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Sample records for korean school-aged children

  1. Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

  2. Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

  3. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources. PMID:22087564

  4. Is abdominal obesity associated with the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in Korean school-aged children?

    PubMed

    Kim, Choon Ok; Nam, Chung Mo; Lee, Duk-Chul; Chang, Joon; Lee, Ji Won

    2012-09-01

    Given their medical vulnerabilities, we investigated the epidemiological factors related to H1N1 infection in school-aged children. This study analyzed data collected on 7448 school-aged children in South Korea between 18 November and 8 December 2009. We found that H1N1 infection was associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), the use of facemasks, contact history with H1N1-infected persons, and overseas travel history (P < 0·05). In addition, WC quartiles were significantly associated with H1N1 infection after adjusting for BMI and other confounding variables [OR (95% CI): 1·00, 1·10 (0·72-1·45), 1·13 (0·76-1·67), and 2·71 (1·74-4·24), respectively). Abdominal obesity and the use of facemasks appear to be independently associated with H1N1 infection in school-aged children. We infer that providing education on wearing facemasks and specific planning for abdominally obese children and adolescents may be effective means of reducing the spread of the influenza pandemic in school-aged children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Guiding School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roden, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Explores challenges faced by caregivers working with school-age children. Suggests guidance techniques based on understanding of children's emotional, social, physical, and intellectual characteristics. Focuses on appropriate use of environment, group management and problem solving, and development of self-discipline. (BAC)

  6. Survival, Adjustment, and Acculturation of Newly Immigrated Families with School-Age Children: Cases of Four Korean Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eun Kyeong; Shin, Sunghee

    2008-01-01

    The number of Korean migrants in the United States has steadily increased in recent years. Korea has struggled with a new social phenomenon: "exodus Korea." Despite its potential impact on the sending and receiving countries, the issue of the increasing number of Korean migrants has not received much research attention in its impact on…

  7. Day Care for School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diffendal, Elizabeth

    This booklet examines four aspects of day care services for school-age children: (1) national availability and trends, (2) parents' views, (3) program planning, and (4) recommended program models. A nationwide survey of 58 day care programs enrolling school-age children was conducted, and the general findings are presented. Information on parents'…

  8. Common Concerns of School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study assessed common concerns of school-age children. Participating were 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5. Concerns were spontaneously generated by children during Phase 1 of the study, and common stressors most frequently mentioned were ranked on a 10-item rank-order task during Phase 2. In Phase 3, children completed questionnaires…

  9. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  10. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  11. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  12. School-age children development

    MedlinePlus

    ... the child goes through the elementary school years, grammar and pronunciation become normal. Children use more complex ... development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  13. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  14. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  15. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  16. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  17. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  18. Childhood Depression in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sandra M.

    At any one time, between 2 percent and 17 percent of the school-age population in the United States experiences moderate to severe depression. Too often, depression goes unrecognized, damaging self-esteem, ruining academic achievement, and disrupting families. This paper discusses childhood depression and treatment. Following an introduction…

  19. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  20. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  1. Health promotion in school age children.

    PubMed

    Bremberg, S

    1998-06-01

    Disadvantage in school age affects health during the remaining part of life. Health promotion might alleviate this situation. It is reasonable to focus on mental health, since this is the leading cause of disability adjusted life years lost in this age group and to focus on the school, since this is the most important setting. Co-operation between the public health and the educational sector is rational, yet complicated by different perspectives on knowledge and technology used in these two sectors. It is, however, possible to carry through a dialogue. Then, the public health representatives have to clarify current scientific knowledge on health promotive characteristics of the school. Such characteristics are, enhanced health control at school, aged mixed ability grouping, class sizes of 15-20 students, a task oriented school culture and employment of skills training programmes, e.g. for tobacco deterrence.

  2. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  5. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…

  6. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  7. Speech Complexity of Parents and Their School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscarson, Renee A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Study examined speech complexity among 22 sets of parents and their school-age children during two time periods approximately one year apart. Parents and children were videotaped while completing a block design task and their conversations were transcribed. Speech patterns were found to differ at the two times. (Author/BN)

  8. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…

  9. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  10. Expository Language Skills of Young School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerveld, Marleen F.; Moran, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated the expository language skills of young school-age children with the ultimate aim of obtaining normative data for clinical practice. Specifically, this study examined (a) the level of expository language performance of 6- and 7-year-old children with typical development and (b) age-related differences between…

  11. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  12. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  13. Expository Language Skills of Young School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerveld, Marleen F.; Moran, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated the expository language skills of young school-age children with the ultimate aim of obtaining normative data for clinical practice. Specifically, this study examined (a) the level of expository language performance of 6- and 7-year-old children with typical development and (b) age-related differences between…

  14. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  15. Parental perception and management of school-age children's fevers.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A R

    1988-05-01

    Fever is a major childhood complaint. Parents have numerous means at their disposal to assess and manage childhood fevers. Previous studies of parents of infants and preschoolers have uncovered parental fears and misconceptions surrounding fever ("fever phobia"). A study of 84 parents of otherwise well school-age children revealed that these misconceptions remain, regardless of the child's age or parental level of education. The nurse practitioner must understand both parental fears and the body-temperature dynamics of children to successfully access and manage fever in the school-age child.

  16. Environmental Concern in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkus, Amy J.; Musser, Lynn M.

    This study examined the relationship between children's environmental concern and grade, sex, environmental attitudes and behaviors, perceived competencies, and manifest anxiety. A total of 138 children in grades 1, 3, and 5 were interviewed and completed scales that measured childhood concerns, attitudes toward the environment, self perception,…

  17. [Stress in school-age children].

    PubMed

    Plourde, R G

    1994-10-01

    In April 1988, following preliminary research, Notre Dame Elementary School in Edmunston, N.B. initiated a pilot project entitled Management of Children's Stress. Using a three-dimensional process, parents, teachers and students collaborated to empower all students enrolled at the school to effectively manage their day-to-day stress. To prepare, the children, parents and teachers participated in nine- and 15-hour education sessions, respectively. Various techniques, including deep breathing exercises, stretching, relaxation techniques and listening to music, were considered. Visualization, maximizing the mind's potential to envision relaxing images, became the preferred technique. In addition to complementing other relaxation techniques used by the children, visualization facilitated their learning; developed and improved their concentration, motivation and self-confidence; gave them a positive self-image; and reduced health problems. The project has surpassed all expectations. In March 1993, it became part of a Quality of Life Education Project at the school.

  18. Evaluating and treating school-aged children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Yaruss, J Scott

    2010-11-01

    School-based speech-language pathologists are often called upon to treat children who stutter, though many clinicians have reported that they feel uncomfortable working with this population. Fortunately, there is much that speech-language pathologists can do to help children who stutter speak more easily and minimize the adverse impact of stuttering in both academic and social settings. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with a guide to some of the key issues they should consider when working with school-aged children who stutter. The goal is to encourage clinicians to develop a better understanding of how stuttering can affect school-aged children, how the adverse effects of the disorder can be documented so children can be qualified for treatment, and, ultimately, how the negative consequences of stuttering can be minimized through a comprehensive approach to treatment. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  19. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  20. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  1. Orthographic Word Knowledge Growth in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Pak, Youngju; Miller, Margaret D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Natural reading experiences provide an opportunity for the development of orthographic word knowledge as well as other forms of partial word knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare the orthographic word knowledge growth of school-age children with relatively low language skills (LL group) to that of age- and gender-matched…

  2. Resistance Training for Elementary School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, George A.; McCurdy, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    It is essential for physical education teachers to utilize a foundation of physiological principles to design and monitor appropriate, safe, and effective exercise for their students. Adult training programs are not appropriate for children. Teachers should consider individual levels of maturation, motor skill ability, and affective needs when…

  3. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  4. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  5. Neurobehaviour of school age children born to diabetic mothers

    PubMed Central

    Ornoy, A; Ratzon, N; Greenbaum, C; Peretz, E; Soriano, D; Dulitzky, M

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To study the neurobehavioural effects that diabetes during pregnancy might have on children by school age.
METHODS—The neurobehavioural function of 57 school age children born to 48, well controlled diabetic mothers was compared with 57control children matched for age, birth order, and parental socioeconomic status, using several cognitive, behavioural, sensory and motor neurological tests.
RESULTS—The IQ scores of the index group children were similar to those of control children (117.7±13.4 vs 118.5±10.1). There were no differences between the groups in various sensory motor functions. However, the index group children performed less well than the controls on indices of fine and gross motor functions, as observed on the Bruininks-Oseretzky test of motor proficiency. The scores of children born to diabetic mothers were higher than controls on the Touwen and Prechtl neurological examination. They also performed worse in the Pollack tapper test which is designed to detect minor neurological deficits, inattention, and hyperactivity. The index children had higher scores on the Conners abbreviated parent-teacher questionnaire which measures hyperactivity and inattention. There was a negative correlation between the performance of the index group children on various neurodevelopmental and behavioural tests and the severity of hyperglycaemia, as assessed by blood glycosylated haemoglobin and acetonuria.
CONCLUSIONS—Diabetes during pregnancy adversely affects some fine neurological functions in children at school age, but not their cognitive scores. These effects are not correlated with the degree of glycaemic control.

 PMID:9828733

  6. Quality Care for School-Age Children: A Self-Instructional Guide To Help Staff Plan and Implement a Quality Program for School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childcare Resources, Birmingham, AL.

