramedics in rural outreach programs. Feedback from medical professionals also shows that such a device is helpful in early detection of common congenital heart diseases. This letter aims to determine a framework for utilization of automated HS analysis system for community healthcare and healthcare inclusion. PMID:21342805

  18. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of high blood pressure among Chinese rural population in Haimen, Jiangsu.

    PubMed

    Li, T; Xian, Y; Mao, H-M; Jiang, W-J; Zhang, L; Chow, E P F; Huang, J-P; Lu, Y-H; Tian, T; Jiang, S-Y; Zhuang, X

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, high blood pressure (HBP) is one of the most common chronic diseases in China. This survey aims to assess HBP prevalence, and related disease awareness, treatment and control among rural population in Haimen, Jiangsu province, China. A total of 7538 rural residents, aged over 18 years, from four randomly selected villages in Haimen, were selected to participate in the blood pressure examination in September 2010, the male-to-female ratio of participants was 1:1.57. In all, 2034 patients were diagnosed with HBP. The total crude prevalence of HBP was 26.98%, the overall standardized prevalence of HBP was 24.38%. Both male and female prevalence rates demonstrate ascending trend with age. Awareness, treatment and control rates among all patients were 68.34%, 61.46% and 27.43% respectively, whereas the corresponding rates in young group (18-44 years) were lower (50.94%, 35.85%, 24.53%). Improving treatment coverage and efficacy should be the focus of HBP prevention in rural areas in China. PMID:26490298

  19. Levels of DDT residues in human milk of Venezuelan women from various rural populations.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, R; León, A; Burguera, J L; Burguera, M

    1996-07-30

    The levels of DDT residues were studied in 145 breast milk samples 25 days postpartum from women living in various rural populations where DDT has been used in farming activities and to interrupt malaria transmission. All participants showed quantifiable milk levels of DDT residues in the range from 5.1 to 68.3 micrograms/l and their levels significantly increased (P < 0.05) with maternal age. The determination of DDT residues (as DDE) in human milk was performed after a saponification process by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Confirmatory analysis was achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detection.

  20. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  1. Association between Maternal Characteristics and Neonatal Birth Weight in a Korean Population Living in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea: A Birth Cohort Study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Kyung Won; Yu, Jinho; Ahn, Kang Mo; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m2. The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively. PMID:23579316

  2. Rurality and Ethnicity in Adolescent Physical Illness: Are Children of the Growing Rural Latino Population at Excess Health Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Elder, Glen H.; Abraham, W. Todd

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: This study's objectives are to: investigate potential additive and multiplicative influences of rurality and race/ethnicity on chronic physical illness in a nationally representative sample of youth; and examine intra-Latino processes using a Latino sub-sample. Specifically, we examine how rurality and individual psychosocial…

  3. Racial Differences in Knowledge, Attitudes, and Cancer Screening Practices among a Triracial Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Paskett, Electra D.; Tatum, Cathy; Rushing, Julia; Michielutte, Robert; Bell, Ronny; Foley, Kristie Long; Bittoni, Marisa; Dickinson, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Low-income, minority, and rural women face a greater burden with regard to cancer-related morbidity and mortality and are usually underrepresented in cancer control research. The Robeson County Outreach, Screening and Education Project sought to increase mammography use among low-income, minority, and rural women age > 40 years. The current article reports on racial disparities and barriers to screening, especially those related to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. METHODS A baseline survey was administered to 897 women age > 40 years who lived in rural Robeson County in North Carolina. The sample consisted of three principal racial groups: whites, African Americans, and Native Americans. Survey comparisons were made among racial groups with respect to knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding breast and cervical carcinoma screening. RESULTS Overall, Native American and African-American women had lower levels of knowledge, more inaccurate beliefs, and more barriers to screening compared with white women. Among the notable findings were that 43% of the patient population did not mention mammograms and 53% did not mention Pap smears as breast and cervical carcinoma screening tests, respectively; furthermore, compared with white women, significantly fewer African-American and Native American women mentioned these tests (P < 0.001). Sixty-seven percent of all women reported that a physician had never encouraged them to receive a mammogram, although 75% reported having received a regular checkup in the preceding year. CONCLUSIONS Although all low-income rural women experienced significant barriers to receiving cancer screening tests, these barriers were more common for minority women compared with white women. More research is needed to identify ways to overcome such barriers, especially among Native American women. The results of the current study have important implications with respect to the designing of interventions aimed at improving cancer

  4. Seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica Infection in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Entamoeba histolytica in Mexico has been scantily studied. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and correlates of E. histolytica antibodies in adults in rural areas in Durango, Mexico. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, E. histolytica IgG antibodies were determined in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. In addition, seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, housing conditions, and behavioral characteristics of the subjects studied was investigated. Results One hundred and eighteen (41.8%) of the 282 rural subjects had anti-E. histolytica IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that E. histolytica exposure was positively associated with source of drinking water (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.33 - 5.58; P = 0.005), and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.03 - 2.27; P = 0.03). In contrast, E. histolytica exposure was negatively associated with consumption of unpasteurized cow milk (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.31 - 0.96; P = 0.03), and crowding at home (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17 - 0.64; P = 0.0009). Conclusions The seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection found in adults in rural Durango is high compared with those reported in other Mexican populations. The correlates of E. histolytica seropositivity found in the present study may be useful for the planning of optimal preventive measures against E. histolytica infection. PMID:25883706

  5. Additive effect of heavy metals on metabolic syndrome in the Korean population: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-06-01

    There have been increasing concerns regarding health problems due to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We investigated association of heavy metals, including lead, mercury, and cadmium, with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its individual components in the Korean population. Participants included 1,961 males and 1,989 females 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys of the Korean population (2009 and 2010). We examined the relationship of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels with MS and the additive effect of three heavy metals on MS after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), region, smoking, alcohol consumption, and regular exercise. Blood concentration of lead showed a significant but modest association with prevalence of MS (P = 0.04). Other heavy metals did not show such a relationship with MS. When the participants were classified according to the sum of category numbers of the three heavy metals, adjusted odds ratios were 1.0, 1.355, 1.638, and 1.556 (P < 0.01). Among components of MS, significant relationship of the sum of heavy metals with hypertension and elevated triglyceride was demonstrated. Blood concentration of lead was positively associated with the prevalence of MS. Of particular interest, cumulative effect of a mixture of lead, mercury, and cadmium on prevalence of MS was stronger than the sum of effect of each heavy metal. Accumulative effect of exposure to heavy metals could be more additive or synergistic than individual exposure in the general population.

  6. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (≥19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],≥65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ≥65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ∼ 24% of Korean adults and ∼ 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults. PMID:24718421

  7. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random. PMID:26510185

  8. The Association Between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents’ Economic Well-Being*

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2011-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here empirically models long-term rural residents’ economic well-being, making use of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. In general, the results suggest that long-term rural families residing in high-growth amenity and recreation areas tend to have higher annual incomes than do their counterparts in non-growth amenity/recreation areas, regardless of the sex, race, or age of the family head. However, higher costs-of-living in these areas supplant any relative gains in income. As such, these analyses provide empirical evidence of patterns inferred by earlier anecdotal evidence and case studies. PMID:21874070

  9. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random. PMID:26510185

  10. Population-Based Assessment of Hypertension Epidemiology and Risk Factors among HIV-Positive and General Populations in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Balzer, Laura; Heller, David; Kotwani, Prashant; Chamie, Gabriel; Clark, Tamara; Ayieko, James; Mwangwa, Florence; Jain, Vivek; Byonanebye, Dathan; Petersen, Maya; Havlir, Diane; Kamya, Moses R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy scale-up in Sub-Saharan Africa has created a growing, aging HIV-positive population at risk for non-communicable diseases such as hypertension. However, the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in this population remain incompletely understood. Methods We measured blood pressure and collected demographic data on over 65,000 adults attending multi-disease community health campaigns in 20 rural Ugandan communities (SEARCH Study: NCT01864603). Our objectives were to determine (i) whether HIV is an independent risk factor for hypertension, and (ii) awareness and control of hypertension in HIV-positive adults and the overall population. Results Hypertension prevalence was 14% overall, and 11% among HIV-positive individuals. 79% of patients were previously undiagnosed, 85% were not taking medication, and 50% of patients on medication had uncontrolled blood pressure. Multivariate predictors of hypertension included older age, male gender, higher BMI, lack of education, alcohol use, and residence in Eastern Uganda. HIV-negative status was independently associated with higher odds of hypertension (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.4). Viral suppression of HIV did not significantly predict hypertension among HIV-positives. Significance The burden of hypertension is substantial and inadequately controlled, both in HIV-positive persons and overall. Universal HIV screening programs could provide counseling, testing, and treatment for hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27232186

  11. Evolutionary Analyses of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)-Specific Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genes Using Whole-Genome Resequencing Data of a Hanwoo Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehwan; Cho, Minah; Hong, Woon-Young; Lim, Dajeong; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Cho, Yong-Min; Jeong, Jin-Young; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-09-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing. We analyzed population structures and differentiation levels for the five cattle breeds and estimated species-specific SNPs with their origins and phylogenetic relationships among species. In addition, we identified Hanwoo-specific genes and proteins, and determined distinct changes in protein-protein interactions among five species (cattle, pig, horse, human, mouse) in the STRING network database by additionally considering indirect protein interactions. We found that the Hanwoo population was clearly different from the other four cattle populations. There were Hanwoo-specific genes related to its meat trait. Protein interaction rewiring analysis also confirmed that there were Hanwoo-specific protein-protein interactions that might have contributed to its unique meat quality. PMID:27640093

  12. Evolutionary Analyses of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)-Specific Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genes Using Whole-Genome Resequencing Data of a Hanwoo Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehwan; Cho, Minah; Hong, Woon-Young; Lim, Dajeong; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Cho, Yong-Min; Jeong, Jin-Young; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-09-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing. We analyzed population structures and differentiation levels for the five cattle breeds and estimated species-specific SNPs with their origins and phylogenetic relationships among species. In addition, we identified Hanwoo-specific genes and proteins, and determined distinct changes in protein-protein interactions among five species (cattle, pig, horse, human, mouse) in the STRING network database by additionally considering indirect protein interactions. We found that the Hanwoo population was clearly different from the other four cattle populations. There were Hanwoo-specific genes related to its meat trait. Protein interaction rewiring analysis also confirmed that there were Hanwoo-specific protein-protein interactions that might have contributed to its unique meat quality.

  13. Evolutionary Analyses of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)-Specific Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Genes Using Whole-Genome Resequencing Data of a Hanwoo Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehwan; Cho, Minah; Hong, Woon-young; Lim, Dajeong; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Cho, Yong-Min; Jeong, Jin-Young; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Ko, Younhee; Kim, Jaebum

    2016-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled population-level studies for many animals to unravel the relationships between genotypic differences and traits of specific populations. The objective of this study was to perform evolutionary analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes of Korean native cattle Hanwoo in comparison to SNP data from four other cattle breeds (Jersey, Simmental, Angus, and Holstein) and four related species (pig, horse, human, and mouse) obtained from public databases through NGS-based resequencing. We analyzed population structures and differentiation levels for the five cattle breeds and estimated species-specific SNPs with their origins and phylogenetic relationships among species. In addition, we identified Hanwoo-specific genes and proteins, and determined distinct changes in protein-protein interactions among five species (cattle, pig, horse, human, mouse) in the STRING network database by additionally considering indirect protein interactions. We found that the Hanwoo population was clearly different from the other four cattle populations. There were Hanwoo-specific genes related to its meat trait. Protein interaction rewiring analysis also confirmed that there were Hanwoo-specific protein-protein interactions that might have contributed to its unique meat quality. PMID:27640093

  14. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ting; Song, Yin-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Qi; He, Jun-Wen; Qiao, Kun; Sun, Xu-Fang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China. METHODS A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), radius of corneal curvature (K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white (WTW) distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens (IOL)-Master]. RESULTS Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0±8.7y were analyzed at last. The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius (MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to 91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77±0.87, 22.76±1.06, 22.89±1.41, 22.92±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10±0.32, 2.98±0.34, 2.86±0.36, 2.77±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58±0.25, 7.54±0.26, 7.55±0.26, 7.49±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79±0.38, 11.75±0.40, 11.72±0.41, 11.67±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD, MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight. CONCLUSION Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care. PMID:26309884

  15. Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

  16. Palatal changes of reverse smokers in a rural coastal Andhra population with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, T Sreenivasa; Kumar, N Govind Raj; Nagaraja, A; Saraswathi, TR; Babu, G Suresh; Raju, P Ramanjaneya

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate and record the palatal changes in individuals habituated to reverse chutta smoking in rural coastal Andhra population. Materials and Methods: Sixty individuals out of whom 47 females and 13 males habituated to reverse smoking with no other tobacco and alcohol habits and no other systemic disturbances were selected. The palatal changes were recorded by six examiners. Database were searched for the following terms “reverse smokers,” “nicotina palatini” and “palatal lesions.” Results: The mean and percentage prevalence of the each lesion recorded and agreed by six examiners among 60 subjects showed presence of 87.77% hyperpigmented areas, 64.44% depigmented areas, 51.66% excrescences, 32.22% potentially malignant lesions and 9.72% frank ulcerations. Conclusion: Reverse smoking is an endemic tobacco habit still practiced in the coastal rural Andhra Pradesh. It is a well-established and socially acceptable habit among adult females. The changes recorded clinically shows characteristic features that are unique among this population group. PMID:26604494

  17. Prevalence of periodontal diseases among rural population of Mustabad, Krishna District

    PubMed Central

    Ramoji Rao, Mulpuri V.; Katari, Pavan Kumar; Vegi, Lokesh; Bypureddy, Tarun Teja; Prabhakara Rao, Koneru Samyuktha; Tejaswi, Kanikanti Siva

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: People in rural areas neglect oral health as they lack awareness on dental diseases and also due to inadequate availability of dental services. The prevalence of illiteracy is also a reason which can be attributed to a poor oral health. This epidemiological study is undertaken to assess the prevalence of periodontal diseases in the rural population of Mustabad – in Krishna, Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study based on randomized sampling method was carried out using the WHO assessment form (1997) on a population of 470. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0. Results: The subjects were 220 males and 250 females. Maximum numbers of subjects were in the age group of 35-44 years (21.91%). Prevalence of periodontal disease was found to be 73.62%. The periodontal status deteriorated with aging. Prevalence of periodontitis was higher in females (56.35%) compared to males (43.65%). Males had a higher prevalence of deep pockets (3.18%), whereas females had a higher prevalence of shallow pockets (3.20%). Females had twice the bleeding tendency (18.80%) compared to males (8.64%). Conclusion: The increasing prevalence of periodontal diseases is an impending problem which needs immediate intervention, if not it would have a serious negative impact on the future oral health. The need of the hour is more epidemiological studies with a bigger sample are required. PMID:27195229

  18. Human gut microbiota community structures in urban and rural populations in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Tyakht, Alexander V.; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Popenko, Anna S.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Pavlenko, Alexander V.; Larin, Andrey K.; Karpova, Irina Y.; Selezneva, Oksana V.; Semashko, Tatyana A.; Ospanova, Elena A.; Babenko, Vladislav V.; Maev, Igor V.; Cheremushkin, Sergey V.; Kucheryavyy, Yuriy A.; Shcherbakov, Petr L.; Grinevich, Vladimir B.; Efimov, Oleg I.; Sas, Evgenii I.; Abdulkhakov, Rustam A.; Abdulkhakov, Sayar R.; Lyalyukova, Elena A.; Livzan, Maria A.; Vlassov, Valentin V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Tsukanov, Vladislav V.; Osipenko, Marina F.; Kozlova, Irina V.; Tkachev, Alexander V.; Sergienko, Valery I.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Govorun, Vadim M.

    2013-01-01

    The microbial community of the human gut has a crucial role in sustaining host homeostasis. High-throughput DNA sequencing has delineated the structural and functional configurations of gut metagenomes in world populations. The microbiota of the Russian population is of particular interest to researchers, because Russia encompasses a uniquely wide range of environmental conditions and ethnogeographical cohorts. Here we conduct a shotgun metagenomic analysis of gut microbiota samples from 96 healthy Russian adult subjects, which reveals novel microbial community structures. The communities from several rural regions display similarities within each region and are dominated by the bacterial taxa associated with the healthy gut. Functional analysis shows that the metabolic pathways exhibiting differential abundance in the novel types are primarily associated with the trade-off between the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla. The specific signatures of the Russian gut microbiota are likely linked to the host diet, cultural habits and socioeconomic status. PMID:24036685

  19. Cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Song, Joo Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6) has been proposed as an alternative to FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) for detecting airway obstruction. A fixed cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 in a Korean population is lacking. We investigated a fixed cut-off for FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction. Materials and methods We used data obtained in the 5 years of the Fifth and Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 14,978 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent spirometry adequately were the study cohort. “Airway obstruction” was a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70% according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. We also used European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative 2012 equations for the FEV1/FVC lower limit of normal. Results Among the 14,978 participants (43.5% male, 56.5% female; mean age: 56.9 years for men and 57.0 years for women), 14.0% had obstructive lung function according to a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70%. Optimal FEV1/FEV6 cut-off for predicting FEV1/FVC <70% was 75% using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.989, 95% confidence interval 0.987–0.990). This fixed cut-off of FEV1/FEV6 showed 93.8% sensitivity, 94.8% specificity, 74.7% positive predictive value, 98.9% negative predictive value, and 0.8 Cohen’s kappa coefficient. When compared with FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FEV6 <75% tended to over-diagnose airflow limitation (just like a fixed cut-off of FEV1/FVC <70%). When grouped according to age and FEV1 (%), FEV1/FEV6 <75% diagnosed more airway obstruction in older participants and mild–moderate stages compared with FEV1/FVC <70%. Conclusion A valid fixed cut-off for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population is FEV1/FEV6 of 75%, but should be used with caution in older individuals and those with

  20. Analysis of C-shaped root canal configuration in maxillary molars in a Korean population using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyoung-Hoon; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of root fusion and C-shaped root canals in maxillary molars, and to classify the types of C-shaped canal by analyzing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods Digitized CBCT images from 911 subjects were obtained in Chosun University Dental Hospital between February 2010 and July 2012 for orthodontic treatment. Among them, a total of selected 3,553 data of maxillary molars were analyzed retrospectively. Tomography sections in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes were displayed by PiViewstar and Rapidia MPR software (Infinitt Co.). The incidence and types of root fusion and C-shaped root canals were evaluated and the incidence between the first and the second molar was compared using Chi-square test. Results Root fusion was present in 3.2% of the first molars and 19.5% of the second molars, and fusion of mesiobuccal and palatal root was dominant. C-shaped root canals were present in 0.8% of the first molars and 2.7% of the second molars. The frequency of root fusion and C-shaped canal was significantly higher in the second molar than the first molar (p < 0.001). Conclusions In a Korean population, maxillary molars showed total 11.3% of root fusion and 1.8% of C-shaped root canals. Furthermore, root fusion and C-shaped root canals were seen more frequently in the maxillary second molars. PMID:26877991

  1. The Validity and Reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination-2 for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Karyeong; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the validity and reliability of the MMSE-2 for assessing patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in a Korean population. Specifically, the usefulness of the MMSE-2 as a screening measure for detecting early cognitive change, which has not been detectable through the MMSE, was examined. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-six patients with MCI, 97 patients with AD, and 91 healthy older adults were recruited. All participants consented to examination with the MMSE-2, the MMSE, and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. Results The MMSE-2 performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) stages and CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and it showed excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high interrater reliability, and good concurrent validity with the MMSE and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests that are sensitive to decline in cognitive functions vs. tests that are not sensitive to decline in cognitive functions) in normal cognitive aging. Moreover, the MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests related overall cognitive functioning other than memory vs. tests related to episodic memory) in patients with AD. Finally, the MMSE-2 was divided into three factors (tests related to working memory and frontal lobe functioning vs. tests related to verbal memory vs. tests related to orientation and immediate recall) in patients with MCI. The sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the MMSE-2 were relatively high in discriminating participants with normal cognitive aging from patients with MCI and AD. Conclusion The MMSE-2 is a valid and reliable cognitive screening instrument for assessing cognitive impairment in a Korean population, but its ability to distinguish patients with MCI from those with normal cognitive aging may not be as highly sensitive as expected. PMID:27668883

  2. Determinants of birth interval in a rural Mediterranean population (La Alpujarra, Spain).

    PubMed

    Polo, V; Luna, F; Fuster, V

    2000-10-01

    The fertility pattern, in terms of birth intervals, in a rural population not practicing contraception belonging to La Alta Alpujarra Oriental (southeast Spain) is analyzed. During the first half of the 20th century, this population experienced a considerable degree of geographical and cultural isolation. Because of this population's high variability in fertility and therefore in birth intervals, the analysis was limited to a homogenous subsample of 154 families, each with at least five pregnancies. This limitation allowed us to analyze, among and within families, effects of a set of variables on the interbirth pattern, and to avoid possible problems of pseudoreplication. Information on birth date of the mother, age at marriage, children's birth date and death date, birth order, and frequency of miscarriages was collected. Our results indicate that interbirth intervals depend on an exponential effect of maternal age, especially significant after the age of 35. This effect is probably related to the biological degenerative processes of female fertility with age. A linear increase of birth intervals with birth order within families was found as well as a reduction of intervals among families experiencing an infant death. Our sample size was insufficient to detect a possible replacement behavior in the case of infant death. High natality and mortality rates, a secular decrease of natality rates, a log-normal birth interval, and family-size distributions suggest that La Alpujarra has been a natural fertility population following a demographic transition process.

  3. Geographic location, network patterns and population distribution of rural settlements in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimakopoulos, Avraam; Mogios, Emmanuel; Xenikos, Dimitrios G.

    2016-10-01

    Our work addresses the problem of how social networks are embedded in space, by studying the spread of human population over complex geomorphological terrain. We focus on villages or small cities up to a few thousand inhabitants located in mountainous areas in Greece. This terrain presents a familiar tree-like structure of valleys and land plateaus. Cities are found more often at lower altitudes and exhibit preference on south orientation. Furthermore, the population generally avoids flat land plateaus and river beds, preferring locations slightly uphill, away from the plateau edge. Despite the location diversity regarding geomorphological parameters, we find certain quantitative norms when we examine location and population distributions relative to the (man-made) transportation network. In particular, settlements at radial distance ℓ away from road network junctions have the same mean altitude, practically independent of ℓ ranging from a few meters to 10 km. Similarly, the distribution of the settlement population at any given ℓ is the same for all ℓ. Finally, the cumulative distribution of the number of rural cities n(ℓ) is fitted to the Weibull distribution, suggesting that human decisions for creating settlements could be paralleled to mechanisms typically attributed to this particular statistical distribution.

  4. Phytoestrogens levels determination in the cord blood from Malaysia rural and urban populations

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, A.M. . E-mail: mustafa@ummc.edu.my; Malintan, N.T.; Seelan, S.; Zhan, Z.; Mohamed, Z.; Hassan, J.; Pendek, R.; Hussain, R.; Ito, N.

    2007-07-01

    This study is a result of an analysis of free and conjugated phytoestrogens daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin and coumesterol in human cord blood plasma using LCMS. Cord blood was collected from urban and rural populations of Malaysia (n = 300) to establish a simple preliminary database on the levels of the analyzed compounds in the collected samples. The study also aimed to look at the levels of phytoestrogens in babies during birth as this may have a profound effect on the developmental process. The sample clean up was carried out by solid-phase extraction using C18 column and passed through DEAE sephadex gel before analysis by LCMS. The mean concentrations of total phytoestrogens were daidzein (1.4 {+-} 2.9 ng/ml), genistein (3.7 {+-} 2.8 ng/ml), daidzin (3.5 {+-} 3.1 ng/ml), genistin (19.5 {+-} 4.2 ng/ml) and coumesterol (3.3 {+-} 3.3 ng/ml). Distribution of phytoestrogen was found to be higher in samples collected from rural areas compared to that of urban areas.

  5. Training for rural radiology and imaging in sub-saharan Africa: addressing the mismatch between services and population.

    PubMed

    Kawooya, Michael G

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this review are to outline the needs, challenges, and training interventions for rural radiology (RR) training in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Rural radiology may be defined as imaging requirements of the rural communities. In SSA, over 80% of the population is rural. The literature was reviewed to determine the need for imaging in rural Africa, the challenges, and training interventions. Up to 50% of the patients in the rural health facilities in Uganda may require imaging, largely ultrasound and plain radiography. In Uganda, imaging is performed, on an average, in 50% of the deserving patients in the urban areas, compared to 10-13 % in the rural areas. Imaging has been shown to increase the utilization of facility-based rural health services and to impact management decisions. The challenges in the rural areas are different from those in the urban areas. These are related to disease spectrum, human resource, and socio-economic, socio-cultural, infrastructural, and academic disparities. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, for which information on training intervention was available, included: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zambia, Ghana, Malawi, and Sudan. Favorable national policies had been instrumental in implementing these interventions. The interventions had been made by public, private-for-profit (PFP), private-not-for profit (PNFP), local, and international academic institutions, personal initiatives, and professional societies. Ultrasound and plain radiography were the main focus. Despite these efforts, there were still gross disparities in the RR services for SSA. In conclusion, there have been training interventions targeted toward RR in Africa. However, gross disparities in RR provision persist, requiring an effective policy, plus a more organized, focused, and sustainable approach, by the stakeholders.

  6. Association between Promoter Polymorphisms of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 and the Risk of Gastric and Diffuse Gastric Cancers in a Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eun-Heui; Lee, Sang-Il; Kim, JaeWoo; Seo, Eun Young; Lee, Su Yel; Hur, Gang Min; Shin, Sanghee; Hong, Jang Hee

    2015-08-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between polymorphisms in TFF gene family, TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 and the risk of gastric cancer (GC) and GC subgroups in a Korean population via a case-control study. The eight polymorphisms in TFF gene family were identified by sequencing and genotyped with 377 GC patients and 396 controls by using TaqMan genotyping assay. The rs184432 TT genotype of TFF1 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of GC (odds ratio, [OR) = 0.45; 95% confidence interval, [CI] = 0.25-0.82; P = 0.009), more protective against diffuse-type GC (OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.05-0.89; P = 0.035) than GC (OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.14-0.82; P = 0.017) in subjects aged < 60 yr, and correlated with lymph node metastasis negative GC and diffuse-type GC (OR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.23-0.86; P = 0.016 and OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.05-0.87; P = 0.031, respectively). In addition, a decreased risk of lymph node metastasis negative GC and diffuse-type GC was observed for rs225359 TT genotype of TFF1 (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.24-0.88; P = 0.020 and OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.05-0.88; P = 0.033, respectively). These findings suggest that the rs184432 and rs225359 polymorphisms in TFF1 have protective effects for GC and contribute to the development of GC in Korean individuals.

  7. A "health commons" approach to oral health for low-income populations in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Beetstra, Stephen; Derksen, Daniel; Ro, Marguerite; Powell, Wayne; Fry, Donald E; Kaufman, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    Oral health needs are urgent in rural states. Creative, broad-based, and collaborative solutions can alleviate these needs. "Health commons" sites are enhanced, community-based, primary care safety net practices that include medical, behavioral, social, public, and oral health services. Successful intervention requires a comprehensive approach, including attention to enhancing dental service capacity, broadening the scope of the dental skills of locally available providers, expanding the pool of dental providers, creating new interdisciplinary teams in enhanced community-based sites, and developing more comprehensive oral health policy. By incorporating oral health services into the health commons primary care model, access for uninsured and underserved populations is increased. A coalition of motivated stakeholders includes community leaders, safety net providers, legislators, insurers, and medical, dental, and public health providers.

  8. A "health commons" approach to oral health for low-income populations in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Beetstra, Stephen; Derksen, Daniel; Ro, Marguerite; Powell, Wayne; Fry, Donald E; Kaufman, Arthur

    2008-09-01

    Oral health needs are urgent in rural states. Creative, broad-based, and collaborative solutions can alleviate these needs. "Health commons" sites are enhanced, community-based, primary care safety net practices that include medical, behavioral, social, public, and oral health services. Successful intervention requires a comprehensive approach, including attention to enhancing dental service capacity, broadening the scope of the dental skills of locally available providers, expanding the pool of dental providers, creating new interdisciplinary teams in enhanced community-based sites, and developing more comprehensive oral health policy. By incorporating oral health services into the health commons primary care model, access for uninsured and underserved populations is increased. A coalition of motivated stakeholders includes community leaders, safety net providers, legislators, insurers, and medical, dental, and public health providers.

  9. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species

    PubMed Central

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal’s tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual’s lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide. PMID:27499420

  10. Intestinal parasitoses and environmental factors in a rural population of Argentina, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, Juan A; Córdoba, María A; de Luca, María M; Ciarmela, María L; Pezzani, Betina C; Grenovero, María S; Minvielle, Marta C

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 504 people and the degree of association between environmental variables and parasites found in population, soil and water in a rural area of Argentina during 2002-2003. A structured survey was used to evaluate the environmental variables and fecal-human, soil and water samples were analyzed. The prevalence of parasites was 45.4%. Most prevalent protozoa were Blastocystis hominis (27.2%) and Giardia lamblia (6.9%), while the most prevalent helminth was Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%). The analyzed environmental variables showing association (p < 0.05) with presence of parasites in population were: cardboard-tin or wooden house, dirt floor, home or communal water pump, faucet outside the house or public faucet and cesspool or latrine. Parasite forms were found in 82.3% of the soil samples and in 84.2% of the water samples. In both samples we found parasites that were also found in people. In this study we have found deficient sanitary conditions associated with presence of parasites in population and we have evidenced that contaminated soil and water were the source of these parasites.

  11. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L

    2016-01-01

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal's tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual's lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide. PMID:27499420

  12. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L

    2016-08-08

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal's tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual's lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide.

  13. Participation Dynamics in Population-Based Longitudinal HIV Surveillance in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Larmarange, Joseph; Mossong, Joël; Bärnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    Population-based HIV surveillance is crucial to inform understanding of the HIV pandemic and evaluate HIV interventions, but little is known about longitudinal participation patterns in such settings. We investigated the dynamics of longitudinal participation patterns in a high HIV prevalence surveillance setting in rural South Africa between 2003 and 2012, taking into account demographic dynamics. At any given survey round, 22,708 to 30,495 persons were eligible. Although the yearly participation rates were relatively modest (26% to 46%), cumulative rates increased substantially with multiple recruitment opportunities: 68% of eligible persons participated at least once, 48% at least twice and 31% at least three times after five survey rounds. We identified two types of study fatigue: at the individual level, contact and consent rates decreased with multiple recruitment opportunities and, at the population level, these rates also decreased over calendar time, independently of multiple recruitment opportunities. Using sequence analysis and hierarchical clustering, we identified three broad individual participation profiles: consenters (20%), switchers (43%) and refusers (37%). Men were over represented among refusers, women among consenters, and temporary non-residents among switchers. The specific subgroup of persons who were systemically not contacted or refusers constitutes a challenge for population-based surveillance and interventions. PMID:25875851

  14. Improving Access to Primary Care for a Growing Latino Population: The Role of Safety Net Providers in the Rural Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blewett, Lynn A.; Casey, Michelle; Call, Kathleen Thiede

    2004-01-01

    Many rural Midwestern communities are experiencing rapid growth in Latino populations with low rates of health insurance coverage, limited financial resources, language and cultural differences, and special health care needs. We report on 2-day site visits conducted in 2001 and 2002 in 3 communities (Marshalltown, Iowa; Great Bend, Kansas; and…

  15. [The gender aspects of diet factors effect on development of diseases of circulatory system among rural population].

    PubMed

    Kamalova, F M; Valeeva, E R

    2014-01-01

    The unhealthy diet is one of important controllable risk factors of development of noninfectious diseases. The gender differences in attitude to one's own health confirm significance of their effect on health condition. The study was carried out to establish the effect of diet factors on the rate of diseases of circulatory system in rural population with consideration of gender distribution. The analysis of results of sampling examination of rural population established that 51% of disease rate in males and 22% of disease rate in females are related to diseases of circulatory system. In males and females rate of diseases of circulatory system is determined by diet factors. The direction of relationship is direct and inverse, differs in males and females and depends on diet factors. The gender differences were manifested not only in conditionality of rate of diseases of circulatory system by diet factors but also by their mutual interaction. The health management of rural population is based on examination and analysis of relationship between health of rural population and factors of their diet.

  16. Rural Industralization and Population Growth: The Case of Arkansas. ORNL-HUD-4, Civil Defense Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Alfred W.

