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Sample records for korean rural population

  1. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century.

  2. Population behaviors and language maintenance--a case of the Korean-speaking community in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qingsheng

    2004-01-01

    With the regard to language maintenance, one of the most successful in over fifty of ethno-linguistic communities in China is the Korean community with more than two millions of Korean-speakers, in which there have been Regulations Regarding the Ethnic Language Use, and a maintenance-orientated and bilingual education system. However, language attrition comes to be occurring in the Korean community because more than two hundred thousands of Korean-speaking migrants have streamed from the Korean-rural community to the Chinese-urban community for the last twenty years. This paper, in urban-anthropological and sociolinguistic perspectives, is aiming at an analysis of the cause of population moves and the urbanization process of the Korean community as well as their impact on the language maintenance and bilingual education in the Korean community. It is mainly divided into four sections, namely, (1) the situation of Korean-speaking community; (2) the problem of language maintenance; (3) the impact of Korean-speakers moves on language maintenance; (4) the impact of negative growth of population, and (5) the impact of uneven ratio of female population.

  3. Population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Sungmin; Ryu, Sung-Mun; Lee, Yun-Mi; Schentag, Jerome J; Kim, Yang-Wook; Kim, Hyeon-Kuk; Jang, Hang-Jae; Joo, Yong-Don; Jin, Kyubok; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ghim, Jong-Lyul

    2016-08-01

    Levofloxacin (LVFX) has different effects depending on the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio. While AUC can be expressed as dose/clearance (CL), we measured serial concentrations of LVFX in Koreans and tried to set a Korean-specific equation, estimating the CL of the antibiotic. In total, 38 patients, aged 18-87 years, received once daily intravenous LVFX doses of 500 mg or 250 mg, depending on their renal function. Four plasma samples were obtained according to a D optimal sampling design. The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of LVFX were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM, ver. 7.2). The CL of LVFX was dependent on creatinine clearance (CLCR) as a covariate. The mean population PK parameters of LVFX in Koreans were as follows: CL (l/hour) = 6.19 ×  (CLCR/75)(1.32). The CL of LVFX in Koreans is expected to be lower than that in Western people.

  4. Association between alcohol consumption and bone strength in Korean adults: the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li Hua; Chang, Sei Jin; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Ki Soon; Lee, Tae Yong; Ryu, So Yeon; Song, Jae Seok; Park, Jong Ku

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have reported an inconsistent relationship between alcohol consumption and bone health. A growing body of research has shown that chronic alcoholism leads to osteopenia and increased incidence of skeletal fractures, but some studies have concluded that alcohol consumption may be associated with higher bone mineral density in elderly populations. However, most studies showing a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and bone status have been in Western countries; and subjects have usually been postmenopausal women. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of alcohol consumption with bone strength in Korean adults. Data were from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study, which is an ongoing population-based study of adults aged 40 to 70 years from 5 regions. A total of 7713 participants (3368 men, 4345 women) were surveyed about their annual consumption of alcohol such as soju, beer, makkolli, wine, and whisky. Bone strength was measured by stiffness index using the calcaneal quantitative ultrasound method. Overall, the annual age-specific decrease rate in the stiffness index of women was 2.7 times higher than that of men (0.463% for women, 0.169% for men).After adjustment for eligible covariates, the association between alcohol consumption and risk of reduced bone strength showed a J-shaped curve for both men and women. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk of reduced bone strength was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.83) in men who drank 4 to 5 cups of soju for an amount of 29.626 to 49.375 g of alcohol per day and 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.86) in men who drank 6 to 7 cups of soju for an amount of 49.376 to 69.125 g of alcohol per day. We found no significant relationship between alcohol consumption and bone strength in any other group of men. For women, results suggested that the risk of reduced bone strength was lower in the moderate-consumption group; but no significant relationship

  5. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  6. Serum uric acid concentration and metabolic syndrome among elderly Koreans: The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hansol; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Song, Bo Mi; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Ju-Mi; Yoon, Da-Lim; Yoon, Young Mi; Rhee, Yumie; Youm, Yousik; Kim, Chang Oh

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid concentration is an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, few studies have focused on elderly populations. Thus, we investigated the association of serum uric acid concentration with metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. This cross-sectional analysis included 2940 participants (986 men and 1954 women) aged 65 years or older who participated in a baseline health assessment for the Korean Urban Rural Elderly cohort study from 2012 to 2014. Serum uric acid concentration was analyzed using both continuous and dichotomous variables. Hyperuricemia was defined as a uric acid concentration ≥7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥6.0 mg/dL in women. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate independent association between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, body mass index, LDL cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, estimated glomerular filtration rate health behaviors, and medications. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components increased significantly according to uric acid concentration in both sexes. The adjusted odds ratios for having metabolic syndrome per 1.0mg/dL higher uric acid concentration were 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03-1.31) in men and 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13-1.42) in women. Hyperuricemia was also associated with metabolic syndrome, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.71 (95% CI: 1.11-2.63) in men and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.05-2.29) in women. Elevated serum uric acid concentration was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  8. [A study on the pillages of the Korean rural villages under the rule of Japanese Imperialism and the Research Institute for Rural Health].

    PubMed

    Lee, K S

    2001-12-01

    The pillages of the Korean rural villages by force under the rule of Japanese imperialism resulted in the extreme impoverishment of the Korean agricultural communities. Especially this was accelerated due to starvation, ignorance and the poor sanitary conditions on the part of the Korean farmers. The research institute of agricultural community hygiene founded by a Korean doctor, Young Choon Lee was the beginning of the rural medical institute that contributed greatly to the disease prevention and health improvements of impoverished farmers.

  9. Population dynamics and rural poverty.

    PubMed

    Fong, M S

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the relationship between demographic factors and rural poverty in developing countries is presented. The author examines both the micro- and macro-level perspectives of this relationship and the determinants and consequences of population growth. The author notes the prospects for a rapid increase in the rural labor force and considers its implications for the agricultural production structure and the need for institutional change. Consideration is also given to the continuing demand for high fertility at the family level and the role of infant and child mortality in the poverty cycle. "The paper concludes by drawing attention to the need for developing the mechanism for reconciliation of social and individual optima with respect to family size and population growth." The need for rural development projects that take demographic factors into account is stressed as is the need for effective population programs. (summary in FRE, ITA)

  10. [Associated factors of impaired fasting glucose in some Korean rural adults].

    PubMed

    Yun, Hye Eun; Han, Mi-ah; Kim, Ki Soon; Park, Jong; Kang, Myeng Guen; Ryu, So Yeon

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and its related characteristics among healthy adults in some Korean rural areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the data from 1352 adults who were over the age 40 and under the age 70 and who were free of diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular diseases and other diseases and who participated in a survey conducted as part of the Korean Rural Genomic Cohort Study. IFG was defined as a serum fasting glucose level between 100 and 125 mg/dL. The prevalence of IFG was 20.4% in men, 15.5% in women and 12.7% overall. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the independent risk factors for IFG were male gender, having a family history of DM, the quartiles of gamma glutamyltransferase and high sensitive C-reactive protein and the waist circumference. The homeostatis model assessment for insulin resistance was very strongly associated with IFG. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and MS components was higher in the subjects with IFG then in those with normal fasting glucose (NFG). The result of study could supply evidence to find the high risk population and to determine a strategy for treating IFG. Further research is needed to explain the causal relationship and mechanisms of IFG.

  11. Low prevalence of classical galactosemia in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Hee; Cheon, Chong Kun; Kim, Jae-Min; Kang, Minji; Kim, Joo Hyun; Yang, Song Hyun; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Choi, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2011-01-01

    This study described the clinical and molecular genetic features of classical galactosemia in Korean population to contribute to the insight in the spectrum of galactosemia in the world, as little is known about the spectrum and incidence of galactosemia in Asia. During the 11-year study period, only three Korean children were identified as having classical galactosemia on the basis of the enzymatic and molecular genetic analysis. Asians have been reported to have mutations distinct from those of Caucasians and African Americans, indicating that galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase mutations are ethnically diverse. Our three patients had a total of three mutations (c.252+1G > A, p.Q169H and p.E363K), two of which were novel (p.E363K and c.252+1G > A) mutations. Interestingly, c.252+1G > A, which leads to skipping of exon 2, was observed in all three patients (three of six alleles), indicating that this mutation may be common in Koreans with classical galactosemia. Screening for classical galactosemia in 158,126 Korean newborns identified no patient with classical galactosemia. In conclusion, our findings provide further evidence for the ethnic diversity of classical galactosemia, which may be as rare in Koreans as in other Asian populations.

  12. Estimating radiation risk induced by CT screening for Korean population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Won Seok; Yang, Hye Jeong; Min, Byung In

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to estimate the radiation risks induced by chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) screening for healthcare and to determine the cancer risk level of the Korean population compared to other populations. We used an ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator to compute the organ effective dose induced by CT screening (chest, low-dose chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis CT). A risk model was applied using principles based on the BEIR VII Report in order to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) using the Korean Life Table 2010. In addition, several countries including Hong Kong, the United States (U.S.), and the United Kingdom, were selected for comparison. Herein, each population exposed radiation dose of 100 mSv was classified according to country, gender and age. For each CT screening the total organ effective dose calculated by ImPACT was 6.2, 1.5, 5.2 and 11.4 mSv, respectively. In the case of Korean female LAR, it was similar to Hong Kong female but lower than those of U.S. and U.K. females, except for those in their twenties. The LAR of Korean males was the highest for all types of CT screening. However, the difference of the risk level was negligible because of the quite low value.

  13. Assessment of caffeine intake in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ho Soo; Hwang, Ju Young; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for the analysis of caffeine in foods by HPLC was validated by measuring several analytical parameters. The caffeine contents of 1202 products available from Korean markets were analysed. A consumption study was conducted by using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2010-12, to estimate the caffeine intakes of the Korean population. The mean intakes of caffeine from all sources in the general population and consumers were 67.8 and 102.6 mg day(-1) for all age groups, respectively. The 95th percentile intakes of the general population and consumers were 250.7 and 313.7 mg day(-1), respectively. In those aged 30-49 years, the caffeine intakes of the general population and consumers were highest at 25.5% (101.8 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and 36.6% (0.9 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), respectively, compared with the maximum recommended daily intake (400 mg day(-1)) for adults. In the general population, the main contributors to the total caffeine intake were carbonated beverage for the younger age groups and coffee for the adults. These data provide a current perspective on caffeine intake in the Korean population.

  14. Whole genome sequencing of 35 individuals provides insights into the genetic architecture of Korean population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to a significant decline in the costs associated with next-generation sequencing, it has become possible to decipher the genetic architecture of a population by sequencing a large number of individuals to a deep coverage. The Korean Personal Genomes Project (KPGP) recently sequenced 35 Korean genomes at high coverage using the Illumina Hiseq platform and made the deep sequencing data publicly available, providing the scientific community opportunities to decipher the genetic architecture of the Korean population. Methods In this study, we used two single nucleotide variant (SNV) calling pipelines: mapping the raw reads obtained from whole genome sequencing of 35 Korean individuals in KPGP using BWA and SOAP2 followed by SNV calling using SAMtools and SOAPsnp, respectively. The consensus SNVs obtained from the two SNV pipelines were used to represent the SNVs of the Korean population. We compared these SNVs to those from 17 other populations provided by the HapMap consortium and the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) and identified SNVs that were only present in the Korean population. We studied the mutation spectrum and analyzed the genes of non-synonymous SNVs only detected in the Korean population. Results We detected a total of 8,555,726 SNVs in the 35 Korean individuals and identified 1,213,613 SNVs detected in at least one Korean individual (SNV-1) and 12,640 in all of 35 Korean individuals (SNV-35) but not in 17 other populations. In contrast with the SNVs common to other populations in HapMap and 1KGP, the Korean only SNVs had high percentages of non-silent variants, emphasizing the unique roles of these Korean only SNVs in the Korean population. Specifically, we identified 8,361 non-synonymous Korean only SNVs, of which 58 SNVs existed in all 35 Korean individuals. The 5,754 genes of non-synonymous Korean only SNVs were highly enriched in some metabolic pathways. We found adhesion is the top disease term associated with SNV-1 and Nelson syndrome is

  15. Primary Care Issues in Rural Populations.

    PubMed

    Deligiannidis, Konstantinos E

    2017-03-01

    Rural populations have different demographics and health issues compared to their metropolitan counterparts, including higher mortalities from ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, unintentional injuries, motor vehicle accidents, and suicide. Rural primary care physicians (PCPs) have a unique position in counseling, preventing, and treating common issues that are specific to rural populations, such as motor vehicle accidents, unintentional injuries, pesticide poisoning, occupational respiratory illnesses, and mental illness. They are also in a unique position to address prevention and social determinants of health. Rural PCPs can use multiple strategies to improve access to medical care.

  16. Pb and Cd levels among Korean populations

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, T.; Cha, C.W.; Song, D.B.; Ikeda, M.

    1987-02-01

    World-wide monitoring has been conducted on the exposure of humans to heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The background exposure to Cd appears to be higher among Japanese than among Americans and Europeans, while the exposure of Japanese to Pb appears to be lower than that of Americans and Europeans. Reports are, however, rather scarce on the people in other Asian countries. Surveys of the background exposure to Pb and Cd were conducted in the urban and rural areas in Korea as a joint study of two institutions, one each in Korea and Japan, in a manner so that the data should be comparable to that of a nation-wide survey in Japan. The results are described in the present report.

  17. Population pharmacokinetics of aripiprazole in healthy Korean subjects.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ji-Young; Chae, Soo-Wan; Kim, Min-Gul

    2016-04-01

    Aripiprazole is widely used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aimed to develop a combined population pharmacokinetic model for aripiprazole in healthy Korean subjects and to identify the significant covariates in the pharmacokinetic variability of aripiprazole. Aripiprazole plasma concentrations and demographic data were collected retrospectively from previous bioequivalence studies that were conducted in Chonbuk National University Hospital. Informed consent was obtained from subjects for cytochrome P450 (CYP) genotyping. The population pharmacokinetic parameters of aripiprazole were estimated using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling with first-order conditional estimation with interaction method. The effects of age, sex, weight, height, and CYP genotype were assessed as covariates. A total of 1,508 samples from 88 subjects in three bioequivalence studies were collected. The two-compartment model was adopted, and the final population model showed that the CYP2D6 genotype polymorphism, height and weight significantly affect aripiprazole disposition. The bootstrap and visual predictive check results were evaluated, showing that the accuracy of the pharmacokinetic model was acceptable. A population pharmacokinetic model of aripiprazole was developed for Korean subjects. CYP2D6 genotype polymorphism, weight, and height were included as significant factors affecting aripiprazole disposition. The population pharmacokinetic parameters of aripiprazole estimated in the present study may be useful for individualizing clinical dosages and for studying the concentration-effect relationship of the drug.

  18. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat’s selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome. PMID:27989103

  19. Detecting Positive Selection of Korean Native Goat Populations Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonseok; Ahn, Sojin; Taye, Mengistie; Sung, Samsun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-12-01

    Goats (Capra hircus) are one of the oldest species of domesticated animals. Native Korean goats are a particularly interesting group, as they are indigenous to the area and were raised in the Korean peninsula almost 2,000 years ago. Although they have a small body size and produce low volumes of milk and meat, they are quite resistant to lumbar paralysis. Our study aimed to reveal the distinct genetic features and patterns of selection in native Korean goats by comparing the genomes of native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations. We sequenced the whole genome of 15 native Korean goats and 11 crossbred goats using next-generation sequencing (Illumina platform) to compare the genomes of the two populations. We found decreased nucleotide diversity in the native Korean goats compared to the crossbred goats. Genetic structural analysis demonstrated that the native Korean goat and crossbred goat populations shared a common ancestry, but were clearly distinct. Finally, to reveal the native Korean goat's selective sweep region, selective sweep signals were identified in the native Korean goat genome using cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and a cross-population composite likelihood ratio test (XP-CLR). As a result, we were able to identify candidate genes for recent selection, such as the CCR3 gene, which is related to lumbar paralysis resistance. Combined with future studies and recent goat genome information, this study will contribute to a thorough understanding of the native Korean goat genome.

  20. The planning of rural health research: rurality and rural population issues.

    PubMed

    McGrail, M R; Jones, R; Robinson, A; Rickard, C M; Burley, M; Drysdale, M

    2005-01-01

    Rurality and rural population issues require special consideration when planning both qualitative and quantitative health research in rural areas. The objective of this article was to explore the issues that require attention when planning the research. This is the first of two articles and focus on issues that require consideration when undertaking rural health research. The diversity of study populations, the feasibility of a research topic, the selection of a research team, and the cultural traditions of Indigenous communities, are all aspects of rural health research planning that require attention. Procedures such as identifying the characteristics of the population, the selection of measures of rurality appropriate for the research topic, the use of local liaison persons, decisions on the use of 'insider' or 'outsider' researchers, and the identification of skills resources available, increase the quality of the research outcomes. These issues are relevant to both qualitative and quantitative research. Procedures are available to address issues of particular concern in developing appropriate methods for rural health research. While we have concentrated on Australian issues and solutions, rural localities in other countries may face similar issues. Attention to rurality and rural situations when planning rural health research, results in studies that support the continued improvement of health in rural communities.

  1. Erythrocyte thiopurine methyltransferase activity in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jang, I J; Shin, S G; Lee, K H; Yim, D S; Lee, M S; Koo, H H; Kim, H K; Sohn, D R

    1996-11-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is the enzyme responsible for the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs. The enzyme, present in human red blood cells (RBC), is known to exhibit genetic polymorphism and interethnic differences in its activity have been demonstrated. We have studied the role of TPMT polymorphism in Koreans and compared enzyme activity between this and other ethnic groups. In a population of 360 unrelated healthy Korean subjects TPMT activity showed a large interindividual variation ranging from 3.2 to 22.9 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1 with a median value of 12.0 and mode of 11.0 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1. The enzyme activity was higher in male subjects than that in female (median values; 12.2 vs 11.2, 95% confidence interval of the difference; -2.1, 4.0 nmol ml-1 packed RBC h-1). All subjects had detectable TPMT activity, but contrary to previous reports in other ethnic groups, this was distributed unimodally. The median RBC TPMT activity was very similar to values found in Caucasian populations, higher than in Floridian blacks and lower than that of a Norwegian Saami population.

  2. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

  3. Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…

  4. Lack of functional KL-VS polymorphism of the KLOTHO gene in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Kwon; Jeong, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The functional variant of the Klotho "KL-VS" stretch, which includes six polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium, is reportedly associated with healthy aging and longevity in European and American populations. Among Asian populations, this variant has been observed in the Indian population but not in the Iranian population. An association between KL-VS polymorphism and aging has not been reported in Koreans. To investigate whether the KL-VS polymorphism could be associated with healthy aging and longevity in a Korean population, we analyzed genotype and allele frequencies of the KL-VS variant in a large Korean population sample. The KL-VS variant was not found in 874 Korean individuals. Thus, it is not possible to test its association to aging in the East Asian populations. PMID:27560364

  5. A Simple Screening Score for Diabetes for the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-ho; Bang, Heejung; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Hee Man; Park, Seok Won; Kim, Dae Jung

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We developed and validated a self-assessment score for diabetes risk in Korean adults and compared it with other established screening models. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2001 and 2005 data were used to develop a diabetes screening score. After excluding patients with known diabetes, 9,602 participants aged ≥20 years were selected. Undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or nonfasting plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dL. The SAS Survey Logistic Regression analysis was used to determine predictors of undiagnosed diabetes (n = 341). We validated our model and compared it with other existing methods using the KNHANES 2007–2008 data (n = 8,391). RESULTS Age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, waist circumference, smoking, and alcohol intake were independently associated with undiagnosed diabetes. We calculated a diabetes screening score (range 0–11), and a cut point of ≥5 defined 47% of adults as being at high risk for diabetes and yielded a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 54%, positive predictive value of 6%, and positive likelihood ratio of 1.8 (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73). Comparable results were obtained in validation datasets (sensitivity 80%, specificity 53%, and AUC = 0.73), showing better performance than other non-Asian models from the U.S. or European population. CONCLUSIONS This self-assessment score may be useful for identifying Korean adults at high risk for diabetes. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the utility and feasibility of this score in various settings. PMID:22688547

  6. The relationship between metabolic conditions and prevalence of periodontal disease in rural Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyeong-Soo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jin-Wook; Choi, Youn-Hee; Mechant, Anwar T; Song, Keun-Bae; Lee, Hee-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the duration and number of components of metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease among rural elderly in Korea over 60 years old. This longitudinal study consisted of 399 participants who underwent regular health examinations at Seongju-gun Public Health Center from 2000 to 2007. The components of metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia) were evaluated from clinical records of Seongju-gun Public Health Center, which were recorded from 2000 to 2007, and periodontal examination by Community Periodontal Index, recorded from 2006 to 2007. Participants suffering from longer durations of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity were more likely to have periodontal disease. Individuals with a greater number of metabolic syndrome components were more likely to have periodontal disease. Older rural Koreans with components of metabolic syndrome have unmet periodontal treatment needs. Medical and dental professionals need to coordinated systemic and oral care for these people.

  7. The Rural Population Turnaround, Research and National Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deavers, Kenneth L.; Brown, David L.

    The rural population turnaround, rapid and largely unanticipated, has created a gap between the changed social and economic conditions in rural America and public policies and programs, which were formulated in response to 30 years of rural population decline. For several reasons, public policy has not yet responded to the population turnaround…

  8. Fine-scale map of encyclopedia of DNA elements regions in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon-Kyeong; Ke, Xiayi; Hong, Sungwoo; Jang, Hye-Yoon; Park, Kyunghee; Kim, Sook; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Yeun-Du; Song, Okryeol; Rho, Na-Young; Lee, Moon Sue; Lee, Yeon-Su; Kim, Jaeheup; Kim, Young J; Yang, Jun-Mo; Song, Kyuyoung; Kimm, Kyuchan; Weir, Bruce; Cardon, Lon R; Lee, Jong-Eun; Hwang, Jung-Joo

    2006-09-01

    The International HapMap Project aims to generate detailed human genome variation maps by densely genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CEPH, Chinese, Japanese, and Yoruba samples. This will undoubtedly become an important facility for genetic studies of diseases and complex traits in the four populations. To address how the genetic information contained in such variation maps is transferable to other populations, the Korean government, industries, and academics have launched the Korean HapMap project to genotype high-density Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) regions in 90 Korean individuals. Here we show that the LD pattern, block structure, haplotype diversity, and recombination rate are highly concordant between Korean and the two HapMap Asian samples, particularly Japanese. The availability of information from both Chinese and Japanese samples helps to predict more accurately the possible performance of HapMap markers in Korean disease-gene studies. Tagging SNPs selected from the two HapMap Asian maps, especially the Japanese map, were shown to be very effective for Korean samples. These results demonstrate that the HapMap variation maps are robust in related populations and will serve as an important resource for the studies of the Korean population in particular.

  9. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  10. Feasibility of Translaminar Screw Placement in Korean Population: Morphometric Analysis of Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyuk; Kurniawan, Ferry; Lee, Junho; Jeon, Jae Kyun; Kim, Keung Nyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement in Koran population, and compare the acceptance rate using previously reported data in American population. Materials and Methods The translaminar lengths, thickness, heights, and sagittal-diagonal measurements were performed. The feasibility analysis was performed using unilateral and bilateral 3.5 mm cervical screw placement on the CT scans within 0.5 mm of safety margin. We also performed radiographic analysis of the morphometric dimensions and the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement at C3-C7. Results Korean population had similar or significantly shorter translaminar lengths and thickness (lengths and thickness in C7 among males; lengths in C6-C7 and thickness in C4 among females) than American population, but had similar or significantly longer translaminar heights and sagittal-diagonal measurements (heights in C3-C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C6 among males; heights in C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C7 among females). Unilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C4-C6 were significantly smaller between Korean and American female population. Bilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3 and C5-C6 were significantly larger between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American female population. Conclusion The feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement is different depending on different ethnics. Subaxial cervical unilateral translaminar screw placement among Korean male population and bilateral placement at C4-C7 among Korean female population are more acceptable than American population. PMID:25510760

  11. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population: a validation study of the Korean DS14.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Min; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical disorders, especially cardiovascular disease, in Korea.

  12. Association between intermediate uveitis and toxocariasis in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jin-Woo; Sim, Yoonseob; Jee, Donghyun

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of ocular toxocariasis (OT) presenting with intermediate uveitis in the Korean population.We studied intermediate uveitis patients using ocular and systemic evaluations and a Toxocara IgG serology test.Of 50 intermediate uveitis patients, 19 were seropositive for Toxocara IgG. Of the 19 OT patients, 4 presented with recurrence within 6 months and were significantly younger than nonrecurrence patients (P = 0.009). Thirteen patients had a history of eating raw cow liver.There were 14 males and 5 females in the OT group, and 11 males and 20 females in the non-OT group (P = 0.009). There was bilateral involvement in 7 out of 19 patients in the OT group, and 20 out of 31 patients in non-OT group (P = 0.033).Intermediate uveitis patients in OT were predominately male and had more unilateral presentation than non-OT patients.

  13. Association between intermediate uveitis and toxocariasis in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin-woo; Sim, Yoonseob; Jee, Donghyun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of ocular toxocariasis (OT) presenting with intermediate uveitis in the Korean population. We studied intermediate uveitis patients using ocular and systemic evaluations and a Toxocara IgG serology test. Of 50 intermediate uveitis patients, 19 were seropositive for Toxocara IgG. Of the 19 OT patients, 4 presented with recurrence within 6 months and were significantly younger than nonrecurrence patients (P = 0.009). Thirteen patients had a history of eating raw cow liver. There were 14 males and 5 females in the OT group, and 11 males and 20 females in the non-OT group (P = 0.009). There was bilateral involvement in 7 out of 19 patients in the OT group, and 20 out of 31 patients in non-OT group (P = 0.033). Intermediate uveitis patients in OT were predominately male and had more unilateral presentation than non-OT patients. PMID:28151857

  14. Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the human body 2008: 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine in urine of the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Sul, Donggeun; Ahn, Ryoungme; Im, Hosub; Oh, Eunha; Kim, Jae Hyoun; Kim, Jin Gyoung; Kim, PanGyi; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Park, Won Yeul; Son, Bu Soon; Shin, Daeyewn; Shim, Ae-Sug; Yang, Wonho; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Kee Jae; Lee, Sun-dong; Lee, Jong Wha; Lee, Chae Kwan; Jang, Bong-Ki; Choi, Kyungho; Han, Don-Hee; Hwang, Moon-Young; Lee, Jin Heon

    2012-10-01

    The Korea National Survey for Environmental Pollutants in the human body conducts representative Korean population studies, which were first initiated in 2005 in Korea. This study was conducted from 2008 to 2009 to determine the exposure levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in the Korean general population. The study population consisted of 4702 adult subjects from 196 sampling locations including coastal, rural, and urban areas. The urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine were measured for exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine. The geometric means of the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol and cotinine concentrations in the Korean general population were 0.15 μg/L (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-0.17), 3.84 μg/L (95% CI: 3.57-4.11) and 47.42 μg/L (95% CI: 40.52-54.32) respectively. When these values were compared with reference ranges for the United States and Germany, the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, and cotinine were very similar for Korea and Germany, however, these levels were slightly lower in the United States. This study is the first nationwide survey of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in Korea and provides a background reference range for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nicotine in the Korean general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moonjung; Kim, Sung Soo

    2017-01-01

    Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60–79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period. PMID:28346495

  16. DROUGHT AND POPULATION MOBILITY IN RURAL ETHIOPIA

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Significant attention has focused on the possibility that climate change will displace large populations in the developing world, but few multivariate studies have investigated climate-induced migration. We use event history methods and a unique longitudinal dataset from the rural Ethiopian highlands to investigate the effects of drought on population mobility over a ten-year period. The results indicate that men’s labor migration increases with drought and that land-poor households are most vulnerable. However, marriage-related moves by women also decrease with drought. These findings suggest a hybrid narrative of environmentally-induced migration that recognizes multiple dimensions of adaptation to environmental change. PMID:22523447

  17. DROUGHT AND POPULATION MOBILITY IN RURAL ETHIOPIA.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark; Mueller, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Significant attention has focused on the possibility that climate change will displace large populations in the developing world, but few multivariate studies have investigated climate-induced migration. We use event history methods and a unique longitudinal dataset from the rural Ethiopian highlands to investigate the effects of drought on population mobility over a ten-year period. The results indicate that men's labor migration increases with drought and that land-poor households are most vulnerable. However, marriage-related moves by women also decrease with drought. These findings suggest a hybrid narrative of environmentally-induced migration that recognizes multiple dimensions of adaptation to environmental change.

  18. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  19. Health Literacy Skills in Rural and Urban Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Whitney E.; Scaife, Steven L.; Francis, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether health literacy is lower in rural populations. Method: We analyzed health, prose, document, and quantitative literacy from the National Assessment of Adult Literacy study. Metropolitan Statistical Area designated participants as rural or urban. Results: Rural populations had lower literacy levels for all literacy…

  20. Personality Traits and Body Mass Index in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Unjin; Roh, Seung-Ju; Cho, Nam H.; Shin, Chol; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. Methods We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0±9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3±3.0 kg/m2) and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0±15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8±3.4 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β = 0.032, P<0.05). BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β = −0.026, P<0.05). Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β = −0.072, agreeableness β = 0.068) and waist circumference (openness to experience: β = −0.202, agreeableness: β = 0.227) (P<0.05). Conclusion Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention

  1. Personality traits and body mass index in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Shim, Unjin; Kim, Han-Na; Roh, Seung-Ju; Cho, Nam H; Shin, Chol; Ryu, Seungho; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity is a serious problem worldwide related to cardiovascular and other diseases. Personality traits are associated with the abnormal body mass indices (BMIs) indicative of overweight and obesity. However, the links between personality traits and BMI have been little studied in Korea. We evaluated the association between personality traits and BMI in men and women using the rural Ansung and urban Ansan cohort from the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study, and the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Cohort Study datasets. A shorter version of the original Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) was used to measure the five-factor model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Data from a total of 1,495 men (mean age 60.0 ± 9.8 years; mean BMI 24.3 ± 3.0 kg/m2) and 2,547 women (mean age 47.0 ± 15.5 years; mean BMI 22.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2) were included in the analysis. Compared with the normal weight groups, overweight and obese men scored higher on openness to experience and lower on conscientiousness. Overweight and obese women scored lower on neuroticism and openness to experience and higher on agreeableness. Extraversion was positively associated with BMI in men (β=0.032, P<0.05). BMI and waist circumference were significantly increased in individuals who were less dutiful. In women, neuroticism was inversely associated with BMI (β=-0.026, P<0.05). Openness to experience was negatively, and agreeableness was positively, associated with BMI (openness to experience: β=-0.072, agreeableness β=0.068) and waist circumference (openness to experience: β=-0.202, agreeableness: β=0.227) (P<0.05). Personality traits were associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity in men and women. Increased understanding of the underlying factors contributing to this association will aid in the prevention and treatment of abnormal BMI.

  2. Twin seasonality in a rural Catalonian population.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Miquel; García-Moro, Clara; Toja, Domingo Isaac; Esparza, Mireia; González-José, Rolando

    2004-12-01

    The seasonality of twinning in the Spanish populations has not been studied until now. Differences between seasonal distribution of the twin conceptions and those of the single births have been observed in other populations. The aim of this work is to explore the frequency of twinning in a rural population from Catalonia during the nineteenth century, as well as the seasonality patterns characterizing each of the twinning types. Data corresponding to all births recorded at Tortosa (South Catalonia) from 1801 to 1900 have been analyzed in order to study the twinning distribution. The distribution of the moving averages of the monthly rates of twins shows a peak in autumn. Twinning distribution differs from the total births' distribution in Tortosa. This fact is very clear in the case of unlike-sexed twins that have their greater incidence in the last quarter of the year, while the total maternities have their peak in the first one.

  3. The rural-urban population balance again.

    PubMed

    Simon, H A

    1982-11-01

    "This paper explores further the economics of the rural-urban population balance, using the method of comparative statics. It confirms the results obtained by Artle and his colleagues, using the method of excess demand analysis, thus demonstrating that the two methods of analysis are equivalent in this context. In analysing the effects of non-neutral technological change upon urbanization, it is essential to distinguish between the total elasticity of demand for manufactured products, and the income and (compensated) price elasticities, respectively. The empirical plausibility is questioned of assuming that total demand for the aggregate of manufactured goods is elastic."

  4. The Educational Effects of Rapid Rural Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Peggy J.; Green, Bernal L.

    Rapid population growth in rural areas has confronted rural communities and particularly rural educational systems with a number of problems. Sudden, large increases in students crowd school facilities and strain budgets. The different values, attitudes, and orientations toward education of the newcomers act as a catalyst for changes and can cause…

  5. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  6. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  7. Predictors of mammography participation among rural Korean women age 40 and over.

    PubMed

    Hur, Hea Kung; Kim, Gi Yon; Park, So Mi

    2005-12-01

    The study was conducted to identify predictors of mammography screening for rural Korean women according to 'Stage of Change' from the Transtheoretical Model which, along with the Health Belief Model, formed the theoretical basis for this study. A cross-sectional descriptive design was utilized. Through convenience sampling 432 women were selected from 2 rural areas. Data were collected by survey. Health beliefs constructs were measured with Champion's HBM Scale-Korea version. Mammography participation was measured using the Stage of Mammography Adoption Scale developed by Rakowski, et al. (1992). The most frequent stage of mammography adoption was 'contemplation' (40.5%). Predictors of stage of mammography adoption included 'mammogram recommended by health professional' (beta=0.59, t=16.12, p=.000), 'perceived benefits' (beta=0.09, t=2.21, p=.050), 'perceived susceptibility' (beta=0.09, t=1.98, p=.050), and 'perceived barriers' (beta= 0.07, t= -2.05, p=.041). 'Mammogram recommended by health professional' demonstrated the greatest association with having a mammogram. Health professionals play key roles in improving mammography participation and should recognize the importance of their role in cancer prevention and be more actively involved in education and counseling on prevention of breast cancer.

  8. Population genetic structure of endangered Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) from the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Park, Han-Chan; Suk, Ho Young; Jeong, Eu-Jin; Park, Dae-Sik; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) is a small lacertid lizard species, and its distribution range encompasses the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, China and Russia. Eremias argus is widespread, but populations on the Korean Peninsula are small and declining, provoking concerns that genetic diversity is being lost. This species is currently listed under the Protection of Wild Fauna and Flora Act in South Korea. In this study, nine novel microsatellites for E. argus were developed with a biotin-enrichment method and used to understand its population genetic structure and delineate conservation units on the Korean Peninsula. Overall, low intrapopulation genetic diversity was observed (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.463; mean H E = 0.398) from 10 populations investigated (n = 110). Two populations (among five with n≥ 10) showed an excess of heterozygosity expected under HWE relative to that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating severe reduction in population sizes. With only a few exceptions, the overall genetic differentiation among populations was substantial with the high levels of pairwise-F ST (0.006-0.746) and -R ST (0.034-0.940) values. The results of Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed that E. argus populations on the Korean Peninsula were most likely partitioned into three genetic clusters. Taken all together, such low levels of gene flow and strong genetic structuring have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species and its management.

  9. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an elderly urban Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Han-Ik; Eun Kim, Jung; Woong Kim, Ki; Jung Kim, Yu; Lee, Keun-Wook; Hyun Kim, Jee; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2011-09-01

    Research on the epidemiology of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is limited in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MGUS in an elderly urban Korean population. A random sample of 1118 Korean elders was selected from residents aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea 1 year from August 2005. We obtained plasma samples remaining after scheduled tests for the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. The mean age of the study population was 72 years (range, 65-97 years). To screen for MGUS, immunofixation and free light-chain (FLC) assays were performed. Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted MGUS prevalence rates in 680 responders were estimated as 3.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.6%], and the estimated age-adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 4.3% in men (95% CI = 1.9-6.6%) and 2.6% in women (95% CI = 1.0-4.2%). Abnormal FLC ratios were detected in 10% of MGUS cases. Multivariate analysis of 945 participants revealed that significant risk factors for MGUS included advanced age, male sex, hyperproteinemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and abnormal FLC ratio. MGUS is less prevalent among elderly Koreans (3.3%) than other races. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of MGUS in the Korean elderly population. Our findings should be confirmed with additional studies analyzing follow-up samples from 2010.

  10. Shallow Population Genetic Structures of Thread-sail Filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) Populations from Korean Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M; Park, W; Nam, Y K; Kim, D S

    2012-02-01

    Genetic diversities, population genetic structures and demographic histories of the thread-sail filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer were investigated by nucleotide sequencing of 336 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region in 111 individuals collected from six populations in Korean coastal waters. A total of 70 haplotypes were defined by 58 variable nucleotide sites. The neighbor-joining tree of the 70 haplotypes was shallow and did not provide evidence of geographical associations. Expansion of S. cirrhifer populations began approximate 51,000 to 102,000 years before present, correlating with the period of sea level rise since the late Pleistocene glacial maximum. High levels of haplotype diversities (0.974±0.029 to 1.000±0.076) and nucleotide diversities (0.014 to 0.019), and low levels of genetic differentiation among populations inferred from pairwise population F ST values (-0.007 to 0.107), support an expansion of the S. cirrhifer population. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed weak but significant genetic structures among three groups (F CT = 0.028, p<0.05), and no genetic variation within groups (0.53%; F SC = 0.005, p = 0.23). These results may help establish appropriate fishery management strategies for stocks of S. cirrhifer and related species.

  11. Estimated intakes of isoflavones and coumestrol in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Surh, Jeonghee; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Eunmi; Kim, Young-Kyung L; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2006-01-01

    The dietary intakes and sources of isoflavones and coumestrol were estimated for each age group of Koreans based on data from the Korean Nutrition Survey conducted in 1998. For quantitative data on the levels of isoflavones and coumestrol, our previous study monitoring phytoestrogens in 220 Korean leguminous foodstuffs was employed and the median value for each food was adopted. The total isoflavones and coumestrol intake per capita was estimated as 23.3 mg/day, which constituted 14.2 mg daidzein, 6.7 mg genistein, 0.9 mg glycitein, 1.0 mg formononetin, 0.2 mg biochanin A, and 0.3 mg coumestrol. The top five foods arrowroot, soybean paste, tofu, soybean, and soybean sprout contributed to 88.2% of isoflavone intake, with the corresponding intake from each food being 8.3 mg/day, 4.9 mg/day, 2.6 mg/day, 2.5 mg/day, and 2.0 mg/day, respectively. Starting at age 3-6, the contributions of fermented soy products to the isoflavones intakes were around 30%. Soybean sprout was a major source of coumestrol intake in Koreans. Slight differences in the preference of these foods were observed among the various age groups. As regards the total isoflavone intakes, the highest value was 33.6 mg/day for people age 30-49, followed by age 50-64 (26.4 mg/day), 20-29 (21.0 mg/day), >or=65 (18.8 mg/day), 1-2 (14.5 mg/day), 7-12 (12.4 mg/day), 13-19 (10.1 mg/day), and 3-6 (8.9 mg/day). The intake levels are likely to be exceeded in groups who have preferably consumed high phytoestrogen-containing foods such as soy-protein-based infant formula and arrowroot.

  12. Body Mass Index and Mortality among Korean Elderly in Rural Communities: Kangwha Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seri; Yi, Sang-Wook; Sull, Jae Woong; Hong, Jae-Seok; Jee, Sun Ha; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may differ by ethnicity, but its exact nature remains unclear among Koreans. The study aim was to prospectively examine the association between BMI and mortality in Korean. Methods 6166 residents (2636 men; 3530 women) of rural communities (Kangwha County, Republic of Korea) aged 55 and above were followed up for deaths from 1985–2008. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results During the 23.8 years of follow-up (an average of 12.5 years in men and 15.7 years in women), 2174 men and 2372 women died. Men with BMI of 21.0–27.4 and women with BMI of 20.0–27.4 had a minimal risk for all-cause mortality. A lower BMI as well as a higher BMI increased the hazard ratio of death. For example, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios associated with BMI below 16, and with BMI of 27.5 and above, were 2.4 (95% CI = 1.6–3.5) and 1.5 (95% CI = 1.1–1.9) respectively, in men, compared to those with BMI of 23.0–24.9. This reverse J-curve association was maintained among never smokers, and among people with no known chronic diseases. Higher BMI increased vascular mortality, while lower BMI increased deaths from vascular diseases, cancers, and, especially, respiratory diseases. Except for cancers, these associations were generally weaker in women than in men. Conclusions A reverse J-curve association between BMI and all-cause mortality may exist. BMI of 21–27.4 (rather than the range suggested by WHO of 18.5–23 for Asians) may be considered a normal range with acceptable risk in Koreans aged 55 and above, and may be used as cut points for interventions. More concern should be given to people with BMI above and below a BMI range with acceptable risk. Further studies are needed to determine ethnicity-specific associations. PMID:25719567

  13. Population structure of the Korean gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) using multivariate morphometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, Se Hun; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2016-03-01

    The gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, is one of the most important fish species in Korea, China, Japan and Taiwan, and therefore the implementation of an appropriate population structure analysis is both necessary and fitting. In order to clarify the current distribution range for the two lineages of the Korean gizzard shad (Myoung and Kim 2014), we conducted a multivariate morphometric analysis by locality and lineage. We analyzed 17 morphometric and 5 meristic characters of 173 individuals, which were sampled from eight localities in the East Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Korean Strait. Unlike population genetics studies, the canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) results showed that the two morphotypes were clearly segregated by the center value "0" of CAN1, of which morphotype A occurred from the Yellow Sea to the western Korean Strait with negative values, and morphotype B occurred from the East Sea to the eastern Korean Strait with positive values even though there exists an admixture zone in the eastern Korean Strait. Further studies using more sensitive markers such as microsatellite DNA are required in order to define the true relationship between the two lineages.

  14. Population level mental distress in rural Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As part of a situational analysis for a research programme on the integration of mental health care into primary care (Programme for Improving Mental Health Care-PRIME), we conducted a baseline study aimed at determining the broad indicators of the population level of psychosocial distress in a predominantly rural community in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of 1497 adults selected through a multi-stage random sampling process. Population level psychosocial distress was evaluated by estimating the magnitude of common mental disorder symptoms (CMD; depressive, anxiety and somatic symptoms reaching the level of probable clinical significance), harmful use of alcohol, suicidality and psychosocial stressors experienced by the population. Results The one-month prevalence of CMD at the mild, moderate and severe threshold levels was 13.8%, 9.0% and 5.1% respectively. The respective one-month prevalence of any suicidal ideation, persistent suicidal ideation and suicide attempt was 13.5%, 3.8% and 1.8%. Hazardous use of alcohol was identified in 22.4%, significantly higher among men (33.4%) compared to women (11.3%). Stressful life events were widespread, with 41.4% reporting at least one threatening life event in the preceding six months. A similar proportion reported poor social support (40.8%). Stressful life events, increasing age, marital loss and hazardous use of alcohol were associated with CMD while stressful life events, marital loss and lower educational status, and CMD were associated with suicidality. CMD was the strongest factor associated with suicidality [e.g., OR (95% CI) for severe CMD = 60.91 (28.01, 132.48)] and the strength of association increased with increase in the severity of the CMD. Conclusion Indicators of psychosocial distress are prevalent in this rural community. Contrary to former assumptions in the literature, social support systems seem relatively weak and stressful life events common

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of Korean and Chinese soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Korean and Chinese cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations are major soybean gene pools. Information has been reported comparing genetic diversity between soybeans from the two countries using an unequal number of accessions and only 6 to 35 genetic markers. This study compares diffe...

  16. Demographics, employment, income, and networks: differential characteristics of rural populations.

    PubMed

    Bollman, Ray D; Reimer, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the key demographic, employment, income, and social capital features of rural Canada. Rural populations have different characteristics that are typically a direct result of "rurality"--i.e., long distances and low population density. Jobs that require a high-density population (such as a professional hockey player) are not available to individuals who live at a distance from a metro center. Rural Canada may have an agricultural landscape (or a forestry or mining landscape) but the vast majority of rural workers do not work in primary sectors. Manufacturing employment is larger. Rural Canada is competitive in manufacturing--rural areas are gaining a larger share of Canada's manufacturing workforce. Rural incomes are lower, on average. But lower living costs mean that the rural incidence of low incomes is similar to urban. In rural communities, the existence of social networks does not always imply that these networks are used. Networks are complementary-one network does not always substitute for another. However, local strength in one network can be used to build capacity in another network.

  17. Endogenous Endophthalmitis in the American and Korean Population: An 8-year Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heeyoon; Shin, Yong Un; Siegel, Nicole H; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Sobrin, Lucia; Patel, Achal; Durand, Marlene L; Miller, Joan W; Husain, Deeba

    2016-07-26

    To study the clinical features of endogenous endophthalmitis (EE) in sample patient populations from the USA and South Korea over an 8-year period. We reviewed data from 128 eyes of 60 American and 48 Korean patients diagnosed with EE and compared their clinical characteristics. Fungemia and liver abscess were the most common extraocular infection sources among American (26.7%) and Korean patients (33.3%), respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida species were the most common pathogens of EE in the Korean and the American patients, respectively. Endophthalmitis caused by fungi had a better visual prognosis than that caused by bacteria (p = 0.001). Vitrectomy was beneficial for eyes with EE due to virulent bacteria presenting with worse than counting finger vision. The predisposing conditions and responsible organisms for EE vary in different regions of the world. The visual prognosis was strongly influenced by the underlying pathogen.

  18. Association of the adiponectin gene variations with risk of ischemic stroke in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Cheong, My-Young; Bang, Ok-Sun; Cha, Min-Ho; Park, Young-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young Joo

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidence of variations in adiponectin (AdipoQ) genes that are associated with ischemic stroke has not been consistent, and it is unclear whether the same loci contribute to these associations in the Korean population. Using a Korean population, we tested ischemic stroke-associated AdipoQ markers. In a preliminary genome-wide association study using 320 250 k Affymetrix NSP chips, AdipoQ was found to be associated with ischemic stroke in Koreans. To study of AdipoQ, a further 673 ischemic stroke patients and 267 unrelated individuals without a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack were examined in a case-control study. Six polymorphisms (rs182052G > A, rs16861205G > A, rs822391T > C, rs822396A > G, rs12495941G > T and rs3774261A > G) that had a minor allele frequency of over 1% were strongly associated with stroke (p < 0.05). Two of these, rs822391T > C and rs822396A > G showed this association on both dominant and additive logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and sex. The haplotypes ht 1 (AGGCGG and AAGTAG) were significantly associated with susceptibility to stroke. Our findings show that polymorphisms in AdipoQ are associated with risk for ischemic stroke in the Korean population. This study lends further support to the putative role of AdipoQ in stroke.

  19. Telecommunications in Rural America: Special Populations, Special Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bransford, Louis A.

    The need to upgrade programs and services in rural communities is rapidly moving toward a critical juncture. A rural telecommunication network could act as an equalizer through: serving information needs of people in the fields of entertainment, education, health, governments, business, and industry; or serving special populations such as the…

  20. Rural and urban traffic fatalities, vehicle miles, and population density.

    PubMed

    Clark, David E; Cushing, Brad M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of population density on the rates of motor vehicle mortality in rural and urban areas, while controlling for vehicle miles traveled (VMT). Rural and urban data for traffic mortality, VMT, and population were obtained for each state from the Federal Highway Administration for 1998-2000. Linear regression was used to estimate the effect of population density, VMT per capita, southern location, and presence of a trauma system on mortality. Variation in rural mortality rate (per 100,000 population) was proportional to rural VMT per capita, but population density and southern location were also independent predictors, together accounting for 91% of this variation. Variation in urban mortality rates was not affected by population density, but urban rates were also higher in the south. The exposure-based rural mortality rate (deaths per 100 million VMT) was inversely proportional to population density, which along with southern location explained 41% of the variation from state to state. The presence of a state trauma system did not measurably affect mortality. After controlling for VMT and southern location, state population density was a moderately strong predictor of rural but not urban traffic mortality rates.

  1. Association between vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome risk among Korean population: based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-2, 2008.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyeun; Lim, Juwon; Kye, Soshin; Joung, Hyojee

    2012-05-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been linked to metabolic syndrome. However, community-based data for healthy Korean individuals are lacking. We aimed to assess the vitamin D status and the association of 25(OH)D deficiency with metabolic syndrome in the South Korean population (latitude 33-38°N). In this population-based study, we assessed 5559 South Korean adults selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-2, 2008. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was 56.0%. Subjects with vitamin D deficiency were younger and had higher education, lower physical activity, and lower alcohol consumption than those with normal vitamin D levels. The overall risk of metabolic syndrome was not associated with 25(OH)D concentration. The adjusted OR of reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased across the quintiles of 25(OH)D concentrations (OR=0.72; 95% confidence interval=0.54-0.95 for comparisons of lowest vs. highest quintile; P for trend=0.003). A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was noted in the general South Korean population. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was inversely associated with the risk of having reduced HDL-C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lack of association between Y-chromosomal haplogroups and prostate cancer in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wook; Yoo, Tag-Keun; Kim, Sung-Joo; Shin, Dong-Jik; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jin, Han-Jun; Kwak, Kyoung-Don; Kim, Eun-Tak; Bae, Yoon-Sun

    2007-01-24

    The Y chromosome has recently been suggested to have an association with prostate cancer risk in human populations. Since this chromosome is haploid and lacks recombination over most of its length, haplotypes constructed from binary markers throughout the chromosome can be used for association studies. To assess the possible Y-chromosomal contribution to prostate cancer risk, we have therefore analyzed 14 Y-chromosomal binary markers in 106 prostate cancer cases and 110 controls from the Korean population. In contrast to previous findings in the Japanese population, no statistically significant difference in the distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup frequencies was observed between the case and control groups of Koreans. Thus, our data imply that the previously reported associations between Y-chromosomal lineages and a predisposition to, or protection against, prostate cancer might be explained by statistical fluctuations, or by genetic effects that are seen only in some environments.

  3. [The rural population. The great change toward urbanization].

    PubMed

    Lopez, M P

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the population dynamics of rural areas in Mexico, defined as those with fewer than 2500 inhabitants. Mexico in recent decades has undergone a process of rapid urban industrial development. Participation in the primary sector of the economy declined steadily from 15.6% in 1960 to 11.2% in 1970, 8.2% in 1980, and 8.5% in 1987. Average annual growth rates of the total and economically active population between 1950 and 1980 exceeded 3%, compared to just 1.4% for the rural population and 0.6% for the active population in agriculture. The slower growth of rural and agricultural sectors resulted from urban migration and the weak employment generation capacity of the agricultural sector. The proportion of the economically active population in agriculture declined from 58.3% in 1950 to 29.2% in 1980. Some 70% of the population lived in rural areas around 1900, but accelerating urbanization beginning in the 1940s led to declines from 65% in 1940 to 32% by 1985. The average rural woman had 8.2 births in 1966-70, while urban women had 6.3. The slower rural fertility decline and the migration to cities primarily of young adults of working age have led to a larger proportion of the population in the 0-14 age group in rural areas. In 1985, slightly over 23 million Mexicans were estimated to live in rural areas. In 1987, only 10.7% of rural households had potable water, electric light, and sewage services, compared to 78.9% in medium sized cities and 95.3% in metropolitan areas.

  4. Genome-wide association of serum bilirubin levels in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Wook; Kim, Hee-Jin; Ju, Hyoungseok; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Jeon, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Han-Chul; Kim, Ka-Kyung; Kim, Jong-Won; Lee, Siwoo; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Yong Sung

    2010-09-15

    A large-scale, genome-wide association study was performed to identify genetic variations influencing serum bilirubin levels using 8841 Korean individuals. Significant associations were observed at UGT1A1 (rs11891311, P = 4.78 x 10(-148)) and SLCO1B3 (rs2417940, P = 1.03 x 10(-17)), which are two previously identified loci. The two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were replicated (rs11891311, P = 3.18 x 10(-15)) or marginally significant (rs2417940, P = 8.56 x 10(-4)) in an independent cohort of 1096 individuals. In a conditional analysis adjusted for the top UGT1A1 variant (rs11891311), another variant in UGT1A1 (rs4148323, P = 1.22 x 10(-121)) remained significant; this suggests that in UGT1A1 at least two independent genetic variations influence the bilirubin levels in the Korean population. The protein coding variant rs4148323, which is monomorphic in European-derived populations, may be specifically associated with serum bilirubin levels in Asians (P = 2.56 x 10(-70)). The SLCO1B3 variant (rs2417940, P = 1.67 x 10(-18)) remained significant in a conditional analysis for the top UGT1A1 variant. Interestingly, there were significant differences in the associated variations of SLCO1B3 between Koreans and European-derived populations. While the variant rs2417940 at intron 7 of SLCO1B3 was more significantly associated in Koreans, variants rs17680137 (P = 0.584) and rs2117032 (P = 2.76 x 10(-5)), two of the top-ranked SNPs in European-derived populations, did not reach the genome-wide significance level. Also, variants in SLCO1B1 did not reach genome-wide significance in Koreans. Our result supports the idea that there are considerable ethnic differences in genetic association of bilirubin levels between Koreans and European-derived populations.

  5. Analysis of extended haplotype in Korean cattle (Hanwoo) population

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dajeong; Choi, Bong Hwan; Cho, Yong Min; Chai, Han Ha; Jang, Gul Won; Gondro, Cedric; Jeoung, Yeoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean cattle (Hanwoo) are categorized into three breeds based on color: brown, brindle, and black. Among these breeds, brown Hanwoo has been subjected to intensive selection to improve meat traits. To identify genetic traces driven by recent selection in brown Hanwoo, we scanned the genomes of brown and brindle Hanwoo using a bovine SNP chip. We identified 17 candidate selection signatures in brown Hanwoo and sequenced four candidate regions from 10 individuals each of brown and brindle Hanwoo. In particular, non-synonymous SNPs in the ADSL gene (K88M, L189H, and R302Q) might have had mutational effects on protein structure as a result of altering the purine pathway during nucleotide breakdown. The ADSL gene was previously reported to affect meat quality and yield in livestock. Meat quality and yield are main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, and our results support a potential causal influence of non-synonymous SNPs in the ADSL gene. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 514-519] PMID:27470211

  6. Limb length and dementia in an older Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Stewart, R; Shin, I; Yoon, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: There has been little research into risk factors for dementia outside Western settings, in particular the importance of early life nutrition as estimated by adult body size. This study investigated the associations of arm and leg length with cognitive impairment and dementia in a community sample of older Korean people. Methods: 746 community residents aged 65 or over were clinically assessed for dementia and cognitive impairment. The following were also measured: arm length (demispan), leg length (iliac crest height), and sitting height (standing height minus iliac crest height). Reproductive history was also ascertained in women. Results: Shorter demispan and leg length were associated with increased age and lower education. They were also associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease after adjustment for these factors. These associations were only significant in women but were not explained substantially by timing of the menarche or menopause. The association between lower education and dementia was also stronger in women, but was not explained substantially by limb length. Conclusions: Shorter limb length was associated with lower childhood socioeconomic status, as estimated by the presence/duration of formal education. It was also independently associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Sex differences in this association might be explained by gender disadvantage in early life for this cohort or by different associations with health states (for example, cardiovascular disease) later in life. PMID:12640055

  7. Determinants for Heart Rate Variability in a Normal Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gyung-Mee

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the normal ranges and the determinants for various parameters of the short-term heart rate variability (HRV) measurements in a large Korean sample of healthy people. HRV measurements were obtained in 2,748 healthy men and 735 healthy women 18-65 yr of age. The mean total power (TP), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio were 1,358.9 ± 1,840.8 ms2, 417.3 ± 807.6 ms2, 254.1 ± 414.1 ms2, and 2.4 ± 20.9 ms2 in the frequency-domain spectral analysis. The mean standard deviation of the normal-to-normal (NN) interval (SDNN) and the square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD) were 39.6 ± 22.1 ms and 29.7 ± 18.1 ms in the time-domain analysis. The female subjects had significantly higher SDNN, RMSSD, and HF values than the male subjects. After controlling for age, there was no statistically significant difference in the SDNN. Quantile regression analysis showed that age and mean heart rate had a significant impact on short-term HRV measurement. Given that both clinicians and researchers are increasingly relying on short-term HRV assessment in measuring stress, our work suggests that age and gender should be considered as independent determinants for HRV. PMID:22022180

  8. Genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 gene in the Korean population with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwook; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2013-12-15

    The TMPRSS3 gene (DFNB8/10), which encodes a transmembrane serine protease, is a common hearing loss gene in several populations. Accurate functions of TMPRSS3 in the hearing pathway are still unknown, but TMPRSS3 has been reported to play a crucial role in inner ear development or maintenance. To date, 16 pathogenic mutations have been identified in many countries, but no mutational studies of the TMPRSS3 gene have been conducted in the Korean hearing loss population. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 in 40 unrelated Korean patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss to identify the aspect and frequency of TMPRSS3 gene mutations in the Korean population. A total of 22 variations were detected, including a novel variant (p.V291L) and a previously reported pathogenic mutation (p.A306T). The p.A306T mutation which has been detected in only compound heterozygous state in previous studies was identified in homozygous state for the first time in this study. Moreover, the clinical evaluation identified bilateral dilated vestibules in the patient with p.A306T mutation, and it suggested that p.A306T mutation of the TMPRSS3 gene might be associated with vestibular anomalies. In conclusion, this study investigated that only 2.5% of patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss were related to TMPRSS3 mutations suggesting low prevalence of TMPRSS3 gene in Korean hearing loss population. Also, it will provide the information of genotype-phenotype correlation to understand definite role of TMPRSS3 in the auditory system.