    The purpose of this manual is to provide school-age child care center staff in Alabama with information about school-age children that facilitates program planning and provides a basis for implementing and evaluating a high quality school-age child care (SACC) program. Sections of the manual discuss: (1) teacher competencies addressed by the…

  7. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  8. Touch Inventory for Elementary-School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Royeen, C B; Fortune, J C

    1990-02-01

    The syndrome of tactile defensiveness, first described by Ayres in 1964, has undergone continued study as well as related theory development. No standardized assessment for tactile defensiveness, however, currently exists. This paper presents a 26-item screening scale, the Touch Inventory for Elementary-School-Aged Children (TIE), as well as its psychometric characteristics. Normative data and precautions for proper use of the TIE are also given.

  9. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  10. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  11. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    PubMed

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  12. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  14. Mental illness in elementary-school-aged children.

    PubMed Central

    Chabra, A; Chávez, G F; Harris, E S

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1992 hospital discharge data to determine the incidence of mental illness hospitalizations among elementary-school-aged children and to analyze differences in hospital use by selected population characteristics. We analyzed population-based records of hospitalizations of 6- to 12-year-olds (n = 4,460) with a principal diagnosis of mental illness and calculated relative risks (RRs) for hospitalization by sex, race/ethnicity, and payment source. Mental illnesses accounted for 8.1% of hospitalizations and 28.9% of hospital days for 6- to 12-year-olds. Hospital charges totaled $85 million. Boys had a higher risk of mental illness hospitalization than girls (RR 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84-2.08). Latino children had a lower risk than whites (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.20-0.24), as did children in the "Asian/other" group (RR 0.12, 95% CI 0.10-0.15). Inpatient hospitalizations for mental illness have a major impact on hospital morbidity for elementary-school-age children. Boys are overrepresented and Latinos and Asians/others are underrepresented among mental illness hospitalizations. Clinical implications for these findings and barriers to the delivery of inpatient mental health care are discussed. PMID:9926733

  15. Cosleeping and sleep behavior in Italian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Flavia; Giannotti, Flavia; Sebastiani, Teresa; Vagnoni, Cristina

    2004-02-01

    The prevalence and predictors of cosleeping were investigated in 901 healthy school-aged children. Parent reports on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist were used to assess children's sleep and behavioral problems. Regular, long-lasting cosleeping was present in 5% of our sample. Cosleepers rated higher on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire total score and Bedtime Resistance, Sleep Anxiety, Nightwakings, and Parasomnias subscales than solitary sleepers. No significant behavioral problems were found in cosleepers. Regression results showed that low socioeconomic status, one parent who is a shiftworker, one-parent families, one parent who coslept as a child, prolonged breastfeeding, and previous and current sleep problems significantly predicted cosleeping. The high incidence of parents reporting having coslept as a child also suggested a lifestyle choice. Thus, cosleeping seems to reflect a parent's way to cope with sleep problems, and the long persistence of this practice may be related to the lifestyle of families.

  16. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools.

  17. Shared decision making in school age children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Butz, Arlene M; Walker, Jennifer M; Pulsifer, Margaret; Winkelstein, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Shared decision making in health care is a mutual partnership between the health care provider and the patient. Traditionally, children have had little involvement during their medical care visits or in decisions regarding their health care. Shared decision making in children with asthma may enhance their self-confidence as well as improve their self-management skills. Allowing the child to participate during the visit requires assessing the child's competence at different ages and abilities. Specific communication techniques to use with children during medical encounters include visual aids, turn-taking, clarifying communication, and role modeling. Providers additionally can offer strategies to parents on how to provide general information about asthma and treatments based on the child's questions and interest. The goal for school age children with asthma is to change dyadic interactions between the provider and parent into triadic interactions to improve the child's asthma management.

  18. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    PubMed Central

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0–15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  19. Life threat and posttraumatic stress in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Pynoos, R S; Frederick, C; Nader, K; Arroyo, W; Steinberg, A; Eth, S; Nunez, F; Fairbanks, L

    1987-12-01

    One hundred fifty-nine children (14.5% of the student body) were sampled after a fatal sniper attack on their elementary school playground. Systematic self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were obtained by use of a child PTSD Reaction Index. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences by exposure but not by sex, ethnicity, or age. Additional analyses were conducted of individual item response, overall severity of PTSD reaction, symptom grouping, and previous life events. The results provide strong evidence that acute PTSD symptoms occur in school-age children with a notable correlation between proximity to the violence and type and number of PTSD symptoms. Sampling at approximately one month after the trauma provided adequate delineation among exposure groups. The symptom profile of highly exposed children lends validity to the diagnosis of acute PTSD in childhood.

  20. Cognitive impairment in school-aged children with early trauma.

    PubMed

    Bücker, Joana; Kapczinski, Flavio; Post, Robert; Ceresér, Keila M; Szobot, Claudia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Natalia S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to traumatic events during childhood is often associated with the development of psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, and poor functioning in adulthood. However, few studies have examined cognitive function, including executive function, memory, and attention, in school-aged children with early trauma compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We recruited 30 medication-naive children between 5 and 12 years of age with a history of early severe trauma from a foster care home, along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and were confirmed with a clinical interview. The neuropsychologic battery was tailored to assess broad cognitive domains such as learning/working memory, executive function, attention, verbal/premorbid intellectual functioning, and impulsivity. There was a higher prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of childhood trauma, although they rarely met all of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Moreover, lower estimated intellectual functioning scores were associated with subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of trauma, and they performed more poorly on the Digits Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Edition, suggesting attention impairment. There is a high prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in school-aged children with trauma and an attention impairment, which may contribute to a cumulative deficit early in cognitive development. These findings further support the need for early interventions that can prevent cognitive impairment when childhood trauma occurs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional outcome at school age of children born with gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Lap, Chiara C M M; Bolhuis, Sandra W; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Manten, Gwendolyn T R; Bos, Arend F; Hulscher, Jan B F

    We aimed to determine motor, cognitive and behavioural outcomes of school aged children born with gastroschisis compared to matched controls. We compared outcomes of 16 children born with gastroschisis treated at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands, between 1999 and 2006 with 32 controls matched for gender, gestational age, birth weight, and corrected for small for gestational age (SGA) and parental socioeconomic status (SES). Intelligence, auditory-verbal memory, attention, response inhibition, visual perception, motor skills, visuomotor integration, problem behaviour and executive functioning were evaluated. Median verbal intelligence quotient and global executive functioning scores of children born with gastroschisis were poorer than of controls (95 (inter quartile range (IQR) 88-100) vs. 104 (IQR 98-113), P=0.001, and 29 (IQR 6.8-63.8) vs. 5.0 (IQR 2.8-19.8), P=0.03, respectively). Children with gastroschisis were more often classified as borderline or abnormal than controls regarding response inhibition (odds ratio (OR) 20.4; 95%-confidence interval (95%-CI); 2.4-171.5), selective visual attention (OR 40.4; 95%-CI 5.9-275.4), sustained auditory attention (OR 88.1; 95%-CI 5.8-1342.8), and fine motor skills (50% vs. 0%). Grade retention was more prevalent in gastroschisis children (OR 6.07; 95%-CI 1.42-25.9). These associations persisted after adjustment for SGA and SES. The auditory-verbal memory, visuomotor integration and behavioural problems did not significantly differ from the controls. Gastroschisis is associated with poorer verbal intelligence, and with an increased risk for poor performance on several aspects of attention, response inhibition and fine motor skills at school age. The follow-up of children born with gastroschisis deserves attention regarding these specific domains, to improve their functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering.

    PubMed

    Howell, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Howell and Davis's (2011) model that predicts whether stuttering in eight-year old children will persist or recover by teenage was adapted for screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering. Stuttering-severity scores were used to predict whether children belonged to fluent or stuttering groups. Predicted group assignments were compared for models in which severity measures were made with whole-word repetitions excluded or included. The best model for distinguishing children who stutter (CWS) from fluent children was validated across a wide range of ages. Stuttering-severity scores from CWS (222 for development, and 272 for validation, of the models) and fluent children (103 for development, and 25 for validation, of the models) were employed. Models were developed that predicted prognosis and screened CWS and fluent children. All these analyses were conducted both with whole-word repetitions excluded and included in the stuttering-severity scores. The model that screened fluent children from all CWS which excluded whole-word repetitions was validated for children across a range of ages. All models achieved around 80% specificity and sensitivity. Models in which whole-word repetitions were excluded were always better than those which included them. Validation of the screening for fluency with whole-word repetitions excluded classified 84.4% of fluent children, and 88.0% of CWS, correctly. Some of these children differed in age from those used to develop the model. Howell and Davis's risk factor model for predicting persistence/recovery can be extended to screen school-aged children for fluency. After reading this article, participants will be able to: (1) describe the difference between finding group differences and risk factor modeling in stuttering research; (2) summarize the strengths and weaknesses of stuttering severity instrument version three; (3) discuss how validation of diagnostic and screening models for fluency can be performed; (4) see how risk

  3. Factors associated with resilience of school age children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong H; Yoo, Il Y

    2010-07-01

    To identify factors associated with resilience of school age children with cancer. The participants were 74 children, 10-15 years old who were diagnosed with cancer at least 6 months prior to data collection. The instruments used were; a self-reported questionnaire on resilience, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, measurements of relationship with friends and teachers. Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. The average score for resilience was 98.49 (range: 32-128). There was no statistically significant relationship with resilience for age, gender, religion, existence of siblings, mother's age, academic performance, duration of illness or type of cancer. In bivariate analysis, family adaptability and cohesion (r= 0.535, P < 0.001), relationship with friends (r= 0.520, P < 0.001) and teachers (r= 0.318, P < 0.01) were significantly related to resilience. However, the results of multiple regression analysis showed that only family function (beta= 0.257, P < 0.05) and relationship with friends (beta= 0.581, P < 0.01) were significantly associated with resilience. School age children with cancer who reported higher family function and positive relationships with friends showed higher resiliency than their counterparts. Thus, it is important to help the families of children with cancer to enhance family function and help children to adjust to school re-entry by maintaining ties with school friends and teachers during treatment. Development of counselling programmes for parents to promote family adaptation and cohesion and educational programmes for classmates and teachers are recommended.