    Utilizing available 1966 statistical data and U.S. Census figures, the State of Arkansas was examined for purposes of analyzing: (1) the extent to which recent population gains in states such as Arkansas and Oklahoma is occurring in rural areas rather than as an extension of urbanization; (2) the extent to which U.S. manufacturing is beginning to…

  17. Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life Among an Older Population in a Largely Rural Western Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Aday, Lu Ann; Xu, Ke Tom

    2004-01-01

    As elderly people become a larger proportion of the rural population, it is important to identify those at risk for poor health. Predictors of health-related quality of life can be useful in designing interventions. Purpose: One objective of the present study was to profile the health-related quality of life of community-dwelling, elderly people…

  18. Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

  19. The Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Cancer Survivors in a Nationwide Survey of the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Myueng Guen; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that inadequate vitamin D levels are associated with a poor cancer prognosis, but data regarding actual vitamin D levels in cancer survivors are limited. This study investigated the vitamin D levels and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Korean cancer survivors compared with non-cancer controls, and identified the factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 915 cancer survivors and 29,694 controls without a history of cancer were selected. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured; vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OH)D levels less than 20 ng/mL. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors. Results Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 62.7% of cancer survivors and 67.1% of controls. Among cancer survivors, vitamin D deficiency was most prevalent among 19–44 year olds (76.2%) and among managers, professionals, and related workers (79.3%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that younger cancer survivors and those who work indoors were predisposed to vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency was prevalent among both cancer survivors and controls in Korea. The regular evaluation and management of vitamin D levels is needed for both bone health and general health in cancer survivors. PMID:26047013

  20. Fermented and non-fermented soy food consumption and gastric cancer in Japanese and Korean populations: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongseon; Kang, Moonsu; Lee, Jung-Sug; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Soy food is known to contribute greatly to a reduction in the risk of gastric cancer (GC). However, both Japanese and Korean populations have high incidence rates of GC despite the consumption of a wide variety of soy foods. One primary reason is that they consume fermented rather than non-fermented soy foods. In order to assess the varying effects of fermented and non-fermented soy intake on GC risk in these populations, we conducted a meta-analysis of published reports. Twenty studies assessing the effect of the consumption of fermented soy food on GC risk were included, and 17 studies assessing the effect of the consumption of non-fermented soy food on GC risk were included. We found that a high intake of fermented soy foods was significantly associated with an increased risk of GC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.44, I(2) = 71.48), whereas an increased intake of non-fermented soy foods was significantly associated with a decreased risk of GC (overall summary OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.54-0.77, I(2) = 64.27). These findings show that a high level of consumption of non-fermented soy foods, rather than fermented soy foods, is important in reducing GC risk.

  1. Genealogical information and the structure of rural Latin-American populations: reality and fantasy.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Adams, J

    1996-01-01

    Genetic data organized in the form of genealogies can provide much information regarding the history and genetic structure of human populations. A large proportion of the population of Latin America is organized in small rural semi-isolated communities, with little immigration, and until the last 50-100 years, little emigration. These communities have a strong sense of their genealogical history, and this "genealogical conscience' is a frequent leitmotif in modern Latin-American literature. In this communication, we compare the characteristics of fictitious genealogies described in two masterpieces of Latin-American literature, García Márquez' Cien Años de Soledad (A Hundred Years of Solitude), and Verissimo's O Tempo e o Vento (Time and the Wind), with one existing well-studied population in Argentina, Aicuña. All three populations exhibit a number of common characteristics, such as histories of long periods of civil war, and large pedigrees with complex paths of inheritance resulting in complex patterns of inbreeding. Genetic themes common to all three are: (1) the use of genealogical records to substantiate the property of the land or the political power of a kinship; (2) the genealogical registry of biological descendants, independent of their legal or marital status in the clan; (3) the existence of pedigrees of the aristocratic branches in the same kindreds, which illustrate the legal principle of primogeniture; (4) the value of last names as indicators of kinships and the extent of genetic isolation, and (5) the awareness of the deleterious consequences of consanguinity.

  2. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Nuala; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hosegood, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Increased sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence have been reported in migrants compared with non-migrants in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the association of residential and migration patterns with sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence in an open, general population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods In a mainly rural demographic surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we collected longitudinal demographic, migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV status data through household surveillance twice per year and individual surveillance once per year. All resident household members and a sample of non-resident household members (stratified by sex and migration patterns) were eligible for participation. Participants reported sexual risk behaviours, including data for multiple, concurrent, and casual sexual partners and condom use, and gave a dried blood spot sample via fingerprick for HIV testing. We investigated population-level differences in sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence with respect to migration indicators using logistic regression models. Findings Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, the total eligible population at each surveillance round ranged between 21 129 and 22 726 women (aged 17–49 years) and between 20 399 and 22 100 men (aged 17–54 years). The number of eligible residents in any round ranged from 24 395 to 26 664 and the number of eligible non-residents ranged from 17 002 to 18 891 between rounds. The stratified sample of non-residents included between 2350 and 3366 individuals each year. Sexual risk behaviours were significantly more common in non-residents than in residents for both men and women. Estimated differences in sexual risk behaviours, but not HIV prevalence, varied between the migration indicators: recent migration, mobility, and migration type. HIV prevalence was significantly increased in current residents with a recent history of

  3. Reference Values of Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy People from an Urban and Rural Argentinean Population

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alejandro; Galli, Cintia; Tringler, Matías; Ramírez, Agustín; Cabrera Fischer, Edmundo Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In medical practice the reference values of arterial stiffness came from multicenter registries obtained in Asia, USA, Australia and Europe. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the gold standard method for arterial stiffness quantification; however, in South America, there are few population-based studies. In this research PWV was measured in healthy asymptomatic and normotensive subjects without history of hypertension in first-degree relatives. Normal PWV and the 95% confidence intervals values were obtained in 780 subjects (39.8 ± 18.5 years) divided into 7 age groups (10–98 years). The mean PWV found was 6.84 m/s ± 1.65. PWV increases linearly with aging with a high degree of correlation (r2 = 0.61; P < 0.05) with low dispersion in younger subjects. PWV progressively increases 6–8% with each decade of life; this tendency is more pronounced after 50 years. A significant increase of PWV over 50 years was demonstrated. This is the first population-based study from urban and rural people of Argentina that provides normal values of the PWV in healthy, normotensive subjects without family history of hypertension. Moreover, the age dependence of PWV values was confirmed. PMID:25215227

  4. Effects of polygyny and consanguinity on high fertility in the rural Arab population in South Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Shuji; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2003-10-01

    Based on the authors' interview survey for 608 randomly selected women of the rural Arab population in the South Ghor district of Jordan, this paper examined the effects of polygyny and consanguinity on high fertility, which was recognized as natural fertility. The prevalence of polygynous and consanguineous marriages was 28.0% and 58.1%, respectively, largely reflecting the population's traditional marriage customs. The findings highlighted a significantly higher total marital fertility rate (TMFR) in the monogamous wives (10.5) than in the senior polygynous (8.1) and junior polygynous wives (8.6); the TMFR did not significantly differ among the wives of non-consanguineous, first-cousin and second-cousin marriages. The formation of polygynous marriage was decided by the husband, mostly as a result of his senior wife's infecundity or sub-fecundity, and the age of the husband at marriage to his junior polygynous wife was high in many cases, leading to a decline in this wife's fecundity.

  5. A New Approach to Reach Latino Populations in Rural and Urban Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P.; Garcia, A.; Galindo, C.; Obot, V.; Allen, J.; Reiff, P.; Sumners, C.; Garcia, J.; Garza, O.

    2004-12-01

    Current statistics indicate that Latino populations have lower high school and college graduation rates than Anglos or African Americans. If Latinos do not pursue baccalaureate and higher degrees, then this group will be left behind as technological advances increasingly drive our society. The drop out rate affects not only the individuals, families, communities, and society from many different aspects, including financial independence, but also loss of potential contributing members of society in science, engineering, etc. Houston, an urban area, with a Latino population of 39% and Brownsville, a rural area represented by 84% Latinos, are two Texas areas where universities, schools, museums, and NASA are reaching out to increase science skills and graduation rates. Many Houston families have the opportunity to be introduced to different options, but Brownsville families do not have the same opportunities as the area lacks a strong industrial and technological base. We have developed programs to improve the space and Earth science knowledge base by providing summer science enrichment programs for K-12 students, family events, exposing high school students to college opportunities, and training high school and college students to serve as mentors to their peers. The peer mentors lead many of the outreach venues, interacting with the public with demonstrations and interactive science activities. In addition, we have developed a series of teacher workshops and modules on integrated science and mathematics. The teacher workshops are designed to provide the teachers with a wealth of integrated examples for classroom use.

  6. Assessment of mental health literacy using a multifaceted measure among a Chinese rural population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu; Liu, Zi-wei; Hu, Mi; Liu, Xi-guang; Liu, Hui-ming; Yang, Joyce P; Zhou, Liang; Xiao, Shui-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study aims to assess mental health literacy (MHL) using a standardised multifaceted 20-item instrument called Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) developed by the Chinese Ministry of Health, among a rural Chinese population. Setting Four villages in Liuyang county of Hunan province, China. Participants This was a cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster-sampling method was adopted, leading to a final sampling frame of 2377 residents aged 18–60 years from four villages of Liuyang county. Included in the study were residents aged 18–60 years living in their village for at least half a year; excluded were those not living in the areas during the research period, those with difficulty in communication due to serious physical or mental illness and those who were cognitively impaired or actively psychotic. Finally, 2052 participants completed the survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was correct response rate of the MHKQ; secondary outcome measures were association between sociodemographics and MHL, and association between MHL and health outcomes. Results Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 19% to 94%, with a mean rate of 58%. Younger age (r=−0.02, p<0.01), higher education (r: 1.38–2.69, p<0.01) and higher income (r=0.41, p<0.01), were independently associated with higher MHL. MHL was independently associated with self-rated general health (r=2.31, p<0.01), depression (r=−0.09, p<0.01) and anxiety (r=−0.07, p<0.05). Conclusions MHL in the rural areas of Liuyang is lower than that reported in urban areas of China. There is much room for improvement with regard to MHL promotion in rural areas of China. Younger age, higher education and higher income are the three robust factors related to higher MHL, so cohort-specific educational intervention efforts may be indicated. PMID:26438139

  7. The High Prevalence of Knee Osteoarthritis in A Rural Chinese Population: The Wuchuan Osteoarthritis Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiaozheng; Fransen, Marlene; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Hu; Ke, Yan; Lu, Ming; Su, Steve; Song, Xiongying; Guo, Yong; Chen, Jie; Niu, Jingbo; Felson, David; Lin, Jianhao

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of radiographic and symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a remote rural region of northern China and compare these with those reported in Beijing and data from the Framingham (Massachusetts, USA) cohort. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1030 residents of Wuchuan County, Inner Mongolia, aged 50 years and over. Survey participants, mostly farmers reporting heavy physical occupational activity, completed an interviewer-based questionnaire and obtained bilateral weight-bearing posterior-anterior semi-flexed knee radiographs. Results While the overall prevalence of radiographic knee OA was similar to that demonstrated in the Beijing OA study, men in Wuchuan had about double the prevalence of severe radiographic [prevalence ratio (PR) 2.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.8] and symptomatic knee OA (PR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.9). Women in Wuchuan also had a higher prevalence of both severe radiographic (PR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.0) and symptomatic knee OA (PR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1) compared with their Beijing counterparts. The prevalence of bilateral OA and lateral compartment disease were two to three times higher in both Chinese cohorts compared with estimates from the Framingham OA Study. Conclusions The prevalence of symptomatic knee OA in rural areas of China is much higher than reported from urban regions of China or in the Framingham cohort. The higher representation of bilateral and lateral compartment disease in China suggests a unique phenotype to OA. The findings will be useful to guide the distribution of future health care resources and preventive strategies. PMID:19405001

  8. Assessing demographic and epidemiologic parameters of rural dog populations in India during mass vaccination campaigns.

    PubMed

    Belsare, Aniruddha V; Gompper, Matthew E

    2013-08-01

    Mass vaccination of dogs is a mainstay for efforts to control rabies and other viral pathogens. The success of such programs is a function of the ability to vaccinate sufficient proportions of animals to develop herd immunity. However, fully assessing success in reaching target vaccination-levels and in understanding the outcome of mass vaccination efforts is hindered if insufficient information is available on the demographics of dog populations and the prevalence of the targeted pathogens. While such information can sometimes be gained from questionnaire surveys, greater precision requires direct assessment of the dog populations. Here we show how such information can be gained from surveys of dogs conducted in association with mass-vaccination programs. We conducted surveys of dogs in six villages in rural Maharashtra, India, between February and July 2011 as part of an effort to reduce the risk of human rabies and virus transmission from dogs to wildlife. Mass vaccination efforts were conducted in each village, and paired with blood sample collection and photographic mark-recapture approaches to gain epidemiologic and demographic data. This data in turn facilitated estimates of dog abundance, population density and structure, vaccination coverage, and seroprevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). The median dog population size for the six villages was 134 (range 90-188), the median dog population density was 719 dogs per km(2) (range 526-969), and the median human:dog ratio for these six villages was 34 (range 30-47). The median household:dog ratio for the six villages was 6 (range 5-8). Following vaccination efforts, the median vaccination coverage achieved was 34% (range 24-42%). The dog populations consisted mostly of adult dogs (67-86%) and the median sex ratio for the study area was male biased (1.55 males per female; range 0.9-2.5). The seroprevalence of antibodies against CAV, CPV

  9. Impact of Population and Latrines on Fecal Contamination of Ponds in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; Escamilla, Veronica; Layton, Alice; McKay, Larry D.; Emch, Michael; Williams, Daniel E.; Huq, Md. R.; Alam, Md. J.; Farhana, Labony; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andy; Sayler, Gary S.; Ahmed, Kazi M.; van Geen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A majority of households in Bangladesh rely on pond water for hygiene. Exposure to pond water fecal contamination could therefore still contribute to diarrheal disease despite the installation of numerous tubewells for drinking. The objectives of this study are to determine the predominant sources (human or livestock) of fecal pollution in ponds and examine the association between local population, latrine density, latrine quality and concentrations of fecal bacteria and pathogens in pond water. Forty-three ponds were analyzed for E. coli using culture-based methods and E. coli, Bacteroidales and adenovirus using quantitative PCR. Population and sanitation spatial data were collected and measured against pond fecal contamination. Humans were the dominant source of fecal contamination in 79% of the ponds according to Bacteroidales measurements. Ponds directly receiving latrine effluent had the highest concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (up to 106 Most Probable Number (MPN) of culturable E. coli per 100 mL). Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria correlated with population surveyed within a distance of 30-70 m (p<0.05) and total latrines surveyed within 50-70 m (p<0.05). Unsanitary latrines (visible effluent or open pits) within the pond drainage basin were also significantly correlated to fecal indicator concentrations (p<0.05). Water in the vast majority of the surveyed ponds contained unsafe levels of fecal contamination attributable primarily to unsanitary latrines, and to lesser extent to sanitary latrines and cattle. Since the majority of fecal pollution is derived from human waste, continued use of pond water could help explain the persistence of diarrheal disease in rural South Asia. PMID:21632095

  10. Tuberculosis in a rural population of South India: a five-year epidemiological study*

    PubMed Central

    1974-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious health problem in India, but because of inadequate facilities for diagnosis in many parts of the country clinical data are incomplete. However, data on prevalence are available from a few sample surveys conducted in the general population during the last two decades. The study reported here provides information on the incidence of infection and disease as well as on the source and fate of cases. The information was obtained by means of surveys, repeated at intervals during 1961-68 in a randomly selected rural population of South India. In each survey, a tuberculin test was given and X-ray and sputum examinations were made. There were virtually no tuberculosis control facilities in the study area, since this was not covered by the national tuberculosis programme at the time. The annual rate of tuberculous infection in previously uninfected children and in adults was found to be about 1%. The incidence of tuberculosis (confirmed by culture) was about 1 per thousand (excluding children below the age of 5 years). About 30% of newly detected cases came from the population uninfected at an earlier survey. The prevalence of disease was four times as high as the incidence. Among cases found in the initial survey one-half died within 5 years and one-fifth continued to excrete bacilli after 5 years. Both infection and disease tended to decline during the observation period, though in an uneven manner that does not permit extrapolation. There was no evidence of an increase in drug-resistance among newly diagnosed cases. The findings of the study could be used in developing epidemetric models to predict the tuberculosis problem and to assess tuberculosis control measures applied in the community. PMID:4549498

  11. Geospatial and Temporal Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Incidence in a Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, John P.; Jackson, Erin; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Sprague, Brian L.; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background: The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has resulted in the rate tripling over the past 30 years. Reasons for this increase have not been established. Geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) tools have emerged as powerful geospatial technologies to identify disease clusters, map patterns and trends, and assess the impact of ecological and socioeconomic factors (SES) on the spatial distribution of diseases. In this study, these tools were used to analyze thyroid cancer incidence in a rural population. Methods: Thyroid cancer incidence and socio-demographic factors in Vermont (VT), United States, between 1994 and 2007 were analyzed by logistic regression and geospatial and temporal analyses. Results: The thyroid cancer age-adjusted incidence in Vermont (8.0 per 100,000) was comparable to the national level (8.4 per 100,000), as were the ratio of the incidence of females to males (3.1:1) and the mortality rate (0.5 per 100,000). However, the estimated annual percentage change was higher (8.3 VT; 5.7 U.S.). Incidence among females peaked at 30–59 years of age, reflecting a significant rise from 1994 to 2007, while incidence trends for males did not vary significantly by age. For both females and males, the distribution of tumors by size did not vary over time; ≤1.0 cm, 1.1–2.0 cm, and >2.0 cm represented 38%, 22%, and 40%, respectively. In females, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounted for 89% of cases, follicular (FTC) 8%, medullary (MTC) 2%, and anaplastic (ATC) 0.6%, while in males PTC accounted for 77% of cases, FTC 15%, MTC 1%, and ATC 3%. Geospatial analysis revealed locations and spatial patterns that, when combined with multivariate incidence analyses, indicated that factors other than increased surveillance and access to healthcare (physician density or insurance) contributed to the increased thyroid cancer incidence. Nine thyroid cancer incidence hot spots, areas with very high normalized incidence, were identified

  12. The use of simplified verbal autopsy in identifying causes of adult death in a predominantly rural population in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lulu, Kidest; Berhane, Yemane

    2005-01-01

    Background Information on adult mortality is essentially non-existent in Ethiopia particularly from rural areas where access to health services is limited and most deaths occur at home. This study was conducted with the aim of identifying causes of adult death in a rural population of Ethiopia using a simplified verbal autopsy instrument. Methods All deaths in the age-group 15–49 years during the period of 1995–99 were taken from computerized demographic surveillance database maintained by the Butajira Rural Health Program. Data on the causes of death were collected from close relatives of the deceased persons by lay interviewers. Causes of death were diagnosed using "expert algorithm" programmed onto a computer. Results The major causes of death were acute febrile illnesses (25.2%), liver diseases (11.3%), diarrheal diseases (11.1%), tuberculosis (9.7%) and HIV/AIDS (7.4%). Overall communicable diseases accounted for 60.8% of the deaths. The high levels of mortality from communicable diseases reflect the poor socioeconomic development of the country, and the general poor coverage of health and education services in rural Ethiopia. The tools used in this study can easily be added-on to the numerous health surveys conducted in the country. Conclusion The simplified approach to verbal autopsy diagnosis can produce useful data that can effectively guide priority health interventions in rural areas where routine information system is either very weak or non-existent. PMID:15935096

  13. Awareness and knowledge of sepsis in the general Korean population: comparison with the awareness and knowledge of acute myocardial infarction and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minji; Kim, Kyuseok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Kang, Changwoo; Jo, You Hwan; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kang, Kyeong Won; Lee, Soo Hoon; Park, Chanjong; Kim, Joonghee; Chung, Heajin; Park, Hyunmi; Jang, Sujin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock require timely, aggressive management to improve their outcomes, and early presentation of patients to the hospital may also be important. Thus, public awareness about sepsis may be important for improved outcomes. However, there are no studies regarding the public awareness of sepsis in the general Korean population. Therefore, the objective of this survey was to gain insight into the public awareness of sepsis. Methods Prospective paper-based and web-based surveys were issued between May and June 2013 to adults aged ≥18 years. Results A total of 1,081 participants responded to the survey (394 paper-based and 687 web-based). Mean age was 38.7±11.4 years, and 541 participants (50%) were men. Of the 1,081 participants, 831 (76.9%) had heard of the term “sepsis.” Of these participants, only 295 (35%) responded correctly regarding the definition of sepsis. However, 1,019 participants (94.3%) had heard of acute myocardial infarction, and 817 of these (80%) correctly defined acute myocardial infarction. Regarding stroke, 1,047 (96.9%) had heard of stroke, and 975 of these responded (93.1%) correctly to the definition of stroke. Conclusion There is poor public awareness about sepsis compared with that of acute myocardial infarction and stroke. This may limit the timely management of severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:27752551

  14. An integrative study identifies KCNC2 as a novel predisposing factor for childhood obesity and the risk of diabetes in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Go, Min Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Sang Ick; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Hye-Ja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. To unravel the genetic determinants of obesity-associated diabetes, we performed a genome-wide study using the 1,000 Genomes-based imputation in a Korean childhood cohort (KoCAS-1, n = 484) and carried out de novo replication in an independent population (KoCAS-2, n = 1,548). A novel variant (rs10879834) with multiple diverse associations for obesity-related traits was also found to be replicated in an adult cohort (KARE, n = 8,842). Functional annotations using integrative epigenetic analyses identified biological significance and regulatory effects with an inverse methylation-expression correlation (cg27154343 in the 5'-UTR of the KCNC2 gene), tissue-specific enhancer mark (H3K4me1), and pathway enrichment (insulin signaling). Further functional studies in cellular and mouse models demonstrated that KCNC2 is associated with anti-obesogenic effects in the regulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance. KCNC2 shRNA transfection induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Overproduction of KCNC2 decreased ER stress, and treatment with metformin enhanced KCNC2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of KCNC2 is associated with modified hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased ER stress on obesity-mediated diabetic risk. An integrative multi-omics analysis might reveal new functional and clinical implications related to the control of energy and metabolic homeostasis in humans. PMID:27623749

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Other Related Factors of Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu-Chong; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Jin Yong; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Shin, Koh-Eun; Lee, Anna; Ko, Byung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between seasonal influenza vaccination in South Korea and socioeconomic status (SES) as well as other potential related factors. Methods The study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2011. Education level and household income were used as indicators for SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate SES and other demographic variables as related factors for influenza vaccination, the primary outcome. Results Higher household income was positively associated with higher vaccine uptake in the younger (19–49 years) group [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.23], whereas the low-income and low-education group had increased vaccination coverage than the middle-income and middle-education group in the older (≥ 50 years) group (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.09–1.69). Current smokers tend to be unvaccinated in all age groups. Among individuals aged ≥ 50, older age, mild to moderate alcohol consumption, regular exercise, and having co-morbidities were positively associated with vaccination, while those who self-reported their health status as good were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions The relationship between SES and seasonal influenza vaccination coverage differed between the age groups throughout the adult South Korean population. Public health policies need to address these inequalities. PMID:25646847

  16. An integrative study identifies KCNC2 as a novel predisposing factor for childhood obesity and the risk of diabetes in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Go, Min Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Sang Ick; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Hye-Ja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. To unravel the genetic determinants of obesity-associated diabetes, we performed a genome-wide study using the 1,000 Genomes-based imputation in a Korean childhood cohort (KoCAS-1, n = 484) and carried out de novo replication in an independent population (KoCAS-2, n = 1,548). A novel variant (rs10879834) with multiple diverse associations for obesity-related traits was also found to be replicated in an adult cohort (KARE, n = 8,842). Functional annotations using integrative epigenetic analyses identified biological significance and regulatory effects with an inverse methylation-expression correlation (cg27154343 in the 5'-UTR of the KCNC2 gene), tissue-specific enhancer mark (H3K4me1), and pathway enrichment (insulin signaling). Further functional studies in cellular and mouse models demonstrated that KCNC2 is associated with anti-obesogenic effects in the regulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance. KCNC2 shRNA transfection induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Overproduction of KCNC2 decreased ER stress, and treatment with metformin enhanced KCNC2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of KCNC2 is associated with modified hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased ER stress on obesity-mediated diabetic risk. An integrative multi-omics analysis might reveal new functional and clinical implications related to the control of energy and metabolic homeostasis in humans.

  17. Risk factors for ischaemic heart disease in a Cretan rural population: a twelve year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Karalis, Ioannis K; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Kafatos, Antonios G; Koutis, Antonios D; Vardas, Panos E; Lionis, Christos D

    2007-01-01

    Background Crete has been of great epidemiological interest ever since the publication of the Seven Countries Study. In 1988 a well-defined area of rural Crete was studied, with only scarce signs of coronary heart disease (CHD) despite the unfavorable risk profile. The same population was re-examined twelve years later aiming to describe the trends of CHD risk factors over time and discuss some key points on the natural course of coronary heart disease in a rural population of Crete. Methods and Results We re-examined 200 subjects (80.7% of those still living in the area, 62.4 ± 17.0 years old). The prevalence of risk factors for CHD was high with 65.9% of men and 65.1% of women being hypertensive, 14.3% of men and 16.5% of women being diabetic, 44% of men being active smokers and more than 40% of both sexes having hyperlipidaemia. Accordingly, 77.5% of the population had a calculated Framingham Risk Score (FRS) ≥ 15%, significantly higher compared to baseline (p < 0.001). The overall occurrence rate for CHD events was calculated at 7.1 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval: 6.8–7.3). Conclusion The study confirms the unfavorable risk factor profile of a well defined rural population in Crete. Its actual effect on the observed incidence of coronary events in Cretans remains yet to be defined. PMID:18088432

  18. Seroepidemiology of toxocariasis in a rural Tepehuanos population from Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C

    2014-06-01

    The epidemiology of toxocariasis in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about toxocariasis in Tepehuanos, an indigenous ethnic group in Durango State in northern Mexico. Therefore, the presence of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies was determined in 126 rural Tepehuanos using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural data of the participants were also obtained. Of the 126 Tepehuanos assessed (mean age 32.46 ± 17.36 years), 33 (26.2%) had anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara seropositivity was associated with unemployment (students and housewives) (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-7.47). Other socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, including age, educational level, contact with animals or soil, consumption of unwashed raw fruits and vegetables or untreated water, were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. Clinical data were similar in seropositive and seronegative Tepehuanos. These results indicate that Toxocara exposure is common among Tepehuanos but Toxocara does not appear to impact on the health of the population. This is the first report of toxocaral infection in Tepehuanos, and of an association of toxocariasis in adults with unemployment. Further research is needed to elucidate the routes of transmission of Toxocara in Tepehuanos, including the role of hygiene practices, canine and feline contacts, paratenic hosts and soil contamination with infective Toxocara eggs.

  19. Decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the rural adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Delpier, Terry; Giordana, Sheri; Wedin, Bitsy M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased drastically with detrimental effects such as weight gain, weakened bones, dental caries, and associated higher levels of type II diabetes in this population. While in the clinical setting, rural family nurse practitioner (FNP) students, using Kellogg-funded Smart Phones, screened adolescents aged 13 to 17 years for SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Adolescents initially were provided with a pamphlet and related oral teaching concerning SSBs by the FNP students, as well as a water bottle to encourage healthy fluid intake. Screening SSB information was loaded onto Smart Phones, which resulted in immediate access by the primary investigator sometimes even hundreds of miles distant. After 30 days, FNP students completed follow-up phone interviews to reassess SSB consumption in the previous 24 hours. Results concerning decreased SSB consumption were statistically significant. Additionally, Smart Phones were instrumental in high-speed data transfer. Both advantages and disadvantages were encountered when using this evolving technology.

  20. Seroepidemiology of toxocariasis in a rural Tepehuanos population from Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C

    2014-06-01

    The epidemiology of toxocariasis in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about toxocariasis in Tepehuanos, an indigenous ethnic group in Durango State in northern Mexico. Therefore, the presence of anti-Toxocara immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies was determined in 126 rural Tepehuanos using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural data of the participants were also obtained. Of the 126 Tepehuanos assessed (mean age 32.46 ± 17.36 years), 33 (26.2%) had anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara seropositivity was associated with unemployment (students and housewives) (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-7.47). Other socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, including age, educational level, contact with animals or soil, consumption of unwashed raw fruits and vegetables or untreated water, were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. Clinical data were similar in seropositive and seronegative Tepehuanos. These results indicate that Toxocara exposure is common among Tepehuanos but Toxocara does not appear to impact on the health of the population. This is the first report of toxocaral infection in Tepehuanos, and of an association of toxocariasis in adults with unemployment. Further research is needed to elucidate the routes of transmission of Toxocara in Tepehuanos, including the role of hygiene practices, canine and feline contacts, paratenic hosts and soil contamination with infective Toxocara eggs. PMID:23286217

  1. Seroprevalence of Lyme disease and associated risk factors in rural population of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiangfeng; Lyu, Yanning; Jiang, Yi; Tian, Lili; Li, Xinyu; Lin, Changying; Sun, Yulan; Guan, Zengzhi; Zhang, Xiuchun; Wang, Quanyi

    2015-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of 801 local residents from 28 villages was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of Lyme disease and to identify the risk factors of becoming seropositive for Lyme disease in the northern suburb of Beijing. Forty-one serum samples were positive for IgG against B burgdorferi and the seroprevalence was 5.1% (41/801), indicating that Lyme disease is endemic in the rural population. In the multivariable analysis, sowing and harvesting in summer (OR, 2.377, 95% CI, 1.233-4.583), weed in the yard (OR, 1.914, 95% CI, 1.003-3.655) were positively associated with Lyme disease, while wearing protective clothes (OR, 0.173, 95% CI, 0.041-0.732) was negatively associated with Lyme disease. People living in the area are easily infected just near the house or in the cropland. They were barely diagnosed and cured. Without clear tick knowledge, the people are at high risk of exposure to tick bite and Lyme disease.

  2. Risk Factors for Suicidal Attempts Among Lower Socioeconomic Rural Population of Telangana Region

    PubMed Central

    Kosaraju, Sandeep Krishna Murthy; Vadlamani, Lakshmi Naresh; Mohammed Bashir, Mohammed Shakeel; Kalasapati, Lokesh Kumar; Rao, G. L. V. Chalapathi; Rao, G. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide is an act of intentionally causing one's own death. Number of suicidal incidences is proportional to attempted suicide cases hence if attempt cases are reduced, number of suicidal death can also be decreased and for that purpose risk factors should be identified and reduced. Therefore, this study is planned to identify risk factors among lower socioeconomic rural population of surrounding areas of Hyderabad in India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in which all the suicide attempt cases reported at Bhaskar Medical College and General Hospital were included. The study period was from January 2013 to July 2013. They were undergone a detailed psychiatric interview, including their demographic details, and complete suicide risk assessment was done using Beck's suicide intent scale. Results: It was found that females in the age group of 20-30 years, uneducated, married and daily laborers by occupation had higher incidence of suicidal attempts. Depressive disorder is the most common associated psychiatric disorder in both the genders, followed by alcohol use related problems. Family disputes are the other major risk factors. Most common mode for attempt was organophosphorous poisoning followed by ingestion of calotropis. Conclusion: Risk of suicide attempt is almost equal in terms of medium and high category of suicide assessment scale in both genders. We suggest that all individuals with alcohol related disorders must be screened for suicidal ideation so that appropriate methods can be adopted to reduce the risk. PMID:25722509

  3. Cultural concepts of tuberculosis and gender among the general population without tuberculosis in rural Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Atre, Sachin R; Kudale, Abhay M; Morankar, Sudhakar N; Rangan, Sheela G; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2004-11-01

    Gender-specific patterns of experience, meaning, and behaviour for tuberculosis (TB) require consideration to guide control programmes. To clarify concepts of gender, culture, and TB in a rural endemic population of Maharashtra, India, this study of 80 men and 80 women employed qualitative and quantitative methods of cultural epidemiology, using a locally adapted semi-structured Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) interviews are instruments for cultural epidemiological study of the distribution of illness-related experiences, meanings, and behaviours. This interview queried respondents without active disease about vignettes depicting a man and woman with typical features of TB. Emotional and social symptoms were frequently reported for both vignettes, but more often considered most distressing for the female vignette; specified problems included arranging marriages, social isolation, and inability to care for children and family. Job loss and reduced income were regarded most troubling for the male vignette. Men and women typically identified sexual experience as the cause of TB for opposite-sex vignettes. With wider access to information about TB, male respondents more frequently recommended allopathic doctors and specialty services. Discussion considers the practical significance of gender-specific cultural concepts of TB. PMID:15548321

  4. Climate-related hazards: a method for global assessment of urban and rural population exposure to cyclones, droughts, and floods.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Elliott, Mark; Banerjee, Ovik; Hamrick, Laura; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-02-21

    Global climate change (GCC) has led to increased focus on the occurrence of, and preparation for, climate-related extremes and hazards. Population exposure, the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given hazard event(s) in a given period of time, was the outcome for this analysis. Our objectives were to develop a method for estimating the population exposure at the country level to the climate-related hazards cyclone, drought, and flood; develop a method that readily allows the addition of better datasets to an automated model; differentiate population exposure of urban and rural populations; and calculate and present the results of exposure scores and ranking of countries based on the country-wide, urban, and rural population exposures to cyclone, drought, and flood. Gridded global datasets on cyclone, drought and flood occurrence as well as population density were combined and analysis was carried out using ArcGIS. Results presented include global maps of ranked country-level population exposure to cyclone, drought, flood and multiple hazards. Analyses by geography and human development index (HDI) are also included. The results and analyses of this exposure assessment have implications for country-level adaptation. It can also be used to help prioritize aid decisions and allocation of adaptation resources between countries and within a country. This model is designed to allow flexibility in applying cyclone, drought and flood exposure to a range of outcomes and adaptation measures.