  9. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: {yields} We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. {yields} This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. {yields} Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  10. Household and area income levels are associated with smoking status in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Yun, Woo-Jun; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Kim, Sun A; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Lee, Young-Hoon; Ryu, So-Yeon; Park, Soon-Woo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Min-Ho

    2015-01-31

    Some previous studies have suggested that area-level characteristics have effects on smoking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between household income and area income on smoking in Korean adults. This study was based on the Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) performed in South Korea, between September and November 2009. In total, 222,242 subjects (103,124 men and 119,118 women) were included in the analysis. Information on smoking status was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Income status was determined by monthly household income. Household income was categorized as: <1 million won; <2 million won; <3 million won; and ≥3 million won. Area-level income categorized as quartiles. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression models. The analysis was conducted separately urban and rural, by sex. The lowest household income group had a higher risk of smoking than the highest household income group in both urban and rural areas for both men and women after adjusting for individual characteristics (urban men: odds ration [OR], 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.53; rural men: OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.25-1.42; urban women: OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.06-2.76; rural women: OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.25-1.83). In men, the lowest area-level income group had a higher risk for smoking than the highest area-level income group in urban areas after adjusting for individual characteristics and household income (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.33). In women, the lowest area-level income group had a lower risk for smoking than the highest area-level income group in rural areas after adjusting for individual characteristics and household income (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.39-0.70). However, no association was observed between area-level income and smoking in rural areas for men or in urban areas for women. The results showed that smoking is strongly associated with household income status in both men and women, and area-level income is partly associated with smoking

  11. Background and Data Configuration Process of a Nationwide Population-Based Study Using the Korean National Health Insurance System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. Methods The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Results Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. Conclusion The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform. PMID:25349827

  12. Background and data configuration process of a nationwide population-based study using the korean national health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Song, Young Duk; Park, Cheol-Young; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Cha, Bong Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up; Ko, Kyung Soo; Lee, Byung-Wan

    2014-10-01

    The National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) recently signed an agreement to provide limited open access to the databases within the Korean Diabetes Association for the benefit of Korean subjects with diabetes. Here, we present the history, structure, contents, and way to use data procurement in the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system for the benefit of Korean researchers. The NHIS in Korea is a single-payer program and is mandatory for all residents in Korea. The three main healthcare programs of the NHI, Medical Aid, and long-term care insurance (LTCI) provide 100% coverage for the Korean population. The NHIS in Korea has adopted a fee-for-service system to pay health providers. Researchers can obtain health information from the four databases of the insured that contain data on health insurance claims, health check-ups and LTCI. Metabolic disease as chronic disease is increasing with aging society. NHIS data is based on mandatory, serial population data, so, this might show the time course of disease and predict some disease progress, and also be used in primary and secondary prevention of disease after data mining. The NHIS database represents the entire Korean population and can be used as a population-based database. The integrated information technology of the NHIS database makes it a world-leading population-based epidemiology and disease research platform.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Lumbar Spondylosis and Its Association with Low Back Pain among Rural Korean Residents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Yeon; Cho, Nam H.; Jung, Young Ok; Seo, Young Il; Kim, Hyun Ah

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and the relevant risk factors for lumbar spondylosis (LS) among middle-aged and elderly rural Korean residents and to explore the association between radiographic LS and lower back pain (LBP) in relation to age and gender. Methods This community-based, cross-sectional study evaluated 1512 subjects with available radiograph. The prevalence of LBP was obtained using a questionnaire and disability resulting from LBP was measured using a validated Korean version of the Oswestry disability index (ODI). In lumbar spine radiographs, vertebral levels from L1/2 to L4/5 were evaluated for the presence of osteophytes and joint-space narrowing (JSN), and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading was applied. Results Of 4261 subjects aged 40–79 years, data from 1512 subjects were included. The prevalence of radiographic LS indicated by grade ≥2 osteophytes and JSN were 53.9 and 15.8%, respectively. Seventy-three percent of subjects had KL grade ≥2 spondylosis and LBP was present in 36.5% of subjects. Although LS was more common among males, the prevalence of LBP was higher among females. Age, male gender and history of hand or knee arthritis were risk factors for LS. LS was significantly associated with LBP mostly among females over 60 years old and correlated with the ODI after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion Our study among rural Korean residents revealed a high prevalence of LS and LBP. The association between LS and LBP was observed mostly among females and LS was significantly correlated with the severity of back pain. PMID:28061494

  14. PET with Rural-Suburban Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theimer, William C., Jr.; Gates-Lewis, Alice

    This study investigates Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) program effects on 60 single or married parents in a rural/suburban school district. The sample was randomly divided into three groups of 10 single parents and five couples each. One of the groups functioned as a control and received PET after the study was completed. Before and after…

  15. Population genetic structure and natural selection of apical membrane antigen-1 in Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-11-16

    Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) is a leading candidate antigen for blood stage malaria vaccine. However, antigenic variation is a major obstacle in the development of an effective vaccine based on this antigen. In this study, the genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of PvAMA-1 among Korean P. vivax isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 66 Korean patients with vivax malaria. The entire PvAMA-1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. The PvAMA-1 sequence of each isolate was sequenced and the polymorphic characteristics and effect of natural selection were analysed using the DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Thirty haplotypes of PvAMA-1, which were further classified into seven different clusters, were identified in the 66 Korean P. vivax isolates. Domain II was highly conserved among the sequences, but substantial nucleotide diversity was observed in domains I and III. The difference between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggested that the gene has evolved under natural selection. No strong evidence indicating balancing or positive selection on PvAMA-1 was identified. Recombination may also play a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvAMA-1. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of nucleotide diversity across the entire PvAMA-1 gene using a single population sample from Korea. Korean PvAMA-1 had limited genetic diversity compared to PvAMA-1 in global isolates. The overall pattern of genetic polymorphism of Korean PvAMA-1 differed from other global isolates and novel amino acid changes were also identified in Korean PvAMA-1. Evidences for natural selection and recombination event were observed, which is likely to play an important role in generating genetic diversity across the PvAMA-1. These results provide useful information for the understanding the population structure of P. vivax circulating in Korea and have important

  16. A Multicenter Retrospective Analysis of the Clinical Features of Pernicious Anemia in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ik-Chan; Lee, Hyo Jin; Kim, Han-Jo; Bae, Sang-Byung; Lee, Kyu-Taek; Yang, Young-Jun; Park, Suk-Young; Cho, Do-Yeun; Kim, Nae Yu; Cho, In-Sung

    2013-01-01

    To determine the approximate incidence and clinical features of pernicious anemia in a Korean population, we retrospectively analyzed clinical data for patients with pernicious anemia who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2010 at five hospitals in Chungnam province. Ninety-seven patients were enrolled, who accounted for 24% of patients with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. The approximate annual incidence of pernicious anemia was 0.3 per 100,000. The median age was 66 (range, 32-98) yr, and the male/female ratio was 1.25. Anemia-associated discomfort was the most common symptom (79.4%), followed by gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms (78.4% and 38.1%, respectively). Pancytopenia was found in 36 patients (37.1%), and autoimmune disorders were found in 15 patients (15.5%). Antibody to intrinsic factor was detected in 62 (77.5%) of 80 patients examined, and antibody to parietal cells was detected in 35 (43.2%) of 81 patients examined. Of the 34 patients who underwent tests for Helicobacter pylori, 7 (12.5%) were positive. The anemia-associated and gastrointestinal symptoms resolved completely in all patients after intramuscular injection of cobalamin, whereas neurological symptoms remained in some. In conclusion, pernicious anemia is less frequent in Koreans than in Western populations; however, the clinical features of this disorder in Koreans do not differ from those of Western cases. PMID:23400269

  17. Population genomics identifies the origin and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Kim, Kyu-Won; Park, Yong-Jin

    2017-03-01

    Weedy rice is the same biological species as cultivated rice (Oryza sativa); it is also a noxious weed infesting rice fields worldwide. Its formation and population-selective or -adaptive signatures are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetics, population structure and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice by determining the whole genomes of 30 weedy rice, 30 landrace rice and ten wild rice samples. The phylogenetic tree and results of ancestry inference study clearly showed that the genetic distance of Korean weedy rice was far from the wild rice and near with cultivated rice. Furthermore, 537 genes showed evidence of recent positive or divergent selection, consistent with some adaptive traits. This study indicates that Korean weedy rice originated from hybridization of modern indica/indica or japonica/japonica rather than wild rice. Moreover, weedy rice is not only a notorious weed in rice fields, but also contains many untapped valuable traits or haplotypes that may be a useful genetic resource for improving cultivated rice.

  18. Acromion Index in Korean Population and Its Relationship with Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Kum, Dong Ho; Kim, Jun Ho; Park, Keun Min; Lee, Eun Su; Park, Yong Bok; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2017-06-01

    Among the many causes of rotator cuff tears, scapular morphology is associated with the accelerating degenerative process of the rotator cuff. Acromion index (AI) was previously introduced and compared in two populations. We enrolled 100 Korean patients diagnosed with full-thickness rotator cuff tears by magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative arthroscopic findings between January and December 2013. Another 100 Korean patients with an intact rotator cuff tendon identified on magnetic resonance imaging and other shoulder diseases, such as frozen shoulder and instability, were enrolled as controls. We retrospectively compared these 100 rotator cuff tear patients (mean age, 63 years) and 100 controls (mean age, 51 years) in this study. Two independent orthopedic surgeons assessed the AI on radiographs. We performed an interobserver reliability test of the AI assessment, and then compared the AI between two groups. The measurement of the AI showed excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.82). The mean AI in the rotator cuff tear group was 0.68 and it was significantly different between groups (p<0.001, 95% confidence interval). The AI was not related to tear size. Our study showed that the AI was an effective predictive factor for rotator cuff tears in a Korean population.

  19. Volatility and Growth in Populations of Rural Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollebaek, Dag

    2010-01-01

    This article uses unique community-level data aggregated from censuses of associations to analyze growth and volatility in rural populations of grassroots associations. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) shows that the two main paths to growth were (1) centralization in polycephalous (multicentered) municipalities and (2) population growth…

  20. Volatility and Growth in Populations of Rural Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollebaek, Dag

    2010-01-01

    This article uses unique community-level data aggregated from censuses of associations to analyze growth and volatility in rural populations of grassroots associations. A qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) shows that the two main paths to growth were (1) centralization in polycephalous (multicentered) municipalities and (2) population growth…

  1. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  2. Entire Mitochondrial DNA Sequencing on Massively Parallel Sequencing for the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome analysis has been a potent tool in forensic practice as well as in the understanding of human phylogeny in the maternal lineage. The traditional mtDNA analysis is focused on the control region, but the introduction of massive parallel sequencing (MPS) has made the typing of the entire mtDNA genome (mtGenome) more accessible for routine analysis. The complete mtDNA information can provide large amounts of novel genetic data for diverse populations as well as improved discrimination power for identification. The genetic diversity of the mtDNA sequence in different ethnic populations has been revealed through MPS analysis, but the Korean population not only has limited MPS data for the entire mtGenome, the existing data is mainly focused on the control region. In this study, the complete mtGenome data for 186 Koreans, obtained using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) technology and retrieved from rather common mtDNA haplogroups based on the control region sequence, are described. The results showed that 24 haplogroups, determined with hypervariable regions only, branched into 47 subhaplogroups, and point heteroplasmy was more frequent in the coding regions. In addition, sequence variations in the coding regions observed in this study were compared with those presented in other reports on different populations, and there were similar features observed in the sequence variants for the predominant haplogroups among East Asian populations, such as Haplogroup D and macrohaplogroups M9, G, and D. This study is expected to be the trigger for the development of Korean specific mtGenome data followed by numerous future studies. PMID:28244283

  3. Number of existing permanent teeth is associated with chronic kidney disease in the elderly Korean population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Sun

    2017-04-14

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between the number of existing permanent teeth and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a representative sample of the elderly Korean population. A total of 2,519 subjects who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were cross-sectionally examined. The number of existing permanent teeth was evaluated by clinical oral examination. CKD was defined based on definition and classification by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed controlling for age, gender, income, education, tooth-brushing frequency, periodontitis, state of dentition, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia. Subgroup analyses by age and gender were also performed. The number of teeth was significantly associated with CKD after controlling for all potential confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.70 for lower number of teeth; AOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.23 for moderate number of teeth). In the subgroup analyses, the association was highlighted in females aged 75 years over (AOR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.05 to 6.20 for lower number of teeth; AOR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.80 for moderate number of teeth). Our findings suggest that the number of existing permanent teeth may be associated with CKD among Korean elderly.

  4. Disease patterns in a rural black population.

    PubMed

    Reeve, P A; Falkner, M J

    1986-04-26

    Epidemiological information concerning disease patterns among blacks in southern Africa is scanty and a plea has been made for greater research. Between September 1968 and January 1970, patients admitted to the medical wards of Jane Furse Hospital in Lebowa were studied; 14 years later the study was repeated and the results compared. The increasing incidence of asthma, hypertension and diabetes, well recognized in urban blacks, seems to be reflected in the rural setting of Jane Furse Hospital. Tuberculosis remains a common problem and a cause for concern.

  5. Establishment of a resource population of SLA haplotype-defined Korean native pigs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han-Ok; Ho, Chak-Sum; Lee, Yu-Joo; Cho, In-Cheol; Lee, Sung-Soo; Ko, Moon-Suck; Park, Chankyu; Smith, Douglas M; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2010-05-01

    The highly polymorphic porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC), or the swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), has been repeatedly associated with variations in swine immune response to pathogens and vaccines as well as with production traits. The SLA antigens are also important targets for immunological recognition of foreign tissue grafts. We recently established a resource population of Korean native pigs as models for human transplantation and xenotransplantation research. In this study, 115 animals derived from three generations of the Korean native pigs were genotyped for three SLA class I (SLA-2, SLA-3 and SLA-1) and three SLA class II loci (DRB1, DQB1, DQA) using PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) at the allele group resolution. A total of seven SLA haplotypes (Lr-5.34, Lr-7.23, Lr-31.13, Lr-56.23, Lr-56.30, Lr-59.1, Lr-65.34), comprising six unique class I and five unique class II haplotypes, were characterized in the founding animals. Class I haplotype Lr-65.0 and class II haplotype Lr-0.34 were novel; and together with Lr-56.0 these haplotypes appeared to be breed-specific. In the progeny population, Lr-7.23 and Lr-56.30 appeared to be the most prevalent haplotypes with frequencies of 34.7% and 31.6%, respectively; the overall homozygosity was 27.4%. This resource population of SLA-defined Korean native pigs will be useful as large animal models for various transplantation and xenotransplantation experiments, as well as for dissecting the roles of SLA proteins in swine disease resistance and production traits.

  6. On Constructing Ageing Rural Populations: "Capturing" the Grey Nomad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is ageing, with forecasts predicting this ageing is likely to be particularly severe in the rural areas of more developed countries. These forecasts are developed from nationally aggregated census and survey data and assume spatial homogeneity in ageing. They also draw on narrow understandings of older people and construct…

  7. On Constructing Ageing Rural Populations: "Capturing" the Grey Nomad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is ageing, with forecasts predicting this ageing is likely to be particularly severe in the rural areas of more developed countries. These forecasts are developed from nationally aggregated census and survey data and assume spatial homogeneity in ageing. They also draw on narrow understandings of older people and construct…

  8. Prevalence of major depressive disorder and minor depressive disorder in an elderly Korean population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Hyuk; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Seok Bum; Huh, Yoonseok; Choi, Eun Ae; Youn, Jong Choul; Jhoo, Jin Hyeong; Kim, Jin Sun; Woo, Jong Inn; Kim, Ki Woong

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence, risk factors and impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MnDD) in a randomly selected community-dwelling Korean elderly population. This study was conducted as a part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). A study population of 1118 Korean elders was randomly sampled from residents of Seongnam, Korea aged 65 years or older. Standardized face-to-face interviews and neurological and physical examinations were conducted on 714 respondents using the Korean version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. MDD was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria, and MnDD according to research criteria proposed in Appendix B of the DSM-IV criteria. Age-, gender- and education-standardized prevalence rates in Korean elders aged 65 years or older were estimated as 5.37% (95% CI=3.72-7.03) for MDD, 5.52% (95% CI=3.84-7.19) for MnDD, and 10.89% (95% CI=8.60-13.17) for overall late-life depression (LLD). A prior MDD episode (OR=3.07, 95% CI=1.38-6.82 in MDD, OR=3.44, 95% CI=1.49-7.94 in MnDD), female gender (OR=3.55, 95% CI=1.53-8.24 in MDD, OR=2.68, 95% CI=1.19-6.04 in MnDD) and history of stroke or TIA (OR=3.45, 95% CI=1.62-7.35 in MDD, OR=2.95, 95% CI=1.34-6.52 in MnDD) were associated with the risks of both MDD and MnDD. Lack of formal education (OR=2.75, 95% CI=1.30-5.85) and low income (OR=2.83, 95% CI=1.02-7.88) were associated with the risk of MDD only. Quality of life (QOL) of the MDD and MnDD patients was worse than that of non-depressed elders (P<0.001, ANOVA). MnDD was as prevalent as MDD in Korean elders and impacted QOL as MDD did. MnDD patients may increase in the future with accelerated population aging and westernization of lifestyle in Korea. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the width ratio and wear rate of maxillary anterior teeth in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yeon-Ah; Yang, Hong-So; Park, Sang-Won; Lim, Hyun-Pil; Yun, Kwi-Dug; Park, Chan

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The calculated ratios were compared among all groups and central incisor W/L ratio were analyzed according to age and gender. All comparative data were statistically analyzed with one-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs with Tukey tests, and independent t-tests. No significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth ratios were found among the age groups. The maxillary central incisor W/L ratios in Group III were the greatest and were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The central incisor W/L ratio of men was higher than that of women in Group II. Maxillary anterior teeth width ratios were similar in all age groups in the Korean population. The maxillary central incisor was observed as worn teeth in the group over 60 years of age, and a significant difference between genders was found in 40 to 50 year olds.

  10. Analysis of the width ratio and wear rate of maxillary anterior teeth in the Korean population

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the width ratio of maxillary anterior teeth according to age in the Korean population and to evaluate the maxillary central incisor width-to-length (W/L) ratio, given differences in age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety-three Korean adults were divided into 3 groups (n = 31) by age. Group I was 20 - 39 years old, Group II was 40 - 59 years old, and Group III was over 60 years of age. After taking an impression and a cast model of the maxillary arch, the anterior teeth width ratio and central incisor W/L ratio were calculated from standard digital images of the cast models using a graph paper with a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The calculated ratios were compared among all groups and central incisor W/L ratio were analyzed according to age and gender. All comparative data were statistically analyzed with one-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs with Tukey tests, and independent t-tests. RESULTS No significant differences in maxillary anterior teeth ratios were found among the age groups. The maxillary central incisor W/L ratios in Group III were the greatest and were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The central incisor W/L ratio of men was higher than that of women in Group II. CONCLUSION Maxillary anterior teeth width ratios were similar in all age groups in the Korean population. The maxillary central incisor was observed as worn teeth in the group over 60 years of age, and a significant difference between genders was found in 40 to 50 year olds. PMID:28435617

  11. DUOX2 Mutations Are Frequently Associated With Congenital Hypothyroidism in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Park, Jong-Ho; Park, June-Hee; Park, Hyung-Doo; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background Most cases with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) are usually sporadic, while about 20% of the cases are caused by genetic defects. Little information is available regarding the mutation incidence and genetic heterogeneity of CH in Koreans. We aimed to determine the mutation incidence of CH in newborn screenings (NBS) and to evaluate the frequency and spectrum of mutations underlying CH. Methods A total of 112 newborns with thyroid dysfunction were enrolled from 256,624 consecutive NBS. Furthermore, 58 outpatients with primary CH were added from an endocrine clinic. All coding exons of TSHR, PAX8, TPO, DUOX2, DUOXA2, and SCL5A5 were sequenced. Results The mutation incidence of CH was estimated to be 1 in 6,580 newborns. A total of 36 different mutations were identified in 53 cases. The overall mutation positive rate was 31%. The DUOX2 mutations were the most prevalent in both newborns and outpatients. Seven different recurrent mutations [p.G488R (n=13), p.A649E (n=3), p.R885Q (n=3), p.I1080T (n=2), and p.A1206T (n=2) in DUOX2; p.Y138X (n=9) in DUOXA2; and p.R450H (n=5) in TSHR) were identified as the mutations underlying CH. Conclusions The mutation incidence of CH was considerably higher than expected in the Korean newborn population. This study revealed seven different recurrent mutations underlying CH. We conclude that DUOX2 mutations are a frequent cause of CH in the Korean population. PMID:26709262

  12. Sterile Inflammation after Intravitreal Injection of Aflibercept in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Young; You, Yong Sung; Kwon, Oh Woong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the frequency and clinical features of sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection in a Korean population. Methods A single-center, retrospective study was performed in patients who received intravitreal aflibercept from July 2013 through January 2015. Results A total of four cases of post-injection sterile inflammation were identified from 723 aflibercept injections in 233 patients. Patients presented 1 to 13 days after intravitreal aflibercept injection (mean, 5 days). The mean baseline visual acuity was 20 / 60, which decreased to 20 / 112 at diagnosis but ultimately recovered to 20 / 60. Three cases had inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber (mean, 2.25+; range, 0 to 4+), and all cases had vitritis (mean, 3+; range, 2+ to 4+). No patients had pain. Only one patient underwent anterior chamber sampling (culture negative) and injection of antibiotics. Three of four patients were treated with a topical steroid, and all experienced improvement in their symptoms and signs of inflammation. Conclusions The overall incidence of sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection in a Korean population was 4 of 723 injections (0.55%), or 4 of 233 patients (1.79%). Sterile inflammation after intravitreal aflibercept injection typically presents without pain, and the visual outcomes are generally favorable. PMID:26457038

  13. Urologic Diseases in Korean Military Population: a 6-year Epidemiological Review of Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We sought to describe the incidence rate of the urologic disease in the Korean military by reviewing diagnoses made in active duty soldiers from 2008 to 2013. A total of 72,248 first visits were generated in the Defense Medical Statistics Information System (DMSIS) with its gradually increasing trend over 6 years. A sharp increase of first visit was observed after implementation of the regular health check-up for all conscripted soldiers since 2013. Urolithiasis, prostatitis, epididymoorchitis, urethritis, and varicocele were prevalent. Prostatitis was the highest diagnosis made in the outpatient service, while varicocele was ranked the highest in the inpatient service. The incidence rates of urologic disease varied from 12.3 to 34.2 cases per 1,000 person-years. The urologic disease in conscripted men showed different distribution when we separated the population into conscripted and professional soldiers. Epididymoorchitis was the highest disease followed by urolithiasis, dysuresia, and balanoposthitis in 2013. This study underscores that the urologic disease has spent significant amount of health care resources in the Korean military. This calls for further study to find any significant difference and contributing factors of the urologic disease in the military and the civilian population. PMID:27914143

  14. Urologic Diseases in Korean Military Population: a 6-year Epidemiological Review of Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Young; Yoon, Chang Gyo

    2017-01-01

    We sought to describe the incidence rate of the urologic disease in the Korean military by reviewing diagnoses made in active duty soldiers from 2008 to 2013. A total of 72,248 first visits were generated in the Defense Medical Statistics Information System (DMSIS) with its gradually increasing trend over 6 years. A sharp increase of first visit was observed after implementation of the regular health check-up for all conscripted soldiers since 2013. Urolithiasis, prostatitis, epididymoorchitis, urethritis, and varicocele were prevalent. Prostatitis was the highest diagnosis made in the outpatient service, while varicocele was ranked the highest in the inpatient service. The incidence rates of urologic disease varied from 12.3 to 34.2 cases per 1,000 person-years. The urologic disease in conscripted men showed different distribution when we separated the population into conscripted and professional soldiers. Epididymoorchitis was the highest disease followed by urolithiasis, dysuresia, and balanoposthitis in 2013. This study underscores that the urologic disease has spent significant amount of health care resources in the Korean military. This calls for further study to find any significant difference and contributing factors of the urologic disease in the military and the civilian population.

  15. Associations of Moyamoya patients with HLA class I and class II alleles in the Korean population.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hoon; Pyo, Chul-Woo; Yoo, Do-Sung; Huh, Pil-Woo; Cho, Kyung-Souk; Kim, Dal-Soo

    2003-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is characterized by progressive cerebrovascular occlusion at the peripheral internal carotid artery and development of abnormal collateral circulation at the cerebral basal region. Although abnormal thrombogenesis, inflammation and autoimmune process might be involved in the etiology, the genetic pathogenesis of Moyamoya disease is still unknown. To evaluate the association of Moyamoya disease with HLA alleles in the Korean population, we investigated HLA class I and class II alleles in 28 Moyamoya patients and 198 unrelated healthy controls. The frequency of HLA-B35 allele was significantly increased in the patients compared to the controls (32.1% vs. 10.1%, RR=4.2, p<0.008). Further analysis of HLA-B35 on onset age and sex showed that this allele was significantly increased compared to the controls in both late-onset and female group. Especially, HLA-B35 was the most significantly increased in female of late-onset group compared to the controls. These results suggest that HLA-B35 may be an useful genetic marker for Moyamoya disease, and particularly in females of late onset group in the Korean population. PMID:14676447

  16. Association between Total Sleep Duration and Suicidal Ideation among the Korean General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jong-Yeon; Choi, Won-Jung; Chang, Hoo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine the association between sleep duration and suicidal ideation in Korean adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Data obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, and probability-cluster survey of civilian non-institutionalized Korean residents. Participants: A total of 15,236 subjects (6,638 males and 8,598 females) ≥ 19 years old. Measurements and Results: The weighted prevalence of self-reported short sleep duration (≤ 5 h/day) was 11.7% in males and 15% in females, and of long sleep duration (≥ 9 h/day) was 6.7% in males and 8.9% in females. A U-shaped relationship existed, with both short and long sleep durations associated with a higher suicidal ideation risk. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between sleep duration and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health status. After controlling for covariates, people with short sleep were 38.1% more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR = 1.381, 95% CI 1.156-1.650) than people with sleep duration of 7 h/day. Suicidal ideation was 1.196 times higher (95% CI: 0.950-1.507) in long-sleeping people than people sleeping 7 h/day, although statistically not significant. Inclusion of depressive mood (a potential confounder) in multiple logistic regression models attenuated but did not eliminate the sleep duration/suicidal ideation association. Limitations: Sleep duration and suicidal ideation were assessed only by self-report. Conclusions: The sleep duration/suicidal ideation relationship is U-shaped in the Korean adult population. Self-reported habitual sleep duration may be a useful behavioral indicator for both individual and societal suicidal ideation risk. Citation: Kim JH; Park EC; Cho WH; Park JY; Choi WJ; Chang HS. Association between total sleep duration and suicidal ideation

  17. Social Network Characteristics and Body Mass Index in an Elderly Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won Joon; Rhee, Yumie; Park, Yeong-Ran; Chu, Sang Hui; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Research has shown that obesity appears to spread through social ties. However, the association between other characteristics of social networks and obesity is unclear. This study aimed to identify the association between social network characteristics and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) in an elderly Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 657 Koreans (273 men, 384 women) aged 60 years or older who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Network size is a count of the number of friends. Density of communication network is the number of connections in the social network reported as a fraction of the total links possible in the personal (ego-centric) network. Average frequency of communication (or meeting) measures how often network members communicate (or meet) each other. The association of each social network measure with BMI was investigated by multiple linear regression analysis. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, the men with lower density (<0.71) and higher network size (4-6) had the higher BMI (β=1.089, p=0.037) compared to the men with higher density (>0.83) and lower size (1-2), but not in the women (p=0.393). The lowest tertile of communication frequency was associated with higher BMI in the women (β=0.885, p=0.049), but not in the men (p=0.140). Conclusions Our study suggests that social network structure (network size and density) and activation (communication frequency and meeting frequency) are associated with obesity among the elderly. There may also be gender differences in this association. PMID:24349655

  18. Social network characteristics and body mass index in an elderly Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Joon; Youm, Yoosik; Rhee, Yumie; Park, Yeong-Ran; Chu, Sang Hui; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown that obesity appears to spread through social ties. However, the association between other characteristics of social networks and obesity is unclear. This study aimed to identify the association between social network characteristics and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) in an elderly Korean population. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 657 Koreans (273 men, 384 women) aged 60 years or older who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Network size is a count of the number of friends. Density of communication network is the number of connections in the social network reported as a fraction of the total links possible in the personal (ego-centric) network. Average frequency of communication (or meeting) measures how often network members communicate (or meet) each other. The association of each social network measure with BMI was investigated by multiple linear regression analysis. After adjusting for potential confounders, the men with lower density (<0.71) and higher network size (4-6) had the higher BMI (β=1.089, p=0.037) compared to the men with higher density (>0.83) and lower size (1-2), but not in the women (p=0.393). The lowest tertile of communication frequency was associated with higher BMI in the women (β=0.885, p=0.049), but not in the men (p=0.140). Our study suggests that social network structure (network size and density) and activation (communication frequency and meeting frequency) are associated with obesity among the elderly. There may also be gender differences in this association.

  19. REM sleep behavior disorder in the Korean elderly population: prevalence and clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kang, Suk-Hoon; Yoon, In-Young; Lee, Sang Don; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Tae Hui; Kim, Ki Woong

    2013-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and subclinical RBD in the Korean elderly population. A community-based Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia and time-synchronized video-polysomnography (vPSG) in a laboratory. Sleep laboratory in a university hospital. 348 individuals aged 60 years or older. N/A. Among 696 subjects who were invited to participate in a vPSG study, 348 completed the vPSG. RBD was diagnosed when subjects showed REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) in the vPSG, and had history of complex and vigorous behaviors during sleep or abnormal REM sleep behaviors in the vPSG. Subjects with RSWA but no abnormal REM sleep behaviors were diagnosed with subclinical RBD. Seven subjects (5 male, 2 female) had RBD, three of whom (1 male, 2 female) had Parkinson disease. Two subjects reported history of sleep-related injury. The crude prevalence of RBD and idiopathic RBD was 2.01% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54% to 3.49%) and 1.15% (95% CI = 0.03% to 2.27%). An age and sex-adjusted prevalence estimate of RBD and idiopathic RBD in the Korean elderly was 2.01% and 1.34%. Eighteen subjects were diagnosed with subclinical RBD, and the prevalence of subclinical RBD was estimated to be 4.95%. RBD and subclinical RBD are not rare in the elderly in the community with abnormal REM sleep behaviors of RBD being mild to injurious and violent. The clinical significance and long-term progression of subclinical RBD needs to be further explored, given the prevalence and its possible relation to RBD.

  20. Myopia is Inversely Associated With the Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in the South Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Chao, Daniel L; Lin, Shuai-Chun; Chen, Rebecca; Lin, Shan C

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of irreversible vision loss. Recent studies have suggested that myopia may be negatively correlated with the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. We sought to further investigate the association between refractive error and the likelihood of having diabetic retinopathy in a cross-sectional, population-based study of the South Korean population. Cross-sectional study. Data were included from right eyes of 13 424 participants who were 40 years and older with gradable fundus photographs of the Fourth and the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetic retinopathy was graded using standard fundus photographs. Autorefraction data were collected to calculate spherical equivalent of refraction in diopters (D) and further classified into 4 groups: hyperopia (≥1.0 D), emmetropia (-0.99 D to 0.99 D), mild myopia (-1.0 D to -2.99 D), and moderate to high myopia (≤-3.0 D). Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. A multivariate model was used to evaluate the association between the diagnosis of any diabetic retinopathy and the refractive status. Mild myopia and moderate to high myopia groups were negatively associated with development of any diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio [OR] 0.42; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.97 and OR 0.14; 95% CI 0.02-0.88, respectively). In addition, for every 1 D increase in spherical equivalent, there was a 30% increase of having diabetic retinopathy (OR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.08-1.58). Our results from a population-based study suggest that myopic status is associated with lower odds of having diabetic retinopathy in the South Korean population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent trends in hepatitis B virus infection in the general Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuck; Shin, A Ri; Chung, Hoe Hoon; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Shim, Jae-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the major cause of chronic liver disease in Korea, but viral prevalence has decreased because of hepatitis B vaccination programs. In this study, we investigated longitudinal changes in HBV in fection in the general Korean population. Methods HBV surface antigen (hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg) seropositivity was assessed from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (I to V). In total, 50,140 subjects were tested for serum HBsAg positivity over a period of 12 years (1998 to 2010). Results The prevalence of HBsAg seropositivity decreased over the study period. The rates of HBsAg carriers were 4.61% in 1998, 4.60% in 2001, 3.69% in 2005, 3.01% in 2008, and 2.98% in 2010 (p < 0.0001). The reduction in HBV infection rates was more prominent in younger age groups. Among teenagers (10 to 19 years), the percentage of HBsAg carriers decreased from 2.2% in 1998 to 0.12% in 2010 (p < 0.0001). Among those aged 10 to 39 years, the percentage of HBV infection decreased from 4.72% in 1998 to 2.29% in 2010 (p < 0.0001). However, no decreasing trend in HBsAg positivity was observed among those aged 50 or older (p > 0.05). Neither gender nor socioeconomic status were associated with the decreased prevalence of HBsAg carriers. Conclusions HBV infection has decreased in the Korean population since the advent of vaccination programs. However, the decrease is limited to the younger population, and viral persistence remains in the middle-aged and older population. PMID:23864799

  2. Epigenetic variation between urban and rural populations of Darwin's finches.

    PubMed

    McNew, Sabrina M; Beck, Daniel; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Knutie, Sarah A; Koop, Jennifer A H; Clayton, Dale H; Skinner, Michael K

    2017-08-24

    The molecular basis of evolutionary change is assumed to be genetic variation. However, growing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, may also be involved in rapid adaptation to new environments. An important first step in evaluating this hypothesis is to test for the presence of epigenetic variation between natural populations living under different environmental conditions. In the current study we explored variation between populations of Darwin's finches, which comprise one of the best-studied examples of adaptive radiation. We tested for morphological, genetic, and epigenetic differences between adjacent "urban" and "rural" populations of each of two species of ground finches, Geospiza fortis and G. fuliginosa, on Santa Cruz Island in the Galápagos. Using data collected from more than 1000 birds, we found significant morphological differences between populations of G. fortis, but not G. fuliginosa. We did not find large size copy number variation (CNV) genetic differences between populations of either species. However, other genetic variants were not investigated. In contrast, we did find dramatic epigenetic differences between the urban and rural populations of both species, based on DNA methylation analysis. We explored genomic features and gene associations of the differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR), as well as their possible functional significance. In summary, our study documents local population epigenetic variation within each of two species of Darwin's finches.

  3. Probabilistic dietary exposure to ethyl carbamate from fermented foods and alcoholic beverages in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Ryu, D; Kim, C-I; Lee, J-Y; Choi, A; Koh, E

    2017-09-04

    The occurrence of ethyl carbamate was investigated in fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the Korean total diet study. The concentrations of ethyl carbamate ranged from not detected to 166.5 μg kg(-1). Dietary exposure to ethyl carbamate was estimated by the probabilistic method. Estimated intakes of ethyl carbamate from foods and alcoholic beverages were 4.12 ng kg(-1) body weight (bw) per day for average consumers and 12.37 ng kg(-1) bw/day for 95th percentile high consumers. The major foods contributing to ethyl carbamate exposure were soy sauce (63%), followed by maesilju (plum liqueur, 30%), whisky (5%), and bokbunjaju (black raspberry wine, 2%). On the basis of the benchmark dose lower confidence limit 10% (BMDL10) of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw/day, margins of exposure were 128,000 for mean exposure and 40,000 for 95th percentile exposure. This indicates that the exposure of the Korean general population for ethyl carbamate is of low concern. However, careful vigilance should be continued for high consumers of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages.

  4. Association study between OCTN1 functional haplotypes and Crohn's disease in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eun Suk; Park, Hyo Jin; Kong, Kyoung Ae

    2017-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with multifactorial causes including environmental and genetic factors. Several studies have demonstrated that the organic cation/carnitine transporter 1 (OCTN1) non-synonymous variant L503F is associated with susceptibility to CD. However, it was reported that L503F is absent in Asian populations. Previously, we identified and functionally characterized genetic variants of the OCTN1 promoter region in Koreans. In that study, four variants demonstrated significant changes in promoter activity. In the present study, we determined whether four functional variants of the OCTN1 promoter play a role in the susceptibility to or clinical course of CD in Koreans. To examine it, the frequencies of the four variants of the OCTN1 promoter were determined by genotyping using DNA samples from 194 patients with CD and 287 healthy controls. Then, associations between genetic variants and the susceptibility to CD or clinical course of CD were evaluated. We found that susceptibility to CD was not associated with OCTN1 functional promoter variants or haplotypes showing altered promoter activities in in vitro assays. However, OCTN1 functional promoter haplotypes showing decreased promoter activities were significantly associated with a penetrating behavior in CD patients (HR=2.428, p=0.009). Our results suggest that the OCTN1 functional promoter haplotypes can influence the CD phenotype, although these might not be associated with susceptibility to this disease. PMID:28066136

  5. Waist circumference cutoff points for central obesity in the Korean elderly population.

    PubMed

    So, Eun Sun; Yoo, Kwang Soo

    2015-02-01

    The aim is to determine the appropriate cutoff values of waist circumference (WC) for an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome in the Korean elderly population. We analyzed the WC cutoff values of four groups divided according to sex and age with a total of 2,224 elderly participants aged 65 years old and above from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using the receiver operating characteristic curve and multiple logistic regression. The WC cutoff values associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome were 89.6 cm for men and 90.5 cm for women for those who were 65 to 74 years old, and 89.9 cm for men and 87.9 cm for women for those who were 75 years old or older. WC cutoff points for estimating metabolic risk are similar in elderly men and women. Age-specific optimal WC cutoff points should be considered especially for elderly women in screening for metabolic syndrome.

  6. Population and forensic genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA control region variation from six major provinces in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2015-07-01

    We generated complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences from 704 unrelated individuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. In addition to our earlier survey of the distribution of mtDNA haplogroup variation, a total of 560 different haplotypes characterized by 271 polymorphic sites were identified, of which 473 haplotypes were unique. The gene diversity and random match probability were 0.9989 and 0.0025, respectively. According to the pairwise comparison of the 704 control region sequences, the mean number of pairwise differences between individuals was 13.47±6.06. Based on the result of mtDNA control region sequences, pairwise FST genetic distances revealed genetic homogeneity of the Korean provinces on a peninsular level, except in samples from Jeju Island. This result indicates there may be a need to formulate a local mtDNA database for Jeju Island, to avoid bias in forensic parameter estimates caused by genetic heterogeneity of the population. Thus, the present data may help not only in personal identification but also in determining maternal lineages to provide an expanded and reliable Korean mtDNA database. These data will be available on the EMPOP database via accession number EMP00661.

  7. Anemia and activities of daily living in the Korean urban elderly population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Lim, Soo; Kim, Jee Hyun; Park, Young Joo; Chin, Ho Jun; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak-Chul; Lee, Jong Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of anemia and its impact on health-related quality of life and activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly Koreans. Of the 1,118 randomly sampled elderly Koreans aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea, on Aug. 1, 2005, we estimated the prevalence of anemia from 695 responders. We investigated the risk factors of anemia using a merged sample of this random sample and 270 volunteers enrolled from Seongnam residents aged 85 years or older. We diagnosed anemia according to the World Health Organization criteria. The estimated age- and gender-standardized prevalence of anemia was 8.33 % for the overall random sample (95 % confidence intervals (CI) 6.28-10.39), 10.58 % in men (95 % CI 7.09-14.07), and 6.85 % in women (95 % CI 4.37-9.34). The identified risk factors were age ≥80 years, male, iron deficiency, history of stroke, renal dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Anemia was associated with impairment in physical functioning (p = 0.031) and instrumental ADL (p < 0.001). This is the first report about anemia's prevalence in community-dwelling Korean elders, adjusted and standardized according to the city's and nation's population. Timely diagnosis of anemia and correction of its treatable cause may improve QOL and ADL in elderly individuals.

  8. Novel GALT variations and mutation spectrum in the Korean population with decreased galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Classic galactosemia (OMIM #230400) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT, EC2.7.7.12) protein due to mutations in the GALT gene. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive and updated mutation spectrum of GALT in a Korean population. Methods Thirteen unrelated patients screened positive for galactosemia in a newborn screening program were included in this study. They showed a reduced GALT enzyme activity in red blood cells. Direct sequencing of the GALT gene and in silico analyses were done to evaluate the impact of novel variations upon GALT enzyme activity. We also reviewed previous reports for GALT mutations in Koreans. Results We identified six novel likely pathogenic variations including three missense (p.Ala101Asp, p.Tyr165His, and p.Pro257Thr), one small deletion/insertion [c.826_827delinsAA (p.Ala276Asn)], one frameshift (p.Asn96Serfs*5), and one splicing (c.378-1G > C) likely pathogenic variations. The most frequent variation was the Duarte variant (c.940A > G, 35.3%), followed by c.507G > C (p.Gln169His, 9.6%), among 34 Korean patients. Other mutations were widely scattered. None of the eight common mutations used for targeted mutation analysis in Western countries including p.Gln188Arg, p.Ser135Leu, p.Lys285Asn, p.Leu195Pro, p.Tyr209Cys, p.Phe171Ser, c.253-2A > G, and a 5 kb deletion, had been found in Koreans until this study. Conclusions Considering the mutation spectrum in Koreans, direct sequence analysis of entire GALT exons is recommended for accurate diagnosis. The mutations responsible for GALT deficiency in the Korean population were clearly different from those of other populations. PMID:25124065

  9. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Sophia Y; Pasquale, Louis R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67-21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95% CI: 0.23-3.97). A U-shaped association between exercise intensity and

  10. Association of peptic ulcer disease with obesity, nutritional components, and blood parameters in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Kim, Keun Ho; Lee, Bum Ju

    2017-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common disorder, but whether an association exists between PUD and anthropometric indicators remains controversial. Furthermore, no studies on the association of PUD with anthropometric indices, blood parameters, and nutritional components have been reported. The aim of this study was to assess associations of anthropometrics, blood parameters, nutritional components, and lifestyle factors with PUD in the Korean population. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of the South Korean population using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine associations of anthropometrics, blood parameters and nutritional components among patients with PUD. Age was the factor most strongly associated with PUD in women (p = <0.0001, odds ratio (OR) = 0.770 [0.683-0.869]) and men (p = <0.0001, OR = 0.715 [0.616-0.831]). In both crude and adjusted analyses, PUD was highly associated with weight (adjusted p = 0.0008, adjusted OR = 1.251 [95%CI: 1.098-1.426]), hip circumference (adjusted p = 0.005, adjusted OR = 1.198 [1.056-1.360]), and body mass index (adjusted p = 0.0001, adjusted OR = 1.303 [1.139-1.490]) in women and hip circumference (adjusted p = 0.0199, adjusted OR = 1.217 [1.031-1.435]) in men. PUD was significantly associated with intake of fiber (adjusted p = 0.0386, adjusted OR = 1.157 [1.008-1.328], vitamin B2 (adjusted p = 0.0477, adjusted OR = 1.155 [1.001-1.333]), sodium (adjusted p = 0.0154, adjusted OR = 1.191 [1.034-1.372]), calcium (adjusted p = 0.0079, adjusted OR = 1.243 [1.059-1.459]), and ash (adjusted p = 0.0468, adjusted OR = 1.152 [1.002-1.325] in women but not in men. None of the assessed blood parameters were associated with PUD in women, and only triglyceride level was associated with PUD in men (adjusted p = 0.0169, adjusted OR = 1.227 [1.037-1.451]). We found that obesity was associated with PUD in the Korean population; additionally, the

  11. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Sophia Y.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study. Participants A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. Main outcome measure(s) Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Results Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16–9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03–2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67–21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95

  12. Prevalence of antinuclear antibodies in a rural population.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, A M; Semchuk, K M; McDuffie, H H; Ledingham, D L; Cordeiro, D M; Cessna, A J; Irvine, D G; Senthilselvan, A; Dosman, J A

    1999-06-25

    Exposure to environmentally and occupationally encountered toxicants can be associated with the development of certain autoimmune diseases and with the induction of antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Some chemicals used in the agricultural industry are known to affect immune function but their roles in the induction of autoimmunity in general, and ANA in particular, have not been reported previously. This study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of ANA in a rural population and to determine environmental and occupational exposures with which they are associated. This cross-sectional study represented one component of an interdisciplinary project (Prairie Ecosystem Study [PECOS], Eco-Research Program, Tri-Council Secretariat of Canada) designed to explore, in a rural population, the roles of environmental exposures as determinants of human health status. Information regarding lifetime, current, and main occupational exposures in the rural-dwelling study population was derived from a self-administered questionnaire. Sera from consenting subjects, collected during the months of February and March 1996, were assayed for ANA by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells. The study population comprised 322 adult subjects (mean age 49.3+/-14.7 yr; range 16-87 yr). Statistical analyses adjusted for age and sex revealed that the presence of ANA among the participants was associated with a current agricultural occupation that included oilseed production, hog production, or poultry production. There was a significant association between ANA positivity and a current main farming operation of crop production. There was also an association among individual participants between lifetime exposure to the insecticide class of pesticides and the presence of ANA. In this rural study population, ANA positivity was significantly associated with lifetime exposure specifically to carbamate, organochlorine (including aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, and lindane, but

  13. Population genetic structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the Korean coast: Current status and conservation implications for future management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Jang, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Min Ji; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses provide numerous ecosystem services for coastal and estuarine environments, such as nursery functions, erosion protection, pollution filtration, and carbon sequestration. Zostera marina (common name "eelgrass") is one of the seagrass bed-forming species distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, including the Korean Peninsula. Recently, however, there has been a drastic decline in the population size of Z. marina worldwide, including Korea. We examined the current population genetic status of this species on the southern coast of Korea by estimating the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of 10 geographic populations using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. The level of genetic diversity was found to be significantly lower for populations on Jeju Island [mean allelic richness (AR) = 1.92, clonal diversity (R) = 0.51], which is located approximately 155 km off the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula, than for those in the South Sea (mean AR = 2.69, R = 0.82), which is on the southern coast of the mainland. South Korean eelgrass populations were substantially genetically divergent from one another (FST = 0.061-0.573), suggesting that limited contemporary gene flow has been taking place among populations. We also found weak but detectable temporal variation in genetic structure within a site over 10 years. In additional depth comparisons, statistically significant genetic differentiation was observed between shallow (or middle) and deep zones in two of three sites tested. Depleted genetic diversity, small effective population sizes (Ne) and limited connectivity for populations on Jeju Island indicate that these populations may be vulnerable to local extinction under changing environmental conditions, especially given that Jeju Island is one of the fastest warming regions around the world. Overall, our work will inform conservation and restoration efforts, including transplantation for eelgrass populations at the southern tip of

  14. Population genetic structure of eelgrass (Zostera marina) on the Korean coast: Current status and conservation implications for future management

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Jang, Ji Eun; Choi, Sun Kyeong; Kim, Min Ji; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je

    2017-01-01

    Seagrasses provide numerous ecosystem services for coastal and estuarine environments, such as nursery functions, erosion protection, pollution filtration, and carbon sequestration. Zostera marina (common name “eelgrass”) is one of the seagrass bed-forming species distributed widely in the northern hemisphere, including the Korean Peninsula. Recently, however, there has been a drastic decline in the population size of Z. marina worldwide, including Korea. We examined the current population genetic status of this species on the southern coast of Korea by estimating the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of 10 geographic populations using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. The level of genetic diversity was found to be significantly lower for populations on Jeju Island [mean allelic richness (AR) = 1.92, clonal diversity (R) = 0.51], which is located approximately 155 km off the southernmost region of the Korean Peninsula, than for those in the South Sea (mean AR = 2.69, R = 0.82), which is on the southern coast of the mainland. South Korean eelgrass populations were substantially genetically divergent from one another (FST = 0.061–0.573), suggesting that limited contemporary gene flow has been taking place among populations. We also found weak but detectable temporal variation in genetic structure within a site over 10 years. In additional depth comparisons, statistically significant genetic differentiation was observed between shallow (or middle) and deep zones in two of three sites tested. Depleted genetic diversity, small effective population sizes (Ne) and limited connectivity for populations on Jeju Island indicate that these populations may be vulnerable to local extinction under changing environmental conditions, especially given that Jeju Island is one of the fastest warming regions around the world. Overall, our work will inform conservation and restoration efforts, including transplantation for eelgrass populations at the southern

  15. [Comparison of the systemic vascular resistance and the correlative factors in Han and Korean populations of China.].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang-Xing; Qi, Bao-Shen; Zhou, Xiao-Mei; Han, Shao-Mei; Zhu, Guang-Jin

    2009-12-25

    In the present study, the differences in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and the correlated risk factors between Han and Korean residents were investigated. 1 647 Hans and 876 Koreans from Mudanjiang and Hailin areas of Heilongjiang Province were examined with BIOZ Cardio Dynamics Monitor. A series of factors were determined, including SVR, systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), cardiac output index (CI) and heart rate (HR). The data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 statistic software. When SVR/SVRI were compared between Han and Korean populations by t-test, it was shown that statistic difference existed in the following age and gender groups: (1) For SVR: male 41-50, 51-60, and 61-70 (P<0.001), 31-40 (P<0.01), 19-30 (P<0.05) age groups; female 15-18, 31-40, 51-60 (P<0.001), 41-50 (P<0.01), and 61-70 (P<0.05) age groups; (2) For SVRI, male 41-50, 51-60 (P<0.05) age groups; female 10-14, 51-60 (P<0.001), 15-18, 31-40 (P<0.01), and 41-50 (P<0.05) age groups. Covariance analysis suggests that, excluding the contributions of gender, age and body mass index (BMI), the differences in SVR/SVRI between the two populations are still significant (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that SVR difference between Han and Korean populations is attributed to MAP, DBP, CI, SBP, HR; While SVRI difference between two populations is attributed to MAP, DBP, SBP, CI, HR, strongly to weakly, respectively. These results suggest the higher SVR and SVRI are possibly correlated with the relatively higher blood pressure of Korean, compared with that of Han population.

  16. Normal Echocardiographic Measurements in a Korean Population Study: Part II. Doppler and Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Oh; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Seong-Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Lee, Mi-Rae; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Shin, Gil Ja; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Sang Yeub; Kim, Woo-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemodynamic and functional evaluation with Doppler and tissue Doppler study as a part of comprehensive echocardiography is essential but normal reference values have never been reported from Korean normal population especially according to age and sex. Methods Using Normal echOcaRdiographic Measurements in a KoreAn popuLation study subjects, we obtained normal reference values for Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiography including tricuspid annular velocities according to current guidelines and compared values according to gender and age groups. Results Mitral early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) velocity as well as E/A ratio were significantly higher in women compared to those in men. Conversely, mitral peak systolic and late diastolic annular velocity in both septal and lateral mitral annulus were significantly lower in women compared to those in men. However, there were no significant differences in both septal and lateral mitral early diastolic annular (e') velocity between men and women. In both men and women, mitral E velocity and its deceleration time as well as both E/A and E/e' ratio considerably increased with age. There were no significant differences in tricuspid inflow velocities and tricuspid lateral annular velocities between men and women except e' velocity, which was significantly higher in women compared to that in men. However, changes in both tricuspid inflow and lateral annular velocities according to age were similar to those in mitral velocities. Conclusion Since there were significant differences in Doppler and tissue Doppler echocardiographic variables between men and women and changes according to age were even more considerable in both gender groups, normal Doppler echocardiographic values should be differentially applied based on age and sex. PMID:27358707

  17. Risk prediction of pulmonary tuberculosis using genetic and conventional risk factors in adult Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eun Pyo; Go, Min Jin; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2017-01-01

    A complex interplay among host, pathogen, and environmental factors is believed to contribute to the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The lack of replication of published genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings limits the clinical utility of reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a GWAS using 467 PTB cases and 1,313 healthy controls obtained from two community-based cohorts in Korea. We evaluated the performance of PTB risk models based on different combinations of genetic and nongenetic factors and validated the results in an independent Korean population comprised of 179 PTB cases and 500 healthy controls. We demonstrated the polygenic nature of PTB and nongenetic factors such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were strongly associated with PTB risk. None of the SNPs achieved genome-wide significance; instead, we were able to replicate the associations between PTB and ten SNPs near or in the genes, CDCA7, GBE1, GADL1, SPATA16, C6orf118, KIAA1432, DMRT2, CTR9, CCDC67, and CDH13, which may play roles in the immune and inflammatory pathways. Among the replicated SNPs, an intergenic SNP, rs9365798, located downstream of the C6orf118 gene showed the most significant association under the dominant model (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.32–1.92, P = 2.1×10−6). The performance of a risk model combining the effects of ten replicated SNPs and six nongenetic factors (i.e., age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure, and hemoglobin) were validated in the replication set (AUC = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76–0.84). The strategy of combining genetic and nongenetic risk factors ultimately resulted in better risk prediction for PTB in the adult Korean population. PMID:28355295

  18. Determining the optimal surveillance interval after a colonoscopic polypectomy for the Korean population?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Lok; Lee, Hye Min; Jeon, Jung Won; Kwak, Min Seob; Yoon, Jin Young; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il; Park, Dong Il

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Western surveillance strategies cannot be directly adapted to the Korean population. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of metachronous neoplasia and the optimal surveillance interval in the Korean population. Methods Clinical and pathological data from index colonoscopy performed between June 2006 and July 2008 and who had surveillance colonoscopies up to May 2015 were compared between low- and high-risk adenoma (LRA and HRA) groups. The 3- and 5-year cumulative risk of metachronous colorectal neoplasia in both groups were compared. Results Among 895 eligible patients, surveillance colonoscopy was performed in 399 (44.6%). Most (83.3%) patients with LRA had a surveillance colonoscopy within 5 years and 70.2% of patients with HRA had a surveillance colonoscopy within 3 years. The cumulative risk of metachronous advanced adenoma was 3.2% within 5 years in the LRA group and only 1.7% within 3 years in the HRA group. The risk of metachronous neoplasia was similar between the surveillance interval of <5 and ≥5 years in the LRA group; however, it was slightly higher at surveillance interval of ≥3 than <3 years in the HRA group (9.4% vs. 2.4%). In multivariate analysis, age and the ≥3-year surveillance interval were significant independent risk factors for metachronous advanced adenoma (P=0.024 and P=0.030, respectively). Conclusions Patients had a surveillance colonoscopy before the recommended guidelines despite a low risk of metachronous neoplasia. However, the risk of metachronous advanced adenoma was increased in elderly patients and those with a ≥3-year surveillance interval. PMID:28239321

  19. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer.