  4. Epidemiology of enuresis among school-age children in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hansakunachai, Tippawan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Sombuntham, Tasnawat; Kotchabhakdi, Nittaya

    2005-10-01

    Enuresis is a very common developmental problem in young children. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of enuresis in school-age children, to determine the factors associated with nocturnal enuresis, and to evaluate the parental strategies for managing enuresis. A randomly selected cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in eight elementary schools in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 3453 parents of children aged 5 through 15 years completed the questionnaires. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 70%. The prevalence of enuresis was 4.2% and that of nocturnal enuresis was 3.9%. The prevalence declined with increasing age from 10%, 5.3%, 3%, and 1.2% at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, respectively. There was no enuretic child at ages 13 through 15 years. The prevalence of bed-wetting was slightly more frequent in females than males. Nocturnal enuresis was also found to be significantly associated with the history of encopresis and positive family history of enuresis. There was no significant associated with parental education, birth order, socioeconomic status, diaper use, toilet training, and behavioral and school problems. Behavioral techniques mostly used by parents for management of their children with bed-wetting were ensuring that the child voids before bedtime (72.9%), waking the child up at night to void (61.8%), and evening water intake restriction (28.5%). The overall prevalence rate of nocturnal enuresis in Bangkok school-age children is lower than that of many previous studies reported from other countries. The significant differences in the prevalence reported by other countries' studies attributed to the criteria selection for ranges of age, definition of enuresis, genetic predisposition, and traditional and cultural background.

  5. Development of executive functioning in school-age Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Bellaj, Tarek; Salhi, Imen; Le Gall, Didier; Roy, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Research regarding executive functioning (EF) in children rarely focuses on populations in African or Middle-Eastern Arabic-speaking countries. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine the developmental trajectories of school-age Tunisian children in three domains of executive control (inhibition of prepotent responses, cognitive flexibility, and working memory) as well as their mutual interactions and the effects of gender and parents' education level. Inhibitory processes, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were assessed using the Stroop test, a version of the Hayling test adapted for children, simple and alternating tasks of verbal fluency, and verbal and visuospatial span tasks (forward and backward spans). The study population included 120 7- to 12-year-old Tunisian children (60 girls, 60 boys) who were grouped and matched for age, gender, and parents' education level. The results revealed an overall effect of age on executive performance, whereas gender and parents' education level showed non-significant effects. In addition, executive indices were significantly associated with fluid intelligence level. Partial correlation analyses (controlled for age) found significant links between indices that assessed the same executive process, except for inhibitory processes; the temporal indices for inhibitory processes showed relative independence. The correlations between indices that assessed distinct executive processes were weaker (but significant). Overall, the results suggest that executive components in school-age Tunisian children operate according to relatively homogeneous developmental trajectories, marked by peaks of maturity that differ according to the assessed index. A transcultural approach to EF is discussed in terms of the unity and diversity of its components.

  6. Cognitive outcomes in school-age children born prematurely.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss findings in the literature regarding long-term developmental outcomes of infants born prematurely, to examine potential causes of individual differences in these outcomes, and to explore directions for future research. An extensive table summarizes recent (1996-2002) international studies of developmental outcomes among children of school age and older who were born with low birth weight, especially as the studies relate to cognitive development and academic performance. The discussion then examines how characteristics of the child and the environment may interact to produce individual differences in outcomes. Processes of attention regulation within the context of the psychosocial environment are examined as an important possible direction for future research. When designing and implementing interventions aimed at improving outcomes in this and other groups of children at risk for delays and deficits, it is important to consider how various factors affect development.

  7. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age.

    PubMed

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C; Peterson, Bradley S; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2009-11-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke's area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600-1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC-III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found that PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (p<0.009), the PIAT-R Reading Comprehension test (p=0.013), and the PPVT-R (p=0.001) compared to term subjects. Connectivity analyses revealed significantly stronger neural circuits in PT children between Wernicke's area and the right inferior frontal gyrus (R IFG, Broca's area homologue) and both the left and the right supramarginal gyri (SMG) components of the inferior parietal lobules (pschool age differently than T controls; these alterations may represent a delay in maturation of neural networks or the engagement of alternate circuits for language processing.

  8. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age

    PubMed Central

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H.; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C.; Peterson, Bradley S.; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke’s area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600 – 1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC - III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT- R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC - III (p < 0.009), the PIAT- R reading comprehension test (p = 0.013), and the PPVT-R (p = 0.001) compared to term subjects. Connectivity analyses revealed significantly stronger neural circuits in PT children between Wernicke’s area and the right inferior frontal gyrus (R IFG, Broca’s area homologue) and both the left and the right supramarginal gyri (SMG) components of the inferior parietal lobules (p ≤ 0.02 for all). We conclude that PT subjects employ neural systems for auditory language function at school age differently than T controls; these alterations may represent a delay in maturation of neural networks or the engagement of alternate circuits for language processing. PMID:19560547

  9. Day Care for School-Age Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unco, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report provides some perspectives on existing school-age child care and proposes some alternative school-age care program models which maximize the use of community resources and, thus, reduce potentially high costs. Chapters One and Two examine the current school-age "child care" services both nationally and in Region X (Oregon, Washington…

  10. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  11. Sports-related injuries in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Zaricznyj, B; Shattuck, L J; Mast, T A; Robertson, R V; D'Elia, G

    1980-01-01

    Most studies of sports-related injuries have been investigations of specific injuries resulting from specific, organized sports at the high school, college, or professional level. This study documented all types of sports-related injuries received by all school-aged children in a midwestern community of 100,000 for a 1-year period. Public and private schools, community sports programs, hospital emergency rooms, the schools' accident insurance company, and local physicians provided initial accident reports. Injuries were sustained by 3% of all elementary school students, 7% of all junior high school (grades 7 and 8) students, and 11% of all high school students. Nonorganized sports and physical education classes each produced nearly twice as many injuries as organized sports. One-fifth of the injuries were considered serious and one-fourth of all injuries could have been avoided had nominal safety precautions been observed.

  12. Behavior Management for School Aged Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Haack, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Behavior management treatments are the most commonly used nonpharmacological approaches for treating ADHD and associated impairments. This review focuses on behavioral parent training interventions for school age children in the home setting and adjunctive treatments developed to extend effects across settings. The underlying theoretical basis and content of these interventions are described. Empirical support includes numerous randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses showing positive effects of these interventions on child compliance, ADHD symptoms and impairments, parent-child interactions, parenting and parenting stress. These studies support categorization of behavior management treatment as a well-established, evidence-based treatment for ADHD. Factors for consideration in clinical decision-making and future directions for research are provided. PMID:25220083

  13. Reflective Functioning in Parents of School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Jessica L.; St. John, H. Kate; Cho, Evelyn; Suchman, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Parental reflective functioning (RF) has garnered tremendous support as a predictor of secure attachment in infancy, though little work has examined RF among parents of older children. In this study, we used a high-risk community sample of parent–child dyads (N = 117) to explore whether parental RF comprises self- and child-focused factors, whether parental RF is associated with parent and child attachment security, and whether parental RF mediates the association between parent and child attachment security. Results suggested that parental RF can be characterized as having both self- and child-focused components, and that child-focused parental RF is associated with child but not parent attachment security. Further, child-focused parental RF indirectly mediates the association between parent attachment avoidance and child attachment security. These findings extend previous work on parental RF to parents of school-age children and, in so doing, inform developmental models of attachment relationships in middle childhood. Discussion focuses on the importance of these findings in informing theory, prevention, clinical practice, and policy. PMID:26618938

  14. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kristina M.; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children’s multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children’s accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children’s dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children’s proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition. PMID:28105890

  15. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  16. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    PubMed

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2014-11-07

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4-15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  17. Caring for School-Age Children. Staff Development Series, Military Child Care Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Manpower and Reserve Affairs (DOD), Washington, DC.

    One of a series written for the beginning caregiver or teacher in a military child care center, this staff development module aims to provide practice in making decisions in problematic sitations concerning school-age children. The module offers several discussions of issues related to the topic of child care for school-age children. These…

  18. Sleep Problems in Chinese School-Aged Children with a Parent-Reported History of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…

  19. Sleep Problems in Chinese School-Aged Children with a Parent-Reported History of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…

  20. Resilience as a protective factor for the behavioral problems in school-aged children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hee; Im, Yeo Jin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the relationships between resilience and behavioral problems in school-aged children with atopic dermatitis (AD) and identifies factors associated with these behavioral problems. A total of 102 school-aged children suffering from chronic AD were administered a self-report questionnaire on resilience, and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist, to measure their internalizing/externalizing behavioral problems. The means of the internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems of children with AD were 6.58 and 7.26, respectively. Both resilience and economic status were negatively correlated with the internalizing, r = -0.262, p < 0.05, and externalizing, r = -0.248, p < 0.05, behaviors in children. The higher the children's school achievements, the less externalizing behavioral problems were reported, r = -0.327, p < 0.05. Resilience was identified as the single potent variable affecting children's behavioral problems. The higher the children's resilience scores, the lower was the chance of both internalizing, β = -1.648, p = 0.034, and externalizing behavioral problems, β = -1.382, p = 0.041. To prevent possible behavioral problems in children with chronic AD, a care plan enhancing their resilience (i.e. promoting parenting skills and social supports for children) should be developed.