  5. Climate-Related Hazards: A Method for Global Assessment of Urban and Rural Population Exposure to Cyclones, Droughts, and Floods

    PubMed Central

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Elliott, Mark; Banerjee, Ovik; Hamrick, Laura; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) has led to increased focus on the occurrence of, and preparation for, climate-related extremes and hazards. Population exposure, the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given hazard event(s) in a given period of time, was the outcome for this analysis. Our objectives were to develop a method for estimating the population exposure at the country level to the climate-related hazards cyclone, drought, and flood; develop a method that readily allows the addition of better datasets to an automated model; differentiate population exposure of urban and rural populations; and calculate and present the results of exposure scores and ranking of countries based on the country-wide, urban, and rural population exposures to cyclone, drought, and flood. Gridded global datasets on cyclone, drought and flood occurrence as well as population density were combined and analysis was carried out using ArcGIS. Results presented include global maps of ranked country-level population exposure to cyclone, drought, flood and multiple hazards. Analyses by geography and human development index (HDI) are also included. The results and analyses of this exposure assessment have implications for country-level adaptation. It can also be used to help prioritize aid decisions and allocation of adaptation resources between countries and within a country. This model is designed to allow flexibility in applying cyclone, drought and flood exposure to a range of outcomes and adaptation measures. PMID:24566046

  6. An epidemiological study of sexual disorders in south Indian rural population

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Darshan, M. S.; Tandon, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexuality is an important aspect of the personality of an individual and influences psychological, physical and social well-being of both men and women. It is a paradox, that in the country where ‘kamasutra’ (by Vatsyayana) took birth, there is a lack of research publications and sexuality related literature; hence the current study was conducted, to estimate the prevalence and association of sexual disorders with various socio-demographic variables, in the selected rural population. Materials and Methods: Subjects who were sexually active and fulfilled the study criteria were administered Arizona Sexual Experience Scale as screening tool for the presence of sexual problems. Those who were found to be having sexual problems were interviewed further using appropriate questionnaires. Results: 21.15% of the male subjects were diagnosed to have one (or more) sexual disorder. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was found to be 15.77%, male hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) 2.56%; premature ejaculation was found to be prevalent in 8.76% of the male subjects. Around 14% of the female subjects were diagnosed to have female sexual disorders. Prevalence of female arousal dysfunction was found to be 6.65%, female HSDD 8.87%, female anorgasmia 5.67%, female dyspareunia 2.34% and female sexual aversion disorder was found to be prevalent in 0.37% of the female subjects. Conclusion: This study concluded that one in five males and one in seven females were suffering from one (or more) sexual disorder. Improving the training of undergraduate medical and nursing students in sexuality related issues, increasing trained individuals in sexual medicine by starting new courses, providing sex education to the general population using media and merging sexual health care with primary care, are likely to play a significant role in addressing the increasing sexual health morbidity. PMID:26124520

  7. Association Between a Polymorphism (rs2071214) in Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 5 Gene (BIRC5) and Ischemic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Jinmann; Kim, Hee-Sang; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Dong Hwan; Kim, Su Kang; Park, Hae Jeong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Chung, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) repeat containing 5 gene (BIRC5) polymorphisms are associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke in Korea population. Methods We enrolled 121 ischemic stroke patients and 291 control subjects. Ischemic stroke patients were divided into subgroups according to the scores of National Institutes of Health Stroke Survey (<6 or ≥6) and Modified Barthel Index (<60 or ≥60). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BIRC5 (rs3764383 and rs2071214) were selected and genotyped by direct sequencing for all subjects. Multiple logistic regression models (codominant 1 and 2, dominant, recessive, overdominant and log-additive) were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p-values. Results In analysis of stroke susceptibility, the genotype and allele frequencies of rs3764383 exhibited no difference between the control group and the ischemic stroke group. SNP rs2071214 was associated with ischemic stroke in the codominant (p=0.003), dominant (p=0.002), overdominant (p=0.005), and log-additive (p=0.008) models, respectively. The G allele frequency of rs2071214 was significantly (p=0.009) associated with susceptibility for ischemic stroke (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.12–2.21). However, in the analysis for clinical phenotype, no SNP of the BIRC5 gene was found to be associated with ischemic stroke. Conclusion These results suggest that a missense SNP (rs2071214) of BIRC5 may be associated with the development of ischemic stroke in the Korean population. PMID:27446775

  8. New Populations; Shifting Expectations: The Changing Experience of Irish Rural Space and Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Marie

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a summary account of the changing nature of places in the urban fringe in Ireland. As such places are still largely perceived of as rural in nature, this involves a consideration of what constitutes the rural, itself the subject of ongoing debate. Using research conducted in three urban fringe locations in the West of Ireland,…

  9. Issues in Vocational Education for Special Populations in Rural Areas. TASPP Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1990-01-01

    Students with special needs living in rural areas face a difficult challenge as they prepare for employment and adult life. Access to vocational education in rural areas may be limited by isolation, problems in teacher recruitment and retention, curriculum and instructional deficiencies, and weak financial support. In addition, program relevance…

  10. Stroke risk factors differ between rural and urban communities: population survey in central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Sajatovic, Martha; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Furlan, Anthony J; Kayima, James; Ddumba, Edward; Katabira, Elly; Byakika-Tusiime, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic transition is changing urban and rural communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed stroke risk factors and associated characteristics in urban and rural Uganda. Methods We surveyed 5420 urban and rural participants and assessed stroke risk factor prevalence and socio-behavioural characteristics associated with risk factors. Results Rural participants were older with higher proportions of men and fewer poor compared to urban areas. Most prevalent modifiable stroke risk factors in all areas were hypertension (27.1% rural and 22.4% urban, P=0.004), overweight and obesity (22.0% rural and 42% urban P<0.0001), and elevated waist hip ratio (25.8% rural and 24.1% urban P=0.045). Diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, harmful alcohol consumption were found in ≤5%. Age, family history of hypertension, and waist hip ratio were associated with hypertension in all while BMI, HIV were associated with hypertension only in urban dwellers. Sex and family history of hypertension were associated with BMI in all, while age and socio-economic status, diabetes were associated with BMI in urban dwellers only. Conclusions Stroke risk factors of diabetes, smoking, inactivity and harmful alcohol consumption are rare in Uganda. Rural dwellers tend to be older with hypertension and elevated waist hip ratio. Unlike high-income countries, higher socioeconomic status is associated with overweight and obesity. PMID:25967045

  11. The Appalachia Cancer Network: Cancer Control Research Among a Rural, Medically Underserved Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengerich, Eugene J.; Wyatt, Stephen W.; Rubio, Angel; Beaulieu, Joyce E.; Coyne, Cathy A.; Fleisher, Linda; Ward, Ann J.; Brown, Pamela K.

    2004-01-01

    Residents of Appalachia, especially those in rural Appalachia, are generally considered to be medically underserved. In fact, cancer mortality in Appalachia, especially in rural Appalachia, is higher than it is in the remainder of the United States. Developing from the Appalachia Leadership Initiative on Cancer, the Appalachia Cancer Network (ACN)…

  12. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Rheinländer, Thilde; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS) among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. Objective This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July–November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September–December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15), and their parents (15), focus group discussions (FGDs) with schoolchildren (32) and school staff (20) and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Results Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most of their time

  13. Do Children in Rural Areas Still Have Different Access to Health Care? Results from a Statewide Survey of Oregon's Food Stamp Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. Methods: We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon's food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a…

  14. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea. PMID:26569279

  15. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea.

  16. Social and Physical Environments and Self-Rated Health in Urban and Rural Communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-A; Park, Jong Heon; Kim, Myung

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the associations between social and physical environments and self-rated health (SRH) for urban and rural Korean adults, using data from the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 199,790 participants (115,454 urban and 84,336 rural). The main dependent variable was SRH, while the primary independent variables were social and physical characteristics. Urban residents reported better SRH than did rural residents. Five social environmental variables (trust of neighbors, residence in the area for over 20 years, exchanging help with neighbors, friend and fellowship activities, contact with relatives and neighbors over five times per month) were more prevalent among rural residents. Satisfaction with physical environment was more common among rural residents, but satisfaction with traffic and healthcare facilities was more common among urban areas. After adjusting for relevant factors, positive associations between SRH and trust of neighbors, exchanging help with neighbors, participation in social activities or organizations, and physical environment existed in both rural and urban populations. Also, in both areas, there was no demonstrated association between SRH and years of residence or frequency of contact with relatives. Our findings suggest the existence of an association between social and physical factors and perceived health status among the general population of Korea. PMID:26569279

  17. Increasing Youths' Exposure to a Tobacco Prevention Media Campaign in Rural and Low-Population-Density Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vallone, Donna M.; Allen, Jane A.; Cullen, Jennifer; Mowery, Paul D.; Xiao, Haijun; Dorrler, Nicole; Asche, Eric T.; Healton, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effectiveness of a program to increase exposure to national “truth” tobacco countermarketing messages among youths in rural and low-population-density communities. Methods. A longitudinal survey of 2618 youths aged 12 to 17 years was conducted over 5 months in 8 media markets receiving supplemental advertising and 8 comparison markets receiving less than the national average of “truth” messages. Results. Confirmed awareness of “truth” increased from 40% to 71% among youths in treatment markets while remaining stable in comparison markets. Over 35% of all youths who were unaware of the campaign at baseline became aware of it as a direct result of the increased advertising. Youths living in rural and low-population-density communities were receptive to the campaign's messages. Conclusions. Through purchase of airtime in local broadcast media, the reach of a national tobacco countermarketing campaign was expanded among youths living in rural and low-population-density areas. This strategy of augmenting delivery of nationally broadcast antitobacco ads can serve as a model for leveraging limited tobacco control resources to increase the impact of evidence-based tobacco prevention campaigns. PMID:19833994

  18. Rural Prairie Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kari

    "Rural Prairie Women" contains the work of two task forces: the Rural Social Work Task Force which looked at the forces active in North Dakota rural areas and the Rural Women Task Force which examined the position of women within those same rural communities. The relationship between the land, small towns, and sparse population is explored, as is…

  19. Population genetic data on loci LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8 and GC in the Bangkok population compared with rural Thais from Trat province.

    PubMed

    Sueblinvong, T; Sirisup, N; Anomasiri, W; Kongsrisook, U; Sueblinvong, T

    1999-08-01

    Prior to the introduction of any DNA marker as a tool for person identification and paternity test in certain ethnic groups, a population genetic database should be constructed. Using multiplex primers in single tube polymerase chain amplification, 5 loci of unrelated genes in the PM Amplitype kit (Perkin Elmer) were studied in two Thai population groups: 228 DNA samples were extracted from blood collected at the Borai rural area in Trat province; another 123 DNA samples were collected at the outpatient clinic, Department of Forensic Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok. Analysis of alleles and genotypes was performed after reversed dot blot hybridization of PCR products to allelic sequence specific probes immobilized on the membrane strip followed by nonradioisotopic detection according to the manufacturer's protocol. Population genetic statistic parameters including discrimination power (DP), the probability of matching (PM), power of exclusion for trio (PE trio) and typical paternity index (PI typical) were computed. Both Thai population groups showed no significant deviation from the Hardy Weinberg Expectation (HWE). The combined DP of all 5 loci in the PM Amplitype markers was 0.993636 for rural Thais and 0.994409 for Thais from Bangkok. The combined PM for rural Thais and those living in Bangkok was 0.006364 and 0.005591, respectively. The combined PE trio was 0.696825 and 0.698875 in both Thai population groups and the combined PI typical values were < 1.0. In conclusion, person identification using PM Amplitype DNA markers was efficient and satisfactory within certain limits. Hence, the application of PM Amplitype DNA markers for paternity tests should be cautiously considered and applied in combination with other parameters.

  20. The Reach of Chronic-Disease Self-Management Education Programs to Rural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Towne, Samuel D.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ahn, SangNam; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the sociodemographic characteristics of rural residents who participated in chronic-disease self-management education (CDSME) program workshops and the extent to which CDSME programs were utilized by those with limited access to health care services. We analyzed data from the first 100,000 adults who attended CDSME program workshops during a national dissemination spanning 45 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Approximately 24% of participants lived in rural areas. Overall, 42% of all participants were minorities; urban areas reached more minority participants (48%) than rural areas (25%). The average age of participants was high in rural (age, μ = 66.1) and urban (age, μ = 67.3) areas. In addition, the average number of chronic conditions was higher (p < 0.01) in rural (μ = 2.6 conditions) versus urban (μ = 2.4 conditions) areas. Successful completion of CDSME programs (i.e., attending four or more of the six workshop sessions) was higher (p < 0.01) in rural versus urban areas (78% versus 77%). Factors associated with higher likelihood of successful completion of CDSME programs included being Black (OR = 1.25) versus White and living in rural (versus urban) areas (OR = 1.09). Factors associated with lower likelihood of successful completion included being male (OR = 0.92) and residing in a primary care Health Professional Shortage Area or HPSA (versus a non-HPSA) (OR = 0.93). Findings highlight the capability of CDSME programs to reach rural residents, yet dissemination efforts can be further enhanced to ensure minorities and individuals in a HPSA utilize this program. Tailored strategies are needed to increase participant recruitment and retention in rural areas to overcome traditional barriers to health service access. PMID:25964906

  1. Effective Population Size and Signatures of Selection Using Bovine 50K SNP Chips in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Inferring the effective population size and the pattern of selection signatures is of interest both from an evolutionary perspective and to improve models for mapping of quantitative trait genes. We used DNA samples of 61 sires and 486 progeny of the Hanwoo, genotyped by the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip, to analyze the genetic structure. Our study showed a persistent decline in effective population size throughout the period considered, but suggested a marked decline at one distinctive time point (100th generation) and two sharp decline intervals (50th–25th generation and 25th–10th generation). This pattern can be explained by Hanwoo formation and the modern breeding program. Our results revealed 95 regions exhibiting the footprint of recent positive selection at a threshold level of 0.01. We found an overlap of the 11 core regions presenting top P-values and those that had previously been identified as harboring quantitative trait loci from other breeds. The information generated from this study can be used to better understand the mechanism of selection in Hanwoo breeding, and provide important implications for the design and application of association studies in the Hanwoo population. PMID:26244003

  2. [Tularemia seroprevalence in the risky population living in both rural and urban areas of Erzurum].

    PubMed

    Yazgı, Halil; Uyanık, M Hamidullah; Ertek, Mustafa; Kılıç, Selçuk; Kireçci, Ekrem; Ozden, Kemalettin; Ayyıldız, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia which is a zoonotic infection, caused by Francisella tularensis, has become a re-emerging disease in Turkey. Infection is often transmitted to human by handling animal tissues and products, but it is also possible to acquire the disease from contaminated water or food. Recently several cases and epidemics of tularemia have been reported in the northwest areas of Turkey, particularly in Marmara and West Black Sea regions. Erzurum is a city in Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey and animal husbandry is the main agricultural activity in that area. However, neither tularemia cases were reported from this province nor seroprevalence studies were performed. In this study we aimed to determine F.tularensis antibody seropositivity in the risky population living at both rural and urban area of Erzurum. Blood samples from 240 volunteer subjects (134 male with mean age: 36.2, age range: 17-75 years and 106 female with mean age: 39.1, age range: 16-77 years) whose occupations were farming and animal husbandry, were included in the study. Serum samples were screened for the presence of F.tularensis antibodies by slide agglutination method (BD, USA) and Serazym ELISA kit (anti-F.tularensis IgG/IgA/IgM, Seramun, Germany). The positive samples with those tests were also retested by microagglutination test (MAT) in National Tularemia Reference Laboratory of Refik Saydam Hygiene Center, using antigen prepared in the same laboratory from the local strain. The serum samples were also searched for the presence of Brucella and Salmonella antibodies in terms of cross-reactivity. Seropositivity was detected in 71 (29.6%) out of 240 subjects by slide agglutination test (SAT), whereas only 5 (2.1%) gave positive result for total antibody by ELISA. Twenty-five of the 71 SAT positive samples yielded F.tularensis antibodies by MAT, of which 21 were between 1/20-1/40 and four were between 1/80-1/160 titers. However, all of the MAT positive samples (n= 25) were found reactive in Brucella

  3. The Effects of Housing on Health and Health Risks in an Aging Population: A Qualitative Study in Rural Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Somrongthong, Ratana; Dullyaperadis, Saovalux; Wulff, Anne Louise; Ward, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Over the last decade, Thailand has experienced an aging population, especially in rural areas. Research finds a strong, positive relationship between good quality housing and health, and this paper assesses the impact and living experience of housing of older people in rural Thailand. Methods. This was a mixed-method study, using data from observations of the physical adequacy of housing, semistructured interviews with key informants, and archival information from health records for 13 households in rural Thailand. Results. There were four main themes, each of which led to health risks for the older people: “lighting and unsafe wires,” “house design and composition,” “maintenance of the house,” and “health care equipment.” The housing was not appropriately designed to accommodate health care equipment or to fully support individual daily activities of older people. Numerous accidents occurred as a direct result of inadequate housing and the majority of houses had insufficient and unsafe lighting, floor surfaces and furniture that created health risks, and toilets or beds that were at an unsuitable height for older people. Conclusion. This paper provides an improved and an important understanding of the housing situation among older people living in rural areas in Thailand. PMID:25101268

  4. Selenium status in pregnant women of a rural population (Zaire) in relationship to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ngo, D B; Dikassa, L; Okitolonda, W; Kashala, T D; Gervy, C; Dumont, J; Vanovervelt, N; Contempré, B; Diplock, A T; Peach, S; Vanderpas, J

    1997-06-01

    Endemic myxoedematous cretinism has been associated with combined selenium and iodine deficiency in several areas of Zaire. To determine selenium and iodine status across the country, serum selenium and thyroid function parameters including urinary iodide were determined at prenatal clinics in 30 health centres of rural villages distributed over the whole country. Only in Bas-Zaire was the mean serum selenium level similar to that in non-deficient areas (80-120 ng/ml); in the regions of Bandunda and Kasai levels were marginally decreased (55-80 ng/ml), and in Kivu, Haut-Zaire, Equateur and Shaba they were marginally or moderately decreased (< 55 ng/ml). The frequency of abnormally low urinary iodide (< 5 micrograms/dl) varied from 20% in the region of Bas-Zaire to 50% in Kasai (P < 0.001), and to still higher percentages in the 5 other regions of Zaire (Bandundu, 57%; Kivu, 63%; Equateur, 72%; Shaba, 76%; Haut-Zaire, 84%). With the exception of Bas-Zaire, biochemical maternal hypothyroidism (serum TSH > 5mU/l) was present in every region, with a frequency ranging from 3% in Kivu to 12% in Equateur. Iodine deficiency affects most of the Zairean population and requires public health measures on a larger scale than previously estimated. Combined iodine and selenium deficiency affects Equateur, Haut-Zaire and Kivu, where endemic myxoedematous cretinism occurs, but also Shaba, where it was not previously described. Besides combined iodine and selenium deficiency which is permissive, another factor (thiocyanate?) must be taken into account to explain the peculiarly elevated prevalence of endemic myxoedematous cretinism in Central Africa. PMID:9236825

  5. A new model for the urbanization of rural population in China: an analysis of the nonnative population in the Longgang "Farmers' Town" in Wenzhou.

    PubMed

    Xu, T; Ye, S

    1994-01-01

    The development of the new town of Longgang on reclaimed river beach on the Ao River in Zhejiang Province, China, was accomplished quickly through the investment of rural farmers in industrial and commercial operations. In 1983, the new city idea was promoted, and 5000 rural households from 7 counties in 8 provinces responded by moving into Longgang. In 1990, the rural labor force numbered 7500 people, and migration into Longgang amounted to 12,000 people. Total population in 1992 numbered 124,000 persons, which included 27,000 transient population. The original population numbered 6000 persons in a fishing village. A survey conducted in 1992 found that 64.6% of transients were aged 15-29 years and 27.8% were aged 30-44 years: 61.6% male and 38.4% female. Most transients were in the service industry. 7.2% had a senior high school education, 44.4% had a junior high school education, 43.6% had elementary school education, and 4.8% were illiterate. 79.4% were planning businesses, of which 36.2% was other than trade and 30.6% involved handicrafts. 44.8% stayed more than a year and 24.4% stayed 1-2 years. 11.0% stayed 2-3 years and 8.8% stayed 3-5 years. 3.2% stayed over 10 years. In 1992, 69.8% of women were aged 15-29 years. Family planning was used in 7 residential areas by 71.5% of residents. Survey respondents reported that only about 25% were undecided about staying and only 3% had no intention of staying. About 8000 rural laborers have arrived in the town annually. Investment has amounted to about RMB 450 million, of which 60.65 million was for capital construction. Markets in the tertiary industry in 1992 employed about 12,400 persons. Industrial output value reached about RMB 6 million in 1992. Commercial and industrial taxes have yielded RMB 32.6 million. In 1991, the monthly income averaged RMB 437.3, and per capita income in 1991 amounted to RMB 1698. There has been a shift from self-sufficient consumption to commodity consumption. The changed lifestyles and

  6. Long-term Prognosis of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and Predictors for Progression to Persistnt or Chronic Atrial Fibrillation in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Im, Sung Ii; Chun, Kwang Jin; Park, Seung-Jung; Park, Kyoung-Min; Kim, June Soo; On, Young Keun

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the long-term prognosis of or predictors for the different clinical types of atrial fibrillation (AF) in Korean populations. The aim of this study was to validate a risk stratification to assess the probability of AF progression from paroxysmal AF (PAF) to persistent AF (PeAF) or permanent AF. A total of 434 patients with PAF were consecutively enrolled (mean age; 71.7 ± 10.7 yr, 60.6% male). PeAF was defined as episodes that are sustained > 7 days and not self-terminating, while permanent AF was defined as an ongoing long-term episode. Atrial arrhythmia during follow-up was defined as atrial premature complex, atrial tachycardia, and atrial flutter. During a mean follow-up of 72.7 ± 58.3 months, 168 patients (38.7%) with PAF progressed to PeAF or permanent AF. The mean annual AF progression was 10.7% per year. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis, body mass index, atrial arrhythmia during follow-up, left ventricular ejection fraction, concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial diameter (LAD), and severe mitral regurgitation (MR) were significantly associated with AF progression. In multivariate analysis, age at diagnosis (P = 0.009), atrial arrhythmia during follow-up (P = 0.015), LAD (P = 0.002) and MR grade (P = 0.026) were independent risk factors for AF progression. Patients with younger age at diagnosis, atrial arrhythmia during follow-up, larger left atrial chamber size, and severe MR grade are more likely to progress to PeAF or permanent AF, suggesting more intensive medical therapy with close clinical follow-up would be required in those patients.

  7. Evaluation of the Bio-Rad Geenius HIV 1/2 Confirmation Assay as an Alternative to Western Blot in the Korean Population: A Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee-Won; Huh, Hee Jin; Oh, Gwi Young; Lee, Sang Gon; Lee, Anna; Yun, Yeo-Min; Hur, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Recently updated recommendations for diagnosis of HIV infection suggest a new diagnostic algorithm including HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation immunoassay instead of western blot (WB) as a confirmatory testing. We evaluated Bio-Rad Geenius HIV1/2 confirmation assay as a simple and reliable alternative to WB in the Korean population with low HIV prevalence. The Geenius HIV1/2 was performed in a total of 192 serum specimens (140 reactive and 52 nonreactive specimens by ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay) that were prospectively collected from five institutions. HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) was performed in negative or indeterminate specimens by Geenius HIV1/2 or WB. Among 140 reactive specimens by HIV Ag/Ab assay, 82 (58.6%) were positive for HIV-1 Ab by Geenius HIV1/2. Among 58 negative or indeterminate specimens by Geenius HIV1/2, four specimens (6.9%) were positive by HIV-1 NAT. The sensitivity and specificity of Geenius HIV1/2 were 95.3% and 100.0%, respectively. When we considered only WB, the sensitivity and specificity of Geenius HIV1/2 were 100.0% and 99.1%, respectively. Agreement between Geenius HIV1/2 and WB was excellent (weighted Kappa = 0.89). The Geenius HIV1/2 is simple and time-saving compared with WB. It has an excellent performance and can be a reliable alternative to WB. HIV-1 NAT should be performed in negative or indeterminate specimens by Geenius HIV1/2 to detect acute HIV infection as recommended in new HIV testing algorithms.

  8. An integrative study identifies KCNC2 as a novel predisposing factor for childhood obesity and the risk of diabetes in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Go, Min Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Park, Sang Ick; Kim, Bong-Jo; Lee, Hye-Ja

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. To unravel the genetic determinants of obesity-associated diabetes, we performed a genome-wide study using the 1,000 Genomes-based imputation in a Korean childhood cohort (KoCAS-1, n = 484) and carried out de novo replication in an independent population (KoCAS-2, n = 1,548). A novel variant (rs10879834) with multiple diverse associations for obesity-related traits was also found to be replicated in an adult cohort (KARE, n = 8,842). Functional annotations using integrative epigenetic analyses identified biological significance and regulatory effects with an inverse methylation-expression correlation (cg27154343 in the 5′-UTR of the KCNC2 gene), tissue-specific enhancer mark (H3K4me1), and pathway enrichment (insulin signaling). Further functional studies in cellular and mouse models demonstrated that KCNC2 is associated with anti-obesogenic effects in the regulation of obesity-induced insulin resistance. KCNC2 shRNA transfection induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic gluconeogenesis. Overproduction of KCNC2 decreased ER stress, and treatment with metformin enhanced KCNC2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of KCNC2 is associated with modified hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased ER stress on obesity-mediated diabetic risk. An integrative multi-omics analysis might reveal new functional and clinical implications related to the control of energy and metabolic homeostasis in humans. PMID:27623749

  9. Monitoring of PBDEs concentration in umbilical cord blood and breast milk from Korean population and estimating the effects of various parameters on accumulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Hyung Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated concentration, congener distribution pattern, and effects of potential environmental factors that affect PBDE accumulation. We also estimated correlation between PBDE concentration and health status or thyroid function by analyzing 90 cord blood and 21 breast milk samples obtained from Korean population. Seven from tri- to hepta-BDEs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (SPE-HRGC/HRMS). The total concentration of 7 PBDEs in cord blood was 2.786-94.64 ng g(-1) lipid and that in breast milk was 1.076-8.664 ng g(-1) lipid. Tetra-BDE (#47) was the predominant type of PBDE and was present at concentrations of over 40% in both sample types. A weak correlation was observed between the concentration of BDE28 and 153 and thyroid hormone concentration only in the breast milk samples. In children, a weak negative correlation was observed between free thyroxine (FT4) concentration and BDE28 concentration (0.302, p<0.05), while in mothers, a weak positive correlation was observed between thyroid hormone concentration and BDE153 concentration (0.403, p<0.05). No significant correlations between PBDE concentration and work and residential environments were found in this study, but a weak correlation between BDE concentration in cord blood and potential PBDE sources was confirmed by investigating the frequency of oil paint usage (0.510, p<0.001). A weak correlation was also found between PBDE concentration in breast milk during pregnancy and dietary habits such as green tea drinking (0.541, p=0.025) and Trichiuridae intake (0.565, p=0.015). PMID:21890170

  10. Association of tripartite motif family-like 2 (TRIML2) polymorphisms with late-onset Alzheimer's disease risk in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Won Sub; Park, Jin Kyung; Kim, Young Jong; Cho, Ah Rang; Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Paik, Jong-Woo; Lee, Kang Joon; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Young Youl; Lim, Hyun Kook; Jeong, Hyun-Ghang; Kim, Jong Woo

    2016-09-01

    Apoptosis is a prominent feature in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), regulated in part by the activity of p53. As tripartite motif family-like 2 (TRIML2), a member of the TRIM family of proteins, has been implicated in the regulation of p53-mediated apoptosis, we hypothesized that TRIML2 polymorphisms may result in an increased AD susceptibility. Here, we investigated the association between coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) in TRIML2 and AD in a Korean population. Two cSNPs (rs79698746 and rs2279551) were genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX(®) Gold assay and direct sequencing in 162 AD patients and 191 controls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p-values. Significant associations were observed between AD and the allelic frequencies of two SNPs (rs79698746, p=0.007; rs2279551, p=0.01); genotype frequencies were also significantly different between the two groups [rs79698746: p=0.003 in the codominant 2 model (CC vs. TT), p=0.01 in the dominant model (TC/CC vs. TT), p=0.016 in the recessive model (CC vs. TT/TC), and p=0.0025 in the log-additive model (TC vs. CC vs. TT); rs2279551: p=0.003 in the codominant 2 model (CC vs. TT), p=0.011 in the dominant model (TC/CC vs. TT), p=0.019 in the recessive model (CC vs. TT/TC), and p=0.0028 in the log-additive model (TC vs. CC vs. TT)]. In the haplotype analyses, CC haplotypes containing two cSNPs were significantly associated with AD (p=0.013). Taken together, these findings indicate that the C allele of both SNPs was associated with an increased risk of AD. These results suggest that TRIML2 may contribute to AD susceptibility. PMID:27471163

  11. Prevalence of chronic cough and possible causes in the general population based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Jeong, Ina; Lee, Sei Won; Park, Jinkyeong; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Park, Hye Yun; Rhee, Chin Kook; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jung, Ji Ye; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Choi, Eun Young; Moon, Ji-Yong; Shin, Jong-Wook; Kim, Jin Woo; Min, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Sei Won; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Kim, Je Hyeong; Jang, Seung Hun; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Hui Jung; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-09-01

    Although chronic cough is very common, its prevalence and causes have been rarely reported in the large general population including smokers. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of possible causes of chronic cough and their clinical impact.From Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data including 119,280 adults aged over 40 years, 302 individuals with chronic cough were recruited irrespective of smoking status. Data from questionnaire, laboratory tests including spirometry, chest radiographs, and otorhinolaryngologic examination were analyzed.The prevalence of chronic cough in adults was 2.5% ± 0.2%. Current smokers occupied 47.7% ± 3.8% of study population and 46.8% ± 3.9% of the subjects showed upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Based on spirometry, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was identified in 26.4% ± 3.5%. Asthma explained for 14.5% ± 2.8% of chronic cough. Only 4.1% ± 1.6% showed chronic laryngitis suggesting gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough. Abnormalities on chest radiography were found in 4.0% ± 1.2%. Interestingly, 50.3% ± 4.5% of study subjects had coexisting causes. In multivariate analysis, only current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 3.16, P < 0.001), UACS (OR 2.50, P < 0.001), COPD (OR 2.41, P < 0.001), asthma (OR 8.89, P < 0.001), and chest radiographic abnormalities (OR 2.74, P = 0.003) were independent risk factor for chronic cough. This pattern was not different according to smoking status excepting the prevalence of COPD.Smoking, COPD, and chest radiographic abnormalities should be considered as causes of chronic cough, along with UACS and asthma. Gastro-esophageal reflux-related cough is not prevalent in study population. PMID:27631208

  12. Rural to Urban Population Density Scaling of Crime and Property Transactions in English and Welsh Parliamentary Constituencies.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Quentin S; Lewis, Dan; Ribeiro, Haroldo V

    2016-01-01

    Urban population scaling of resource use, creativity metrics, and human behaviors has been widely studied. These studies have not looked in detail at the full range of human environments which represent a continuum from the most rural to heavily urban. We examined monthly police crime reports and property transaction values across all 573 Parliamentary Constituencies in England and Wales, finding that scaling models based on population density provided a far superior framework to traditional population scaling. We found four types of scaling: i) non-urban scaling in which a single power law explained the relationship between the metrics and population density from the most rural to heavily urban environments, ii) accelerated scaling in which high population density was associated with an increase in the power-law exponent, iii) inhibited scaling where the urban environment resulted in a reduction in the power-law exponent but remained positive, and iv) collapsed scaling where transition to the high density environment resulted in a negative scaling exponent. Urban scaling transitions, when observed, took place universally between 10 and 70 people per hectare. This study significantly refines our understanding of urban scaling, making clear that some of what has been previously ascribed to urban environments may simply be the high density portion of non-urban scaling. It also makes clear that some metrics undergo specific transitions in urban environments and these transitions can include negative scaling exponents indicative of collapse. This study gives promise of far more sophisticated scale adjusted metrics and indicates that studies of urban scaling represent a high density subsection of overall scaling relationships which continue into rural environments. PMID:26886219

  13. Rural to Urban Population Density Scaling of Crime and Property Transactions in English and Welsh Parliamentary Constituencies.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Quentin S; Lewis, Dan; Ribeiro, Haroldo V

    2016-01-01

    Urban population scaling of resource use, creativity metrics, and human behaviors has been widely studied. These studies have not looked in detail at the full range of human environments which represent a continuum from the most rural to heavily urban. We examined monthly police crime reports and property transaction values across all 573 Parliamentary Constituencies in England and Wales, finding that scaling models based on population density provided a far superior framework to traditional population scaling. We found four types of scaling: i) non-urban scaling in which a single power law explained the relationship between the metrics and population density from the most rural to heavily urban environments, ii) accelerated scaling in which high population density was associated with an increase in the power-law exponent, iii) inhibited scaling where the urban environment resulted in a reduction in the power-law exponent but remained positive, and iv) collapsed scaling where transition to the high density environment resulted in a negative scaling exponent. Urban scaling transitions, when observed, took place universally between 10 and 70 people per hectare. This study significantly refines our understanding of urban scaling, making clear that some of what has been previously ascribed to urban environments may simply be the high density portion of non-urban scaling. It also makes clear that some metrics undergo specific transitions in urban environments and these transitions can include negative scaling exponents indicative of collapse. This study gives promise of far more sophisticated scale adjusted metrics and indicates that studies of urban scaling represent a high density subsection of overall scaling relationships which continue into rural environments.

  14. Rural to Urban Population Density Scaling of Crime and Property Transactions in English and Welsh Parliamentary Constituencies

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Quentin S.; Lewis, Dan; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.