  20. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  1. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  2. Founder haplotype analysis of Fanconi anemia in the Korean population finds common ancestral haplotypes for a FANCG variant.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Kim, Myungshin; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Kim, Yonggoo; Chung, Nack-Gyun; Lee, Jae-Wook; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae-Chul; Park, In Yang; Park, Mi Sun

    2015-05-01

    A common ancestral haplotype is strongly suggested in the Korean and Japanese patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), because common mutations have been frequently found: c.2546delC and c.3720_3724delAAACA of FANCA; c.307+1G>C, c.1066C>T, and c.1589_1591delATA of FANCG. Our aim in this study was to investigate the origin of these common mutations of FANCA and FANCG. We genotyped 13 FA patients consisting of five FA-A patients and eight FA-G patients from the Korean FA population. Microsatellite markers used for haplotype analysis included four CA repeat markers which are closely linked with FANCA and eight CA repeat markers which are contiguous with FANCG. As a result, Korean FA-A patients carrying c.2546delC or c.3720_3724delAAACA did not share the same haplotypes. However, three unique haplotypes carrying c.307+1G>C, c.1066C > T, or c.1589_1591delATA, that consisted of eight polymorphic loci covering a flanking region were strongly associated with Korean FA-G, consistent with founder haplotypes reported previously in the Japanese FA-G population. Our finding confirmed the common ancestral haplotypes on the origins of the East Asian FA-G patients, which will improve our understanding of the molecular population genetics of FA-G. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association between disease-linked mutations and common ancestral haplotypes in the Korean FA population.

  3. Estimated 24-hour urine sodium excretion is correlated with blood pressure in Korean population: 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jieun; Lee, Jeonghwan; Koo, Ho Seok; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    No large-scale studies have investigated the association between salt intake and hypertension in Korean population. To investigate the relationship of blood pressure to salt consumption, we analyzed data from 19,476 participants in the 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES). Urinary sodium excretion over 24-hr (24HUNa) was estimated from spot urine tests using Tanaka's equation. The study subjects were stratified into hypertensive and normotensive groups. Hypertensive participants (n=6,552, 33.6%) had higher estimated 24HUNa, 150.4±38.8 mEq/day, than normotensive participants, 140.5±34.6 mEq/day (P<0.001). The association between 24HUNa and blood pressure outcomes was not affected by adjustment for other risk factors for hypertension (odds ratio 0.001; 95% confidence interval 0.001-0.003; P<0.001). Increases in 24HUNa of 100 mEq/day were associated with a 6.1±0.3/2.9±0.2 mmHg increase in systolic/diastolic blood pressure in all participants. This effect was stronger in hypertensive participants (increase of 8.1±0.5/3.4±0.3 mmHg per 100 mEq/day) and smaller in normotensive participants (2.9±0.3/1.3±0.2 mmHg). These results support recommendations for low salt intake in Korean population to prevent and control adverse blood pressure levels.

  4. The single nucleotide polymorphism T1128C in the signal peptide of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was not identified in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ding, B; Bertilsson, L; Wahlestedt, C

    2002-06-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T1128C, which causes an amino acid change from leucine(7) to proline(7) in the signal peptide of neuropeptide Y (NPY), has been found to be associated with multiple clinical parameters or disease. However, this SNP was not identified in the Japanese population. We asked if this is also true in the Korean population. Genotyping was conducted by pyrosequencing, a newly developed real-time high-throughput SNP scoring technique. All 242 Korean subjects showed T1128/T1128 genotype. The T1128C SNP does not appear to exist in this Korean population.

  5. China's rural population statistics at the local level.

    PubMed

    Lavely, W R

    1982-01-01

    Written for those who use Chinese population data and want a better understanding of their provenance and reliability and those who may directly utilize local level materials in studies of Chinese population and social structure, this report describes the statistical system of 1 rural county, Shifang Xian in the Chengdu Plain of Sichuan Province. It is based on interviews with local government officials, on examinations of population records and reports at different levels of administration, and on a sample survey of households conducted in the winter and spring of 1981. Until the mid 1970s, the primary source of China's rural population data was the household and vital events registers established in the 1950s. Following the formation of the Birth Planning Office in 1971, a separate reporting system of population statistics began to develop alongside the household registration system. The birth planning system uses the reports of team, brigade, and commune level cadres concerned with health work and women's affairs to provide a richer and more current set of vital events and birth planning data than the household registration system could provide. Discrepancies in data emerging from the 3 sources are bound to occur because of error and because of the different methods used in the compilation of data. Currently, there are 2 basic sources for population data in Shifang Xian: the monthly reports of the brigade level birth planning workers and the year end reports of the team accountants. The household and vital events registers, once central to population statistics, retain their legal role but have diminished importance for statistical purposes. There continues to be important questions about the operation of the statistical system. With increasing reliance on the newly developed birth planning statistical system for information on vital rates, Shifang has apparently moved from statistics based on date of registration derived from a de jure system of vital events

  6. Barriers, Attitudes, and Dietary Behaviors Regarding Sodium Reduction in the Elderly Korean-Chinese Population in Yanbian, China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jounghee; Cui, Wenying; Jin, Meixiang

    2017-06-01

    This research investigated the barriers, attitudes, and dietary behaviors related to sodium reduction among the elderly Korean-Chinese population in Yanbian, China. We conducted this pilot study using both descriptive research and a focus group interview at the elderly community center in Yanbian. In total, 21 elderly Korean-Chinese (average age, 71 years) were examined. The findings showed that the top three barriers to sodium reduction were 1) the difficulties associated with having meals with others, 2) a preference for liquid based-dishes, and 3) the lack of taste in low-sodium dishes. Although the participants strongly believed that a reduced-sodium diet would improve their health, they were poorly aware of the amount of sodium in various foods and dishes. In particular, the focus group interviews with eight participants (mean age, 67 years) revealed that salt-preserved foods (e.g., Korean pickled cabbage called 'kimchi' and soybean paste) were frequently consumed as part of their food culture, and that very salty dishes were served at restaurants, both of which lead to a high sodium intake. This study provides useful preliminary data to help design a nutrition intervention program for sodium reduction that targets the elderly Korean-Chinese population in China.

  7. Evaluation of Serum Cotinine Cut-Off to Distinguish Smokers From Nonsmokers in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kiwoong; Yang, Song-Hyun; Moon, Chul-Jin; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Cotinine has been widely used as an objective marker to identify current smokers. We conducted this study to address the absence of Korean studies investigating the efficacy of immunoassays and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Methods Serum specimens were obtained from 120 subjects. They were randomly chosen to represent a broad distribution of urine cotinine levels based on a retrospective review of questionnaires and results of urine cotinine levels. We determined serum cotinine levels using the IMMULITE 2000 XPi Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., USA) and LC-MS/MS (API-4000, Applied Biosystems, USA). Correlation was analyzed between IMMULITE serum cotinine, urine cotinine, and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels. ROC curve was analyzed to identify the optimal IMMULITE serum cotinine cut-off level for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers. Results IMMULITE serum cotinine levels correlated with both urine cotinine and LC-MS/MS serum cotinine levels, with correlation coefficients of 0.958 and 0.986, respectively. The optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for distinguishing current smokers from nonsmokers was 13.2 ng/mL (95.7% sensitivity, 94.1% specificity) using IMMULITE. Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the use of LC-MS/MS for the measurement of serum cotinine and to determine the optimal serum cotinine cut-off level for the IMMULITE immunoassay. Our results could provide guidelines for differentiating current smokers from nonsmokers in the Korean population. PMID:27374707

  8. The prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean population: recent update of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunyoung; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jihyoun; Kim, Lee Su; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Sung Yong; Jeong, Joon; Han, Sang Ah; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-05-01

    The Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study was established to evaluate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 2953 subjects (2403 index patients and 550 family members of affected carriers) from 36 centers participated in this study between May 2007 and December 2013. All participants received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing. In total, 378 mutation carriers among 2403 index patients were identified. The prevalence of BRCA mutations in specific subgroups was as follows: 22.3 % (274/1228) for breast cancer patients with a family history of breast/ovarian cancers, 8.8 % (39/441) for patients with early-onset (<35 years) breast cancer without a family history, 16.3 % (34/209) for patients with bilateral breast cancer, 4.8 % (1/21) for male patients with breast cancer, and 37.5 % (3/8) for patients with both breast and ovarian cancer. From an analysis of the mutation spectrum, 63 BRCA1 and 90 BRCA2 different mutations, including 44 novel mutations, were identified. The c.7480 (p.Arg2494Ter) mutation in BRCA2 (10.1 %) was the most commonly identified in this cohort. The KOHBRA study is the largest cohort to identify BRCA mutation carriers in Asia. The results suggest that the prevalence of BRCA mutations in familial breast cancer patients is similar to that among Western cohorts. However, some single risk factors without family histories (early-onset breast cancer, male breast cancer, or multiple organ cancers) may limit the utility of BRCA gene testing in the Korean population.

  9. Carrier frequency of GJB2 (connexin-26) mutations causing inherited deafness in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Hee; Park, Hong-Joon; Kang, Eun-Joo; Ryu, Jae-Song; Lee, Anna; Yang, Young-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the GJB2 gene are associated with hereditary hearing loss. Although most studies of GJB2 mutations have dealt with hearing-impaired patients, there are few reports of the frequency of these mutations in the general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of GJB2 mutations causing inherited deafness in the general Korean population. Blood samples were obtained from 2,072 newborns with normal hearing. The dried blood samples were subjected to PCR to amplify the entire coding region of the GJB2 gene, which was followed by direct DNA sequencing. A total of 24 different sequence variants were identified in the coding region of GJB2, including eight pathogenic mutations (p.V37I, p.G45E, p.R143 W, c.176_191del16, c.235delC, c.292_298dup7, c.299_300delAT and c.605ins46), four polymorphisms (p.V27I, p.E114G, p.G160S and p.I203T), six unclassified variants (p.G4D, p.S85Y, p.T123 N, p.R127H, p.A171T and p.F191L) and six novel variants (p.W3T, p.I20L, p.K41E, c.147C > T, c.186C > T and c.576A > G). Pathogenic mutations causing inherited deafness were identified in 3% (62/2,072) of the newborns with normal hearing. Of the eight pathogenic mutations found, p.V37I was the most common (1.35%, 28/2,072), followed by c.235delC (1.25%, 26/2,072). These data provide information about carrier frequency for GJB2-based hearing loss and have important implications for genetic diagnostic testing for inherited deafness in the Korean population.

  10. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium and past effective population size in three Korean cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Sudrajad, P; Seo, D W; Choi, T J; Park, B H; Roh, S H; Jung, W Y; Lee, S S; Lee, J H; Kim, S; Lee, S H

    2017-02-01

    The routine collection and use of genomic data are useful for effectively managing breeding programs for endangered populations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) using high-density DNA markers has been widely used to determine population structures and predict the genomic regions that are associated with economic traits in beef cattle. The extent of LD also provides information about historical events, including past effective population size (Ne ), and it allows inferences on the genetic diversity of breeds. The objective of this study was to estimate the LD and Ne in three Korean cattle breeds that are genetically similar but have different coat colors (Brown, Brindle and Jeju Black Hanwoo). Brindle and Jeju Black are endangered breeds with small populations, whereas Brown Hanwoo is the main breeding population in Korea. DNA samples from these cattle breeds were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead Chip. We examined 13 cattle breeds, including European taurines, African taurines and indicines, and hybrids to compare their LD values. Brown Hanwoo consistently had the lowest mean LD compared to Jeju Black, Brindle and the other 13 cattle breeds (0.13, 0.19, 0.21 and 0.15-0.22 respectively). The high LD values of Brindle and Jeju Black contributed to small Ne values (53 and 60 respectively), which were distinct from that of Brown Hanwoo (531) for 11 generations ago. The differences in LD and Ne for each breed reflect the breeding strategy applied. The Ne for these endangered cattle breeds remain low; thus, effort is needed to bring them back to a sustainable tract. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. No Effect on Body Dissatisfaction of an Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Genotype and Neuroticism in a Young Adult Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Seung-Keun; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many studies suggest an association between the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits (e.g., neuroticism) in healthy subjects. This study investigated the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on body dissatisfaction by neuroticism and to evaluate the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on self-esteem by body dissatisfaction in a young adult Korean population. Methods Two hundred and eighty three subjects were included in this study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Korean version was used to evaluate neuroticism, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination-Self Report (BDDE-SR)-Korean version was used to evaluate body dissatisfaction, and the Self-Esteem Scale (SES)-Korean version was used to evaluate self-esteem. The 5-HTTLPR genotype by neuroticism (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total BDDE-SR score, and 5-HTTLPR genotype by BDDE-SR (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total SES score. Results The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism (high : low) with respect to body dissatisfaction showed no main effects of genotype whereas neuroticism did influence the BDDE-SR score and no interaction of the genotype with neuroticism. The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and BDDE-SR (high : low) with respect to self-esteem score showed no main effects of genotype whereas BDDE-SR did influence the self-esteem score and no interaction of the genotype with body dissatisfaction. Conclusion These results suggest that an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and neuroticism does not affect body dissatisfaction and an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and body dissatisfaction does not affect self-esteem in a young adult Korean population. PMID:25598828

  12. No Effect on Body Dissatisfaction of an Interaction between 5-HTTLPR Genotype and Neuroticism in a Young Adult Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Seung-Keun; Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Lan; Chee, Ik-Seung

    2014-12-01

    Many studies suggest an association between the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and anxiety-related personality traits (e.g., neuroticism) in healthy subjects. This study investigated the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on body dissatisfaction by neuroticism and to evaluate the interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype on self-esteem by body dissatisfaction in a young adult Korean population. Two hundred and eighty three subjects were included in this study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Korean version was used to evaluate neuroticism, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination-Self Report (BDDE-SR)-Korean version was used to evaluate body dissatisfaction, and the Self-Esteem Scale (SES)-Korean version was used to evaluate self-esteem. The 5-HTTLPR genotype by neuroticism (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total BDDE-SR score, and 5-HTTLPR genotype by BDDE-SR (high : low) interaction was assessed according to the total SES score. The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and neuroticism (high : low) with respect to body dissatisfaction showed no main effects of genotype whereas neuroticism did influence the BDDE-SR score and no interaction of the genotype with neuroticism. The analysis of 5-HTTLPR genotype and BDDE-SR (high : low) with respect to self-esteem score showed no main effects of genotype whereas BDDE-SR did influence the self-esteem score and no interaction of the genotype with body dissatisfaction. These results suggest that an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and neuroticism does not affect body dissatisfaction and an interaction between 5-HTTPLR genotype and body dissatisfaction does not affect self-esteem in a young adult Korean population.

  13. Relationship between Social Network and Stage of Adoption of Gastric Cancer Screening among the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between social support and stages of adoption of cancer screening. Here we investigated associations between both structural and functional aspects of social support and stages of adoption of gastric cancer screening in the general population of Korea. The study population was derived from the 2011 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. Data were analyzed from 3,477 randomly selected respondents aged 40-74 years. Respondents were classified according to their stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening: precontemplation (13.2%), contemplation (18.0%), action/maintenance (56.1%), relapse risk (8.5%), and relapse stage (4.1%). Respondents with larger social networks were more likely to be in the contemplation/action/maintenance, or the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation stage (OR=1.91, 95%CI: 1.52-2.91; p for tend=0.025). Emotional and instrumental supports were not associated with any stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening. However, respondents who reported receiving sufficient informational support were more likely to be in the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation, or the contemplation/action/maintenance stage (p for trend=0.016). Interventions involving interactions between social network members could play an important role in increasing participation in gastric cancer screening.

  14. The effect of coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption on serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jisuk; Park, Pil Sook; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Hoon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2015-02-01

    Caffeine, a commonly consumed food constituent, is known to exert beneficial physiological effects in humans. There is a lack of comprehensive population data for the effects of caffeine intake on urate metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether coffee, tea, and caffeine intake influences serum uric acid and the risk of hyperuricemia in the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort. We enrolled 9,400 participants in this study. An assessment of various dietary intake amounts of substances such as coffee and tea was performed using a food frequency questionnaire. The content of caffeine was calculated from coffee (74 mg/cup) and tea (15 mg/cup) intake information from the past year. Multivariate logistic regression models, multiple linear regression models, and analysis of covariance were applied to identify any association of dietary intake with serum uric acid levels or the risk of hyperuricemia. No trends for coffee, tea, or caffeine intake were found according to each quintile with serum uric acid in males, although there were weak, marginally significant trends between the content of coffee and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level in females (p = 0.07 for both). Tea intake in males and caffeine intake in females were significantly different between non-hyperuricemia and hyperuricemia (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively). In addition, a significant association of serum uric acid level with tea intake in males (β = 0.0006, p = 0.02) and with tea intake and caffeine intake in females (β = 0.0003, p = 0.04 and β = 0.0006, p = 0.02, respectively) was observed. There was no effect of coffee, tea, or caffeine intake on the risk of hyperuricemia in either males or females. This study suggests that caffeine consumption might have an effect on serum uric acid in females. However, coffee, tea, and caffeine intake amounts were not associated with the risk of hyperuricemia.

  15. [Population education with rural youth: a regional experience].

    PubMed

    Barletti Pasquale, J

    1995-06-01

    A project promoted by the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization to provide population education for rural youth in countries of Asia, Africa, and Central America has been conducted in three districts near the city of Iquitos by the Centro de Salud Publica of the Universidad Cayetano Heredia. The project involves adapting 10 study guides developed in Africa for use in the Peruvian jungle, training rural youth leaders, and assisting them in forming groups in their communities. Although thus far only a few communities have been involved, there are plans to extend the program and create a network of rural youth organizations. Challenges for the future include further adapting the teaching guides to local conditions and determining what will become of the youth organizations once the 33 activities in the teaching guides have been completed. Guides should be developed on other themes such as agricultural production, reproductive health, early child stimulation, alternative forms of marketing, and functioning of Amazon ecosystems. The guides must be further adapted for other areas of the jungle. It would be desirable to encourage community participation in selection of the youth leaders to be trained in future programs. Guidelines are also needed on the most appropriate ages for training. Individuals in their 20s, 30s, and older have been included. The youth organizations may constitute an important resource for community progress, but they are potentially vulnerable to manipulation by government, political, or other outside groups. Their original focus on population education may also become obscured by the many other functions they take on.

  16. Modelling rural population change in the Cilento region of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    White, P E

    1985-10-01

    The relevance of established models of rural population change to the situation in the Cilento region of southern Italy is considered. The author notes that in this region, tourism seems to be the major factor explaining rural population change between 1961 and 1971. The need for a family of models to explain rural population change while taking into account a variety of cultural and developmental factors is suggested.

  17. A population pharmacokinetic analysis of the influence of nutritional status of digoxin in hospitalized Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo An; Yun, Hwi-yeol; Lee, Eun Sook; Shin, Wan Gyoon

    2014-03-01

    Safe and effective use of digoxin in hospitalized populations requires information about the drug's pharmacokinetics and the influence of various factors on drug disposition. However, no attempts have been made to link an individual's digoxin requirements with nutritional status. The main goal of this study was to estimate the population pharmacokinetics of digoxin and to identify the nutritional status that explains pharmacokinetic variability in hospitalized Korean patients. Routine therapeutic drug-monitoring data from 106 patients who received oral digoxin at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were retrospectively collected. The pharmacokinetics of digoxin were analyzed with a 1-compartment, open-label pharmacokinetic model by using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling tool (NONMEM) and a multiple trough screening approach. The effect of demographic characteristics and biochemical and nutritional indices were explored. Estimates generated by using NONMEM indicated that the CL/F of digoxin was influenced by renal function, serum potassium, age, and percentage of ideal body weight (PIBW). These influences could be modeled by following the equation CL/F (L/h) = 1.36 × (creatinine clearance/50)(1.580) × K(0.835) × 0.055 × (age/65) × (PIBW/100)(0.403). The interindividual %CV for CL/F was 34.3%, and the residual variability (SD) between observed and predicted concentrations was 0.225 μg/L. The median estimates from a bootstrap procedure were comparable and within 5% of the estimates from NONMEM. Correlation analysis with the validation group showed a linear correlation between observed and predicted values. The use of this model in routine therapeutic drug monitoring requires that certain conditions be met which are consistent with the conditions of the subpopulations in the present study. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify the effects of nutritional status on digoxin pharmacokinetics. The present study established important sources of

  18. Radiological Parameters of Undegenerated Cervical Vertebral Segments in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Lee, HeeSang; Cho, Jae Hwan; Jung, Jin Il

    2017-01-01

    Background Several scoring systems for cervical disc and facet joint degeneration, using radiography or computed tomography, have been developed and tested for reliability. However, definitions of disc height and facet joint space narrowing vary. To our knowledge, no study has reported quantitative data for normal radiologic values of the cervical spine in the Korean population. The purpose of this study is to determine normal cervical disc height, disc height ratio, and facet joint space values, and investigate the correlation between demographic data and these values. Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent artificial disc replacement of the cervical spine. Disc heights and facet joint spaces were measured using cervical neutral lateral radiographs and computed tomography. The means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals of the values were determined. Results We measured 148 intervertebral discs and 352 posterior facet joints. The mean disc height measured by plain radiography and computed tomography was 5.57 ± 0.81 mm and 4.94 ± 0.94 mm, respectively. The mean facet joint space values measured by plain radiography and computed tomography were 1.94 ± 0.45 mm and 1.43 ± 0.39 mm, respectively. The disc heights and facet joint space values measured by plain radiography were greater than those measured by computed tomography. The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval of the disc height ratio calculated by plain radiography and computed tomography was greater than 0.94 at all levels except for C5–6. Patient height and disc height showed a tendency of positive correlation. Conclusions In a Korean population, the normal cervical disc height was about 5.0 mm and the normal facet joint space was 1.4 mm. Disc height ratio can reliably identify normal cervical disc height in patients with mild degeneration. Patient height was positively correlated with disc height and facet joint space. Thus, when selecting a cervical

  19. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  20. The Disadvantage to the Rural Population in Earthquake Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.

    2014-12-01

    Scenario calculations show that the rural population is more vulnerable to earthquake disasters because of their comparatively weak building stock. For calculating damage due to strong ground shaking, the building stock is modeled separately for different countries and in each country separately in three settlement size classes. It is generally understood that cities contain more buildings that are resistant to strong shaking than villages. A corollary of this observation is that villagers are more likely to be killed by their collapsing homes than city dwellers. The quantitative excess of the vulnerability of villagers compared to city dwellers varies as a function of the following parameters: (1) Country, (2) epicentral distance, and (3) earthquake magnitude, in addition to the quality of the built environment. For estimating quantitatively the difference of mortality in villages compared to cities, we used the building stock as modeled in the earthquake loss estimating tool QLARM. For the scenario calculations, the epicenters and depths of recent large or damaging earthquakes were selected and their magnitudes were set to M7.5, in cases where the magnitude of the historic event had been smaller. The countries for which we estimated the excess rural mortality included: Algeria, China, Greece, Guatemala, India, Iran, Mexico and Turkey. In all of these countries and for all distances the mortality rate was found to be larger in the villages. Depending on the parameters (1), (2) and (3), the percentage of fatalities in villages was higher by 20% to 97% than in cities. In the case of Greece, where the QLARM data are the most detailed, a clear function of the per cent of fatalities as a function of settlement size emerged. Because indigenous peoples live typically in small settlements, these findings mean that the indigenous population is exposed to a greater earthquake risk than the average population. Although it is understandable that earthquake risk mitigation has

  1. Poverty Catchments: Migration, Residential Mobility, and Population Turnover in Impoverished Rural Illinois Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, Matt; Newbold, K. Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Research has thoroughly documented how out-migration of the educated and skilled from rural areas leaves behind a poorer population and creates pockets of rural poverty. Recently, studies have recognized that the poor are also geographically mobile and that poverty migration patterns can reinforce rural poverty concentrations. In this process,…

  2. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  3. Poverty Catchments: Migration, Residential Mobility, and Population Turnover in Impoverished Rural Illinois Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulkes, Matt; Newbold, K. Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Research has thoroughly documented how out-migration of the educated and skilled from rural areas leaves behind a poorer population and creates pockets of rural poverty. Recently, studies have recognized that the poor are also geographically mobile and that poverty migration patterns can reinforce rural poverty concentrations. In this process,…

  4. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  5. Women, population and development: rural women's passage to empowerment.

    PubMed

    Villareal, F L

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the Women's Population and Development (WPD) program among rural women in 35 poor counties in 10 provinces in China in 1988. The provinces included Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Guizhou, Hubei, and Anhui, which are mostly located in the arid northwest or pastoral northeast China. The study area is inclined to have harsh agro-ecological conditions and environmental degradation. Women's income ranges from RMB 350 to 650 Yuan. About 35% were literate. 40-50% of the rural agricultural labor force and about 60% of all farm labor were women. Out migration of men was increasing. This WPD program was supported by the Ministry of Foreign Technical and Economic Cooperation, the UNFPA, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. The program aim is to use alternative family planning strategies, alleviate poverty, and improve rural women's status. Initial discussions revealed different goals among rural women and county leaders. Women wanted direct access and control over resources. County leaders desired increased productivity among a selected number of small scale enterprises. The project stipulated that 80% of funding was to be allocated as credit for rural women, that a revolving fund would give women direct access and control of resources, and that women would be recognized for their dual roles. Partnerships were formed between women's voluntary groups and project management. Prospective members of women's self-help groups received a 60-70 hour workshop. This workshop helped to identity the root causes of low status and feasible approaches to improving the status and to developed program activities. Counties were gradually included during 1990-93. This program evaluation pertains to analysis of 1994-95 data among 1300 respondents at four points in time. Impact indicators include 18 measures. The most important measure is that women gained control over their own lives and a partnership with husbands. The program

  6. The Rural Underclass: Examination of Multiple-Problem Populations in Urban and Rural Settings. Staff Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.; Curry-White, Brenda

    This study uses data from the U.S. Census' 1980 and 1990 Current Population Survey to examine characteristics of the underclass populations in rural and urban areas. The analysis assesses changes of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan underclass populations between 1980 and 1990, with special attention to race and geographic area. Underclass…

  7. A survey of the dog population in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Moazzem; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Marma, Aung Swi Prue; Hossain, Sohrab; Ali, Mohammad Azmat; Shamsuzzaman, Abul Khair Mohammad; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Globally, Bangladesh ranks third in the number of human deaths from rabies. Although dogs are the principal known transmitters of rabies and knowledge of dog populations is essential for effective national control and proper planning, dog control programs are scarce in Bangladesh. Our objective was to count dogs in a rural area to understand the dog population of the country. For this purpose we selected six unions of Raipura upazila in Narsingdi district. Dog counting was done by direct observation following accepted guidelines. We determined the mean density of the dog population in Bangladesh to be 14 dog/km(2) (95% CI 3.7, 24) and the human:dog ratio to be 120 (95% CI 55, 184). Our paper contribute to the literature which shows great variation in the human:dog ratio across regions of the developing world. The human:dog ratio depends on the area's human (as well as dog) population, whereas dog density per unit area indicates the true number of dogs. We propose that extrapolating from the human:dog ratios of other regions not be relied upon for estimating dog populations, unless the ratios can be supplemented by actual counts of dogs within the target area.

  8. Relationship between the Korean Version of the Sniffin' Stick Test and the T&T Olfactometer in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Moon; Park, Il-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Shin, Jae-Min; Lee, Heung-Man

    2011-12-01

    The Korean version of the Sniffin' stick (KVSS) test is widely used in Korea to evaluate olfactory function. However, its validity and reliability have not been studied well. In this study, the authors administered the KVSS and the T%T olfactometer test to evaluate olfactory function and to establish relationships between these two test measures. Two hundred and eleven patients participated in this prospective randomized study. One hundred and nine patients with no olfactory symptoms and 102 patients with decreased olfaction participated. All participants were underwent KVSS II and T&T olfactometer testing. The mean recognition threshold of the T&T olfactometer was -1.8±0.9 for patients with normal olfaction and 4.0±2.6 for patients with decreased olfaction. The mean Threshold-Discrimination-Identification score of the KVSS II was 30.0±3.8 for patients with normal olfaction and 15.9±7.1 for patients with decreased olfaction. Correlation coefficient between the two tests was significantly high (r(s)=-0.725, P<0.01). The KVSS and T&T olfactometry test are both reliable tests of olfactory function and their results are well correlated with each other.

  9. Relationship between the Korean Version of the Sniffin' Stick Test and the T&T Olfactometer in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sung-Moon; Park, Il-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Shin, Jae-Min

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The Korean version of the Sniffin' stick (KVSS) test is widely used in Korea to evaluate olfactory function. However, its validity and reliability have not been studied well. In this study, the authors administered the KVSS and the T%T olfactometer test to evaluate olfactory function and to establish relationships between these two test measures. Methods Two hundred and eleven patients participated in this prospective randomized study. One hundred and nine patients with no olfactory symptoms and 102 patients with decreased olfaction participated. All participants were underwent KVSS II and T&T olfactometer testing. Results The mean recognition threshold of the T&T olfactometer was -1.8±0.9 for patients with normal olfaction and 4.0±2.6 for patients with decreased olfaction. The mean Threshold-Discrimination-Identification score of the KVSS II was 30.0±3.8 for patients with normal olfaction and 15.9±7.1 for patients with decreased olfaction. Correlation coefficient between the two tests was significantly high (rs=-0.725, P<0.01). Conclusion The KVSS and T&T olfactometry test are both reliable tests of olfactory function and their results are well correlated with each other. PMID:22232713

  10. Mental illness in metropolitan, urban and rural Georgia populations.

    PubMed

    Reeves, William C; Lin, Jin-Mann S; Nater, Urs M

    2013-04-30

    Mental illness represents an important public health problem. Local-level data concerning mental illness in different populations (e.g., socio-demographics and residence--metropolitan/urban/rural) provides the evidence-base for public health authorities to plan, implement and evaluate control programs. This paper describes prevalence and covariates of psychiatric conditions in Georgia populations in three defined geographic areas. Data came from the Georgia population-based random-digit-dialing study investigating unwellness and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia populations of three defined geographic areas (metropolitan, urban, and rural). Respondents were screened for symptoms of fatigue, sleep, cognition, and pain at household screening interviews, and a randomly selected sample completed detailed individual phone interviews. Based on the detailed phone interviews, we conducted one-day clinical evaluations of 292 detailed interview participants classified as unwell with a probable CFS (i.e. CFS-like; a functional somatic syndrome), 268 classified as other unwell, and 223 well (matched to CFS-like). Clinical evaluation included psychiatric classification by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID). To derive prevalence estimates we used sample weighting to account for the complexity of the multistage sampling design. We used 2- and 3-way table analyses to examine socio-demographic and urbanicity specific associations and multiple logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Anxiety and mood disorders were the most common psychiatric conditions. Nineteen percent of participants suffered a current anxiety disorder, 18% a mood disorder and 10% had two or more conditions. There was a significant linear trend in occurrence of anxiety or mood disorders from well to CFS-like. The most common anxiety disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (6.6%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (5.8%). Logistic regression showed that

  11. A simple dosing scheme for intravenous busulfan based on retrospective population pharmacokinetic analysis in korean patients.

    PubMed

    Choe, Sangmin; Kim, Gayeong; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Jung, Jin Ah; Kim, Un-Jib; Noh, Gyujeong; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Lee, Dongho

    2012-08-01

    Busulfan is an antineoplastic agent with a narrow therapeutic window. A post-hoc population pharmacokinetic analysis of a prospective randomized trial for comparison of four-times daily versus once-daily intravenous busulfan was carried out to search for predictive factors of intravenous busulfan (iBu) pharmacokinetics (PK). In this study the population PK of iBu was characterized to provide suitable dosing recommendations. Patients were randomized to receive iBu, either as 0.8 mg/kg every 6 h or 3.2 mg/kg daily over 4 days prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In total, 295 busulfan concentrations were analyzed with NONMEM. Actual body weight and sex were significant covariates affecting the PK of iBu. Sixty patients were included in the study (all Korean; 23 women, 37 men; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [10.9] years; weight, 66.5 [11.3] kg). Population estimates for a typical patient weighing 65 kg were: clearance (CL) 7.6 l/h and volume of distribution (V(d)) 32.2 l for men and 29.1 L for women. Inter-individual random variabilities of CL and V(d) were 16% and 9%. Based on a CL estimate from the final PK model, a simple dosage scheme to achieve the target AUC(0-inf) (defined as median AUC(0-inf) with a once-daily dosage) of 26.18 mg/l·hr, was proposed: 24.79·ABW(0.5) mg q24h, where ABW represents the actual body weight in kilograms. The dosing scheme reduced the unexplained interindividual variabilities of CL and Vd of iBu with ABW being a significant covariate affecting clearance of iBU. We propose a new simple dosing scheme for iBu based only on ABW.

  12. A Simple Dosing Scheme for Intravenous Busulfan Based on Retrospective Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sangmin; Kim, Gayeong; Lim, Hyeong-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Jung, Jin Ah; Kim, Un-Jib; Noh, Gyujeong; Lee, Dongho

    2012-01-01

    Busulfan is an antineoplastic agent with a narrow therapeutic window. A post-hoc population pharmacokinetic analysis of a prospective randomized trial for comparison of four-times daily versus once-daily intravenous busulfan was carried out to search for predictive factors of intravenous busulfan (iBu) pharmacokinetics (PK). In this study the population PK of iBu was characterized to provide suitable dosing recommendations. Patients were randomized to receive iBu, either as 0.8 mg/kg every 6 h or 3.2 mg/kg daily over 4 days prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In total, 295 busulfan concentrations were analyzed with NONMEM. Actual body weight and sex were significant covariates affecting the PK of iBu. Sixty patients were included in the study (all Korean; 23 women, 37 men; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [10.9] years; weight, 66.5 [11.3] kg). Population estimates for a typical patient weighing 65 kg were: clearance (CL) 7.6 l/h and volume of distribution (Vd) 32.2 l for men and 29.1 L for women. Inter-individual random variabilities of CL and Vd were 16% and 9%. Based on a CL estimate from the final PK model, a simple dosage scheme to achieve the target AUC0-inf (defined as median AUC0-inf with a once-daily dosage) of 26.18 mg/l·hr, was proposed: 24.79·ABW0.5 mg q24h, where ABW represents the actual body weight in kilograms. The dosing scheme reduced the unexplained interindividual variabilities of CL and Vd of iBu with ABW being a significant covariate affecting clearance of iBU. We propose a new simple dosing scheme for iBu based only on ABW. PMID:22915993

  13. Association between Mitofusin 2 Gene Polymorphisms and Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jong; Park, Jin Kyung; Kang, Won Sub; Kim, Su Kang; Han, Changsu; Na, Hae Ri; Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Young Youl; Park, Moon Ho

    2017-01-01

    Objective Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent and early feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The morphologic changes observed in the AD brain could be caused by a failure of mitochondrial fusion mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms of two genes involved in mitochondrial fusion mechanisms, optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2), were associated with AD in the Korean population by analyzing genotypes and allele frequencies. Methods One coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MFN2, rs1042837, and two coding SNPs in the OPA1, rs7624750 and rs9851685, were compared between 165 patients with AD (83 men and 82 women, mean age 72.3±4.41) and 186 healthy control subjects (82 men and 104 women, mean age 76.5±5.98). Results Among these three SNPs, rs1042837 showed statistically significant differences in allele frequency, and genotype frequency in the co-dominant 1 model and in the dominant model. Conclusion These results suggest that the rs1042837 polymorphism in MFN2 may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:28096879

  14. Glaucomatous Optic Nerve Changes and Thyroid Dysfunction in an Urban South Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Won, Yu Sam; Kim, Da Yeong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucomatous optic nerve change and thyroid factors in Korean population. Materials and Methods. The study included subjects who underwent health screening in Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Detailed history taking and systemic and ocular examination including fundus photography were performed for all participants. All fundus photographs were divided into two groups based on disc and RNFL appearance: nonglaucoma and glaucoma group. Subjects were also divided into quartiles of each thyroid function parameter, and the relationship with IOP and glaucoma were analysed. Results. In univariate analysis, free T4, T3, and TSH in normal subjects and T3 in thyroid disease group were associated with the IOP. After adjusting for age and sex, the IOP tended to slightly decrease according to the level of the quartile of free T4 and T3 in normal subjects. In terms of glaucoma, on multivariate analysis, it did not show a significant correlation with any thyroid function tests. Conclusions. In normal subjects, the IOP tended to be decreased according to the level of free T4 and T3 but the amounts were clinically insignificant. Thyroid factors are not an independent risk factor for the development of glaucoma. PMID:28553551

  15. Novel FLG null mutations in Korean patients with atopic dermatitis and comparison of the mutational spectra in Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhong; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Myungshin; Park, Young Min

    2015-09-01

    Filaggrin is essential for the development of the skin barrier. Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin have been identified as major predisposing factors for atopic disorders. Molecular analysis of the FLG gene in this study showed nine null and one unclassified mutation in 13 of 81 Korean patients with atopic dermatitis (AD): five novel null mutations (i.e. p.S1405*, c.5671_5672delinsTA, p.W1947*, p.G2025* and p.E3070*); four reported null mutations (i.e. c.3321delA, p.S1515*, p.S3296* and p.K4022*); and one unclassified mutation (i.e. c.306delAAAGCACAG). These variants are nonsense, premature termination codon or in-frame deletion expected to cause loss-of-function of FLG. Genotype-phenotype correlation is not obvious in Korean AD patients with FLG null mutations. According to a review of the mutational spectra of the FLG gene in the Asian populations, FLG null mutations appeared to be unique in each population but some mutations such as p.R501*, c.3321delA, p.S1515*, p.S3296* and p.K4022* were commonly found in at least two of the selected Asian populations including Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Singaporean Chinese or Taiwanese. Further investigations on a larger group of Korean AD would be necessary to elucidate its clinical pathogenesis and mutational spectrum related to specific FLG null mutations for AD.

  16. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19-40, 41-60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05-1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99-1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls.

  17. Association of serum ferritin levels with smoking and lung function in the Korean adult population: analysis of the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chan Ho; Goag, Eun Kyung; Lee, Su Hwan; Chung, Kyung Soo; Jung, Ji Ye; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Song, Joo Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron-catalyzed oxidative stress contributes to lung injury after exposure to various toxins, including cigarette smoke. An oxidant/antioxidant imbalance is considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of COPD. Ferritin is a key protein in iron homeostasis, and its capacity to oxidize and sequester the metal preventing iron prooxidant activity implicates its possible role in the alteration of antioxidant imbalance. We investigated the relationship among cigarette smoking, lung function, and serum ferritin concentration in a large cohort representative of the Korean adult population. Materials and methods Among 50,405 participants of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2014, 15,239 adult subjects older than 40 years with serum ferritin levels and spirometric data were selected for this study. Results The mean age was 56.5 years for men (43%) and 56.9 years for women (57%). The prevalence of airway obstruction was 13.4%, which was significantly higher in men than in women, and increased in former or current smokers. The median levels of serum ferritin were highest in the airway obstruction group, followed by the restrictive pattern group, and lowest in the normal lung function group. The median ferritin levels were increased by smoking status and amounts in each spirometric subgroup. In multivariable regression analysis, serum ferritin was positively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, whereas the smoking amount was negatively associated with the adjustment with age, sex, height, and weight. Conclusion Serum ferritin levels were increased in former or current smokers and were increased with smoking amount in all subgroups of participants categorized according to spirometric results. The result was also evident in the subgroups divided by obstructive severity. While smoking amount was inversely related to lung function, higher

  18. Cognitive Impairment in Rural Elderly Population in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Achi, Xavier; Egas, Gabriela; Cabrera, Dayana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. Materials and Methods: This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions. It was conducted in primary care health centers localized in rural communities of Ecuador. Results: Ages ranged from 50 to 98 years and there was predominance of female gender: 66% versus 33%. The percentage of illiteracy was 26.4% (CI: 25.32–27.48), and 63% (CI: 62.1–63.94) of patients had complete primary educational level. The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment was 50.9% (95% CI: 48.5–53.3) and 47.2% (95% CI: 45.2–49.2) in patients with risk factors. We found several established risk factors associated with cognitive impairment onset, including social factors, physiological factors, and comorbidities. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological research of CI in rural populations in this country using the Mini-Cog as a screening tool. Adopting public health measures for the prevention and control of those modifiable risk factors could reduce the prevalence of cognitive impairment and even its progression to dementia. PMID:28936066

  19. Cognitive Impairment in Rural Elderly Population in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wong-Achi, Xavier; Egas, Gabriela; Cabrera, Dayana

    2017-08-01

    The Mini-Cog is a simple and short test that identifies cognitive impairment. Its detection helps provide an early dementia diagnosis, rapid access to treatments, and even delay or reversion. This multicenter, observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study included 214 patients. Patients enrolled in this study were community dwellers aged ≥55-year-old, without prior diagnosis of cognitive impairment or dementia, with adequate hearing and vision functions. It was conducted in primary care health centers localized in rural communities of Ecuador. Ages ranged from 50 to 98 years and there was predominance of female gender: 66% versus 33%. The percentage of illiteracy was 26.4% (CI: 25.32-27.48), and 63% (CI: 62.1-63.94) of patients had complete primary educational level. The overall prevalence of cognitive impairment was 50.9% (95% CI: 48.5-53.3) and 47.2% (95% CI: 45.2-49.2) in patients with risk factors. We found several established risk factors associated with cognitive impairment onset, including social factors, physiological factors, and comorbidities. This is the first epidemiological research of CI in rural populations in this country using the Mini-Cog as a screening tool. Adopting public health measures for the prevention and control of those modifiable risk factors could reduce the prevalence of cognitive impairment and even its progression to dementia.

  20. Association between handgrip strength and cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between handgrip strength and mild cognitive impairment in elderly adults. [Subjects] Study participants included 2,982 adults (1,366 males and 1,616 females), aged 65 years or older. [Methods] This population-based cross-sectional study used the baseline database from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. [Results] The odds ratio for mild cognitive impairment showed a significant linear decrease in relation to the quartile of handgrip strength, independent of potential covariates, in both men and women. Moreover, after excluding incident cases of mild cognitive impairment, the results showed that greater handgrip strength was associated with higher cognitive function scores in the elderly. [Conclusion] The findings presented here suggest that handgrip strength is associated with a risk of mild cognitive impairment in the Korean elderly. Moreover, greater handgrip strength is associated with higher cognitive function in cognitively normal elderly individuals. PMID:26834379

  1. Forensic and population genetic analyses of eighteen non-CODIS miniSTR loci in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Han Jun; Kim, Ki Cheol; Yoon, Cha Eun; Kim, Wook

    2013-11-01

    We analyzed the variation of eighteen miniSTR loci in 411 randomly chosen individuals from Korea to increase the probability that a degraded sample can be typed, as well as to provide an expanded and reliable population database. Six multiplex PCR systems were developed (multiplex I: D1S1677, D2S441 and D4S2364; multiplex II: D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045; multiplex III: D12S391, D16S3253 and D20S161; multiplex IV: D3S4529, D8S1115 and D18S853; multiplex V: D6S1017, D11S4463 and D17S1301; multiplex VI: D5S2500, D9S1122 and D21S1437). Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated to evaluate the suitability and robustness of these non-CODIS miniSTR systems. No significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were observed, except for D4S2364, D5S2500 and D20S161 loci. A multidimensional scaling plot based on allele frequencies of the six miniSTR loci (D1S1677, D2S441, D4S2364, D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045) showed that Koreans appeared to have most genetic affinity with Chinese and Japanese than to other Eurasian populations compared here. The combined probability of match calculated from the 18 miniSTR loci was 2.902 × 10(-17), indicating a high degree of polymorphism. Thus, the 18 miniSTR loci can be suitable for recovering useful information for analyzing degraded forensic casework samples and for adding supplementary genetic information for a variety of analyses involving closely related individuals where there is a need for additional genetic information.

  2. Ocular injury: Prevalence in different rural population of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, A K

    2013-12-01

    This population based cross-sectional study was conducted on 8283 persons of all ages in five districts, selected conveniently, to assess the magnitude of ocular injuries, their causes and consequences in rural Bangladesh. Six Upazilas from five districts and from each Upazila one Union was selected randomly. One village, the ultimate cluster, was then selected conveniently from each Union. All people (n = 8283) in the 8 villages were then surveyed. Out of 8283 population (ranging from 1-120 years) surveyed, 167(2%) had history and/or evidence of past ocular trauma with a yearly incidence of 6.2 per 1000 per year. Study demonstrated a female predominance with male to female ratio being roughly 4:5. Majority (82%) had at least one episode of trauma in their life-time with mean age at 1st trauma being 20 years. Nearly 40% of the traumas were caused by blunt objects followed by penetrating object (22.3%) and sharp instrument (18.1%) with home being the primary place of occurrence (55.1%). Evidence of ocular trauma was found on eye-lid (15%), conjunctiva (11.4%) and cornea (10.2%) as scars. The older participants (≥ 30 years), females, illiterates, agriculture labors, housewives and household workers were more likely to receive trauma. Majority (86.8%) of the subjects received treatment following injury. The median time lapsed between injuries and receiving first treatment was 5 days and that between injury and visiting an eye-specialist was 18 days. Self-treatment and treatment from over-the-counter comprised 45% and 42.1% respectively followed by eye-specialists (25.5%), village quack (22.8%), graduate doctors (19.3%) and traditional healers (6.9%). About 87% received conservative management, with 12.4% needing hospitalization. Most of the injured (92.8%) and non-injured (95.2%) eyes had normal vision before trauma as informed by the respondents. Following trauma, 18% had impaired, 10.7% severely impaired vision and about 6% were blind. Job abstinence due to trauma

  3. A Survey of Rural Population Density and Forest Fire Occurrence in the South, 1956-1970

    Treesearch

    A.T. Altobellis

    1983-01-01

    Rural residents comprise a high risk potential population regarding person-caused wildfire incidence in the South. However, rural population density (RPD=numker of people per square mile) was found to be indeterminately associated with fire occurrence rate (FOR=number of fires per million acres protected) in protected lands in 13 Southern states. Thus, changes in...

  4. Population Migration in Rural Areas, January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

    This bibliography consists of 87 entries of materials related to population trends in rural and nonmetropolitan areas. This collection is the result of a computerized search of the AGRICOLA database. The bibliography covers topics of rural population change, migration and migrants, farm labor supplies and social conditions, and different patterns…

  5. Association between blood lead levels and blood pressures in a non-smoking healthy Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Rae; Ko, Ki Dong; Hwang, In Cheol; Suh, Heuy Sun; Kim, Kyoung Kon

    2017-09-01

    in a healthy Korean population, irrespective of sociodemographic factors and metabolic derangements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. The impact of differences between subjective and objective social class on life satisfaction among the Korean population in early old age: Analysis of Korean longitudinal study on aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Several previous studies have established the relationship between the effects of socioeconomic status or subjective social strata on life satisfaction. However, no previous study has examined the relationship between social class and life satisfaction in terms of a disparity between subjective and objective social status. To investigate the relationship between differences in subjective and objective social class and life satisfaction. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging with 8252 participants aged 45 or older was used. Life satisfaction was measured by the question, "How satisfied are you with your quality of life?" The main independent variable was differences in objective (income and education) and subjective social class, which was classified according to nine categories (ranging from high-high to low-low). This association was investigated by linear mixed model due to two waves data nested within individuals. Lower social class (income, education, subjective social class) was associated with dissatisfaction. The impact of objective and subjective social class on life satisfaction varied according to the level of differences in objective and subjective social class. Namely, an individual's life satisfaction declined as objective social classes decreased at the same level of subjective social class (i.e., HH, MH, LH). In both dimensions of objective social class (education and income), an individual's life satisfaction declined as subjective social class decreased by one level (i.e., HH, HM, HL). Our findings indicated that social supports is needed to improve the life satisfaction among the population aged 45 or more with low social class. The government should place increased focus on policies that encourage not only the life satisfaction of the Korean elderly with low objective social class, but also subjective social class. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between employment status and obesity in a Korean elderly population, based on the 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Taik; Lee, Hye-Ree; Lee, Yong-Jae; Linton, John A; Shim, Jae-Yong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between employment status and obesity prevalence in an elderly Korean, using a nationally representative sample. This cross-sectional study included 2991 participants (1396 men and 1595 women) aged 60 years or older. Employment status was categorized into full-time employees, part-time employees, and an unemployed group, based on a self-reported questionnaire. According to Asia Pacific regional guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF), obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI)≥25kg/m(2). Mean BMI in women was highest in the unemployed group, whereas the mean BMI in men did not differ significantly between employment groups. The obesity prevalence in full-time employees, part-time employees, and the unemployed group were 25.1%, 25.5%, and 27.1% in men and 36.0%, 37.9%, and 40.4% in women, respectively. Compared to the full-time employees, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals) for obesity were 1.172 (0.765-1.795) and 1.164 (0.843-1.609) in the part-time employees, and 1.451 (1.054-1.999) and 1.399 (1.090-1.795) in the unemployed group, for men and women, respectively, after adjusting for age, lifestyle factors (physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking status, daily calorie intake), socioeconomic factors (education level and household income), and inflammatory factor (white blood cell (WBC) counts). Unemployment appears to be significantly related to a higher prevalence risk of obesity in an elderly Korean population, regardless of age, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and inflammatory factor.

  8. Modelo de Alfabetizacion: A Poblacion Urbana y Rural. Documento General (Literacy Model: Urban and Rural Populations. General Document).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This document describes literacy models for urban and rural populations in Mexico. It contains four sections. The first two sections (generalizations about the population and considerations about the teaching of adults) discuss the environment that creates illiterate adults and also describe some of the conditions under which learning takes place…

  9. Family history of gastric cancer is associated with the risk of colorectal neoplasia in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Kim, Nam Hee; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Park, Soo-Kyung; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il

    2017-10-01

    Family history of cancers at different sites except for colorectum has not been evaluated as a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). To investigate CRN risk according to family history of cancers at 12 different sites, including stomach and colorectum. A cross-sectional study was performed on 139,497 asymptomatic Koreans who underwent colonoscopy as part of a health check-up. The mean age of the study population was 41.6 and the prevalence of CRN was 16.3%. Multivariate analyses revealed that family histories of CRC (adjusted odds ratio; confidence interval, 1.26; 1.17-1.35) and gastric cancer (1.07; 1.01-1.13) were independent risk factors for CRN. Notably, the risk of CRN increased even more for participants with family histories of both CRC and gastric cancer (1.38; 1.12-1.70). Family history of CRC was associated with risk of CRN in participants aged both <50 and ≥50 years, whereas family history of gastric cancer was associated with risk of CRN in participants aged <50 years (1.22; 1.14-1.30), but not in participants aged ≥50 years (1.08; 0.99-1.18). Family history of gastric cancer was an independent risk factor for CRN, especially in those aged <50years. Persons with family histories of gastric cancer and CRC, especially those with family histories of both, may need to begin colonoscopy earlier. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with periodontal disease in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang Wook; Han, Seung Yeop; Lim, Sung Bin; Cho, Kyu Bong; Ban, Ju Yeon

    2015-03-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the core enzyme in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which catalyzes the production of angiotensin II (Ang II). The aim of this study was to determine whether ACE gene is associated with the development of the periodontal disease. To investigate whether ACE is involved in the development of the periodontal disease, 199 periodontal disease patients and 165 control subjects were studied. The ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). SNPStats and SPSS 18.0 were used for the analysis of genetic data. Logistic regression models were performed to determine odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and P value. Genotypic frequencies of I/I, I/D, and D/D were 25.4%, 42.3%, and 32.3% vs. 35.3%, 41.7%, and 23.1% (periodontal disease group vs. control group), respectively. In the genotype analysis of the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism, codominant and log-additive models both showed significant association with periodontal disease [OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.05-3.61, P=0.036 in the codominant model (I/I vs. D/D); OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.02-1.90, P = 0.034 in the log-additive model (I/I vs. I/D vs. D/D)]. These results suggest that the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism may be associated with the susceptibility to the periodontal disease in the Korean population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between pterygium and obesity status in a South Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Seonjoo; Paik, Ji-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Seung; Na, Kyung-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the association between pterygium and obesity status by examining a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults. This population-based, cross-sectional study comprised 16,234 adults (aged ≥19 years) who had participated in the fifth annual Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. The enrolled subjects underwent interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. We compared body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), according to the presence of pterygium. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations of each obesity parameter with pterygium after adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activities, educational levels, outdoor occupation, area of residence, and daily sun exposure duration. The prevalence rate of pterygium tended to increase as the BMI increased only in women, and both male and female subjects with higher WC were likely to have more pterygium in both sexes. In the multivariate analysis, overweight women had an odd ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 1.16 (0.86–1.55) and obese women had an OR (95% CI) of 1.35 (1.02–1.77) compared to women with normal weight (P for trend for ORs = 0.04). Compared to women without abdominal obesity, abdominally obese women had an OR (95% CI) of 1.26 (1.01–1.58). There was no significant association between obesity and pterygium in men. The present study provides epidemiologic evidence of an association between obesity and pterygium in women. Further studies are needed to examine the sex difference in the pathogenesis of pterygium. PMID:27977614

  12. Association study between growth hormone receptor (GHR ) gene polymorphisms and obesity in Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seung-Ae

    2016-01-01

    A main target of growth hormone (GH) is adipose tissue in human body. The GH secretion in obesity patients is impaired. It is needless to say that growth hormone receptor (GHR) is necessary in GH hormone signaling. The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the development of obesity. A total of 211 overweight/obese subjects with a body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2 and 157 nonoverweight/obese controls with a BMI of 18.5–23.0 kg/m2 were involved in this study. Seven SNPs including the rs6451620 (intron), rs4130114 (intron), rs4410646 (intron), rs6898743 (intron), rs4394131 (intron), rs6182 (Cys440Phe), and rs6184 (Pro579Thr) and rs2229765 SNPs of GHR gene were genotyped. Genotyping was performed using custom DNA chip. SNPStats was used to calculate the odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P-value. The link-age disequilibrium block and haplotypes among seven SNPs were determined using Haploview version 4.2. Dominant, recessive, and log-additive genetic models were conducted for genetic analyzing. Among tested SNPs in GHR gene, rs4410646 and rs6898743 showed significant association with obesity (rs4410646, P=0.02 in dominant model and P=0.036 in log-additive model; rs6898743, P=0.039 in dominant model and P=0.044 in log-additive model). In summary, these results suggest that GHR gene polymorphisms might play a role in the development of obesity in the Korean population. PMID:28119888

  13. Polymorphism of Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Affects the Clinical Phenotypes of Ischemic Stroke in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Don; Yun, Dong Hwan; Kim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Su Kang; Kim, Dong Hwan; Chon, Jinmann; Je, Goun; Kim, Yoon-Seong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Chung, Seung Joon; Yeo, Jin Ah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2293054 [Ile734Ile], rs1047735 [His902His], rs2293044 [Val1353Val], rs2682826 (3'UTR) of nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) are associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke. Methods We enrolled 120 ischemic stroke patients and 314 control subjects. Ischemic stroke patients were divided into subgroups according to the scores of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Survey (NIHSS, <6 and ≥6) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI, <60 and ≥60). SNPStats, SNPAnalyzer, and HelixTree programs were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p-values. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to analyze genetic data. Results No SNPs of the NOS1 gene were found to be associated with ischemic stroke. However, in an analysis of clinical phenotypes, we found that rs2293054 was associated with the NIHSS scores of ischemic stroke patients in codominant (p=0.019), dominant (p=0.007), overdominant (p=0.033), and log-additive (p=0.0048) models. Also, rs2682826 revealed a significant association in the recessive model (p=0.034). In allele frequency analysis, we also found that the T alleles of rs2293054 were associated with lower NIHSS scores (p=0.007). Respectively, rs2293054 had a significant association in the MBI scores of ischemic stroke in codominant (p=0.038), dominant (p=0.031), overdominant (p=0.045), and log-additive (p=0.04) models. Conclusion These results suggest that NOS1 may be related to the clinical phenotypes of ischemic stroke in Korean population. PMID:26949676

  14. The genetic effect of copy number variations on the risk of alcoholism in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Bae, Joon Seol; Jung, Myung Hun; Lee, Boung Chul; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Lee, Jin Sol; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism, a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by excessive alcohol consumption, has been a leading cause of morbidity and premature death. This condition is believed to be influenced by genetic factors. As copy number variation (CNV) has been recently discovered in human genome, genomic diversity of human genome is more frequent than previously thought. Many studies have reported evidences that CNV is associated with the development of complex diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that CNV can predict the risk of alcoholism. Using the Illumina HumanHap660W-Quad BeadChip (∼660 k markers), genome-wide genotyping was performed to obtain signal and allelic intensities from 116 alcoholic cases and 1,022 healthy controls (total n = 1,138) in a Korean population. To identify alcoholism-associated CNV regions, we performed a genome-wide association analysis, using multivariate logistic regression model controlling for age and gender. We identified a total of 255,732 individual CNVs and 3,261 CNV regions (1,067 common CNV regions, frequency > 1%) in this study. Results from multivariate logistic regression showed that the chr20:61195302-61195978 regions were significantly associated with the risk of alcoholism after multiple corrections (p = 5.02E-05, p(corr) = 0.04). Most of the identified variations in this study overlapped with the previously reported CNVs in the Database of Genomic Variants (95.3%). The identified CNVs, which encompassed 3,226 functional genes, were significantly enriched in the cellular part, in the membrane-bound organelle, in the cell part, in developmental processes, in cell communication, in neurological system process, in sensory perception of smell and chemical stimulus, and in olfactory receptor activity. This is the first genome-wide association study to investigate the relationship between common CNV and alcoholism. Our results suggest that the newly identified CNV regions may contribute to the development of alcoholism

  15. Epidermal growth factor gene polymorphism is different between schizophrenia and lung cancer patients in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Jong-Woo; Song, Ji Young; Hong, Mee-Suk; Jin, Sheng-Yu; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Park, Hae Jeong; Choe, Bong-Keun; Lee, Jung Joo; Yim, Sung-Vin; Hong, Seok-Il; Baik, Hyung Hwan; Ha, Eunyoung; Park, Yeon Hee

    2005-02-21

    Low incidence of cancer in schizophrenia is one of the interesting puzzles in psychiatric field over decades. Analysis of genetic difference between schizophrenia and lung cancer might provide us with possible clues to understand molecular mechanisms of pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), one of the potent growth promoting factors, has been studied for its roles in cancer development. EGF is also known to be involved in cognitive function. In order to analyze the genetic difference between schizophrenia and lung cancer, polymorphism of EGF gene was studied from 174 schizophrenia patients, 122 lung cancer patients and 132 controls in Korean population. Genotype frequency analysis of EGF gene (AluI restriction site, 5'-UTR, rs4444903) in the EGF gene was studied. The genotype and allele frequencies of the AluI polymorphism showed significant differences between schizophrenia and lung cancer patients [p<0.0001; p<0.0001, odds ratio (95% CI), 0.3690 (0.2600-0.5236)]. When compared with controls, schizophrenia patients showed no significant differences from controls in genotype and allele frequencies [p=0.5151; p=0.3516, odds ratio (95% CI), 0.8589 (0.6235-1.1830)]. However, lung cancer patients showed significant differences from controls in genotype and allele frequencies [p<0.0001; p<0.0001, odds ratio (95% CI), 2.3275 (1.6082-3.3687)]. These results indicate that schizophrenia is not associated with AluI polymorphism of EGF gene and EGF gene polymorphism is different between schizophrenia and lung cancer patients.