  1. Reading and coherent motion perception in school age children.

    PubMed

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-07-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium difficulty reading level. The coherent motion perception threshold is determined according to the adaptive psychophysical protocol based on a four-alternative, forced-choice procedure. Three different dot velocities: 2, 5, and 8 deg/s were used for both assemblies of coherent or randomly moving dots. Reading rate score test results exhibit a wide dispersion across all age groups, so much so that the outlier data overlap, for both the 8 and 18-year-old student-participant age groups. Latvian children's reading fluency developmental trajectories reach maturation at 12-13 years of age. After the age of 13, reading rate scores increase slowly; however, the linear regression slope is different from zero and positive: F(1, 827) = 45.3; p < 0.0001. One hundred eighty-one student-participants having results below the 10th percentile were classified as weak readers in our study group. The reading fluency developmental trajectory of this particular group of student-participants does not exhibit any statistically significant saturation until the age of 18 years old. Coherent motion detection thresholds decrease with age and do not reach saturation. Tests with slower moving dots (2 deg/s) yield results that exhibit significant differences between strong and weak readers.

  2. Voice abnormalities at school age in children born extremely preterm.

    PubMed

    French, Noel; Kelly, Rona; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Reynolds, Victoria; Lipscombe, Jodi; Buckland, Ali; Bailey, Jean; Nathan, Elizabeth; Meldrum, Suzanne

    2013-03-01

    Voice abnormality is a frequent finding in school age children born at <25 weeks' gestation in Western Australia. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of voice abnormality, voice-related quality of life, and demographic and intubation factors in this population. Survivors <25 weeks' gestational age in Western Australia born from 1996 to 2004 were included. Voice assessments (auditory perceptual assessment scale and Pediatric Voice Handicap Index) were carried out by speech pathologists. Intubation history was obtained by retrospective chart review. Of 251 NICU admissions, 154 (61%) survived. Exclusions were based on severe disability (11) or distant residence (13). Of 70 assessed, 67 completed assessments, 4 (6%) were in the normal range and 39 (58%) showed moderate-severe hoarseness. Simultaneous modeling of demographic and intubation characteristics showed an increased odds of moderate-severe voice disorder for children who had more than 5 intubations (odds ratio 6.96, 95% confidence interval 2.07-23.40, P = .002) and for girls relative to boys (odds ratio 3.46, 95% confidence interval 1.12-10.62, P = .030). Tube size and duration of intubation were not significant in the multivariable model. Median scores of parent-reported voice quality of life on the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index were markedly different for preterm (22) and term (3) groups, P < .001. Voice disorders in this population were much more frequent than expected. Further studies are required to assess voice across a broader range of gestational ages, and to investigate voice-protective strategies in infants requiring multiple episodes of intubation.

  3. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  4. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  5. Co-exposure to environmental lead and manganese affects the intelligence of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeni; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Won; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to environmental levels of lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) has been associated with detrimental effects to neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the potential association between environmental levels of Pb and Mn on intelligence of children. The aims of the study were to investigate the association of community level of Pb and Mn with the intelligence of school-aged children, and to explore the implications of joint exposure to these two heavy metals. A cross-sectional examination of blood Pb and Mn concentrations was performed, and the intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined for 261 Korean children aged 8-11 years. The mean blood concentrations of Pb and Mn were 1.73 microg/dL (SD=0.8; median=1.55; range=0.42-4.91) and 14.3 microg/L (SD=3.8; median=14.0; range=5.30-29.02), respectively. Both Pb and Mn showed significant linear relationship with full-scale IQ (Pb, beta=-0.174, p=0.005; Mn, beta=-0.123, p=0.042) and verbal IQ (Pb, beta=-0.187, p=0.003; Mn, beta=-0.127, p=0.036). Blood Pb (DeltaR(2)=0.03) and Mn (DeltaR(2)=0.01) explained 4% of the variances of the full-scale IQ and 5% of the variances of the verbal IQ. When Pb and Mn levels were entered as predictive variables, additive increase in the explained variances was observed. Finally, full-scale IQ and verbal IQ of the children with blood Mn>14 microg/L showed significant association with Pb, whereas group with Mn<14 microg/L did not, suggesting effect modification between Pb and Mn. The present study suggests the presence of additive interaction and effect modification between Pb and Mn on the intelligence of school-aged children, suggesting more attention should be paid to preventing the exposure of disadvantaged children to various combinations of toxic materials.

  6. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  7. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  8. Fact Sheet on School-Age Children's Out-of-School Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellesley Coll., MA. National Inst. on Out-of-School Time.

    This fact sheet provides information related to school-age children's out-of-school time. The fact sheet summarizes findings of research related to the following topics: (1) families' need for supervision of children and youth; (2) types of after school activities; (3) demographic information on children in America; (4) links between children's…

  9. Sleep Patterns of School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…

  10. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  11. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…

  12. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…

  13. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  14. Expanding the recommendations for annual influenza vaccination to school-age children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Anthony E; Epperson, Scott; Perrotta, Dennis; Bernstein, Henry; Neuzil, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    Despite long-standing recommendations to vaccinate children who have underlying chronic medical conditions or who are contacts of high-risk persons, vaccination coverage among school-age children remains low. Community studies have indicated that school-age children have the highest incidence of influenza and are an important source of amplifying and sustaining community transmission that affects all age groups. A consultation to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a universal recommendation for annual influenza vaccination of all children age ≥6 months was held in Atlanta, Georgia, in September 2007. Consultants provided summaries of current data on vaccine effectiveness, safety, supply, successful program implementation, and economics studies and discussed challenges associated with continuing a risk- and contact-based vaccination strategy compared with a universal vaccination recommendation. Consultants noted that school-age children had a substantial illness burden caused by influenza, that vaccine was safe and effective for children aged 6 months through 18 years, and that evidence suggested that vaccinating school-age children would provide benefits to both the vaccinated children and their unvaccinated household and community contacts. However, implementation of an annual recommendation for all school-age children would pose major challenges to parents, medical providers and health care systems. Alternative vaccination venues were needed, and of these school-located vaccination programs might offer the most promise as an alternative vaccination site for school-age children. Expansion of recommendations to include all school-age children will require additional development of an infrastructure to support implementation and methods to adequately evaluate impact.

  15. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge.

    PubMed

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-11-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children.

  16. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children. PMID:25145389

  17. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  18. School-Age Follow-Up of Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Iyenger, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine differences in speech/language and written language skills between children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and children with other speech-sound disorders at school age. Method: Ten children (7 males and 3 females) who were clinically diagnosed with CAS (CAS group) were…

  19. Children's Books--1979. A List of Books for Preschool Through Junior High School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography is the sixteenth in a series of annual guides to current children's books. The 266 titles have been chosen as the best of about 2,000 children's books published in 1979, and are listed to help public and school librarians find useful and enjoyable works for children of preschool through junior high school ages. The…

  20. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  1. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…

  2. Childhood Fears, Neurobehavioral Functioning and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

    2010-01-01

    The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…

  3. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  4. Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

  5. Primary School Attendance and Completion among Lower Secondary School Age Children in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    At the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000, governments pledged to achieve education for all by 2015. However, if current enrollment trends continue, the number of out-of-school children could increase from current levels. Greater focus is needed on lower secondary school age (13-16 years) children. These children are not included estimates of…

  6. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  7. Syllable-Timed Speech Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the clinic…

  8. Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity among School-Age United Arab Emirates Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of ADHD was studied among 200 UAE school-age children. Variables that distinguish ADHD and non-ADHD children were examined, including child characteristics, parents' sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Results indicated that 12.5 % of the children had ADHD symptomatology, and…

  9. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  10. Writing and Drawing Performance of School Age Children: Is There Any Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Vlachos, Filippos; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate possible relationships between writing and drawing performance of school-aged children, in order to compare the two skills at the within-individual level. The sample consisted of 182 right- and left-handed children, aged 8 to 12 years. Children were examined by the Greek adaptation of the Luria-Nebraska…

  11. Primary School Attendance and Completion among Lower Secondary School Age Children in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    At the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000, governments pledged to achieve education for all by 2015. However, if current enrollment trends continue, the number of out-of-school children could increase from current levels. Greater focus is needed on lower secondary school age (13-16 years) children. These children are not included estimates of…

  12. Determinants of After-School Programming for School-Age Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joy P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the child and family characteristics that predict enrollment in after-school programming for school-age children of immigrant and nonimmigrant families. Although much is known about the beneficial effects of after-school programming for children and youths, the literature focused on immigrant children--the…

  13. Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

  14. Efficacy and effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Coelingh, Kathleen; Olajide, Ifedapo Rosemary; MacDonald, Peter; Yogev, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of high efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from randomized controlled trials is strong for children 2-6 years of age, but fewer data exist for older school-age children. We reviewed the published data on efficacy and effectiveness of LAIV in children ≥5 years. QUOSA (Elsevier database) was searched for articles published from January 1990 to June 2014 that included 'FluMist', 'LAIV', 'CAIV', 'cold adapted influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated cold adapted' or 'flu mist'. Studies evaluated included randomized controlled trials, effectiveness and indirect protection studies. This review demonstrates that LAIV has considerable efficacy and effectiveness in school-age children.

  15. Assessing attachment in school-aged children: Do the School-Age Assessment of Attachment and Family Drawings work together as complementary tools?