    2016-01-01

    Urban population scaling of resource use, creativity metrics, and human behaviors has been widely studied. These studies have not looked in detail at the full range of human environments which represent a continuum from the most rural to heavily urban. We examined monthly police crime reports and property transaction values across all 573 Parliamentary Constituencies in England and Wales, finding that scaling models based on population density provided a far superior framework to traditional population scaling. We found four types of scaling: i) non-urban scaling in which a single power law explained the relationship between the metrics and population density from the most rural to heavily urban environments, ii) accelerated scaling in which high population density was associated with an increase in the power-law exponent, iii) inhibited scaling where the urban environment resulted in a reduction in the power-law exponent but remained positive, and iv) collapsed scaling where transition to the high density environment resulted in a negative scaling exponent. Urban scaling transitions, when observed, took place universally between 10 and 70 people per hectare. This study significantly refines our understanding of urban scaling, making clear that some of what has been previously ascribed to urban environments may simply be the high density portion of non-urban scaling. It also makes clear that some metrics undergo specific transitions in urban environments and these transitions can include negative scaling exponents indicative of collapse. This study gives promise of far more sophisticated scale adjusted metrics and indicates that studies of urban scaling represent a high density subsection of overall scaling relationships which continue into rural environments. PMID:26886219

  15. Population structure and domestication revealed by high-depth resequencing of Korean cultivated and wild soybean genomes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Won-Hyong; Jeong, Namhee; Kim, Jiwoong; Lee, Woo Kyu; Lee, Yun-Gyeong; Lee, Sang-Heon; Yoon, Woongchang; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Kim, Namshin; Jeong, Soon-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of soybean as a major crop, genome-wide variation and evolution of cultivated soybeans are largely unknown. Here, we catalogued genome variation in an annual soybean population by high-depth resequencing of 10 cultivated and 6 wild accessions and obtained 3.87 million high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after excluding the sites with missing data in any accession. Nuclear genome phylogeny supported a single origin for the cultivated soybeans. We identified 10-fold longer linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the wild soybean relative to wild maize and rice. Despite the small population size, the long LD and large SNP data allowed us to identify 206 candidate domestication regions with significantly lower diversity in the cultivated, but not in the wild, soybeans. Some of the genes in these candidate regions were associated with soybean homologues of canonical domestication genes. However, several examples, which are likely specific to soybean or eudicot crop plants, were also observed. Consequently, the variation data identified in this study should be valuable for breeding and for identifying agronomically important genes in soybeans. However, the long LD of wild soybeans may hinder pinpointing causal gene(s) in the candidate regions.

  16. Resected femoral anthropometry for design of the femoral component of the total knee prosthesis in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dai-Soon; Han, Suhyoun; Han, Chang Whan

    2010-01-01

    We measured the mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) length, height and widths of the anterior, posterior and inferior section of the resected distal femurs using three dimensional computer tomographic measurements in 200 knees from 100 cadavers. We also calculated the aspect ratio (ML/AP) and compared the measured parameters with that of six conventionally used total knee femoral prostheses. We found that the average ML (70.2±5.5 mm) and AP (53.9±3.8 mm) dimensions from our study were lower than those reported from Western populations. The aspect ratio showed a progressive decline with an increasing antero-posterior dimension. All of the compared designs showed undersizing for the mediolateral dimension distally and for the widths of the resected medial and lateral posterior femoral condyles. But some of the compared designs showed oversizing for the height of the resected medial and lateral posterior femoral condyles. This study provides guidelines for designing a suitable femoral component for total knee prostheses that fit Asian populations. PMID:21212865

  17. Atherogenic Index of Plasma Predicts Hyperuricemia in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Guo, Xiaofan; Guo, Liang; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the association of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) with hyperuricemia (HUA) in the rural population of northeast China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013, and the final analysis included data obtained form 5253 men and 6092 women. 1104 participants (9.7%) suffered from HUA. Spearman rank test showed that AIP was positively correlated with uric acid in both sexes (r = 0.310 for men and r = 0.347 for women, both p < 0.001). AIP was classified into three groups: the low (<0.11), the intermediate (0.11–0.21) and the increased (>0.21) risk. The prevalence of HUA increased with AIP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to the low AIP group, participants in increased AIP group had a 2.536-fold risk for HUA (2.164-fold in male and 2.960-fold in female) after adjustment for covariates. Results of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve (95% confidence intervals) was 0.686 (0.665–0.707) for male and 0.730 (0.706–0.755) for female. We indicated that increased AIP was associated with higher serum uric acid levels and could be identified as an independent risk factor of HUA in the rural population of northeast China. PMID:27598187

  18. Atherogenic Index of Plasma Predicts Hyperuricemia in Rural Population: A Cross-Sectional Study from Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ye; Li, Yuan; Guo, Xiaofan; Guo, Liang; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the association of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) with hyperuricemia (HUA) in the rural population of northeast China. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the rural areas of northeast China from January 2012 to August 2013, and the final analysis included data obtained form 5253 men and 6092 women. 1104 participants (9.7%) suffered from HUA. Spearman rank test showed that AIP was positively correlated with uric acid in both sexes (r = 0.310 for men and r = 0.347 for women, both p < 0.001). AIP was classified into three groups: the low (<0.11), the intermediate (0.11-0.21) and the increased (>0.21) risk. The prevalence of HUA increased with AIP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared to the low AIP group, participants in increased AIP group had a 2.536-fold risk for HUA (2.164-fold in male and 2.960-fold in female) after adjustment for covariates. Results of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the area under the curve (95% confidence intervals) was 0.686 (0.665-0.707) for male and 0.730 (0.706-0.755) for female. We indicated that increased AIP was associated with higher serum uric acid levels and could be identified as an independent risk factor of HUA in the rural population of northeast China. PMID:27598187

  19. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have examined heat- and cold-related cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat- and cold-related CVD morbidity and possible regional differences. This study compares heat- and cold-stress effects on excess CVD mortality and morbidity in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia over 16-year period (1994-2009). Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Several methods for identifying days and spells of days with heat and cold stress are applied, including Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days was identified in Prague, while on cold days we found higher excess CVD mortality in the rural region of southern Bohemia. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. The differences between Prague and the rural region of southern Bohemia indicate a possible influence of urban heat island effect in Prague together with other factors such as long- and short-term exposure to air pollution, different lifestyle, or different population, which may result in differing vulnerability to heat and cold stress.

  20. Korean Thanksgiving. Chusongnal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    This bilingual reader in Korean and English is intended for elementary school children in a bilingual education setting. Pen-and-ink drawings illustrate the story about a family's celebration of a traditional Korean Thanksgiving. (NCR)

  1. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980.

  2. Association between eNOS polymorphisms and risk of coronary artery disease in a Korean population: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sung, J H; Lee, B E; Kim, J O; Jeon, Y J; Kim, S H; Lim, S W; Moon, J Y; Cha, D H; Kim, O J; Kim, I J; Kim, N K

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD), a multifactorial disease, is a common cause of mortality in humans. Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene (-786T>C, 4a4b, and 894G>T) have been previously associated with increased CAD risk. However, the sample size of this previous study was too small and limited to comprehensively define an association between eNOS polymorphisms and CAD; therefore, this analysis was duplicated with a larger population. The study was conducted on 559 patients with CAD and 574 healthy controls. Genetic DNA was extracted using the commercial G-DEX blood extraction kit and statistical analyses were performed on the GraphPad prism 4.0 and MedCalc 12.0 statistical software platforms. No single variant of the eNOS polymorphism was associated with CAD risk. The combination genotypes of eNOS -786TT/4a4b+4a4a [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.122; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.042-0.358] and eNOS -786TC+CC/4b4b (AOR = 0.379; 95%CI: 0.147-0.979) were associated with decreased CAD incidence. Haplotype analysis revealed that the T-4a haplotype of eNOS -786T>C and 4a4b exerted a protective effect against CAD. The association between eNOS -786T>C and increased CAD risk was not replicated in this (larger) population. However, some combined genotypes showed a meaningful association with CAD risk. PMID:26662450

  3. Bringing safe water to remote populations: an evaluation of a portable point-of-use intervention in rural Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Ram, Pavani Kalluri; Kelsey, Elaine; Rasoatiana; Miarintsoa, Rabeantoandro Rado; Rakotomalala, Oliver; Dunston, Chris; Quick, Robert E

    2007-03-01

    Rural populations disproportionately lack access to improved water supplies. We evaluated a novel scheme that employed community-based sales agents to disseminate the Safe Water System (SWS)--a household-level water chlorination and safe storage intervention--in rural Madagascar. Respondents from 242 households in 4 villages were interviewed; all used surface water for drinking water. Respondents from 239 households (99%) had heard of Sûr'Eau, the SWS disinfectant; 226 (95%) reported having ever used Sûr'Eau, and 166 (73%) reported current use. Current Sûr'Eau use was confirmed in 54% of households. Community sales agents effectively motivated their neighbors to adopt a new health behavior that prevents diarrhea. Future work should focus on strategies for sustaining SWS use, factors that motivate community-based sales agents to promote SWS, and the feasibility of scaling up this approach.

  4. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  5. Heat- and cold-stress effects on cardiovascular mortality and morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Aleš; Davídkovová, Hana; Kyselý, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have examined the relationship of high and low air temperatures to cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic. Much less is understood about heat-/cold-related cardiovascular morbidity and possible regional differences. This paper compares the effects of warm and cold days on excess mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the city of Prague and a rural region of southern Bohemia during 1994-2009. Population size and age structure are similar in the two regions. The results are evaluated for selected population groups (men and women). Excess mortality (number of deaths) and morbidity (number of hospital admissions) were determined as differences between observed and expected daily values, the latter being adjusted for long-term changes, annual and weekly cycles, and epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections. Generally higher relative excess CVD mortality on warm days than on cold days was identified in both regions. In contrast to mortality, weak excess CVD morbidity was observed for both warm and cold days. Different responses of individual CVDs to heat versus cold stress may be caused by the different nature of each CVD and different physiological processes induced by heat or cold stress. The slight differences between Prague and southern Bohemia in response to heat versus cold stress suggest the possible influence of environmental and socioeconomic factors such as the effects of urban heat island and exposure to air pollution, lifestyle differences, and divergence in population structure, which may result in differing vulnerability of urban versus rural population to temperature extremes.

  6. Education attainment as a predictor of HIV risk in rural Uganda: results from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Nalagoda, F; Wawer, M J; Serwadda, D; Sewankambo, N; Konde-Lule, J; Lutalo, T; Li, C; Gray, R H

    1999-07-01

    We examined the association between education and prevalent HIV-1 infection in the Rakai district, rural Uganda based on a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort. In 1990, 1397 men and 1705 women aged 13 years and older, were enrolled in 31 randomly selected communities. Strata were comprised of main road trading centres, secondary road trading villages and rural villages. Sociodemographic and behavioural data were obtained by interview and serum for HIV serostatus were obtained in the home. The analysis examines the association between sex-specific prevalent HIV infection and educational attainment, categorized as secondary, primary or none. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of HIV infection were estimated, using no education as the referent group. Higher levels of education were associated with a higher HIV seroprevalence in bivariate analyses (OR 2.7 for primary and 4.1 for secondary education, relative to no education). The strength of the association was diminished but remained statistically significant after multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioural variables (adjusted OR of HIV infection 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.1)) for primary education and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.0-2.2) for secondary education. Stratified multivariate analyses by place of residence indicated that the association between education and HIV prevalence was statistically significant in the rural villages, but not in the main road trading centres and intermediate trading villages. Educational attainment is a significant predictor of HIV risk in rural Uganda, in part because of risk behaviours and other characteristics among better educated individuals. Preventive interventions need to focus on better educated adults and on school-aged populations.

  7. Associations between Physical Activity and Obesity Defined by Waist-To-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On; Lee, Duck-chul; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity determined by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI). Methods This is the first study to our knowledge on physical activity and obesity using a nationally representative sample of South Korean population from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized individuals into either non-obese or obese defined by WHtR and BMI. Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were classified as ‘Inactive’, ‘Active’, and ‘Very active’ groups based on the World Health Organization physical activity guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity. Results Physical activity was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of obesity using both WHtR and BMI. Compared to inactive men, odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.69 (0.53–0.89) in active men and 0.76 (0.63–0.91) in very active men (p for trend = 0.007). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were 0.78 (0.59–1.03) in active men and 0.82 (0.67–0.99) in very active men (p for trend = 0.060). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 0.40 (0.15–0.98) in active men and 0.90 (0.52–1.56) in very active men (p for trend = 0.978). Compared to inactive women, the ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.94 (0.75–1.18) in active women and 0.84 (0.71–0.998) in very active women (p for trend = 0.046). However, no significant associations were found between physical activity and obesity by BMI in women. Conclusions We found more significant associations between physical activity and obesity defined by WHtR than BMI. However, intervention studies are warranted to investigate and compare causal associations between physical activity and different obesity measures in various populations

  8. Seroepidemiology of Leptospira Exposure in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of Leptospira exposure in rural Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira IgG antibodies in adults in rural Durango, Mexico, and to determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and housing characteristics of the subjects associated with Leptospira seropositivity. We performed a cross-sectional study in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico. Sera from participants were analyzed for Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of the subjects was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 282 rural subjects (42.91 ± 17.53 years old) studied, 44 (15.6%) had anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies. Seropositivity to Leptospira was not associated with gender, educational level, employment, socioeconomic status, contact with animals or soil, or type of floors at home. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with national trips (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.05-4.16; P = 0.03) and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.51-5.78; P = 0.001). We demonstrated serological evidence of Leptospira exposure in adults in rural northern Mexico. The contributing factors associated with Leptospira exposure found in the present study may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures against Leptospira infection.

  9. Seroepidemiology of Leptospira Exposure in General Population in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of Leptospira exposure in rural Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira IgG antibodies in adults in rural Durango, Mexico, and to determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and housing characteristics of the subjects associated with Leptospira seropositivity. We performed a cross-sectional study in 282 adults living in rural Durango, Mexico. Sera from participants were analyzed for Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Seroprevalence association with the characteristics of the subjects was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 282 rural subjects (42.91 ± 17.53 years old) studied, 44 (15.6%) had anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies. Seropositivity to Leptospira was not associated with gender, educational level, employment, socioeconomic status, contact with animals or soil, or type of floors at home. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with national trips (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.05–4.16; P = 0.03) and poor education of the head of the family (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.51–5.78; P = 0.001). We demonstrated serological evidence of Leptospira exposure in adults in rural northern Mexico. The contributing factors associated with Leptospira exposure found in the present study may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26240822

  10. Differences in breast cancer incidence and stage distribution between urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship, Poland in years 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Krzyzak, Michalina; Maslach, Dominik; Juczewska, Marzena; Lasota, Wieslaw; Rabczenko, Daniel; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Szpak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in breast cancer incidence and stage of disease between the urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship in 2001-2002, before the introduction of the Population Screening Programme in 2006. Analysis was based on 696 breast cancer cases diagnosed in years 2001-2002 and registered in the CR in Bialystok (Voivodship Cancer Registry). An average annual number of incidence, as well as crude and standardised incidence rates, were calculated. Age-specific incidence rates for 5-year age groups were also calculated and grouped as follows: < 50, 50-69, > =70 years old. Incidence differences related to place of residence: urban or rural, were presented with the use of u/r (urban/rural) ratio. In order to evaluate the stage of disease, a simplified classification recommended by ENCR (European Network of Cancer Registries) for population registries (localised, regional, metastatic) was applied. The breast cancer incidence rate in the urban population was higher than in rural areas with u/r ratio amounting to 1.4. The highest incidence and largely marked differences between urban and rural areas were among women aged 50-69 years with the u/r ratio amounting to 1.8. Overall, the proportion of stage localised in Podlaskie Voivodship was 33.1 percent and differed between urban and rural areas. The proportion of localised cancer was higher in urban areas, but patients were younger when compared to those living in rural areas. Knowledge of differences in incidence and breast cancer stage in urban and rural women investigated in this research, together with other epidemiological indicators, should be used for monitoring the Population Screening Programmes in these populations.

  11. Genotyping of 22 blood group antigen polymorphisms and establishing a national recipient registry in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yun Ji; Chung, Yousun; Hwang, Sang Mee; Park, Jeong Su; Kwon, Jeong-Ran; Choi, Young Sill; Kim, Jun Nyun; Lee, Dong Han; Kwon, So-Yong; Cho, Nam-Sun; Song, Eun Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou Sup

    2016-05-01

    It is often difficult for standard blood banks in Korea to supply adequate amounts of blood for patients with rare phenotype. Moreover, the definition of a blood in need is ambiguous, and much remains to be learned. In this study, we determined the prevalence of various red blood cell (RBC) antigens from a donor viewpoint and estimated the demand for specific antigen-negative blood from a patient viewpoint. Our data will aid the establishment of a Rare Blood Program in Korea (KRBP). RBC genotyping of 419 blood donors was performed using a Lifecodes RBC/RBC-R typing kit (Immucor, Norcross, GA). A national recipient registry website has been established. Each hospital-based blood bank voluntarily enters data on antibodies detected and identified and the outcomes of specific antigen testing. We calculated the availabilities of specific antigen-negative blood components based on these registry data and predicted the prevalence of RBC antigens via RBC genotyping. The prevalences of various RBC antigens in the D-negative population were determined for the first time, and the Cartwright, Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, Landsteiner-Wiener, Cromer, and Knops blood group systems were identified. The availabilities of specific antigen-negative units differed when calculations were based on serotyping or genotyping, especially in the D-negative group. Data on the prevalences of various blood antigens are essential for estimating the availabilities of blood components that are appropriate for use by patients expressing relevant antibodies. Then, blood banks would be able to efficiently supply safe blood products. PMID:27021300

  12. The Relation of Moderate Alcohol Consumption to Hyperuricemia in a Rural General Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Liu, Yamin; Chang, Ye; Sun, Yingxian; Zhu, Guangshuo; Abraham, Maria Roselle

    2016-01-01

    Background: although alcohol abuse is known to increase serum uric acid, the relation between moderate drinking and uric acid have remained poorly understood. We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. Method: multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years or older. Participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. Results: in total, 11,039 participants aged 35 years or older were included (4997 men and 6042 women). The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the different male alcohol consumption groups was 11.9% in non-drinkers, 12.6% in moderate drinkers, and 16.3% in heavy drinkers (p < 0.001). In females, the rates were 6.3% in non-drinkers, 8.1% in moderate drinkers, and 6.6% for heavy drinkers (p = 0.818). In males, multivariate logistic regression analyses shows heavy drinkers had an approximately 1.7-fold higher risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.657, 95% CI: 1.368 to 2.007, p < 0.001) than non-drinkers; moderate drinkers did not experience a significant increase in risk (OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 0.951 to 1.596, p = 0.114)). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of females showed that, compared with non-drinkers, neither moderate nor heavy drinkers had a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 0.521 to 4.695, p = 0.425 for heavy drinkers; OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.117 to 6.855, p = 0.916 for moderate drinkers). Conclusions: heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of hyperuricemia for males but not for females. Among both males and females, moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of hyperuricemia. PMID:27447659

  13. Epidemiological features of alcohol use in rural India: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to estimate the proportion of adults in Sehore District, India, who consumed alcohol, and the proportion who had behaviours consistent with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Among men who drank, we identified individual-level, household-level and community-level factors associated with AUDIT scores. Men with AUDs (AUDIT score ≥8) reported on whether and where they had sought treatment, and about alcohol-related internal stigma. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Rural villages and urban wards in Sehore District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Participants n=3220 adult (≥18 years of age) residents of Sehore District. Primary outcome measure Score on the AUDIT. Results Nearly one in four men (23.8%) had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months, while few (0.6%) women were consumers. Among drinkers, 33.2% (95% CI 28.6% to 38.1%) had AUDIT scores consistent with hazardous drinking, 3.3% (95% CI 2.1% to 5.1%) with harmful drinking and 5.5% (95% CI 3.8% to 8.0%) with dependent drinking. We observed that AUDIT scores varied widely by village (intraclass correlation=0.052). Among men who had recently consumed alcohol, AUDIT scores were positively associated with depression, having at least one child, high-quality housing, urban residence, tobacco use and disability. AUDIT scores were negatively associated with land ownership, out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure and participation in the national employment programme. While 49.2% of men with AUDs felt embarrassed by their problems with alcohol, only 2.8% had sought treatment in the past 12 months. Conclusions A need exists for effectively identifying and treating adults with AUDs. Health promotion services, informed by commonly-expressed stigmatised beliefs held among those affected by AUDs and which are targeted at the most affected communities, may be an effective step in closing the treatment gap. PMID:26685035

  14. HBsAg and aflatoxins in sera of rural (Igbo-Ora) and urban (Ibadan) populations in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olubuyide, I O; Maxwell, S M; Akinyinka, O O; Hart, C A; Neal, G E; Hendrickse, R G

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to screen for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen and aflatoxins in the sera of 100 non-hospitalized individuals from the rural population of Igbo-Ora and 89 non-hospitalized individuals from the urban population of Ibadan, Nigeria. Hitherto, such a study as this has not been undertaken in this environment. The proportions of hepatitis B surface antigen carriage and serum 'pathologic' levels of aflatoxins were high (47-49%, 8.2-9.0% respectively) but varied very little between the two different populations sampled. These findings indicate that determined efforts should be instituted to reduce or eliminate hepatitis B virus infection and aflatoxin contamination of high risk foodstuffs from this environment.

  15. Tracking rural-to-urban migration in China: Lessons from the 2005 inter-census population survey.

    PubMed

    Ebenstein, Avraham; Zhao, Yaohui

    2015-01-01

    We examined migration in China using the 2005 inter-census population survey, in which migrants were registered at both their place of original (hukou) residence and at their destination. We find evidence that the estimated number of internal migrants in China is extremely sensitive to the enumeration method. We estimate that the traditional destination-based survey method fails to account for more than a third of migrants found using comparable origin-based methods. The 'missing' migrants are disproportionately young, male, and holders of rural hukou. We find that origin-based methods are more effective at capturing migrants who travel short distances for short periods, whereas destination-based methods are more effective when entire households have migrated and no remaining family members are located at the hukou location. We conclude with a set of policy recommendations for the design of population surveys in countries with large migrant populations.

  16. Prevalence of genital human papillomavirus among rural and urban populations in southern Yunnan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Baloch, Z.; Yuan, T.; Yindi, S.; Feng, Y.; Tai, W.; Liu, Y.; Liu, L.; Zhang, A.; Wang, B.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate and compare the HPV prevalence, genotypes distribution and associated risk factors in rural and urban women living in Xishuang Banna district, in the province of Yunnan. A total of 177 and 190 women from rural and urban areas were engaged, respectively. HPV DNA was amplified using the L1 consensus primers system (MY09/11 and GP5/6) and HPV GenoArray test was conducted for genotyping. Proportions were compared by chi-square test, and logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors. A total of 54 women were positive for HPV DNA. Among rural women, 23 women were positive for HPV infection, of which 21 showed a single infection and 2 had a multiple infection. HPV-16 (10/23) was the most prevalent genotype followed by HPV-52 (5/23), and HPV-58 (5/23). Urban women had a higher infection rate for overall HPV (31/54) and for multiple genotype infection (8/31). HPV-52 (9/31) was the most prevalent genotype followed by HPV-39 (7/31) and HPV-68 (5/31). The age-specific HPV prevalence was also different between rural and urban women. In urban area, women with age <35 years had the highest HPV prevalence, which declined thereafter as age advanced. However, in rural women the highest HPV prevalence was observed in an older age group (>56 years). Ethnicity, smoking and parity were significantly associated with HPV infection among urban women. Our study demonstrates that HPV prevalence and genotype distribution varies among women from rural and urban areas in the south of Yunnan. PMID:27254662

  17. Effects of a three-month therapeutic lifestyle modification program to improve bone health in postmenopausal Korean women in a rural community: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eui Geum; Yoo, Jae Yong; Lee, Jung Eun; Hyun, Sa Saeng; Ko, Il Sun; Chu, Sang Hui

    2014-08-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of a 3-month therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) intervention on knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors related to bone health in postmenopausal women in rural Korea. Forty-one women ages 45 or older were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20) group. The intervention group completed a 12-week, 24-session TLM program of individualized health monitoring, group health education, exercise, and calcium-vitamin D supplementation. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed significant increases in knowledge and self-efficacy and improvement in diet and exercise after 12 weeks, providing evidence that a comprehensive TLM program can be effective in improving health behaviors to maintain bone health in women at high risk of osteoporosis.

  18. Geo-ethical dimension of community's safety: rural and urban population vulnerability analysis methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuchenko, Yuriy; Movchan, Dmytro; Kopachevsky, Ivan; Yuschenko, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    calculate a distribution of losses connected with decision making in land-use is demonstrated. Rural community's vulnerability determines by water availability, quality of soils, effectiveness of land use (including climate change adaptation), intensity of pollutions, crop productivity variations during the period of crop rotation, annual national distribution of crops output, and distance to city centres. It should noted here that "distance to city centres" is not comprehensive indicator of market accessibility in general case: quality and availability of transport infrastructure should be described more detailed on the next stages of analysis. Urban population vulnerability determines by distribution of urban fractures and quality urban environment: density, quality and availability of infrastructure, balance between industrial, residential and recreational zones, effectiveness of urban land use and landscape management, and social policy, particularly, employment. Population density is closely connected with social density, with communications and decision making. Social learning, as the function of social communications, is the way to increase sustainability. Also it possible to say that social sustainability is a function of intensity and efficiency of communications between interlinked and interacted networks in the heterogeneous environment. Therefore the results of study demonstrated that risk management study should includes issues of risk and threats perception, which should be described in framework of appropriate tools and approaches connected with ethical dimension of vulnerability. For instance, problems of accessibility and availability of safety resources in view of social fairness and socio-economic dynamics should be included into future studies in field of risk analysis.

  19. Communitarian Populism and the Politics of Rearguard Resistance in Rural Ireland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Tony; Curtin, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether two rural traditions of Irish community development--community councils and community cooperatives--conform to models of radical and pragmatic collective action. Shows that both have features of both models but gravitate more toward pragmatic, populist action rather than radical transformative change. (Contains 24 references.)…

  20. An Analysis of a Rural Pennsylvania School District's Transient Population and NCLB Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesisko, Lee J.; Wright, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) data from one rural school system covering four groups of children for a consecutive three year period was used to study the impact of transient students entering the school system. The analysis compared native children (those on roll since the first year) with transient children added to or deleted…

  1. Psychometric Characteristics of the Duke Social Support Index in a Young Rural Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high…

  2. Knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a community-based study comparing rural and urban populations.

    PubMed

    Alghanim, Saad Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural respondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counterparts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents' source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ donation and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this significant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs. PMID:20061688

  3. SPECIAL PROBLEMS REPORT, ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR RURAL POPULATION IN PAKISTAN AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALI KHAN, ANSAR

    THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE NEED FOR FUNCTIONAL, SEQUENTIAL PROGRAMS OF LITERACY, VOCATIONAL, LIBERAL, POLITICAL, AND HUMAN RELATIONS EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN. PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES ARE SEEN IN THE OCCUPATIONAL CASTE SYSTEM, FAMILY STRUCTURES, ATTITUDES TOWARD THE EDUCATION OF BOYS AND GIRLS, POOR MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND…

  4. Building Development, Food and Population Issues in the Field of Agriculture with Rural Development in the Arab Countries (16-21 January 1993). Panel discussion (seminar).

    PubMed

    Morcos, M E

    1993-01-01

    The UN Organization for Food and Agriculture bureau held a panel discussion during January 16-21, 1993, to stress the importance of the joint relation between population issues, food, and nutrition in the fields of agriculture and rural development. Policymakers and individuals responsible for activities and programs on population, food, nutrition, and rural development in Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, Yemen, and Sudan participated in the seminar. The seminar was also attended by academic institutions and participants from the ministries of agriculture and health, the National Population Council, and the committees of the countries involved. Synopses of panel proceedings are presented.

  5. Korean Language Maintenance in Los Angeles. Professional Papers K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kenneth Kong-On; And Others

    Characteristics of the Korean population in Los Angeles, intergenerational cultural problems, and efforts to promote language maintenance are described. The majority of Koreans in Los Angeles have been in the United States less than 10 years. A high percentage are from middle class and professional backgrounds. The traditional hierarchical family…

  6. A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

  7. Multicenter Study of Antibiotic Resistance Profile of H. pylori and Distribution of CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphism in Rural Population of Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ran; Lu, Hong; Jiang, Ming-Wan; Tan, Ke-Wen; Peng, Zhong; Hu, Jia-Li; Fang, Dian-Chun; Lan, Chun-Hui; Wu, Xiao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    This study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile of H. pylori and the distribution of CYP2C19 gene polymorphism in rural population of Chongqing, China. 214 and 111 strains of H. pylori were isolated from rural and urban patients, respectively. 99.53%, 20.09%, and 23.36% of the isolates in rural patients were found to be resistant to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin, while the resistant rate in urban patients was 82.88%, 19.82%, and 24.32%. The multiple antibiotic resistance percentage significantly increased from 28.26% (below 45 years) to 41.80% (above 45 years) in rural patients. Up to 44.39%, 45.79%, and 9.81% of rural patients from whom H. pylori was isolated were found to be extensive metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers, and poor metabolizers. No correlation was observed between antibiotic resistance profile of H. pylori and genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 among rural population. There was a high prevalence of H. pylori strains resistant to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin in rural patients in Chongqing, China. The choice of therapy in this area should be based on local susceptibility patterns. Amoxicillin, gentamicin, and furazolidone are recommended as the first-line empiric regimen. PMID:27247569

  8. The epidemiology of dengue virus infection among urban, jungle, and rural populations in the Amazon region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Hayes, C G; Phillips, I A; Callahan, J D; Griebenow, W F; Hyams, K C; Wu, S J; Watts, D M

    1996-10-01

    The first confirmed outbreak of dengue fever in Peru occurred during 1990 in Iquitos, a city of approximately 300,000 residents in the Amazon region. Because of the apparent establishment of endemic transmission of this mosquito-borne viral disease following the outbreak, epidemiologic studies were initiated in 1992. Blood specimens and data on demographic, environmental, and medical history factors were collected from volunteers in an urban sector of Iquitos, in a rural area on the outskirts of Iquitos, and in three nearby jungle communities. A follow-up blood specimen was obtained approximately one year later from a sample of subjects. Sera were tested for dengue IgG antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and specificity was verified using a plaque-reduction neutralization test. Dengue antibody prevalence was 66% in the urban population, 26% in the rural population, and 32-67% in the three jungle areas. A significant association was found between age and antibody prevalence, with a steady increase in prevalence from 18% among subjects less than five years of age to greater than 90% for subjects more than 50 years old. Increased antibody prevalence also was associated with urban and jungle residence and with a piped source of household drinking water. Seroconversions were documented in four of five surveyed communities. These results indicate that dengue virus transmission continues in and around Iquitos and suggest that transmission also occurred prior to the 1990 epidemic.

  9. Population-dynamics focussed rapid rural mapping and characterisation of the peri-urban interface of Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Makita, K.; Fèvre, E.M.; Waiswa, C.; Bronsvoort, M.D.C.; Eisler, M.C.; Welburn, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    In developing countries, cities are rapidly expanding and urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) has an important role in feeding these growing urban populations; however such agriculture also carries public health risks such as zoonotic disease transmission. It is important to assess the role of UPA in food security and public health risks to make evidence-based decisions on policies. Describing and mapping the peri-urban interface (PUI) are the essential first steps for such an assessment. Kampala, the capital city of Uganda is a rapidly expanding city where the PUI has not previously been mapped or properly described. In this paper we provide a spatial representation of the entire PUI of Kampala economic zone and determine the socio-economic factors related with peri-urbanicity using a population-dynamics focussed rapid rural mapping. This fills a technical gap of rapid rural mapping and offers a simple and rapid methodology for describing the PUI which can be applied in any city in developing countries for wide range of studies. PMID:22210972

  10. Population study on chronic and acute conjunctivitis associated with ambient environment in urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chun-Chi; Liao, Chiang-Chang; Chen, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Yi-Yu; Wang, Yu-Chun

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate whether daily clinic visits for conjunctivitis are associated with the ambient environment in urban and rural areas of Taiwan. The incidences of acute and chronic conjunctivitis (International Classification of Disease 9 Clinical Modification 372.0 and 372.1) in two urban cities and two rural counties and their relative risks (RRs) are associated with air pollutants (nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and/or weather statuses were assessed from the insurance reimbursement claims of a representative 1 million people from 2000 to 2007. The patients resided in rural counties were approximately eight time more likely to have acute complains and >1.3 time more likely to have chronic complaints than the patients lived in the capital, Taipei. Per 10 °C increment of the daily average temperature increased the risk of acute conjunctivitis and chronic conjunctivitis with RRs of 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.09) and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.04-1.07), respectively. A 10-p.p.b. increase in NOx concentration also increased the risk of acute conjunctivitis (RR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.04) and chronic conjunctivitis (RR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.05-1.06). Residents in rural counties, females, the elderly, and children have higher risk of conjunctivitis. Ambient temperature and NOx concentration can cause greater significant risks on the diseases.