  16. Genome-wide association study with the risk of schizophrenia in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Park, Byung Lae; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Namgoong, Suhg; Kim, Ji On; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Shin, Joong-Gon; Park, Chul Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Jae Won; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Hwang, Jaeuk; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Woo, Sung-Il

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is regarded as a multifactorial and polygenic brain disorder that is attributed to different combinations of genetic and environmental risk factors. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have identified numerous risk factors, but the replication results remain controversial and ambiguous. To identify schizophrenia susceptibility loci in the Korean population, we performed a GWAS using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad V1.0 Microarray. We genotyped 1,140,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 350 Korea schizophrenia patients and 700 control subjects, and approximately 620,001 autosomal SNPs were passed our quality control. In the case-control analysis, the rs9607195 A>G on intergenic area 250 kb away from the ISX gene and the rs12738007 A>G on the intron of the MECR gene were the most strongly associated SNPs with the risk of schizophrenia (P = 6.2 × 10(-8) , OR = 0.50 and P = 3.7 × 10(-7) , OR = 2.39, respectively). In subsequent fine-mapping analysis, 6 SNPs of MECR were genotyped with 310 schizophrenia patients and 604 control subjects. The association of the MECR rs12738007, a top ranked-SNP in GWAS, was replicated (P = 1.5 × 10(-2) , OR = 1.53 in fine mapping analysis, P = 1.5 × 10(-6) , OR = 1.90 in combined analysis). The identification of putative schizophrenia susceptibility loci could provide new insights into genetic factors related with schizophrenia and clues for the development of diagnosis strategies.

  17. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in a rural population].

    PubMed

    Mihalache, Laura; Popescu, Dana; Graur, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a rural population, from the north-east part of Romania. The study population included 3248 adult subjects (1341 men, 1907 women), aged 18 or over, registered with their general practitioner. Anthropometric parameters were assessed by medical staff and obesity and overweight were defined according to World Health Organization's (WHO) criteria. Abdominal obesity was described according to International Diabetes Federation's (IDF) criteria. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is 33.9% and 12.2% in men and respectively 35% and 21.3% in women. The majority of overweight and obese subjects had an increased waist circumference. There can be observed the predominance of the women in the overweight and obese group, as well as the increase of the obesity prevalence with age. Our results show that the weight excess could become a public health problem in Romania, therefore national screening programs are needed along with public information campaigns regarding effectual prevention and treatment possibilities.

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis in a rural South African Negro population.

    PubMed Central

    Beighton, P; Solomon, L; Valkenburg, H A

    1975-01-01

    (1) An epidemiological study of a rural African community has been carried out in the Western Transvaal. Altogether 801 respondents over 15 years old were examined; radiographs of the hands and feet were obtained in all these individuals. Serological tests for rheumatoid factor were carried out on 516 blood samples. (2) The diagnosis of inflammatory polyarthritis was based on a modification of the Rome Criteria of 1961. Two categories were defined: 'definite' and 'probable' rheumatoid arthritis. (3) In this population inflammatory polyarthritis was much less common and much milder in its manifestations than in European and American peoples. The prevalence of 'definite' rheumatoid arthritis was 0.12% and of 'definite' and 'probable' rheumatoid arthritis combined, 0.87. Such changes as were encountered on clinical and radiological examination were invariably mild; no respondent in the entire survey had clinical features that would have been accepted in the ordinary way as those of rheumatoid arthritis. (4) The latex fixation test (LFT) was positive in 8.9% of the sera tested; the modified LFT aftaer inactivation of the serum at 56 degrees C was positive in 15.1% of cases. Similar findings in West African populations have been explained on the basis of alteration of the immune response by widespread parasitic infections. No obvious aetiological factor of this type was found in the present survey. PMID:1137440

  19. Risk Factors for Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy in a Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Shin, Gwang Rae; Choi, Young Je

    2017-04-01

    To determine the risk factors for non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in Korean patients, medical records from 45 Korean patients group and 45 healthy controls group were retrospectively reviewed. 10 NAION risk factors, including age, sex, associated systemic disease, past medical/social history, and fundus findings were analyzed. Significant risk factors for NAION in Korean patients were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR) = 3.613, p = 0.020), hypercholesterolaemia (OR = 5.200, p = 0.001), smoking (OR = 3.58, p = 0.014), microaneurysm/haemorrhage (OR = 5.375, p = 0.024), and crowded small cup (OR = 17.200, p < 0.001).

  20. Rural community development in China and the industrial shift of the rural population: summary of an international symposium.

    PubMed

    Shao, X

    1991-01-01

    As a summary of an international symposium on rural community development in China, commentary on China's rural reform, the industrial development of the rural population, and urbanization of the rural population and rural population control is provided. The successful reform that has occurred since the Party's 3rd Plenary session of the 11th Central Committee has been the implementation of the household joint production contract responsibility system. Farmers are enthusiastic about their right to land management. Recent focus on the declines and fluctuations in agricultural output has raised many questions. Suggestions have been made to raise agricultural prices and increase investment. Public ownership should remain with household management. The security of longterm ownership of land by individuals is not available, hence individuals are unwilling to make longterm investment. Another opinion was that the stagnation in production was temporary and a course of development; the cause was population pressure. Suggested future development after reforms should involve development of the village social structure. Communities already have a stable social system of blood ties and an administrative system organized by the party, government, and the economy. Communities with these characteristics could invest in the large-scale farming equipment which smaller households cannot afford, and take responsibility for land allocation and management and financial transactions. The role of the community would be a difficult one in balancing income distribution and expanding community benefits. The 2nd major influence on rural development has been growth in rural nonindustrial production in the small town enterprise. The urban policies of household registration and employment limit growth to rural enterprises which may use backward production technology and produce second-rate products. Eventually, rural industry will become both complementary and supplementary to the national

  1. A rapid method for simultaneous screening of multi-gene mutations associated with hearing loss in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Sagong, Borum; Baek, Jeong-In; Oh, Se-Kyung; Na, Kyung Jin; Bae, Jae Woong; Choi, Soo Young; Jeong, Ji Yun; Choi, Jae Young; Lee, Sang-Heun; Lee, Kyu-Yup; Kim, Un-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is a congenital disease with a high prevalence, and patients with hearing loss need early diagnosis for treatment and prevention. The GJB2, MT-RNR1, and SLC26A4 genes have been reported as common causative genes of hearing loss in the Korean population and some mutations of these genes are the most common mutations associated with hearing loss. Accordingly, we developed a method for the simultaneous detection of seven mutations (c.235delC of GJB2, c.439A>G, c.919-2A>G, c.1149+3A>G, c.1229C>T, c.2168A>G of SLC26A4, and m.1555A>G of the MT-RNR1 gene) using multiplex SNaPshot minisequencing to enable rapid diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss. This method was confirmed in patients with hearing loss and used for genetic diagnosis of controls with normal hearing and neonates. We found that 4.06% of individuals with normal hearing and 4.32% of neonates were heterozygous carriers. In addition, we detected that an individual is heterozygous for two different mutations of GJB2 and SLC26A4 gene, respectively and one normal hearing showing the heteroplasmy of m.1555A>G. These genotypes corresponded to those determined by direct sequencing. Overall, we successfully developed a robust and cost-effective diagnosis method that detects common causative mutations of hearing loss in the Korean population. This method will be possible to detect up to 40% causative mutations associated with prelingual HL in the Korean population and serve as a useful genetic technique for diagnosis of hearing loss for patients, carriers, neonates, and fetuses.

  2. Evaluation of root anatomy of permanent mandibular premolars and molars in a Korean population with cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Beom; Kim, NamRyang; Park, Seojin; Kim, Yoonji; Ko, Youngkyung

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the root/number of roots and morphology of mandibular premolars and molars in a Korean population, and to evaluate the prevalence of three-rooted mandibular first molars having distolingual (DL) roots, three-rooted mandibular second molars, and C-shaped roots in mandibular second molars. Methods: Serial axial cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the mandibles were collected from 430 Korean patients. The total number of roots in the mandibular premolars and molars was counted, and the incidence and the correlations between left- and right-side occurrences and between males and females were analyzed. Results: The majority of mandibular first premolars and second premolars had one root (99.9% and 99.4%, respectively). Three-fourth of first molars (77.4%) had one mesial and one distal root, and the incidence of a three-rooted tooth having DL root was 22.3%. A little more than half the number of mandibular second molars (54.5%) were two-rooted. Finally, 2.3% of the second molars had three roots having one DL root, and 41.3% had C-shaped roots. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of three-rooted mandibular first molars and C-shaped roots in mandibular second molars among a Korean population, detected using CBCT, and the results showed similarities with previous reports about other Asian populations. It may be suggested that CBCT is a practical method of evaluating the number and shape of teeth. Data regarding the occurrence and morphology of the roots may provide useful information to dental practitioners. PMID:23407684

  3. The relationship between Lewis/Secretor genotypes and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Doo; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Ki, Chang-Seok; Han, Kyou Sup; Kim, Jin Q

    2010-02-01

    The Lewis histo-blood group system consists of 2 major antigens-Lea and Leb-and a sialyl Lewis antigen-carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9. We investigated the distribution of Lewis genotypes and evaluated the relationship between the Lewis/Secretor genotypes and the serum level of CA 19-9 in a Korean population to identify whether the serum CA 19-9 levels are influenced by the Lewis/Secretor genotypes. The study included 242 individuals who had no malignancies. Lewis genotyping was performed for the 59T>G, 508G>A and 1067T>A polymorphic sites. The Secretor genotype was determined through analysis of the 357C>T and 385A>T polymorphic sites and the fusion gene. Serum CA 19-9 level was analyzed using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Individuals carrying the 3 common genotypes-Le/Le, Le/le(59,508), and Le/le(59,1067)-accounted for 95% of the study population. In the Korean population, the allelic frequencies of Le, Le(59), le(59,508), and le(59,1067) were 0.731, 0.010, 0.223, and 0.035, respectively. We found a significant difference in serum CA 19-9 concentrations among the 9 Lewis/Secretor genotype groups (P<0.001). The serum CA 19-9 levels in subjects with genotype groups 1 and 2 (Le/- and se/se) were higher than those with genotype groups 3-6 (Le/- and Se/-; 15.63 vs 6.64 kU/L, P<0.001). Le/Le, Le/le(59,508), and Le/le(59,1067) are frequent Lewis genotypes in Koreans. Because serum CA 19-9 levels are significantly influenced by the Lewis/Secretor genotypes, caution is suggested when interpreting the serum CA 19-9 levels.

  4. National survey of prevalent HIV strains: limited genetic variation of Korean HIV-1 clade B within the population of Korean men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gab Jung; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Shin, Bo Gyeong; Kee, Mee Kyeong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Kim, Sung Soon

    2008-06-01

    The evolution of HIV is the result of an explosive combination of factors-a high rate of mutation, replication dynamics, frequent recombination, and natural selection. To understand the evolution of the distinctive Korean HIV-1 B clade, we investigated the characteristics of the genetic variation of the HIV-1 subtype B env gene within the group of Korean men who have sex with men (MSM). From 1985 to 2005, 700 HIV-1-infected Koreans were sequenced at the V1 to V5 region of the HIV-1 env gene. In the phylogenetic analysis, 560 isolates were identified as HIV-1 subtype B, and 489 of the 560 isolates were HIV-1 Korean clade B. Based on epidemiologic investigation, 249 of 700 HIV-1-infected patients were HIV-1 subtype B-infected MSM. Interestingly, the proportion of the GPGS motif in MSM infected by Koreans was 1.6 times higher than in MSM infected by foreigners, and the genetic expansions of diversity and divergence for HIV-1 subtype B in Korean MSM were 2.1% and 2.5%, respectively. This was much lower than those observed in other countries. Therefore, our findings imply that the HIV strains in this group were closely related. This result may be helpful for understanding the evolution of the distinct HIV-1 Korean B clade.

  5. [Species composition and main populations spatial distribution pattern in Korean pine broadleaved forest in Xiaoxing' An Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Hou, Hong-Ya; Wang, Li-Hai

    2013-11-01

    Taking the Korean pine broadleaved forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China as test object, this paper studied the species composition and diameter class structure, and by using point pattern analysis, analyzed the spatial distribution pattern and spatial association of the main populations. In the Reserve, there were a total of 16 species with diameter greater than 1 cm in tree layer, and great differences were observed in the densities of main populations. Coniferous trees such as Pinus koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis were dominant. The diameter class structure of the populations presented as an inverse "J" curve, indicating a good regeneration across the community. The main populations were mostly in aggregated distribution pattern, except that the P. koraiensis populations at the scales of 19-21 m and 44 m as well as the Acer tegmentosum populations close to the largest research scale were in random distribution. The P. koraiensis populations at all research scales were approximately in random distribution, and had the minimum aggregation. A. nephrolepis, Tilia amurensis, and A. tegmentosum populations all presented a random distribution trend. Except that the P. koraiensis and A. nephrolepis at 2-3 m scale and the A. nephrolepis and A. tegmentosum populations at 37-81 m scale had significant positive association, no significant associations were observed between other populations. All the tree species presented an overall non-significant positive association.

  6. Longitudinal study of heart disease in a Jamaican rural population

    PubMed Central

    Miall, W. E.; Del Campo, E.; Fodor, J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Ruiz, L.; Standard, K. L.; Swan, A. V.

    1972-01-01

    A long-term epidemiological study of heart disease in a representative rural community in Jamaica was started in 1962-63 and the first follow-up survey was carried out in 1967-68. This report describes the prevalence of several cardiovascular characteristics at each survey, and their associations with other measurements. The nature of the electrocardiographic abnormalities and their relationship with symptoms of effort pain and prolonged chest pain suggests that much of the disease seen in this population is ultimately ischaemic in origin despite evidence that classical myocardial infarction and severe coronary atheroma are relatively infrequent. Nevertheless both the symptoms and the electrocardiographic abnormalities had features that were not completely typical of occlusive disease of extramural coronary arteries. These findings are discussed in terms of the four conditions—hypertension, conventional coronary heart disease, small artery disease, and cardiomyopathy—that are believed to account for most cases of heart disease in this community, and it is concluded that the overall pattern of disease cannot be explained by any single disorder of overriding importance. The evidence suggests that all may be important contributors. PMID:4538187

  7. Substance Abuse in Rural African-American Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Marvin P.; Williams, Mary M.

    More research into illicit substance abuse in rural African-American communities is needed. The existing literature indicates that patterns of use for licit substances (alcohol and cigarettes) are either similar for rural Blacks and Whites or lower for Blacks. However, the negative health and social consequences of smoking and abusive drinking are…

  8. Correlates of Breast-Feeding in a Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Michelle B.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Desvarieux, Moise; Duval, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of education and employment with breast-feeding initiation and duration in rural mothers, in the context of environmental, social, and intrapersonal factors. Methods: Data from a telephone survey of 414 mothers from rural Minnesota were examined with regression analyses. Results: Education and employment had…

  9. Correlates of Breast-Feeding in a Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Michelle B.; Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Desvarieux, Moise; Duval, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations of education and employment with breast-feeding initiation and duration in rural mothers, in the context of environmental, social, and intrapersonal factors. Methods: Data from a telephone survey of 414 mothers from rural Minnesota were examined with regression analyses. Results: Education and employment had…

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for iron deficiency anemia in the korean population: results of the fifth KoreaNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Ju Hyun; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Jin Won; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among participants of the fifth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010. Of 8,958 participants, 6,758 individuals ≥10 yr had sufficient data for the analysis of anemia and iron status. ID was defined as a transferrin saturation <10% or serum ferritin <15 µg/L. The prevalence of ID and IDA was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-2.6%) and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.0%), respectively, in males, and 22.4% (95% CI, 20.7%-24.2%) and 8.0% (95% CI, 6.8%-9.2%), respectively, in females. In reproductive age females, the prevalence of ID and IDA was 31.4% (95% CI, 28.9%-33.8%) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.4%), respectively. Compared to the prevalence of IDA in adult males 18-49 yr, the relative risks of IDA in adults ≥65 yr, lactating females, premenopausal females, and pregnant females were 8.1, 35.7, 42.8, and 95.5, respectively. Low income, underweight, iron- or vitamin C-poor diets were also associated with IDA. For populations with defined risk factors in terms of age, gender, physiological state and socioeconomic and nutritional status, national health policy to reduce IDA is needed.

  11. Conflicts and Contestations. Rural Populations' Perspectives on the Second Homes Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    In response to demands to restructure and diversify their economies, many rural communities have welcomed the expanding phenomenon of second homes. However, while the second home owners bring new resources to the host communities, the literature also suggests that large second home populations in rural communities provide fertile ground for a…

  12. Conflicts and Contestations. Rural Populations' Perspectives on the Second Homes Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, Johan Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    In response to demands to restructure and diversify their economies, many rural communities have welcomed the expanding phenomenon of second homes. However, while the second home owners bring new resources to the host communities, the literature also suggests that large second home populations in rural communities provide fertile ground for a…

  13. Anthropometric indices as predictors of hypertension among men and women aged 40-69 years in the Korean population: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Won; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Baek, Tae-Hwa; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-02-13

    Obesity is one of the most significant risk factors for hypertension. However, there is controversy regarding which measure is the best predictor of hypertension risk. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in subjects as predictive indicators for development of hypertension. The data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), a large population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 4,454 subjects (2,128 men and 2,326 women) aged 40-69 years who did not have hypertension at baseline were included in this study. Incident hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or anti-hypertensive medication use during the 4-year follow up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare discrimination abilities for anthropometric indices for hypertension. Hazard ratios were calculated by Cox proportional hazard model with adjustment for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, diabetes and family history of hypertension by sexes. In men, the area under the ROC curve (AROC) was 0.62 for WC, WHR, and WHtR and 0.58 for BMI. In women, the AROCs for BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were 0.57, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.68, respectively. After adjustment for risk factors, a 1 standard deviation increase in BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR were significantly related to incident hypertension, respectively (hazard ratio: 1.39, 1.50, 1.40 and 1.49 in men, 1.31, 1.44, 1.35 and 1.48 in women). The central obesity indices WC, WHR, and WHtR were better than BMI for the prediction of hypertension in middle-aged Korean people. WHtR facilitates prediction of incident hypertension because of the single standard regardless of sex, ethnicity, and age group. Therefore, WHtR is recommended as a screening tool for the prediction of hypertension.

  14. Population redistribution within the rural-urban fringe: a typology of small towns and rural municipalities in the state of New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Airola, T M; Parker, R A

    1983-11-01

    Population redistribution within the rural-urban fringe of the United States is examined using the state of New Jersey over the period 1970-1980 as an example. "This article provides additional evidence for the redistribution of population to the rural-urban fringe and identifies those types of municipalities that experienced the greatest growth during the 1970s. Furthermore, it finds that the factors that account for population growth at the rural-urban fringe are not only those associated with suburbanization, but also those associated with nonmetropolitan growth. It also demonstrates that population growth at the rural-urban fringe varies not only by municipal type but also by race."

  15. Population Trends in Rural Downstate Illinois. Rural Research Report. Volume 22, Issue 4, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Norman; Harger, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    Rural areas are undergoing a significant transition with both opportunities and challenges that will require effective management and investment strategies by all levels of government. Since 2007, the recession has magnified long-term shifts in employment and economic activity, especially in rural areas. The employment structure continues to…

  16. Population Trends in Rural Downstate Illinois. Rural Research Report. Volume 22, Issue 4, Fall 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Norman; Harger, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    Rural areas are undergoing a significant transition with both opportunities and challenges that will require effective management and investment strategies by all levels of government. Since 2007, the recession has magnified long-term shifts in employment and economic activity, especially in rural areas. The employment structure continues to…

  17. Cancer screening rate in diabetic patients in the Korean Population; Results from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination survey (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Chuck, Kumban Walter; Hwang, Minji; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Boyoung

    2017-08-10

    To investigate the screening rate for gastric, breast, and cervical cancer in people with diabetes compared with people without diabetes. Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination survey 2007-2009 was used. Cancer-free men who were 40 years old and over and women who were 30 years old and over were included. Lifetime screening rate and regular screening rate were compared in people with and without diabetes. People with diabetes received less cancer screening than people without diabetes in their lifetime (53.5% vs 59.5, p=0.0009 for gastric, 60.5% vs 71.5%, p<0.0001 for breast, and 49.1% vs 59.6%, p<0.0001 for cervical cancer). People with diabetes received lower recommended screening than people without diabetes in gastric (38.9% vs 42.9%, p=0.0003), breast (38.8% vs 44.6%, p<0.0001), and cervical cancer (35.1% vs 51.2%, p=<0.0001). When the sub-group analyses was done with respect to socioeconomic factors, there was a significant lower ever screening and recommended screening rate in diabetic population in most socioeconomic sub-groups. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for socioeconomic factors, people with diabetes showed less ever screening rate for gastric and cervical cancer (odds ratio [OR]=0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.7-0.9; OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.6-0.9), and lower regular screening rate in breast and cervical cancer (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.6-0.9; OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5-0.9). Cancer screening rate in people with diabetes was lower than in people without diabetes. Considering the higher cancer risk in people with diabetes efforts to increase screening rate in these high risk group populations should be implemented.

  18. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu Jin; Kang, Suk-Hoon; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-07-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma.

  19. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  20. [Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Pedro; Fernández, Victoria; Loría, Alvar; Pardío, Jeannette; Laviada, Hugo; Vargas-Ancona, Lizardo; Ward, Ryk

    2007-01-01

    To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos) showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was intermediate between ENSANUT-2006 and mixtecos and hypertension was intermediate between ENEC and mixtecos. The Maya and mestizo population of Yucatan showed a high prevalence of obesity and abnormal waist circumference not accompanied by a comparable higher hypertension frequency. This finding requires further confirmation.

  1. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  2. Normal 2-Dimensional Strain Values of the Left Ventricle: A Substudy of the Normal Echocardiographic Measurements in Korean Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hyeong; Lee, Ju-Hee; Lee, Sang Yeub; Choi, Jin-Oh; Shin, Mi-Seung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Jung, Hae Ok; Park, Jeong Rang; Sohn, Il Suk; Kim, Hyungseop; Park, Seong-Mi; Yoo, Nam Jin; Choi, Jung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Cho, Goo-Yeong; Lee, Mi-Rae; Park, Jin-Sun; Shim, Chi Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Shin, Dae-Hee; Shin, Gil Ja; Shin, Sung Hee; Kim, Kye Hun; Kim, Woo-Shik

    2016-01-01

    Background It is important to understand the distribution of 2-dimensional strain values in normal population. We performed a multicenter trial to measure normal echocardiographic values in the Korean population. Methods This was a substudy of the Normal echOcardiogRaphic Measurements in KoreAn popuLation (NORMAL) study. Echocardiographic specialists measured frequently used echocardiographic indices in healthy people according to a standardized method at 23 different university hospitals. The strain values were analyzed from digitally stored images. Results Of a total of 1003 healthy participants in NORMAL study, 2-dimensional strain values were measured in 501 subjects (265 females, mean age 47 ± 15 years old) with echocardiographic images only by GE echocardiographic machines. Interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness, systolic and diastolic LV dimensions, and LV ejection fraction were 7.5 ± 1.0 mm, 7.4 ± 1.0 mm, 29.9 ± 2.8 mm, 48.9 ± 3.6 mm, and 62 ± 4%, respectively. LV longitudinal systolic strain (LS) values of apical 4-chamber (A4C) view, apical 3-chamber (A3C) view, apical 2-chamber (A2C) view, and LV global LS (LVGLS) were −20.1 ± 2.3, −19.9 ± 2.7, −21.2 ± 2.6, and −20.4 ± 2.2%, respectively. LV longitudinal systolic strain rate (LVLSR) values of the A4C view, A3C view, A2C view, and LV global LSR (LVGLSR) were −1.18 ± 0.18, −1.20 ± 0.21, −1.25 ± 0.21, and −1.21 ± 0.21−s, respectively. Females had lower LVGLS (−21.2 ± 2.2% vs. −19.5 ± 1.9%, p < 0.001) and LVGLSR (−1.25 ± 0.18−s vs. −1.17 ± 0.15−s, p < 0.001) values than males. Conclusion We measured LV longitudinal strain and strain rate values in the normal Korean population. Since considerable gender differences were observed, normal echocardiographic cutoff values should be differentially applied based on sex. PMID:28090256

  3. Population plasma and urine pharmacokinetics of ivabradine and its active metabolite S18982 in healthy Korean volunteers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Youn; Bae, Kyun-Seop; Cho, Sang-Heon; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Choe, Sangmin; Jung, Jin Ah; Lim, Hyeong-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Ivabradine, a selective inhibitor of the pacemaker current (If ), is used for heart failure and coronary heart disease and is mainly metabolized to S18982. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics (PK) of ivabradine and S18982 in healthy Korean volunteers. Subjects in a phase I study were randomized to receive 2.5, 5, or 10 mg of ivabradine administered every 12 hours for 4.5 days, and serial plasma and urine concentrations of ivabradine and S18982 were measured. The plasma PK of ivabradine was best described by a 2-compartment model with mixed 0- and first-order absorption, linked to a 2-compartment model for S18982. The introduction of interoccasional variabilities and period as covariate into absorption-related parameters improved the model fit. Urine data have been applied to estimate renal and nonrenal clearance, enabling a more detailed description of the elimination process. We developed a population PK model describing the plasma and urine PK of ivabradine and S18982 in healthy Korean adult males. This model might be useful for predicting the plasma and urine PK of ivabradine, potentially helping to identify the optimal dosing regimens in various clinical situations.

  4. Disability and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly cancer survivors: Case-control study in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Kyung

    2016-10-01

    Advanced age is a significant risk factor for cancer and functional disabilities increase with age. The purpose of this case-control study of Korean individuals was to determine the effect of cancer and cancer treatment on functional disability and quality of life (QOL). Thus, we compared community-dwelling elderly cancer patients (ECPs) with individuals from the general elderly population (GEP) who never had diagnoses of cancer. We selected 1776 ECP who were at least 65 years-old from the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey data and used propensity score matching to randomly select 1766 individuals from the GEP who closely resembled the ECPs. Functional disability was measured using the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, and QOL was measured by the EuroQol Group EQ-5D. ECPs were more dependent in preparation of food, doing laundry, and shopping (IADL scale), and in mobility and usual activities (EQ-5D). Although ECP had more problems with pain, discomfort, anxiety, and depression, they were more independent in self-care and handling of financial responsibilities. ECPs had multiple physical and psychological symptoms that adversely affected functional disability and QOL, but higher functional ability, such as self-care and handling of financial responsibilities. Promotion of self-care by ECPs is pivotal for effective management in community practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. No association of the MCP-1 promoter A-2518G polymorphism with bipolar disorder in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Roh, Myoung-Sun; Lee, Kyu Young; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Namyoung; Kim, Yong Sik

    2007-10-29

    It has been suggested that bipolar disorder is associated with altered immune function. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine that influences both neural and immune functions. We thus hypothesized that MCP-1 may be related to the development or pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. In this case-control study, we investigated the association between the A-2518G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the MCP-1 promoter and bipolar disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder (n=183; bipolar I=145, bipolar II=38) and healthy controls (350) were recruited for the study. No significant allelic or genotypic association was detected between the A-2518G polymorphism and any sample of bipolar disorder patients. When we pooled the healthy controls and the cases of bipolar I disorder from previous Korean studies and this study, we again found no significant association. No significant difference in either allele frequency or genotype distribution was observed between bipolar I and bipolar II disorders. There was no difference in the age at onset of bipolar disorder among the three genotype groups. Our data suggest that the A-2518G polymorphism of MCP-1 is not a major susceptibility factor for bipolar disorder in the Korean population. However, the physiological role of MCP-1 is highly suggestive of its being associated with bipolar disorder, and further analyses of other SNPs of MCP-1 remain to be performed.

  6. The Number of Teeth Is Inversely Associated With Metabolic Syndrome: A Korean Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Sun

    2017-09-01

    Objectives of this research are to determine the relationship between number of natural teeth and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a representative sample of the Korean population. From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 13,066 participants aged >19 years. The number of teeth was assessed by clinical oral examination. MetS was defined based on the joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between number of teeth and MetS adjusted for the following criteria: 1) age; 2) sex; 3) income; 4) education; 5) toothbrushing frequency; 6) periodontitis; 7) smoking; 8) drinking; 9) physical activity; and 10) diabetes mellitus. The number of existing permanent teeth was inversely associated with MetS after controlling for all confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04 to 1.36 for 20 to 27 teeth; AOR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.67 for 0 to 19 teeth). Association between fewer teeth and MetS increased for individuals aged ≥40 years and for women. The number of teeth found is inversely proportional to occurrence of MetS.

  7. TeleFIT: Adapting a Multidisciplinary, Tertiary-Care Pediatric Obesity Clinic to Rural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Irby, Megan B.; Boles, Katherine A.; Jordan, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric obesity occurs most frequently in underserved communities where families have difficulty accessing healthcare. Disproportionate obesity rates in rural children denote significant disparities warranting innovative solutions. However, intensive, tertiary-care treatment options outlined in recent expert recommendations may not be available to families living in rural areas. Telemedicine may be useful for providing pediatric obesity treatment to rural families. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a new outreach program (TeleFIT), which placed telemonitors in four rural satellite clinics to increase access to a pediatric obesity clinic (Brenner Families In Training [FIT]). Before TeleFIT began, of five patients from rural counties enrolled in treatment over a 1-year period, all dropped out by their third visit. Within the first year of TeleFIT, the number of rural patients increased nearly threefold (to 14) and increased again in the second year by an additional 16 new patients (n=35). Preliminary outcomes indicate comparable attrition rates and improvement in weight status compared with patients in conventional treatment. Telemedicine allows rural families to access intensive obesity treatment from local pediatric offices, eliminating geographic barriers. Systems delivering state-of-the-art care in rural areas have tremendous potential for reducing health disparities in rural populations. Further research is needed to test the efficacy of such interventions. PMID:22356527

  8. TeleFIT: adapting a multidisciplinary, tertiary-care pediatric obesity clinic to rural populations.

    PubMed

    Irby, Megan B; Boles, Katherine A; Jordan, Christine; Skelton, Joseph A

    2012-04-01

    Pediatric obesity occurs most frequently in underserved communities where families have difficulty accessing healthcare. Disproportionate obesity rates in rural children denote significant disparities warranting innovative solutions. However, intensive, tertiary-care treatment options outlined in recent expert recommendations may not be available to families living in rural areas. Telemedicine may be useful for providing pediatric obesity treatment to rural families. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a new outreach program (TeleFIT), which placed telemonitors in four rural satellite clinics to increase access to a pediatric obesity clinic (Brenner Families In Training [FIT]). Before TeleFIT began, of five patients from rural counties enrolled in treatment over a 1-year period, all dropped out by their third visit. Within the first year of TeleFIT, the number of rural patients increased nearly threefold (to 14) and increased again in the second year by an additional 16 new patients (n=35). Preliminary outcomes indicate comparable attrition rates and improvement in weight status compared with patients in conventional treatment. Telemedicine allows rural families to access intensive obesity treatment from local pediatric offices, eliminating geographic barriers. Systems delivering state-of-the-art care in rural areas have tremendous potential for reducing health disparities in rural populations. Further research is needed to test the efficacy of such interventions.

  9. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene polymorphisms as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sun Young; Kim, Un Kyung; Cho, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hee Keun; Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Nam Keun; Hwang, Seong Gyu

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most frequent cause of cancer death in South Korea, but genetic susceptibility factors of HCC have not been examined extensively. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) play an essential role in both DNA synthesis and methylation and polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene, 677C>T, 1298A>C and the MTRR gene, 66A>G, are associated with several types of malignancy. In this study, the allelic frequencies and genotype distribution of three polymorphisms in the MTHFR and MTRR genes from 96 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and 201 controls were examined to assess the association between these polymorphisms and the development of HCC in this Korean population. The 66AG+GG (G allele-bearing) genotype of the MTRR gene was significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC (odds ratio, OR, 1.687; 95% confidence interval, CI=1.022-2.787). Moreover, the combination of MTHFR 1298AA/MTRR 66AG+GG (OR=1.854, 95% CI=1.005-3.420) and MTHFR 1298AC+CC/MTRR 66AG+GG (OR=2.733, 95% CI=1.195-6.249) showed a significant association with HCC risk. In the data classified by age and etiology, MTRR 66A>G over the age of 65 years, MTHFR 1298A>C under the age of 65 years and the MTRR 66AG+GG genotype in the hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients were increased risk factors for the disease. The MTHFR 1298A>C and the MTRR 66A>G genotypes were associated with an increased risk of HCC in this Korean population. Further studies involving larger and varied populations could provide a potential tool for cancer risk assessment in patients who are at risk of developing HCC.

  10. Evaluation of Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density and Radiographic Hand and Knee Osteoarthritis in a Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kee Jeong; Kim, Ki Woong; Kim, Tae Kyun; Chang, Chong Bum; Jang, Hak Chul; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Reports on the relationship between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (OA) have tended to disagree, especially in non-weight bearing joints such as the hand joints. We aimed to investigate the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and hand and knee OA in a general Korean elderly population. Methods We evaluated femur neck BMD and the hand and knee radiographs of 143 men and 123 women over 65 years of age who participated in a population-based cohort study. The Kellgren-Lawrence criteria for grading OA were implemented, and grade 2 or higher were categorized as radiographic OA. BMD was compared according to the existence of radiographic OA in the hand and knee using analysis of covariance, and correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between BMD and radiographic OA grade. Results After controlling for age and body mass index, there was no significant difference in BMD between participants with and without hand OA (p = 0.717 in male and p = 0.862 in female), between those with and without knee OA (p = 0.974 in male and p = 0.563 in female), and between those with only hand OA and those with only knee OA (p = 0.920 in male and p = 0.961 in female). Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between BMD and the radiographic OA grade of the hands (p = 0.182 in male and p = 0.897 in female) and knees (p = 0.245 in male and p = 0.098 in female). Conclusions In our cohort of the general Korean elderly population, no association was found between osteoporosis and OA, regardless of the weight bearing status of the joints. PMID:25177462

  11. Gender differences in health-related quality of life associated with abdominal obesity in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Jina; Jeon, Seonhui; Lee, Juneyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Overall obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), has been associated with a low level of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), but little is known about abdominal obesity. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether abdominal obesity, as measured by waist circumference (WC), would be significantly associated with HRQOL independent of overall obesity, and if so, whether the association would differ by gender among the Korean population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea. Participants Using data from the 2007–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 13 754 men and women aged 19–65 years were selected, and information about height (cm), weight (kg), WC (cm) and the EuroQOL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores for HRQOL were taken. Results Not only an overall obesity (as categorised into obese, overweight or non-overweight groups based on BMI) but also an abdominal obesity (defined by WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women) was significantly associated with lower EQ-5D scores, after adjusting for age, gender, socioeconomic variables and a number of comorbidities. Even after adjusting BMI effect, the association between abdominal obesity and lower EQ-5D scores remained significant for women, but not for men. Conclusions Among the Korean population aged 19–65 years, abdominal obesity was associated with impaired HRQOL, independently of overall obesity. Furthermore, this association differed by gender, being significant only for women. Therefore, primary healthcare professionals should pay attention to gender differences in the impact of obesity on HRQOL when evaluating population-based health programmes. PMID:24464522

  12. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2015-01-01

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945–1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57–0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population. PMID:26729146

  13. The Urban-Rural Gradient In Asthma: A Population-Based Study in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Timm, Signe; Frydenberg, Morten; Janson, Christer; Campbell, Brittany; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Holm, Mathias; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Sigsgaard, Torben; Svanes, Cecilie; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2015-12-30

    The early life environment appears to have a persistent impact on asthma risk. We hypothesize that environmental factors related to rural life mediate lower asthma prevalence in rural populations, and aimed to investigate an urban-rural gradient, assessed by place of upbringing, for asthma. The population-based Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study includes subjects from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia born 1945-1973. The present analysis encompasses questionnaire data on 11,123 RHINE subjects. Six categories of place of upbringing were defined: farm with livestock, farm without livestock, village in rural area, small town, city suburb and inner city. The association of place of upbringing with asthma onset was analysed with Cox regression adjusted for relevant confounders. Subjects growing up on livestock farms had less asthma (8%) than subjects growing up in inner cities (11%) (hazard ratio 0.72 95% CI 0.57-0.91), and a significant urban-rural gradient was observed across six urbanisation levels (p = 0.02). An urban-rural gradient was only evident among women, smokers and for late-onset asthma. Analyses on wheeze and place of upbringing revealed similar results. In conclusion, this study suggests a protective effect of livestock farm upbringing on asthma development and an urban-rural gradient in a Northern European population.

  14. Association of Diabetes Mellitus with a Combination of Vitamin D Deficiency and Arsenic Exposure in the Korean General Population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2009 on the combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on diabetes mellitus (DM) in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods This study was based on data obtained from the KNHANES 2008–2009, which was conducted for 3 years (2007–2009) using a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Results Data analysis revealed that subjects who showed both vitamin D levels in the 1st quartile (Q) and urinary arsenic levels in the 4th Q, had a 302% increased risk of having DM, as compared with those whose vitamin D and urinary arsenic levels were in the 4th Q and 1st Q, respectively. Conclusion The present study reconfirmed an association of DM with low vitamin D levels and arsenic exposure, and further showed a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM in the general Korean population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing a combination of vitamin D deficiency and arsenic exposure on DM. The present findings have important public health implications. PMID:24472185

  15. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of molecular subtypes of Korean breast cancer: An ethnically and clinically distinct population

    PubMed Central

    HAN, WONSHIK; NICOLAU, MONICA; NOH, DONG-YOUNG; JEFFREY, STEFANIE S.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of Korean breast cancer. A cDNA microarray study (>42k clones) was performed on 69 breast cancers and three normal breast tissues. The subjects had a high percentage of HER-2 expression, hormone receptor negativity, and young onset. Molecular subtypes according to gene expression profiles were determined and their correlations to the clinicopathologic characteristics and patients outcome were analyzed. The tumors were subdivided into luminal-, normal breast-like, ERBB2+, and basal-like subtypes according to the correlations to the previously described intrinsic genes and five centroids. Only a few tumors were highly correlated to the luminal B and normal-like centroids. The high grade tumors with high p53 and Ki-67 were found more commonly in non-luminal tumors. Distant recurrence-free survival was worse in ERBB2+ and basal-like subgroups than luminal tumors. In an unsupervised clustering with 864 genes, many interesting gene clusters were observed, some of which had not been previously described. Although the Korean breast cancers showed generally similar molecular phenotypes as Western studies, some distinct gene expression patterns and their association to clinical outcomes were observed. PMID:20514396

  17. Characterization of molecular subtypes of Korean breast cancer: an ethnically and clinically distinct population.

    PubMed

    Han, Wonshik; Nicolau, Monica; Noh, Dong-Young; Jeffrey, Stefanie S

    2010-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the molecular characteristics of Korean breast cancer. A cDNA microarray study (>42k clones) was performed on 69 breast cancers and three normal breast tissues. The subjects had a high percentage of HER-2 expression, hormone receptor negativity, and young onset. Molecular subtypes according to gene expression profiles were determined and their correlations to the clinicopathologic characteristics and patients outcome were analyzed. The tumors were subdivided into luminal-, normal breast-like, ERBB2+, and basal-like subtypes according to the correlations to the previously described intrinsic genes and five centroids. Only a few tumors were highly correlated to the luminal B and normal-like centroids. The high grade tumors with high p53 and Ki-67 were found more commonly in non-luminal tumors. Distant recurrence-free survival was worse in ERBB2+ and basal-like subgroups than luminal tumors. In an unsupervised clustering with 864 genes, many interesting gene clusters were observed, some of which had not been previously described. Although the Korean breast cancers showed generally similar molecular phenotypes as Western studies, some distinct gene expression patterns and their association to clinical outcomes were observed.

  18. Economic impact of dyspepsia in rural and urban malaysia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Yadav, Hematram; Everett, Simon M; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2012-01-01

    The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference.

  19. Economic Impact of Dyspepsia in Rural and Urban Malaysia: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hematram; Everett, Simon M; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims The economic impact of dyspepsia in regions with a diverse healthcare system remains uncertain. This study aimed to estimate the costs of dyspepsia in a rural and urban population in Malaysia. Methods Economic evaluation was performed based on the cost-of-illness method. Resource utilization and quality of life data over a specific time frame, were collected to determine direct, indirect and intangible costs related to dyspepsia. Results The prevalences of dyspepsia in the rural (n = 2,000) and urban (n = 2,039) populations were 14.6% and 24.3% respectively. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between both populations were considerable. The cost of dyspepsia per 1,000 population per year was estimated at USD14,816.10 and USD59,282.20 in the rural and urban populations respectively. The cost per quality adjusted life year for dyspepsia in rural and urban adults was USD16.30 and USD69.75, respectively. Conclusions The economic impact of dyspepsia is greater in an urban compared to a rural setting. Differences in socioeconomic status and healthcare utilisation between populations are thought to contribute to this difference. PMID:22323987

  20. Service Delivery to Southern Black Population in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnock, Theo J.

    Planning for viable rural communities must seek elements inherent in a well-kept American home: lights, water, telephone, employment of the household head, children in school, access to transportation, sufficient food, clothing, health care, recreation, etc. If a community falls short in these necessities, the "needs gap" is where…

  1. The Practice of Group Work with Rural Female Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheitman, Edith A.

    For rural women in America to gain some measure of empowerment, they must first have an opportunity to reinforce among themselves their common perceptions of what is happening to them in this culture. Those perceptions, while accurate, deviate from those commonly represented by the media in an urban, male-normed society. Group work is essential…

  2. Service Delivery to Southern Black Population in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnock, Theo J.

    Planning for viable rural communities must seek elements inherent in a well-kept American home: lights, water, telephone, employment of the household head, children in school, access to transportation, sufficient food, clothing, health care, recreation, etc. If a community falls short in these necessities, the "needs gap" is where…

  3. The Practice of Group Work with Rural Female Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheitman, Edith A.

    For rural women in America to gain some measure of empowerment, they must first have an opportunity to reinforce among themselves their common perceptions of what is happening to them in this culture. Those perceptions, while accurate, deviate from those commonly represented by the media in an urban, male-normed society. Group work is essential…

  4. Exceptional Brain Aging in a Rural Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Jeffrey; Michael, Yvonne; Calvert, James; Leahy, Marjorie; Crawford, Debbie; Kramer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Context: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring…

  5. Exceptional Brain Aging in a Rural Population-Based Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Jeffrey; Michael, Yvonne; Calvert, James; Leahy, Marjorie; Crawford, Debbie; Kramer, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Context: The 2000 US Census identified 50,454 Americans over the age of 100. Increased longevity is only of benefit if accompanied by maintenance of independence and quality of life. Little is known about the prevalence of dementia and other disabling conditions among rural centenarians although this information is important to clinicians caring…

  6. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. J.; Lee, I. K.; Piao, M. Y.; Gu, M. J.; Yun, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. H.; Baik, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March. PMID:26950877

  7. Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers.

    PubMed

    Kang, H J; Lee, I K; Piao, M Y; Gu, M J; Yun, C H; Kim, H J; Kim, K H; Baik, M

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean (8.7°C) and minimum (1.0°C) indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those (13.0°C and 6.2°C, respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.

  8. Literacy and cultural adaptations for cognitive behavioral therapy in a rural pain population.

    PubMed

    Kuhajda, Melissa C; Thorn, Beverly E; Gaskins, Susan W; Day, Melissa A; Cabbil, Chalanda M

    2011-06-01

    Low literacy and chronic pain have been identified as significant problems in the rural USA. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a widely used efficacious psychosocial treatment for chronic pain; adaptations for low-literacy rural populations are lacking. This paper reports on preparatory steps implemented to address this deficit. Adapting an existing group, CBT patient workbook for rural adults with low literacy is described, and adaptations to reduce cognitive demand inherent in CBT are explained via cognitive load theory. Adhering to health literacy guidelines, the patient workbook readability was lowered to the fifth grade. Two key informant interviews and four focus groups provided the impetus for structural and procedural adaptations. Using health literacy guidelines and participant feedback, the patient workbook and treatment approach were adapted for implementation in low-literacy rural adult chronic pain populations, setting the stage for proceeding with a larger trial using the adapted materials.

  9. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and its Comorbidity among Korean Children in a Community Population

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children according to socio-demographic factors and the distribution of ADHD subtypes in a community in Korea. A screening survey using the Korean version of ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) was conducted between 2007 and 2008, and clinical interviews by a pediatric psychiatrist were performed for selected children between 2009 and 2010. A total of 49,573 elementary school students, between ages of 7 and 12, constituted the target population, among which 38,365 students (77.2%) and respective parents gave consent to participate. Of the participants, 200 screened children were clinically examined to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD and its comorbidity in the population, after adjusting for nonresponse and nonparticipation. The prevalence of ADHD was 11.7% in boys and 5.2% in girls, with an overall prevalence of 8.5%. The combined type of inattentive and hyperactive was the most frequent at 4.7% of the whole population. Children were more likely to have ADHD if their parents were separated and had less education. Most commonly combined comorbidity was autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (10.1%). The prevalence of ADHD in the school-aged population is an essential information for improving the quality of public health mental services for evaluation and treatment of ADHD. PMID:28145641

  10. Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and its Comorbidity among Korean Children in a Community Population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon Jung; Park, Inho; Lim, Myung Ho; Paik, Ki Chung; Cho, Sungja; Kwon, Ho Jang; Lee, Sang Gyu; Yoo, Seung Jin; Ha, Mina

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children according to socio-demographic factors and the distribution of ADHD subtypes in a community in Korea. A screening survey using the Korean version of ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS) was conducted between 2007 and 2008, and clinical interviews by a pediatric psychiatrist were performed for selected children between 2009 and 2010. A total of 49,573 elementary school students, between ages of 7 and 12, constituted the target population, among which 38,365 students (77.2%) and respective parents gave consent to participate. Of the participants, 200 screened children were clinically examined to confirm the diagnosis of ADHD. We estimated the prevalence of ADHD and its comorbidity in the population, after adjusting for nonresponse and nonparticipation. The prevalence of ADHD was 11.7% in boys and 5.2% in girls, with an overall prevalence of 8.5%. The combined type of inattentive and hyperactive was the most frequent at 4.7% of the whole population. Children were more likely to have ADHD if their parents were separated and had less education. Most commonly combined comorbidity was autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (10.1%). The prevalence of ADHD in the school-aged population is an essential information for improving the quality of public health mental services for evaluation and treatment of ADHD.

  11. Urban and rural populations and labour-force structures: current patterns and their implications.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, A

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple

  12. Instructivo del Alfabetizador: Poblacion Rural (Reading and Writing Instruction: Rural Population).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This Mexican series of instructional materials is designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. The reading/writing workbook is presented in two volumes along with a teacher's manual for an adult literacy program directed at rural inhabitants of Mexico.…

  13. Reward dependence is related to norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Ham, Byung-Joo; Choi, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Kang, Rhee-Hun; Lee, Min-Soo

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that approximately 50% of the variance in personality traits is genetic. The goal of this study was to investigate a relationship between personality traits and the T-182C polymorphism in the norepinephrine transporter gene. The participants included 115 healthy adults with no history of psychiatric disorders and other physical illness during the past 6 months. All participants were tested with the Temperament and Character Inventory and genotyped norepinephrine transporter gene polymorphism. Differences on the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions among three groups were examined with one-way analysis of variance. Our study suggests that the norepinephrine transporter T-182C gene polymorphism is associated with reward dependence in Koreans, but the small number of study participants and their sex and age heterogeneity limits generalization of our results. Further studies are necessary with a larger number of homogeneous participants to confirm whether the norepinephrine transporter gene is related to personality traits.

  14. Genetic polymorphisms of 16 Y chromosomal STR loci in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Hee; Kim, Nam Ye; Hong, Seung Beom; Cho, Nam Soo; Kim, Jong Jin; Han, Myun Soo; Kim, Won

    2008-03-01

    Allele frequencies and haplotypes of 16 Y chromosomal STR loci included in the AmpFlSTR((R)) Yfilertrade mark system were obtained from a sample of 526 unrelated Korean male individuals. A total of 478 haplotypes were observed in the 526 individuals studied, of which 440 were unique. The overall haplotype diversity for the 16 Y-STR loci was 0.9996, and the discrimination capacity was 0.9087. We found 13 atypical alleles, including null, duplicated and microvariant alleles. Microvariants have been characterized by sequencing, 14.1 allele at DYS458 showing the flanking site mutation, 13.1 and 15.2 allele at DYS385a/b showing changes in the repeat structure.

  15. Population growth and rural-urban migration, with special reference to Ghana.

    PubMed

    De Graft-johnson, K T

    1974-01-01

    While the population of Ghana is expected to double in 25 years at the current rate of increase (approximately 2.5% per annum), the population of urban centers is increasing even faster. The 1970 census shows the urban population growing by 4.8% per annum. This is mainly the result of rural to urban migration and, to a smaller extent, the increase in the number of urban centers from 39 in 1948 to 98 in 1960 to 135 in 1970. In the 1970 census only 57.1% of the population were enumerated in their locality of birth and only 20.9% in a locality other than their place of birth but in the same region. 4.1% were born outside Ghana, mostly in another West African country. 1 striking difference between urban and rural areas is the differing sex ratio of the working population. In rural areas there are 91.0 males aged 15-64 years for every 100 females while in urban areas there are 107.1. Most migration in Africa is for employment and those most likely to migrate are working-age males. Because secondary schools are scarce in rural areas, urban dwellers generally have a higher education level. There are no significant differences between overall labor force participation rates for females. The nationwide participation rate was 38.9% for both males and females (males 43.8%, females 34.1%); in urban areas the total was 40.0% (males 46.3%, females 33.7%) and in rural areas 38.5% (males 42.7%, females 34.3%). Ghanaian women have traditionally occupied a prominent place in the labor force. The theory that urban migration is due to urban-rural income disparities is not confirmed by figures. Considering the high amount of unemployment in urban areas, a rural dweller can average as much as a city dweller. In fact, poorly educated migrants are the ones most affected by urban unemployment. A recent study by Kodwo Ewusi considered the impact of many variables on migration; he found depressed social conditions at the place of origin are more compelling motivations than economic factors

  16. Influence of cigarette smoking on coronary artery and aortic calcium among random samples from populations of middle-age Japanese and Korean men

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Nobutaka; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sekikawa, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Choo, Jina; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Kadota, Aya; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Masaki, Kamal; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Kuller, Lewis H.; Curb, J. David; Shin, Chol

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a risk factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). Vascular calcification such as coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic calcium (AC) is associated with CHD. We hypothesized that cigarette smoking is associated with coronary artery and aortic calcifications in Japanese and Koreans with high smoking prevalence. Methods Random samples from populations of 313 Japanese and 302 Korean men aged 40 to 49 were examined for calcification of the coronary artery and aorta using electron beam computed tomography. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic calcium (AC) were quantified using the Agatston score. We examined the associations of cigarette smoking with CAC and AC after adjusting for conventional risk factors and alcohol consumption. Current and past smokers were combined and categorized into two groups using median pack-years as a cutoff point in each of Japanese and Koreans. The never smoker group was used as a reference for the multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The odds ratios of CAC (score ≥10) for smokers with higher pack-years were 2.9 in Japanese (P<0.05) and 1.3 in Koreans (non-significant) compared to never smokers. The odds ratios of AC (score ≥100) for smokers with higher pack-years were 10.4 in Japanese (P<0.05) and 3.6 in Koreans (P<0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking with higher pack-years is significantly associated with CAC and AC in Japanese men, while cigarette smoking with higher pack-years is significantly associated with AC but not significantly with CAC in Korean men. PMID:22844083

  17. The prevalence of and risk factors for Barrett's esophagus in a Korean population: A nationwide multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Chung, Moon Gi; Park, Seon Mee; Baik, Gwang Ho; Nah, Byung Kyu; Nam, Su Youn; Seo, Kang Seok; Ko, Byung Sung; Jang, Jae-Young; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Kim, Ji Won; Choi, Youn Seon; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Jin Il; Cho, Mee-Yon; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Soo-Heon; Jung, Hyun Chae; Chung, In-Sik

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Barrett's esophagus (BE) in the general Korean population by evaluating screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy. In addition, the risk factors for BE were identified. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy examination was performed in 25,536 subjects who had upper endoscopy screening from January 2006 to July 2006. Two hundred and fifteen subjects were confirmed to have BE by pathology, thus the prevalence of BE was calculated to be 0.84%. The endoscopic findings were subdivided into 2 groups: BE without reflux esophagitis (RE), which included 167 (77.7%), and BE with RE, which included 48 (22.3%). The analysis of symptoms showed that only 60.1% of the subjects with BE had reflux symptoms. Chest pain [odds ratio (OR): 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.11] and epigastric soreness (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05-1.93) were found more frequently in the subjects with BE compared with the normal subjects. The multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors for all subjects with BE were a male sex (OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32-2.50), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.28-3.20), hiatal hernia (OR: 5.66, 95% CI: 3.70-8.66), and an age > or = 60 compared with an age < 40 (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.07-3.09). There was no significant difference associated with RE. The prevalence of BE in Korean patients presenting for a routine health check-up was 0.84%, lower than reported in Western countries. Among the subjects with BE 77.7% did not have endoscopic erosions and there were no reflux symptoms in 39.9%. These results suggest that regular endoscopic screening with a high index of suspicion is necessary for the diagnosis of BE.