    PubMed

    Carr-Hopkins, Rebecca; De Burca, Calem; Aldridge, Felicity A

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to identify an assessment package that could improve treatment planning for troubled children and their families. To assess the validity of our tools, we tested the relations among the School-Age Assessment of Attachment, the Family Drawing and children's risk status. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation to interpret the assessments in the hope of identifying a gradient of risk, and explore whether a new coding method improved the validity of Family Drawings and their utility as a tool to complement the School-Age Assessment of Attachment. The participants were 89 children, aged between 5 and 12 years; 32 children were involved with mental health services or child protection. Each child completed a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and a Family Drawing. Both assessments differentiated between clinical and normative referrals with moderate effect sizes when dichotomizing risk versus non-risk attachment. When the analysis incorporated a gradient of six attachment classifications, the effect sizes decreased, but specificity of risk increased. The School-Age Assessment of Attachment had greater validity for discriminating risk, and type of risk, than the Family Drawings. With a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and family history, the Family Drawing can provide information about distress that some children do not provide verbally. Integration of the two assessment tools alongside information about parental and family functioning appears to be the key to formulating children's problems.

  16. America's School-Age Children Fight the War: Political Socialization, Participation, and Patriotism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    U.S. children who were of school age during World War II underwent a socialization process that led them to have great pride in their country, to believe in the moral certainty of U.S. victory, and to feel united in their participation on the homefront. Excerpts from letters of individuals who were school-aged during the War are used to illustrate…

  17. Bound-morpheme skills in the oral language of school-age, language-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Bellaire, S; Plante, E; Swisher, L

    1994-12-01

    Bound-morphine skills of school-age, language-impaired (LI) children were explored with three tasks designed to assess multiple dimensions of this component of language. Ten English-speaking, school-age LI children (Mean age: 10:3) and ten children with normal language (Mean age: 9:9) served as subjects. A two-way analysis of variance revealed significant group differences. Fisher a priori testing documented significant group differences for a measure of English bound-morpheme skill levels, a measure of ability to generalize English bound-morphemes to novel words, and a measure of ability to learn novel bound-morphemes attached to novel words. The findings indicate that core features of developmental language impairment in preschool children--poor ability to learn, to use, and to generalize bound-morphemes--are also present in school-age, LI children.

  18. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Perception of speech sounds in school-age children with speech sound disorders

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Irwin, Julia R.; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System (Rvachew, 1994), which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers’ ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-age children with residual speech errors (RSE). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-age children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-age children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. PMID:26458198

  20. Health-related quality of life of school- age children with rheumatic Fever.

    PubMed

    Essawy, Magda A E; Bahgat, Zebaida S; Kassem, Hamama A

    2010-01-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) is a major public health problem and it is an important cause of acquired cardiovascular disease in childhood and adolescence. The goal of effective management of rheumatic fever is to allow children with RF to function with minimal restrictions and enjoy a good quality of life(QOL) throughout their lives. The aim of this study was to identify the health-related quality of life of school- age children with rheumatic fever. A convenient sample of 100 school-age children with rheumatic fever and their mothers were selected from outpatient clinic and inpatient pediatric cardiac departments of EL-Shatby Children University Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt. Data was collected from children in the previously mentioned settings who fulfil the following criteria, the children's age ranged from 8 to 12 years & free from any associated disease. Two tools were used in Clinical Data of Rheumatic School-Age Children Questionnaire that was developed by the researcher and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scale (Peds QL). The majority (78.3%) of school-age children with rheumatic fever had a neutral HRQOL and less than a quarter of them had high HRQOL. Only small percent (8.7%) of studied subjects had poor HRQOL. Children's parents' reports confirmed such results, where there were a significant positive correlations between children reports and their parents reports in the majority of studied items of HRQOL regarding rheumatic fever. Health education program for school-age children who had rheumatic fever and their parents towards the different measures of high HRQOL is recommended to help those children to improve their quality of life.

  1. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…

  2. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  3. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  4. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…

  5. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  6. Talker Familiarity and Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…

  7. Properties of the Narrative Scoring Scheme Using Narrative Retells in Young School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, John; Miller, Jon F.; Nockerts, Ann; Dunaway, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical utility of the narrative scoring scheme (NSS) as an index of narrative macrostructure for young school-age children. Method: Oral retells of a wordless picture book were elicited from 129 typically developing children, ages 5-7. A series of correlations and hierarchical regression equations were completed using…

  8. Language Outcomes of School-Aged Internationally Adopted Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that, as a group, many internationally adopted children catch up to their peers in terms of their language development by the time they reach their school-age years. Although this appears to be particularly true for children adopted during the first few years of life, it is not true for all internationally adopted…

  9. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  10. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  11. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…

  12. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  13. Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

  14. Speech Disfluency in School-Age Children's Conversational and Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Logan, Kenneth J.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to (a) compare the speech fluency of school-age children who do and do not stutter (CWS and CWNS, respectively) within 2 standard diagnostic speaking contexts (conversation and narration) while also controlling for speaking topic, and (b) examine the extent to which children's performance on such discourse tasks is…

  15. Verbal Working Memory and Story Retelling in School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined verbal working memory and language ability in 15 school-age children with autism using 3 verbal working memory tasks and 1 story recall task. Method: Three measures of verbal working memory--nonword repetition, memory for digits span, and sentence imitation--were given to children with autism and age-matched controls.…

  16. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  17. Comparison of Measures of Morphosyntactic Complexity in French-Speaking School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mimeau, Catherine; Plourde, Vickie; Ouellet, Andrée-Anne; Dionne, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of different measures of morphosyntactic complexity, including the Morphosyntactic Complexity Scale (MSCS), a novel adaptation of the Developmental Sentence Scoring, in French-speaking school-aged children. Seventy-three Quebec children from kindergarten to Grade 3 completed a definition task and a…

  18. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  19. Pragmatic language profiles of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Philofsky, Amy; Fidler, Deborah J; Hepburn, Susan

    2007-11-01

    To describe and compare the pragmatic language profiles of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) on a standardized measure to determine whether a standard pragmatics tool can differentiate between 2 groups of children with opposing social presentations and pragmatic language difficulties. Twenty-two parents of school-age children with ASD, 21 parents of school-age children with WS, and 19 parents of school-age typically developing children rated their child on the Children's Communication Checklist-Second Edition (CCC-2; D. Bishop, 2003), a standardized pragmatic language assessment tool. Both clinical groups demonstrated impairment in overall communication and pragmatic language functioning, but children with WS performed significantly better on overall pragmatic language functioning, and the magnitude of the effect was medium. Profile examination revealed equivalent performances between ASD and WS on most CCC-2 subscales; however, significantly better performances on the Coherence, Stereotyped Language, Nonverbal Communication, and Social Relations subscales were observed in WS. The CCC-2 appears to provide an effective means to identify and characterize pragmatic language difficulties using a standardized approach in children with ASD and WS.

  20. Pragmatic Language Profiles of School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philofsky, Amy; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and compare the pragmatic language profiles of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) on a standardized measure to determine whether a standard pragmatics tool can differentiate between 2 groups of children with opposing social presentations and pragmatic language difficulties.…

  1. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  2. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  3. Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

  4. Educational Interventions for Visual-Motor Deficiencies That Affect Handwriting in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikowski, Timothy J.

    This practicum was designed to remediate handwriting skills in school-aged children who displayed visual-motor deficiencies that affect mechanical skills. Practicum goals were to: (1) identify and diagnose children with handwriting delays; (2) involve school and parent interaction by involving them with pre- and post-program assessment; (3)…

  5. Factors Associated with Screen Time among School-Age Children in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics with screen time among school-age children in Korea. This study employed a nonexperimental, cross-sectional study design. A total of 370 children attending four elementary schools participated in the study. Self-report…

  6. Talker Familiarity and Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…

  7. School-Age Children Talk about Chess: Does Knowledge Drive Syntactic Complexity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion--the game of chess. Method: Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing…

  8. Can Mild Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Affect Developmental Abilities in Younger School-Age Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ðokovic, Sanja; Gligorovic, Milica; Ostojic, Sanja; Dimic, Nadežda; Radic-Šestic, Marina; Slavnic, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The research study was conducted for the purpose of examining the influence of mild bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (MBSNHL) on developmental abilities of younger school-age children. The sample encompassed 144 children with MBSNHL, aged 7.5-11 (M = 8.85). MBSNHL (20-40 dB HL) was identified by pure tone audiometry. The control group…

  9. Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

  10. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  11. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  12. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  14. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  15. A Twin-Study of Sleep Difficulties in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines frequency, overlap, and genetic and environmental influences on sleep difficulties, which are understudied in school-aged children. The Sleep Self Report and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were completed by 300 twin pairs (aged 8 years) and their parents. Child report suggested more frequent sleep problems than…

  16. Latchkey Children and School-Age Child Care: A Background Briefing. Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dale B.

    This background briefing paper synthesizes current thinking and practice on the issue of latchkey children and school-age child care (SACC). The paper defines the problem of latchkey children; reviews related literature and programmatic responses to the problem; reports responses of four southern states; and points out implications for policy…

  17. Mood Symptoms and Emotional Responsiveness to Threat in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borelli, Jessica L.; Sbarra, David A.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical accounts of depression underscore its relation to negative emotional experiences; yet few empirical studies examine emotional experiences in adults with depression, with even less work on depression and emotion in children. Using a nonclinical sample of school-aged children (n = 89) ages 8 to 12, this study evaluated whether greater mood…

  18. An Analysis of Personal Event Narratives Produced by School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Kristina M.; Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.