  11. Economic Activities, Illness Pattern and Utilisation of Health Care Facilities in the Rural Population of Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The study was undertaken among the rural and black communities of the Uthungulu health district of the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Method A cross-sectional community-based descriptive study was conducted. A multi-stage sampling strategy was adopted to obtain a representative sample of the communities. Results The mean age of the population was 27 years and majority was female (54%). Among the adult population only 30% were educated, 19% were engaged in some form of economic activities while 9% were in the formal employment sector. The average monthly income per household was R1 301 (95% CI, R1 283; R1 308). The illnesses were reported by 27% of the total population over a period of one month. Notably higher rates of female individuals (29%) were sick compared to males (24%, p < 0.001). The rates of illnesses among adult females (39%) were also significantly higher than among males (31%, p < 0.009). Most of them (69%) attended primary health care (PHC) clinics for medical services, while 67% reported chronic conditions. Age (OR = 1.4), gender (OR = 0.711), education (OR = 0.64) and economic activities (OR = 1.9) were found to be associated with being ill or not. Conclusion The rural black communities are underdeveloped and deprived, which results in higher prevalence of illnesses; however, the utilisation of PHC facilities is comparatively higher than in the rest of the province and other parts of the country. Interventions to improve community health care services among the deprived population should be focused through public health strategies such as all-encompassing PHC that includes health promotion, education and basic essential amenities.

  12. Oral Medications for Diabetes in Pregnancy: Use in a Rural Population.

    PubMed

    Thorkelson, Shelley Jayne; Anderson, Kristi R

    2016-05-01

    IN BRIEF The oral agents glyburide and metformin are both recommended by many professional societies for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Both therapeutic modalities have published safety and efficacy data, but there remains much debate among experts. Providers need a clear treatment plan for GDM based on a predictable level of clinical success in obtaining treatment goals. The proper selection of ideal candidates is paramount in achieving clinical success with the use of these medications in the treatment of GDM. This article presents clinical strategies for using oral agents in the management of GDM based on a pragmatic approach taken in a group of rural Native American women. PMID:27182179

  13. A Dynamic Simulation Model of Land-Use, Population, and Rural Livelihoods in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garedew, Efrem; Sandewall, Mats; Soderberg, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic interactions between society and land resources have to be taken into account when planning and managing natural resources. A computer model, using STELLA software, was developed through active participation of purposively selected farm households from different wealth groups, age groups and gender within a rural community and some members of Kebelle council. The aim of the modeling was to study the perceived changes in land-use, population and livelihoods over the next 30 years and to improve our understanding of the interactions among them. The modeling output is characterized by rapid population growth, declining farm size and household incomes, deteriorating woody vegetation cover and worsening land degradation if current conditions remain. However, through integrated intervention strategies (including forest increase, micro-finance, family planning, health and education) the woody vegetation cover is likely to increase in the landscape, population growth is likely to slow down and households' income is likely to improve. A validation assessment of the simulation model based on historical data on land-use and population from 1973 to 2006 showed that the model is relatively robust. We conclude that as a supporting tool, the simulation model can contribute to the decision making process.

  14. Population dynamics, structure and behavior of Anopheles darlingi in a rural settlement in the Amazon rainforest of Acre, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the major vector of malaria in South America, and its behavior and distribution has epidemiological importance to biomedical research. In Brazil, An. darlingi is found in the northern area of the Amazon basin, where 99.5% of the disease is reported. Methods The study area, known as Ramal do Granada, is a rural settlement inside the Amazon basin in the state of Acre. Population variations and density have been analysed by species behaviour, and molecular analysis has been measured by ND4 mitochondrial gene sequencing. Results The results show higher density in collections near a recent settlement, suggesting that a high level of colonization decreases the vector presence. The biting activity showed higher activity at twilight and major numbers of mosquitos in the remaining hours of the night in months of high density. From a sample of 110 individual mosquitoes, 18 different haplotypes were presented with a diversity index of 0.895, which is higher than that found in other Anopheles studies. Conclusions An. darlingi depends on forested regions for their larval and adult survival. In months with higher population density, the presence of mosquitoes persisted in the second part of the night, increasing the vector capacity of the species. Despite the intra-population variation in the transition to rainy season, the seasonal distribution of haplotypes shows no change in the structure population of An. darlingi. PMID:21702964

  15. Ambulatory care sensitive hospitalization rates in the aged Medicare population in Utah, 1990 to 1994: a rural-urban comparison.

    PubMed

    Silver, M P; Babitz, M E; Magill, M K

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the likelihood of hospitalization for conditions that are related to the adequacy and use of ambulatory health care services for Medicare beneficiaries residing in rural and urban regions in Utah. The Health Care Financing Administration's (HCFA) hospital discharge database (Utah hospitals: 1990 to 1994) was used to estimate hospitalization rates (with adjustment for out-of-state admissions) for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. Population estimates were obtained from HCFA beneficiary files. Regional hospitalization rates were obtained through ZIP code matching of the hospital discharge and beneficiary files. Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older residing in Utah during 1990 to 1994 are the subjects for the study. The main outcome measures include age and sex-adjusted hospitalization rates by region for the entire state and rate ratio estimates for nonurban regions. The results of the study show that Medicare beneficiaries residing in two rural-frontier regions were more likely than urban beneficiaries to be hospitalized for ambulatory care sensitive conditions. Rate ratio estimates were greater than 1.4 for both regions during the study period. These findings suggest a pattern of an increased burden of avoidable secondary complications and disease progression among Utah Medicare beneficiaries residing in some rural regions. This increased burden may be the result of limitations in the ambulatory care system, medical care provider supply, and/or beneficiary propensity to seek care. Variation in disease prevalence or hospital use patterns for these conditions also may be responsible for all or part of the observed variation in ambulatory care sensitive admission rates.

  16. Persistence of Rabies Virus-Neutralizing Antibodies after Vaccination of Rural Population following Vampire Bat Rabies Outbreak in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Rita; Jusot, Viviane; Houillon, Guy; Rasuli, Anvar; Martorelli, Luzia; Kataoka, Ana Paula; Mechlia, Mohamed Ben; Le Guern, Anne-Sophie; Rodrigues, Liliam; Assef, Rhomero; Maestri, Alvino; Bosch-Castells, Valérie; Tordo, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Background Animal control measures in Latin America have decreased the incidence of urban human rabies transmitted by dogs and cats; currently most cases of human rabies are transmitted by bats. In 2004–2005, rabies outbreaks in populations living in rural Brazil prompted widespread vaccination of exposed and at-risk populations. More than 3,500 inhabitants of Augusto Correa (Pará State) received either post-exposure (PEP) or pre-exposure (PrEP) prophylaxis. This study evaluated the persistence of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) annually for 4 years post-vaccination. The aim was to evaluate the impact of rabies PrEP and PEP in a population at risk living in a rural setting to help improve management of vampire bat exposure and provide additional data on the need for booster vaccination against rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings This prospective study was conducted in 2007 through 2009 in a population previously vaccinated in 2005; study participants were followed-up annually. An RVNA titer >0.5 International Units (IU)/mL was chosen as the threshold of seroconversion. Participants with titers ≤0.5 IU/mL or Equivalent Units (EU)/mL at enrollment or at subsequent annual visits received booster doses of purified Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV). Adherence of the participants from this Amazonian community to the study protocol was excellent, with 428 of the 509 (84%) who attended the first interview in 2007 returning for the final visit in 2009. The long-term RVNA persistence was good, with 85–88.0% of the non-boosted participants evaluated at each yearly follow-up visit remaining seroconverted. Similar RVNA persistence profiles were observed in participants originally given PEP or PrEP in 2005, and the GMT of the study population remained >1 IU/mL 4 years after vaccination. At the end of the study, 51 subjects (11.9% of the interviewed population) had received at least one dose of booster since their vaccination in 2005. Conclusions

  17. Epidemiology and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in various population groups from a rural and semi urban area in Gabon, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Ateba Ngoa, Ulysse; Schaumburg, Frieder; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Kösters, Katrin; Möller, Tina; Fernandes, Jose Francisco; Alabi, Abraham; Issifou, Saadou; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin Peter; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Little data is available on the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in Africa. In the present study we aim at characterizing the population structure of S. aureus in healthy subjects from a rural and a semi-urban area in Lambaréné, Gabon as well as in hospital staff and inpatients. In total, 500 subjects were screened for S. aureus colonization of the nares, axillae and inguinal region. Overall, 146 (29%) were positive. We found 46 different spa types. The most frequent spa types were t084 (35%) and the agr II was the most prevalent subtype of the accessory gene regulator (56%, n=82). Five isolates (3%) were methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Carriage rates of S. aureus in Gabon are comparable to developed countries. MRSA is for the first time described and could pose a significant health threat in this region with limited access to microbiological laboratory facilities and to adequate antimicrobial agents.

  18. Suicides and Medically Serious Attempters Are of the Same Population in Chinese Rural Young Adults1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. Aims It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. Method This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Results Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. Conclusions The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. PMID:25723561

  19. Secular Changes in Education, Urban-rural Living, Menarche and Abortion Rates in Perinatal Population.

    PubMed

    Vranes, Hrvojka Soljacić; Kraljević, Zdenko; Vranes, Zoran; Gall, Vesna; Vuković, Ante; Kunal, Krunoslav; Filipcić, Igor

    2015-12-01

    Over a 25-year period we examined the anthropological characteristics of mothers and their partners, such as the place of living: urban vs. rural, the degree of education, parity, the time of menarche, and the frequency of intentional abortions. We examined 2 414 mothers and their partners in four periods of time extending from 1985 to 2009 in order to establish changes in the said anthropological characteristics over a period of 25 years. The degree of education of mothers and their partners is on the rise. In the period from 1985 to 1994, the percentage of mothers from the country was on the rise. Women with less education have on average more children, and those with better education the least children. Women from rural areas have on average more children than women from urban areas. The time of menarche dropped by 9 months over the period of 25 years. Girls from urban areas have their first menstrual cycle earlier. Women with higher professional qualifications had their first period earlier. The number of intentional abortions over the 25-year period dropped.

  20. The occurrence of zoonotic parasites in rural dog populations from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, A S; Costa, I M H; Figueiredo, C; Castro, A; Conceição, M A P

    2014-06-01

    A survey of intestinal parasites in dogs was carried out in a rural region around Cantanhede, in northern Portugal, where 301 dog faecal samples were collected from small-ruminant farms. Saturated salt flotation and formol-ether sedimentation techniques were used. An enquiry was conducted in 234 farms and a risk factor evaluation for zoonotic helminths was determined among the 195 farmers who owned dogs. The overall parasite prevalence in faecal samples of dogs was 58.8%, with specific prevalences for Ancylostomidae being 40.9% followed by species of Trichuris (29.9%), Toxocara (8%), Isospora (4%), Capillaria (0.7%) and Spirometra (0.3%). Taeniidae eggs were present in five samples (1.7%) which were analysed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and revealed to be from Taenia sp., and not Echinococcus granulosus. This rural region has a traditional small-farm system, in which farm products are mainly for in-house consumption and home slaughtering is a current practice (57%). Analysis showed home slaughtering to be a statistically significant risk factor for the presence of Ancylostomidae (P= 0.007) and Toxocara sp. (P= 0.049). Owning cattle was found to be a significant risk factor for Taenia sp. (P= 0.031).

  1. Use of telemedicine to manage severe ischaemic strokes in a rural area with an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Richard, Sébastien; Lavandier, K; Zioueche, Y; Pelletier, S; Vezain, A; Ducrocq, X

    2014-05-01

    The rural district of the Meuse (East France) has a high number of elderly patients for whom prognosis of ischaemic strokes is poor with high-haemorrhagic transformation risk of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). This disadvantage is made worse by the distances a patient has to travel to the nearest stroke unit. We set out to assess the effectiveness of a telestroke system implemented in this area. Between October 2010 and February 2012, data from each "tele-expertised" patient were collected. 53 patients were examined. Diagnosis of ischaemic stroke was confirmed in 43 cases (81 %), and intravenous rt-PA treatment performed in 21 cases (40 %). In the treated patient group, median age was 73 years, with 29 % of octogenarians. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 16, with 29 % ≥ 20. The median onset to needle time was 169 min, and the median door to needle time was 69 min. Intracranial haemorrhage occurred in 3 cases (14 %), and was symptomatic in two (10 %). At 3 months, median NIHSS was 6, 6 patients (29 %) presented a favourable outcome (modified Rankin scale ≤ 1) and 3 (14 %) had died. In rural areas, for elderly patients with severe ischaemic strokes, telemedicine appears to be a way of improving accessibility and benefits of rt-PA treatment. PMID:24277200

  2. Immigration patterns, social support, and adaptation among Korean immigrant women and Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Grant, D

    1997-01-01

    There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies. PMID:9409069

  3. The general population cohort in rural south-western Uganda: a platform for communicable and non-communicable disease studies

    PubMed Central

    Asiki, Gershim; Murphy, Georgina; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Seeley, Janet; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Karabarinde, Alex; Waswa, Laban; Biraro, Sam; Kasamba, Ivan; Pomilla, Cristina; Maher, Dermot; Young, Elizabeth H; Kamali, Anatoli; Sandhu, Manjinder S

    2013-01-01

    The General Population Cohort (GPC) was set up in 1989 to examine trends in HIV prevalence and incidence, and their determinants in rural south-western Uganda. Recently, the research questions have included the epidemiology and genetics of communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) to address the limited data on the burden and risk factors for NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa. The cohort comprises all residents (52% aged ≥13years, men and women in equal proportions) within one-half of a rural sub-county, residing in scattered houses, and largely farmers of three major ethnic groups. Data collected through annual surveys include; mapping for spatial analysis and participant location; census for individual socio-demographic and household socioeconomic status assessment; and a medical survey for health, lifestyle and biophysical and blood measurements to ascertain disease outcomes and risk factors for selected participants. This cohort offers a rich platform to investigate the interplay between communicable diseases and NCDs. There is robust infrastructure for data management, sample processing and storage, and diverse expertise in epidemiology, social and basic sciences. For any data access enquiries you may contact the director, MRC/UVRI, Uganda Research Unit on AIDS by email to mrc@mrcuganda.org or the corresponding author. PMID:23364209

  4. Arsenic exposure of rural populations from the Rift Valley of Ethiopia as monitored by keratin in toenails.

    PubMed

    Merola, R Brittany; Kravchenko, Julia; Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water is a worldwide phenomenon whose effect among vulnerable and rural communities in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia in eastern Africa is not well studied. This study examines As exposure and bioaccumulation from drinking water by monitoring human keratin in the form of toenails from exposed populations. Groundwater samples from drinking water wells (n=34) were collected along with toenail samples (n=58) from local communities and were analyzed for trace metals including As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the total number of wells tested, 53% had As level above the WHO maximum contamination level of 10 p.p.b. Arsenic in toenails was significantly correlated to corresponding drinking water (r=0.72; R(2)=0.52; P<0.001). This correlation improves for drinking water with As concentrations above 2 p.p.b. (r=0.74; R(2)=0.54; P<0.001). Male minors (<18 years old) were found to have greater nail-As concentrations compared with adults consuming equal amounts of As (P<0.05). Estimated As dose specifically from drinking water sources was also associated with nail concentrations (P<0.01). We suggest that As measurement in nails could be a reliable method for detecting As exposure in residents living in rural areas.

  5. Utilization of Medicines Available at Home by General Population of Rural and Urban Set Up of Western India

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Barna

    2016-01-01

    significantly by urban people than the rural. Only 2.91% medicines were found along with package inserts and 2.94% crossed the expiry dates. Conclusion The evaluation of utilization of medicines, in urban and rural population describes high drug storage, higher leftover medicines and inappropriate use of medicines and many self medicated by patients which suggests the need to educate the patients about proper and rational use of medicines. PMID:27656460

  6. Utilization of Western and Traditional Korean Medicine for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Study from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Young Sik; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2016-05-01

    When in need of medical treatment, Korean citizens have a choice of practitioners of western medicine (WM) or Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM). However, the two branches frequently conflict with one another, particularly with regard to mental disorders. This study was designed to compare the utilization of WM and TKM, focusing on child/adolescent patients with mental disorders. We analyzed F-code (Mental and behavioral disorders) claims from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, including data from 0-18-year-old patients from 2010 to 2012. Slightly more men than women utilized WM, while TKM use was almost evenly balanced. WM claims increased with advancing age, whereas utilization of TKM was common for the 0-6 age group. In WM and TKM, the total number of claims relying on the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was 331,154 (92.78%) and 73,282 (97.85%), respectively, and the number of claims relying on medical aid was 25,753 (7.22%) and 1,610 (2.15%), respectively. The most frequent F-coded claim in WM was F90 (Hyperkinetic disorders), with 64,088 claims (17.96%), and that in TKM was F45 (Somatoform disorders), with 28,852 claims (38.52%). The prevalence of a single disorder without comorbidities was 168,764 (47.29%) in WM and 52,615 (70.25%) in TKM. From these data, we conclude that WM takes prevalence over TKM in cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as in psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. On the other hand, patients utilizing TKM more commonly present with physical health problems including somatoform problems, sleep, and eating disorders. PMID:27134500

  7. Utilization of Western and Traditional Korean Medicine for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Study from 2010 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    When in need of medical treatment, Korean citizens have a choice of practitioners of western medicine (WM) or Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM). However, the two branches frequently conflict with one another, particularly with regard to mental disorders. This study was designed to compare the utilization of WM and TKM, focusing on child/adolescent patients with mental disorders. We analyzed F-code (Mental and behavioral disorders) claims from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, including data from 0–18-year-old patients from 2010 to 2012. Slightly more men than women utilized WM, while TKM use was almost evenly balanced. WM claims increased with advancing age, whereas utilization of TKM was common for the 0-6 age group. In WM and TKM, the total number of claims relying on the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was 331,154 (92.78%) and 73,282 (97.85%), respectively, and the number of claims relying on medical aid was 25,753 (7.22%) and 1,610 (2.15%), respectively. The most frequent F-coded claim in WM was F90 (Hyperkinetic disorders), with 64,088 claims (17.96%), and that in TKM was F45 (Somatoform disorders), with 28,852 claims (38.52%). The prevalence of a single disorder without comorbidities was 168,764 (47.29%) in WM and 52,615 (70.25%) in TKM. From these data, we conclude that WM takes prevalence over TKM in cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as in psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. On the other hand, patients utilizing TKM more commonly present with physical health problems including somatoform problems, sleep, and eating disorders. PMID:27134500

  8. Utilization of Western and Traditional Korean Medicine for Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders: a Nationwide Population-based Study from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Young Sik; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2016-05-01

    When in need of medical treatment, Korean citizens have a choice of practitioners of western medicine (WM) or Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM). However, the two branches frequently conflict with one another, particularly with regard to mental disorders. This study was designed to compare the utilization of WM and TKM, focusing on child/adolescent patients with mental disorders. We analyzed F-code (Mental and behavioral disorders) claims from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, including data from 0-18-year-old patients from 2010 to 2012. Slightly more men than women utilized WM, while TKM use was almost evenly balanced. WM claims increased with advancing age, whereas utilization of TKM was common for the 0-6 age group. In WM and TKM, the total number of claims relying on the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was 331,154 (92.78%) and 73,282 (97.85%), respectively, and the number of claims relying on medical aid was 25,753 (7.22%) and 1,610 (2.15%), respectively. The most frequent F-coded claim in WM was F90 (Hyperkinetic disorders), with 64,088 claims (17.96%), and that in TKM was F45 (Somatoform disorders), with 28,852 claims (38.52%). The prevalence of a single disorder without comorbidities was 168,764 (47.29%) in WM and 52,615 (70.25%) in TKM. From these data, we conclude that WM takes prevalence over TKM in cases of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as in psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. On the other hand, patients utilizing TKM more commonly present with physical health problems including somatoform problems, sleep, and eating disorders.

  9. Farm Population Trends and Farm Characteristics. Rural Development Research Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Vera J.

    While total farm population is declining, the number of people living on the farms which produce the bulk of the nation's food and fiber is increasing. The 1970-75 total farm population decline was 13 percent, but the number of people living on farms with annual sales greater than $40,000 increased 76 percent. Such farms account for about 80…

  10. [ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER AND RISK FOR THE POPULATION'S HEALTH IN RURAL TERRITORIES IN THE IRKUTSK REGION].

    PubMed

    Bezgodov, I V; Efimova, N V; Kuz'mina, M V

    2015-01-01

    The hygienic analysis of centralized and decentralized water supply in rural population in Irkutsk region was performed. About 403 thousand of the upstaters use water wells, voids and springs. In drinking water there were detected significant concentrations of iron, nitrates, manganese. On the base of the application of risk assessment methodology there was calculated noncarcinogenic risk for adults (HI = 1.2-1.3) and children (HI = 1.1-2.9). Carcinogenic risk for water from groundwater sources supply is 1.56 · 10(-5)-2.1 · 10(-4) for 22.2 thousand of upstaters. There were determined priority carcinogenic ingredients: arsenic (contribution is 56.3-100%) and hexad chromium (contribution is 29.9-35.8%). PMID:26155636

  11. Survey of trace metals in drinking water supplied to rural populations in the eastern Llanos of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Mora, Abrahan; Mac-Quhae, César; Calzadilla, Malvis; Sánchez, Luzmila

    2009-02-01

    To ascertain the water quality for human consumption, chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity and total dissolved calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum, zinc, copper and manganese were measured during four sampling periods (November 2002; March, May and July 2003) in drinking water wells which supply several forest camps and rural populations located in the eastern Llanos of Venezuela. Copper levels in drinking water in November 2002 were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other assessed periods. Temporal variations of the other parameters considered were not statistically significant. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were found to be extremely low (mean concentration+/-S.D. of 0.27+/-0.25mg/l for Ca and 0.219+/-0.118 for Mg) during the four sampling periods, probably because of the carbonate bearing scarcity in the soils lithic component. The rest of the metals complied with the Venezuelan and International guidelines of quality criteria for drinking water.

  12. [ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER AND RISK FOR THE POPULATION'S HEALTH IN RURAL TERRITORIES IN THE IRKUTSK REGION].

    PubMed

    Bezgodov, I V; Efimova, N V; Kuz'mina, M V

    2015-01-01

    The hygienic analysis of centralized and decentralized water supply in rural population in Irkutsk region was performed. About 403 thousand of the upstaters use water wells, voids and springs. In drinking water there were detected significant concentrations of iron, nitrates, manganese. On the base of the application of risk assessment methodology there was calculated noncarcinogenic risk for adults (HI = 1.2-1.3) and children (HI = 1.1-2.9). Carcinogenic risk for water from groundwater sources supply is 1.56 · 10(-5)-2.1 · 10(-4) for 22.2 thousand of upstaters. There were determined priority carcinogenic ingredients: arsenic (contribution is 56.3-100%) and hexad chromium (contribution is 29.9-35.8%).

  13. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  14. Advancing Suicide Prevention Research With Rural American Indian and Alaska Native Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P.; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O’Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-01-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention’s American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance’s prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond. PMID:25790403

  15. Advancing suicide prevention research with rural American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Lisa; Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O'Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-05-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance's prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond. PMID:25790403

  16. Cookin' Up Health: developing a nutrition intervention for a rural Appalachian population.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Irene; Rye, Sheila; Parker, Lindsey; Trangsrud, Kristin; Mangone, Carol; McCrone, Susan; Leslie, Nan

    2006-04-01

    Cookin' Up Health is a culturally targeted and individualized tailored nutrition intervention using a computer-based interactive format. Using a cooking show theme, the program demonstrates step-by-step meal preparation emphasizing healthy selection and portion control. Focus groups were conducted with women in two rural counties in West Virginia to guide the development of the intervention. Women felt more susceptible to heart disease because the changing role of women creates more stress and less time; weight loss was a greater motivator for dietary change than was preventing heart disease; social support is a barrier and facilitator for dietary change; cultural heritage and the way women were raised were major barriers to making health changes as adults; convenience and the cost of eating healthier were major factors when trying to make changes in diet; and women did not feel confident in their ability to maintain dietary changes. PMID:16585148

  17. Dynamics and forecast in a simple model of sustainable development for rural populations.

    PubMed

    Angulo, David; Angulo, Fabiola; Olivar, Gerard

    2015-02-01

    Society is becoming more conscious on the need to preserve the environment. Sustainable development schemes have grown rapidly as a tool for managing, predicting and improving the growth path in different regions and economy sectors. We introduce a novel and simple mathematical model of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in order to obtain a dynamical description for each one of the sustainability components (economy, social development and environment conservation), together with their dependence with demographic dynamics. The main part in the modeling task is inspired by the works by Cobb, Douglas, Brander and Taylor. This is completed through some new insights by the authors. A model application is presented for three specific geographical rural regions in Caldas (Colombia).

  18. Determinants of Utilization of Eye Care Services in a Rural Adult Population of a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolutife A.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Owoaje, Eme T.; Baiyeroju, Aderonke M.; Ajayi, Benedictus G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the factors that determine the utilization of eye care services in a rural community in South-Western Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique was conducted. The main outcome measure was self-reported previous consultation of an orthodox medical facility for eye care. Results: The study sample included 643 participants. Only 122 (19%) respondents had previously visited orthodox facilities in search of eye care and 24% of those with presenting visual acuity <6/18 had sought eye care. Characteristics associated with previous utilization of eye care services were age of =70 years (odds ratio [OR] ≥ 1.7, P = 0.02); male gender (OR = 1.5, P = 0.04); literacy (OR = 1.7, P = 0.007); and residing close to an eye care facility (OR = 2.8, P < 0.001). Blind respondents were three times more likely to seek eye care (P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that factors associated with increased likelihood of utilization of eye care services included age ≥70 years; literacy; residence close to an eye facility; being diabetic or hypertensive; history of ocular symptoms, and blindness. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a significant proportion (75%) of adults in the study area are not utilizing eye care services and that blindness is an important determinant of utilization of eye care services. Health education and awareness campaigns about the importance and benefits of seeking eye care early, and the provision of community-based eye care programs are essential to boost the uptake of eye care services in this community as well as other rural areas of West Africa. PMID:26957847

  19. Household survey in two provinces in Viet Nam estimates HIV prevalence in an urban and a rural population.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Diep, Vu Thi Bich; Thang, Pham Hong; Long, Nguyen Thanh; Huong, Phan Thi Thu; Duc, Bui Hoang; Wilson, David; Oelrichs, Robert; Hien, Nguyen Tran

    2008-08-01

    A household-based population study interviewed 2,553 women and 1,984 men aged 15-49 years in urban (Ho Chi Minh City) and rural (Thai Binh) provinces in Viet Nam between July and August 2005. The survey response rate was high--approximately 97% of households and 93% of adults overall, with a >92% acceptance of HIV testing among eligible adults. The unadjusted estimated population HIV prevalence was 0.3% (confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-0.6%) in Thai Binh and 0.7% (CI: 0.3-1.3) in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), compared with the national estimates and projections of 0.352% and 1.250%, respectively, for 2005. The ratio of male-to-female prevalence was 10.5:1 in Thai Binh and 1.3:1 in HCMC. A low level of men reported purchasing sex in the last 12 months (2.4%) and there were low self-reports of sexually transmitted infections in all adults (5%). A correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods was high in both provinces (83%), although only 24.8% of women knew of the use of antiretroviral therapy to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The observed population prevalence was consistent with recent projections in Thai Binh, although lower than expected in HCMC, indicating the substantial downward revisions of projected population HIV prevalence may need to be extended. The unequal sex prevalence ratio is consistent with the projected trends of increasing male-to-female sexual transmission in urban areas. The results and experience of this study will inform future population based surveys in Viet Nam and the broader Asian region. PMID:18724801

  20. [[Findings of a report on the population structure of rural market towns

    PubMed

    1985-07-29

    This report concerns a survey on the characteristics of the population of four villages in Shunji county, located near Beijing, China. The survey, which was carried out in 1984, covered 12,652 individuals. The results show that the population of adult age is increasing and that a general trend toward demographic aging can be identified. The sex ratio is particularly high in the working ages. Fertility is currently below replacement level.

  1. Population Migration in Rural America: January 1980-January 1993. Quick Bibliography Series: QB 93-35. Updates QB 91-40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Patricia La Caille

    This bibliography contains 137 entries related to population migration in rural America. The entries were derived from the AGRICOLA database produced by the National Agricultural Library and include journal articles, government reports, conference papers, extension bulletins, and books. Entries cover such topics as demography, economic growth,…

  2. Differences in results of breast cancer curative treatment between urban/rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship of Poland before introduction of the National Cancer Control Programme.

    PubMed

    Maślach, Dominik; Krzyżak, Michalina; Szpak, Andrzej; Owoc, Alfred; Gębska-Kuczerowska, Anita; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in the results of the curative treatment received by women with breast cancer in urban and rural area in Podlaskie Voivodship in 2001-2002 before the introduction of the National Cancer Control Programme. The analysis was based on 449 women with breast cancer, who received curative treatment in years 2001-2002. Relative 5-year survival rates as function of age and stage among urban and rural women population were calculated. The results showed that survival rates in Podlaskie Voivodship among curatively treated women with breast cancer were 81.9% but they differed between urban and rural areas. Patients living in rural areas had much lower survivals than those living in urban areas at local and regional stage of disease. In all age groups considered in the study survivals in rural areas were lower than in urban ones in which survivals were higher in 55-64 age group. These results indicated the necessity intervention in order to increase the access to the health care system and effectiveness of early detection and also improved treatment standards for more disadvantaged rural areas. These results should be also considered in monitoring of the National Cancer Control Programme introduction in Poland in 2006.