  18. Occurrence of diverse dsRNA in a Korean population of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Moon; Kim, Jung-Mi; Chung, Hea-Jong; Lim, Jin-Young; Kwon, Bo-Ra; Lim, Jung-Gu; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Myoung-Ju; Cha, Byeong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Sub; Yang, Moon-Sik; Kim, Dae-Hyuk

    2008-10-01

    We analysed 676 isolates from 33 Korean Cryphonectria parasitica subpopulations in Korea for dsRNA incidence and diversity. dsRNA was detected in 84 isolates. Although the dsRNA banding patterns varied in several minor bands, infected isolates could be categorized into two groups. The most common banding pattern occurred in 77 isolates and contained a 12.7-kb band indicative of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1), and several accompanying minor bands with sizes ranging from 0.9-5kb. Northern blot analysis revealed that all 12.7-kb fragments in the dsRNA-containing isolates hybridized to probes corresponding to open reading frames (ORFs) A and B from the reference CHV1 strain (GenBank accession no. M57938). In addition, the sequence of a 1.4-kb cDNA fragment from a representative isolate of the most common group showed 99% sequence similarity to ORF A of CHV1. However, the other group of seven isolates had distinctive bands of 3.5 and 3.3kb, but not the 12.7-kb band. Sequence comparison showed that cloned fragments of these dsRNAs were similar to those of the coat protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of chrysovirus, which indicates the occurrence of chrysovirus in the Korean population. Fungal strain identity was assessed via RFLP analysis of the ITS regions. Among the 84 tested isolates, six had different ITS-RFLP patterns (RFLP-II) from that (RFLP-I) of C. parasitica, and are believed to be C. nitschkei, a sympatric species reported on chestnut trees in Japan. The chrysovirus and CHV1 were detected in strains showing both RFLP patterns. However, the chrysovirus was more frequent in the RFLP-II group.

  19. Metabolic syndrome predicts long-term mortality in subjects without established diabetes mellitus in asymptomatic Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Won, Ki-Bum; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Han, Donghee; Sung, Jidong; Choi, Su-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the different features of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Asian populations compared with Western populations, the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on long-term mortality according to DM status has not yet been elucidated in the Asian population. After performing 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) using clinical variables including age, gender, smoking, and individual MetS components between DM and non-DM subjects from the data of the Korea Initiatives on Coronary Artery Calcification registry, mortality was evaluated according to DM and MetS in 14,956 asymptomatic Korean subjects. The mean follow-up duration was 53.1 months (interquartile range: 33–80). The overall prevalence of MetS was 60%. DM subjects had higher mortality compared with non-DM subjects (1.2% vs 0.7%, respectively; P = 0.001); the cumulative mortality by Kaplan–Meier analysis was higher in DM subjects than in non-DM subjects (log-rank P = 0.001). DM increased the risk of mortality in PSM participants (hazard ratio [HR] 1.74; P = 0.001). In non-DM subjects, MetS (HR 2.32) and one of its components, central obesity (HR 1.97), were associated with an increased risk of mortality (both P < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant difference in the risk of mortality according to MetS or its components in DM subjects. After adjusting for confounding risk factors, it was shown that MetS independently increased the risk of mortality in non-DM subjects. Compared with non-DM subjects, DM subjects have an increased risk of long-term mortality among PSM participants. MetS appears to have an independent impact on mortality in subjects without established DM among the asymptomatic Korean population. Our results may not be applicable to the whole subjects with MetS because the PSM using MetS components was performed between subjects with and without DM which was very high risk for adverse clinical events. PMID:27930521

  20. Development and evaluation of a risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged Chinese rural population based on the RuralDiab Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Xiaotian; Xu, Fei; Li, Linlin; Yang, Kaili; Qian, Xinling; Liu, Ruihua; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a simple and effective risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in middle-aged rural Chinese. Total of 5453 participants aged 30–59 years from the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study were recruited for establishing the RuralDiab risk score by using logistic regression analysis. The RuralDiab risk score was validated in a prospective study from Henan Province of China, and compared with previous risk scores by using the receiver-operating characteristics cure. Ultimately, sex, age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, waist circumference, history of dyslipidemia, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index were included in the RuralDiab risk score (range from 0 to 36), and the optimal cutoff value was 17 with 67.9% sensitivity and 67.8% specificity. The area under the cures (AUC) of the RuralDiab risk score was 0.723(95%CI: 0.710–0.735) for T2DM in validation population, which was significant higher than the American Diabetes Association score (AUC: 0.636), the Inter99 score (AUC: 0.669), the Oman risk score (AUC: 0.675). The RuralDiab risk score was established and demonstrated an appropriate performance for predicting T2DM in middle-aged Chinese rural population. Further studies for validation should be implemented in different populations. PMID:28209984

  1. Delays in accessing electroconvulsive therapy: a comparison between two urban and two rural populations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    A comparison of the timing, rates and characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy use between urban and rural populations. The medical records of patients who received an acute course of electroconvulsive therapy at two rural and two urban psychiatric hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Main outcome measures were the time from symptom onset, diagnosis and admission to commencing electroconvulsive therapy. Rates of use of electroconvulsive therapy were also compared between rural and urban hospitals using NSW statewide data. There was a significant delay in the time it took for rural patients to receive electroconvulsive therapy compared with urban patients when measured both from the time of symptom onset and from when they received a diagnosis. There were corresponding delays in the time taken for rural patients to be admitted to hospital compared with urban patients. There was no difference in the time it took to commence electroconvulsive therapy once a patient was admitted to hospital. NSW statewide urban-rural comparisons showed rates of electroconvulsive therapy treatment were significantly higher in urban hospitals. Patients in rural areas receive electroconvulsive therapy later in their acute illness due to delays in being admitted to hospital. The rate of use of electroconvulsive therapy also differs geographically. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  2. Association of CFTR gene variants with nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in a Korean population with a low prevalence of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Su-Young; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Koh, Won-Jung

    2013-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that in Caucasian populations, mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene are associated with susceptibility to lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). However, there is little data available in Asian populations, in which the prevalence of CF is very low. Therefore, we investigated this potential relationship in a Korean population. Sixty patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for NTM lung disease were screened for genetic alterations in the CFTR gene by whole-exon resequencing. For all identified CFTR gene variants, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) genotyping was performed. Genotype and haplotype data were compared between 360 patients with NTM lung disease and 446 healthy controls. Among 13 CFTR genetic variants that were found by whole-exon resequencing, Q1352H showed a significantly higher frequency in NTM patients than in controls, giving an odds ratio (OR) of 4.27 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-12.78). A haplotype with Q1352H showed the strongest association with the disease, with an OR of 3.73 (95% CI, 1.50-9.25). Furthermore, all Q1352H alleles were associated with the V allele of the V470M variant. Our results suggest that CFTR gene variants may increase susceptibility to NTM lung disease in the Korean population. Q1352H appears to be strongly related to NTM lung disease susceptibility in the Korean population.

  3. Association between Blood Cadmium Levels and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk in the General Korean Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Jang, Tae-Won; Lee, Hye Eun; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. Methods The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. Results The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05) in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254) for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354) for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Conclusions Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed. PMID:25383551

  4. Chronic disease management in rural and underserved populations: innovation and system improvement help lead to success.

    PubMed

    Bolin, Jane; Gamm, Larry; Kash, Bita; Peck, Mitchell

    2005-03-01

    Successful implementation of disease management (DM) is based on the ability of an organization to overcome a variety of barriers to deliver timely, appropriate care of chronic illnesses. Such programs initiate DM services to patient populations while initiating self-management education among medication-resistant patients who are chronically ill. Despite formidable challenges, rural health care providers have been successful in initiating DM programs and have discovered several ways in which these programs benefit their organizations. This research reports on six DM programs that serve large rural and underserved populations and have demonstrated that DM can be successfully implemented in such areas.

  5. A Korean version of the Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS-K): psychometric evaluation with a population of Koreans with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hyun; Lee, Young Whee; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Nam, Moonsuk; Kim, Yong Seong; Han, Seung Jin

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Appraisal of Diabetes Scale (ADS) in Korean patients with Type 2 diabetes. The English-language version of the ADS was translated into Korean using a forward-and-backward translation technique. The Korean version of the ADS (ADS-K) was administered to 250 patients who were recruited from two university hospitals. The data were analyzed using principal-component analysis, Cronbach's alpha, analysis of variance, t test, and Pearson's correlation. Six of seven items were meaningfully clustered into a two-factor structure by principal-component analysis, these factors accounting for 63.75% of the total variance. The underlying structure was consistent regardless of either gender or the presence of complications. The Cronbach's alpha of the subscales ranged from .71 to .79, indicating an acceptable internal consistency reliability. As hypothesized, the ADS-K score was moderately correlated with the diabetes-specific quality of life and had satisfactory convergent validity. The known-groups validity of the ADS-K was established using depression groups and HbA1c control status. The ADS-K demonstrated good psychometric properties. In addition, it possessed satisfactory practical properties, such as acceptability and feasibility. Therefore, the ADS-K appears to be suitable for use in both clinical research and clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Rural-urban differentials in marital fertility in four Muslim populations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S

    1985-04-01

    An analysis based on data collected as a part of the World Fertility Survey program in 4 Muslim populations Bangladesh, Java, Jordan and Pakistan does not show a consistent pattern in rural-urban differentials in marital fertility. While no significant diiferential in current fertility by place of current residence is noticeable in Bangladesh and Pakistan, urban women in Jordan showed lower fertility than their rural counterparts. Cumulative fertility, when controlled for duration of marriage, was found to be higher in urban than in rural areas of Bangladesh and Pakistan, but no clear pattern emerged in Jordan. In Java, both current and cumulative fertility were higher in urban than in rural areas; urban women who had spent their childhood and were brought up in the urban environment showed, in most instances, higher fertility than the other residence groups. (author's modified

  7. The problem of paralytic poliomyelitis in the urban and rural population around Lucknow, India.

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, U. C.; Mathur, A.; Singh, U. K.; Kushwaha, M. R.; Mehrotra, R. M.; Kapoor, A. K.; Rai, S.; Gurha, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    A house to house survey was done from October 1972 to March 1974, covering 528952 individuals of urban population at Lucknow and 50,156 individuals of rural population of Unnao district, to find out the incidence of polio-like paralysis in our population. Among 12874 urban children up to 8 years old 8.2/1000 had polio-like paralysis while 4.6/1000 children of the rural population of 13554 children were affected. The incidence was significantly higher in the urban population. In the preschool age group almost 1 out of every 100 children was affected. A higher number of children were affected during 1968-9 and 1971-2, though it did not reach epidemic proportion. The findings show that paralytic polio is a serious problem in our country where poliomyelitis is endemic: this is contrary to the views generally held so far. PMID:701784

  8. Technique failure in Korean incident peritoneal dialysis patients: a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shina; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Hann, Hoo Jae; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Seung-Jung; Kang, Duk-Hee; Choi, Kyu Bok; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol

    2016-12-01

    Technique failure is an important issue for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In this study, we aimed to analyze technique failure rate in detail and to determine the predictors for technique failure in Korea. We identified all patients who had started dialysis between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2008, in Korea, using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. A total of 7,614 PD patients were included, and the median follow-up was 24.9 months. The crude incidence rates of technique failure in PD patients were 54.1 per 1,000 patient-years. The cumulative 1-, 2-, and 3-year technique failure rates of PD patients were 4.9%, 10.3%, and 15.6%, respectively. However, those technique failure rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis were overestimated compared with the values by competing risks analysis, and the differences increased with the follow-up period. In multivariate analyses, diabetes mellitus and Medical Aid as a crude reflection of low socioeconomic status were independent risk factors in both the Cox proportional hazard model and Fine and Gray subdistribution model. In addition, cancer was independently associated with a lower risk of technique failure in the Fine and Gray model. Technique failure was a major concern in patients initiating PD in Korea, especially in diabetic patients and Medical Aid beneficiaries. The results of our study offer a basis for risk stratification for technique failure.

  9. The prevalence and morphologic classification of distolingual roots in the mandibular molars in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Song, Je Seon; Choi, Hyung-Jun; Jung, Il-Young; Jung, Han-Sung; Kim, Seong-Oh

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and concurrency rate of distolingual (DL) roots on mandibular molars and to classify them according to their morphologic features. Serial cross-sectional computed tomography images of the mandibles were collected retrospectively from 1,775 Korean patients of Mongoloid origin. The incidence of DL roots was calculated for each molar, and their patterns of concurrence were analyzed with the Fisher exact test. DL roots were categorized into five groups according to their morphologic characteristics using the three-dimensional reconstructed images. The incidence rate of DL roots was highest for first molars (24.5%) and lowest for second molars (0.7%). They were often present concurrently in adjacent molars (p < 0.004). The morphologic characteristics of DL roots in the first molars varied greatly from a severely curved type (type III, 40.5%) to an underdeveloped small type or a conical type (2.5% and 1.4%, respectively). Data regarding the pattern of occurrence and the morphologic features of DL roots can provide useful information to clinicians, leading to higher rate of success of endodontic treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  11. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chung, So-Hyang; Myong, Jun-Pyo

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Development of Seven Microsatellite Markers Using Next Generation Sequencing for the Conservation on the Korean Population of Dorcus hopei (E. Saunders, 1854) (Coleoptera, Lucanidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun Jae

    2015-01-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for genetic structural analyses of Dorcus hopei, a stag beetle species, using next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping for regional populations. A total of 407,070,351 base pairs of genomic DNA containing >4000 microsatellite loci except AT repeats were sequenced. From 76 loci selected for primer design, 27 were polymorphic. Of these 27 markers, 10 were tested on three regional populations: two Chinese (Shichuan and Guangxi) and one Korean (Wanju). Three markers were excluded due to inconsistent amplification, genotyping errors, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). By multi-locus genotyping, the allele number, observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of seven microsatellite loci were ranged 2‒10, 0.1333‒1.0000, and 0.1228‒0.8509, respectively. In an analysis on the genetic differentiation among regional populations including one Japanese population and one cross-breeding population, the individual colored bar-plots showed that both Chinese populations were closer to each other than to the Far East Asian populations. In Far East Asian populations, Wanju and Nirasaki populations could not be distinguished from each other because the frequency of genetic contents was very similar in some individuals of two populations. Moreover, the cross-breeding population contained all patterns of genetic contents shown in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese populations, compared with the genetic content frequency of each regional population. As a result, we examined whether the cross-breeding population might be a hybrid population, and might contain a possibility of interbreeding with Chinese populations in parental generations. Therefore, these markers will be useful for analyses of genetic diversity in populations, genetic relationships between regional populations, genetic structure analyses, and origin tests. PMID:26370965

  13. Development of Seven Microsatellite Markers Using Next Generation Sequencing for the Conservation on the Korean Population of Dorcus hopei (E. Saunders, 1854) (Coleoptera, Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Han, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun Jae

    2015-09-07

    We developed microsatellite markers for genetic structural analyses of Dorcus hopei, a stag beetle species, using next generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping for regional populations. A total of 407,070,351 base pairs of genomic DNA containing >4000 microsatellite loci except AT repeats were sequenced. From 76 loci selected for primer design, 27 were polymorphic. Of these 27 markers, 10 were tested on three regional populations: two Chinese (Shichuan and Guangxi) and one Korean (Wanju). Three markers were excluded due to inconsistent amplification, genotyping errors, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). By multi-locus genotyping, the allele number, observed heterozygosity and polymorphism information content of seven microsatellite loci were ranged 2-10, 0.1333-1.0000, and 0.1228-0.8509, respectively. In an analysis on the genetic differentiation among regional populations including one Japanese population and one cross-breeding population, the individual colored bar-plots showed that both Chinese populations were closer to each other than to the Far East Asian populations. In Far East Asian populations, Wanju and Nirasaki populations could not be distinguished from each other because the frequency of genetic contents was very similar in some individuals of two populations. Moreover, the cross-breeding population contained all patterns of genetic contents shown in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese populations, compared with the genetic content frequency of each regional population. As a result, we examined whether the cross-breeding population might be a hybrid population, and might contain a possibility of interbreeding with Chinese populations in parental generations. Therefore, these markers will be useful for analyses of genetic diversity in populations, genetic relationships between regional populations, genetic structure analyses, and origin tests.

  14. Astigmatism in underserved rural areas: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Malekifar, Azam; Yekta, Abbasali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    Studying the prevalence of astigmatism and its related factors in underprivileged rural areas in Iran. Using random cluster sampling, two rural areas in the north and southwest of Iran were randomly selected, and 3851 persons over 1 year of age were invited to the study. In addition to recording demographics, retinoscopic refraction was conducted using baseline auto-refraction results. The prevalence of astigmatism was determined based on cylinder error cut-off points of 0.50 dioptre (D), 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 D. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess variables' relationship with astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism as a cylinder error greater than 0.50 D was 35.6% (95% CI: 33.7-37.6); this was 34.0% (95% CI: 31.4-36.6) in women and 36.9% (95% CI: 33.9-39.9) in men. The lowest prevalence was seen in the 6-20 year old age group (13.6%) and the highest prevalence was found in individuals older than 70 years (82.5%). In the multiple logistic regression model, age and education level were significantly related to astigmatism. The prevalence rates of with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule (ATR), and oblique astigmatism were respectively 15.0%, 17.2%, and 3.5%. The prevalence of WTR astigmatism decreased with age, while the prevalence of ATR (and oblique astigmatism to a lesser extent) increased. The prevalence of astigmatism was similar to previous studies; however, there were considerable age-related changes. In particular, the prevalence of astigmatism in elderly people was substantial and of concern, particularly given that virtually none of this age group were wearing distance spectacles. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  15. The Association between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here…

  16. The Association between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents' Economic Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here…

  17. Smoking prevalence in urban and rural populations: findings from California between 2001 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lianqi; Edland, Steven; Myers, Mark G; Hofstetter, C Richard; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2016-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and related health problems are still major public health concerns in the United States despite the declining smoking prevalence. This study explored differences in smoking prevalence between urban and rural areas potentially relevant to tobacco control efforts in California. Public use adult smoking data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) between 2001 and 2011-2012 were analyzed. A total of 282 931 adults were surveyed across the six CHIS cycles. A ZIP code-based geographic classification (Urban, Second-City, Suburban, and Town/Rural) was used to examine the association between smoking prevalence and area of residency. The overall smoking prevalence in California decreased from 17.0% in 2001 to 13.8% in 2011-2012. Within each CHIS cycle, the Town/Rural areas had the highest smoking prevalence, followed by Urban and Second-City areas, and Suburban areas had the lowest. Pooled data from all CHIS cycles showed a similar pattern, with rates in Urban, Second-City, Suburban and Town/Rural areas being 15.2%, 15.2%, 13.1% and 17.3%, respectively. Weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated significantly higher odds of smoking in Urban, Second-City and Town/Rural areas compared to Suburban areas (all adjusted odds ratios > 1.10), although this trend varied by race/ethnicity, being present in non-Hispanic Whites and not present in Hispanics. Town/Rural and Urban populations of California are consistently at higher risk of smoking than Suburban populations. These results indicate a need for population-specific tobacco control approaches that address the lifestyle, behavior, and education of disparate populations within the same state or region.

  18. A Demographic Deficit? Local Population Aging and Access to Services in Rural America, 1990–2010

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, Brian; Brown, David L.; Sanders, Scott R.; Glasgow, Nina; Kulcsar, Laszlo J.

    2017-01-01

    Population aging is being experienced by many rural communities in the U.S., as evidenced by increases in the median age and the high incidence of natural population decrease. The implications of these changes in population structure for the daily lives of the residents in such communities have received little attention. We address this issue in the current study by examining the relationship between population aging and the availability of service-providing establishments in the rural U.S. between 1990 and 2010. Using data mainly from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we estimate a series of fixed-effects regression models to identify the relationship between median age and establishment counts net of changes in overall population and other factors. We find a significant, but non-linear relationship between county median age and the total number of service-providing establishments, and counts of most specific types of services. We find a positive effect of total population size across all of our models. This total population effect is consistent with other research, but the independent effects of age structure that we observe represent a novel finding and suggest that age structure is a salient factor in local rural development and community wellbeing. PMID:28757660

  19. Pathways Involved in Sasang Constitution from Genome-Wide Analysis in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sung-Gon; Kim, Jong-Yeol; Song, Kwang Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Sasang constitution (SC) medicine, a branch of Korean traditional medicine, classifies the individual into one of four constitutional types (Taeum, TE; Soeum, SE; Soyang, SY; and Taeyang, TY) based on physiologic characteristics. The authors of the current article recently reported individual genetic elements associated with SC types via genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. However, to understand the biologic mechanisms underlying constitution, a comprehensive approach that combines individual genetic effects was applied. Design Genotypes of 1222 subjects of defined constitution types were measured for 341,998 genetic loci across the entire genome. The biologic pathways associated with SC types were identified via GWA analysis using three different algorithms—namely, the Z-static method, a restandardized gene set assay, and a gene set enrichment assay. Results Distinct pathways were associated (p<0.05) with each constitution type. The TE type was significantly associated with cytoskeleton-related pathways. The SE type was significantly associated with cardio- and amino-acid metabolism–related pathways. The SY type was associated with enriched melanoma-related pathways. TY subjects were excluded because of the small size of that sample. Among these functionally related pathways, core-node genes regulating multiple pathways were identified. TJP1, PTK2, and SRC were selected as core-nodes for TE; RHOA, and MAOA/MAOB for SE; and GNAO1 for SY (p<0.05), respectively. Conclusions The current authors systematically identified the biologic pathways and core-node genes associated with SC types from the GWA study; this information should provide insights regarding the molecular mechanisms inherent in constitutional pathophysiology. PMID:22889377

  20. Clinical characteristics and long-term observation of simple renal cysts in a healthy Korean population.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Duck

    2016-03-01

    Although simple renal cysts are common in older patients, little is known concerning their development and natural history. We investigated the characteristics of simple renal cysts and risk factors for their development in healthy Korean adults. The medical records of 10,261 subjects who participated in a multiphase health screening program at our institution in 2002 were reviewed. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine various risk factors for renal cyst formation including sex, age, BMI, serum creatinine, estimated GFR, proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. In 65 patients and 79 simple renal cysts with annual follow-up for 10 years, sequential changes in size and risk factors related to cyst growth rate were analyzed. The prevalence of simple renal cysts was 5.43 %. Age (p < 0.001), BMI (p < 0.001), proteinuria (p = 0.011), microscopic hematuria (p < 0.001), estimated GFR (p < 0.001), and hypertension (p < 0.001) had a significant influence on the occurrence of simple renal cysts. The average growth rates of simple renal cysts over the 10-year follow-up period were 1.43 mm (6.5 %) per year. Age <50 years was the only significant predictor of growth rates of renal cysts in the multivariate analysis (β = 2.37; 95 % CI 0.52, 4.22; p = 0.013). Age, BMI, renal dysfunction, proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and hypertension were found to be risk factors for the presence of simple renal cysts. Simple renal cysts in younger patients (<50 years) tend to have a more rapid increase in size, but generally do not progress to aggressive disease.

  1. The Association between Alcohol Consumption and β-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Min-Gyu; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Lee, Hye-Ja; Park, Sang Ick

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and insulin secretion and sensitivity using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Alcohol consumption levels were categorized into four groups: (i) abstainers, (ii) low (<5 g/day), (iii) intermediate (<30 g/day), and (iv) high (≥30 g/day) alcohol consumption. β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were estimated using the insulinogenic index (IGI60), and Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI), respectively. IGI60 and ISI were dichotomized into high and low groups using median cut-off values and four groups were defined (G-I: high IGI60/high ISI; G-II: high IGI60/low ISI; G-III: low IGI60/high ISI; and G-IV: low IGI60/low ISI). Men consumed 26.5 g alcohol per day on average, whereas women only consumed 5.7 g/day, so women were excluded from subsequent analyses due to their low drinking levels. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and triglycerides (TG) in men, but was negatively associated with IGI60 (p < 0.05). TG levels were only increased in individuals with decreased insulin sensitivity (G-II) or decreased β-cell function (G-III) with high alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption increased HDL cholesterol in the four groups (p < 0.001). In subjects with decreased insulin sensitivity (G-II), intermediate and high alcohol consumption increased the risk of high cholesterol and TG. In individuals with decreased β-cell function (G-III), alcohol consumption increased the risk of high TG and high AST levels. High alcohol consumption was significantly associated with reduced insulin secretion. In addition, alcohol consumption was related to some metabolic risk factors depending on insulin secretion or sensitivity. PMID:27854254

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma screening in a hepatitis B virus-infected Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Ha; Heo, Nae Yun; Park, Jong Ha; Kim, Tae Oh; Yang, Sung Yeun; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Moon, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoon; Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Heon Young

    2012-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening has been recommended for hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected individuals in an effort to detect HCC at a sufficiently early stage to provide potentially curative treatments. The study reported here is the first to address the rate of HCC screening use in an HBV endemic area. Data were collected from 11,147 adults aged ≥40 years who participated in the 2007-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had a valid HBV surface antigen test. Current HCC screening was defined as either receiving an ultrasonography or an α-fetoprotein measurement in the past year. Prevalence estimates were weighted. The response rate was 78.4 %, and 436 cases of HBV infection were identified. The overall seroprevalence of the HBV surface antigen was 4.1 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.9-4.4 %]. Of the 436 HBV-infected subjects, only 23.2 % (95 % CI 19.5 -27.4 %) were aware that they had been infected, and approximately 27 % (27.1 %; 95 %CI 23.2-to 31.5 %) were up to date with their HCC screening tests; more than half (52.9 %, 95 % CI 48.2-57.5) had never been screened. In a multivariate analysis that included various sociodemographic variables, only self-reported awareness of HBV infection was significantly associated with current HCC screening tests (odds ratio 2.82; 95 % CI 1.64-4.84). Adoption of HCC screening as a standard practice among HBV-infected Korean adults aged ≥40 years is suboptimal. Evidence-based programs in communities and education for both healthcare providers and HBV-infected persons are needed to improve the implementation of HCC screening in clinical practice.

  3. Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations – Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) – were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ≥0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ≥0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed. PMID:23518904

  4. The rural bite in population pyramids: what are the implications for responsiveness of health systems in middle income countries?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services can only be responsive if they are designed to service the needs of the population at hand. In many low and middle income countries, the rate of urbanisation can leave the profile of the rural population quite different from the urban population. As a consequence, the kinds of services required for an urban population may be quite different from that required for a rural population. This is examined using data from the South East Asia Community Observatory in rural Malaysia and contrasting it with the national Malaysia population profile. Methods Census data were collected from 10,373 household and the sex and age of household members was recorded. Approximate Malaysian national age and sex profiles were downloaded from the US Census Bureau. The population pyramids, and the dependency and support ratios for the whole population and the SEACO sub-district population are compared. Results Based on the population profiles and the dependency ratios, the rural sub-district shows need for health services in the under 14 age group similar to that required nationally. In the older age group, however, the rural sub-district shows twice the need for services as the national data indicate. Conclusion The health services needs of an older population will tend towards chronic conditions, rather than the typically acute conditions of childhood. The relatively greater number of older people in the rural population suggest a very different health services mix need. Community based population monitoring provides critical information to inform health systems. PMID:25081203

  5. The rural bite in population pyramids: what are the implications for responsiveness of health systems in middle income countries?

    PubMed

    Jahan, Nowrozy; Allotey, Pascale; Arunachalam, Dharma; Yasin, Shajahan; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Davey, Tamzyn M; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Health services can only be responsive if they are designed to service the needs of the population at hand. In many low and middle income countries, the rate of urbanisation can leave the profile of the rural population quite different from the urban population. As a consequence, the kinds of services required for an urban population may be quite different from that required for a rural population. This is examined using data from the South East Asia Community Observatory in rural Malaysia and contrasting it with the national Malaysia population profile. Census data were collected from 10,373 household and the sex and age of household members was recorded. Approximate Malaysian national age and sex profiles were downloaded from the US Census Bureau. The population pyramids, and the dependency and support ratios for the whole population and the SEACO sub-district population are compared. Based on the population profiles and the dependency ratios, the rural sub-district shows need for health services in the under 14 age group similar to that required nationally. In the older age group, however, the rural sub-district shows twice the need for services as the national data indicate. The health services needs of an older population will tend towards chronic conditions, rather than the typically acute conditions of childhood. The relatively greater number of older people in the rural population suggest a very different health services mix need. Community based population monitoring provides critical information to inform health systems.

  6. Gender-Specific Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Kim, Bo Hyun; Je, Hyung Gon; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the gender-specific associations between psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. We examined 4,689 Korean adults aged 20-79 years who participated in the 2013 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. With regard to SES, occupation status (none, manual, and nonmanual), marital status (single, married, divorced, and widowed), and psychological factors (detection of stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts) were determined via questionnaires. Compared with married men, single and divorced men exhibited ORs (95% confidence interval [CIs]) for MetS of 0.45 (0.31-0.65) and 1.61 (1.02-2.55), respectively, after adjusting for covariates. However, this association was not significant in women. Compared with those in the lowest household income group and least educated group in women, the ORs for MetS in the highest income group and the most educated group were 0.63 (CI 0.46-0.86) and 0.46 (CI 0.32-0.67), respectively. Suicidal thoughts in men (OR 1.64, CI 1.03-2.61) and perceived stress in women (OR 1.26, CI 1.01-1.59) were associated with MetS. In this study, MetS has gender-specific associations with lower SES and psychological factors. Thus, gender-specific public health interventions based on SES and psychological factors are needed to prevent and treat MetS and reduce additional cardiovascular disease risk.

  7. Gender-Specific Associations between Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in the Korean Population: Findings from the 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung Im; Je, Hyung Gon; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the gender-specific associations between psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. We examined 4,689 Korean adults aged 20–79 years who participated in the 2013 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. With regard to SES, occupation status (none, manual, and nonmanual), marital status (single, married, divorced, and widowed), and psychological factors (detection of stress, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts) were determined via questionnaires. Compared with married men, single and divorced men exhibited ORs (95% confidence interval [CIs]) for MetS of 0.45 (0.31–0.65) and 1.61 (1.02–2.55), respectively, after adjusting for covariates. However, this association was not significant in women. Compared with those in the lowest household income group and least educated group in women, the ORs for MetS in the highest income group and the most educated group were 0.63 (CI 0.46–0.86) and 0.46 (CI 0.32–0.67), respectively. Suicidal thoughts in men (OR 1.64, CI 1.03–2.61) and perceived stress in women (OR 1.26, CI 1.01–1.59) were associated with MetS. In this study, MetS has gender-specific associations with lower SES and psychological factors. Thus, gender-specific public health interventions based on SES and psychological factors are needed to prevent and treat MetS and reduce additional cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:28050556

  8. Rural Renaissance in America? The Revival of Population Growth in Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.; Wheeler, Judith P.

    Presenting narrative and tabular documentation of the revival of population growth in remote, rural areas and the decline of growth in urban areas, this bulletin describes the characteristics of these shifts, considers their possible causes, and suggests some of the problems and potential benefits. Specifically, this report presents the following:…

  9. Meeting the Challenge of a Changing Rural School/Community Cultural Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara N.

    2000-01-01

    A rural Missouri school district considered student records and parents' and teachers' needs in formulating changes to accommodate its increasing Hispanic population. Teachers took Spanish classes at an area college; limited English speaking students took special English classes; small group instruction, mentors, and peer helpers were used; and a…

  10. Rural Renaissance in America? The Revival of Population Growth in Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Peter A.; Wheeler, Judith P.

    Presenting narrative and tabular documentation of the revival of population growth in remote, rural areas and the decline of growth in urban areas, this bulletin describes the characteristics of these shifts, considers their possible causes, and suggests some of the problems and potential benefits. Specifically, this report presents the following:…

  11. Social Capital Networking and Immigrant Populations in Rural Minnesota a Qualitative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeger-Hagemeister, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Combining social capital theory and immigration history and theory a qualitative study was conducted using a variation of Critical Incident Technique to identify the motivations of individuals in rural communities who championed community responses to the influx of large immigrant populations. Twenty-eight individuals identified as key champions…

  12. Social Capital Networking and Immigrant Populations in Rural Minnesota a Qualitative Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeger-Hagemeister, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Combining social capital theory and immigration history and theory a qualitative study was conducted using a variation of Critical Incident Technique to identify the motivations of individuals in rural communities who championed community responses to the influx of large immigrant populations. Twenty-eight individuals identified as key champions…

  13. Natural amenities and rural population migration: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment

    Treesearch

    H. Ken Cordell; Vahé Heboyan; Florence Santos; John C. Bergstrom

    2011-01-01

    Research has suggested that significant relationships exist between rural population change and natural amenities. Thus, understanding and predicting domestic migration trends as a function of changes in natural amenities is important for effective regional growth and development policies and strategies. In this study, we first estimated an econometric model which...

  14. Individualized Health Intervention: Behavioral Change and Quality of Life in an Older Rural Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Biao; Chen, Kun; Yu, Yunxian; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Zheng, Weijun

    2010-01-01

    A randomized cluster trial was conducted to assess the impact of individualized health intervention guided by the transtheoretical model (TTM) theory on behavior change and quality of life (QoL) among the older rural population of China. A total of 2441 persons aged 60 years and over participated in the study. After a nine-month intervention,…

  15. Rural Economic Development Consequences of the Population Turnaround in Northern Lower Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Patrick C.; And Others

    Consequences of population turnaround for rural economic development are examined in a 9-county region of Northern Lower Michigan. Data from census reports and 374 usable responses to a questionnaire mailed to a random sample of property owners drawn from 1982 county tax assessment rolls were used to test competing hypotheses about rural…

  16. Understanding rural-urban differences in risk factors for breast cancer in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Nagrani, Rajini; Mhatre, Sharayu; Boffetta, Paolo; Rajaraman, Preetha; Badwe, Rajendra; Gupta, Sudeep; Romieu, Isabelle; Parmar, Vani; Dikshit, Rajesh

    2016-02-01

    Although cancer registry data indicate that there are large differences in breast cancer (BC) rates between rural and urban regions of India, the reasons for these differences are not well understood. We conducted a hospital based case-control study (1,637 breast cancer cases; 1,515 visitor controls) in Mumbai, India, during the years 2009-2013. Extensive questionnaire data, anthropometry measurement and blood samples were collected on all participants. Using logistic regression models, we estimated risk based on odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for various reproductive and anthropometric measures, stratified by rural-urban status depending upon residence in first 20 years of life. Waist-to-hip ratio of ≥0.95 compared to ratio ≤0.84 was strongly associated with risk of BC in both rural and urban populations (ORurban = 4.10, 95 % CI 3.03-5.56; ORrural = 3.01, 95 % CI 1.85-4.90). First full-term pregnancy after the age of 25 compared to first full-term pregnancy below 20 years of age was associated with risk of BC in both urban and rural women (ORurban = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.32-2.41; ORrural = 2.24, 95 % CI 1.13-4.43). The prevalence of age at first full-term pregnancy was significantly lower in rural (mean age at first full-term pregnancy = 19.39 years) versus urban women (mean age at first full-term pregnancy = 22.62 years), whereas mean waist circumference was much higher in urban women (82.13 cm) compared to rural women (79.26 cm). We did not observe any association between breast feeding and risk of BC. Differences in the prevalence of central adiposity and age at first full-term pregnancy between rural and urban women from India may explain some differences in breast cancer rates between these two populations.

  17. Identifying environmental health priorities in underserved populations: a study of rural versus urban communities

    PubMed Central

    Bernhard, M.C.; Evans, M.B.; Kent, S.T.; Johnson, E.; Threadgill, S.L.; Tyson, S.; Becker, S.M.; Gohlke, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Understanding and effectively addressing persistent health disparities in minority communities requires a clear picture of members’ concerns and priorities. This study was intended to engage residents in urban and rural communities in order to identify environmental health priorities. Specific emphasis was placed on how the communities defined the term environment, their perceptions of environmental exposures as affecting their health, specific priorities in their communities, and differences in urban versus rural populations. Study design A community-engaged approach was used to develop and implement focus groups and compare environmental health priorities in urban versus rural communities. Methods A total of eight focus groups were conducted: four in rural and four in urban communities. Topics included defining the term environment, how the environment may affect health, and environmental priorities within their communities, using both open discussion and a predefined list. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively to identify patterns and trends. Results There were important areas of overlap in priorities between urban and rural communities; both emphasized the importance of the social environment and shared a concern over air pollution from industrial sources. In contrast, for urban focus groups, abandoned houses and their social and physical sequelae were a high priority while concerns about adequate sewer and water services and road maintenance were high priorities in rural communities. Conclusions This study was able to identify environmental health priorities in urban versus rural minority communities. In contrast to some previous risk perception research, the results of this study suggest prioritization of tangible, known risks in everyday life instead of rare, disaster-related events, even in communities that have recently experienced devastating damage from tornadoes. The findings can help inform future efforts to study

  18. Screening mammography uptake within Australia and Scotland in rural and urban populations

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Janni; Macleod, Catriona; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Woods, Laura M.; Henderson, Robert; Watson, Angus; Kyle, Richard G.; Hubbard, Gill; Mullen, Russell; Atherton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that rural populations had lower uptake of screening mammography than urban populations in the Scottish and Australian setting. Method Scottish data are based upon information from the Scottish Breast Screening Programme Information System describing uptake among women residing within the NHS Highland Health Board area who were invited to attend for screening during the 2008 to 2010 round (N = 27,416). Australian data were drawn from the 2010 survey of the 1946–51 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (N = 9890 women). Results Contrary to our hypothesis, results indicated that women living in rural areas were not less likely to attend for screening mammography compared to women living in urban areas in both Scotland (OR for rural = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06–1.29) and Australia (OR for rural = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01–1.31). Conclusions The absence of rural–urban differences in attendance at screening mammography demonstrates that rurality is not necessarily an insurmountable barrier to screening mammography. PMID:26844118

  19. Accounting for vulnerable populations in rural hazard mitigation plans: results of a survey of emergency managers.

    PubMed

    Horney, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Mai; Cooper, John; Simon, Matthew; Ricchetti-Masterson, Kristen; Grabich, Shannon; Salvesen, David; Berke, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas of the United States are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of natural disasters. One possible way to mitigate vulnerability to disasters in rural communities is to have a high-quality hazard mitigation plan in place. To understand the resources available for hazard mitigation planning and determine how well hazard mitigation plans in rural counties meet the needs of vulnerable populations, we surveyed the lead planning or emergency management official responsible for hazard mitigation plans in 96 rural counties in eight states in the Southeastern United States. In most counties, emergency management was responsible for implementing the county's hazard mitigation plan and the majority of counties had experienced a presidentially declared disaster in the last 5 years. Our research findings demonstrated that there were differences in subjective measures of vulnerability (as reported by survey respondents) and objective measures of vulnerability (as determined by US Census data). In addition, although few counties surveyed included outreach to vulnerable groups as a part of their hazard mitigation planning process, a majority felt that their hazard mitigation plan addressed the needs of vulnerable populations "well" or "very well." These differences could result in increased vulnerabilities in rural areas, particularly for certain vulnerable groups.

  20. Association between small for gestational age and intrauterine fetal death: comparing a customized South Korean growth standard versus a population-based fetal growth chart.

    PubMed

    Moon, Myoungjin; Baek, Min Jung; Ahn, Eunhee; Odibo, Anthony O

    2016-03-01

    To determine if a customized growth standard developed for an ethnically homogeneous South Korean population is better at identifying (SGA) fetuses at risk for intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD), compared with a current population based-growth standard. A retrospective cohort study comparing the identification of SGA fetuses at risk for IUFD using a customized versus a population based-chart. The association between a SGA infant defined as a birth weight <10th percentile using the South Korean population chart versus the customized chart and IUFD were compared. Intrauterine fetal death was defined as fetal demise occurring after 20 weeks gestation. Statistical analyses including OR, 95% confidence interval (CI), and screening accuracy using each chart were performed. The customized singleton chart identified 11 (8.2%) of the SGA pregnancies detected by the population chart and classified 15 additional fetuses as SGA. Those identified as SGA using the customized chart had an OR for IUFD that was approximately 15 times as high as those identified using the population chart. The customized chart also showed a higher sensitivity and specificity for identifying SGA pregnancies at risk for IUFD. In this ethnically homogenous population, the customized growth chart showed improved discrimination in identifying SGA pregnancies at risk for fetal death than the population-based growth chart.

  1. [Determinants of household healthcare expenditure of rural floating population in Beijing: a Tobit model approach].

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-pu; Wu, Ming

    2010-10-18

    To explain the household healthcare expenditure among the rural floating population in Beijing and analyze the determinants of a household total healthcare consumption. The data came from the special investigation about rural floating population in Beijing which is part of The Fourth National Health Service Investigation of China. A total of 4 698-native rural migrants (2,728 families) in Beijing were chosen as subjects and a Tobit model was used to analyze the data. Base on the censored characteristics, we use the censored least absolute deviations (CLAD) method to estimate the parameters. Compared with the general urban population, the population under investigation has a high proportion of male and unmarried, but low educated group of young people. The average household healthcare expenditure per month was 21.26 Yuan, and about 74% of the households had made no healthcare expenditure 3 months preceding the survey. The household healthcare expenditure was influenced by the household's education level, household's income level, household size, Engel's coefficient, head's choice of medical institutions and so on. The level of household healthcare expenditure is low with the determinants in the floating population, such as the household's economic circumstances and so on. We should make and develop relevant policies and improve the healthcare utilization of the floating population.

  2. Anemia and Helicobacter pylori Seroreactivity in a Rural Haitian Population

    PubMed Central

    Shak, Joshua R.; Sodikoff, Jamie B.; Speckman, Rebecca A.; Rollin, Francois G.; Chery, Marie P.; Cole, Conrad R.; Suchdev, Parminder S.

    2011-01-01

    Anemia is a significant health concern worldwide and can be the result of nutritional, environmental, social, and infectious etiologies. We estimated the prevalence of anemia in 336 pre-school children and 132 adults in the rural Central Plateau of Haiti and assessed associations with age, sex, household size, water source, sanitation, and Helicobacter pylori seroreactivity using logistic regression analysis; 80.1% (269/336) of children and 63.6% (84/132) of adults were anemic. Among children, younger age was associated with increased prevalence of anemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5–11.1 for children 6–11 months compared with children 48–59 months). Among adults, 50.8% were H. pylori-seropositive, and seropositivity was inversely associated with anemia (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2–0.9). Anemia prevalence in this region of Haiti is very high and not attributable to sanitary conditions or a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:22049049

  3. Assessing foot care knowledge in a rural population with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Neil, Janice A

    2002-01-01

    In people with insensate extremities, such as those with diabetes mellitus, daily foot care and inspection can prevent the development of foot ulcers and the subsequent complications that may lead to amputation--one of the biggest threats to adults with diabetes. Preventive behaviors focus on not going barefoot, performing/receiving proper foot care, and wearing properly fitting shoes. This descriptive study of footcare practices involved a convenience sample of 61 adult men and women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, 24 with existing foot ulcers and 37 without foot ulcers, who resided in a rural area of a southeastern state. The questionnaire was divided into four categories: foot inspection, foot cleaning, nail care, and use of footwear. Out of a possible score of 20, those with foot ulcers scored an average of 13.88 and those without ulcers averaged 13.57. These results reveal that those without foot ulcers have similar foot care practices to those with foot ulcers. This instrument is useful in assessing current foot care practices on a point-in-time basis. Preventive practices must be stressed and reinforced so those without foot ulcers do not develop ulcers.

  4. Heritabilities of somatotype components in a population from rural Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Saranga, Sílvio Pedro José; Prista, António; Nhantumbo, Leonardo; Beunen, Gaston; Rocha, Jorge; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Maia, José A

    2008-01-01

    There have been few genetic studies of normal variation in body size and composition conducted in Africa. In particular, the genetic determinants of somatotype remain to be established for an African population. (1) To estimate the heritabilities of aspects of somatotype and (2) to compare the quantitative genetic effects in an African population to those that have been assessed in European and American populations. The sample composed of 329 subjects (173 males and 156 females) aged 7-17 years, belonging to 132 families. The sibships in the sample ranged in size from two to seven individuals. All sampled individuals were residents of the Calanga region, an area located to the north of Maputo in Mozambique. Somatotype was assessed using the Heath-Carter technique. Herit abilities were estimated using SAGE software. Moderate heritabilities were determined for each trait. Between 30 and 40% of the variation in each somatotype measure was attributable to genetic factors. The heritability of ectomorphy was 31%. Mesomorphy was similarly moderately heritable, with approximately 30% of the variationattributable to genetic factors. The heritability of endomorph was higher in the Calanga population (h(2) = 0.40). Quantitative genetic analyses of somatotype variation among siblings indicate that genetic factors significantly influence endomorphy, mesomorhpy, and ectomorphy. However, environmental factors also have significant effects on the variation in physique present in the population of Calanga. Lack of proper nutrition, housing, medical assistance, and primary health care, together with very demanding and sex-specific daily chores may contribute to the environmental effects on these traits.

  5. Assessment of Dechlorane compounds in foodstuffs obtained from retail markets and estimates of dietary intake in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongchul; Son, Min-Hui; Kim, Juntae; Suh, Junghyuck; Kang, Youngwoon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-06-30

    A total of 175 samples, composed of 35 different foodstuffs, were obtained from retail markets in Korea and analyzed to investigate the contamination status and dietary intake of Dechlorane compounds. The concentrations of Dechlorane Plus (DP), mirex, Dechlorane (Dec) 602 and 603 ranged from ND to 169.85 pg/g wet weight (ww), 107.30 pg/g ww, 20.81 pg/g ww, 0.41 pg/g ww, respectively, while Dechlorane (Dec) 604 was not detected in any samples. Strong correlations between anti- and syn-DP and between mirex and Dec 602 were observed. The average anti-isomer fractional abundance (fanti) was 0.78±0.11 which was larger than the technical DP value (fanti=0.75). The estimated dietary daily intake of DP, 11.2×10(3) pg/day, was one to three orders of magnitude higher than other Dechloranes. Grain was the most contributed food group to dietary daily intake of DP for Korean population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polymerase chain reaction identification of microorganisms in previously root-filled teeth in a South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Rôças, Isabela N; Jung, Il-Young; Lee, Chan-Young; Siqueira, José F

    2004-07-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that microorganisms are the primary causative agents of endodontic treatment failures. This study intended to assess the occurrence of nine putative endodontic pathogens in root-filled teeth associated with periradicular lesions in a South Korean population using a culture-independent molecular approach. Fourteen root-filled teeth with persistent periradicular diseases were selected for retreatment. After removal of the root canal filling, the canals were sampled, and a polymerase chain reaction assay using taxon-specific oligonucleotide primers was used for microbial detection. Bacteria were present in all cases, as revealed by amplification using ubiquitous 16S rDNA primers. The most frequently detected taxon was Enterococcus faecalis (64%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (21%) and Tannerella forsythensis (14%). The results of this study using a highly sensitive identification method are concurrent with those from other geographical locations using diverse identification methods in that E. faecalis is the main species found in cases of root-filled teeth associated with periradicular lesions.

  7. Differential Association of Metabolic Risk Factors with Open Angle Glaucoma according to Obesity in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yun-Ah; Choi, Jin A; Park, Yong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    The associations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) with intraocular pressure and primary open angle glaucoma (OAG) have been reported. This study aimed to determine whether a difference in association exists between OAG and metabolic risk factors according to obesity status among Korean adults. A total of 8,816 participants (≥40 years) in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were classified into obese, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and non-obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of MetS was 40.1% in non-obese OAG and 66.0% in obese OAG. The prevalence of OAG increased with increasing number components for MetS in total population and in non-obese subjects (P < 0.001, respectively), while the prevalence of OAG was not associated with number of components for MetS in obese subjects (P = 0.14). In non-obese individuals, subjects with high triglycerides, high blood pressure (BP), and MetS were more likely to have OAG compared with those without high triglycerides, high BP, and MetS after adjusting for potential confounders. However, MetS or its components exhibited no significant association with glaucoma status in obese individuals. Our study provides understanding on the differences in association of OAG with MetS and its components according to obesity status. PMID:28004731

  8. Dried Blood Spot Testing for Seven Steroids Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry With Reference Interval Determination in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Borahm; Lee, Mi-Na; Park, Hyung-Doo; Kim, Jong Won; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) using immunoassays generates a large number of false-positive results. A more specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been introduced to minimize unnecessary follow-ups. However, because of limited data on its use in the Korean population, LC-MS/MS has not yet been incorporated into newborn screening programs in this region. The present study aims to develop and validate an LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of seven steroids in dried blood spots (DBS) for CAH screening, and to define age-specific reference intervals in the Korean population. Methods We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method to determine the reference intervals of cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, androstenedione, corticosterone, and 11-deoxycorticosterone simultaneously in 453 DBS samples. The samples were from Korean subjects stratified by age group (78 full-term neonates, 76 premature neonates, 89 children, and 100 adults). Results The accuracy, precision, matrix effects, and extraction recovery were satisfactory for all the steroids at three concentrations; values of intra- and inter-day precision coefficients of variance, bias, and recovery were 0.7-7.7%, -1.5-9.8%, and 49.3-97.5%, respectively. The linearity range was 1-100 ng/mL for cortisol and 0.5-50 ng/mL for other steroids (R2>0.99). The reference intervals were in agreement with the previous reports. Conclusions This LC-MS/MS method and the reference intervals validated in the Korean population can be successfully applied to analyze seven steroids in DBS for the diagnosis of CAH. PMID:26354345

  9. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND) in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8%) vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%), with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50) in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76) in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8%) with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4%) and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%), the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3) as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0). Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7%) then depression (18.4%) or any other aetiology. Conclusions

  10. Taste preference for sweetness in urban and rural populations in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Jamel, H A; Sheiham, A; Cowell, C R; Watt, R G

    1996-11-01

    The consumption of sweetened foods is influenced by a variety of biological, psychological, sociological, and environmental factors. On an individual level, taste preference for sweetness has been shown to have an influence on food consumption, although this may be affected by social and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the taste preference for sweetness in urban and rural populations in Iraq. The hypothesis was that sweet preference and the consumption of sugar increase with urbanization. The sample was composed of 4152 individuals who were divided into urban and rural subgroups based on their place of residence. Sweet preference was assessed by means of a tested Sweet Preference Inventory. Results revealed statistically significant differences between urban and rural populations in preference for sweetness and in actual sugar consumption. Individuals from urban locations showed a much higher preference for sweetness than their rural counterparts and consumed more sugar. Within the urban population, those individuals who had lived in the city longer and who were from families with lower educational qualifications preferred the highest levels of sugar. The findings support the hypothesis that urbanization influences sweet preference and sugar consumption.

  11. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK FACTORS AMONG RURAL KAZAKH POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    KULKAYEVA, GULNARA; HARUN-OR-RASHID, MD.; YOSHIDA, YOSHITOKU; TULEBAYEV, KAZBEK; SAKAMOTO, JUNICHI

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have remained a leading cause of mortality in Kazakhstan. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of CVD risk factors (RFs) among the Kazakh population, and their ability to identify those CVD RFs. We interviewed 611 subjects aged 25–65 years using a structured self-administered questionnaire from April to July, 2008. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to determine associations between CVD RFs and its correlations, such as socioeconomic status and level of knowledge of CVD RFs through a logistic regression model. Mean age of the respondents was 43.2 years, and 49.8% were male. Tobacco smoking, overweight (body mass index ≥ 25.0), hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg), and alcohol drinking were identified as important CVD RFs. Risk of overweight was greatest among the population aged 45–54 years, with an OR of 5.3 (95% CI=3.1–9.2). The overweight population was significantly associated with higher income (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1–2.4) and knowledge of RF (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.2–2.4), with p<0.05. Only 25.0% of respondents had good knowledge about CVD RFs. Alcohol drinking was inversely related to the level of knowledge about CVD RFs (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5–0.9). We concluded that CVD RFs were very high among the Kazakh population, although their level of knowledge to identify those RFs was very low. Increasing knowledge about CVD RFs through awareness campaign activities can reduce CVD-related morbidity and mortality and ensure a better quality of life for the Kazakh population. PMID:22515111

  12. Integrating population, health, and environment programs with contraceptive distribution in rural Ethiopia: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Lianne; Donovan, Samuel E; Ryan, Victoria; Winch, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    In rural Ethiopia, environmental degradation and a shortage of arable land impose a major toll on the population. Population, health, and environment (PHE) programs, such as that of the Ethio-Wetlands and Natural Resources Association (EWNRA), have evolved to address these issues. This article examines the community-based distribution (CBD) of family planning commodities in rural Ethiopia through EWNRA's large, multisectoral PHE program. Participants indicated that the integrated program encouraged acceptance of family planning and reduced geographic barriers to access. Through peer education and collaboration across government ministries, EWNRA leveraged integrated population-environment messages to garner support for its network of CBD providers. These integration strategies are a model for PHE programs worldwide, especially amid the global response to climate change. Because of the complex nature of PHE organizations, researchers often find it difficult to effectively document and evaluate their programs. With this in mind, we propose a framework to assess PHE integration.

  13. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  14. Excessive Sleep and Lack of Sleep Are Associated With Slips and Falls in the Adult Korean Population: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Sung-Gyun; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impacts of excessive sleep duration on falls. This study investigated the associations between sleep duration and falls among Korean adults in a wide range of age groups while adjusting for numerous confounding factors. Data collected from study participants ranging in age from 19 to 109 years old were analyzed from the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS). Sleep duration was divided into 5 groups: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9  hours per day. The relations between sleep duration and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, days of vigorous or moderate physical activity, income, education, alcohol use, smoking, stress, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, stroke, angina or myocardial infarction, arthritis, and asthma were controlled for as confounding factors. Associations between sleep duration and falls were analyzed in 19 to 40, 41 to 60, and 61+ year age groups. Furthermore, the relations between sleep duration and indoor versus outdoor falls were analyzed. Both ≤6 and ≥8  hours of sleep per day were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time and ≥2 times per year) in the overall adult population (P < 0.001 in both instances). In a subgroup analysis, sleep durations of ≤5 and ≥9  hours were significantly associated with an increased incidence of falls (≥1 time a year) in each age group. Six hours of sleep was not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times per year) in the 61+ year age group, and 8 and 9  hours of sleep were not significantly associated with falls (≥2 times a year) in the 19 to 40 year age group. This study demonstrated that long as well as short sleep durations are associated with an increased incidence of falls. However, these relations were not evident in elderly populations with short sleep durations or in young adults with long

  15. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of rebamipide in healthy Korean subjects with the characterization of atypical complex absorption kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Lien; Yoo, Hee-Doo; Tran, Phuong; Cho, Hea-Young; Lee, Yong-Bok

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of rebamipide (Reba) in healthy male Korean subjects was analyzed using the nonlinear mixed effects modeling method. The possible effects of physiological covariates and the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene 3435C>T polymorphism on PK parameters were also investigated. Data were collected from a bioequivalence study, in which 26 subjects who participated in the study were administered a single oral dose of 100 mg Reba; only data from the reference formulation were used. Reba showed a relatively large inter-individual variability (from 2.6- to 3.3-fold) in the PK parameters with double peaks or the concentration plateau after the peak concentration in its serum concentration-time profiles. The population PKs of Reba was best described by a one-compartment model with three fraction absorption processes followed a single Weibull-type function and two first-order kinetics, and lag times. The study suggests that the efflux transporter MDR1 3435C>T allele affects the substantial inter-individual variability in the absorption of Reba according to genetic polymorphism. A significant difference was found in the absorption rate ka 1 among the MDR1 3435C>T genotype groups (P < 0.05) (CT group, 79.8% increase; and TT group, 115% increase). The use of combined MDR1 3435C>T and body mass index as covariates for ka 1 exerted a more significant effect (P < 0.05). In addition, body surface area significantly affected the apparent total clearance (P < 0.05).