    This study compared and analyzed the language capabilities of 10 school-age children raised in either single parent homes resulting from divorce or in two parent families. More specifically, it compared the context and complexity of oral personal event narratives produced by both groups of children. The study also investigated the usefulness and…

  19. Perspectives on Health of School-Age Children: Expectations for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gephart, Joann; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This article discusses health issues and problems involving school-age children. Defines the population of concern, discusses societal changes and their factors influencing childrens' health, describes the scope and resources of health services, defines system organization and interrelationships, and suggests priorities for future action. (DF)

  20. Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism: Communication, Academic Engagement and Classroom Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Kathryne Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Minimally verbal school aged children with autism (MVSACwA) receive the bulk of their behavioral and academic support in schools yet we know little about the environments to which they are exposed. This population of children has often been excluded from studies and thus, underrepresented in current data on autism. As increasing numbers of…

  1. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of…

  2. Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

  3. Speech Disfluency in School-Age Children's Conversational and Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Logan, Kenneth J.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to (a) compare the speech fluency of school-age children who do and do not stutter (CWS and CWNS, respectively) within 2 standard diagnostic speaking contexts (conversation and narration) while also controlling for speaking topic, and (b) examine the extent to which children's performance on such discourse tasks is…

  4. Factors Associated with Screen Time among School-Age Children in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics with screen time among school-age children in Korea. This study employed a nonexperimental, cross-sectional study design. A total of 370 children attending four elementary schools participated in the study. Self-report…

  5. A Twin-Study of Sleep Difficulties in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines frequency, overlap, and genetic and environmental influences on sleep difficulties, which are understudied in school-aged children. The Sleep Self Report and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were completed by 300 twin pairs (aged 8 years) and their parents. Child report suggested more frequent sleep problems than…

  6. An Exploratory Study of Aggression in School-Age Children: Underlying Factors and Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Landy, Sarah; Moroney, Darren; Kane, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour in school-aged children presents a significant challenge for society. If not managed, it can result in adverse academic, social, emotional, and behavioural outcomes for the child. In addition, it can create stress for families and become a significant burden for the community as these children reach adolescence and adulthood,…

  7. Can Mild Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Affect Developmental Abilities in Younger School-Age Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ðokovic, Sanja; Gligorovic, Milica; Ostojic, Sanja; Dimic, Nadežda; Radic-Šestic, Marina; Slavnic, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    The research study was conducted for the purpose of examining the influence of mild bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (MBSNHL) on developmental abilities of younger school-age children. The sample encompassed 144 children with MBSNHL, aged 7.5-11 (M = 8.85). MBSNHL (20-40 dB HL) was identified by pure tone audiometry. The control group…

  8. Verbal Working Memory and Story Retelling in School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined verbal working memory and language ability in 15 school-age children with autism using 3 verbal working memory tasks and 1 story recall task. Method: Three measures of verbal working memory--nonword repetition, memory for digits span, and sentence imitation--were given to children with autism and age-matched controls.…

  9. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-01-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, "Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry" 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two…

  10. Mexican Immigrant Fathers' and Mothers' Engagement with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Ziarat; Shipman, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    This study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of their time spent in their school-age children's care and academic work and the relationships between socioeconomic status and social support variables with fathers' time spent in children's care and academic work within two-parent Mexican immigrant families. Mother and father dyads from 79…

  11. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  12. Socioemotional Effects of Fathers' Incarceration on Low-Income, Urban, School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, MaryAnn B.; Marani, Jodi E.; Appugliese, Danielle; Woods, Ryan; Siegel, Jane A.; Cabral, Howard J.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal was to evaluate whether children of incarcerated fathers are more likely to report or exhibit behavioral symptoms than their equally disadvantaged peers without an incarcerated father. METHODS During an ongoing longitudinal study of intrauterine cocaine exposure involving 102 children (50% male and 89% black) from urban, low-income homes, questions regarding incarceration of the child's father were asked of the child's primary caregiver at each visit during school age. Children were administered the Children's Depression Inventory between the ages of 6 and 11 years, and their primary caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. In addition, the children's teachers completed the Teacher Report Form. Children's Depression Inventory, Child Behavior Checklist, and Teacher Report Form data obtained at the oldest available age after the first report of paternal incarceration were analyzed. RESULTS In bivariate analyses, children whose fathers were in jail had higher Children's Depression Inventory total scores compared with children without incarcerated fathers, indicating more depressive symptoms. This finding was robust in multivariate analyses after adjustment for children's age, gender, prenatal cocaine and alcohol exposure, and school-age violence exposure. Teachers reported higher Teacher Report Form externalizing scores for children whose fathers were in jail, after adjustment for age, gender, prenatal cocaine and marijuana exposure, and school-age violence exposure. CONCLUSIONS Children of incarcerated fathers reported more depressive symptoms and their teachers noted more externalizing behaviors, after controlling for other biopsychosocial risks. Interventions targeted to ameliorate the distress of children with incarcerated fathers should be considered. PMID:17766508

  13. Teaching Prelinguistic Communication Skills to School Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica Hetlinger

    2008-01-01

    Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (PMT) is an intervention designed to teach young children to initiate nonverbal communication using vocalizations, gestures, and eye-gaze. Children are taught through social routines in their natural environment. Techniques include contriving an environment in which the children will be motivated to communicate and…

  14. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  15. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  16. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  17. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  18. The national cost of asthma among school-aged children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Patrick W; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Navaratnam, Prakash; Friedman, Howard S; Kavati, Abhishek; Ortiz, Benjamin; Lanier, Bob

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has quantified the national health care resource use (HCRU) and health care expenditure (HCE) burden associated with adult asthma; however, estimates specific to school-aged children are more than 2 decades old. To estimate the national HCRU and HCEs attributable to asthma among school-aged children in the United States. This was a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of school-aged children (aged 6-17 years) in the nationally representative 2007-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. All-cause HCRU and HCEs of school-aged children with asthma were compared with school-aged children without asthma, controlling for sociodemographics and comorbidities. HCRU encounters included emergency department (ED) and outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and prescriptions. Expenditures included total, medical, ED, inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy. Negative binomial regression analyses were used for HCRU and Heckman selection with logarithmic transformation, and smearing retransformation was used for HCEs. There were 44,320 school-aged children of whom 5,890 had asthma. Children with asthma incurred a higher rate of all-cause annual ED visits (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.5; P < .001), hospitalizations (IRR, 1.4; P < .05), outpatient visits (IRR, 1.4; P < .001), and prescription drugs (IRR, 3.3; P < .001) compared with school-aged children without asthma. They incurred US$847 (2015 dollars) more annually in all-cause expenditures (P < .001). Private insurance and Medicaid paid the largest share of expenditures. Pharmacy and outpatient costs represented the largest proportion of total expenditures. On the basis of the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey sample weights from 2013, the total annual HCEs attributable to asthma for school-aged children in the United States was US$5.92 billion (2015 dollars). Childhood asthma continues to represent a prevalent and significant clinical and economic burden in the United States. More aggressive

  19. The experiences of primary caregivers raising school-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Jue; Huang, Xuan-Y; Hung, Bai-Jin

    2009-06-01

    To understand the experiences of primary caregivers who are bringing up school-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The research findings will help address the problems related to caring for school-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In Taiwan, the rate of school-aged children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ranges from 7.9-11.7%. This study is the first, which tries to understand the experiences of primary caregivers who are bringing up school-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan. The study used a qualitative phenomenological approach to explore the experiences of caregivers raising school-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Purposive sampling and in-depth, face-to-face interviews were used to collect data. The unstructured interview guide allowed the major caregivers to express their experiences of raising school-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. When data saturation was reached, the sample size comprised 12 major caregivers. Narratives were analysed according to Colaizzi's seven-step method. Three themes and seven sub-themes emerged from this study: the burdens of caring (parenting burdens, emotional burdens and family conflicts), the lack of adequate support systems (lack of support from professionals, spouses and other family members) and the mechanisms of coping (cognitive coping strategies and social coping strategies). Furthermore, several other factors that affected the caregivers of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are also revealed in the study. The findings of the study demonstrate the importance of understanding the experiences of primary caregivers, bringing up school-aged children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Improving professional services in family care should be a major concern for all healthcare professionals. The recommendations that have been made

  20. Pragmatic Language Profiles of School-Age Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Philofsky, Amy; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe and compare the pragmatic language profiles of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) on a standardized measure to determine whether a standard pragmatics tool can differentiate between 2 groups of children with opposing social presentations and pragmatic language difficulties. Method Twenty-two parents of school-age children with ASD, 21 parents of school-age children with WS, and 19 parents of school-age typically developing children rated their child on the Children’s Communication Checklist—Second Edition (CCC–2; D. Bishop, 2003), a standardized pragmatic language assessment tool. Results Both clinical groups demonstrated impairment in overall communication and pragmatic language functioning, but children with WS performed significantly better on overall pragmatic language functioning, and the magnitude of the effect was medium. Profile examination revealed equivalent performances between ASD and WS on most CCC–2 subscales; however, significantly better performances on the Coherence, Stereotyped Language, Nonverbal Communication, and Social Relations subscales were observed in WS. Conclusions The CCC–2 appears to provide an effective means to identify and characterize pragmatic language difficulties using a standardized approach in children with ASD and WS. PMID:17971496

  1. Prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in school-aged children in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Zablah, R; Velasco-Benítez, C A; Merlos, I; Bonilla, S; Saps, M