  3. Stroke in urban and rural populations in north-east Bulgaria: incidence and case fatality findings from a 'hot pursuit' study

    PubMed Central

    Powles, John; Kirov, Philip; Feschieva, Nevijana; Stanoev, Marin; Atanasova, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    Background Bulgaria's official stroke mortality rates are higher for rural than urban areas. Official mortality data has indicated that these rates are amongst the highest in Europe. There has been a lack of studies measuring stroke incidence in urban and rural populations. Methods We established intensive notification networks covering 37791 residents in Varna city and 18656 residents (55% of them village-dwellers), all aged 45 to 84, in 2 rural districts. From May 1, 2000 to April 30, 2001 frequent contact was maintained with notifiers and death registrations were scanned regularly. Suspected incident strokes were assessed by study neurologists within a median of 8 days from onset. Results 742 events were referred for neurological assessment and 351 of these, which met the WHO criteria for stroke, were in persons aged 45 to 84 and were first ever in a lifetime. Incidence rates, standardised using the world standard weights for ages 45 to 84, were 909 (/100000/year) (95% CI 712–1105) and 597 (482–712) for rural and urban males and 667 (515–818) and 322 (248–395) for rural and urban females. Less than half were admitted to hospital (15% among rural females over 65). Twenty-eight day case fatality was 35% (123/351) overall and 48% (46/96) in village residents. The excess case fatality in the villages could not be explained by age or severity. Conclusions Rural incidence rates were over twice those reported for western populations but the rate for urban females was similar to other western rates. The high level and marked heterogeneity in both stroke incidence and case fatality merit further investigation. PMID:12323079

  4. Evidence for a downward secular trend in age of menarche in a rural Gambian population

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Sarah; Fulford, Antony J.; Jarjou, Landing M. A.; Goldberg, Gail R.; Prentice, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Menarcheal age is a key indicator of female maturity and development. Studies in many countries have reported a downward secular trend in age of menarche over the past century. This study presents data gained using the ‘status quo’ method and interval regression to estimate median menarcheal age of girls in a rural Gambian community. Cross-sectional studies carried out in 1989, 2000 and 2008 revealed a median menarcheal age of 16.06 (95% CI 15.67–16.45), 15.03 (95% CI 14.76–15.30) and 14.90 (95% CI 14.52–15.28), respectively. The average rate of decline of median age of menarche was amongst the most rapid yet reported, at 0.65 years of age per decade (p < 0.00001). There was no evidence for a change in the rate of decline over the two decades studied. These results probably reflect ongoing socio-economic development within the region. PMID:20465526

  5. Epidemiologic approach for early detection and control of renal and urinary tract diseases in rural populations.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Hanan A; Hammam, Olfat; Sabry, Hoda; Akl, Maha; Amin, Tarek; El Lithy, Tarek; Roshdy, Mamdouh; El Ganzoury, Hossam

    2007-04-01

    The dipstick testing, microscopic examination of urine and urine cytology were performed for inhabitants from two rural villages (El Shobak El Sharki, V.1 & El Katta, V.2) in Giza G. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Schistosoma haematobium antigen were done by immuno-histochemical stain to confirm diagnosis. Also, they were subjected to medical questionnaire, clinical examination, ultra-sonography of kidneys and urinary tract. The results showed that V.2 had higher percentage of haematuria, proteinuria, glucosuria and lower urinary tract infection than V.1. Crystaluria was higher in V.1. Sensitivity of dipstick testing compared to microscopic examination was 26.6%, & specificity was 78.7%. Lower urinary tract infection cytologically detected was 44.2% sensitivity & 62.5% specificity compared to pyuria detected by microscopic examination of urine. Among those suffering variable urinary abnormalities, schistosome antigen was not detected in any fixed urine samples in comparison to corresponding confirmed positive controls. Urine cytology detected urinary tract infection, crystaluria, dysplasia and atypia, squamous metaplasia and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). PCNA positivity was found in TCC (100%), dysplasia (50%) and squamous metaplasia (28.6%). So, microscopic examination of urine proved valuable for tract abnormalities as pyuria, haematuria and crystaluria. Also, urine cytology is a must for malignancy of urinary tract especially in adult males. PMID:17580586

  6. The ethics of population control in rural China, 1979-92.

    PubMed

    Thomas, N

    1995-09-01

    This article identifies some issues of importance in understanding China's policy of population control. This article presents evidence of trends in fertility, population policy, family planning, and socioeconomic change; and then discusses the conflict between fertility preferences and policy that is evident from studies of ideal family size and sex ratios. Some issues that are identified as "uncertain" include the extent of spread of family planning service delivery and its associated insurance schemes, local family planning policies and cadre responsibility systems, the demand for children, the demand for female children, the economic and environmental consequences of population growth, the fairness of reproductive restrictions and their application, and the extent of coercion in the later-longer-fewer policy era. It is argued that an ethical framework for analyzing China's population policy should include answers to questions about the harm to welfare from population growth, the government's right to demand voluntary reproductive sacrifice or to impose demographic or reproductive restrictions and punishment, and the government's right to impose coercion. If it is accepted that population growth in China has adverse consequences and its control would be beneficial to all, then it must be determined what the nature of the relationship should be between the state and the individual. The author refers to Walzer's (1983) position that the legitimacy of Chinese state power depends in part on whether political leaders at all levels are competent and not corrupt. The rights and duties of the government and individuals must be understood not just in terms of political legitimacy but also in terms of social justice. Social justice is dependent upon the degree of horizontal and vertical consultation and accountability, utilitarian consequences, and protected spheres of individual judgement. Utilitarian theories justify the one-child policy, while deontological theories

  7. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in Four Rural Communities in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nguyen Van; Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Thanh, Pham Vinh; Van den Eede, Peter; Guetens, Pieter; Binh, Nguyen Thi Huong; Phuc, Bui Quang; Duong, Tran Thanh; Van Geertruyden, Jean Pierre; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of malaria in Vietnam has drastically reduced, prompting the National Malaria Control Program to officially engage in elimination efforts. Plasmodium vivax is becoming increasingly prevalent, remaining a major problem in the country's central and southern provinces. A better understanding of P. vivax genetic diversity and structure of local parasite populations will provide baseline data for the evaluation and improvement of current efforts for control and elimination. The aim of this study was to examine the population genetics and structure of P. vivax isolates from four communities in Tra Leng commune, Nam Tra My district in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. Methodology/Principal Findings P. vivax mono infections collected from 234 individuals between April 2009 and December 2010 were successfully analyzed using a panel of 14 microsatellite markers. Isolates displayed moderate genetic diversity (He = 0.68), with no significant differences between study communities. Polyclonal infections were frequent (71.4%) with a mean multiplicity of infection of 1.91 isolates/person. Low but significant genetic differentiation (FST value from -0.05 to 0.18) was observed between the community across the river and the other communities. Strong linkage disequilibrium (IAS = 0.113, p < 0.001) was detected across all communities, suggesting gene flow within and among them. Using multiple approaches, 101 haplotypes were grouped into two genetic clusters, while 60.4% of haplotypes were admixed. Conclusions/Significance In this area of Central Vietnam, where malaria transmission has decreased significantly over the past decade, there was moderate genetic diversity and high occurrence of polyclonal infections. Local human populations have frequent social and economic interactions that facilitate gene flow and inbreeding among parasite populations, while decreasing population structure. Findings provide important information on parasites populations circulating in the

  8. Why are Korean American Physicians Reluctant to Recommend Colorectal Cancer Screening to Korean American Patients? Exploratory Interview Findings

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Annette E.; Rick, Albert J.; Cha, Jennifer; Bastani, Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Background Korean Americans have one of the lowest screening rates for colorectal cancer. Although physician recommendation is one of the most important predictors of cancer screening across populations, only few Korean American patients receive such a recommendation. Methods We interviewed 14 Korean American physicians in Los Angeles area who primarily serve Korean Americans to explore why they are reluctant to recommend colorectal cancer screening to their Korean patients. Results Physicians identified barriers attributable to themselves (i.e., lack of knowledge, fear of medicolegal liability), their patients (i.e., patient’s unfamiliarity with the concept of screening), and the health care system (i.e., lack of referral network, poor reimbursement). Discussion Our results suggest the need for multi-faceted interventions directed at the physicians, their patients, and the health care system. Further research is needed to validate our results and to assess the extent to which they apply to physicians from other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:18607728

  9. Chinese and Korean characters engage the same visual word form area in proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jian'e; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent studies consistently show an area, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in the left fusiform gyrus that is selectively responsive for visual words in alphabetic scripts as well as in logographic scripts, such as Chinese characters. However, given the large difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic scripts in terms of their orthographic rules, it is not clear at a fine spatial scale, whether Chinese characters engage the same VWFA in the occipito-temporal cortex as alphabetic scripts. We specifically compared Chinese with Korean script, with Korean script serving as a good example of alphabetic writing system, but matched to Chinese in the overall square shape. Sixteen proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals took part in the fMRI experiment. Four types of stimuli (Chinese characters, Korean characters, line drawings and unfamiliar Chinese faces) were presented in a block-design paradigm. By contrasting characters (Chinese or Korean) to faces, presumed VWFAs could be identified for both Chinese and Korean characters in the left occipito-temporal sulcus in each subject. The location of peak response point in these two VWFAs were essentially the same. Further analysis revealed a substantial overlap between the VWFA identified for Chinese and that for Korean. At the group level, there was no significant difference in amplitude of response to Chinese and Korean characters. Spatial patterns of response to Chinese and Korean are similar. In addition to confirming that there is an area in the left occipito-temporal cortex that selectively responds to scripts in both Korean and Chinese in early Chinese-Korean bilinguals, our results show that these two scripts engage essentially the same VWFA, even at the level of fine spatial patterns of activation across voxels. These results suggest that similar populations of neurons are engaged in processing the different scripts within the same VWFA in early bilinguals.

  10. Marital instability in a rural population in south-west Uganda: implications for the spread of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Nabaitu, J; Bachengana, C; Seeley, J

    1994-01-01

    "The aim of this study was to examine people's beliefs about the causes of marital instability in a rural population cohort in south-west Uganda. Results from a baseline survey of HIV-1 infection in the cohort of over 4,000 adults (over 12 years old) showed a twofold increase in risk of infection in divorced or separated persons when compared with those who are married. A purposive sample of 134 respondents (seventy-two males, sixty-two females) selected to represent different ages, religions and marital status were asked in semi-structured interviews to comment on the reasons for continuing marital instability in their community. The most common reasons suggested for marital instability were sexual dissatisfaction, infertility, alcoholism and mobility....HIV infection was not mentioned as a direct cause of separation, but a small independent study revealed that seven out of ten couples separated on learning of a positive HIV test result of one or both partners. Marital instability is not uncommon in this population; there is evidence that HIV infection is making the situation worse." (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  11. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami) population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. Study design The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389) population-based study of adults (aged 36–79 years) in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study). Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: “Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?” Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. Results The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. Conclusion We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway. PMID:25683064

  12. Population-based assessment of visual impairment among ethnic Dai adults in a rural community in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Yan; Li, Jun; Zhao, Chun-Hua; Qian, Deng-Juan; Niu, Zhiqiang; Shen, Wei; Yuan, Yuansheng; Zhong, Hua; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Dai ethnicity is one of the major Chinese ethnic minorities with a population of about 1.2 million. We aimed to determine the prevalence and potential causes of visual impairment (VI) among ethnic Dai adults aged 50 years or older in a rural community in China. A population-based survey including 2163 ethnic Dai people (80.5%) was undertaken using a random cluster sampling strategy. The detailed eye examination was performed after pupil dilation by trained study ophthalmologists and optometrists. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study logMAR chart and VI was defined as a VA of less than 20/63 in the better-seeing eye. The overall prevalence of presenting blindness and low vision was 3.0% (95% CI, 2.3–3.7) and 13.3% (95% CI, 11.9–14.8), respectively. The prevalence estimates were reduced to 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5–2.8) and 6.7% (95% CI, 5.7–7.8) when BCVA was considered. Men were more likely to be affected by low vision but less likely to be blind compared with women. Cataract accounted for 62.7% of presenting low vision and 68.8% of presenting blindness, respectively. In conclusion, VI was a significant health concern in Dai Chinese in China. PMID:26932265

  13. The prevalence and morbidity of snake bite and treatment-seeking behaviour among a rural Kenyan population.

    PubMed

    Snow, R W; Bronzan, R; Roques, T; Nyamawi, C; Murphy, S; Marsh, K

    1994-12-01

    Snake-bite mortality among a rural population in Kenya was estimated to be 6.7/100,000 people each year, representing 0.7% of all deaths. A community-based retrospective survey of 4712 households provided estimates of the incidence of snake bite in this population. Although 151/100,000 people are bitten each year, only 19% of these are bitten by potentially venomous snakes. When those who had been bitten were shown photographs of a range of locally prevalent snakes, most indicated that both venomous and non-venomous snakes were capable of causing death. Most (68%) of bite cases sought treatment from a traditional healer who invariably used local herbal preparations applied to the bite site and/or in a ring around the bitten limb. Local skin incisions were also commonly practised. The use of traditional medicine for snake bite is a feature of most areas of the developing world where venomous snakes are prevalent. Improvements in early referral and appropriate care will only occur when traditional healers are integrated into primary health care and hospital-based health systems.

  14. Providing maternal and child health-family planning services to a large rural population: results of the Bohol Project, Philippines.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, N E; Parado, J P; Maturan, E G

    1983-01-01

    The Bohol Project (1975-1979) sought to improve maternal and child health and to increase the use of family planning among a rural Philippine population of 400,000. Research indicated that maternal and child health (MCH) services did become more available during the Project period and coverage of the priority populations improved. Family planning (FP) use, particularly of less effective methods, increased and fertility declined although some change could have been expected even without the Project. Deaths due to neonatal tetanus were almost eliminated by mortality rates did not decline for a number of reasons, including the fact that services were probably not tailored closely enough to local health problems, especially respiratory diseases. The Project showed that it was possible to increase health and family planning services by using low-cost strategies (such as setting up community drug stores) and by employing paramedical workers, in this case, midwives. Preventive MCH-FP services were not overwhelmed by curative services as had been feared. Perhaps the most significant contributions of the Project were the lessons learned about delivering health and family planning services and conducting evaluation research. In general, if developing countries could maintain well-evaluated field laboratories for working out health and family planning delivery approaches before going nationwide, it is likely that time and money would be saved in the long run. PMID:6848001

  15. Characteristics of Discharged Mental Patients in Rural 18-County Sparsely Populated Eastern Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraenzel, Carl F.; Macdonald, Frances H.

    In order to obtain information about the nature and extent of mental illness in a sparsely populated area, the National Institute of Mental Health and the Montana Agricultural Experiement Station made a study of patients who had been discharged from a Montana state hospital for the mentally ill from January 1, 1963 to July 1, 1965. Only patients…

  16. The Relationship between Health Survey and Medical Chart Review Results in a Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voaklander, Donald C.; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Michalos, Alex C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the relationship between health survey and medical chart based information. The study population consisted of adult patients (17 years of age and older) attending the Bella Coola Medical Clinic who also completed a detailed Health and Quality of Life Survey. A total of 674 adults completed the Health…

  17. Meeting the Health Care Needs of a Rural Hispanic Migrant Population With Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, Loretta; Hess, Carla W.; Klug, Marilyn G.

    2004-01-01

    There is a need for models of health care that provide accessible, culturally appropriate, quality services to the population of Hispanic migrant farmworkers at risk for or diagnosed with diabetes. The purposes of this study were to describe the Migrant Health Service, Inc (MHSI), Diabetes Program, the conceptual model on which it is based, and 4…

  18. Perceptions of and Barriers to Use of Generic Medications in a Rural African American Population, Alabama, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Andreae, Susan; Luke, Elizabeth; Safford, Monika M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Using generic medications for chronic diseases provides efficacy similar to that of brand-name medication use, but at a lower price, potentially enhancing adherence. However, previous studies show that disadvantaged people, who may particularly benefit from cost savings, have low trust of generics and increased reluctance to switch to generics. The rural South includes areas of high poverty and minority communities whose members are at high risk for poor health outcomes; however, whether such beliefs exist in these communities has not been reported. We sought to obtain qualitative insight into beliefs about generic medication use among African Americans in the rural South. Methods Investigators conducted 4 focus groups with 30 community members from Alabama’s Black Belt area. Transcribed discussions were analyzed and common themes identified. Results Participants were primarily unemployed middle-aged women, one-fourth of whom were uninsured and more than half of whom had a high school education or less. Barriers to generic medication use included perceptions that generics are less potent than brand-name medications, require higher doses, and, therefore, result in more side effects; generics are not “real” medicine; generics are for minor but not serious illnesses; the medical system cannot be trusted; and poor people are forced to “settle” for generics. Conclusion Although education about generics could rectify misinformation, overcoming views such as mistrust of the medical system and the sense of having to settle for generics because of poverty may be more challenging. Policy makers and providers should consider these perspectives when working to increase generic drug use in these populations. PMID:22935144

  19. The population-based burden of influenza-associated hospitalization in rural western Kenya, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    Ope, Maurice O; Aura, Barrack; Fuller, James A; Gikunju, Stella; Vulule, John; Ng’ang’a, Zipporah; Njenga, M Kariuki; Breiman, Robert F; Katz, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the burden and age-specific rates of influenza-associated hospitalization in rural western Kenya. Methods All 3924 patients with respiratory illness (defined as acute cough, difficulty in breathing or pleuritic chest pain) who were hospitalized between June 2007 and May 2009 in any inpatient health facility in the Kenyan district of Bondo were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested for influenza viruses using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). In the calculation of annual rates, adjustments were made for enrolled patients who did not have swabs tested for influenza virus. Findings Of the 2079 patients with tested swabs, infection with influenza virus was confirmed in 204 (10%); 176, 27 and 1 were found to be RT–PCR-positive for influenza A virus only, influenza B virus only, and both influenza A and B viruses, respectively. Among those tested for influenza virus, 6.8% of the children aged < 5 years and 14.0% of the patients aged ≥ 5 years were found positive. The case-fatality rate among admitted patients with PCR-confirmed infection with influenza virus was 2.0%. The annual rate of hospitalization (per 100 000 population) was 699.8 among patients with respiratory illness and 56.2 among patients with influenza (with 143.7, 18.8, 55.2, 65.1 and 57.3 hospitalized patients with influenza virus per 100 000 people aged < 5, 5–19, 20–34, 35–49 and ≥ 50 years, respectively). Conclusion In a rural district of western Kenya, the rate of influenza-associated hospitalization was highest among children aged less than 5 years. PMID:22511821

  20. Improved shelf life of protein-rich tofu using Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) extracts to benefit Indian rural population.

    PubMed

    Anbarasu, K; Vijayalakshmi, G

    2007-10-01

    A nutrition survey carried out in India revealed that the diets of the rural population are inadequate and deficient in most of the nutrients especially protein. India being the 5th-largest producer of soybean, a protein-rich cereal, can redress protein-energy malnutrition through diversification of soybean uses by developing high-value and health-based food products. Tofu, a nonfermented soybean product rich in high-quality protein, B-vitamins, and isoflavones, could be an excellent substitute for meat in Indian recipes. Tofu being rich in protein has a very short shelf life. Hence an attempt was made to improve the shelf life using extracts of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) commonly available in rural areas. Tofu was prepared traditionally using MgCl(2):CaSO(4) as coagulating agents. Aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) was added during the preparation and storage of tofu to prolong its shelf life. Water used in this study was free from microflora, plant extract used contained mesophilic count of 2.527 x 10(4) CFU/g, and no yeasts and molds were detected. Tofu with tulsi extract had 76.4% moisture and was softer than control. Not much difference in mesophilic count was observed between control and treated samples during storage; however, treated tofu was organoleptically good until the end of the study with less lipid-peroxidation and exhibited 50% (4.7 units) less protease activity than control (9.6 units) after 7 d. By using extracts of naturally available, easily cultivable tulsi, the shelf life was successfully extended to 7 to 8 d from 3 to 4 d of normal storage without refrigeration.

  1. The Association Between Gastric Endoscopic Findings and Histologic Premalignant Lesions in the Iranian Rural Population

    PubMed Central

    Niknam, Ramin; Manafi, Alireza; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric dysplasia are histologic premalignant lesions (PMLs). Correlation between the gastric endoscopic findings and histologic PMLs is not clear. This study was designed to determine the possible association of endoscopic findings and histologic PMLs. Over 28 months gastric endoscopic findings of consecutive rural patients with dyspepsia were categorized into 3 groups: 1—normal, 2—ulcerative with or without concurrent abnormality, 3—abnormal non-ulcerative. Biopsies of antrum and body were taken from all included patients and examined for the presence of histologic PMLs. Any mucosal abnormality was also biopsied. From 7340 evaluated patients, an overall of 1973 patients were included. 55.7% of patients were in group 1; 3.8% in group 2 and 40.5% in group 3. A within sex analysis showed that the majority of male patients were in PMLs subgroup (P < 0.001) likewise in groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of histologic PMLs in groups 2 and 3 was significantly higher than group 1 (P < 0:001) but the difference was not significant between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.484). Mean (±SD) age of patient with PMLs was 50.25 ± 17.71 whereas in patients without PMLs was 41.16 ± 16.48 (P < 0.001). This study has showed that abnormal gastric endoscopic findings, male sex and increased age can be considered as risk factors of the formation of histologic PMLs. Until further investigations we propose that any abnormality on gastric mucosa (ulcerative or non-ulcerative) could be biopsied for the evaluation of probable histologic PMLs especially in old men. PMID:25929902

  2. Dietary Patterns and Household Food Insecurity in Rural Populations of Kilosa District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Kinabo, Joyce; Msuya, John; Mamiro, Peter; Majili, Zahara Saidi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community. Methodology Three hundred and seven (307) randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February–May) and post harvest season (September–October) in the year 2011. Food consumption pattern was determined using a 24-h dietary recall method. Food insecurity data were based on the 30 day recall experience to food insecurity in the household. Factor analysis method using Principal Components extraction function was used to derive the dietary patterns and correlation analysis was used to establish the existing relationship between household food insecurity and dietary patterns factor score. Results Four food consumption patterns namely (I) Meat and milk; (II) Pulses, legumes, nuts and cooking oils; (III) fish (and other sea foods), roots and tubers; (IV) Cereals, vegetables and fruits consumption patterns were identified during harvest season. Dietary patterns identified during the rainy season were as follows: (I) Fruits, cooking oils, fats, roots and tubers (II) Eggs, meat, milk and milk products (III) Fish, other sea foods, vegetables, roots and tubers and (IV) Pulses, legumes, nuts, cereals and vegetables. Household food insecurity was 80% and 69% during rainy and harvest–seasons, respectively (P = 0.01). Household food insecurity access scale score was negatively correlated with the factor scores on household dietary diversity. Conclusion Food consumption patterns and food insecurity varied by seasons with worst scenarios most prevalent during the rainy season. The risk for inadequate dietary diversity was higher among food insecure households compared to food secure households. Effort geared at

  3. H. pylori-infection and antibody immune response in a rural Tanzanian population

    PubMed Central

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Gold, Benjamin D; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Brubaker, Glen R; Shao, John; Biggar, Robert J; Hisada, Michie

    2006-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is ubiquitous in sub-Saharan Africa, but paradoxically gastric cancer is rare. Methods Sera collected during a household-based survey in rural Tanzania in 1985 were tested for anti-H. pylori IgG and IgG subclass antibodies by enzyme immunoassay. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) of association of seropositivity with demographic variables were computed by logistic regression models. Results Of 788 participants, 513 were aged ≤17 years. H. pylori seropositivity increased from 76% at 0–4 years to 99% by ≥18 years of age. Seropositivity was associated with age (OR 11.5, 95% CI 4.2–31.4 for 10–17 vs. 0–4 years), higher birth-order (11.1; 3.6–34.1 for ≥3rd vs. 1st born), and having a seropositive next-older sibling (2.7; 0.9–8.3). Median values of IgG subclass were 7.2 for IgG1 and 2.0 for IgG2. The median IgG1/IgG2 ratio was 3.1 (IQR: 1.7–5.6), consistent with a Th2-dominant immune profile. Th2-dominant response was more frequent in children than adults (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3–4.4). Conclusion H. pylori seropositivity was highly prevalent in Tanzania and the immunological response was Th2-dominant. Th2-dominant immune response, possibly caused by concurrent bacterial or parasitic infections, could explain, in part, the lower risk of H. pylori-associated gastric cancer in Africa. PMID:17150132

  4. PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PBDEs in blood samples of a rural population in South Germany.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Hermann; Albrecht, Michael; Appel, Markus; Hilger, Bettina; Völkel, Wolfgang; Liebl, Bernhard; Roscher, Eike

    2015-01-01

    The body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like (ndl-PCBs) polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined in blood samples from 70 subjects between 4 and 76 years old. The participants of the study were recruited in the neighborhood of a reclamation plant located in a rural area in Southern Germany. The median concentrations (95th percentiles in parentheses), expressed as WHO2005-TEQ (toxic equivalents), for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 4.5 (17.9)pgg(-1) l.w. and 2.6 (13.2)pgg(-1) l.w., respectively. The dl-PCBs contributed 40% of the total TEQ (median values), and the most abundant congener was PCB 156. Combined, the sum of the 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs had a median of 0.773μgL(-1) and a 95th percentile of 4.895μgL(-1). For the six tetra to hepta PBDE congeners, the median was 1.8ngg(-1) l.w. (95th percentile: 16.2ngg(-1) l.w.). None of our study subjects had a body burden that exceeded the biomonitoring equivalents for dioxins or PBDE congener 99 or the human biomonitoring values for ndl-PCBs. Likewise the study group did not exceed German reference values or values obtained in similar investigations. Overall, our study did not exhibit elevated internal exposures. The results also hint further decreasing tendencies for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in Germany and demonstrates that people in the vicinity of a reclamation plant with no indication of an environmental contamination did not exhibit elevated internal exposures.

  5. The prevalence of diabetes in a rural population of Jamaican adults.

    PubMed

    Florey, C du V; McDonald, H; McDonald, J; Miall, W E

    1972-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes, the interrelationship of blood glucose, serum insulin, and lipids, and their relationship to ischemic heart dise ase in a rural Jamaican community were investigated. The people were mo stly of West African descent. Occupations were primarily agricultural w ith much physical labor. Approximately 80% of total claories in their d iet were from carbohydrates. Of 696 25-64 year old persons, a response rate of 77.3% was achieved. The patients, after an overnight fast, drank a 7-oz bottle of Glucola which was the equivalent of a 100 gm glucose load. Electrocardiograms (EKGs), blood pressure readings, a chest X-ray, and skinfold tests for obesity were done. A family history was obtained. Blood and urine specimens were taken before the glucose was given. 1 hour after the glucose was given, blood and urine specimens were also taken. Those with blood glucose of 180 mg% or more were given a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. Of the 525 persons who had the 1-hour test, 23 were found to be glycosuric. Of these, 11 were not shown to be diabetic by the 3-hour glucose test. Of the 502 with negative urines, 34 were positive on blood tests. The rates increased with age, except in the oldest age groups (p less than .05 for males and p less than .001 for females). There was no relationship between the number of live births and the 1-hour blood glucose tests. There was neither increase in the diagnosis of diabetes nor increase in variance with number of children. The known diabetics were fatter and had higher triglycerides than others. Cholesterol was higher in all male diabetics but not in females. Only 2 persons experiencing effort pain had EKG changes. Data from this study indicate that no statistically significant association exists between levels of glycemia and blood pressure or prevalence of cardiovascular disease. The physical fitness acquired from walking and working in a hilly area may be a factor.

  6. Free Prostate-Specific Antigen Provides More Precise Data on Benign Prostate Volume Than Total Prostate-Specific Antigen in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon; Park, Jae Young; Shim, Ji Sung; Kim, Jae Heon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) and free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) for the estimation of prostate volume (PV) in pathologically-proven benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. Methods From January 2010 to March 2013, 165 Korean men with a PSA less than 10 ng/mL who were diagnosed without prostate cancer by prostate biopsy were enrolled. Patients were classified into three age groups: ≤60, 61-70, and >70 years old. The results were organized to estimate and compare the ability of serum tPSA and fPSA to assess the PV. Results Enrolled patients had a median age of 63.5 years (44 to 80), a median tPSA of 5.72 ng/mL, a median fPSA of 0.98 ng/mL and a median PV of 53.68 mL, respectively. Among the associations between tPSA, fPSA, age, and PV, the highest correlation was verified between fPSA and PV (r=0.377, P<0.0001); the correlation coefficient between tPSA and PV was much lower (r=0.262, P<0.001). All stratified age cohorts showed the same findings. The ROC curves (for PV greater than 30, 40, and 50 mL) showed that fPSA (area under the curve [AUC]=0.781, 0.718, and 0.700) outperformed tPSA (AUC=0.657, 0.583, and 0.67) in its ability to predict clinically significant PV enlargement. Conclusion Both tPSA and fPSA significantly correlated with PV in Korean men, while the correlation efficiency between fPSA and PV was more powerful. fPSA may be a useful tool in making therapeutic decisions and follow-up management in BPH patients. PMID:23869271

  7. Replication of Early B-cell Factor 1 (EBF1) Gene-by-psychosocial Stress Interaction Effects on Central Adiposity in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Central obesity plays a major role in the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Chronic stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of central obesity. Although several large-scale genome-wide association studies have reported susceptibility genes for central adiposity, the effects of interactions between genes and psychosocial stress on central adiposity have rarely been examined. A recent study focusing on Caucasians discovered the novel gene early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1), which was associated with central obesity-related traits via interactions with stress levels. We aimed to evaluate EBF1 gene-by-stress interaction effects on central adiposity traits, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), in Korean adults. Methods A total of 1467 Korean adults were included in this study. We selected 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EBF1 gene and analyzed their interactions with stress on central adiposity using additive, dominant, and recessive genetic modeling. Results The four SNPs that had strong linkage disequilibrium relationships (rs10061900, rs10070743, rs4704967, and rs10056564) demonstrated significant interactions with the waist-hip ratio in the dominant model (pint<0.007). In addition, two other SNPs (rs6556377 and rs13180086) were associated with VAT by interactions with stress levels, especially in the recessive genetic model (pint<0.007). As stress levels increased, the mean values of central adiposity traits according to SNP genotypes exhibited gradual but significant changes (p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that the common genetic variants for EBF1 are associated with central adiposity through interactions with stress levels, emphasizing the importance of managing stress in the prevention of central obesity. PMID:27744667

  8. Population structure of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, at the urban-rural interface

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Erica A.; Khatchikian, Camilo E.; Hwang, Josephine; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Quıspe-Machaca, Victor R.; Levy, Michael Z.; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The increasing rate of biological invasions resulting from human transport or human-mediated changes to the environment have had devastating ecologic and public health consequences. The kissing bug, Triatoma infestans, has dispersed through the Peruvian city of Arequipa. The biological invasion of this insect has resulted in a public health crisis, putting thousands of residents of this city at risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent development of Chagas disease. Here we show that populations of Tria. Infestans in geographically distinct districts within and around this urban center share a common recent evolutionary history although current gene flow is restricted even between proximal sites. The population structure among the Tria. Infestans in different districts is not correlated with the geographic distance between districts. These data suggest that migration among the districts is mediated by factors beyond the short-range migratory capabilities of Tria. Infestans and that human movement has played a significant role in the structuring of the Tria. Infestans population in the region. Rapid urbanization across southern South America will continue to create suitable environments for Tria. Infestans and knowledge of its urban dispersal patterns may play a fundamental role in mitigating human disease risk. PMID:24103030

  9. Population structure of the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans, at the urban-rural interface.

    PubMed

    Foley, Erica A; Khatchikian, Camilo E; Hwang, Josephine; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Quıspe-Machaca, Victor R; Levy, Michael Z; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-10-01

    The increasing rate of biological invasions resulting from human transport or human-mediated changes to the environment has had devastating ecological and public health consequences. The kissing bug, Triatoma infestans, has dispersed through the Peruvian city of Arequipa. The biological invasion of this insect has resulted in a public health crisis, putting thousands of residents of this city at risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent development of Chagas disease. Here, we show that populations of Tria. infestans in geographically distinct districts within and around this urban centre share a common recent evolutionary history although current gene flow is restricted even between proximal sites. The population structure among the Tria. infestans in different districts is not correlated with the geographical distance between districts. These data suggest that migration among the districts is mediated by factors beyond the short-range migratory capabilities of Tria. infestans and that human movement has played a significant role in the structuring of the Tria. infestans population in the region. Rapid urbanization across southern South America will continue to create suitable environments for Tria. infestans, and knowledge of its urban dispersal patterns may play a fundamental role in mitigating human disease risk. PMID:24103030

  10. Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in a rural adult population.

    PubMed Central

    Woolcock, A J; Peat, J K; Salome, C M; Yan, K; Anderson, S D; Schoeffel, R E; McCowage, G; Killalea, T

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adult populations is not known. To document its prevalence and distribution and to determine the factors associated with it, a random sample of the adult population of Busselton, Western Australia, was studied. Spirometric function, bronchial responsiveness to histamine, and atopic responses to skin prick tests were measured. Respiratory symptoms were determined by questionnaire. Data were obtained from 916 subjects. Of these, 876 underwent a histamine inhalation test and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine (defined as a dose of histamine provoking a 20% fall in FEV1 equal to or less than 3.9 mumol) was found in 10.5%. Another 40 subjects with poor lung function were tested with a bronchodilator and 12 were found to have bronchial hyperresponsiveness (defined as a greater than 15% increase in FEV1), making the total prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness 11.4%. The prevalence of current asthma, defined as bronchial hyperresponsiveness plus symptoms consistent with asthma in the last 12 months, was 5.9%. The distribution of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the studied population was continuous. There was a significant association between it and respiratory symptoms, atopy, smoking, and abnormal lung function (p less than 0.001 for all associations). There was no association with age, sex, or recent respiratory tract infection. Images PMID:3660290

  11. Effectiveness of community-directed diabetes prevention and control in a rural Aboriginal population in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Green, L W; Marion, S A; Gamble, D; Herbert, C P; Hertzman, C; Sheps, S B

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the process and summative evaluation results from a community-based diabetes prevention and control project implemented in response to the increasing prevalence and impact of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in the Canadian Aboriginal population. The 24-month project targeted the registered Indian population in British Columbia's rural Okanagan region. A participatory approach was used to plan strategies by which diabetes could be addressed in ways acceptable and meaningful to the intervention community. The strategies emphasised a combination of changing behaviours and changing environments. The project was quasi-experimental. A single intervention community was matched to two comparison communities. Workers in the intervention community conducted interviews of individuals with or at risk for diabetes during a seven-month pre-intervention phase (n = 59). Qualitative analyses were conducted to yield strategies for intervention. Implementation began in the eighth month of the project. Trend measurements of diabetes risk factors were obtained for 'high-risk' cohorts (persons with or at familial risk for NIDDM) (n = 105). Cohorts were tracked over a 16-month intervention phase, with measurements at baseline, the midpoint and completion of the study. Cross-sectional population surveys of diabetes risk factors were conducted at baseline and the end of the intervention phase (n = 295). Surveys of community systems were conducted three times. The project yielded few changes in quantifiable outcomes. Activation of the intervention community was insufficient to enable individual and collective change through dissemination of quality interventions for diabetes prevention and control. Theory and previous research were not sufficiently integrated with information from pre-intervention interviews. Interacting with these limitations were the short planning and intervention phases, just 8 and 16 months, respectively. The level of penetration of

  12. A household survey to assess community knowledge, attitude and practices on malaria in a rural population of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajiv Kumar; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Shora, Tajali N.; Jan, Rayaz; Sharma, Renu; Hussain, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An extensive search on PubMed reveals very little in terms of evidence regarding the current knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the population in general and rural population, in particular, in this part of the country. Therefore, a study was conducted with the aim to assess the communities’ knowledge of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, treatment seeking. Materials and Methods: A stratified two-stage design was used to conduct a house-to-house survey using a semi-structured questionnaire in RS Pura block of Jammu District of Jammu and Kashmir State in North India. Results: A total of 300 households were included in the study. However, data on 4 households was found to be incomplete at the time of analysis and, therefore, were excluded. Out of 296 study participants interviewed 65.5% were males, while 34.5% females. All of the study participants (100%) had heard of malaria, and the main source of their information was television/newspaper. 92.5% of the study population considered malaria to be a serious health problem, thus reflecting their attitude to the disease. Regarding practices, 71.6% of the study participants preferred going to doctors at government hospitals for malaria treatment, and 56% were willing to seek medical help in <24 h in case of a child has a febrile episode. Conclusions: Results revealed that KAP among respondents were reasonably good and key sociocultural, and related indicators need to be identified as a part of malaria elimination strategy. PMID:27453852

  13. CHANGING SCHOOL NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RHODES, ALVIN E.

    AS THE RURAL ECONOMY HAS BECOME MORE AFFECTED BY AUTOMATION, RURAL SOCIETY HAS BECOME MORE INDUSTRIAL. FARM POPULATION AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS HAVE DECREASED, WHILE NON-FARM RURAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED. THE CHANGING RURAL SCENE IS REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN RURAL EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES HAVE GREATLY INCREASED DUE TO SCHOOL…

  14. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors in Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaotian; Li, Yuqian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Luning; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhou, Hao; Cui, Lingling; Mao, Zhenxing; Hu, Dongsheng; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore potential risk factors in rural areas of China. A total of 16413 individuals aged 18-74 years in rural districts were recruited from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study for the epidemiological research. Meanwhile, a meta-analysis including 7 published studies was conducted to validate the result of the cross-sectional study. The rates of crude and age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM were 12.19%, 67.00%, 62.35%, 22.20% and 6.98%, 60.11%, 54.85%, 18.77%, respectively. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM displayed increased trends with age (Ptrend < 0.01) and were strongly associated with education, drinking, more vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI). The results of this meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China countryside were 7.3% (5.3-9.4%), 57.3% (36.9-77.6%), 48.4% (32.4-64.5%) and 21.0% (9.9-32.1%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM was high with inadequate awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China rural areas. Healthy lifestyles should be advocated to reduce prevalence and improve awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM in Chinese rural residents. PMID:27510966