  16. Dietary intake of fats and fatty acids in the Korean population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yeji; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Kim, Kirang; Moon, Hyun-Kyung; Kweon, Sanghui; Yang, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to estimate average total fat and fatty acid intakes as well as identify major food sources using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-1 (2013). SUBJECTS/METHODS Total fat and fatty acid intakes were estimated using 24-hour dietary recall data on 7,048 participants aged ≥ 3 years from the KNHANES VI-1 (2013). Data included total fat, saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), and n-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) levels. Population means and standard errors of the mean were weighted in order to produce national estimates and separated based on sex, age, income, as well as residential region. Major food sources of fat, SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were identified based on mean consumption amounts of fat and fatty acids in each food. RESULTS The mean intake of total fat was 48.0 g while mean intakes of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 FA, and n-6 FA were 14.4 g, 15.3 g, 11.6 g, 1.6 g, and 10.1 g, respectively. Intakes of MUFA and SFA were each higher than that of PUFA in all age groups. Pork was the major source of total fat, SFA, and MUFA, and soybean oil was the major source of PUFA. Milk and pork were major sources of SFA in subjects aged 3-11 years and ≥ 12 years, respectively. Perilla seed oil and soybean oil were main sources of n-3 FA in subjects aged ≥ 50 years and aged < 50 years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Estimation of mean fatty acid intakes of this study using nationally represented samples of the Korean population could be useful for developing and evaluating national nutritional policies. PMID:26634055

  17. Normal patterns of sagittal alignment of the spine in young adults radiological analysis in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong Suh; Chung, Sung Soo; Kang, Kyung Chung; Park, Se Jun; Shin, Seong Kee

    2011-12-01

    Radiological analysis and classification of normal patterns of sagittal alignment of the spine. To classify the patterns of sagittal alignment of the spine in young asymptomatic adults and analyze the differences in the various spinal and pelvic parameters according to these patterns. Previous studies reported that the overall sagittal pattern and balance were more important than the normative values. There are few studies on white populations, classifying the normal patterns of sagittal curvature, and no studies on Asian populations. Whole spine, standing lateral radiographs of 86 Korean volunteers were taken. The pelvic and spinal parameters (total thoracic kyphosis, horizontal thoracic level, thoracolumbar junctional angle (TLJA), total lumbar lordosis, lower lumbar lordosis, horizontal lumbar level (HLL), lumbar inclination, pelvic tilt, sacral slope (SS), pelvic incidence, spinal balance, spinopelvic balance, and sacropelvic balance) were measured and the correlations of all parameters were analyzed. The volunteers were classified in to three types according to their HLL. The data were analyzed statistically to determine the differences in the parameters and balance between the three types. The HLL showed a significant correlation with the lumbar inclination, junctional level, TLJA, spinal balance, spinopelvic balance, and SS on analyzing the correlation of the parameters. As HLL moved caudally, the TLJA and lumbar inclination increased, whereas the lower lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence, and SS decreased and spinal balance became more negative. There were no significant differences in total thoracic kyphosis and sacropelvic balance between the three types. The patterns of sagittal alignment could be classified into three types showing that the spinal balance becomes more negative, the lumbar inclination and TLJA increase, the SS and pelvic incidence decrease, and lumbar lordotic curves becomes shorter as the patterns of sagittal curvature move toward type 3

  18. Lack of Association between Polymorphisms of the Dopamine Receptor D4 and Dopamine Transporter Genes and Personality Traits in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Lee, Hong Shick

    2006-01-01

    Human personality traits have a considerable genetic component. Cloninger et al. were the first to postulate that certain personality traits, such as novelty seeking, are related to the dopamine neurotransmitter system. In this study, we investigated the associations between dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III and dopamine transporter (DAT1) polymorphisms and personality traits. The DRD4 and DAT1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped in 214 healthy Korean subjects, whose personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). There were no significant differences between scores of TCI temperament dimensions (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence) and DRD4 gene polymorphism. The DAT1 gene polymorphisms also showed no significant association with any of the temperament subscales of the TCI. These data suggest that DRD4 and DAT1 gene polymorphism may not associated with personality traits in a Korean population. PMID:17191306

  19. Responding to population pressure in the rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ogutu, Z A

    1993-08-01

    Population pressure in Kenya evolved out of colonial policies and was present in early periods because of soil erosion and degradation, declining crop yields, changes in farming systems, use of marginal lands, shortages of fuelwood and food, and landlessness. Between 1900 and 1910, colonists made room for European settlers by seizing control of "empty lands." These schemes failed to account for pastoral or shifting land use patterns, failed to balance African land use with resources, and failed to recognize individual title to land based on continuous use. The result was loss of pastoral lands and confinement to other unused lands, a change in the spatial economy of Africans, and disruption of equitable access to natural resources. Population concentration in areas with high potential resulted in small plots and the necessity to migrate to marginal lands. The African Land Commission was formed during the 1920s and 1930s. Rehabilitation programs and protected areas were established during the early 1940s. Agricultural development focused on high potential areas and ecological potential rather than on sociocultural factors or population pressure on drier lands. The presence of privileged classes exacerbated inequalities in land distribution. Only 17-18% of Kenyan lands were high potential areas, and, by 1963, it was recognized that there was an imbalance between resources and population numbers. Reliance on land for survival further contributed to land congestion. The land entitlement strategies of the 1940s and 1950s contributed to buy-outs and increasing landlessness. Technological innovation contributed to greater use of marginal or semiarid lands. Policies and strategies were introduced in the colonial period to reduce environmental degradation. These included intensive farming, zero grazing, intercropping, agroforestry, development of roadside reserves, and industrialization. Recommendations were made to address poverty and to invest in longterm agricultural

  20. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population.

  1. Social Stigma, Social Capital Reconstruction and Rural Migrants in Urban China: A Population Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Kaljee, Linda M.; Fang, Xiaoyi; Xiong, Qing; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine migrant stigma and its effect on social capital reconstruction among rural migrants who possess legal rural residence but live and work in urban China. After a review of the concepts of stigma and social capital, we report data collected through in-depth interviews with 40 rural migrant workers and 38 urban residents recruited from Beijing, China. Findings from this study indicate that social stigma against rural migrants is common in urban China and is reinforced through media, social institutions and their representatives, and day-to-day interactions. As an important part of discrimination, stigma against migrant workers creates inequality, undermines trust, and reduces opportunities for interpersonal interactions between migrants and urban residents. Through these social processes, social stigma interferes with the reconstruction of social capital (including bonding, bridging and linking social capital) for individual rural migrants as well as for their communities. The interaction between stigma and social capital reconstruction may present as a mechanism by which migration leads to negative health consequences. Results from this study underscore the need for taking measures against migrant stigma and alternatively work toward social capital reconstruction for health promotion and disease prevention among this population. PMID:21516266

  2. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-09-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012-2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79-5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77-5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure.

  3. Assessment of Dietary Mercury Intake and Blood Mercury Levels in the Korean Population: Results from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Ah; Kwon, YoungMin; Kim, Suejin; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-01-01

    From a public health perspective, there is growing concern about dietary mercury intake as the most important source of mercury exposure. This study was performed to estimate dietary mercury exposure and to analyze the association between mercury intake and blood mercury levels in Koreans. The study subjects were 553 adults, comprising a 10% representative subsample of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2012–2014, who completed a health examination, a face-to-face interview, and a three-day food record. Dietary mercury and methylmercury intakes were assessed from the three-day food record, and blood mercury concentration was measured using a mercury analyzer. The association between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury levels was analyzed by comparing the odds ratios for the blood mercury levels above the Human BioMonitoring (HBM) I value (5 μg/L) among the three groups with different mercury intakes. The average total mercury intake was 4.74 and 3.07 μg/day in males and females, respectively. The food group that contributed most to mercury intake was fish and shellfish, accounting for 77.8% of total intake. The geometric mean of the blood mercury concentration significantly and linearly increased with the mercury and methylmercury intakes (p < 0.001). The odds ratios for blood mercury levels above the HBM I value in the highest mercury and methyl mercury intake group were 3.27 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.79–5.95) and 3.20 (95% CI 1.77–5.79) times higher than that of the lowest intake group, respectively. Our results provide compelling evidence that blood mercury level has a strong positive association with dietary intake, and that fish and shellfish contribute most to the dietary mercury exposure. PMID:27598185

  4. A Situated Perspective on Bilingual Development: Preschool Korean-English Bilinguals' Utilization of Two Languages and Korean Honorifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Jung

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the increasing Korean population, there is still a paucity of studies examining emergent Korean bilingual children's dual-language development within their social contexts. In particular, no existing study has paid attention to the honorific system of Korean, which is one of the most important features in learning the Korean language.…

  5. A Situated Perspective on Bilingual Development: Preschool Korean-English Bilinguals' Utilization of Two Languages and Korean Honorifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Jung

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the increasing Korean population, there is still a paucity of studies examining emergent Korean bilingual children's dual-language development within their social contexts. In particular, no existing study has paid attention to the honorific system of Korean, which is one of the most important features in learning the Korean language.…

  6. Genetic population structure of Fusarium graminearum species complex in Korean cereals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small grain cereals are frequently contaminated with toxigenic Fusarium species. Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are known as a head blight pathogens and mycotoxin producers. In order to characterize the FGSC populations associated with cereals in Korea, barley, corn, maiz...

  7. Peptic ulcer among Polish rural population and the nicotinic index.

    PubMed

    Schabowski, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the results of observations concerning the effect of cigarette smoking on the prevalence of peptic ulcer among 6,512 rural inhabitants aged 20-64, selected by two-stage sampling. Of these, 2,506 (38.6%) were regular smokers. In order to determine precisely the negative effect of smoking on the human body the nicotinic index was used (N.I.), calculated by multiplying the number of cigarettes smoked daily by the period of smoking (years). The three-stage scale of the nicotinic index was applied: I degrees - N.I. < 100, II degrees - N.I. = 100-300, III degrees - N.I. > 300. The mean value of the nicotinic index calculated for the total number of smokers in the study was 290.3. A statistically significant higher N.I. was observed in patients with peptic ulcer - 432.5, compared to patients with other diseases - 337.2, and healthy individuals - 203.3. Among patients with peptic ulcer the highest percentage of people with N.I. > 300 was noted (59.0%), compared to patients with other diseases (42.9%) and those who were healthy (22. 6%). The differences observed between patients with peptic ulcer and those of the remaining groups were highly statistically significant (p<0.001). The percentage of people with the lowest value of the nicotinic index (N.I.<100) in individual groups was: in patients with peptic ulcer - 13.5% (the lowest), among patients with other diseases - 25.0%, in the group of healthy individuals - 38.5% (the highest). An increase was noted in the incidence of peptic ulcer with the value of the nicotinic index. Peptic ulcer occurred in 3.8% of patients with N.I. < 100, in 6.4% of those with N.I. = 100-300, and in 13.2% of patients with N.I. > 300. An increase in the percentage of patients with the nicotinic index was observed irrespective of the site of ulcer. It became most evident among patients who underwent surgical treatment due to peptic ulcer, where the highest value of the nicotinic index (N.I. > 300) was noted in 79.5%, in

  8. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    NikNadia, Nmn; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001), and also higher rates in the age groups of 1-3, 4-6 and 7-12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2-20.7, P < 0.001) and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3-16.6, P < 0.001) were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia.

  9. Prevalence and physical determinants of low back pain in a rural Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Lope H; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Terwedow, Henry; Perry, Melissa J; Dennerlein, Jack T; Brain, Joseph D; Xu, Xiping

    2006-11-01

    This was a community-based cross-sectional study that is part of an ongoing study of genetics and osteoporosis. To estimate the 1-year self-reported prevalence of low back pain (LBP); and to assess the association between physical exposures (occupation, physical stress, and vibration) and LBP in a rural Chinese population. This study also explored how these associations change when individuals with LBP report additional pains in other parts of the body. Little is known about the prevalence and determinants of LBP in rural developing populations, even though approximately half of the world's population, mostly from the developing world, is engaged in agriculture, a known strenuous activity. Families with at least three participating siblings residing in the surrounding rural region of Anqing city, Anhui Province, China, were invited to participate in the study through public announcements and direct invitations by village physicians. A questionnaire including demographics, physical exposures, and musculoskeletal pain was administered to 13,965 men and women (age, 25-64 years). Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate LBP prevalence and examine associations between LBP and physical exposures. The 1-year prevalence of LBP was 64%. Twenty-five percent reported no pain at any body site. Women had higher prevalence of LBP than men across all age groups. Being a farmer, reporting moderate or heavy physical stress, and having had former or current exposures to vibration were positively associated with LBP (P < 0.05). Physical exposures were also associated with cases of LBP combined with other musculoskeletal pains, and generally, the more pains individuals reported, the more likely it was that they were farmers and were exposed to vibration. A high prevalence of LBP and LBP with additional musculoskeletal pain existed in this rural Chinese sample. We found evidence of a link between physical exposures and LBP, and LBP with additional musculoskeletal pain

  10. Risk Factors for Enterovirus A71 Seropositivity in Rural Indigenous Populations in West Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    NikNadia, NMN; Sam, I-Ching; Khaidir, Nasibah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Goh, Xiang Ting; Choy, Seow Huey; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), which is transmitted by the fecal-oral route, causes hand, foot and mouth disease and, rarely, severe neurological complications. In Malaysia, the indigenous rural community (Orang Asli) has a high prevalence of parasitic diseases due to poor sanitation, water supply and hygiene practices. This cross-sectional study compared the seroepidemiology of EV-A71 among rural Orang Asli and urban Kuala Lumpur populations in West Malaysia, and determined the risk factors associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in rural Orang Asli. Seropositive rates were determined by neutralization assay. EV-A71 seropositivity was strongly associated with increasing age in both populations. Rural Orang Asli children ≤12 years had significantly higher EV-A71 seropositivity rates than urban Kuala Lumpur children (95.5% vs 57.6%, P < 0.001), and also higher rates in the age groups of 1–3, 4–6 and 7–12 years. Multivariate analysis confirmed that age ≤12 years (adjusted OR 8.1, 95% CI 3.2–20.7, P < 0.001) and using untreated water (adjusted OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.3–16.6, P < 0.001) were independently associated with EV-A71 seropositivity in the Orang Asli population. Supply of clean drinking water may reduce the risk of EV-A71 infection. With significantly higher EV-A71 seropositive rates, younger rural children should be a priority target for future vaccination programs in Malaysia. PMID:26866912

  11. Epidemiological surveillance of cystic echinococcosis in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Suárez, Carlos; Pérez, Héctor; Elissondo, María C

    2009-03-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego. In 1997, ulrasonography (US) was selected as the method of choice for the development of population surveys for epidemiological surveillance and early diagnosis in rural population. The aim of this work was to present the results of the epidemiological surveillance of CE by means of US in rural population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina between 1997 and 2006. The ultrasonographic diagnostic was realized once a year. The population was stratified in children (4 to 17 years) and adults. From each individual, name, age, sex, actual residence and origin were registered. The images compatible with cysts were graded according to location, number and characteristics. A total of 1400 rural inhabitants were examined for CE. From the total of studied individuals, 27 (1.9%) exhibited images compatible with cysts on the abdominal ultrasound scan. Thirteen of these persons were finally diagnosed as having CE. The overall prevalence of CE was 0.9%. This value is in accordance with the decrease in the prevalence observed in the definitive host and the intermediate hosts (sheep and cattle). The absence of cases in children during the studied period, evidence no transmission of the disease to humans in the recent past.

  12. Epidemiologic features of head injury in a predominantly rural population.

    PubMed

    Jagger, J; Levine, J I; Jane, J A; Rimel, R W

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of occurrence of head trauma were studied in north central Virginia. In 1978, 735 cases of head trauma were identified with documented head injuries occurring within the defined service area, and with a minimum overnight hospital stay. Overall occurrence was 208/100,000 population. The highest occurrence was found in the 15-19 age group (407/100,000). Nonwhites showed higher rates than whites. Motor vehicle crashes were the most frequent mechanism of injury (55% of patients) followed by falls (20%), and interpersonal violence (11%). Short-term time trends reveal unique daily, weekly, and seasonal patterns for motor vehicle crashes, falls, and interpersonal violence. Selected prevention strategies are discussed. The use of passive restraints in motor vehicles is recommended as one important means of reducing the occurrence and severity of head injuries.

  13. Development of the Perceived Stress Inventory: A New Questionnaire for Korean Population Surveys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eon Sook; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jun Hyung; Yang, Yun Jun; Cho, Jung Jin; Ahn, Gwiyeoroo; Yoon, Yeong Sook; Sung, Eunju

    2015-11-01

    Given emerging evidence of the association between stress and disease, practitioners need a tool for measuring stress. Several instruments exist to measure perceived stress; however, none of them are applicable for population surveys because stress conceptualization can differ by population. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Perceived Stress Inventory (PSI) and its short version for use in population surveys and clinical practice in Korea. From a pool of perceived stress items collected from three widely used instruments, 20 items were selected for the new measurement tool. Nine of these items were selected for the short version. We evaluated the validity of the items using exploratory factor analysis of the preliminary data. To evaluate the convergent validity of the PSI, 387 healthy people were recruited and stratified on the basis of age and sex. Confirmatory analyses and examination of structural stability were also carried out. To evaluate discriminatory validity, the PSI score of a group with depressive symptoms was compared with that of a healthy group. A similar comparison was also done for persons with anxious mood. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor construct (tension, depression, and anger) for the PSI. Reliability values were satisfactory, ranging from 0.67 to 0.87. Convergent validity was confirmed through correlation with the Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. People with depressive or anxious mood had higher scores than the healthy group on the total PSI, all three dimensions, and the short version. The long and short versions of the PSI are valid and reliable tools for measuring perceived stress. These instruments offer benefits for stress research using population-based surveys.

  14. Positive and Negative Feedbacks and Free-Scale Pattern Distribution in Rural-Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Alados, Concepción L.; Errea, Paz; Gartzia, Maite; Saiz, Hugo; Escós, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Depopulation of rural areas is a widespread phenomenon that has occurred in most industrialized countries, and has contributed significantly to a reduction in the productivity of agro-ecological resources. In this study, we identified the main trends in the dynamics of rural populations in the Central Pyrenees in the 20th C and early 21st C, and used density independent and density dependent models and identified the main factors that have influenced the dynamics. In addition, we investigated the change in the power law distribution of population size in those periods. Populations exhibited density-dependent positive feedback between 1960 and 2010, and a long-term positive correlation between agricultural activity and population size, which has resulted in a free-scale population distribution that has been disrupted by the collapse of the traditional agricultural society and by emigration to the industrialized cities. We concluded that complex socio-ecological systems that have strong feedback mechanisms can contribute to disruptive population collapses, which can be identified by changes in the pattern of population distribution. PMID:25474704

  15. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  16. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  17. Comparison of Radiological Parameters between Normal and Patellar Dislocation Groups in Korean Population: A Rotational Profile CT-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jatin; Seon, Jong-Keun; Woo, Seong-Hwan; Jin, Cheng; Song, Eun-Kyoo

    2016-12-01

    Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and young adults. Most normal and pathological values for diagnosing patellofemoral instability are based on Western literature. We conducted this radiological study to determine normal values for different patellofemoral parameters in a Korean population and to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosis. We retrospectively reviewed the rotational profile computerized tomography (CT) scans of the patellar dislocation and control groups. Trochlear, patellar, rotational profile, and trochleo-patellar alignment parameters were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for significant parameters, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the cut-off values. There were 48 patients in the patellar dislocation group and 87 patients in the control group. In the control group and patellar dislocation group, the mean sulcus angle was 132.5° and 143.3°, respectively, trochlear depth was 6.04 mm and 3.6 mm, bisect offset was 56.4% and 99.9%, lateral patellar tilting was 9.8° and 19.2°, patellar facet asymmetry was 63.5% and 45.16%, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was 10.91 mm and 27.16 mm, respectively. The trochlear depth, bisect offset, patella tilting, and TT-TG distance were parameters that significantly contributed to patellar instability. Rotational profile CT can be considered a good diagnostic tool to assess all these parameters that help to identify anatomical aberration resulting in patellofemoral instability, thereby helping in formulating the most effective treatment plan.

  18. A preliminary study of new single polymorphisms in the T helper type 17 pathway for psoriasis in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Hur, M S; Choi, B G; Kim, M J; Lee, Y W; Choe, Y B; Ahn, K J

    2017-02-01

    Psoriasis is a polygenic and multi-factorial disease showing ethnic differences in terms of its severity and frequency. Therapies targeting interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) and Janus kinases (JAKs) are in clinical development for the treatment of psoriasis, and their success suggests the essential role of these molecules in psoriasis. To investigate the genetic susceptibility in T helper type 17 (Th17) cell signal transduction pathways for promoting psoriasis, we performed candidate gene and linkage disequilibrium analysis. In 208 patients and 266 normal controls, we analysed 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 12 genes (CAMP, IL17A, IL17F, IL17RA, IL22, JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT3, TLR7, TLR9 and TYK2; abbreviations: CAMP, human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide; STAT-3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; TLR, Toll-like receptor; TYK2, tyrosine kinase 2). Patients with psoriasis showed a strong association for IL17F rs763780 [odds ratio (OR) = 3·27, P = 0·04], which results in a histidine-to-arginine substitution, and JAK2 rs2274471 (OR = 2·66, P = 0·02). In addition, JAK2 rs7849191 showed a protective pattern, met the significance threshold (OR = 0·77, P = 0·05) and showed a tendency for an inverse association with the frequency of early-onset psoriasis under age 40 years (P = 0·07). In haplotype analysis, JAK1 rs310241A/rs2780889T showed a protective effect (OR = 0·73, P = 0·03) in psoriasis. In conclusion, we report two new psoriasis-susceptibility loci, in IL17F and JAK2, as well as a newly identified late-onset associated protective JAK2 locus and a protective JAK1 haplotype in the Korean population. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  19. Comparison of Radiological Parameters between Normal and Patellar Dislocation Groups in Korean Population: A Rotational Profile CT-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jatin; Seon, Jong-Keun; Woo, Seong-Hwan; Jin, Cheng; Song, Eun-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patellofemoral instability is a common cause of anterior knee pain in adolescents and young adults. Most normal and pathological values for diagnosing patellofemoral instability are based on Western literature. We conducted this radiological study to determine normal values for different patellofemoral parameters in a Korean population and to evaluate their usefulness in diagnosis. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the rotational profile computerized tomography (CT) scans of the patellar dislocation and control groups. Trochlear, patellar, rotational profile, and trochleo-patellar alignment parameters were compared between the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn for significant parameters, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the cut-off values. Results There were 48 patients in the patellar dislocation group and 87 patients in the control group. In the control group and patellar dislocation group, the mean sulcus angle was 132.5° and 143.3°, respectively, trochlear depth was 6.04 mm and 3.6 mm, bisect offset was 56.4% and 99.9%, lateral patellar tilting was 9.8° and 19.2°, patellar facet asymmetry was 63.5% and 45.16%, and the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance was 10.91 mm and 27.16 mm, respectively. Conclusions The trochlear depth, bisect offset, patella tilting, and TT-TG distance were parameters that significantly contributed to patellar instability. Rotational profile CT can be considered a good diagnostic tool to assess all these parameters that help to identify anatomical aberration resulting in patellofemoral instability, thereby helping in formulating the most effective treatment plan. PMID:27894178

  20. Relationship of lean body mass with bone mass and bone mineral density in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong-Su

    2014-09-01

    We investigated association of lean body mass with bone mass (BM) and bone mineral density (BMD) according to gender and menopausal status in the general Korean population. Participants included 4,299 males and 5,226 females who were 20 years of age or older from the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (2009-2010). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD and body composition. BMD was measured in the femur and lumbar spine. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was defined as the sum of the lean soft tissue masses for the arms and legs. Analysis was performed after categorizing participants into four groups (males <50 years, males ≥ 50 years, premenopausal females, and postmenopausal females). In males, the highest ASM was observed in the 20-29-year group and then showed a gradual decrease as age increased, and BM and BMD showed similar patterns of change, while in females, ASM, BMD, and BM reached the peak level in the 40-49-year group and then decreased. In multiple regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factors, the results showed an independent association of ASM with an increase in BM and BMD (P < 0.05). After adjusting for confounding factors, total fat mass showed a significant association with BM (P < 0.05). These aforementioned relationships were commonly observed on both femur and lumbar spine in every group. Lean body mass showed an independent association with increased BM and BMD, regardless of gender, age in men, and menopausal status in women.

  1. Relationship between high serum ferritin level and glaucoma in a South Korean population: the Kangbuk Samsung health study.

    PubMed

    Gye, Hyo Jung; Kim, Joon Mo; Yoo, Chungkwon; Shim, Seong Hee; Won, Yu Sam; Sung, Ki Chul; Lee, Mi Yeon; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and glaucoma in a South Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 164 029 subjects who underwent screening at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between August 2012 and July 2013. All subjects underwent a physical examination, answered sociodemographic and behavioural questions, and provided samples for laboratory analyses. A digital fundus photograph of both eyes was taken, and all photographs were reviewed by ophthalmologists. The ophthalmologists determined if an eye had glaucoma based on criteria set forth by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology and the appearance of the retinal nerve fibre layer and optic disc. The mean serum ferritin level was 56.98 ng/mL in women and 223.82 ng/mL in men. After adjusting for age, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) and total vitamin D level, males in the highest quartile for serum ferritin level had a higher OR for glaucoma than males in the lowest quartile (OR=1.176, 95% CI 1.030 to 1.342, p=0.016); we did not observe this relationship among women. Other markers of iron metabolism, such as iron level, transferrin saturation and TIBC, and inflammation measures, including WBC, HsCRP and total vitamin D, were not associated with glaucoma. High serum ferritin level was associated with a high risk of glaucoma in men, but not in women. Because serum ferritin is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it might play a role in glaucoma development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. The influence of prehypertension, controlled and uncontrolled hypertension on left ventricular diastolic function and structure in the general Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju Young; Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kang, Jeong Gyu; Choi, Joong-Myung; Ryoo, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jae-Hon

    2017-01-26

    Although hypertension is a clear risk factor for cardiovascular disease, how prehypertension and controlled hypertension influence left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and structure remain to be elucidated. Thus, this study was intended to investigate the link between LV diastolic dysfunction and structural changes in different categories of hypertension. A cohort of 52 111 Korean adults receiving echocardiograms was enrolled. The study population was stratified into five groups according to the following categories of hypertension and blood pressure (BP): normotensive (<120/80 mm Hg), prehypertensive (120-139/80-89 mm Hg), controlled hypertensive (<140/90 mm Hg), newly recognized hypertensive and uncontrolled hypertensive (⩾140/90 mm Hg). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the odds ratios (ORs) for LV hypertrophy (LVH) and increased relative wall thickness (RWT), and the adjusted mean values of diastolic parameters were used to examine differences in LV diastolic function. We found a significant relationship between elevated BP and LVH. In addition, an association was observed with LV remodeling (increased RWT). The ORs of LV hypertrophy, remodeling and adjusted mean values of echocardiographic parameters showed dose-response relationships across the study groups, in the order (from lowest to highest) of normotensive, prehypertensive, controlled hypertension, newly recognized hypertension and uncontrolled hypertension. The full adjusted ORs of increased RWT were 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45-1.87) in prehypertension, 2.02 (95% CI: 1.74-2.34) in controlled hypertension, 2.85 (95% CI: 2.35-3.43) in newly recognized hypertension and 3.31 (95% CI: 2.68-4.07) in uncontrolled hypertension. The present study results suggest the importance of early detection and proper management of hypertension.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 26 January 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.191.

  3. The association between lifetime cigarette smoking and dysphonia in the Korean general population: findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Haewon

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between current smoking and lifetime amount smoked and the incidence of dysphonia using data from a national cross-sectional survey that represents the Korean population. Subjects were 3,600 non-institutionalised civilian adults over the age of 19 (1,501 males and 2,099 females) who completed the laryngeal examination of the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For lifetime amount smoked, subjects were classified as light smokers (≤26.7 pack years), medium smokers (26.7-40.5 pack years), heavy smokers (40.5-55.5 pack years), and very heavy smokers (55.5-156 pack years) based on pack years (packs smoked per day × years as a smoker). The odds ratio (OR) for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (age, gender, level of education, income, occupation, alcohol consumption and pain/discomfort during the last two weeks), current smokers had a 1.8 times (OR = 1.77, 95% CI [1.17-2.68]) higher risk for self-reported voice problems than non-smokers. Moreover, current smokers had a 1.6 times (OR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.02-2.38]) higher risk of laryngeal disorder (p < 0.05). In terms of pack years, very heavy smokers were significantly more likely to have laryngeal disorder, while self-reported voice problems were significantly more likely for heavy smokers but not very heavy smokers. The results of this study imply that chronic smoking has a significant relationship with dysphonia. Longitudinal studies are required in future work to verify the causality between lifetime smoking amount and dysphonia.

  4. Validation of the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-26) in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Sub; Shin, Jong Ki; Son, Seung Min; An, Sung Jin; Kang, Sung Shik

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Korean version of the Quality-of-Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis (QUALEFFO-26). Translation/retranslation of the English version of QUALEFFO was conducted, and all steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were performed. The Korean version of the visual analog scale measure of pain, QUALEFFO-26 and the previously validated Short Form-36 (SF-36) were mailed to 162 consecutive patients with osteoporosis. Factor analysis and reliability assessment by kappa statistics of agreement for each item, the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's α were conducted. Construct validity was also evaluated by comparing the responses of QUALEFFO-26 with the responses of SF-36 using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Factor analysis extracted 3 factors. All items had a kappa statistics of agreement greater than 0.6. The QUALEFFO-26 showed good test/retest reliability (QUALEFFO-26: 0.8271). Internal consistency of Cronbach's α was found to be very good (QUALEFFO-26: 0.873). The Korean version of QUALEFFO-26 showed good significant correlation with SF-36 total score and with single SF-36 domains scores. The adapted Korean version of the QUALEFFO-26 was successfully translated and showed acceptable measurement properties and, as such, is considered suitable for outcome assessments in the Korean-speaking patients with osteoporosis.

  5. Relationship Between Types of Exercise and Quality of Life in a Korean Metabolic Syndrome Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Ho; Son, Sun Han; Kang, Si Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Seo, Kyung Mook; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) significantly correlates with exercise. MetS also has an independent and inverse correlation to quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have examined the association between exercise and QoL in people with MetS. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationship between exercise and QoL in a MetS population. This was a cross-sectional study using public data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2014 (n = 7550). MetS was defined on the basis of the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Demographic factors, three types of exercise (resistance, flexibility, walking), five subsets of EuroQoL (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression), and QoL scores (EQ-VAS), were investigated. Independent associations of each exercise on five subsets of QoL were determined using odds ratios (OR) adjusted for four demographic factors (age group, sex, weight change, and area of residence) using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Prevalence of MetS was 26.4% and the ratio of subjects performing resistance, flexibility, or walking exercise was 17.7%, 45.8%, and 71.5% among this population, respectively. EQ-VAS of exercisers was significantly higher than that of non-exercisers in resistance, flexibility, and walking exercise. Although resistance and flexibility exercise did not correlate with any subsets of QoL, mobility and self-care were significantly associated with walking exercise (OR = 0.635, 95% CI = 0.439-0.919 and OR = 0.577, 95% CI = 0.348-0.958, respectively). All exercisers showed higher QoL scores than non-exercisers. Among QoL subsets, mobility and self-care were independently associated with walking exercise in the MetS population. Regular walking exercise was important to higher QoL in those with MetS. This is the first clinical report to indicate that QoL could be independently influenced by walking exercise.

  6. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and insulin resistance in Korean adolescents: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Min; Lee, Jee-Yon; Dong, Jae June; Lee, Duk-Chul; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-11-01

    Studies have suggested the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance. However, few studies have examined the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in the general adolescent population. This study aimed to examine the association between TG/HDL-C and insulin resistance in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. A total of 2649 participants aged 12-18 years were selected from the 2007 to 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Insulin resistance was defined as the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values greater than the 80th percentile. The mean values of most cardiometabolic variables increased proportionally with TG/HDL-C quartiles. Compared to individuals in the lowest TG/HDL-C quartile, the odds ratio for insulin resistance for individuals in the highest quartile was 2.91 in boys and 2.38 in girls after adjusting for confounding variables. This study suggests that TG/HDL-C could be a convenient marker for identifying Korean adolescents with insulin resistance.

  8. Rural vs. non-rural differences and longitudinal bone changes by DXA and pQCT in men aged 20-66 years: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Specker, Bonny L; Wey, Howard E; Binkley, Teresa L; Beare, Tianna M; Minett, Maggie; Weidauer, Lee

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether there were differences in estimated means and rates of change in BMC, bone area, BMD and measures of bone geometry among men (n=544) from three distinct populations (Hutterite [rural], rural non-Hutterite, non-rural), and whether activity levels or calcium intake explain these population differences. Men were enrolled in the South Dakota Rural Bone Health Study and followed for 7.5 years to estimate means and rates of change in bone mass, density, size and geometry. Femoral neck (FN) and spine measurements were obtained every 18 months by DXA and distal radius (4% and 20%) measurements by pQCT. Activity measurements and calcium intake were obtained quarterly for the first 3 years and at 54, 72, and 90 months. Rural men had greater percent time in moderate plus vigorous activity (mean ± SD: 22 ± 10 vs. 15 ± 8%, p<0.001) and greater lean mass (69 ± 9 vs. 66 ± 10 kg, p=0.05) than non-rural men. Both rural populations (Hutterite and rural men) had larger femoral neck (FN) bone area and greater 20% radius cross-sectional area than non-rural men ([least square means ± SE] FN area: 5.90 ± 0.02 and 5.86 ± 0.02 vs. 5.76 ± 0.03 cm(2), p<0.001 and p=0.03 respectively and cross-sectional area: 171.0 ±1.3 and 165.5 ± 1.5 vs. 150.3 ± 1.6mm(2), both p<0.001). Despite lower cortical vBMD in Hutterite and rural men compared to non-rural men (1182 ± 2 and 1187 ± 2 vs. 1192 ± 2 mm(2), p<0.001 and p=0.06 respectively), bone strength (pSSI) was greater (429 ± 5 and 422 ± 5 vs. 376 ± 6 mm(3), both p<0.001). The rates of change in femoral neck BMC and aBMD and trabecular vBMD also differed by rural lifestyle, with greater losses among non-rural men in their 20s and 60s compared to both Hutterite and rural populations (time-by-age-by-group interactions, both p<0.01). Physical activity was not found to be a potential mediator of population differences. Baseline calcium intake was associated with FN aBMD (p=0.04), and

  9. Reproducibility study of Overactive Bladder Symptom Score questionnaire and its response to treatment (RESORT) in Korean population with overactive bladder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seong Jin; Homma, Yukio; Oh, Seung-June

    2014-02-01

    The Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) is comprised of 4 items with a single total score for quantification of OAB symptoms and has been reported as sensitive to treatment-related changes. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Korean version in patients with OAB symptoms. Two prospective trials were conducted at two teaching hospitals. The Part I study evaluated the internal consistency and test-retest reliability among 42 enrolled patients, and the Part II trial assessed the construct validity and anticholinergic responsiveness in 50 enrolled patients and 50 controls. Internal consistency was found acceptable, with Cronbach's α of 0.73 for total OABSS score. From a 2-week test-retest, Spearman's rho of each item ranged from 0.53 to 0.82, and the intraclass correlation coefficient of the total score was 0.80, showing the high stability. Acceptable discriminant validity was demonstrated, with substantially different correlations of OABSS scores with an International Prostate Symptom Score-storage and voiding score sum, and significant differences between patients and controls. Convergent validity was acceptable, with moderate correlations between each OABSS item and the corresponding 3-day frequency-volume chart variables. The Korean version was found considerably responsive to symptom changes following 12-week solifenacin treatment, as judged by moderate or large effect sizes, standardized response means, and the Guyatt Responsiveness Index. With good psychometric properties and responsiveness, the Korean version of the OABSS may offer researchers and clinicians a valid and reliable measure for the assessment of OAB symptoms in the Korean population.

  10. The Preventive Effect of Head Injury by Helmet Type in Motorcycle Crashes: A Rural Korean Single-Center Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kang-Min; Noble, Jennifer; Kim, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Yong; Do, Han-Ho; Park, Sang-O; Lee, Kyeong-Ryong; Baek, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of this study was to determine the preventive effect on head injury by helmet type: full face helmet (FFH), open face helmet (OFH), and half-coverage helmet (HCH). Methods. This is a retrospective observational study of motorcycle crash victims between June 2012 and May 2015 in a rural town in Korea. We performed multiple linear regression to predict the effect of each type of helmet compared to unhelmeted status in preventing head injury using dependent variables based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and applied logistic regression modeling to compare the incidence of head injury. Results. Of the 738 patients, the number of FFH patients was 33.5%, followed by unhelmeted (27.8%), OFH (17.6%), and HCH (13.0%) patients. The FFH and OFH group had a lower head maximum AIS than unhelmeted group (coefficient: -0.368, 95% CI: -0.559 to -0.177 and coefficient: -0.235, 95% CI: -0.459 to -0.010, resp.) and only FFHs experienced a reduction effect of severe and minor head injury (OR: 0.206, 95% CI: 0.080 to 0.533 and OR: 0.589, 95% CI: 0.377 to 0.920, resp.). Conclusions. FFHs and OFHs reduce the risk of head injury, and FFHs have a more preventive effect on head injury in motorcycle crashes.

  11. The Preventive Effect of Head Injury by Helmet Type in Motorcycle Crashes: A Rural Korean Single-Center Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kang-Min; Noble, Jennifer; Kim, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Jin-Yong; Do, Han-Ho; Park, Sang-O; Lee, Kyeong-Ryong; Baek, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of this study was to determine the preventive effect on head injury by helmet type: full face helmet (FFH), open face helmet (OFH), and half-coverage helmet (HCH). Methods. This is a retrospective observational study of motorcycle crash victims between June 2012 and May 2015 in a rural town in Korea. We performed multiple linear regression to predict the effect of each type of helmet compared to unhelmeted status in preventing head injury using dependent variables based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and applied logistic regression modeling to compare the incidence of head injury. Results. Of the 738 patients, the number of FFH patients was 33.5%, followed by unhelmeted (27.8%), OFH (17.6%), and HCH (13.0%) patients. The FFH and OFH group had a lower head maximum AIS than unhelmeted group (coefficient: −0.368, 95% CI: −0.559 to −0.177 and coefficient: −0.235, 95% CI: −0.459 to −0.010, resp.) and only FFHs experienced a reduction effect of severe and minor head injury (OR: 0.206, 95% CI: 0.080 to 0.533 and OR: 0.589, 95% CI: 0.377 to 0.920, resp.). Conclusions. FFHs and OFHs reduce the risk of head injury, and FFHs have a more preventive effect on head injury in motorcycle crashes. PMID:27340652

  12. Health inequalities among rural and urban population of Eastern Poland in the context of sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Pantyley, Viktoriya

    2017-09-21

    The primary goals of the study were a critical analysis of the concepts associated with health from the perspective of sustainable development, and empirical analysis of health and health- related issues among the rural and urban residents of Eastern Poland in the context of the sustainable development of the region. The study was based on the following research methods: a systemic approach, selection and analysis of the literature and statistical data, developing a special questionnaire concerning socio-economic and health inequalities among the population in the studied area, field research with an interview questionnaire conducted on randomly-selected respondents (N=1,103) in randomly selected areas of the Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie and eastern part of Mazowieckie Provinces (with the division between provincial capital cities - county capital cities - other cities - rural areas). The results of statistical surveys in the studied area with the use of chi-square test and contingence quotients indicated a correlation between the state of health and the following independent variables: age, life quality, social position and financial situation (C-Pearson's coefficient over 0,300); a statistically significant yet weak correlation was recorded for gender, household size, place of residence and amount of free time. The conducted analysis proved the existence of a huge gap between state of health of the population in urban and rural areas. In order to eliminate unfavourable differences in the state iof health among the residents of Eastern Poland, and provide equal sustainable development in urban and rural areas of the examined areas, special preventive programmes aimed at the residents of peripheral, marginalized rural areas should be implemented. In these programmes, attention should be paid to preventive measures, early diagnosis of basic civilization and social diseases, and better accessibility to medical services for the residents.

  13. The rural-to-urban migrant population in China: gloomy prospects for tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Ruoyan Gai; Xu, Lingzhong; Song, Peipei; Huang, Yong

    2011-12-01

    The migrant population is a population with a high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection and transmission. Globally, migration is likely to have a significant impact on TB epidemiology, particularly in countries that receive substantial numbers of migrants from countries with a high infection burden. China, a country with the world's second highest TB burden, faces a considerable increase in the number of rural-to-urban migrants. This population has a significant impact on urban TB epidemics and is specifically targeted by national guidelines for TB control. TB control among the migrant population has had relatively poor outcomes. Barriers to detection and treatment have both financial and non-financial aspects, such as the "migratory" nature of the migrant population, their marginalized working and living environment, poor financial status, little awareness of TB, inadequate referral to TB dispensaries, and potential social stigma in the workplace. Currently, the free TB treatment policy has limited ability to relieve the financial burden on most migrant TB patients as would allow optimal outcomes of TB detection and treatment. Universal health insurance coverage and fostering of personnel in community-based primary health care for the rural-to- urban migrant population represent two pillars of successful TB control.

  14. Dental myths, oral hygiene methods and nicotine habits in an ageing rural population: an Indian study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saumyendra V; Akbar, Zafar; Tripathi, Arvind; Chandra, Suresh; Tripathi, Anurag

    2013-01-01

    Though, increased emphasis is being given on spreading dental care facilities and awareness in Indian villages, the target population is unfortunately less literate and is not financially equipped compared to their urban counterparts. The rural aged additionally may have to face problems like desertion by the educated youth to follow better opportunities in cities, disease, and lack of mobility. The present study strived to evaluate dental myths, oral hygiene methods, and tobacco habits awareness in a rural ageing population in the perspective of a changing India. The study area consisted of a group of ten villages, situated in district Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. The subjects were questioned about dental myths, tobacco habits, and oral hygiene methods and then divided into groups on the basis of age, sex, and educational status. The number of sound teeth in each subject was also counted. Mean-values, standard deviation, Chi-square test and P values were used to make inter-group comparisons. Forty percent of the subjects considered oral hygiene unnecessary, 60.8% of the population was relying on simple mouth rinsing for maintaining oral hygiene, 48% had either the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco or both and 81% of the subjects had one dental myth or the other. We concluded that the rural aged is a deprived lot and a targeted program to infuse scientific dental practices in them is necessary.

  15. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population.

    PubMed

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  16. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  17. Age- and Gender-Related Mean Hearing Threshold in a Highly-Screened Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun Hwi; Shin, Seung-Ho; Byun, Sung Wan; Kim, Ju Yeon

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating hearing disability in medicolegal work, the apportionment of age- and gender-related sensorineural hearing loss should be considered as a prior factor, especially for the elderly. However, in the literature written in the English language no studies have reported on the age- and gender-related mean hearing threshold for the South Korean population. This study aimed to identify the mean hearing thresholds in the South Korean population to establish reference data and to identify the age- and gender-related characteristics. This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012, which was conducted by the Korean government, the data of which was disclosed to the public. A total of 15,606 participants (unweighted) representing 33,011,778 Koreans (weighted) with normal tympanic membrane and no history of regular or occupational noise exposure were selected and analyzed in this study. The relationship between the hearing threshold level and frequency, age, and gender was investigated and analyzed in a highly-screened population by considering the sample weights of a complex survey design. A gender ratio difference was found between the unweighted and the weighted designs: male:female, 41.0%: 59.0% (unweighted, participants) vs. 47.2%:52.8% (weighted, representing population). As age increased, the hearing threshold increased for all frequencies. Hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz showed a statistical difference between both genders for people older than 30, with the 4 kHz frequency showing the largest difference. This paper presents details about the mean hearing threshold based on age and gender. The data from KNHANES 2010-2012 showed gender differences at hearing thresholds of 3 kHz, 4 kHz, and 6 kHz in a highly-screened population. The most significant gender difference in relation to hearing threshold was observed at 4 kHz. The hearing thresholds at all of the tested frequencies worsened with

  18. Rural vs. non-rural differences and longitudinal bone changes by DXA and pQCT in men aged 20-66 years: A population-based study☆

    PubMed Central

    Specker, Bonny L.; Wey, Howard E.; Binkley, Teresa L.; Beare, Tianna M.; Minett, Maggie; Weidauer, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether there were differences in estimated means and rates of change in BMC, bone area, BMD and measures of bone geometry among men (n = 544) from three distinct populations (Hutterite [rural], rural non-Hutterite, non-rural), and whether activity levels or calcium intake explain these population differences. Men were enrolled in the South Dakota Rural Bone Health Study and followed for 7.5 years to estimate means and rates of change in bone mass, density, size and geometry. Femoral neck (FN) and spine measurements were obtained every 18 months by DXA and distal radius (4% and 20%) measurements by pQCT. Activity measurements and calcium intake were obtained quarterly for the first 3 years and at 54, 72, and 90 months. Rural men had greater percent time in moderate plus vigorous activity (mean ± SD: 22 ± 10 vs. 15 ±8%, p < 0.001) and greater lean mass (69 ± 9 vs. 66 ± 10 kg, p = 0.05) than non-rural men. Both rural populations (Hutterite and rural men) had larger femoral neck (FN) bone area and greater 20% radius cross-sectional area than non-rural men ([least square means ± SE] FN area: 5.90 ± 0.02 and 5.86 ± 0.02 vs. 5.76 ± 0.03 cm2, p < 0.001 and p = 0.03 respectively and cross-sectional area: 171.0 ± 1.3 and 165.5 ± 1.5 vs. 150.3 ± 1.6 mm2, both p < 0.001). Despite lower cortical vBMD in Hutterite and rural men compared to non-rural men (1182 ± 2 and 1187 ± 2 vs. 1192 ± 2 mm2, p < 0.001 and p = 0.06 respectively), bone strength (pSSI) was greater (429 ± 5 and 422 ± 5 vs. 376 ± 6 mm3, both p < 0.001). The rates of change in femoral neck BMC and aBMD and trabecular vBMD also differed by rural lifestyle, with greater losses among non-rural men in their 20s and 60s compared to both Hutterite and rural populations (time-by-age-by-group interactions, both p < 0.01). Physical activity was not found to be a potential mediator of population differences. Baseline calcium intake was associated with FN aBMD (p

  19. Psychiatric inpatient expenditures and public health insurance programmes: analysis of a national database covering the entire South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woojin

    2010-09-07

    Medical spending on psychiatric hospitalization has been reported to impose a tremendous socio-economic burden on many developed countries with public health insurance programmes. However, there has been no in-depth study of the factors affecting psychiatric inpatient medical expenditures and differentiated these factors across different types of public health insurance programmes. In view of this, this study attempted to explore factors affecting medical expenditures for psychiatric inpatients between two public health insurance programmes covering the entire South Korean population: National Health Insurance (NHI) and National Medical Care Aid (AID). This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a nationwide, population-based reimbursement claims dataset consisting of 1,131,346 claims of all 160,465 citizens institutionalized due to psychiatric diagnosis between January 2005 and June 2006 in South Korea. To adjust for possible correlation of patients characteristics within the same medical institution and a non-linearity structure, a Box-Cox transformed, multilevel regression analysis was performed. Compared with inpatients 19 years old or younger, the medical expenditures of inpatients between 50 and 64 years old were 10% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 40% higher among AID beneficiaries. Males showed higher medical expenditures than did females. Expenditures on inpatients with schizophrenia as compared to expenditures on those with neurotic disorders were 120% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 83% higher among AID beneficiaries. Expenditures on inpatients of psychiatric hospitals were greater on average than expenditures on inpatients of general hospitals. Among AID beneficiaries, institutions owned by private groups treated inpatients with 32% higher costs than did government institutions. Among NHI beneficiaries, inpatients medical expenditures were positively associated with the proportion of patients diagnosed into dementia or schizophrenia categories

  20. Establishment of reference intervals for von Willebrand factor antigen and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Hyun; Seo, Ja-Young; Bang, Sung-Hwan; Park, In-Ae; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-04-01

    Establishment of reference intervals for coagulation molecules is important but is costly and sometimes not feasible. Since reference intervals from manufacturers or the literature are mostly out of date or involved Western populations, the authors determined reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight factors in a Korean population. VWF: Ag, factor VIII (FVIII), FII, FV, FVII, FIX, FX, FXI, and FXII were determined in Korean individuals visiting for routine checkup following the CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) guidelines. Reagents by Diagnostica Stago were used on the STA Compact Analyzer (Diagnostica Stago). Exclusion criteria were medical history or laboratory findings that could affect the factor levels. Influence of demographic factors was analyzed. Mean +/- 2 x SD or central 95 percentile was used, as appropriate. We obtained data from 266 adults for VWF: Ag, 371 adults for FVIII, and minimum 136 adults for the rest. Reference interval for VWF was 51-176% (52-155% in blood group O and 71-186% for non-O). Reference interval for FVIII was 64-197% (55-150% in O and 77-205% in non-O). Reference interval for FII was 77-121%, FV 81-160%, FVII 68-149%, FIX 67-154%, FX 69-126%, FXI 59-138%, and FXII 48-177%. The medians of VWF: Ag, FVIII, and FIX were significantly higher in the elderly group (> or =60 years). We established local reference intervals for VWF: Ag and eight coagulation factors in a Korean population according to the CLSI guidelines. Significantly, different reference intervals were obtained in blood group O vs. non-O for VWF: Ag and FVIII. The reference intervals obtained in this study could be adopted in other clinical laboratories after appropriate validation.

  1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Reference Range and Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Korean Population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background No nationwide epidemiological study evaluating the prevalence of subclinical and overt forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has yet been conducted in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the reference range of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and the national prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in Korea. Methods Nation-wide cross-sectional data were analyzed from a representative sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized Korean population (n=6,564) who underwent blood testing for thyroid function and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) as part of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI (2013 to 2015). Results The reference interval of serum TSH in the Korean reference population was 0.62 to 6.68 mIU/L. Based on this reference interval, the prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism was 0.73% (males 0.40%, females 1.10%) and 3.10% (males 2.26%, females 4.04%), respectively. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with age until the age group between 50 to 59 years. Positive TPOAb were found in 7.30% of subjects (males 4.33%, females 10.62%). The prevalence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism TPOAb-positive subjects was 5.16% and 10.88%, respectively. The prevalence of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism was 0.54% (males 0.30%, females 0.81%) and 2.98% (males 2.43%, females, 3.59%), respectively. Conclusion The Serum TSH reference levels in the Korean population were higher than the corresponding levels in Western countries. Differences were found in the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism according to age, sex, and TPOAb positivity. This study provides important baseline information for understanding patterns of thyroid dysfunction and diseases in Korea. PMID:28116874

  2. Incidence of three roots and/or four root canals in the permanent mandibular first molars in a Korean sub-population.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ju-Kyong; Peters, Ove A; Lee, Woocheol; Son, Sung-Ae; Park, Jeong-Kil; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of three-rooted permanent mandibular first molars (PMFMs) with four canals and their morphological characteristics among a Korean population from using cone-beam computed tomography scans (CBCTs). Among the 705 CBCTs screened, 472 patient cases possessing at least one PMFM were identified. A total of 780 PMFMs were evaluated in axial section series to determine the number of roots and canals. The incidences of three-rooted PMFMs were compared with regard to gender and location. For distal root(s) with two canals, inter-orifice distances (IOD) between distobuccal and distolingual canals were measured at pulpal floor and furcation levels. The difference of IOD between males and females was also analyzed using chi-square tests. Among the 472 CBCTs of 225 females and 247 males, 84 females and 107 males were found to have at least one three-rooted PMFM. Among the 780 PMFMs, 191 PMFMs (24.5%, 89 of 397 left and 102 of 383 right) were found to have three roots. The prevalence of distal root(s) with two canals was 34.2% (267 of 780). From the molars with two distal canals, the mean IOD between distobuccal and distolingual canals at the pulpal floor level was 3.1 mm in males and 2.9 mm in females (p = 0.0428). The occurrence of three-rooted PMFMs among a Korean population was 24.5% and was higher than other countries and ethnicities. Understanding the prevalence of PMFMs with a distolingual root and/or canal in a Korean population and the IOD between distobuccal and distolingual canals may be useful for successful endodontic treatments. Acknowledgment of potential incidence of three-rooted permanent mandibular first molars with four canals and the distance between two distal canals may increase the success rate of root canal treatment by reducing the missing canal untreated.

  3. Rural-Urban Migration and Experience of Childhood Abuse in the Young Thai Population.

    PubMed

    Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Abas, Melanie; Harpham, Trudy; Prince, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Evidence suggests that certain migrant populations are at increased risk of abusive behaviors. It is unclear whether this may also apply to Thai rural-urban migrants, who may experience higher levels of psychosocial adversities than the population at large. The study aims to examine the association between migration status and the history of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse among young Thai people in an urban community. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Northern Bangkok on a representative sample of 1052 young residents, aged 16-25 years. Data were obtained concerning: 1) exposures-migration (defined as an occasion when a young person, born in a more rural area moves for the first time into Greater Bangkok) and age at migration. 2) outcomes-child abuse experiences were assessed with an anonymous self report adapted from the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS). There were 8.4%. 16.6% and 56.0% reporting sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, respectively. Forty six percent of adolescents had migrated from rural areas to Bangkok, mostly independently at the age of 15 or after to seek work. Although there were trends towards higher prevalences of the three categories of abuse among early migrants, who moved to Bangkok before the age of 15, being early migrants was independently associated with experiences of physical abuse (OR 1.9 95%CI 1.1-3.2) and emotional abuse (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.3-3.0) only. Our results suggest that rural-urban migration at an early age may place children at higher risk of physical and emotional abuse. This may have policy implications for the prevention of childhood abuse particularly among young people on the move.

  4. Association study of microRNA polymorphisms with hepatocellular carcinoma in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hee; Min, Kyung Tae; Jeon, Young Joo; Kwon, Chang-Il; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Park, Pil Won; Hong, Sung Pyo; Rim, Kyu Seong; Kwon, Sung Won; Hwang, Seong Gyu; Kim, Nam Keun

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that common genetic polymorphisms alter the processing of microRNA (miRNA) and may be associated with the development and progression of cancer. The association of miRNA polymorphisms with HCC survival was analyzed in 159 HCC patients and 201 controls by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The risk of HCC was significantly lower for the miR-499A>G, AG+GG in HCC patients (AOR=0.603, 95% CI=0.370-0.984) and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC patients (AOR=0.561, 95% CI 0.331-0.950). In addition, the risk of HCC was significantly lower for the miR-149C>T, CT and CT+CC in HCC patients (CT; AOR=0.542, 95% CI=0.332-0.886, CT+CC; AOR=0.536, 95% CI=0.335-0.858) and HBV-related HCC patients (CT: AOR=0.510, 95% CI 0.305-0.854, CT+CC: AOR=0.496, 95% CI 0.302-0.813). The miR-149C>T polymorphism was also associated with survival rate of HCC patients in OKUDA II stage. miR-149C>T and miR-499A>G were associated with HBV-related HCC. Further studies on larger populations will need to be conducted to confirm these results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of obesity in a rural Asian Indian (Bangladeshi) population and its determinants.

    PubMed

    Siddiquee, Tasnima; Bhowmik, Bishwajit; Da Vale Moreira, Nayla Cristina; Mujumder, Anindita; Mahtab, Hajera; Khan, A K Azad; Hussain, Akhtar

    2015-09-04

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide including Bangladesh. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of general and central obesity in a rural Bangladeshi population based on newly proposed cut off level for Asian population. 2293 subjects aged ≥ 20 years from rural Bangladesh were randomly recruited to participate in a population-based, cross sectional survey, conducted in 2009. Both socio-demographic and anthropometric measurements were recorded. Age adjusted data for anthropometric indices were examined. The age standardized prevalence of overweight (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) were 17.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.1, 19.2%) and 26.2% (95% CI: 24.4, 27.9%), respectively. The age standardized prevalence of central obesity based on WC (M ≥ 90 & F ≥ 80 cm) and WHR (M ≥ 0.90 & F ≥ 0.80) were 39.8% (95% CI: 37.9, 41.7%) and 71.6% (95% CI: 69.8, 73.4%) respectively. The result shows that prevalence of central obesity was more in female than male. Study shows middle age, medium and high socioeconomic status (SES), low education levels, physical inactivity, high consumption of carbohydrate, protein and fat, were significant risk indicators for general and central obesity. Smoking was shown as protective factor for both general and central obesity. In rural Bangladeshi population, the prevalence of both general and central obesity was high among both sexes with the use of newly proposed cut off points for Asian population. Gender, diet, physical activity, education levels and SES were associated with the increase prevalence of obesity.

  6. Levels of selected trace metals in hair of urban and rural adult male population of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1995-02-01

    Human scalp hair as a biopsy material may well serve the purpose of estimating the degree of human exposure to environmental contaminants, especially trace metals. To this effect, the levels of trace metals in hair of various groups of population living in areas with varying extent of environmental exposure are generally compared together. Such comparative evaluations are important since they are unique for each group of population and probably reflect not only a number of factors of genetical, nutritional and environmental origin, but also indicate relationship with factors such as food, ambient air, drinking water, occupational exposure, age, race, sex and metabolic condition etc. Also there are some elements which are selectively deposited in hair and may thus provide clinical information on the level of exposure and toxication. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to collect base-line trace metal data on hair and to evaluate the metal levels as measure of the nutritional status of the relevant groups of urban and rural population in terms of industrial, agricultural and occupation exposure. For this purpose, scalp hair samples were obtained from donors belonging to urban adult male population from the city of Peshawer and a rural town, Jamrood and were investigated for three essential metals (Na, K and Zn) and four non-essential metals (Co, Hg, As and Ag) by AAS technique. The impact of urban and rural environments, including the food habits of individuals, on trace metal distribution in scalp hair of the two classes of population is then reviewed with reference to the literature data available from other parts of the world. 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. High intake of whole grains and beans pattern is inversely associated with insulin resistance in healthy Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the association between dietary patterns and insulin resistance in the 3871 healthy Korean adults from the 2007 to 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The whole grains and beans pattern was associated with lower prevalence of insulin resistance (OR for highest quintile=0.80, 95% CI=0.61-1.03, P for trend=0.013).