    2015-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in school-aged Salvadoran children using standardized diagnostic criteria. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs in school-aged children in El Salvador. A total of 395 children participated in the study (one public school and one private school). School children completed the Spanish version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III (QPGS-III), an age-appropriate and previously validated instrument for diagnosing FGIDs according to the Rome III criteria. Sociodemographic (age, sex, type of school) and familial (family structure and size, family history of gastrointestinal disorders) data were obtained. The mean age of the sample was 11.8 years ± 1.6 SD (median 10, range 8-15) and 59% of the participants were female. Eighty-one children met the diagnostic criteria for a FGID (20%). Defecation disorders were the most common group of FGIDs. Functional constipation was diagnosed in 10% of the children and 9.25% were diagnosed with abdominal pain-related FGIDs (most commonly IBS, 3.75%). IBS overlapped with functional dyspepsia in 11% of the cases. Children with FGIDs frequently reported nausea. Children attending private school and older children had significantly more FGIDs than children in public school and younger children. FGIDs are common in school-aged Salvadoran children. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Demographic, Environmental, Access, and Attitude Factors that Influence Walking to School by Elementary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ariel; Vogt, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Walking to school has been identified as an activity that contributes to children's daily exercise requirements. The purpose of this study was to better understand factors that influence walking to school by elementary school-aged children. Methods: A sample of 1,897 elementary school-aged children (84% response rate; 3rd-5th graders)…

  3. Development of the Conversation Participation Rating Scale: Intervention Planning Implications for Two School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timler, Geralyn R.; Boone, William J.; Bergmann, Amelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have pervasive challenges in social interactions with peers. This study examined the feasibility of eliciting children's perceptions of their conversation participation with peers for the purposes of assessment and intervention planning. Methods: Two school-age children with ASD…

  4. Development of the Conversation Participation Rating Scale: Intervention Planning Implications for Two School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timler, Geralyn R.; Boone, William J.; Bergmann, Amelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have pervasive challenges in social interactions with peers. This study examined the feasibility of eliciting children's perceptions of their conversation participation with peers for the purposes of assessment and intervention planning. Methods: Two school-age children with ASD…

  5. Demographic, Environmental, Access, and Attitude Factors that Influence Walking to School by Elementary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ariel; Vogt, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Walking to school has been identified as an activity that contributes to children's daily exercise requirements. The purpose of this study was to better understand factors that influence walking to school by elementary school-aged children. Methods: A sample of 1,897 elementary school-aged children (84% response rate; 3rd-5th graders)…

  6. Inclusion of School-Age Children with Disabilities in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, Sharon A.; Kolchenko, Kateryna

    2007-01-01

    For many years, children with developmental problems, sensory disorders, brain dysfunction, and complex disorders have remained at the margins of the Ukrainian regular education system or have been excluded from it. In 2004, 1.8 percent of the children in Ukraine were registered as having disabilities. In this article, the authors describe the…

  7. Assessment of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of school children are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). These children may be referred for assessments for a variety of reasons, including to assess for intellectual impairments, eligibility for support, or to monitor progress. Characteristics of ASD, such as social communication difficulties, as well as common…

  8. The Use of Antidepressants in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kelly; Nguyen, Bich; Liu, Nianci; Watkins, Melissa; Reutzel, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 5% of the pediatric population suffers from depression. Children suffering from depression should be treated first with some type of psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, and/or education. Pharmacotherapy (medications) should be used only as a last resort for those children suffering from severe, chronic, or recurring depression. The…

  9. The Use of Antidepressants in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kelly; Nguyen, Bich; Liu, Nianci; Watkins, Melissa; Reutzel, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 5% of the pediatric population suffers from depression. Children suffering from depression should be treated first with some type of psychotherapy, cognitive therapy, and/or education. Pharmacotherapy (medications) should be used only as a last resort for those children suffering from severe, chronic, or recurring depression. The…

  10. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; Zhang, Xuyang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study asked if children's performance on language tests reflects different dimensions of language and if this dimensionality changes with development. Method: Children were given standardized language batteries at kindergarten and at second, fourth, and eighth grades. A revised modified parallel analysis was used to determine the…

  11. Determinants of under nutrition among school age children in a Nairobi peri-urban slum.

    PubMed

    Chesire, E J; Orago, A S S; Oteba, L P; Echoka, E

    2008-10-01

    Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income urban community. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6-12 years. A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight (72.4%, p = 0.000) and stunted (77.2%, p = 0.000) than those below eight years. The girls were more wasted (29.1%, p = 0.013) than the boys (18.2%), whereas the boys were more stunted (65.7%, p = 0.003) than the girls (50.7%). The other variables found to have had significant association with the nutritional status of the children were: monthly household income (p = 0.008), food prices (p = 0.012), morbidity trends (p = 0.045), mode of treatment (p = 0.036) and school attendance (p = 0.044). The findings of this study show evidently that there is under nutrition among school age children, with stunting being the most prevalent. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health therefore need to develop policies which can alleviate under nutrition among school age children. We also recommend that awareness be created among the school age children, parents and teachers, on the dietary requirements of both boys and girls.

  12. Linguistic Masking Release in School-Age Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed if 6- to 8-year-old children benefit from a language mismatch between target and masker speech for sentence recognition in a 2-talker masker. Method English sentence recognition was evaluated for English monolingual children (ages 6–8 years, n = 15) and adults (n = 15) in an English 2-talker and a Spanish 2-talker masker. A regression analysis with subject as a random variable was used to test the fixed effect of listener group and masker language and the interaction of these two effects. Results Thresholds were approximately 5 dB higher for children than for adults in both maskers. However, children and adults benefited to the same degree from a mismatch between the target and masker language with approximately 3 dB lower thresholds in the Spanish than the English masker. Conclusions Results suggest that children are able to take advantage of linguistic differences between English and Spanish speech maskers to the same degree as adults. Yet, overall worse performance for children may indicate general cognitive immaturity compared with adults, perhaps causing children to be less efficient when combining glimpses of degraded speech information into a meaningful sentence. PMID:26974870

  13. Association between intersection characteristics and perceived crash risk among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gain; Park, Yuna; Kim, Jeongseob; Cho, Gi-Hyoug

    2016-12-01

    This research examined how environmental attributes near intersections influence the perceived crash risk among school-aged children, which provides information on the potential risks of pedestrian crashes that can guide the development of proactive countermeasures. In a sample of 799 children aged 10-12 years old in Korea, the environmental attributes of intersections perceived as having a high risk of producing crashes near elementary schools were investigated using standard negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial models.The results showed that a higher number of student crossings, a wider road width, the presence of crosswalks, student-friendly facilities at the intersection, and four-way intersections were significant and positively associated with perceived crash risk among school-aged children. The findings related to building characteristics indicated that a higher number of entrances at an intersection increased the perceived crash risk while higher visibility at the intersection reduced the perception of risk. Associations with traffic-calming measures were weak,suggesting that the measures used in the study areas were not effective in reducing the perceived crash risk. The results of a police-reported crash model showed that school-aged children have a relatively accurate perception of crash risk and that the perceived crash risk of school-aged children may provide valuable information on the intersection characteristics in need of attention near school sites.

  14. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable.

  15. The understanding of word definitions in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Marinellie, Sally A

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated children's understanding of unfamiliar noun and verb definitions in tasks that were manipulated for syntactic and semantic properties of definitions. The study was also designed to examine the relation between understanding word definitions and the skills of syntactic awareness and making inferences. A total of 117 children over three upper elementary grades (3, 4, 5) participated in the study. The definitional tasks were presented in multiple choice format, with each definition followed by four context sentences. In the syntactic/semantic condition, which included nouns and verbs, the context sentences were manipulated for syntactic and semantic properties. In the semantic condition, which included only nouns, the context sentences were manipulated only for semantics. All children also completed a syntactic awareness task and a making inferences task. Results indicated that children did not make significant grade improvements in the semantic task, but did so in the syntactic/semantic task, suggesting the dependence of syntactic cues on definitional understanding. Findings further suggested that inferencing and syntactic awareness are important to children's ability in understanding a definition for an unfamiliar word and to integrating that meaning into a context sentence.

  16. Media Use in School-Aged Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Parental recognition of overweight in school-age children.

    PubMed

    West, Delia S; Raczynski, James M; Phillips, Martha M; Bursac, Zoran; Heath Gauss, C; Montgomery, Brooke E E

    2008-03-01

    Examine the accuracy of parental weight perceptions of overweight children before and after the implementation of childhood obesity legislation that included BMI screening and feedback. Statewide telephone surveys of parents of overweight (BMI > or = 85th percentile) Arkansas public school children before (n = 1,551; 15% African American) and after (n = 2,508; 15% African American) policy implementation were examined for correspondence between parental perception of child's weight and objective classification. Most (60%) parents of overweight children underestimated weight at baseline. Parents of younger children were significantly more likely to underestimate (65%) than parents of adolescents (51%). Overweight parents were not more likely to underestimate, nor was inaccuracy associated with parental education or socioeconomic status. African-American parents were twice as likely to underestimate as whites. One year after BMI screening and feedback was implemented, the accuracy of classification of overweight children improved (53% underestimation). African-American parents had significantly greater improvements than white parents (P < 0.0001). Parental recognition of childhood overweight may be improved with BMI screening and feedback, and African-American parents may specifically benefit. Nonetheless, underestimation of overweight is common and may have implications for public health interventions.

  18. Altered gray matter volume and school age anxiety in children born late preterm.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L

    2014-11-01

    To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had magnetic resonance imaging scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area, and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the magnetic resonance imaging. LP children (n = 21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n = 87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Altered Gray Matter Volume and School Age Anxiety in Children Born Late Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. Study design LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had MRI scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the MRI. Results LP children (n=21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n=87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. Conclusion LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. PMID:25108541

  20. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children].