  15. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk factors in Chinese rural population: the RuralDiab study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaotian; Li, Yuqian; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Luning; Ren, Yongcheng; Zhou, Hao; Cui, Lingling; Mao, Zhenxing; Hu, Dongsheng; Wang, Chongjian

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to explore potential risk factors in rural areas of China. A total of 16413 individuals aged 18–74 years in rural districts were recruited from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study for the epidemiological research. Meanwhile, a meta-analysis including 7 published studies was conducted to validate the result of the cross-sectional study. The rates of crude and age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM were 12.19%, 67.00%, 62.35%, 22.20% and 6.98%, 60.11%, 54.85%, 18.77%, respectively. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM displayed increased trends with age (Ptrend < 0.01) and were strongly associated with education, drinking, more vegetable and fruit intake, physical activity, family history of diabetes, body mass index (BMI). The results of this meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China countryside were 7.3% (5.3–9.4%), 57.3% (36.9–77.6%), 48.4% (32.4–64.5%) and 21.0% (9.9–32.1%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM was high with inadequate awareness, treatment and control of T2DM in China rural areas. Healthy lifestyles should be advocated to reduce prevalence and improve awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM in Chinese rural residents. PMID:27510966

  16. The prevalence of diabetes in a rural population of Jamaican adults.

    PubMed

    Florey, C du V; McDonald, H; McDonald, J; Miall, W E

    1972-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes, the interrelationship of blood glucose, serum insulin, and lipids, and their relationship to ischemic heart dise ase in a rural Jamaican community were investigated. The people were mo stly of West African descent. Occupations were primarily agricultural w ith much physical labor. Approximately 80% of total claories in their d iet were from carbohydrates. Of 696 25-64 year old persons, a response rate of 77.3% was achieved. The patients, after an overnight fast, drank a 7-oz bottle of Glucola which was the equivalent of a 100 gm glucose load. Electrocardiograms (EKGs), blood pressure readings, a chest X-ray, and skinfold tests for obesity were done. A family history was obtained. Blood and urine specimens were taken before the glucose was given. 1 hour after the glucose was given, blood and urine specimens were also taken. Those with blood glucose of 180 mg% or more were given a 3-hour glucose tolerance test. Of the 525 persons who had the 1-hour test, 23 were found to be glycosuric. Of these, 11 were not shown to be diabetic by the 3-hour glucose test. Of the 502 with negative urines, 34 were positive on blood tests. The rates increased with age, except in the oldest age groups (p less than .05 for males and p less than .001 for females). There was no relationship between the number of live births and the 1-hour blood glucose tests. There was neither increase in the diagnosis of diabetes nor increase in variance with number of children. The known diabetics were fatter and had higher triglycerides than others. Cholesterol was higher in all male diabetics but not in females. Only 2 persons experiencing effort pain had EKG changes. Data from this study indicate that no statistically significant association exists between levels of glycemia and blood pressure or prevalence of cardiovascular disease. The physical fitness acquired from walking and working in a hilly area may be a factor. PMID:4669190

  17. The Distribution of Sex Acts and Condom Use within Partnerships in a Rural Sub-Saharan African Population

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon; Lewis, James; Magutshwa, Sitholubuhle; Schumacher, Christina; Mushati, Phyllis; Hallett, Tim; Garnett, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In an HIV/AIDS epidemic driven primarily by heterosexual transmission, it is important to have an understanding of the human sexual behaviour patterns that influence transmission. We analysed the distribution and predictors of within-partnership sexual behaviour and condom use in rural Zimbabwe and generated parameters for use in future modelling analyses. Methods A population-based cohort was recruited from a household census in 12 communities. A baseline survey was carried out in 1998–2000 with follow-up surveys after 3 and 5 years. Statistical distributions were fitted to reported within-partnership numbers of total, unprotected and protected sex acts in the past two weeks. Multilevel linear and logistic regression models were constructed to assess predictors of the frequency of unprotected sex and consistent condom use. Results A normal distribution of ln(sex acts+1) provided the best fit for total and unprotected sex acts for men and women. A negative binomial distribution applied to the untransformed data provided the best fit for protected sex acts. Condom use within partnerships was predominantly bimodal with at least 88% reporting zero or 100% use. Both men and women reported fewer unprotected sex acts with non-regular compared to regular partners (men: 0.26 fewer every two weeks (95% confidence interval 0.18–0.34); women: 0.16 (0.07–0.23)). Never and previously married individuals reported fewer unprotected sex acts than currently married individuals (never married men: 0.64 (0.60–0.67); previously married men: 0.59 (0.50–0.67); never married women: 0.51 (0.45–0.57); previously married women: 0.42 (0.37–0.47)). These variables were also associated with more consistent condom use. Discussion We generated parameters that will be useful for defining transmission models of HIV and other STIs, which rely on a valid representation of the underlying sexual network that determines spread of an infection. This will enable a better

  18. The Impact of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms on Quality of Life, Work Productivity, Depressive Symptoms, and Sexuality in Korean Men Aged 40 Years and Older: A Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Heon; Han, Deok Hyun; Ryu, Dong-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean men aged ≥40 years. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional door-to-door survey was conducted among men aged ≥40 years. Individuals with LUTS were defined as men reporting at least one LUTS using 2002 International Continence Society definitions. Structuredquestionnaires were used to assess several dimensions of HRQoL, including generic health status (EuroQoL-five-dimensions questionnaire), work productivity (work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire), depressive symptoms (center for epidemiologic studies depression scale), and sexual health (sexual satisfaction and erectile dysfunction). The impact of LUTS was assessed by comparing several dimensions of HRQoL among men with and without LUTS. Results: Of the 1,842 participants, 1,536 (83.4%) reported having at least one LUTS. The prevalence of LUTS increased with age (78.3% among those aged 40–49 years to 89.6% among those aged 60 years or older). Those with LUTS reported a significantlylower level of generic health status and worse work productivity compared with those without LUTS. Significantly more individuals with LUTS reported having a higher level of major depressive symptoms compared with those without LUTS.Those with LUTS reported worse sexual activity and enjoyment, and were significantly more likely to have erectile dysfunction than those without LUTS. Conclusions: LUTS seem to have a substantial impact on several dimensions of HRQoL in Korean men aged ≥40 years. PMID:26126442

  19. A Commentary on Cultural Influences Impacting the Education of Korean American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Adrian Woo; Stang, Kristin; Ferko, Doreen; Han, Shin-Il

    2011-01-01

    Korean American adolescents may find themselves caught between traditional Korean culture and demands for Americanization. Subsequently this population of students and parents may have very distinct needs in our schools as they are a growing population of students. This commentary discusses important considerations for teachers and administrators…

  20. Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; Hyun, Bang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population.

  1. Poverty Dimensions of Rural-to-Urban Migration: A Statistical Report. Population-Migration Reports, Rural-Urban Migrants, Volume I, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Gladys K.; And Others

    Statistics systematized from the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity for a study of the poverty dimensions of rural-to-urban migration are presented in this report. The data presented in the tables were collected by the Bureau of the Census for the Office of Economic Opportunity. Information is included on the total and poor households, families…

  2. Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hesung Chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

  3. Associations between soil lead concentrations and populations by race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio in urban and rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Harley T.; Lawson, Andrew B.; Cai, Bo; McDermott, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a well-studied environmental contaminant that has many negative health effects, especially for children. Both racial/ethnic and income disparities have been documented with respect to exposure to Pb in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess whether soil Pb concentrations in rural and urban areas of South Carolina USA, previously identified as having clusters of intellectual disabilities (ID) in children, were positively associated with populations of minority and low-income individuals and children (≤6 years of age). Surface soils from two rural and two urban areas with identified clusters of ID were analyzed for Pb and concentrations were spatially interpolated using inverse distance weighted analysis. Population race/ethnicity and income-to-poverty ratio (ITPR) from United States Census 2000 block group data were aerially interpolated by block group within each area. Urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than rural areas. Significant positive associations between black, non-Hispanic Latino, individuals and children ≤6 years of age and mean estimated Pb concentrations were observed in both urban (r = 0.38, p = 0.0007) and rural (r = 0.53, p = 0.04) areas. Significant positive associations also were observed between individuals and children with an ITPR < 1.00 and Pb concentrations, though primarily in urban areas. Racial/ethnic minorities and low ITPR individuals, including children, may be at elevated risk for exposure to Pb in soils. PMID:22752852

  4. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Youn Ho; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Kyung Won; Ahn, Kangmo; Hong, Seo-Ah; Lee, Eun; Yang, Song-I; Jung, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung Young; Seo, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Shim, Jung Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Song, Dae Jin; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Soo Young; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Suh, Dong In; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Kim, Bong Sung; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Kwon, Ja-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ju; Park, Hee Jin; Lee, Pil Ryang; Won, Hye-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0-74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ≥75.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend=0.0004). Conclusion The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants. PMID:24244212

  5. The challenge of promoting interventions to prevent disease in impoverished populations in rural western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Katharine; Person, Bobbie; Faith, Sitnah H; Otieno, Ronald; Quick, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Poverty is a critical social determinant of health. A particular approach toward mitigating inequitable access to health services in Kenya has been through a community-based distribution program implemented by the Safe Water and AIDS Project (SWAP) that has achieved modest uptake of public health interventions. To explore reasons for modest uptake, we asked program participants about child health problems, daily tasks, household expenditures, and services needed by their communities. Respondents identified child health problems consistent with health data and reported daily tasks, expenses, and needed services that were more related to basic needs of life other than health. These findings highlight the challenges of implementing potentially self-sustaining preventive interventions at scale in poor populations in the developing world. PMID:24188638

  6. The Challenge of Promoting Interventions to Prevent Disease in Impoverished Populations in Rural Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Person, Bobbie; Faith, Sitnah H.; Otieno, Ronald; Quick, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Poverty is a critical social determinant of health. A particular approach toward mitigating inequitable access to health services in Kenya has been through a community-based distribution program implemented by the Safe Water and AIDS Project (SWAP) that has achieved modest uptake of public health interventions. To explore reasons for modest uptake, we asked program participants about child health problems, daily tasks, household expenditures, and services needed by their communities. Respondents identified child health problems consistent with health data and reported daily tasks, expenses, and needed services that were more related to basic needs of life other than health. These findings highlight the challenges of implementing potentially self-sustaining preventive interventions at scale in poor populations in the developing world. PMID:24188638

  7. Bogalusa Heart Study: a long-term community study of a rural biracial (Black/White) population.

    PubMed

    Berenson, G S

    2001-11-01

    The Bogalusa Heart Study, a long-term population study with a continued relationship with a community, addresses the problem of capacity building in minority health research. The study was originally funded as a Specialized Center of Research-Arteriosclerosis (SCOR-A) by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). These centers were to conduct research on atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and complications of cardiovascular-renal disease as the major causes of deaths in the United States. From earlier research on atherosclerosis, we became interested in the underlying characteristics in early life that would eventually lead to clinical morbidity and mortality from heart disease. An observation at autopsy showed the degree of atherosclerotic involvement in human aortas, from young to older individuals (Figure 1). For example, at age 40 years, marked individual variability occurred in the severity and involvement with atherosclerotic disease. Some individuals showed very little disease, while almost 70% of the surface was diseased in others. Further studies on arterial wall matrix showed aortas from young individuals varied with the extent of disease and its chemical composition. This background stimulated an interest in studying children for early clinical evidence of major adult heart diseases. The Bogalusa Heart Study was begun in 1972 as an epidemiology study of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents; it eventually evolved into observations of young adults. Bogalusa, LA, is a biracial (black/white) rural community 70 miles north of New Orleans, comparable to many other communities in southeastern United States.

  8. Bogalusa Heart Study: a long-term community study of a rural biracial (black/white) population.

    PubMed

    Berenson, G S

    2001-11-01

    The Bogalusa Heart Study, a long-term population study with a continued relationship with a community, addresses the problem of capacity building in minority health research. The study was originally funded as a Specialized Center of Research-Arteriosclerosis (SCOR-A) by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI). These centers were to conduct research on atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and complications of cardiovascular-renal disease as the major causes of deaths in the United States. From earlier research on atherosclerosis, we became interested in the underlying characteristics in early life that would eventually lead to clinical morbidity and mortality from heart disease. An observation at autopsy showed the degree of atherosclerotic involvement in human aortas, from young to older individuals (Figure 1). For example, at age 40 years, marked individual variability occurred in the severity and involvement with atherosclerotic disease. Some individuals showed very little disease, while almost 70% of the surface was diseased in others. Further studies on arterial wall matrix showed aortas from young individuals varied with the extent of disease and its chemical composition. This background stimulated an interest in studying children for early clinical evidence of major adult heart diseases. The Bogalusa Heart Study was begun in 1972 as an epidemiology study of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents; it eventually evolved into observations of young adults. Bogalusa, LA, is a biracial (black/white) rural community 70 miles north of New Orleans, comparable to many other communities in southeastern United States.

  9. Human papillomavirus DNA positivity and seropositivity in rural Chinese men and women: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Deng, Qiuju; Zhang, Chanyuan; Pan, Yaqi; Liu, Ying; He, Zhonghu; Sun, Min; Liu, Mengfei; Li, Jingjing; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Chaoting; Hang, Dong; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Data on simultaneous analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and serology and the correlations within a single general population are limited. Among 1603 men and 2187 women enrolled from rural China, serum antibodies against bacterially derived GST-L1 fusion proteins of HPV were assessed with multiplexed serology and HPV DNA was evaluated with PCR-based sequencing. Few subjects were dually positive to HPV DNA and serum antibodies for any HPV (6.6% of men and 3.1% of women). The proportion of men ever having been infected with any HPV (DNA and/or antibody positive) was higher than that of women (71.0% vs. 65.2%, P < 0.001). Type-specific association was observed for genital HPV infection and HPV seropositivity among women but not among men. A positive correlation between the number of lifetime sexual partners and positivity for oncogenic HPV DNA and/or antibodies was found in men but was absent in women. Among 762 couples, the presence of HPV DNA and/or antibodies in one partner was positively associated with the identical HPV type in the other partner. These findings may reflect a site-specific natural course of HPV infection and further understanding of the epidemiology of HPV. PMID:27211017

  10. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Lietz, Henrike; Lingani, Moustapha; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer; Souares, Aurelia; Tozan, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Background There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS) were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA). Objective The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS) and integrated (CDA) surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality of population health

  11. Reconnecting Rural America. Report on Rural Intercity Passenger Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    This report summarizes the results of three regional symposia held during 1987-88 to gather grassroots information about rural passenger transportation needs across the country. The first section describes the structural transformation of rural America in the 1980s: (1) the rural economy; (2) rural population trends; (3) impact of information…

  12. Study of Morbidity Profile of a Rural Population in Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshkumar, P.; Katta, Ajitha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the reported morbidity profile of people according to age, gender and organ system affected using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding, in a demographically defined area in Tamil Nadu in order to identify their health care needs and to plan appropriate interventions strategies. Materials and Methods: This is a-cross sectional study using a convenience sample of 12308 persons sceened from the 41 panchayat units of the Kattankulathur block, comprising 90 villages with a population of about 2,00,890, over a period of one year. Diagnosis made were coded using ICD 10 version and data collected was analysed by appropriate statistical methods to explain the distribution of morbidity profile among the study population. Result: Out of total, 38.1% screened were males and 61.9% were females. Underfives were 5.3%, school going children 43.3%, adults 39.2% and elderly 12.3%. Majority had illness affecting respiratory system (20%), ‘symptoms and signs’ (19%), musculo-skeletal system (16.1%) and digestive system(11.9%). ‘Symptoms and signs’ classification, is a group of conditions which is of nonspecific diseases, signs, symptoms, abnormal findings and complaints, apart from the system specific conditions diagnosed properly and not elsewhere classified, More males were affeced with respiratory, digestive and illnesses with ‘symptoms and signs’ while more women were affected with musculo-skeletal problems. Only 9.7 % of patients reported with non-communicable diseases. Among them, 55 % women and 42.3 % men had osteoarthritis and 15.7 % women and 21.3 % men had cataract. About 15.8 % women and 18.1 % men had hypertension and other heart diseases while 9.7 % women and 8.4 % men had diabetes and 10.0 % men and 3.9 % women had chronic respiratory diseases. Conclusion: School going children and adults have higher levels of morbidity when compared to elderly and under five children. More females reported with illness but morbidity was

  13. How Does Neighborhood Quality Moderate the Association Between Online Video Game Play and Depression? A Population-Level Analysis of Korean Students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo; Ahn, Sun Joo Grace

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of our study is to assess the relationship between playing online video games and mental wellbeing of adolescents based on a nationally representative sample. Data come from the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS), a government-funded multiyear research project. Through a secondary analysis of W2 and W3 of data collected in 2011 and 2012, we examine the extent to which time spent playing online games is related to depression, as measured by a battery of items modeled after the abridged version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CESD-R). For proper temporal ordering, the outcome variable is drawn from the latter wave (W3), whereas all time-lagged covariates are taken from the earlier wave (W2). Multilevel regression models show that more game playing is associated with greater depression. Findings also indicate that, net of individual-level variables (e.g., gender, health, family background), living in a community with more divorced families adds to adolescent depression. Finally, a cross-level interaction is observed: the positive association between game playing and depression is more pronounced in an area characterized by a lower aggregate divorce rate.

  14. The Influences of Immigration on Health Information Seeking Behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking…

  15. A Population-Based Survival Assessment of Categorizing Level III and IV Rural Hospitals as Trauma Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Melanie; Newgard, Craig D.; Mullins, Richard J.; Diggs, Brian S.; Stone, Judith V.; Adams, Annette L.; Hedges, Jerris R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Patients injured in rural areas are hypothesized to have improved outcomes if statewide trauma systems categorize rural hospitals as Level III and IV trauma centers, though evidence to support this belief is sparse. Purpose: To determine if there is improved survival among injured patients hospitalized in states that categorize rural…

  16. A community-wide tuberculosis survey in a South Indian rural population, 1950-55

    PubMed Central

    Frimodt-Møller, J.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation carried out under WHO auspices in a small area of South India in 1950-55, and which covered a population of approximately 60 000, has not only shed light on various aspects of tuberculosis epidemiology, but has also served as an exercise in the practical conduct of a control campaign in a less developed area. The programme was based essentially on systematic case-finding by mass miniature X-ray and tuberculin testing and the hospitalization of infectious cases. Its most dramatic effect on the community consisted in the great reduction of mortality—from 200 to 21 per 100 000 in less than four years—due no doubt to the advent of the newer antituberculosis drugs. This and other findings are discussed at length in the present report, which covers such topics as tuberculin sensitivity, infection rate, prevalence, incidence, and the results of a BCG control trial. One of the conclusions reached as a result of the campaign was that domiciliary drug therapy had much to recommend it in an area such as this, given the reluctance of patients to enter hospital and thus be deprived of their earning capacity. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 5 PMID:13825251

  17. Level of Physical Activity in Population Aged 16 to 65 Years in Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Aslesh, O P; Mayamol, P; Suma, R K; Usha, K; Sheeba, G; Jayasree, A K

    2016-01-01

    Kerala is a state in India with a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to control these diseases, the prevalence of modifiable risk factors such as low physical activity need to be studied. For this a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of physical activity among 240 residents aged between 15 and 65 years in Kulappuram, a village in north Kerala. Low level of physical activity was seen in 65.8% of the study participants. The average duration of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per day in different domains such as work, travel, and recreation were 40.5, 10.1, and 12.7 minutes, respectively. The average duration of sedentary activities was 284.3 minutes per day. The level of physical activity was more among those engaged in unskilled work (adjusted odds ratio = 4.32; confidence interval = 1.38-13.51) and unmarried persons (adjusted odds ratio = 3.65; confidence interval = 1.25-10.65). No statistically significant difference in physical activity level was seen in different age, education, religious, and economic categories. The study concludes that the physical activity level was low in the study population.

  18. Pond and landscape determinants of Rana dalmatina population sizes in a Romanian rural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartel, Tibor; Nemes, Szilárd; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Öllerer, Kinga; Moga, Cosmin Ioan; Lesbarrères, David; Demeter, László

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians are good indicators of human impact, declining steadily worldwide. We explored the relationships between the ponds and nearby landscape parameters and population size of the Agile Frog ( Rana dalmatina), estimated from the number of egg masses, in a cultural landscape within the central section of Târnava Mare Basin, Romania. Forty-three permanent ponds were surveyed in a 2600 km 2 area. The average number of egg masses per pond was 211.13 (SD = 426.41). The egg mass number was significantly and positively related to the emergent aquatic macrophyte cover (its effect peaks at around 50%) and the green connecting corridors between the ponds and forests, and negatively related to the extent of nearby urban areas. The proximity of the forest (positive effect) and the presence of high traffic roads (negative effect) were highly correlated with green corridors and further eliminated from the model due to multicollinearity. Both these variables had significant effects when incorporated in univariate models and multivariate models without green corridors. Since a large part of our study area was currently declared as Natura 2000 site, there is an increased need for management proposals and conservation applications for biodiversity, including amphibians. Rana dalmatina is an important species for monitoring because it is common in the studied area and is suited for short surveys.

  19. Reference ranges for the clinical laboratory derived from a rural population in Kericho, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kibaya, Rukia S; Bautista, Christian T; Sawe, Frederick K; Shaffer, Douglas N; Sateren, Warren B; Scott, Paul T; Michael, Nelson L; Robb, Merlin L; Birx, Deborah L; de Souza, Mark S

    2008-10-03

    The conduct of Phase I/II HIV vaccine trials internationally necessitates the development of region-specific clinical reference ranges for trial enrollment and participant monitoring. A population based cohort of adults in Kericho, Kenya, a potential vaccine trial site, allowed development of clinical laboratory reference ranges. Lymphocyte immunophenotyping was performed on 1293 HIV seronegative study participants. Hematology and clinical chemistry were performed on up to 1541 cohort enrollees. The ratio of males to females was 1.9:1. Means, medians and 95% reference ranges were calculated and compared with those from other nations. The median CD4+ T cell count for the group was 810 cells/microl. There were significant gender differences for both red and white blood cell parameters. Kenyan subjects had lower median hemoglobin concentrations (9.5 g/dL; range 6.7-11.1) and neutrophil counts (1850 cells/microl; range 914-4715) compared to North Americans. Kenyan clinical chemistry reference ranges were comparable to those from the USA, with the exception of the upper limits for bilirubin and blood urea nitrogen, which were 2.3-fold higher and 1.5-fold lower, respectively. This study is the first to assess clinical reference ranges for a highland community in Kenya and highlights the need to define clinical laboratory ranges from the national community not only for clinical research but also care and treatment.

  20. A population-based case-control study on risk factors for gastric cardia cancer in rural areas of Linzhou.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chang-Qing; Chang, Yu-Bo; Cui, Ling-Ling; Chen, Jia-Jun; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Wei-Jie; Jia, Xiao-Can; Tian, Yuan; Dai, Li-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Although certain dietary factors and lifestyles have been suggested to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, there have been few investigations focusing on rural areas. A case-control study was therefore carried out to investigate the risk factors of gastric cardia cancer (GCC) in rural areas of Linzhou. A total of 470 newly diagnosed cases of GCC and 470 healthy controls were included. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a uniform questionnaire containing questions on demographics, per capita income, living habits, dietary habits and family history of tumors. The relationship between putative risk factors and GCC was assessed by odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) derived from conditional logistic regression model by the COXREG command using SPSS 12.00. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate simultaneously the effects of multiple factors and other potential confounding factors. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that smoking (OR=1.939, 95%CI:1.097-3.426), alcohol drinking (OR=2.360, 95%CI: 1.292-4.311), hot food consumption (OR=2.034, 95%CI: 1.507-2.745), fast eating (OR=1.616, 95%CI: 1.171-2.230), mouldy food (OR=4.564, 95%CI: 2.682-7.767), leftover food (OR=1.881. 95%CI: 1.324-2.671), and family history of tumor (OR=2.831, 95%CI: 1.588-5.050) were risk factors for GCC. High per capita income (OR=0.709, 95%CI: 0.533-0.942), high education level (OR=0.354, 95%CI: 0.163-0.765), consumption of fresh fruits (OR=0.186, 95%CI: 0.111-0.311) and vegetables (OR=0.243, 95%CI: 0.142-0.415), and high BMI (OR=0.367, 95%CI: 0.242-0.557) were protective factors for GCC. Our data indicate that unhealthy lifestyle and dietary habits might be important contributors to GCC in this population. PMID:23803050

  1. A population-based case-control study on risk factors for gastric cardia cancer in rural areas of Linzhou.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chang-Qing; Chang, Yu-Bo; Cui, Ling-Ling; Chen, Jia-Jun; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Wei-Jie; Jia, Xiao-Can; Tian, Yuan; Dai, Li-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Although certain dietary factors and lifestyles have been suggested to be associated with gastric carcinogenesis, there have been few investigations focusing on rural areas. A case-control study was therefore carried out to investigate the risk factors of gastric cardia cancer (GCC) in rural areas of Linzhou. A total of 470 newly diagnosed cases of GCC and 470 healthy controls were included. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a uniform questionnaire containing questions on demographics, per capita income, living habits, dietary habits and family history of tumors. The relationship between putative risk factors and GCC was assessed by odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) derived from conditional logistic regression model by the COXREG command using SPSS 12.00. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate simultaneously the effects of multiple factors and other potential confounding factors. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that smoking (OR=1.939, 95%CI:1.097-3.426), alcohol drinking (OR=2.360, 95%CI: 1.292-4.311), hot food consumption (OR=2.034, 95%CI: 1.507-2.745), fast eating (OR=1.616, 95%CI: 1.171-2.230), mouldy food (OR=4.564, 95%CI: 2.682-7.767), leftover food (OR=1.881. 95%CI: 1.324-2.671), and family history of tumor (OR=2.831, 95%CI: 1.588-5.050) were risk factors for GCC. High per capita income (OR=0.709, 95%CI: 0.533-0.942), high education level (OR=0.354, 95%CI: 0.163-0.765), consumption of fresh fruits (OR=0.186, 95%CI: 0.111-0.311) and vegetables (OR=0.243, 95%CI: 0.142-0.415), and high BMI (OR=0.367, 95%CI: 0.242-0.557) were protective factors for GCC. Our data indicate that unhealthy lifestyle and dietary habits might be important contributors to GCC in this population.

  2. Prevalence of Dyslipidaemia and Associated Risk Factors in a Rural Population in South-Western Uganda: A Community Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Asiki, Gershim; Murphy, Georgina A. V.; Baisley, Kathy; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Karabarinde, Alex; Newton, Robert; Seeley, Janet; Young, Elizabeth H.; Kamali, Anatoli; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of dyslipidaemia is rising in many low income countries. However, there are few data on the prevalence of, or risk factors for, dyslipidaemia in Africa. Methods In 2011, we used the WHO Stepwise approach to collect cardiovascular risk data within a general population cohort in rural south-western Uganda. Dyslipidaemia was defined by high total cholesterol (TC) ≥ 5.2mmol/L or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) <1 mmol/L in men, and <1.3 mmol/L in women. Logistic regression was used to explore correlates of dyslipidaemia. Results Low HDL-C prevalence was 71.3% and high TC was 6.0%. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with low HDL-C among both men and women were: decreasing age, tribe (prevalence highest among Rwandese tribe), lower education, alcohol consumption (comparing current drinkers to never drinkers: men adjusted (a)OR=0.44, 95%CI=0.35-0.55; women aOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.41-0.64), consuming <5 servings of fruit/vegetable per day, daily vigorous physical activity (comparing those with none vs those with 5 days a week: men aOR=0.83 95%CI=0.67-1.02; women aOR=0.76, 95%CI=0.55-0.99), blood pressure (comparing those with hypertension to those with normal blood pressure: men aOR=0.57, 95%CI=0.43-0.75; women aOR=0.69, 95%CI=0.52-0.93) and HIV infection (HIV infected without ART vs. HIV negative: men aOR=2.45, 95%CI=1.53-3.94; women aOR=1.88, 95%CI=1.19-2.97). The odds of low HDL-C was also higher among men with high BMI or HbA1c ≤6%, and women who were single or with abdominal obesity. Among both men and women, high TC was independently associated with increasing age, non-Rwandese tribe, high waist circumference (men aOR=5.70, 95%CI=1.97-16.49; women aOR=1.58, 95%CI=1.10-2.28), hypertension (men aOR=3.49, 95%CI=1.74-7.00; women aOR=1.47, 95%CI=0.96-2.23) and HbA1c >6% (men aOR=3.00, 95%CI=1.37-6.59; women aOR=2.74, 95%CI=1.77-4.27). The odds of high TC was also higher among married men, and women with higher

  3. Oral Health Status of Rural and Urban Population of Gurgaon Block, Gurgaon District Using WHO Assessment Form through Multistage Sampling Technique

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sumanth; Rajashekharappa, Chinmaya Byali; Garg, Aarti; Ryana, Haneet Kour; Khurana, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral health is an integral part of general health and well being. Poor oral health can affect a person physiologically and psychologically irrespective of age group. Aim To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of urban and rural population of Gurgaon Block, Gurgaon District, Haryana, India. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 810 urban and rural subjects belonging to index age groups of 5, 12, 15, 35-44 and 65-74 years as recommended by WHO, in the city of Gurgaon, Haryana. The World Health Organization Oral Health Assessment Form (1997) was used for data collection in which clinical examination, soft and hard tissue findings as well as dentofacial anomalies were recorded. The subjects were selected by multistage random sampling and examined throughout the area by a house to house survey. Statistical Analysis The data was collected and subjected to analysis through SPSS 21. Chi-square was used for compilation of results. Results Of the total population 44.9% had dental caries with a mean DMFT of 1.61. Prevalence of periodontal diseases was 65%; 46% of the population suffered from malocclusions of which 21.19 % had the severe type. Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent (46%) out of which 11.23% had moderate and 9.6% had severe type of fluorosis. Treatment was found to be required among 83% of population. Conclusion The dental health care needs are very high both in rural and urban areas in spite of basic facilities available in urban areas. Hence professional and administrative attention is required both in urban and rural areas. Gurgaon Block can be used as a model district to find the effectiveness of programs in bringing down the oral diseases and maintenance of the oral health of the people on a long term basis. PMID:27437359

  4. Transcriptome resources for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus): new genomic tools for investigating ecologically divergent urban and rural populations.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephen E; O'Neill, Rachel J; Munshi-South, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Genomic resources are important and attainable for examining evolutionary change in divergent natural populations of nonmodel species. We utilized two next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, 454 and SOLiD 5500XL, to assemble low-coverage transcriptomes of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a widespread and abundant native rodent in eastern North America. We sequenced liver mRNA transcripts from multiple individuals collected from urban populations in New York City and rural populations in undisturbed protected areas nearby and assembled a reference transcriptome using 1 080 065 954 SOLiD 5500XL (75 bp) reads and 3 052 640 454 GS FLX + reads. The reference contained 40 908 contigs with a N50 = 1044 bp and a total content of 30.06 Megabases (Mb). Contigs were annotated from Mus musculus (39.96% annotated) Uniprot databases. We identified 104 655 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 65 single sequence repeats (SSRs) with flanking primers. We also used normalized read counts to identify putative gene expression differences in 10 genes between populations. There were 19 contigs significantly differentially expressed in urban populations compared to rural populations, with gene function annotations generally related to the translation and modification of proteins and those involved in immune responses. The individual transcriptomes generated in this study will be used to investigate evolutionary responses to urbanization. The reference transcriptome provides a valuable resource for the scientific community using North American Peromyscus species as emerging model systems for ecological genetics and adaptation. PMID:24980186

  5. Transcriptome resources for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus): new genomic tools for investigating ecologically divergent urban and rural populations.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephen E; O'Neill, Rachel J; Munshi-South, Jason

    2015-03-01

    Genomic resources are important and attainable for examining evolutionary change in divergent natural populations of nonmodel species. We utilized two next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, 454 and SOLiD 5500XL, to assemble low-coverage transcriptomes of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a widespread and abundant native rodent in eastern North America. We sequenced liver mRNA transcripts from multiple individuals collected from urban populations in New York City and rural populations in undisturbed protected areas nearby and assembled a reference transcriptome using 1 080 065 954 SOLiD 5500XL (75 bp) reads and 3 052 640 454 GS FLX + reads. The reference contained 40 908 contigs with a N50 = 1044 bp and a total content of 30.06 Megabases (Mb). Contigs were annotated from Mus musculus (39.96% annotated) Uniprot databases. We identified 104 655 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 65 single sequence repeats (SSRs) with flanking primers. We also used normalized read counts to identify putative gene expression differences in 10 genes between populations. There were 19 contigs significantly differentially expressed in urban populations compared to rural populations, with gene function annotations generally related to the translation and modification of proteins and those involved in immune responses. The individual transcriptomes generated in this study will be used to investigate evolutionary responses to urbanization. The reference transcriptome provides a valuable resource for the scientific community using North American Peromyscus species as emerging model systems for ecological genetics and adaptation.

  6. Heavy metal and metalloids intake risk assessment in the diet of a rural population living near a gold mine in the Peruvian Andes (Cajamarca).