  8. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and risk factors for hypertension in a rural population in South India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Prabhdeep; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Radhakrishnan, Ezhil; Rajasekar, Daniel; Gupte, Mohan D

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem with prevalence ranging 22-30% in urban India. There are few data on hypertension epidemiology in rural India. We conducted a survey to estimate prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and risk factors for hypertension in a rural population in south India. We did cross-sectional survey in 11 villages in Tamil Nadu. We collected data on behavioral risk factors, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. We defined hypertension according to WHO criteria. Study population included 10,463 subjects aged 25-64 years. Among them, 4,900 (46.8%) were males. Hypertension was present for 2,247 (21.4%) subjects and 1,682 (74.9%) among hypertensives were newly detected. Overall 20% were on treatment and 6.6% had blood pressure control. Age ≥35 years, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) and central obesity were risk factors significantly associated with hypertension (p < 0.05). In addition, alcohol consumption, higher education level were risk factor among males and family history of hypertension was risk factor among females (p < 0.05). Hypertension is an emerging challenge in rural India. We need health promotion programs and reorientation of primary health care to improve hypertension detection and management.

  9. Addressing the health disadvantage of rural populations: how does epidemiological evidence inform rural health policies and research?

    PubMed

    Smith, Karly B; Humphreys, John S; Wilson, Murray G A

    2008-04-01

    We reviewed evidence of any apparently significant 'rural-urban' health status differentials in developed countries, to determine whether such differentials are generic or nation-specific, and to explore the nature and policy implications of determinants underpinning rural-urban health variations. A comprehensive literature review of rural-urban health status differentials within Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the USA, the UK, and a variety of other western European nations was undertaken to understand the differences in life expectancy and cause-specific morbidity and mortality. While rural location plays a major role in determining the nature and level of access to and provision of health services, it does not always translate into health disadvantage. When controlling for major risk determinants, rurality per se does not necessarily lead to rural-urban disparities, but may exacerbate the effects of socio-economic disadvantage, ethnicity, poorer service availability, higher levels of personal risk and more hazardous environmental, occupational and transportation conditions. Programs to improve rural health will be most effective when based on policies which target all risk determinants collectively contributing to poor rural health outcomes. Focusing solely on 'area-based' explanations and responses to rural health problems may divert attention from more fundamental social and structural processes operating in the broader context to the detriment of rural health policy formulation and remedial effort.

  10. Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Moon, Min Kyong

    2016-06-01

    In the early 2000s, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years in Korea was about 9% to 10%, and it remained stable. However, a nationwide survey showed that this prevalence increased over the past few years. After age-standardization using the Korean population of the year 2010, the prevalence of diabetes in adults aged ≥30 years was 10.0% to 10.8% between 2001 and 2012, which increased to 12.5% in 2013 and 11.6% in 2014. During that period, there have been changes in the gender- and age-specific prevalence of diabetes in Korean adults. The prevalence of diabetes in the elderly population increased significantly, while this prevalence in young adults, especially in young women, did not change significantly. The contribution of each diabetic risk factor, such as obesity, β-cell dysfunction, sarcopenia, and socioeconomic status, in developing diabetes has also changed during that period in each gender and age group. For young women, obesity was the most important risk factor; by contrast, for elderly diabetic patients, sarcopenia was more important than obesity as a risk factor. Considering the economic burden of diabetes and its associated comorbidities, a public health policy targeting the major risk factors in each population might be more effective in preventing diabetes.

  11. Quality of life and rural place of residence in Polish women - population based study.

    PubMed

    Zagozdzon, Pawel; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this population-based study was to analyse the association between the health-related quality of life and rural residence among Polish females, including variables related to social environment and clinical characteristics. The snowball recruitment method was used to invite 1,560 women aged 45-60 to participate in the study. Participants received a questionnaire about demographic characteristics, environmental and work stress, use of anxiolytichypnotic medications and self-reported quality of life based on the SF-36 form. Univariate and multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. We found worse physical health and better mental health among women living in rural areas compared to those from urban settings. The rural residence was an independent predictor for poor physical health (below 25 percentile) odds ratio [OR] 1.6 95%, confidence interval [CI] 1.17-2.2). Living in rural areas was also associated at the borderline level of statistical significance, with reduction of risk of low quality of life in mental health (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.55-1.02). According to other results from multivariate analysis, being retired, receiving social pension, long duration of illness symptoms, and consulting a medical specialist were the risk factors of reported bad physical health. Higher education and access to medical specialist protects against having a bad quality of life related to mental health. Being given the sack, stress at work, feeling anger, and long duration of symptoms are the risk factors of poor mental health. The rural residence is strongly associated with environmental and psychosocial factors in women aged 40-65.

  12. Association of sleep quality in Behcet disease with disease activity, depression, and quality of life in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Son, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ji-Min; Cho, Yong-Won; Kim, Sang-Hyon

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disturbance is prime concern in patients with Behcet disease. The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of sleep quality, in Korean patients suffering from Behcet disease. We further investigated the relationship between depression, quality of life and the clinical findings of Behcet disease. The study was performed by the cross-sectional design. Sleep quality was assessed by the Korean version of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Disease activity of Behcet disease was evaluated by Behcet disease current activity form (BDCAF). Depression was assessed by the Korean version of Beck depression inventory second edition (BDI-2). Quality of life was assessed by the Korean version of the Leeds Behcet disease quality of life measure (BDQoL). Among the 100 patients studied, 42% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI ≥ 9). These patients have a higher BDI-2, total BDCAF and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score (p < 0.001, p = 0.022, and p = 0.005). Considering BDCAF, the frequency of genital ulcer was significantly higher (p = 0.01). Behcet was higher in females. The BDQoL was lower in poor sleeper group (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001). Among 7 PSQI components, daytime dysfunction was higher in patients with high disease activity (p = 0.03). Total PSQI score were strongly correlated with BDCAF, BDI-2, BDQoL, and pain VAS score (p = 0.02, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Low sleep quality is directly associated with disease activity, depression, and quality of life in Korean patients with Behcet disease.

  13. Association of sleep quality in Behcet disease with disease activity, depression, and quality of life in Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jimin; Kim, Sung-Soo; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Son, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ji-Min; Cho, Yong-Won; Kim, Sang-Hyon

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Sleep disturbance is prime concern in patients with Behcet disease. The purpose of this study was to find out the effects of sleep quality, in Korean patients suffering from Behcet disease. We further investigated the relationship between depression, quality of life and the clinical findings of Behcet disease. Methods The study was performed by the cross-sectional design. Sleep quality was assessed by the Korean version of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Disease activity of Behcet disease was evaluated by Behcet disease current activity form (BDCAF). Depression was assessed by the Korean version of Beck depression inventory second edition (BDI-2). Quality of life was assessed by the Korean version of the Leeds Behcet disease quality of life measure (BDQoL). Results Among the 100 patients studied, 42% reported poor sleep quality (PSQI ≥ 9). These patients have a higher BDI-2, total BDCAF and pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score (p < 0.001, p = 0.022, and p = 0.005). Considering BDCAF, the frequency of genital ulcer was significantly higher (p = 0.01). Behcet was higher in females. The BDQoL was lower in poor sleeper group (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001). Among 7 PSQI components, daytime dysfunction was higher in patients with high disease activity (p = 0.03). Total PSQI score were strongly correlated with BDCAF, BDI-2, BDQoL, and pain VAS score (p = 0.02, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Low sleep quality is directly associated with disease activity, depression, and quality of life in Korean patients with Behcet disease. PMID:28192886

  14. Geospatial Technology in Disease Mapping, E- Surveillance and Health Care for Rural Population in South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveenkumar, B. A.; Suresh, K.; Nikhil, A.; Rohan, M.; Nikhila, B. S.; Rohit, C. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2014-11-01

    Providing Healthcare to rural population has been a challenge to the medical service providers especially in developing countries. For this to be effective, scalable and sustainable, certain strategic decisions have to be taken during the planning phase. Also, there is a big gap between the services available and the availability of doctors and medical resources in rural areas. Use of Information Technology can aid this deficiency to a good extent. In this paper, a mobile application has been developed to gather data from the field. A cloud based interface has been developed to store the data in the cloud for effective usage and management of the data. A decision tree based solution developed in this paper helps in diagnosing a patient based on his health parameters. Interactive geospatial maps have been developed to provide effective data visualization facility. This will help both the user community as well as decision makers to carry out long term strategy planning.

  15. Sister-chromatid exchange analysis in a rural population of Mexico exposed to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Noriega-Aldana, N; Osorio, A; Galicia, F; Ling, S; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1992-03-01

    Cytogenetic damage was evaluated by means of the analysis of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in a rural population of Tlaxcala, Mexico, in occupational contact with pesticides. We studied 170 men, 94 exposed and 76 not exposed. It was shown that SCE followed a normal distribution and Student's t test did not present differences between the two groups (P = 0.4). The frequency of SCE was not correlated with the duration of exposure of the rural workers (r = -0.06), the multiple covariance analysis applied to the data of duration of exposure, tobacco intake and alcohol ingestion demonstrated a lack of statistical significance. In the exposed people we observed no symptoms provoked by these compounds.

  16. Endogenous knowledge of four leafy vegetables used by rural populations in Benin.

    PubMed

    Vihotogbe-Sossa, Carole N A; Akissoe, Noël H; Anihouvi, Victor B; Ahohuendo, Bonaventure C; Ahanchede, Adam; Sanni, Ambaliou; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are sources of diet diversification and could contribute to food and nutritional security in African rural areas. However, in some places, little is known about if, how, and why leafy vegetables are consumed. Processing and preservation methods, food forms, and consumption determinants of four leafy vegetables (Sesamum radiatum, Ceratotheca sesamoïdes, Acmella uliginosa and Justicia tenella), known to contribute to the diet of rural populations in the Center and Northern parts of Benin, were investigated. Three hundred randomly selected households were investigated, using rapid appraisal and quantitative survey methods, descriptive statistics and correspondence analysis. Processing methods to prepare sauces varied depending on sociocultural groups. Cooking of fresh leaves predominated, while sun drying was the usual practice of preserving these leafy vegetables. Consumption frequencies were associated with sociocultural groups, food habits, and availability in living areas.

  17. A spatial decision support tool for estimating population catchments to aid rural and remote health service allocation planning.

    PubMed

    Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen; Berube, Myriam

    2011-12-01

    There is mounting pressure on healthcare planners to manage and contain costs. In rural regions, there is a particular need to rationalize health service allocation to ensure the best possible coverage for a dispersed population. Rural health administrators need to be able to quantify the population affected by their allocation decisions and, therefore, need the capacity to incorporate spatial analyses into their decision-making process. Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) can provide this capability. In this article, we combine geographical information systems (GIS) with a web-based graphical user interface (webGUI) in a SDSS tool that enables rural decision-makers charged with service allocation, to estimate population catchments around specific health services in rural and remote areas. Using this tool, health-care planners can model multiple scenarios to determine the optimal location for health services, as well as the number of people served in each instance.

  18. Cone-beam computed tomography for the assessment of root–crown ratios of the maxillary and mandibular incisors in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Jung-Suk; Kim, Cheol-Soon; Yu, Hyung-Seog

    2017-01-01

    Objective This retrospective, cross-sectional study aimed to establish reference data for normal crown and root lengths and the root–crown ratios (R/C ratios) for the mature maxillary and mandibular incisors in a Korean population by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods We included 672 Korean patients (141 men and 531 women; mean age, 27.2 ± 7.7 years) who underwent CBCT examinations during various dental treatments. Crown and root lengths and the R/C ratios of the maxillary and mandibular incisors were measured using CBCT data, which were analyzed to detect significant differences between demographic factors as well as sagittal and vertical skeletal or occlusal relationships. Results Teeth of the same type in each half-arch were symmetrical. The mean R/C ratios varied from 1.1 to 1.2 for the maxillary incisors and from 1.3 to 1.4 for the mandibular incisors. Crown and root lengths were greater in men than in women, regardless of tooth type. Root lengths and R/C ratios for the mandibular incisors were significantly greater in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion or an excessive overjet than in the other patients. The R/C ratios for the mandibular incisors were lower in patients with an open bite than in those with a normal or deep bite. Moreover, the R/C ratios for the mandibular incisors increased with age. Conclusions The data obtained in our study can serve as reference values for crown and root lengths and the R/C ratios for the maxillary and mandibular incisors in the Korean population. PMID:28127538

  19. Fermented food intake is associated with a reduced likelihood of atopic dermatitis in an adult population (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013).

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Bae, Ji-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has continuously increased throughout the world in every age group, and the recent increase in AD in Korean adults may be related to changes in nutrient intakes due to westernization of dietary patterns. We hypothesized that the prevalence of AD is associated with the different dietary patterns and fermented food intakes of the Korean adult population. We examined the hypothesis using 9763 adults 19 years or older using the 2012-2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We identified 4 dietary patterns in addition to that including fermented foods using principal component analysis on data obtained from a 116-item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire: meat and processed foods; vegetables, fruits, legumes, seafood, and seaweed; rice and grains; and coffee, chocolate, and ice cream. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders. High levels of consumption (>92 times/month) of fermented foods such as doenjang, chungkookjang, kimchi, fermented seafood, makgeolli, and beer were associated with a lower prevalence of AD (OR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.84). In contrast, high levels of consumption of meat and processed foods were strongly associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.48-3.94). Interestingly, the consumption of coffee, chocolate, and ice cream was significantly negatively associated with the prevalence of AD (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.82). In conclusion, the hypothesis was accepted. The results can be applied to nutrition education programs for the general population to decrease risk factors for AD.

  20. Estimated Number of Korean Adults with Back Pain and Population-Based Associated Factors of Back Pain : Data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon

    2009-01-01

    Objective We estimated the number of Korean adults with back pain and evaluated population-based associated factors of back pain from a representative sample data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods The number of Korean adults who experienced back pain (experienced patients), those who experienced back pain lasting for three or more months during the past year (chronic patients), and those who were currently suffering from back pain (current patients) were estimated by analyzing the data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2007 using surveyfreq procedure of the SAS statistical package. Population-based odds ratios for being experienced, chronic, and current patient according to demographic (age and gender), socioeconomic (education and occupation), and lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) were estimated using surveylogistic procedure. Results It was estimated that there were 5,554,256 (proportion, 15.4%; 95% CI, 4,809,466 - 6,299,046) experienced patients, 2,060,829 (5.7%; 1,557,413-2,564,246) chronic patients, and 3,084,188 (8.5%; 2,600,197 - 3,568,179) current patients among 36,107,225 Korean adults aged 20-89 years in 2007. Each of explanatory variables was significantly associated with at least one of the response variables for back pain. Conclusion Based on our study results, further efforts to investigate epidemiology of back pain, to evaluate associated factors, and to improve treatment outcomes are needed. PMID:20041054

  1. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, J; Shaver, John; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers. LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and "outness," and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals' demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas. Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men. The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients' disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas.

  2. Outness, Stigma, and Primary Health Care Utilization among Rural LGBT Populations

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, J.; Shaver, John; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior studies have noted significant health disadvantages experienced by LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) populations in the US. While several studies have identified that fears or experiences of stigma and disclosure of sexual orientation and/or gender identity to health care providers are significant barriers to health care utilization for LGBT people, these studies have concentrated almost exclusively on urban samples. Little is known about the impact of stigma specifically for rural LGBT populations, who may have less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive care than LGBT people in urban centers. Methodology LBGT individuals residing in rural areas of the United States were recruited online to participate in a survey examining the relationship between stigma, disclosure and “outness,” and utilization of primary care services. Data were collected and analyzed regarding LGBT individuals’ demographics, health care access, health risk factors, health status, outness to social contacts and primary care provider, and anticipated, internalized, and enacted stigmas. Results Higher scores on stigma scales were associated with lower utilization of health services for the transgender & non-binary group, while higher levels of disclosure of sexual orientation were associated with greater utilization of health services for cisgender men. Conclusions The results demonstrate the role of stigma in shaping access to primary health care among rural LGBT people and point to the need for interventions focused towards decreasing stigma in health care settings or increasing patients’ disclosure of orientation or gender identity to providers. Such interventions have the potential to increase utilization of primary and preventive health care services by LGBT people in rural areas. PMID:26731405

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and practices towards schistosomiasis among rural population in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Atroosh, Wahib M; Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Nasr, Nabil A; Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Areeqi, Mona A; Ithoi, Init; Abdulsalam, Awatif M; Chua, Kek Heng; Surin, Johari

    2015-08-25

    Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Yemen, with an estimated 3 million cases, particularly among rural communities. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) on schistosomiasis among rural communities in Yemen. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 households from ten rural districts in Yemen. Overall, 400 children were screened for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. Moreover, parents were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire to collect information about the demographic and socioeconomic information and their KAP concerning schistosomiasis. A total of 127 (31.8%) children were found to be excreting schistosome eggs in either their urine or faeces (22.5% S. haematobium and 8.0% S. mansoni). Although 92.4% of the respondents had heard about schistosomiasis, 49.8%, 68.0% and 47.2% had knowledge concerning the transmission, signs and symptoms, and prevention, respectively. In addition, 77.1% considered schistosomiasis as harmful while 48.5% believed that schistosomiasis could be prevented, albeit their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, education, employment status and household monthly income were reported (P < 0.05). Moreover, a significantly higher level of knowledge was reported among the respondents who had infected children compared to those with no infected family members (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the level of education and the history of schistosomiasis were the most important factors associated with the KAP concerning schistosomiasis among this population. This study reveals that knowledge about the cause, transmission, symptoms and prevention of schistosomiasis among the rural population in Yemen was inadequate, and that this could be a challenging obstacle to the elimination of schistosomiasis in these communities. Besides the current mass drug administration

  4. The Prevalence of Corneal Opacity in Rural Areas in Iran: A Population-based Study.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Pakzad, Reza; Yekta, Abbasali; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-09-12

    To determine the prevalence of corneal opacity in rural areas in Iran: a population-based study Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study using multi-stage cluster sampling from rural-dwellers of villages in the north and southwest of Iran. All participants underwent vision testing including measurement of visual acuity and refraction followed by slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist through which the presence of corneal opacity was determined. The participants were 3314 people (response rate = 86.5%), and 56.3% were female. The prevalence of corneal opacity in at least one eye in the studied subjects was 1.68% (95% CI: 1.08-2.27%); 1.07% (95% CI: 0.04-3.43%) and 2.47% (95% CI: 1.49-3.43%) in women and men, respectively, and 1.45% (95% CI: 0.4-2.45%) and 1.97% (95% CI: 1.3-2.94%) in the southwest and north of the country, respectively. The prevalence of corneal opacity was related to male gender (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.13-3.74) and age (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04- 1.09) but not with education level. The prevalence of visual impairment and blindness among cases with corneal opacity was 46.2% and 19.2%, respectively. Given the high prevalence of corneal opacity in rural areas in Iran, it is essential to prioritize rural areas for allocation of resources and facilities for the diagnosis, screening, and necessary treatment measures.

  5. Does location matter? Rural vs urban outcomes after blood and marrow transplantation in a population-based Canadian cohort.

    PubMed

    Paulson, K; Lambert, P; Bredeson, C; Demers, A; Nowatzki, J; Richardson, E; Rubinger, M; Szwajcer, D; Seftel, M D

    2010-07-01

    Specialized health services, such as blood and marrow transplantation (BMT), are usually based in large urban centers. Previous research has suggested that rural patients undergoing BMT have a higher risk of death. We performed a cohort study using data from both the Manitoba BMT Program and the provincial Cancer Registry to determine whether patients from the rural areas would have inferior survival after BMT and whether rural patients have reduced access to BMT. A total of 463 adult Manitobans, who underwent BMT between January 1990 and December 2006, were assessed. We analyzed area of residence (rural vs urban), disease and BMT characteristics, and calculated the OS. Patients undergoing autologous and allogeneic transplants were analyzed separately. When adjusted for gender, age at BMT and year of BMT, area of residence was not a significant predictor of mortality. A relative survival analysis was also conducted, and area of residence was again not a significant predictor of mortality. To measure access to BMT in urban vs rural patients, we evaluated all patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL) during this same period. Of 432 Manitobans diagnosed with HL, 182 (42%) were rural and 250 (58%) were urban. In contrast, 69% of patients undergoing transplant for HL were urban. In conclusion, using population-based data from a Canadian province, we were unable to show a survival disadvantage for rural patients after controlling for other variables. BMT utilization in rural populations deserves further study.

  6. Association of Neck Circumference and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Adolescents in Urban and Rural Population in North Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Balaji, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Since a few studies exist on the association of neck circumference (NC) and obesity with blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in India, we found it highly relevant to measure the NC and body mass index (BMI) using them as indicators of upper body subcutaneous fat and obesity and relate them to BP in a rural and urban adolescent population in North Tamil Nadu. This is a community-based cross-sectional study of descriptive design where 500 students from urban and rural areas were selected, and their BMI, NC, and BP were measured using standardized instruments. Among urban and rural population high and normal NC positively correlated with BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), indicating that the data clearly reflects increase in BMI, SBP, and DBP values with increase in NC or vice versa. The correlation was statistically significant (P < 0.001) significantly higher BMI (P < 0.01), SBP (P < 0.05), and NC (P < 0.001) was observed in urban population than rural. DBP was not significantly different in rural and urban population. 95(th) percentile values are significantly higher than rest in both urban and rural population. Only the 95(th) percentile values correlate and reflect similar changes in BMI, SBP, and DBP. Our studies indicate a strong association of elevation in BP with high NC and increase in BMI. Overweight and obesity were positively correlated with increase in SBP and DBP.

  7. Association of Neck Circumference and Obesity with Blood Pressure among Adolescents in Urban and Rural Population in North Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Balaji, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Since a few studies exist on the association of neck circumference (NC) and obesity with blood pressure (BP) among adolescents in India, we found it highly relevant to measure the NC and body mass index (BMI) using them as indicators of upper body subcutaneous fat and obesity and relate them to BP in a rural and urban adolescent population in North Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study of descriptive design where 500 students from urban and rural areas were selected, and their BMI, NC, and BP were measured using standardized instruments. Results: Among urban and rural population high and normal NC positively correlated with BMI, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), indicating that the data clearly reflects increase in BMI, SBP, and DBP values with increase in NC or vice versa. The correlation was statistically significant (P < 0.001) significantly higher BMI (P < 0.01), SBP (P < 0.05), and NC (P < 0.001) was observed in urban population than rural. DBP was not significantly different in rural and urban population. 95th percentile values are significantly higher than rest in both urban and rural population. Only the 95th percentile values correlate and reflect similar changes in BMI, SBP, and DBP. Conclusion: Our studies indicate a strong association of elevation in BP with high NC and increase in BMI. Overweight and obesity were positively correlated with increase in SBP and DBP. PMID:28781477

  8. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rice, Brian D; Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Jörg; Hosegood, Victoria; Tanser, Frank; Hill, Caterina; Barnighausen, Till; Herbst, Kobus; Welz, Tanya; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2007-07-18

    To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC) sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC) first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005). Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2%) and pregnant women (23.7%) were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%). A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates) made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over-estimates prevalence due to selection bias in terms of age of

  9. Identification of a Copy Number Variation on Chromosome 20q13.12 Associated with Osteoporotic Fractures in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae-Joon; Hwang, Mi Yeong; Moon, Sanghoon; Hwang, Joo-Yeon; Go, Min Jin

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures (OFs) are critical hard outcomes of osteoporosis and are characterized by decreased bone strength induced by low bone density and microarchitectural deterioration in bone tissue. Most OFs cause acute pain, hospitalization, immobilization, and slow recovery in patients and are associated with increased mortality. A variety of genetic studies have suggested associations of genetic variants with the risk of OF. Genome-wide association studies have reported various single-nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations (CNVs) in European and Asian populations. To identify CNV regions associated with OF risk, we conducted a genome-wide CNV study in a Korean population. We performed logistic regression analyses in 1,537 Korean subjects (299 OF cases and 1,238 healthy controls) and identified a total of 8 CNV regions significantly associated with OF (p < 0.05). Then, one CNV region located on chromosome 20q13.12 was selected for experimental validation. The selected CNV region was experimentally validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The CNV region of chromosome 20q13.12 is positioned upstream of a family of long non-coding RNAs, LINC01260. Our findings could provide new information on the genetic factors associated with the risk of OF. PMID:28154514

  10. PREVALENCE OF DIENTAMOEBA FRAGILIS AMONG AN ORANG ASLI POPULATION IN RURAL MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Hasim, Liyana; Moktar, Norhayati; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M

    2015-09-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a trichomonad parasite that can infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans causing gastrointestinal disease. Little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated the prevalence of D. fragilis by conducting a cross sectional study of an Orang Asli population in rural Malaysia. We examined stool samples from 150 participants for D. fragilis using Wheatley's trichrome stain and collected demographic data from each participant using a structured questionnaire. Five participants (3.3%) had D. fragilis in their stool; four of these were aged < 15 years; 3 were male and 2 were female. All participants with positive stool sample for D. fragilis were symptomatic; 3 had diarrhea and 2 had other gastrointestinal symptoms. D. fragilis is present in the study population. Further studies are needed to determine the virulence, pathogenicity and mode of transmission of D. fragilis in the study population.

  11. Urinary concentrations of acrylamide (AA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) and associations with demographic factors in the South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Heon; Lee, Kee Jae; Ahn, Ryoungme; Kang, Hee Sook

    2014-09-01

    Acrylamide (AA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) are important urinary biomarkers of acrylamide exposure in human biomonitoring, because AA is classified as a probable carcinogen in humans. In this study, urinary AA and AAMA were assessed in the South Korean adult population aged 18-69, based on the Korean National Human Biomonitoring Survey conducted in 2009. Urinary metabolites in samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS system. Relying on data from 1873 representative South Korean adults, the population-weighted geometric means of urinary AA and AAMA concentrations were 6.8 ng/ml (95% CI: 6.4-7.3), and 30.0 ng/ml (95% confidence interval (CI): 28.2-31.8), respectively. The creatinine-adjusted geometric means of AA and AAMA were 6.2 μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 5.8-6.7) and 26.4μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 24.9-28.0), respectively. When covariates for predictors of urinary metabolites were adjusted simultaneously in a log-linear multiple regressions, the strongest predictors of urinary AA were education (OR=1.08-1.28; 95% CI: 1.11-1.48; p=0.0024) and age (OR=0.66-0.84; 95% CI: 0.54-0.97; p=0.0003), and those of urinary AAMA were smoking status (OR=1.16-2.63; 95% CI: 0.98-3.08; p=0.001) and education (OR=1.12-1.19; 95% CI: 1.02-1.38; p=0.0425). The ratio of current/never smokers for urinary AA was 1.3, whereas the same ratio for urinary AAMA was 3.0. These findings suggested that most South Koreans had detectable levels of AA and AAMA (98.7% and 99.4%, respectively) in their urine and that the body burden of AA and AAMA varied according to demographic, geographic, and lifestyle (smoking) factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Rurality and Ethnicity in Adolescent Physical Illness: Are Children of the Growing Rural Latino Population at Excess Health Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Elder, Glen H.; Abraham, W. Todd

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: This study's objectives are to: investigate potential additive and multiplicative influences of rurality and race/ethnicity on chronic physical illness in a nationally representative sample of youth; and examine intra-Latino processes using a Latino sub-sample. Specifically, we examine how rurality and individual psychosocial…

  13. Rurality and Ethnicity in Adolescent Physical Illness: Are Children of the Growing Rural Latino Population at Excess Health Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Elder, Glen H.; Abraham, W. Todd

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: This study's objectives are to: investigate potential additive and multiplicative influences of rurality and race/ethnicity on chronic physical illness in a nationally representative sample of youth; and examine intra-Latino processes using a Latino sub-sample. Specifically, we examine how rurality and individual psychosocial…

  14. Differences in the social patterning of active travel between urban and rural populations: findings from a large UK household survey.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Jayne; White, Piran C L; Graham, Hilary

    2014-12-01

    To determine the social patterning of active travel of short journeys for urban and rural residents in a large UK representative sample. Associations between frequently walking or cycling short journeys and socio-demographic factors in the UK Household Longitudinal Study were determined using logistic regression. Urban residents were 64 % more likely to frequently engage in active travel than rural residents (95 % CI 1.52, 1.77). Being younger, male, without full-time employment and having a lower income independently predicted greater active travel for both urban and rural residents. Degree level education and not having children were independent predictors for urban, but not rural residents. Actively travelling short journeys is less common and independently associated with fewer socio-demographic factors in rural than in urban populations.

  15. First serological evidence of West Nile virus in human rural populations of Gabon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    To investigate West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in rural populations in Gabon, we undertook a large serological survey focusing on human rural populations, using two different ELISA assays. A sample was considered positive when it reacted in both tests. A total of 2320 villagers from 115 villages were interviewed and sampled. Surprisingly, the WNV-specific IgG prevalence was high overall (27.2%) and varied according to the ecosystem: 23.7% in forested regions, 21.8% in savanna, and 64.9% in the lakes region. The WNV-specific IgG prevalence rate was 30% in males and 24.6% in females, and increased with age. Although serological cross-reactions between flaviviruses are likely and may be frequent, these findings strongly suggest that WNV is widespread in Gabon. The difference in WNV prevalence among ecosystems suggests preferential circulation in the lakes region. The linear increase with age suggests continuous exposure of Gabonese populations to WNV. Further investigations are needed to determine the WNV cycle and transmission patterns in Gabon. PMID:20565765

  16. [Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Kelodjoue, S

    1989-06-01

    This comparative examination of changes in agrarian systems in 3 densely populated regions of Cameroon is intended to assess the role of demographic factors in agrarian changes and to permit prediction of future ability of the regions to continue supporting dense populations while providing a surplus for export to the rapidly growing cities. The 3 regions, Bamileke, Mont Mandaras, and the department of Lekie, are characterized by different climatic conditions, vegetation, soil types, and social organization. The total population of the 3 regions has increased from 1,278,644 in 1976 to 1,799,782 in 1987. High fertility rates seem to be the principal factor in this rapid growth. Despite very different systems of land tenure and crop regimes, the 3 areas have in common a serious lack of new lands capable of absorbing their surplus labor, and all have been greatly influenced by the introduction and spread of cash crops as their populations have come to see the land as a producer of income in addition to food, and have attempted to maximize their land holdings in conformity with their available labor and especially their desire for cash. In some areas land is no longer given to young men. Erosion and soil exhaustion are increasing. The spread of cash crops threatens the local food supply, and earnings tend to be invested in housed or wedding ceremonies rather than in increasing production. Population pressure has prompted colonization of new lands and migration to the cities or other rural areas, as well as appropriation of communal lands for private use. Conflicts over land are carried over into other areas of communal life. Underemployment of young men in some areas has led to delinquency. Efforts to intensify land use appear to be successful in the long run only where the soil is rich. Demographic pressure is a factor in the agrarian transformation of these areas, but it is only 1 of a number of factors of which the most important appears to be the entrance of the

  17. The influence of age and gender on skin-associated microbial communities in urban and rural human populations

    DOE PAGES

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan -Ning; Chi, Liang; ...

    2015-10-28

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroupmore » variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Lastly, skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~ 5x greater than random.« less

  18. The influence of age and gender on skin-associated microbial communities in urban and rural human populations

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan -Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe -Xue; Badger, Jonathan H.

    2015-10-28

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Lastly, skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~ 5x greater than random.

  19. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random. PMID:26510185

  20. The Influence of Age and Gender on Skin-Associated Microbial Communities in Urban and Rural Human Populations.

    PubMed

    Ying, Shi; Zeng, Dan-Ning; Chi, Liang; Tan, Yuan; Galzote, Carlos; Cardona, Cesar; Lax, Simon; Gilbert, Jack; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Differences in the bacterial community structure associated with 7 skin sites in 71 healthy people over five days showed significant correlations with age, gender, physical skin parameters, and whether participants lived in urban or rural locations in the same city. While body site explained the majority of the variance in bacterial community structure, the composition of the skin-associated bacterial communities were predominantly influenced by whether the participants were living in an urban or rural environment, with a significantly greater relative abundance of Trabulsiella in urban populations. Adults maintained greater overall microbial diversity than adolescents or the elderly, while the intragroup variation among the elderly and rural populations was significantly greater. Skin-associated bacterial community structure and composition could predict whether a sample came from an urban or a rural resident ~5x greater than random.

  1. Urban and rural variations in the characteristics associated with elder mistreatment in a community-dwelling Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinqi; Simon, Melissa Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the urban and rural differences in characteristics associated with elder mistreatment (EM) in a Chinese population. A cross-sectional study of 269 urban and 135 rural participants aged 60 years or greater was performed. Among those with EM, rural participants were more likely to be women, have lower levels of education and income, have lower levels of health status and quality of life, have worse change in recent health, and have lower levels of psychosocial well-being. Both higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social support were associated with increased risk of EM.

  2. Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Lorelei; Bharadwaj, Lalita; McLeod, Lianne; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Safe drinking water is a global challenge for rural populations dependent on unregulated water. A scoping review of research on human health risk assessments (HHRA) applied to this vulnerable population may be used to improve assessments applied by government and researchers. This review aims to summarize and describe the characteristics of HHRA methods, publications, and current literature gaps of HHRA studies on rural populations dependent on unregulated or unspecified drinking water. Peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched (January 2000 to May 2014) and identified at least one drinking water source as unregulated (21%) or unspecified (79%) in 100 studies. Only 7% of reviewed studies identified a rural community dependent on unregulated drinking water. Source water and hazards most frequently cited included groundwater (67%) and chemical water hazards (82%). Most HHRAs (86%) applied deterministic methods with 14% reporting probabilistic and stochastic methods. Publications increased over time with 57% set in Asia, and 47% of studies identified at least one literature gap in the areas of research, risk management, and community exposure. HHRAs applied to rural populations dependent on unregulated water are poorly represented in the literature even though almost half of the global population is rural. PMID:28788087

  3. Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Ford, Lorelei; Bharadwaj, Lalita; McLeod, Lianne; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-07-28

    Safe drinking water is a global challenge for rural populations dependent on unregulated water. A scoping review of research on human health risk assessments (HHRA) applied to this vulnerable population may be used to improve assessments applied by government and researchers. This review aims to summarize and describe the characteristics of HHRA methods, publications, and current literature gaps of HHRA studies on rural populations dependent on unregulated or unspecified drinking water. Peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched (January 2000 to May 2014) and identified at least one drinking water source as unregulated (21%) or unspecified (79%) in 100 studies. Only 7% of reviewed studies identified a rural community dependent on unregulated drinking water. Source water and hazards most frequently cited included groundwater (67%) and chemical water hazards (82%). Most HHRAs (86%) applied deterministic methods with 14% reporting probabilistic and stochastic methods. Publications increased over time with 57% set in Asia, and 47% of studies identified at least one literature gap in the areas of research, risk management, and community exposure. HHRAs applied to rural populations dependent on unregulated water are poorly represented in the literature even though almost half of the global population is rural.

  4. Quality of Life in rural and urban populations in Lebanon using SF-36 Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sabbah, Ibtissam; Drouby, Nabil; Sabbah, Sanaa; Retel-Rude, Nathalie; Mercier, Mariette

    2003-01-01

    Background Measuring health status in a population is important for the evaluation of interventions and the prediction of health and social care needs. Quality of life (QoL) studies are an essential complement to medical evaluation but most of the tools available in this area are in English. In order to evaluated QoL in rural and urban areas in Lebanon, the short form 36 health survey (SF-36) was adapted into Arabic. Methods SF-36 was administered in a cross-sectional study, to collect sociodemographic and environmental variables as well as self reported morbidity. We analysed a representative sample containing 1632 subjects, from whom we randomly picked 524 subjects aged 14 years and over. The translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the SF-36 followed the International Quality of Life Assessment methodology. Multivariate analysis (generalized linear model) was performed to test the effect of habitat (rural on urban areas) on all domains of the SF-36. Results The rate of missing data is very low (0.23% of items). Item level validation supported the assumptions underlying Likert scoring. SF-36 scale scores showed wide variability and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.70), factor analysis yielded patterns of factor correlation comparable to that found in the U.S.A and France. Patients resident in rural areas had higher vitality scores than those in urban areas. Older people reported more satisfaction with some domains of life than younger people, except for physical functioning. The QoL of women is poorer than men; certain symptoms and morbidity independently influence the domains of SF-36 in this population. Conclusion The results support the validity of the SF-36 Arabic version. Habitat has a minor influence on QoL, women had a poor QoL, and health problems had differential impact on QoL. PMID:12952543

  5. Health Care Avoidance Among Rural Populations: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Spleen, Angela M.; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Camacho, Fabian T.; Vanderpool, Robin C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that certain populations, including rural residents, exhibit health care avoidant behaviors more frequently than other groups. Additionally, health care avoidance is related to sociodemographics, attitudes, social expectations, ability to pay for care, and prior experiences with providers. However, previous studies have been limited to specific geographic areas, particular health conditions, or by analytic methods. Methods The 2008 Health Information Trends Survey (HINTS) was used to estimate the magnitude of health care avoidance nationally and, while controlling for confounding factors, identify groups of people in the US who are more likely to avoid health care. Chi-square procedures tested the statistical significance (P < .05) of bivariate relationships. Multivariable analysis was conducted through a weighted multiple logistic regression with backward selection. Results For 6,714 respondents, bivariate analyses revealed differences (P < .05) in health care avoidance for multiple factors. However, multiple regression reduced the set of significant factors (P < .05) to rural residence (OR=1.69), male sex (OR=1.24), younger age (18-34 years OR=2.34; 35-49 years OR=2.10), lack of health insurance (OR=1.43), lack of confidence in personal health care (OR=2.24), lack of regular provider (OR=1.49), little trust in physicians (OR=1.34), and poor provider rapport (OR=0.94). Conclusion The results of the current study will help public health practitioners develop programs and initiatives targeted and tailored to specific groups, particularly rural populations, which seek to address avoidant behavior, thereby reducing the likelihood of adverse health outcomes. PMID:24383487

  6. Attitudes towards suicide in urban and rural China: a population based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yaming; Leung, Ricky; Lin, Shao; Yang, Mingan; Lu, Tao; Li, Xianyun; Gu, Jing; Hao, Chun; Dong, Guanghui; Hao, Yuantao

    2016-05-26

    Suicide intervention programs have been guided by findings that attitude towards suicide and suicidal behavior may be causally linked. These findings also make it imperative to identify the factors that influence attitudes towards suicide. However, there has been little research on attitudes towards suicide among the general population, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. This population-based, cross-sectional study investigated the associated factors of attitudes towards suicide among a representative sample of urban and rural adult residents in China. A multi-stage, stratified random sampling approach was implemented to select participants. Data were collected by a survey using the Scale of Public Attitudes about Suicide (SPAS). The survey also collected some socio-demographic factors and suicidal history of participants. Statistical tests were conducted to identify associated factors that account for variations in attitudes towards suicide. The residents in China generally hold a neutral attitude towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide among Chinese residents were associated with age, duration of formal education, marital status, job and suicidal ideation. Different attitudinal subscales seemed not to share the same risk factors. However, gender, ethnicity, religious belief, housing style and economic status might not influence residents' attitudes towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide among Chinese urban and rural residents generally had no statistical difference with one notable exception: opinions on whether or not suicides and suicide attempts are different phenomena. Age, duration of formal education, marital status, job and suicidal ideation seem to have an impact on attitudes towards suicide among residents. Urban and rural residents have similar attitudes towards suicide with the only statistically significance difference being their opinions on whether or not suicides and suicide attempts are different phenomena.

  7. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a rural Chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liping; Liang, Yuanbo; Qiu, Bo; Wang, Fenghua; Duan, Xinrong; Yang, Xiaohui; Huang, Wen; Wang, Ningli

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CKD and associated factors in a rural adult population in Northern China. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Handan Eye Study. A total of 5,105 subjects aged >or=30 years were included in this analysis. Spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was determined. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated with the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. CKD was defined by the guidelines proposed by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. The associations between age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and kidney damage were examined. Albuminuria and reduced renal function were detected in 16.8 and 0.4% of subjects, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of albuminuria, reduced renal function and CKD was 14.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-15.9), 0.38% (95% CI 0.21-0.55) and 15.2% (95% CI 14.2-16.2), respectively. The prevalence of CKD was greater in women than in men (16.7 vs. 12.9%, respectively, p < 0.001). The increased prevalence of CKD with increasing age was observed in both genders. Older age, female gender, diabetes and hypertension were independently associated with albuminuria. Older age was independently associated with reduced renal function. The prevalence of CKD in the rural Chinese population is relatively high. Factors associated with CKD are similar to those of urban areas in China and developed countries. CKD is a major public health problem in rural China. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. A cross-sectional survey on the attitudes and interests of rural population towards expanded pharmacist prescribing in India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Arief, Mohammad; Ahmad, Akram; Malik, Sadiqa; Gogoi, Lakhya Jyoti; Kalita, Manabendra; Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    Background Shortage of qualified medical doctors and little or no access to basic medicines and medical facilities are the major rural health concerns in India. Expanding the role of pharmacists to provide prescribing services could improve rural health outcomes. Objective To assess the attitudes of rural population towards pharmacist prescribing and their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services. Setting Rural population of Assam, India. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of 2 months from March to April 2016 in the State of Assam, India. A multi-stage sampling was used to recruit (n = 410) eligible participants. Main outcome measure Rural population attitudes towards, and interests in using, pharmacist prescribing services. Results The attitudes of participants were generally positive towards pharmacist prescribing. A large proportion of participants (81.5%) agreed that pharmacists should have a prescribing role in rural India. Participants indicated their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services, with greater interests in receiving medications in emergency situations (79.7%) and getting a treatment plan for their medical problem (75.6%). Participants with low income and tertiary education had better attitudes and showed more interest towards expanded pharmacist prescribing services (p < 0.05). Conclusions Most participants had positive attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing and were interested in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services.

  9. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a rural Aymara population from northern Chile].

    PubMed

    Vargas M, Pablo; Saavedra P, Stephanie; Araya A, María Virginia; Loyola A, Khanty; Huerta G, Patricio; Silva A, Mariana; Araya C, Scarlett; Saavedra A, Willybaldo; Portales P, Pilar; Saavedra P, Willybaldo

    2016-09-01

    Some rural non-Caucasian ethnic groups have genetic protective factors for the development of chronic non-communicable diseases. Studies performed in Mapuche and Aymara ethnic groups in Chile, found significantly lower prevalence rates. Aymaras are the second most common ethnic population in Chile. To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a native Aymara ethnic population. We studied 276 native Aymara people with a median age of 53 years (63% women), registered in the rural clinics of Camiña and Putre. The frequency of hypertension, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2), dyslipidemia, overweight, obesity and smoking were determined. The frequency of overweight and obesity was 38% and 38.4% respectively. The prevalence of hypertension and DM2 were 18.5% and 6.9% respectively. Thirty-five percent had elevated total cholesterol, 21% had high LDL cholesterol, 48% had low HDL cholesterol and 45.7% had high triglyceride levels. Two percent smoked. In this group of Aymara individuals, we found a markedly lower prevalence of hypertension and DM2, despite the high prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia.

  10. Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of snakebite incidence with a more detailed survey of victims in order to understand the health and socio-economic effects of the bite, the treatments obtained and their views about future improvements. Our survey suggests that snakebite incidence is higher than previously reported. 3.9% of those surveyed had suffered from snakebite and the number of deaths corresponds to 0.45% of the population. The socio-economic impact of this is very considerable in terms of the treatment costs and the long-term effects on the health and ability of survivors to work. To reduce this, the victims recommended improvements to the accessibility and affordability of antivenom treatment. Conclusions Snakebite has a considerable and disproportionate impact on rural populations, particularly in South Asia. This study provides an incentive for researchers and the public to work together to reduce the incidence and improve the outcomes for snake bite victims and their families. PMID:24278244

  11. First 100 laparoscopic surgeries in a predominantly rural Nigerian population: a template for future growth.

    PubMed

    Ekwunife, Christopher N; Nwobe, Ogechukwu

    2014-11-01

    Minimal access surgery has revolutionized surgery practice. Its proven advantages, such as reduced postoperative pain, early return to unrestricted activities, and better cosmesis, have become important drivers for its rapid development. In sub-Saharan Africa this development has been slow. The aim of the current study was to describe the challenges and outcomes of laparoscopic procedures in a public hospital that caters to a predominantly rural population. The first 100 patients who underwent laparoscopic procedure in the Department of Surgery at Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria were retrospectively analyzed. Data were retrieved from the medical records department as well as the surgical theater procedure register. The focus of the study was on patient demographics, indication for surgery, procedure performed, length of hospital stay, and morbidity and mortality data. Staff training was done locally and abroad. Altogether, 100 patients had laparoscopic surgery in our general surgery unit from September 2007 through July 2013. The ages of the patients was 5-75 years (median 36.5 years). The three main procedures were cholecystectomy (36 %), diagnostic laparoscopy (29 %), and appendectomy (21 %). The other operations performed included liver abscess drainage (7 %), adhesiolysis (3 %), hernia repair (1 %), and Heller's myotomy (1 %). Four cases were converted to open surgery. There were no deaths. There were 14 grades I and II postoperative complications in nine patients. Our study suggests that basic laparoscopic procedures could be offered safely to our resource-poor rural population. It is a platform on which we can hopefully introduce advanced laparoscopic surgical operations.

  12. Palatal changes of reverse smokers in a rural coastal Andhra population with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, T Sreenivasa; Kumar, N Govind Raj; Nagaraja, A; Saraswathi, TR; Babu, G Suresh; Raju, P Ramanjaneya

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate and record the palatal changes in individuals habituated to reverse chutta smoking in rural coastal Andhra population. Materials and Methods: Sixty individuals out of whom 47 females and 13 males habituated to reverse smoking with no other tobacco and alcohol habits and no other systemic disturbances were selected. The palatal changes were recorded by six examiners. Database were searched for the following terms “reverse smokers,” “nicotina palatini” and “palatal lesions.” Results: The mean and percentage prevalence of the each lesion recorded and agreed by six examiners among 60 subjects showed presence of 87.77% hyperpigmented areas, 64.44% depigmented areas, 51.66% excrescences, 32.22% potentially malignant lesions and 9.72% frank ulcerations. Conclusion: Reverse smoking is an endemic tobacco habit still practiced in the coastal rural Andhra Pradesh. It is a well-established and socially acceptable habit among adult females. The changes recorded clinically shows characteristic features that are unique among this population group. PMID:26604494

  13. Soil ingestion rate determination in a rural population of Alberta, Canada practicing a wilderness lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvine, G; Doyle, J R; White, P A; Blais, J M

    2014-02-01

    The inadvertent ingestion of contaminated soil can be a major pathway for chemical exposure to humans. Few studies to date have quantified soil ingestion rates to develop exposure estimates for human health risk assessments (HHRA), and almost all of those were for children in suburban/urban environments. Here we employed a quantitative mass balance tracer approach on a rural population practicing outdoor activities to estimate inadvertent soil ingestion. This study followed 9 subjects over a 13 day period in Cold Lake, Alberta, near the largest in situ thermal heavy oil (bitumen) extraction operation in the world. The mean soil ingestion rate in this study using Al Ce, La, and Si tracers was 32 mg d(-1), with a 90th percentile of 152 mg d(-1) and median soil ingestion rate of 18 mg d(-1). These soil ingestion values are greater than the standard recommended soil ingestion rates for HHRA from Health Canada, and are similar to soil ingestion estimates found in the only other study on a rural population. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Children's height and weight in rural and urban populations in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    PubMed Central

    Paciorek, Christopher J; Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Urban living affects children's nutrition and growth, which are determinants of their survival, cognitive development, and lifelong health. Little is known about urban–rural differences in children's height and weight, and how these differences have changed over time. We aimed to investigate trends in children's height and weight in rural and urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, and to assess changes in the urban–rural differentials in height and weight over time. Methods We used comprehensive population-based data and a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate trends in children's height-for-age and weight-for-age Z scores by rural and urban place of residence, and changes in urban–rural differentials in height and weight Z scores, for 141 low-income and middle-income countries between 1985 and 2011. We also estimated the contribution of changes in rural and urban height and weight, and that of urbanisation, to the regional trends in these outcomes. Findings Urban children are taller and heavier than their rural counterparts in almost all low-income and middle-income countries. The urban–rural differential is largest in Andean and central Latin America (eg, Peru, Honduras, Bolivia, and Guatemala); in some African countries such as Niger, Burundi, and Burkina Faso; and in Vietnam and China. It is smallest in southern and tropical Latin America (eg, Chile and Brazil). Urban children in China, Chile, and Jamaica are the tallest in low-income and middle-income countries, and children in rural areas of Burundi, Guatemala, and Niger the shortest, with the tallest and shortest more than 10 cm apart at age 5 years. The heaviest children live in cities in Georgia, Chile, and China, and the most underweight in rural areas of Timor-Leste, India, Niger, and Bangladesh. Between 1985 and 2011, the urban advantage in height fell in southern and tropical Latin America and south Asia, but changed little or not at all in most

  15. Human gut microbiota community structures in urban and rural populations in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Tyakht, Alexander V.; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Popenko, Anna S.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Pavlenko, Alexander V.; Larin, Andrey K.; Karpova, Irina Y.; Selezneva, Oksana V.; Semashko, Tatyana A.; Ospanova, Elena A.; Babenko, Vladislav V.; Maev, Igor V.; Cheremushkin, Sergey V.; Kucheryavyy, Yuriy A.; Shcherbakov, Petr L.; Grinevich, Vladimir B.; Efimov, Oleg I.; Sas, Evgenii I.; Abdulkhakov, Rustam A.; Abdulkhakov, Sayar R.; Lyalyukova, Elena A.; Livzan, Maria A.; Vlassov, Valentin V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Tsukanov, Vladislav V.; Osipenko, Marina F.; Kozlova, Irina V.; Tkachev, Alexander V.; Sergienko, Valery I.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Govorun, Vadim M.

    2013-01-01

    The microbial community of the human gut has a crucial role in sustaining host homeostasis. High-throughput DNA sequencing has delineated the structural and functional configurations of gut metagenomes in world populations. The microbiota of the Russian population is of particular interest to researchers, because Russia encompasses a uniquely wide range of environmental conditions and ethnogeographical cohorts. Here we conduct a shotgun metagenomic analysis of gut microbiota samples from 96 healthy Russian adult subjects, which reveals novel microbial community structures. The communities from several rural regions display similarities within each region and are dominated by the bacterial taxa associated with the healthy gut. Functional analysis shows that the metabolic pathways exhibiting differential abundance in the novel types are primarily associated with the trade-off between the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla. The specific signatures of the Russian gut microbiota are likely linked to the host diet, cultural habits and socioeconomic status. PMID:24036685

  16. Psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Index in a young rural Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Jia, Cunxian; Zhang, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The study is aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Duke Social Support Scale (DSSI) in young rural Chinese individuals (379 suicides, 411 controls) aged 15-34 years. Social support was measured by 23-item DSSI, which included Social Interaction Scale, Subjective Social Support, and Instrumental Social Support. DSSI had high internal consistency (alphas all over .79) and correlated with hopelessness and anxiety in both samples. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the structure models of DSSI were basically suitable for the original structure of DSSI but some items should be modified or deleted. Altogether, these findings support that DSSI has high reliability and validity, which makes it an acceptable measure for social support in young Chinese populations. However, further model tests should be carried out by deleting or modifying some items or being used in different populations.

  17. Age-Related Cataract Is Associated with Elevated Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels in the South Korean Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Keun

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated events lead to several chronic diseases. We investigated the association between allergic conditions and age-related cataracts in the South Korean adult population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from 1,170 participants aged 40 years or older who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between age-related cataracts and allergic conditions, including total serum IgE and allergen-specific serum IgE levels, after adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, sun exposure, blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol levels, as well as histories of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis). Results After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for age-related cataract was greater in participants with higher total serum IgE levels (OR = 1.37; P = 0.044). In particular, increased IgE levels were significantly associated with nuclear cataract (OR = 1.42; P = 0.032). However, allergen-specific serum IgE levels did not differ significantly between groups. In the trend analysis, no significant relationship was observed between serum IgE and any type of age-related cataract. Conclusion Increased total serum IgE level is independently associated with age-related cataracts after adjustment for confounding factors. PMID:27861567

  18. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria.

  19. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Eun Young; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yongkyu; Yoo, Gyeol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women) aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1) lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis. Results Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685)], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219) and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376), respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only. Conclusions Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition. PMID:26727468

  20. Association between alcoholism and the genetic polymorphisms of the GABAA receptor genes on chromosome 5q33-34 in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Soo; Park, So-Young; Lee, Chul-Soon; Sohn, Jin-Wook; Hahn, Gyu-Hee; Kim, Bong-Jo

    2006-06-01

    Family, twin, and adoption studies have demonstrated that genes play an important role in the development of alcoholism. We investigated the association between alcoholism and the genetic polymorphisms of the GABAA receptor genes on chromosome 5q33-34 in Korean population. The genotype of the GABAA receptor gene polymorphisms were determined by performing polymerase chain reaction genotyping for 172 normal controls and 162 male alcoholics who are hospitalized in alcoholism treatment institute. We found a significant association between the genetic polymorphisms of the GABAA alpha1 and GABAA alpha6 receptor gene and alcoholism. The GG genotype of the GABAA alpha1 receptor gene was associated with the onset age of alcoholism and alcohol withdrawal symptoms, and a high score on the Korean version of the ADS. However, there was no association between the genetic polymorphisms of the GABAA beta2 and gamma2 receptor gene and alcoholisms. Our finding suggest that genetic polymorphisms of the GABAA alpha1 and GABAA alpha6 receptor gene may be associated with the development of alcoholism and that the GG genotype of the GABAA alpha1 receptor gene play an important role in the development of the early onset and the severe type of alcoholism.

  1. Population-Based Assessment of Hypertension Epidemiology and Risk Factors among HIV-Positive and General Populations in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Balzer, Laura; Heller, David; Kotwani, Prashant; Chamie, Gabriel; Clark, Tamara; Ayieko, James; Mwangwa, Florence; Jain, Vivek; Byonanebye, Dathan; Petersen, Maya; Havlir, Diane; Kamya, Moses R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy scale-up in Sub-Saharan Africa has created a growing, aging HIV-positive population at risk for non-communicable diseases such as hypertension. However, the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in this population remain incompletely understood. Methods We measured blood pressure and collected demographic data on over 65,000 adults attending multi-disease community health campaigns in 20 rural Ugandan communities (SEARCH Study: NCT01864603). Our objectives were to determine (i) whether HIV is an independent risk factor for hypertension, and (ii) awareness and control of hypertension in HIV-positive adults and the overall population. Results Hypertension prevalence was 14% overall, and 11% among HIV-positive individuals. 79% of patients were previously undiagnosed, 85% were not taking medication, and 50% of patients on medication had uncontrolled blood pressure. Multivariate predictors of hypertension included older age, male gender, higher BMI, lack of education, alcohol use, and residence in Eastern Uganda. HIV-negative status was independently associated with higher odds of hypertension (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.4). Viral suppression of HIV did not significantly predict hypertension among HIV-positives. Significance The burden of hypertension is substantial and inadequately controlled, both in HIV-positive persons and overall. Universal HIV screening programs could provide counseling, testing, and treatment for hypertension in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27232186

  2. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  3. The Economic and Social Costs of Drug Abuse among the Rural Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnermeyer, Joseph F.