    PubMed

    Barenys, Marta; Boix, Nuria; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Palma-Linares, Imma; Montserrat, Roser; Curto, Ariadna; Gomez-Catalan, Jesus; Ortiz, Pedro; Deza, Nilton; Llobet, Juan M

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the diet composition of a rural population near a gold mine in the Cajamarca district of Peru. The main consumed items by this population were tubers and cereals, and the mean energy intake (1990 kcal) was shown not to cover the recommended intake values for the male population. The concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Cr and, Cu in drinking water and food samples of items contributing to 91% of this diet (145 samples, 24 different items) were determined and used to calculate their daily intakes for risk assessment. The As, Cd and Pb daily intakes exceeded the limit values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), entailing serious concerns for the population's health. Moreover, the intake values of As and Pb were shown to be higher, the closer to the gold mine the studied population was. PMID:24994564

  7. The Willingness to Change Risky Health Behaviors among Chinese Rural Residents: What We Learned from a Population-Based Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengfei; Zhang, Chanyuan; Cai, Hong; Liu, Fangfang; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Guo, Chuanhai; He, Zhonghu; Ke, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of health interventions can be impaired by low socio-economic status and poor living conditions of the target population. However, the specifics of this problem in rural China are still unclear, and appropriate strategies should be explored. Methods In 2013, we conducted a questionnaire-based investigation among 410 participants from a population-based esophageal cancer cohort study in rural Anyang, China. Information regarding their demographic characteristics, levels of exposure to four health-risk behaviors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, risky dietary behaviors and poor hygiene, as well as willingness to change these behaviors, and data on potential predictors of willingness to change behaviors were collected. Results In this study, 33.3% (23/69), 25.0% (13/52), 60.7% (68/112) and 62.2% (237/381) of respondents reported that they were willing to change smoking, alcohol consumption, risky dietary behaviors and poor hygiene, respectively. Older people had higher exposure levels and less willingness to change these four health-risk behaviors. The levels of these four health-risk behaviors were negatively associated with willingness to change, while faith in people and behavioral change in surrounding people increased willingness to change risky behaviors. Conclusions In behavior-intervention-based health-promotion programs in rural China, the elderly and highly exposed populations should be the most difficult part and community- or household-based intervention would be more efficient. PMID:27575990

  8. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. PMID:25524331

  9. 3'-UTR Polymorphisms in the MiRNA Machinery Genes DROSHA, DICER1, RAN, and XPO5 Are Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Ko, Jung Jae; Kim, Jung Oh; Jeon, Young Joo; Yoo, Jung Ki; Oh, Jisu; Oh, Doyeun; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Nam Keun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs play an important role in cancer initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in miRNA machinery genes are associated with the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). RAN rs14035 CT heterozygotes and T allele carriers (CT + TT) genotypes had lower risk of CRC, while the DICER1 rs3742330, DROSHA rs10719, and XPO5 rs11077 polymorphisms were not associated with CRC in the full study sample. Specifically, male RAN rs14035 CT heterozygotes and XPO5 rs11077 AA genotype (CT/AA) carriers experienced reduced CRC susceptibility (both colon and rectal). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the combined RAN rs14035 CT + TT genotype was associated with rectal cancer, but not colon cancer. In addition, the DICER1 rs3742330 AG genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of colon cancer. Stratified analysis revealed the RAN rs14035 combined CT+TT genotype was associated with decreased CRC risk in male patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) and in patients with rectal cancer. In addition, we found the RAN rs14035 CC genotype was related to a decreased risk of CRC with respect to tumor size and metabolism of homocysteine and folate. Furthermore, patients diagnosed with hypertension or DM who carried the DROSHA rs10719 CC genotype showed increased CRC risk, while the XPO5 rs11077 AC+CC genotype led to increased CRC risk in patients with hypertension only. Our results indicate variations in RAN rs14035, DICER1 rs3742330, XPO5 rs11077, and DROSHA rs10719 of Korean patients are significantly associated with their risk of CRC.

  10. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Nan Hee; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Han, Kyungdo

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data. Methods Using data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM]), 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM), and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM), we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication) and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg). Results The prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) compared with non-DM adults (26.2%). Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001) and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020) rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%), compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001) and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004). Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%), compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001) and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001). Conclusion Higher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. PMID:24627828

  11. Framing risks and benefits of medical tourism: a content analysis of medical tourism coverage in Korean American community newspapers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines Korean American community newspapers' representation of risks and benefits involved with medical tourism offered in Korea. Using framing theory, this research attempts to explain Korean Americans' highly positive perceptions and high willingness to use health and medical services in Korea through medical tourism rather than using such services in the United States. The result of content analyses indicated that Korean American community newspapers are rarely engaged in risk communication and lack sufficient information about potential risks of medical tourism while emphasizing diverse benefits. Korean ethnic media, as the primary source of health communication for Korean Americans, should provide more reliable health and medical information for the population's appropriate health management.

  12. Effects of healthy dietary pattern and other lifestyle factors on incidence of diabetes in a rural Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akiko; Ohno, Yuko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Mizuno, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary habits and other lifestyle factors on the incidence of diabetes in a rural Japanese population. This 10.3-year study investigated a cohort of 1,995 men and 3,670 women aged 40-69 years without diabetes at baseline who underwent health check-ups between April 1990 and March 1992. Participants were followed up until diabetes was confirmed or until the end of 2006. The incidence of diabetes was determined from fasting and random levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c levels or being under medical treatment for diabetes. Principal component analysis identified a major dietary pattern characterized by more frequent consumption of vegetables, potatoes, seaweeds, fruits and soybean products that we labeled "healthy". Diabetes developed in 446 of the participants during 58,151 person-years of follow-up. Consuming a healthy diet was associated with a lower risk of diabetes (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest quartiles, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.61- 0.95]. In addition, scores for a healthy diet were associated with a lower risk for diabetes among persons who consumed regular meals (0.76 [0.58-0.96]), persons with an exercise habit (0.65 [0.44-0.96]) and non- and ex-smokers (0.72 [0.53-0.96]). Our findings suggest that consuming a healthy diet is associated with a lower risk for diabetes among the Japanese, particularly among those who eat regularly, those who habitually exercise and non- and ex-smokers. PMID:23017319

  13. Microbiota at Multiple Body Sites during Pregnancy in a Rural Tanzanian Population and Effects of Moringa-Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Bisanz, Jordan E; Enos, Megan K; PrayGod, George; Seney, Shannon; Macklaim, Jean M; Chilton, Stephanie; Willner, Dana; Knight, Rob; Fusch, Christoph; Fusch, Gerhard; Gloor, Gregory B; Burton, Jeremy P; Reid, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    The nutritional status of pregnant women is vital for healthy outcomes and is a concern for a large proportion of the world's population. The role of the microbiota in pregnancy and nutrition is a promising new area of study with potential health ramifications. In many African countries, maternal and infant death and morbidity are associated with malnutrition. Here, we assess the influence of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, supplemented with Moringa plant as a source of micronutrients, on the health and oral, gut, vaginal, and milk microbiotas of 56 pregnant women in Tanzania. In an open-label study design, 26 subjects received yogurt daily, and 30 were untreated during the last two trimesters and for 1 month after birth. Samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and dietary recalls were recorded. Women initially categorized as nourished or undernourished consumed similar calories and macronutrients, which may explain why there was no difference in the microbiota at any body site. Consumption of yogurt increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and decreased Enterobacteriaceae in the newborn feces but had no effect on the mother's microbiota at any body site. The microbiota of the oral cavity and GI tract remained stable over pregnancy, but the vaginal microbiota showed a significant increase in diversity leading up to and after birth. In summary, daily micronutrient-supplemented probiotic yogurt provides a safe, affordable food for pregnant women in rural Tanzania, and the resultant improvement in the gut microbial profile of infants is worthy of further study. PMID:25979893

  14. Microbiota at Multiple Body Sites during Pregnancy in a Rural Tanzanian Population and Effects of Moringa-Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Bisanz, Jordan E.; Enos, Megan K.; PrayGod, George; Seney, Shannon; Macklaim, Jean M.; Chilton, Stephanie; Willner, Dana; Knight, Rob; Fusch, Christoph; Fusch, Gerhard; Gloor, Gregory B.; Burton, Jeremy P.

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional status of pregnant women is vital for healthy outcomes and is a concern for a large proportion of the world's population. The role of the microbiota in pregnancy and nutrition is a promising new area of study with potential health ramifications. In many African countries, maternal and infant death and morbidity are associated with malnutrition. Here, we assess the influence of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, supplemented with Moringa plant as a source of micronutrients, on the health and oral, gut, vaginal, and milk microbiotas of 56 pregnant women in Tanzania. In an open-label study design, 26 subjects received yogurt daily, and 30 were untreated during the last two trimesters and for 1 month after birth. Samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and dietary recalls were recorded. Women initially categorized as nourished or undernourished consumed similar calories and macronutrients, which may explain why there was no difference in the microbiota at any body site. Consumption of yogurt increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and decreased Enterobacteriaceae in the newborn feces but had no effect on the mother's microbiota at any body site. The microbiota of the oral cavity and GI tract remained stable over pregnancy, but the vaginal microbiota showed a significant increase in diversity leading up to and after birth. In summary, daily micronutrient-supplemented probiotic yogurt provides a safe, affordable food for pregnant women in rural Tanzania, and the resultant improvement in the gut microbial profile of infants is worthy of further study. PMID:25979893

  15. Effects of healthy dietary pattern and other lifestyle factors on incidence of diabetes in a rural Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akiko; Ohno, Yuko; Tatsumi, Yukako; Mizuno, Shoichi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of dietary habits and other lifestyle factors on the incidence of diabetes in a rural Japanese population. This 10.3-year study investigated a cohort of 1,995 men and 3,670 women aged 40-69 years without diabetes at baseline who underwent health check-ups between April 1990 and March 1992. Participants were followed up until diabetes was confirmed or until the end of 2006. The incidence of diabetes was determined from fasting and random levels of plasma glucose, HbA1c levels or being under medical treatment for diabetes. Principal component analysis identified a major dietary pattern characterized by more frequent consumption of vegetables, potatoes, seaweeds, fruits and soybean products that we labeled "healthy". Diabetes developed in 446 of the participants during 58,151 person-years of follow-up. Consuming a healthy diet was associated with a lower risk of diabetes (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for highest vs lowest quartiles, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.61- 0.95]. In addition, scores for a healthy diet were associated with a lower risk for diabetes among persons who consumed regular meals (0.76 [0.58-0.96]), persons with an exercise habit (0.65 [0.44-0.96]) and non- and ex-smokers (0.72 [0.53-0.96]). Our findings suggest that consuming a healthy diet is associated with a lower risk for diabetes among the Japanese, particularly among those who eat regularly, those who habitually exercise and non- and ex-smokers.

  16. Microbiota at Multiple Body Sites during Pregnancy in a Rural Tanzanian Population and Effects of Moringa-Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Bisanz, Jordan E; Enos, Megan K; PrayGod, George; Seney, Shannon; Macklaim, Jean M; Chilton, Stephanie; Willner, Dana; Knight, Rob; Fusch, Christoph; Fusch, Gerhard; Gloor, Gregory B; Burton, Jeremy P; Reid, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    The nutritional status of pregnant women is vital for healthy outcomes and is a concern for a large proportion of the world's population. The role of the microbiota in pregnancy and nutrition is a promising new area of study with potential health ramifications. In many African countries, maternal and infant death and morbidity are associated with malnutrition. Here, we assess the influence of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, supplemented with Moringa plant as a source of micronutrients, on the health and oral, gut, vaginal, and milk microbiotas of 56 pregnant women in Tanzania. In an open-label study design, 26 subjects received yogurt daily, and 30 were untreated during the last two trimesters and for 1 month after birth. Samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and dietary recalls were recorded. Women initially categorized as nourished or undernourished consumed similar calories and macronutrients, which may explain why there was no difference in the microbiota at any body site. Consumption of yogurt increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and decreased Enterobacteriaceae in the newborn feces but had no effect on the mother's microbiota at any body site. The microbiota of the oral cavity and GI tract remained stable over pregnancy, but the vaginal microbiota showed a significant increase in diversity leading up to and after birth. In summary, daily micronutrient-supplemented probiotic yogurt provides a safe, affordable food for pregnant women in rural Tanzania, and the resultant improvement in the gut microbial profile of infants is worthy of further study.

  17. Clinical signs and household characteristics associated with human fascioliasis among rural population in Egypt: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Curtale, F; Mas-Coma, S; Hassanein, Y A El Wahab; Barduagni, P; Pezzotti, P; Savioli, L

    2003-03-01

    The symptomatology associated with human fascioliasis has been studied mostly in hospitalised subjects. Very little is known about clinical signs and symptoms associated with infections in human endemic zones, as well as on possible new ways of transmission which might be responsible for the increased number of human cases reported in recent years. This information is of great importance to facilitate diagnosis and plan effective control measures. With the objective to identify clinical signs, blood tests, household characteristics and hygienic habits associated with human fascioliasis, a cross-sectional case-control study was implemented among the rural population of three endemic foci in the Nile Delta, Egypt. Clinical history was collected from 53 cases of fascioliasis and the same number of individually matched controls. They received a complete clinical examination and a range of blood tests was performed on them. Information on socio-economic conditions, dietary and hygienic habits was also collected. The most important complaints, associated with the infection, were right abdominal pain (Odds Ratio 20, P = 0.005), epigastric burning (o.r. 16, P = 0.007) and nausea (o.r. 8, P = 0.05). Blood analyses reported a marked increase in blood eosinophils (o.r 1.3, P = 0.001) among cases. The presence of cows (o.r 3.2), buffaloes (o.r 3.0) and goats (o.r 2.6) in the household was closely associated with the infection together with the habit to bring those animals to the canal for bathing and/or drinking (o.r. 3.2). Among dietary habits investigated, eating raw seeds was more common in cases than controls (o.r. 9, P = 0.03) and emerged as a possible new way of infection.

  18. [Comparison of the course of myocardial infarction and post-infarction morbidity among urban and rural populations in the Kielce region].

    PubMed

    Janion, M

    1990-01-01

    An analysis is made of the course of myocardial infarct and the post-hospital period of the illness in 997 patients from the Kielce Region who were hospitalized in the Clinical Department of Cardiology in the years 1977-1985. The patients were classified into three groups: I--a group of 226 patients who have resided in town since birth, II--a group of 507 patients who resided in the rural areas till the age 14-18 years and who later moved to towns, and III--a group of 264 patients who have lived in rural areas since birth. All the three groups were comparable with one another with respect to the proportion of hospitalized men and women, the average age of hospitalized men and women, frequency of occurrence of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias in the course of the hospital phase of illness, hospital death rate up to the age of 70 years, an increased proportion of hospital death rate of women in relation to that of men and the structures of causes of death during the hospital period of illness. The main differences concerned: a markedly lower hospital death rate in the group of rural population over the age of 70 (p less than 0.001), a markedly more frequent occurrence of the risk factors of ischaemic heart disease in the group of urban population, and a markedly more frequent occurrence of block A-V IIIo and the arrhythmia disturbances of intraventricular conduction in the group of rural population. Hospital death rate in the analyzed period was 19.2%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Developing Korean-specific equations of stature estimation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yangseung; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop Korean-specific equations for stature estimation and compare their performance to existing techniques. Due to a lack of appropriate reference samples in Korea, equations were generated using a hybrid method on 113 Korean unknown skeletons. In this approach, estimates using the anatomical method [1] were regarded as actual stature. Results revealed that new equations produced more accurate and precise estimates than previous techniques. In addition, due to consistent body proportions of Korean populations through time and space, new equations are applicable to Korean skeletons regardless of their temporal and geographic origins. For obtaining statures at death, particularly in a forensic context, an age correction factor, 0.0426 cm/year, should be applied.

  20. Overview of the Development of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, So-Yeon; Myung, Hyung-Nam

    2014-01-01

    A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics. PMID:24570801

  1. Mental Health Disorders among Children within Child Welfare who have Prenatal Substance Exposure: Rural vs. Urban Populations.

    PubMed

    Chasnoff, Ira J; Telford, Erin; Wells, Anne M; King, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed differences in mental health diagnoses among Illinois child welfare-involved youth who have had prenatal substance exposure. Results indicate that youth from the rural area had a significantly higher rate of co-occurring mental health disorders. A multiple regression analysis revealed five significant predictors: living in a rural area, a history of neglect, having Fetal Alcohol Syndrome or an alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, and age. These results have implications for adapting existing treatment models. PMID:26827476

  2. Rapid increase of health care utilization and cost due to benign prostatic hyperplasia in Korean men: retrospective population-based analysis using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service data.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Park, Juhyun; Song, Sang Hoon; Kang, Jung Yoon; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Hyun Moo; Kim, Sun-Hee; Park, Byung-Joo; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Kyung Seop

    2015-02-01

    Using the Korean public health insurance database, we analyzed patients diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) from 2004 to 2008. Age and year-specific amount and seasonal variation of hospital visits (HV), duration of treatment (DT), the total and per capita amount of insurance payment (TAIP, PCIP) were evaluated. A total of 12,088,995 HV were studied. Total HV increased 1.7 times and DT almost doubled in 2008 compared to those in 2004. HV, DT, and TAIP showed linearly increasing patterns year by year. In a time series analysis, HV increased in winter and demonstrated seasonality in a 12-month cycle. In a Poisson regression analysis, the annual variations of HV, DT, TAIP, and PCIP were different by age groups. In patients older than 40 yr, HV significantly increased 1.10-1.16 times compared to that of the previous year. DT markedly increased in their 60s and 80s patients. The rate of increase in PCIP was steeper in patients 50 yr and older than in the others.Health care utilization due to BPH was rapidly increasing in Korea and it was remarkable in the elderly population. Seasonal variation of HV demonstrated that health care utilization increased in winter.

  3. Impact of statins on risk of new onset diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jimin; Noh, Yoojin; Shin, Sooyoung; Lim, Hong-Seok; Park, Rae Woong; Bae, Soo Kyung; Oh, Euichaul; Kim, Grace Juyun; Kim, Ju Han; Lee, Sukhyang

    2016-01-01

    Statin therapy is beneficial in reducing cardiovascular events and mortalities in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Yet, there have been concerns of increased risk of diabetes with statin use. This study was aimed to evaluate the association between statins and new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) utilizing the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims database. Among adult patients with preexisting IHD, new statin users and matched nonstatin users were identified on a 1:1 ratio using proportionate stratified random sampling by sex and age. They were subsequently propensity score matched further with age and comorbidities to reduce the selection bias. Overall incidence rates, cumulative rates and hazard ratios (HRs) between statin use and occurrence of NODM were estimated. The subgroup analyses were performed according to sex, age groups, and the individual agents and intensities of statins. A total of 156,360 patients (94,370 in the statin users and 61,990 in the nonstatin users) were included in the analysis. The incidence rates of NODM were 7.8% and 4.8% in the statin users and nonstatin users, respectively. The risk of NODM was higher among statin users (crude HR 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.93–2.10; adjusted HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.63–2.09). Pravastatin had the lowest risk (adjusted HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32–1.81) while those who were exposed to more than one statin were at the highest risk of NODM (adjusted HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.93–2.37). It has been concluded that all statins are associated with the risk of NODM in patients with IHD, and it is believed that our study would contribute to a better understanding of statin and NODM association by analyzing statin use in the real-world setting. Periodic screening and monitoring for diabetes are warranted during prolonged statin therapy in patients with IHD. PMID:27785041

  4. Enhancing Traditional and Innovative Rural Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agria, Mary A.

    Despite all the optimistic discussions of a rural renaissance and a significant population turnaround favoring growth in rural communities, rural areas are still experiencing a lack of essential services in virtually every area important to quality of life for rural residents. Included among the areas in which a need for improved rural support…

  5. Phonological Transcribing of English Utterances in Teaching Listening Comprehension for Korean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Yun Kul

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to discuss the importance of listening and to examine whether or not transcribing utterances in English using the Korean alphabet improved the accuracy in English sentences produced by a group of Korean college students. A total population of 120 students was divided into two groups, control and experiment. The…

  6. A Silence That Wants to Be Heard: Suburban Korean American Students in Dialogue with Invisibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Dawan; Park, Hye-Young; Fecho, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Korean American students experience invisibility and silence as their culture and presence remain outwardly invisible in the mainstream culture of US high schools. This is further exacerbated by the silent response of the dominant population of the school towards these issues. Yet, to an extent, Korean American students find a sense of comfort…

  7. The development of insecticide-treated durable wall lining for malaria control: insights from rural and urban populations in Angola and Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Durable lining (DL) is a deltamethrin-impregnated polyethylene material, which is designed to cover domestic walls that would normally be sprayed with residual insecticide. The operational success of DL as a long-lasting insecticidal substrate will be dependent on a high level of user acceptability as households must maintain correctly installed linings on their walls for several years. Preliminary trials were undertaken to identify a material to develop into a marketable wall lining and to assess its level of acceptability among rural and urban populations. Methods In Angola (n=60), prototype DL and insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) were installed on urban house walls and ceilings, respectively, and acceptability was compared to indoor residual spraying (IRS) (n=20) using a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire. In Nigeria (n=178), three materials (prototype DL, ITPS and insecticide-treated wall netting) were distributed among rural and urban households. User opinions were gathered from focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and KAP questionnaires. Results In Angola, after two weeks, the majority of participants (98%) expressed satisfaction with the products and identified the killing of insects as the materials’ principal benefits (73%). After one year, despite a loss of almost 50% of households to refugee repatriation, all 32 remaining households still asserted that they had liked the DL/ITPS in their homes and given the choice of intervention preferred DL/ITPS to IRS (94%) or insecticide-treated nets (78%). In Nigeria, a dichotomy between rural and urban respondents emerged. Rural participants favoured wall adornments and accepted wall linings because of their perceived decorative value and entomological efficacy. By contrast, urban households preferred minimal wall decoration and rejected the materials based upon objections to their aesthetics and installation feasibility. Conclusions The high level of acceptability

  8. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae)) in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    PubMed Central

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Hong, Seong Wan

    2012-01-01

    The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp) reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5) was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05). Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05), the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies aimed at developing

  9. Finite Control in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kum Young

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…

  10. Genetic differences between the wild and hatchery-produced populations of Korean short barbeled grunter (Hapalogenys nitens) determined with microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Kang, H W; Han, H S; Park, J Y; Hong, C G; Park, J; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2014-01-01

    Short barbeled grunter, Hapalogenys nitens, is an economically important fishery resource. In Korea, this fish is in the early stage of domestication, and it has been regarded as the candidate marine fish species for prospective aquaculture diversification. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the future viability of sustainable fry production from short barbeled grunter. We used 12 polymorphic nuclear microsatellite DNA loci to analyze the possible genetic variability between the wild and hatchery-produced populations of short barbeled grunter from Korea and identified 91 alleles. Compared to the wild population, significant genetic changes including reduced genetic diversity (average allele number: 7.42 vs 3.75; average expected heterozygosity: 0.713 vs 0.598, Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P < 0.05) and differentiation [overall fixation index (FST) = 0.088, P < 0.01] occurred in the hatchery-produced population, as indicated by the observation of allele richness, unique allele, heterozygosity, FST, and results of molecular analysis of variance. These findings indicate that genetic drift may have promoted the differentiation between these 2 populations, which may have negative effects on sustainable fry production. Therefore, genetic variations of the wild and hatchery-produced populations should be monitored and subjected to control inbreeding through a commercial breeding program. The information presented by this paper would provide a useful genetic basis for future sustainable culturing planning and management of H. nitens.

  11. Association between Obese Phenotype and Mildly Reduced eGFR among the General Population from Rural Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Obesity contributes to reduced kidney function; however, whether this is due to obesity itself or the metabolic abnormalities that accompany it is unclear. Besides, most previous studies enrolled participants with moderate or severe stage of chronic kidney disease. In the present study, we aim to investigate the possible relationship between obesity, metabolic abnormalities and mildly reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A total of 11,127 Chinese participants (age ≥ 35 years) were enrolled in a survey conducted from January 2012 to August 2013. eGFR 60-90 mL/min/1.73 m² was defined as mildly reduced eGFR. Obese phenotype was divided into four types: metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically abnormal non-obese (MANO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO). Among all participants, 1941 (17.4%) of them had mildly reduced eGFR (16.7% for men and 18.1% for women, p = 0.025). The prevalence of obese phenotype was 22.5% for MHNO, 9.1% for MHO, 32.1% for MANO and 36.4% for MAO. The prevalence of mildly reduced eGFR was 9.0% among MHNO, 7.0% among MHO, 22.6% among MANO and 20.7% among MAO (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that obese phenotype did not statically contributed to mildly reduced eGFR (MHO: OR = 1.107, p = 0.662; MANO: OR = 0.800, p = 0.127; MAO: OR = 1.119, p = 0.525). However, gender (OR = 1.475, p < 0.001), aging (OR = 1.283, p < 0.001), dyslipidemia (OR = 1.544, 95%CI: 1.315, 1.814, p < 0.001) and hyperglycemia (OR = 1.247, 95%CI: 1.068, 1.455, p = 0.005) was associated with increased risk of mild reduced eGFR. Among the general population from rural Northeast China, mildly reduced eGFR was associated with metabolic disorders like dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, but not obesity. PMID:27240390

  12. Rural Values and Concensus(sic).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, J. Lynn; And Others

    Sample populations from 15 Intermountain West communities (representative of population, ethnic, and employment variety) were surveyed to test the following hypotheses: (1) there is a greater degree of consensus in rural than in non-rural communities; (2) there are differences between values in rural and non-rural communities; (3) a model…

  13. Transcriptome resources for the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus): new genomic tools for investigating ecologically divergent urban and rural populations

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Stephen E.; O’Neill, Rachel J.; Munshi-South, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Genomic resources are important and attainable for examining evolutionary change in divergent natural populations of non-model species. We utilized two Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platforms, 454 and SOLiD 5500XL, to assemble low coverage transcriptomes of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), a widespread and abundant native rodent in eastern North America. We sequenced liver mRNA transcripts from multiple individuals collected from urban populations in New York City and rural populations in undisturbed protected areas nearby, and assembled a reference transcriptome using 1,080,065,954 SOLiD 5500XL (75 bp) reads and 3,052,640 454 GS FLX + reads. The reference contained 40,908 contigs with a N50 = 1,044 bp and a total content of 30.06 Megabases (Mb). Contigs were annotated from comparisons to Mus musculus (39.96% annotated) Uniprot databases. We identified 104,655 high quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 65 single sequence repeats (SSRs) with flanking primers. We also used normalized read counts to identify putative gene expression differences in 10 genes between populations. There were 19 contigs significantly differentially expressed in urban populations compared to rural populations, with gene function annotations generally related to the translation and modification of proteins and those involved in immune responses. The individual transcriptomes generated in this study will be used to investigate evolutionary responses to urbanization. The reference transcriptome provides a valuable resource for the scientific community using North American Peromyscus species as emerging model systems for ecological genetics and adaptation. PMID:24980186

  14. Application of two versions of the WHO/international society of hypertension absolute cardiovascular risk assessment tools in a rural Bangladeshi population

    PubMed Central

    Fatema, Kaniz; Zwar, Nicholas Arnold; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Rahman, Bayzidur; Ali, Liaquat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk burden in a remote rural Bangladeshi population using the ‘With’ and ‘Without’ Cholesterol versions of the WHO/International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) CVD risk assessment chart (particularly suitable for low and middle-income countries due to less reliance on laboratory testing) and to evaluate the agreement between the two approaches. Design Cross-sectional study using data from a large prospective cohort of the North Bengal Non-Communicable Disease Programme (NB-NCDP) of Bangladesh. Setting General rural population from Thakurgaon district of Bangladesh. Participants 563 individuals who were categorised as having ‘no CVDs’ on screening by a questionnaire-based survey using the ‘WHO CVD-Risk Management Package’ developed in 2002. Main outcome measures Absolute CVD risk burden assessed using two versions of the WHO/ISH risk assessment charts for the South-East Asian Region-D. Results 10-year risk (moderate, high and very high) positivity was present among 21.5% and 20.2% of participants, respectively, using with and without cholesterol versions of the tool. The overall concordance rate for the two versions was 89.5% and they did not differ significantly in estimating the proportion of overall participants having higher levels of CVD. The projected drug requirement, however, showed a significant overestimation in the proportion of participants at both the threshold levels (p<0.002) on using ‘without’ as compared to ‘with’ cholesterol versions. Conclusions About one-fifth of the adult population in Bangladesh, even in a remote rural area, seem to be at risk of developing CVDs (25% of them at high risk and 25% at very high risk) within 10 years with males and females being almost equally vulnerable. PMID:26463220

  15. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women Practicing Poor Sanitation in Rural India: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Bijaya K.; Baker, Kelly K.; Dutta, Ambarish; Cumming, Oliver; Freeman, Matthew C.; Satpathy, Radhanatha; Das, Bhabani S.; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of maternal sanitation behaviour during pregnancy for birth outcomes remains unclear. Poor sanitation practices can promote infection and induce stress during pregnancy and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). We aimed to assess whether poor sanitation practices were associated with increased risk of APOs such as preterm birth and low birth weight in a population-based study in rural India. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort of pregnant women (n = 670) in their first trimester of pregnancy was enrolled and followed until birth. Socio-demographic, clinical, and anthropometric factors, along with access to toilets and sanitation practices, were recorded at enrolment (12th week of gestation). A trained community health volunteer conducted home visits to ensure retention in the study and learn about study outcomes during the course of pregnancy. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals for APOs were estimated by logistic regression models. Of the 667 women who were retained at the end of the study, 58.2% practiced open defecation and 25.7% experienced APOs, including 130 (19.4%) preterm births, 95 (14.2%) births with low birth weight, 11 (1.7%) spontaneous abortions, and six (0.9%) stillbirths. Unadjusted ORs for APOs (OR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.72–3.71), preterm birth (OR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.54–3.62), and low birth weight (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.24–3.23) were found to be significantly associated with open defecation practices. After adjustment for potential confounders such as maternal socio-demographic and clinical factors, open defecation was still significantly associated with increased odds of APOs (AOR: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.49–3.80) and preterm birth (AOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.29–3.79) but not low birth weight (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 0.94–2.73). The association between APOs and open defecation was independent of poverty and caste. Even though we accounted for several key

  16. [Health awareness as dominating impact factor on the development of overweight--a health questionnaire among the rural population of Austria].

    PubMed

    Schoberberger, R; Dorner, T; Rieder, A

    2014-05-01

    Using a health survey among the rural population of Austria (n=12,484), risk factors for overweight and obesity are analysed. Health awareness turned out as essential mediator, which helps to promote a weight-stabilising life-style. An adverse health behaviour is often due to an unrealistic assessment of a risky overweight condition in connection with a negative attitude to reduce weight. Target groups should be informed about the clearly better health status in normal weight compared with that in overweight and obese people, in order to raise health awareness and motivate people at risk to undergo a modification of their life-style.

  17. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA analyses showed comparative genetic diversity between parent and offspring populations of Korean black rockfish in a hatchery facility.

    PubMed

    An, H S; Lee, J W; Park, J Y; Myeong, J I; An, C M

    2013-01-01

    The black rockfish, Sebastes inermis (Sebastidae), is an important commercial fishery resource in Korea. As a preliminary investigation into the effect of artificial reproduction in a hatchery facility, the genetic divergence between parent and offspring populations of black rockfish was accessed using 10 polymorphic nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and a mitochondrial (mt) control gene. All loci that were screened showed marked polymorphisms. mtDNA control region sequences were also highly variable. Of approximately 350 base pairs (bp) sequenced, 52 variable sites, comprising 56 base substitutions, were found among 233 individuals. Offspring populations showed less genetic variability than the parent population in terms of numbers of microsatellite alleles and mtDNA haplotypes, as well as mtDNA haplotype diversity. Statistical analysis of the fixation index (ΦST and F(ST)) and analysis of molecular variance using both DNA markers showed significant genetic differences between the parent and offspring populations. These results suggest that random genetic drift and/or inbreeding events, as well as artificial selection and founder effects, occurred when the offspring strain was reproduced in a hatchery facility despite thousands of males and females from different hatcheries being maintained for artificial reproduction. Therefore, it is necessary to improve current hatchery programs by monitoring genetic variation in both the broodstock and progeny and controlling inbreeding within stocks in commercial breeding facilities to maintain the production of high-quality black rockfish. This information will be useful for determining suitable guidelines for establishing and maintaining cultured stocks and the aquaculture industry of S. inermis. PMID:24390988

  18. Cognitive Appraisals of Specialty Mental Health Services and Their Relation to Mental Health Service Utilization in the Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deen, Tisha L.; Bridges, Ana J.; McGahan, Tara C.; Andrews, Arthur R., III

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural individuals utilize specialty mental health services (eg, psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, and social workers) at lower rates than their urban counterparts. This study explores whether cognitive appraisals (ie, individual perceptions of need for services, outcome expectancies, and value of a positive therapeutic outcome) of…

  19. Rural and Small Town America. The Population of the United States in the 1980s. A Census Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuguitt, Glenn V.; And Others

    A systematic description and evaluation of the socioeconomic conditions of nonmetropolitan United States provides important information for policymakers and researchers in rural education. This book is one of a series aimed at converting the statistics of the 1980 census into an analytical profile of major changes in U.S. life. The volume…

  20. Neuropsychological Testing in a Rural African School-Age Population: Evaluating Contributions to Variability in Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia K.; Holding, Penny A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Abubakar, Amina; Connolly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a number of neuropsychological tests adapted for use in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 308 school-age children in a predominantly rural community completed the tests. These tests were developed to assess skills similar to those measured by assessments of cognitive development published for use…