    This paper presents a framework for assessing the economic and social costs of drug abuse in rural areas. The first section considers definitions for three key sets of concepts: (1) what is rural, the great diversity within rural contexts, and how to distinguish rural from urban; (2) the nature of social costs, as they affect communities as well…

  4. GENETIC STRUCTURE OF TRIATOMA INFESTANS POPULATIONS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO, NORTHERN ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    Marcet, PL; Mora, MS; Cutrera, AP; Jones, L; Gürtler, RE; Kitron, U; Dotson, EM

    2008-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the genetic structure and dispersal dynamics of T. infestans populations, we analyzed the multilocus genotype of 10 microsatellite loci for 352 T. infestans collected in 21 houses of 11 rural communities in October 2002. Genetic structure was analyzed at the community and house compound levels. Analysis revealed that vector control actions affected the genetic structure of T. infestans populations. Bug populations from communities under sustained vector control (core area) were highly structured and genetic differentiation between neighboring house compounds was significant. In contrast, bug populations from communities with sporadic vector control actions were more homogeneous and lacked defined genetic clusters. Genetic differentiation between population pairs did not fit a model of isolation by distance at the microgeographical level. Evidence consistent with flight or walking bug dispersal was detected within and among communities, dispersal was more female-biased in the core area and results suggested that houses received immigrants from more than one source. Putative sources and mechanisms of re-infestation are described. These data may be use to design improved vector control strategies PMID:18773972

  5. Feasibility, comparability, and reliability of the standard gamble compared with the rating scale and time trade-off techniques in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Ha; Lee, Sang-Il; Jo, Min-Woo

    2017-08-11

    The standard gamble (SG) method is the gold standard for valuing health states as a utility, although it is accepted that it is difficult to valuate health states. This study was conducted in order to compare the SG with the rating scale (RS) and time trade-off (TTO) techniques in terms of their feasibility, comparability, and reliability in a valuation survey of the general Korean population. Five-hundred members of the general Korean population were recruited using a multi-stage quota sampling method in Seoul and its surrounding areas, Korea. Respondents evaluated 9 EQ-5D-5L health states using a visual analogue scale (VAS), SG, and TTO during a personal interview. Feasibility was assessed in aspects of the level of difficulty, administration time, and inconsistent responses. Comparability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman approach. Test-retest reliability was analyzed using the ICC. Of the three methods, VAS was the easiest and quickest method to respond. The SG method did not differ significantly compared to the TTO method in administration time as well as the level of difficulty. The SG and TTO values were highly correlated (r = 0.992), and the average mean difference between the SG and the TTO values was 0.034. The ICCs of the VAS, SG, and TTO scores were 0.906, 0.841, and 0.827, respectively. This study suggests that the SG method compared with the VAS and TTO method was feasible and offered a reliable tool for population-based, health state valuation studies in Korea.

  6. Comparing Results of Five Glomerular Filtration Rate-Estimating Equations in the Korean General Population: MDRD Study, Revised Lund-Malmö, and Three CKD-EPI Equations

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Misuk; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Hyesun; Cho, Han-Ik; Yang, Hyun Suk; Navarin, Silvia; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a widely used index of kidney function. Recently, new formulas such as the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations or the Lund-Malmö equation were introduced for assessing eGFR. We compared them with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation in the Korean adult population. Methods The study population comprised 1,482 individuals (median age 51 [42-59] yr, 48.9% males) who received annual physical check-ups during the year 2014. Serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin C (CysC) were measured. We conducted a retrospective analysis using five GFR estimating equations (MDRD Study, revised Lund-Malmö, and Cr and/or CysC-based CKD-EPI equations). Reduced GFR was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results For the GFR category distribution, large discrepancies were observed depending on the equation used; category G1 (≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2) ranged from 7.4-81.8%. Compared with the MDRD Study equation, the other four equations overestimated GFR, and CysC-based equations showed a greater difference (-31.3 for CKD-EPICysC and -20.5 for CKD-EPICr-CysC). CysC-based equations decreased the prevalence of reduced GFR by one third (9.4% in the MDRD Study and 2.4% in CKD-EPICysC). Conclusions Our data shows that there are remarkable differences in eGFR assessment in the Korean population depending on the equation used, especially in normal or mildly decreased categories. Further prospective studies are necessary in various clinical settings. PMID:27578504

  7. Forecasting the number of human immunodeficiency virus infections in the korean population using the autoregressive integrated moving average model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Sung Soon; Chu, Chaeshin; Kee, Mee-Kyung

    2013-12-01

    From the introduction of HIV into the Republic of Korea in 1985 through 2012, 9,410 HIV-infected Koreans have been identified. Since 2000, there has been a sharp increase in newly diagnosed HIV-infected Koreans. It is necessary to estimate the changes in HIV infection to plan budgets and to modify HIV/AIDS prevention policy. We constructed autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to forecast the number of HIV infections from 2013 to 2017. HIV infection data from 1985 to 2012 were used to fit ARIMA models. Akaike Information Criterion and Schwartz Bayesian Criterion statistics were used to evaluate the constructed models. Estimation was via the maximum likelihood method. To assess the validity of the proposed models, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) between the number of observed and fitted HIV infections from 1985 to 2012 was calculated. Finally, the fitted ARIMA models were used to forecast the number of HIV infections from 2013 to 2017. The fitted number of HIV infections was calculated by optimum ARIMA (2,2,1) model from 1985-2012. The fitted number was similar to the observed number of HIV infections, with a MAPE of 13.7%. The forecasted number of new HIV infections in 2013 was 962 (95% confidence interval (CI): 889-1,036) and in 2017 was 1,111 (95% CI: 805-1,418). The forecasted cumulative number of HIV infections in 2013 was 10,372 (95% CI: 10,308-10,437) and in 2017 was14,724 (95% CI: 13,893-15,555) by ARIMA (1,2,3). Based on the forecast of the number of newly diagnosed HIV infections and the current cumulative number of HIV infections, the cumulative number of HIV-infected Koreans in 2017 would reach about 15,000.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Four Loci for Lipid Ratios in the Korean Population and the Constitutional Subgroup

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taehyeung; Park, Ah Yeon; Baek, Younghwa

    2017-01-01

    Circulating lipid ratios are considered predictors of cardiovascular risks and metabolic syndrome, which cause coronary heart diseases. One constitutional type of Korean medicine prone to weight accumulation, the Tae-Eum type, predisposes the consumers to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc. Here, we aimed to identify genetic variants for lipid ratios using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and followed replication analysis in Koreans and constitutional subgroups. GWASs in 5,292 individuals of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study and replication analyses in 2,567 subjects of the Korea medicine Data Center were performed to identify genetic variants associated with triglyceride (TG) to HDL cholesterol (HDLC), LDL cholesterol (LDLC) to HDLC, and non-HDLC to HDLC ratios. For subgroup analysis, a computer-based constitution analysis tool was used to categorize the constitutional types of the subjects. In the discovery stage, seven variants in four loci, three variants in three loci, and two variants in one locus were associated with the ratios of log-transformed TG:HDLC (log[TG]:HDLC), LDLC:HDLC, and non-HDLC:HDLC, respectively. The associations of the GWAS variants with lipid ratios were replicated in the validation stage: for the log[TG]:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5 and rs4244457 and rs6586891 near LPL; for the LDLC:HDLC ratio, rs4420638 near APOC1 and rs17445774 near C2orf47; and for the non-HDLC:HDLC ratio, rs6589566 near APOA5. Five of these six variants are known to be associated with TG, LDLC, and/or HDLC, but rs17445774 was newly identified to be involved in lipid level changes in this study. Constitutional subgroup analysis revealed effects of variants associated with log[TG]:HDLC and non-HDLC:HDLC ratios in both the Tae-Eum and non-Tae-Eum types, whereas the effect of the LDLC:HDLC ratio-associated variants remained only in the Tae-Eum type. In conclusion, we identified three log[TG]:HDLC ratio-associated variants, two LDLC

  9. Evaluation of forensic genetic parameters of 12 STR loci in the Korean population using the Investigator(Ⓡ) HDplex kit.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju Yeon; Kim, Eun Hye; Oh, Yu-Li; Park, Hyun-Chul; Hwang, Jung Ho; Lim, Si-Keun

    2017-04-11

    We genotyped and calculated the forensic parameters of 10 non-CODIS loci and 2 CODIS loci of 990 Korean individuals using the Investigator(Ⓡ) HDplex kit. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing) or genetic linkage disequilibrium were observed. The calculated matching probability and power of discrimination ranged from 0.0080 to 0.2014, and 0.7986 to 0.9920, respectively. We conclude that the markers of the kit are highly informative corroborative tools for forensic DNA analysis.

  10. Development of a sampling strategy and sample size calculation to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Mi Jin; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2012-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is a known risk factor for breast cancer. To conduct a survey to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women, appropriate sampling strategies for representative and efficient sampling design were evaluated through simulation. Using the target population from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP) for breast cancer in 2009, we verified the distribution estimate by repeating the simulation 1,000 times using stratified random sampling to investigate the distribution of breast density of 1,340,362 women. According to the simulation results, using a sampling design stratifying the nation into three groups (metropolitan, urban, and rural), with a total sample size of 4,000, we estimated the distribution of breast density in Korean women at a level of 0.01% tolerance. Based on the results of our study, a nationwide survey for estimating the distribution of mammographic breast density among Korean women can be conducted efficiently.

  11. Seroprevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in a rural Ugandan population.

    PubMed

    Wagner, H U; Van Dyck, E; Roggen, E; Nunn, A J; Kamali, A; Schmid, D S; Dobbins, J G; Mulder, D W

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine in a rural population the age- and sex-specific prevalence and incidence rates of serological reactivity of 5 common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their association with HIV-1 antibody status. Of the adult population of two villages (529 adults aged 15 years or more) 294 provided an adequate blood specimen both on enrollment and at 12 months. The sera were tested at 3 collaborating laboratories for antibodies against HIV-1, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). A sample of 45 children were tested for HSV-1 and HSV-2. Seroprevalence rates in adults on enrollment were 7.8% for HIV-1, 10.8% for active syphilis, 10.4% for H. ducreyi, 66.0% for C. trachomatis, 91.2% for HSV-1 and 67.9% for HSV-2. Males were significantly more likely than females to be seropositive for H. ducreyi (15.6% versus 6.6%), but less likely to be HSV-2 antibody positive (57.0% versus 74.4%). Reactivity to H. ducreyi, C. trachomatis and HSV-2 rose with increasing age. In contrast, active syphilis showed no age trend. All STDs tended to be more common in those HIV-1 seropositive. Incidence rates over the 12 months were nil for HIV-1, 0.5% for syphilis, 1.2% for H. ducreyi, 11.3% for C. trachomatis, and 16.7% for HSV-2. The results of this exploratory study indicate that all STDs included are common in this rural population. The high HSV-2 prevalence rate among adolescents suggests that HSV-2 may be an important risk factor for HIV-1 infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Genetic identification of cytomegaloviruses in a rural population of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Anoh, Augustin Etile; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Pauly, Maude; Schubert, Grit; Mossoun, Arsène; Weiss, Sabrina; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Jarvis, Michael A; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2015-10-05

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are herpesviruses that infect many mammalian species, including humans. Infection generally passes undetected, but the virus can cause serious disease in individuals with impaired immune function. Human CMV (HCMV) is circulating with high seroprevalence (60-100 %) on all continents. However, little information is available on HCMV genoprevalence and genetic diversity in subsaharan Africa, especially in rural areas of West Africa that are at high risk of human-to-human HCMV transmission. In addition, there is a potential for zoonotic spillover of pathogens through bushmeat hunting and handling in these areas as shown for various retroviruses. Although HCMV and nonhuman CMVs are regarded as species-specific, potential human infection with CMVs of non-human primate (NHP) origin, shown to circulate in the local NHP population, has not been studied. Analysis of 657 human oral swabs and fecal samples collected from 518 individuals living in 8 villages of Côte d'Ivoire with generic PCR for identification of human and NHP CMVs revealed shedding of HCMV in 2.5 % of the individuals. Determination of glycoprotein B sequences showed identity with strains Towne, AD169 and Toledo, respectively. NHP CMV sequences were not detected. HCMV is actively circulating in a proportion of the rural Côte d'Ivoire human population with circulating strains being closely related to those previously identified in non-African countries. The lack of NHP CMVs in human populations in an environment conducive to cross-species infection supports zoonotic transmission of CMVs to humans being at most a rare event.

  13. Population Aging and Migrant Workers: Bottlenecks in Tuberculosis Control in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hui; You, Hua; Fan, Hong; Huang, Lifang; Wang, Qungang; Shen, Hongbing; Wang, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem. Its paradigms are shifting through time, especially in rapidly developing countries such as China. Health providers in China are at the forefront of the battle against tuberculosis; however, there are few empirical studies on health providers' perspectives on the challenges they face in tuberculosis control at the county level in China. This study was conducted among health providers to explore their experiences with tuberculosis control in order to identify bottlenecks and emerging challenges in controlling tuberculosis in rural China. Methods A qualitative approach was used. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 health providers working in various positions within the health system of one rural county (ZJG) of China. Data were analyzed based on thematic content analysis using MAXQDA 10 qualitative data analysis software. Results Health providers reported several problems in tuberculosis control in ZJG county. Migrant workers and the elderly were repeatedly documented as the main obstacles in effective tuberculosis control in the county. At a personal level, doctors showed their frustration with the lack of new drugs for treating tuberculosis patients, and their opinions varied regarding incentives for referring patients. Conclusion The results suggest that several problems still remain for controlling tuberculosis in rural China. Tuberculosis control efforts need to make reaching the most vulnerable populations a priority and encourage local health providers to adopt innovative practices in the local context based on national guidelines to achieve the best results. Considerable changes in China's National Tuberculosis Control Program are needed to tackle these emerging challenges faced by health workers at the county level. PMID:24498440

  14. Clinical and neurophysiological features of active convulsive epilepsy in rural Kenya: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Munyoki, Gilbert; Edwards, Tansy; White, Steve; Kwasa, Thomas; Chengo, Eddie; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Odera, Victor Mung’ala; Sander, Josemir W; Neville, Brian George; Newton, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Epilepsy is common in sub-Saharan Africa but is poorly characterized. Most studies are hospital-based, and may not reflect the situation in rural areas with limited access to medical care. We examined people with active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), to determine if the clinical features could help elucidate the causes. Methods We conducted a detailed descriptive analysis of 445 people with ACE identified through a community-based survey of 151,408 people in rural Kenya, including the examination of electroencephalograms. Results Approximately half of the 445 people with ACE were children or adolescents. Seizures began in childhood in 78% of those diagnosed. An episode of status epilepticus was recalled by 36% cases, with an episode of status epilepticus precipitated by fever in 26%. Overall 169 had an abnormal electroencephalogram, 29% had focal features, 34% had epileptiform activity. In the 146 individuals who reported generalised tonic-clonic seizures only, 22% had focal features on their electroencephalogram. Overall 71% of patients with ACE had evidence of focal abnormality, documented by partial onset seizures, focal neurological deficits or focal abnormalities on the electroencephalogram. Increased seizure frequency was strongly associated with age and cognitive impairment in all ages and non-attendance at school in children (p < 0.01). Discussion Children and adolescents bear the brunt of epilepsy in a rural population in Africa. The predominance of focal features and the high proportion of patients with status epilepticus, suggests that much of the epilepsy in this region has identifiable causes, many of which could be prevented. PMID:20608962

  15. A Nation-Wide Epidemiological Study of Newly Diagnosed Primary Spine Tumor in the Adult Korean Population, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Seil; Kim, Jinhee; Chung, Chun Kee; Lee, Na Rae; Sohn, Moon Jun; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Objective This 2009–2011 nation-wide study of adult Koreans was aimed to provide characteristics, medical utilization states, and survival rates for newly diagnosed patients with primary nonmalignant and malignant spine tumors. Methods Data for patients with primary spine tumors were selected from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. The data included their age, sex, health insurance type, co-morbidities, medical cost, and hospital stay duration. Hospital stay duration and medical costs per person occurring in one calendar year were used. In addition, survival rates of patients with primary malignant spine tumors were evaluated. Results The incidence rate of a primary spine tumor increased with age, and the year of diagnosis (p≤0.0001). Average annual medical costs ranged from 1627 USD (pelvis & sacrum & coccyx tumors) to 6601 USD (spinal cord tumor) for primary nonmalignant spine tumor and from 12137 USD (spinal meningomas) to 20825 USD (pelvis & sacrum & coccyx tumors) for a primary malignant spine tumor. Overall survival rates for those with a primary malignant spine tumor were 87.0%, 75.3%, and 70.6% at 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The Cox regression model results showed that male sex, medicare insurance were significantly positive factors affecting survival after a diagnosis of primary malignant spine tumor. Conclusion Our study provides a detailed view of the characteristics, medical utilization states, and survival rates of patients newly diagnosed with primary spine tumors in Korea. PMID:28264240

  16. Geographic location, network patterns and population distribution of rural settlements in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimakopoulos, Avraam; Mogios, Emmanuel; Xenikos, Dimitrios G.

    2016-10-01

    Our work addresses the problem of how social networks are embedded in space, by studying the spread of human population over complex geomorphological terrain. We focus on villages or small cities up to a few thousand inhabitants located in mountainous areas in Greece. This terrain presents a familiar tree-like structure of valleys and land plateaus. Cities are found more often at lower altitudes and exhibit preference on south orientation. Furthermore, the population generally avoids flat land plateaus and river beds, preferring locations slightly uphill, away from the plateau edge. Despite the location diversity regarding geomorphological parameters, we find certain quantitative norms when we examine location and population distributions relative to the (man-made) transportation network. In particular, settlements at radial distance ℓ away from road network junctions have the same mean altitude, practically independent of ℓ ranging from a few meters to 10 km. Similarly, the distribution of the settlement population at any given ℓ is the same for all ℓ. Finally, the cumulative distribution of the number of rural cities n(ℓ) is fitted to the Weibull distribution, suggesting that human decisions for creating settlements could be paralleled to mechanisms typically attributed to this particular statistical distribution.

  17. Cancer awareness and perceived barriers to health seeking in a rural population.

    PubMed

    Mandengenda, C; January, J; Nyati-Jokomo, Z; Muteti, S; Shamu, S; Maradzika, J; Chikwasha, V

    2014-01-01

    Low cancer awareness may lead to delays in cancer screening behaviour and diagnosis. We set out to assess public awareness of cancer and perceived barriers to seeking help among the rural population of Murewa district in a cross-sectional survey of 384 conveniently selected respondents. A self-administered and interviewer guided questionnaires were developed with the guide of the Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM) used in public awareness studies. Awareness of the occurrence of cancer in the population was high with 90.1% responding that they had heard about cancer. However, 60.6% of the respondents could not explain what cancer is. An association was identified between educational level and awareness on the existence of cancer in the population (p = 0.001). Age was also associated with awareness of the existence of cancer in the population (p < 0.001). Level of education was also associated with awareness on types of cancers with breast cancer (p = 0.0014), and prostate cancer (p = 0.001). Barriers to health (help) seeking included low levels of awareness of the availability of cancer screening and not being able to afford treatment services. Other barriers to help seeking included fear of screening and the costs of screening services. Unavailability of preventive and curative services for cancer at primary care level was another barrier to help seeking. There is therefore an increasing need for health promotional interventions to raise public awareness of cancer and to create supportive environments for cancer prevention, screening, early detection and treatment.

  18. Identification of BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) and Holstein populations using a next generation sequencer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Young; Hur, Tai-Young; Jung, Young-Hun; Kim, Heebal

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leucocyte antigen (encoded by BoLA) has been widely studied to identify the association with many traits related to immunity. Exon2 of BoLA-DRB3 is extremely polymorphic, and more than 100 alleles have been identified. We investigated polymorphisms of BoLA-DRB3.2 in Korean native cattle and Holstein populations using a next generation sequencer of the GS-FLX Titanium system. We found 38 alleles including 11 new alleles (BoLA-DRB3*1303, *4702, *7101, *7501, *7201, *7301, *7601, *1104, *7701, *7401 and *50021) in Hanwoo, and nine alleles including one new allele (BoLA-DRB3*7601) in Holstein. The 454 sequencing method is a promising alternative technology for high throughput genotyping of BoLA-DRB3.2 because of its technical advantages that allow it to overcome the disadvantages of sequence-based typing methods.

  19. Dietary potassium intake is beneficial to bone health in a low calcium intake population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Kong, S H; Kim, J H; Hong, A R; Lee, J H; Kim, S W; Shin, C S

    2017-05-01

    Dietary potassium may neutralize acid load and reduce calcium loss from the bone, leading to beneficial effect on bone mineral density. In this nationwide Korean population study, dietary potassium intake was associated with improved bone mineral density in older men and postmenopausal women. Nutrition is a major modifiable factor that affects bone health. The accompanying anion in dietary potassium may act as an alkaline source by neutralizing the acid load and reducing calcium loss from the bone. We aimed to evaluate the association between dietary potassium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in the Korean population. We analyzed a total of 3135 men aged >50 years and 4052 postmenopausal women from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The daily food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. When we divided the participants into tertiles based on the intake of potassium intake, the highest potassium intake tertile group showed a significantly higher total hip and femur neck BMD as compared to lower tertile groups (0.914 ± 0.004, 0.928 ± 0.003, 0.925 ± 0.004 mg/day across the tertiles, P = .014 for total hip; 0.736 ± 0.003, 0.748 ± 0.003, 0.750 ± 0.004 mg/day, P = .012 for femur neck). Postmenopausal women in the highest potassium intake tertile group showed significantly higher lumbar, total hip, and femur neck BMD as compared to those in lower potassium intake tertile groups (0.793 ± 0.004, 0.793 ± 0.003, 0.805 ± 0.004 mg/day across the tertiles, P = .029 for lumbar spine; 0.766 ± 0.003, 0.770 ± 0.002, 0.780 ± 0.003 mg/day, P = .002 for total hip; 0.615 ± 0.003, 0.619 ± 0.002, 0.628 ± 0.003 mg/day, P = .002 for femur neck). Dietary potassium intake was positively associated with BMD in men aged >50 years and postmenopausal women, indicating the

  20. A Population based Study on Alcoholism among Adult Males in a Rural Area, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ruma; Gnanasekaran, Sruthy; Suchithra, S; Srilalitha, V; Sujitha, R; Sivaranjani, S Sowmya; Subitha, S; Dcruze, Lawrence

    2014-06-01

    India's reputation as a country with a culture of abstinence especially in matters regarding alcohol is underserved. There has been a rapid proliferation of city bars and nightclubs in recent years and people are fast shedding its inhibitions about alcohol as a lifestyle choice. This scenario has led to fears of an undocumented rise in alcohol abuse among all sections of society. Policies by the government has been laid down to regulate sales and pricing of alcohol, but not well improvised. Our aim was to find out the prevalence of alcoholism among adult males in a rural population and also to analyze its association between various factors. A cross sectional study in a rural population at Kuthampakkam village, in Poonamallee block of Tiruvallur district in Tamil Nadu, India. The study population included adult male population. Simple random sampling method was adopted. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding the background characteristics, history of alcoholism and certain social factors. Data entry and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 software. Descriptive statistics were calculated for background variables and the prevalence of the alcoholism. Chi-square test and p-value were calculated to see the association between alcoholism and social factors. A total of 157 adult male were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the study participants was 37.20 years. The prevalence of alcoholism among the study participants was 35.7%. Among them only 4.5% who presented with symptoms of chronic alcoholism had taken treatment. Reasons for not taking treatment for alcoholism among study population were mainly due to their family problems (55.2%). Although alcohol consumption has existed for many centuries, the quantity, usage pattern, and resultant problems have undergone substantial changes over the past 20 years. These developments have raised concerns about the public health and social

  1. Case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in a rural population of Faisalabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Muhammad Naeem; Malik, Muhammad Akram

    2015-01-01

    The effects of diet on epidemiology of prostate cancer are inconclusive. Therefore a hospital- based, case-control study was conducted in a rural population of Faisalabad, Pakistan, to examine the impact of dietary factors on risk of cancer development. This study was based on 102 confirmed cases of prostate cancer and 204 normal controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for odds ratios to evaluate the relationship between prostate cancer and diet. Consumption of red meat and fat items significantly increased the prostate cancer risk having odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 3.41; 1.46-7.96 and 2.45; 1.17-5.15, respectively. On the other hand, more consumption of vegetables, fluid intake and fruit significantly decreased the prostate cancer risk (odd ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals of 0.21; 0.10-0.44, 0.10; 0.05- 0.19 and 0.09; 0.03- 0.23, respectively. The present study supports the hypothesis that frequent consumption of red meat and fat items may increase prostate cancer risk while more intake of fruit, vegetables and fluid intake may protect against prostate cancer in the relatively low risk group in rural Pakistan.

  2. Phytoestrogens levels determination in the cord blood from Malaysia rural and urban populations

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, A.M. . E-mail: mustafa@ummc.edu.my; Malintan, N.T.; Seelan, S.; Zhan, Z.; Mohamed, Z.; Hassan, J.; Pendek, R.; Hussain, R.; Ito, N.

    2007-07-01

    This study is a result of an analysis of free and conjugated phytoestrogens daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin and coumesterol in human cord blood plasma using LCMS. Cord blood was collected from urban and rural populations of Malaysia (n = 300) to establish a simple preliminary database on the levels of the analyzed compounds in the collected samples. The study also aimed to look at the levels of phytoestrogens in babies during birth as this may have a profound effect on the developmental process. The sample clean up was carried out by solid-phase extraction using C18 column and passed through DEAE sephadex gel before analysis by LCMS. The mean concentrations of total phytoestrogens were daidzein (1.4 {+-} 2.9 ng/ml), genistein (3.7 {+-} 2.8 ng/ml), daidzin (3.5 {+-} 3.1 ng/ml), genistin (19.5 {+-} 4.2 ng/ml) and coumesterol (3.3 {+-} 3.3 ng/ml). Distribution of phytoestrogen was found to be higher in samples collected from rural areas compared to that of urban areas.

  3. Analysis of C-shaped root canal configuration in maxillary molars in a Korean population using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyoung-Hoon; Min, Jeong-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of root fusion and C-shaped root canals in maxillary molars, and to classify the types of C-shaped canal by analyzing cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods Digitized CBCT images from 911 subjects were obtained in Chosun University Dental Hospital between February 2010 and July 2012 for orthodontic treatment. Among them, a total of selected 3,553 data of maxillary molars were analyzed retrospectively. Tomography sections in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes were displayed by PiViewstar and Rapidia MPR software (Infinitt Co.). The incidence and types of root fusion and C-shaped root canals were evaluated and the incidence between the first and the second molar was compared using Chi-square test. Results Root fusion was present in 3.2% of the first molars and 19.5% of the second molars, and fusion of mesiobuccal and palatal root was dominant. C-shaped root canals were present in 0.8% of the first molars and 2.7% of the second molars. The frequency of root fusion and C-shaped canal was significantly higher in the second molar than the first molar (p < 0.001). Conclusions In a Korean population, maxillary molars showed total 11.3% of root fusion and 1.8% of C-shaped root canals. Furthermore, root fusion and C-shaped root canals were seen more frequently in the maxillary second molars. PMID:26877991

  4. The association of 5-alpha reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) gene polymorphisms with prostate cancer in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Young; Kim, Hae Jong; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Myung, Soon Chul

    2015-01-01

    Steroid 5-alpha reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) modifies testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SRD5A2 gene might affect DHT. We sought to understand the relationship of SRD5A2 SNPs to prostate cancer in the Korean population. Twenty-six common SNPs in the SRD5A2 gene were assessed in 272 prostate cancer cases and 173 controls. Single-locus analyses were conducted by using conditional logistic regression. Additionally, we performed a haplotype analysis for the SRD5A2 SNPs tested. Among the 20 SNPs and 4 haplotypes, there were no statistically significant results in the prostate cancer patients and the controls. In the logistic analysis of SRD5A2 polymorphisms with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) criteria, two SNPs (rs508562, rs11675297) and haplotype 1 displayed significant results (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; p=0.05; OR, 1.88-2.02; p=0.01-0.04; OR, 0.59; p=0.02, respectively). rs508562, rs11675297, rs2208532, and haplotype 1 (OR, 1.49; p=0.05; OR, 2.02; p=0.05; OR, 2.01; p=0.04; OR, 0.56-0.64, p=0.03-0.04, respectively) had significant associations with Gleason score. rs508562, rs11675297, and haplotype 1 (OR, 1.41-2.34; p=0.004-0.05; OR, 1.74-1.82; p=0.03-0.05; OR, 0.42-0.67; p=0.0005-0.03, respectively) were significantly associated with clinical stage. We conclude that there was no significant association between SRD5A2 SNPs and the risk of prostate cancer in the Korean population. However, we found that some SNPs and 1 haplotype influenced PSA level, Gleason score, and clinical stage.

  5. Genome-wide association studies and epistasis analyses of candidate genes related to age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Jung-A; Kim, Sunshin; Cho, Nam H; Koh, InSong; Lee, Jong-Young; Shin, Chol; Kwack, KyuBum

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions that are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at menopause in a Korean population. A total of 3,452 and 1,827 women participated in studies of age at menarche and age at natural menopause, respectively. Linear regression analyses adjusted for residence area were used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS), candidate gene association studies, and interactions between the candidate genes for age at menarche and age at natural menopause. In GWAS, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs7528241, rs1324329, rs11597068, and rs6495785) were strongly associated with age at natural menopause (lowest P = 9.66 × 10). However, GWAS of age at menarche did not reveal any strong associations. In candidate gene association studies, SNPs with P < 0.01 were selected to test their synergistic interactions. For age at natural menopause, there was a significant interaction between intronic SNPs on ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type I motif 9 (ADAMTS9) and SMAD family member 3 (SMAD3) genes (P = 9.52 × 10). For age at menarche, there were three significant interactions between three intronic SNPs on follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene and one SNP located at the 3' flanking region of insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R) gene (lowest P = 1.95 × 10). Novel SNPs and synergistic interactions between candidate genes are significantly associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause in a Korean population.

  6. The association of resting heart rate with diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in the Korean adult population: The fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyuk In; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Jeon, Justin Y

    2016-04-01

    Investigate the association of resting heart rate (RHR) with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome in a data set that represents the whole Korean adult population. The data of 18,640 adults, that represent the whole Korean adult population, was used to examine the association of resting heart rate (RHR) with blood related variables, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Compared to participants with a RHR of <60 beats per minute (bpm), participants with a RHR of ≥90 bpm had higher odds of diabetes {3.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14-6.90], 3.34 (95% CI 1.83-6.10)} and metabolic syndrome [3.55 (95% CI 2.19-5.74), 2.15 (95% CI 1.37-3.35)], for men and women, respectively. Furthermore, compared to the participants with normal BMI (<23 kg/m(2)) normal RHR (<80 bpm), participants with high BMI (≥23 kg/m(2)) high RHR (≥80 bpm) had higher odds of diabetes [2.51 (95% CI 1.83-3.46), 4.89 (95% CI 3.63-6.58)], hypertension [3.88 (95% CI 3.00-5.01), 2.61 (95% CI 2.07-3.28)], and metabolic syndrome [9.67 (95% CI 7.42-12.61), 13.09 (95% CI 10.25-16.73)], for men and women, respectively. RHR shows a positive dose response relationship with the prevalence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The combined association of RHR with BMI increases the potency of RHR as a marker of diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. This study shows that RHR has an important role to play as a potential clinical measurement and prognostic marker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Validity and Reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination-2 for Detecting Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Karyeong; Park, Young Ho; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the validity and reliability of the MMSE-2 for assessing patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in a Korean population. Specifically, the usefulness of the MMSE-2 as a screening measure for detecting early cognitive change, which has not been detectable through the MMSE, was examined. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-six patients with MCI, 97 patients with AD, and 91 healthy older adults were recruited. All participants consented to examination with the MMSE-2, the MMSE, and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. Results The MMSE-2 performed well in discriminating participants across Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) stages and CDR-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB), and it showed excellent internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, high interrater reliability, and good concurrent validity with the MMSE and other detailed neuropsychological assessments. The MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests that are sensitive to decline in cognitive functions vs. tests that are not sensitive to decline in cognitive functions) in normal cognitive aging. Moreover, the MMSE-2 was divided into two factors (tests related overall cognitive functioning other than memory vs. tests related to episodic memory) in patients with AD. Finally, the MMSE-2 was divided into three factors (tests related to working memory and frontal lobe functioning vs. tests related to verbal memory vs. tests related to orientation and immediate recall) in patients with MCI. The sensitivity and specificity of the three versions of the MMSE-2 were relatively high in discriminating participants with normal cognitive aging from patients with MCI and AD. Conclusion The MMSE-2 is a valid and reliable cognitive screening instrument for assessing cognitive impairment in a Korean population, but its ability to distinguish patients with MCI from those with normal cognitive aging may not be as highly sensitive as expected. PMID:27668883

  8. Increased risk for diabetes development in subjects with large variation in total cholesterol levels in 2,827,950 Koreans: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Ko, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Won-Young

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest a role for hyperlipidemia in the development of diabetes. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between variations of total cholesterol (TC) levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes development from a Korean nationwide population-based database. We examined the General Health Check-up sub-dataset of the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of 2,827,950 participants who had at least three health check-ups between 2002 and 2007, and were not reported to have diabetes during that time. The variations of TC levels between the examinations were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text]. The examinees were divided into 10 groups according to TC variation, and the hazard ratio for diabetes development from 2007 to 2013, were analyzed. During the follow-up period, 3.4% of the participants had developed diabetes. The hazard ratio (HR) for diabetes development relative to the overall risk in the whole study population started to be higher than 1.0 from eighth decile of TC variation. The highest decile group showed an increased HR for diabetes development after adjustment for confounding variables (1.139; 95% confidence interval 1.116~1.163). These results were similar regardless of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medication and baseline TC levels. The participants with a large variation in TC levels showed an increased risk for diabetes development, independent of the use of anti-hyperlipidemic medications. These results suggest a relationship between fluctuations in lipid levels and the development of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Psychosocial effects of the 2001 UK foot and mouth disease epidemic in a rural population: qualitative diary based study

    PubMed Central

    Mort, Maggie; Convery, Ian; Baxter, Josephine; Bailey, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To understand the health and social consequences of the 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic for a rural population. Design Longitudinal qualitative analysis. Setting North Cumbria, the worst affected area in Britain. Sample Purposive sample of 54 respondents divided in six demographically balanced rural occupational and population groups. Main outcome measures 3071 weekly diaries contributed over 18 months; 72 semistructured interviews (with the 54 diarists and 18 others); 12 group discussions with diarists Results The disease epidemic was a human tragedy, not just an animal one. Respondents' reports showed that life after the foot and mouth disease epidemic was accompanied by distress, feelings of bereavement, fear of a new disaster, loss of trust in authority and systems of control, and the undermining of the value of local knowledge. Distress was experienced across diverse groups well beyond the farming community. Many of these effects continued to feature in the diaries throughout the 18 month period. Conclusions The use of a rural citizens' panel allowed data capture from a wide spectrum of the rural population and showed that a greater number of workers and residents had traumatic experiences than has previously been reported. Recommendations for future disaster management include joint service reviews of what counts as a disaster, regular NHS and voluntary sector sharing of intelligence, debriefing and peer support for front line workers, increased community involvement in disposal site or disaster management, and wider, more flexible access to regeneration funding and rural health outreach work. PMID:16214809

  10. Medicinal plants used in some rural populations of Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Martínez, M C; de Pascual Pola, C N

    1992-01-01

    Within Mexico's floristic abundance, plants with curative properties are outstanding due to their popularity in handling several illnesses, a fact that becomes specially important for the social groups of the tropical regions. In this paper the results of an ethnobotanical study carried out in 57 rural populations from the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Veracruz and Puebla are presented; questionnaire and interview methods were applied, with special attention to the use of plants for medical purposes. The most relevant results were: the taxonomic determination of 237 vegetal species from which 399 curative products are obtained, in order to combat 57 illnesses, the most frequent of which are those related to the digestive system, the skin, the reproductive system and those of supernatural origin, which can only be treated by the use of plants in special ceremonies known as 'limpias', due to their peculiar condition.

  11. The association between socioeconomic status and subclinical atherosclerosis in a rural Bangladesh population.

    PubMed

    Garshick, Michael; Wu, Fen; Demmer, Ryan; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Eunus, Mahbub; Hasan, Rabiul; Nahar, Jabun; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2017-09-01

    In Bangladesh, CVD accounts for the majority of non-communicable mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) on subclinical atherosclerosis measured as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in a rural Bangladesh population. Carotid IMT was measured between 2010 and 2011 in 1022 participants (average age 46, 40% male) randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), a population-based prospective cohort study based in rural Bangladesh. SES was measured as occupation type, land ownership, educational attainment, and television ownership. Half of the participants received formal education (53%) and under half owned land (48%) and a television (44%). Women were primarily homemakers (95%) and men worked as factory workers (24%), laborers (18%), or in business (55%). In univariate analysis, those owning greater than one acre of land (p=0.03), owning a television (p=0.02), or laborers and business owners compared to factory workers had higher levels of carotid IMT (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis after adjustment for confounders, only men employed in the business sector had elevated carotid IMT compared to factory workers. The association was strongest in older men (58.7μm, 95% CI 17.2-100.0, ≥50years old) compared to younger men (13.7μm, 95% CI -7.8-35.2, <50years old). Business sector employment was positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis after adjustment for confounders. This finding is consistent with evidence from other developing nations suggesting that certain SES factors are independent predictors of CVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Care seeking for fatal illness episodes in Neonates: a population-based study in rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poor neonatal health is a major contributor to under-five mortality in developing countries. A major constraint to effective neonatal survival programme has been the lack of population level data in developing countries. This study investigated the consultation patterns of caregivers during neonatal fatal illness episodes in the rural Matlab sub-district of eastern Bangladesh. Methods Neonatal deaths were identified through a population-based demographic surveillance system in Matlab ICDDR,B maternal and child health (MCH) project area and an adjoining government service area. Trained project staff administered a structured questionnaire on care seeking to mothers at home who had experienced a neonatal death. Univariate, bivariate and binary multivariate logistic regressions were performed to describe care seeking during the fatal illness episode. Results Of the 365 deaths recorded during 2003 and 2004, 84% died in the early (0-7 days) neonatal period, with the remaining deaths occurring over the subsequent 8 to 28 days. The first resort of care by parents was a qualified doctor or paramedic in 37% of cases, followed by traditional and unqualified health care providers in 25%, while 38% sought no care. Thus, almost two thirds (63%) of neonates who died received only traditional and unqualified care or no care at all during their final illness episode. About 22% sought care from more than one provider, including 6% from 3 or more providers. Such plurality in care seeking was more likely among male infants, in the late neonatal period, and in the MCH project area. Conclusions The high proportion of neonatal deaths that had received traditional care or no medical care in a rural area of Bangladesh highlights the need to develop community awareness about prompt medical care seeking for neonatal illnesses and to improve access to effective health care. Integration of traditional care providers into mainstream health programs should also be considered. PMID

  13. Clustering and combining pattern of metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is characterized by clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to estimate the probability of clustering and the combination pattern of three or more metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a cross-sectional study conducted in two rural communities located in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS The sample was composed of 534 adults (both sexes). Waist circumference, blood pressure and demographic, lifestyle and biochemical characteristics were assessed. The prevalences of metabolic syndrome and its components were estimated using the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III. A binomial distribution equation was used to evaluate the probability of clustering of metabolic syndrome components. The statistical significance level was set at 5% (P < 0.05). RESULTS Metabolic syndrome was more frequent among women (23.3%) than among men (6.5%). Clustering of three or more metabolic syndrome components was greater than expected by chance. The commonest combinations of three metabolic syndrome components were: hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension; and of four metabolic syndrome components: abdominal obesity + hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION The population studied presented high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women and clustering of its components greater than expected by chance, suggesting that the combination pattern was non-random.

  14. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species

    PubMed Central

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal’s tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual’s lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide. PMID:27499420

  15. Intestinal parasitoses and environmental factors in a rural population of Argentina, 2002-2003.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, Juan A; Córdoba, María A; de Luca, María M; Ciarmela, María L; Pezzani, Betina C; Grenovero, María S; Minvielle, Marta C

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in 504 people and the degree of association between environmental variables and parasites found in population, soil and water in a rural area of Argentina during 2002-2003. A structured survey was used to evaluate the environmental variables and fecal-human, soil and water samples were analyzed. The prevalence of parasites was 45.4%. Most prevalent protozoa were Blastocystis hominis (27.2%) and Giardia lamblia (6.9%), while the most prevalent helminth was Ascaris lumbricoides (3.8%). The analyzed environmental variables showing association (p < 0.05) with presence of parasites in population were: cardboard-tin or wooden house, dirt floor, home or communal water pump, faucet outside the house or public faucet and cesspool or latrine. Parasite forms were found in 82.3% of the soil samples and in 84.2% of the water samples. In both samples we found parasites that were also found in people. In this study we have found deficient sanitary conditions associated with presence of parasites in population and we have evidenced that contaminated soil and water were the source of these parasites.

  16. Heritability of fear of humans in urban and rural populations of a bird species.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Martina; Martínez-Padilla, Jesús; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sol; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Palma, Antonio; Tella, José L

    2016-08-08

    Flight initiation distance (FID), a measure of an animal's tolerance to human disturbance and a descriptor of its fear of humans, is increasingly employed for conservation purposes and to predict the response of species to urbanization. However, most work devoted to understanding variability in FID has been conducted at the population level and little is still known about inter-individual variability in this behaviour. We estimated the heritability of FID, a factor fundamental to understanding the strength and evolutionary consequences of selection of particular phenotypes associated with human disturbances. We used a population of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) monitored long-term and for which FID was previously shown to be highly consistent across an individual's lifespan. Heritability estimates varied between 0.37 and 0.80, depending on the habitat considered (urban-rural) and method used (parent-offspring regressions or animal models). These values are unusually high compared with those previously reported for other behavioural traits. Although more research is needed to fully understand the underlying causes of this resemblance between relatives, selection pressures acting on this behaviour should be seriously considered as an important evolutionary force in animal populations increasingly exposed to human disturbance worldwide.

  17. Assessment of prescription opioid intentional exposures across the rural-urban continuum in the United States using both population and drug availability rates.

    PubMed

    Le Lait, Marie-Claire; Martinez, Erin M; Severtson, Stevan G; Lavery, Sarah A; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Dart, Richard C

    2014-12-01

    Prescription opioid abuse and misuse are a serious problem in the U.S. today. Several studies have shown that the epidemic disproportionately affects rural areas. This paper uses three different rates to gain a more complete picture of opioid abuse in rural areas. This study examines prescription opioid intentional exposures using opioid classes tracked in the RADARS(®) System Poison Center Program. Intentional exposure rates were calculated adjusting for population and unique recipients of dispensed drug (URDD). These rates were analyzed using time (quarter) and the proportion of a three-digit zip code residing in a rural area as covariates. Additionally, the URDD per population rate was calculated to examine the proportion of the population filling prescriptions for opioids. After adjusting for population, intentional exposure cases significantly increased as the proportion of the population residing in a rural area increased. However, when adjusting for URDD, intentional exposure cases decreased with increasing rural population. The URDD per population increased as the proportion of people residing in a rural area increased. Using both population and URDD adjusted intentional exposure rates gives a more complete picture of opioid abuse in rural areas. Considering product availability can be used to develop opioid abuse prevention strategies and further the education of physicians serving rural areas about this epidemic. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The association between temporomandibular disorders and suicide ideation in a representative sample of the South Korean population.

    PubMed

    Han, Don-Hun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate in a representative sample of South Koreans (1) the prevalence of and associations between general pain, temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and suicide ideation (SI), and (2) whether the associations between general pain, TMD, and SI differ according to cancer history. Data were from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV; N = 16,658). KNHANES IV participants provided reports regarding their cancer history, EQ-5D (a measure of health status from the EuroQoL Group), and TMD symptoms including clicking of one or both temporomandibular joints, pain, and mouth-opening limitation (MOL). Participants were assessed for any SI over the last 12 months, as a dependent variable. The independent variables were pain/discomfort (EQ-PD) reported by the subjects on the EQ-5D, severe TMD (tenderness or reduced jaw mobility once or more per week), and total TMD (occurrence of clicking, tenderness on palpation, or reduced jaw mobility [opening < 30 mm] once or more per week). Demographic information (age and gender), socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation, and marital status), behavioral factors (smoking and binge drinking), and cancer history were evaluated as covariates. The association of TMD with SI was assessed by the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals. In fully adjusted models, elevated PRs for SI were observed for each pain condition (PR = 1.26 for total TMD, PR = 1.35 for severe TMD, and PR = 1.75 for EQ-PD). In the subgroup analyses by cancer history, the PRs were higher in the cancer history (+) group; the order of magnitude was severe TMD (PR = 2.20), EQ-PD (PR = 2.16), and total TMD (PR = 2.02). Pain conditions, including TMD pain, might aggravate SI among those with a cancer history. These findings add to a growing body of evidence indicating that TMD warrants further attention in relation to suicide.

  19. Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

  20. Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

  1. Comparative Characteristic of Job Mobility and Job Career of Different Demographic Groups in Rural Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryvkina, Rozalina Vladimirovna; Koriakina, Irina Mikhailovna

    The job mobility and job career of rural women of three generations (16-29, 30-54, and 55 and older) were compared to those of rural men. Data were derived from questionnaires given to the rural people of the Novosibirsk province during surveys conducted in 1967 and 1972. Two data arrays were used--605 questionnaires mechanically selected from the…

  2. Local Migration as a Component of Rural Population Change. An Example from North Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Beryl

    Migration over a period of 20 years in 3 neighbouring, but contrasting, communes in North Norway was examined to determine whether a village or small town in a rural area functioned as an intervening opportunity for the area's rural inhabitants. The nature and effects of local migration which occurred in a predominantly rural area during the…

  3. An estimation of the prevalence of intellectual disabilities and its association with age in rural and urban populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.; Shahbazi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is a global public health concern. Prevalence of ID and its association with age and other demographic factors is required for planning purposes in India. Objective: This study analyzed the age-adjusted prevalence of ID in rural and urban populations and its correlation with age in children and adults. Materials and Methods: Disability data published in the report (2002) of National Sample Survey Organization were analyzed, using Z-test to measure differences in age-adjusted prevalence. Spearman rho was calculated to determine strength and direction of the association, and regression analysis was used to predict prevalence rate, based on age in rural and urban population settings. Results: Overall, India has a prevalence of 10.5/1000 in ID. Urban population has slightly higher rate (11/1000) than rural (10.08/1000; P = 0.044). Age was found to be highly correlated with prevalence of ID in rural children (ϱ =0.981, P = 0.019) as well as in children (ϱ = −0.954, P = 0.000) and adults (ϱ = −0.957, P = 0.000) in urban population. The possibility of confounding or the existence of covariates for children in urban settings was noted. Conclusion: Results of this study match findings in other epidemiological studies. However, multistage, large-scale studies are recommended for investigating prevalence rates with different severity levels of ID. PMID:26752897

  4. Rural Industralization and Population Growth: The Case of Arkansas. ORNL-HUD-4, Civil Defense Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Alfred W.

    Utilizing available 1966 statistical data and U.S. Census figures, the State of Arkansas was examined for purposes of analyzing: (1) the extent to which recent population gains in states such as Arkansas and Oklahoma is occurring in rural areas rather than as an extension of urbanization; (2) the extent to which U.S. manufacturing is beginning to…

  5. [The gender aspects of diet factors effect on development of diseases of circulatory system among rural population].

    PubMed

    Kamalova, F M; Valeeva, E R

    2014-01-01

    The unhealthy diet is one of important controllable risk factors of development of noninfectious diseases. The gender differences in attitude to one's own health confirm significance of their effect on health condition. The study was carried out to establish the effect of diet factors on the rate of diseases of circulatory system in rural population with consideration of gender distribution. The analysis of results of sampling examination of rural population established that 51% of disease rate in males and 22% of disease rate in females are related to diseases of circulatory system. In males and females rate of diseases of circulatory system is determined by diet factors. The direction of relationship is direct and inverse, differs in males and females and depends on diet factors. The gender differences were manifested not only in conditionality of rate of diseases of circulatory system by diet factors but also by their mutual interaction. The health management of rural population is based on examination and analysis of relationship between health of rural population and factors of their diet.

  6. [Health related quality of life of the elderly population in a rural and urban area of Peru].

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Huayta, Jean; Chavez-Meneses, Sofía; Carreazo, Nilton Yhuri

    2016-01-01

    To assess the health related quality of life in a sample of elderly population in a rural and urban Peruvian area. A cross-sectional study was performed in elderly population from four rural districts and one urban from the period October 2014 to January 2016. The association between the area of residence and five sociodemographic variables was assessed with the chi square test. Using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and assessing size effect, WHOQoL-OLD and WHOQoL-BREF domain scores and global score of the former obtained in the survey were measured and compared. Then, simple and multiple regressions were performed to adjust values to the sociodemographic differences. A total of 447 elderly people were surveyed with a mean age of 69 (DE=6,46), 207 from the rural area, most of whom worked and had less years of education.. The elderly population from the rural area had a higher quality of life in the domains "Physical", "Psychological" and "Environment" from WHOQoL-BREF and in "Sensory abilities", "Autonomy", "Past, Present and Future Activities", "Social participation" and the total score from WHOQoL-OLD, while those from the urban area only had a higher quality of life in "Intimacy". The area of residency exerts a differential effect on the distinct domains of health related quality of life in the evaluated elderly population.

  7. Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life Among an Older Population in a Largely Rural Western Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Aday, Lu Ann; Xu, Ke Tom

    2004-01-01

    As elderly people become a larger proportion of the rural population, it is important to identify those at risk for poor health. Predictors of health-related quality of life can be useful in designing interventions. Purpose: One objective of the present study was to profile the health-related quality of life of community-dwelling, elderly people…

  8. Improving Access to Primary Care for a Growing Latino Population: The Role of Safety Net Providers in the Rural Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blewett, Lynn A.; Casey, Michelle; Call, Kathleen Thiede

    2004-01-01

    Many rural Midwestern communities are experiencing rapid growth in Latino populations with low rates of health insurance coverage, limited financial resources, language and cultural differences, and special health care needs. We report on 2-day site visits conducted in 2001 and 2002 in 3 communities (Marshalltown, Iowa; Great Bend, Kansas; and…

  9. Implementation of a 12-month community-based walking program to promote health in a rural, high risk, minority population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of implementing a rural walking program led by local community members, who served as walking group leaders. For the study, 39 participants (98% female; 54% elderly; community population 1,395) were recruited. Measurements included height, w...

  10. Factors Associated With Health-Related Quality of Life Among an Older Population in a Largely Rural Western Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Aday, Lu Ann; Xu, Ke Tom

    2004-01-01

    As elderly people become a larger proportion of the rural population, it is important to identify those at risk for poor health. Predictors of health-related quality of life can be useful in designing interventions. Purpose: One objective of the present study was to profile the health-related quality of life of community-dwelling, elderly people…

  11. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1994 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This publication presents data from the current revision of estimates and projections of the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world. The publication also contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations of at least 750,000 inhabitants in 1994. The revisions are part of a series of…

  12. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1992 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This United Nation's publication presents data on the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world and contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations that had at least one million inhabitants in 1990. Chapter 1 presents levels of urbanization and future trends for urban and rural…

  13. World Urbanization Prospects: The 1992 Revision. Estimates and Projections of Urban and Rural Populations and of Urban Agglomerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This United Nation's publication presents data on the size and growth of urban and rural populations for all countries of the world and contains revised estimates and projections for all urban agglomerations that had at least one million inhabitants in 1990. Chapter 1 presents levels of urbanization and future trends for urban and rural…

  14. Biodemographic and sociocultural factors in two generations of families from six Polish rural and urban populations.

    PubMed

    Wolański, N

    1994-01-01

    There were investigated 6967 families from 6 rural regions, under industrialization, and industrialized urban regions. In the grandparents generation there were taken into account 10 traits (an education level, a mating radius, and a stature) and in parents generation 17 traits (the mentioned-above ones and a number of family members, a flat size, incomes, an employees No., a life mode, smoking etc. Numerical characteristics of traits have been calculated jointly and separately in six populations, matrices of correlation have been constructed and moreover factorial analysis have been carried out, as a result of which 8 rotated factors have been obtained. The highest cultural mobility (increase in the level of education) from generation to generation occurs in the population of textile industry town Lódź. The highest improvement of biological status, the increase in mating radius and high incomes are characteristic for this regions, too. On the other side are villages with low culture mobility (not large increase in education level), slight improvement of biological status, almost no migrations, overcrowded flats and low income per family member. The relations between pairs of traits appear to vary largely in several populations. Generally is a high correlation between the education level of the same family members in both generations. The has been stated negative correlation between grandfather stature both of the mother and the father lines, with occurring of positive assortative mating in the couples of two generations. In both investigated generations there is the positive assortative mating, but the negative correlation in the stature between grandfathers of the mother and the father lines. The grandparents education level is correlated with their and their offsprings stature. The duration of holidays is one of the best (closely correlated with others) indicators of life mode, and partially of a given family living conditions, too. 8 hidden factors have been

  15. Public beliefs on antibiotics and symptoms of respiratory tract infections among rural and urban population in Poland: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Cals, Jochen W L; Francis, Nick; Verheij, Theo; Butler, Christopher C; Goossens, Herman; Zakowska, Izabela; Panasiuk, Lech

    2014-01-01

    General public views and expectations around the use of antibiotics can influence general practitioners' antibiotic prescribing decisions. We set out to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the use of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections in adults in Poland, and explore differences according to where people live in an urban-rural continuum. Face to face survey among a stratified random sample of adults from the general population. 1,210 adults completed the questionnaire (87% response rate); 44.3% were rural; 57.9% were women. 49.4% of rural respondents and 44.4% of urban respondents had used an antibiotic in the last 2 years. Rural participants were less likely to agree with the statement "usually I know when I need an antibiotic," (53.5% vs. 61.3% respectively; p = 0.015) and reported that they would consult with a physician for a cough with yellow/green phlegm (69.2% vs. 74.9% respectively; p = 0.004), and were more likely to state that they would leave the decision about antibiotic prescribing to their doctor (87.5% vs. 85.6% respectively; p = 0.026). However, rural participants were more likely to believe that antibiotics accelerate recovery from sore throat (45.7% vs. 37.1% respectively; p = 0.017). Use of antibiotic in the last 2 years, level of education, number of children and awareness of the problem of developing antimicrobial resistance predicted accurate knowledge about antibiotic effectiveness. There were no major differences in beliefs about antibiotics between urban and rural responders, although rural responders were slightly less confident in their knowledge about antibiotics and self-reported greater use of antibiotics. Despite differences in the level of education between rural and urban responders, there were no significant differences in their knowledge about antibiotic effectiveness.

  16. Refinement of arsenic attributable health risks in rural Pakistan using population specific dietary intake values.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Hifza; Slack, Rebecca; Kay, Paul; Gong, Yun Yun

    2017-02-01

    Previous risk assessment studies have often utilised generic consumption or intake values when evaluating ingestion exposure pathways. If these values do not accurately reflect the country or scenario in question, the resulting risk assessment will not provide a meaningful representation of cancer risks in that particular country/scenario. This study sought to determine water and food intake parameters for one region in South Asia, rural Pakistan, and assess the role population specific intake parameters play in cancer risk assessment. A questionnaire was developed to collect data on sociodemographic features and 24-h water and food consumption patterns from a rural community. The impact of dietary differences on cancer susceptibility linked to arsenic exposure was evaluated by calculating cancer risks using the data collected in the current study against standard water and food intake levels for the USA, Europe and Asia. A probabilistic cancer risk was performed for each set of intake values of this study. Average daily total water intake based on drinking direct plain water and indirect water from food and beverages was found to be 3.5Lday(-1) (95% CI: 3.38, 3.57) exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency's default (2.5Lday(-1)) and World Health Organization's recommended intake value (2Lday(-1)). Average daily rice intake (469gday(-1)) was found to be lower than in India and Bangladesh whereas wheat intake (402gday(-1)) was higher than intake reported for USA, Europe and Asian sub-regions. Consequently, arsenic-associated cumulative cancer risks determined for daily water intake was found to be 17 chances in children of 3-6years (95% CI: 0.0014, 0.0017), 14 in children of age 6-16years (95% CI: 0.001, 0.0011) and 6 in adults of 16-67years (95% CI: 0.0006, 0.0006) in a population size of 10,000. This is higher than the risks estimated using the US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization's default recommended water intake levels. Rice

  17. Dietary supplement use and its effect on nutrient intake in Korean adult population in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009) data.

    PubMed

    Kang, M; Kim, D W; Baek, Y J; Moon, S-H; Jung, H J; Song, Y J; Paik, H-Y

    2014-07-01

    Although there is an increasing trend of dietary supplement (DS) use, few researches have evaluated nutrient intake from DS. This study aimed to establish a nutrient database (NDB) for DS and estimate the effect of DS on total nutrient intake by Korean adults. The NDB for DS was established using the label information of products reported in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV. Of the 16,031 participants