    PubMed

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning.

  1. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Campo, John V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Suicide in elementary school–aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school–aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. METHODS: We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5–11 years and 12–14 years) were conducted by using the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. RESULTS: Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school–aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. PMID:27647716

  2. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  3. Factors Affecting the Processing of Intensity in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W., III; Grose, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Thresholds of school-aged children are elevated relative to those of adults for intensity discrimination and amplitude modulation (AM) detection. It is unclear how these findings are related or what role stimulus gating and dynamic envelope cues play in these results. Two experiments assessed the development of sensitivity to intensity…

  4. Development of Morphosyntactic Accuracy and Grammatical Complexity in Dutch School-Age Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a narrative task that was administered at three points…

  5. Pilot Testing "Okay with Asthma"[TM]: An Online Asthma Intervention for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tami H.; Hauenstein, Emily J.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the leading cause of missed school days despite advancements in asthma treatment. This may be, in part, due to a lack of understanding about asthma. "Okay With Asthma"[TM], an online story with psychosocial management strategies for school-age children, was pilot tested to measure its effect on asthma knowledge and attitude. The online…

  6. The Design and Implementation of a Summer Care Program for School Age Children of Working Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpini, Joyce

    An elementary school administrator designed and implemented a 12-week summer program for school-age children that provided educational, recreational, and cultural opportunities. Each week of activities centered on a specific theme. Recreational opportunities included sports activities, outdoor games, organized indoor games, free play, swimming,…

  7. Perceptions of School Nurses regarding Obesity in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyers, Pamela; Bugle, Linda; Jackson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the nation's school-age population with African American and Hispanic children and adolescents specifically at risk. School nurses at elementary and middle public schools in the Missouri 8th Congressional District were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity. School nurses supported preventive interventions…

  8. Pilot Testing "Okay with Asthma"[TM]: An Online Asthma Intervention for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tami H.; Hauenstein, Emily J.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the leading cause of missed school days despite advancements in asthma treatment. This may be, in part, due to a lack of understanding about asthma. "Okay With Asthma"[TM], an online story with psychosocial management strategies for school-age children, was pilot tested to measure its effect on asthma knowledge and attitude. The online…

  9. School-Aged Children of Alcoholics: Theory and Research. Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Bennett, Linda A.

    Despite the research documenting the occurrence of alcoholism in families, little is known about how alcoholism is transmitted from one generation to the next or what causes several members of the same family to abuse alcohol. To date, the most consistent findings among school-aged children are reports of cognitive differences. Health problems,…

  10. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  11. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  12. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  13. Empowerment in Parents of School-Aged Children with and without Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachshen, J. S.; Minnes, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Despite the widespread use of the term "empowerment" in clinical literature to describe both a desirable process and the outcome of service delivery, the term remains more of a theoretical than practical construct. This study examined the factors that contribute to empowerment in parents of school-aged children with and without…

  14. Factors Affecting Sensitivity to Frequency Change in School-Age Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Taylor, Crystal N.; Leibold, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The factors affecting frequency discrimination in school-age children are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to evaluate developmental effects related to memory for pitch and the utilization of temporal fine structure. Method: Listeners were 5.1- to 13.6-year-olds and adults, all with normal hearing. A subgroup of…

  15. Children's Books, 1975: A List of Books for Preschool Through Junior High School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography lists 200 titles of books for children, preschool through junior high school age. The information accompanying each title includes bibliographic information, the Library of Congress card number, a description of the book, and the appropriate age level. Entries are listed according to nine categories: picture and…

  16. Children's Books 1973: A List of Books for Preschool Through Junior High School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Virginia

    This annotated bibliography provides a listing of children's books published in 1973 for those of preschool through junior high school age. The Library of Congress catalog card number for each book follows the bibliographic information, and grade level appears at the end of each annotation. Books are categorized into picture and picture story…

  17. Call for studies in implementation science: improving reading comprehension in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nippold, Marilyn A

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the Editor of Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools makes the case for more studies in implementation science in order to improve the reading comprehension of school-age children, particularly those with specific language impairment and nonspecific language impairment.

  18. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  19. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  20. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  1. Nutrition Education for School-Aged Children: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Leslie A.

    This review of research on nutrition education for school-aged children includes 17 articles published since 1980 and not included in two previous reviews (13 school-based and 4 outside of school). School-based studies included families and home environments, program institutionalization, using computer systems, knowledge-based studies, and…

  2. A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

  3. Factors Affecting the Processing of Intensity in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Emily; Hall, Joseph W., III; Grose, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Thresholds of school-aged children are elevated relative to those of adults for intensity discrimination and amplitude modulation (AM) detection. It is unclear how these findings are related or what role stimulus gating and dynamic envelope cues play in these results. Two experiments assessed the development of sensitivity to intensity…

  4. Community-Based Summer Learning Programs for School- Age Children: Research-to-Policy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Summer learning experiences for school-age children can be provided in a variety of ways and settings, including summer school programs (often remedial), community-based programs (often a continuation of afterschool programs), and home-based programs (in which families are provided with information and resources to encourage reading, often run by…

  5. Internet and Independent E-Learning of School Age Children in Thailand (One Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Schools generally have been unable to keep up with the rapid technical changes in modern society. As a result, primary school age children worldwide are becoming self-taught independent e-learners and the gap between what they know and are able to do exceeds the learning outcomes for their schools' ICT (information communication technology)…

  6. Perceptions of School Nurses regarding Obesity in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyers, Pamela; Bugle, Linda; Jackson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the nation's school-age population with African American and Hispanic children and adolescents specifically at risk. School nurses at elementary and middle public schools in the Missouri 8th Congressional District were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity. School nurses supported preventive interventions…

  7. Preliminary Study of Disfluency in School-Aged Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaler Scott, Kathleen; Tetnowski, John A.; Flaitz, James R.; Yaruss, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there has been increased identification of disfluencies in individuals with autism, but limited examination of disfluencies in the school-age range of this population. We currently lack information about whether the disfluencies of children with autism represent concomitant stuttering, normal disfluency, excessive…

  8. Development of Morphosyntactic Accuracy and Grammatical Complexity in Dutch School-Age Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a narrative task that was administered at three points…

  9. Ambiguous Loss and Posttraumatic Stress in School-Age Children of Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocknek, Erika London; Sanderson, Jessica; Britner, Preston A., IV

    2009-01-01

    We describe a sample of school-age children of incarcerated parents enrolled in a federally funded mentoring program. A mixed methods approach was applied to discern key themes related to caregiver incarceration. Results demonstrated a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress as well as high rates of internalizing and externalizing behaviors.…

  10. Community-Based Summer Learning Programs for School- Age Children: Research-to-Policy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Summer learning experiences for school-age children can be provided in a variety of ways and settings, including summer school programs (often remedial), community-based programs (often a continuation of afterschool programs), and home-based programs (in which families are provided with information and resources to encourage reading, often run by…

  11. Environmental triggers of hospital admissions for school-age children with asthma in two British cities.

    PubMed

    Julious, Steven A; Jain, Ritika; Mason, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    Research has reported seasonal peaks in asthma in school age asthmatic children. The study aimed to assess if hospital admissions could be predicted from the possible environmental triggers using data from two British cities: Aberdeen and Doncaster. However, there were no consistent patterns across the two cities with no clear evidence that hospital admissions could be predicted from environmental data.

  12. Keys to Effective Hearing Conservation Programs: Hearing Status of School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen L.

    This paper addresses incidence of hearing loss in school-age children, components of hearing conservation programs, and hearing loss education. Incidence figures for the following hearing loss categories are detailed: unilateral hearing loss, fluctuating hearing loss, minimal sensorineural hearing loss, and mild to profound hearing loss.…

  13. Preliminary Study of Disfluency in School-Aged Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaler Scott, Kathleen; Tetnowski, John A.; Flaitz, James R.; Yaruss, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there has been increased identification of disfluencies in individuals with autism, but limited examination of disfluencies in the school-age range of this population. We currently lack information about whether the disfluencies of children with autism represent concomitant stuttering, normal disfluency, excessive…

  14. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  15. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related…

  16. Communication Attitudes of Japanese School-Age Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…

  17. International Implications of Lead Poisoning in School Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    The United States and the World Health Organization have worked to decrease lead exposure in children, but despite these efforts lead poisoning continues to exist in industrialized and developing countries. Prevention is the only way to preclude the health, academic and behavioral problems that occur due to the effects of lead. Public awareness…

  18. School-Age Children with Disabilities: Technology Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P., Jr.; VanBievliet, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Focuses on the provision of technology to children with disabilities and examines school-subsidized provision of assistive devices and related services. Reviews federal technology legislation and grants to states, school technology teams, role of the elementary school counselor, various ethical considerations, and selection of appropriate…

  19. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  20. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  1. Calcium absorption and vitamin D status in school age children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) in adults may enhance calcium absorption (Ca-Abs). There are few similar pediatric data. We evaluated the relationship between 25-D and Ca-Abs by pooling data from 439 Ca-Abs measurements over a 15-yr period at our center in 251 healthy children 4.9 to 16....

  2. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  3. The Understanding of Word Definitions in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated children's understanding of unfamiliar noun and verb definitions in tasks that were manipulated for syntactic and semantic properties of definitions. The study was also designed to examine the relation between understanding word definitions and the skills of syntactic awareness and making inferences. A total of 117 children…

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  5. Elimination of Vocal Abuse in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umberger, Forrest G.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on activities that the regular classroom teacher can incorporate into the speech arts curriculum that will help to eliminate the high incidence of vocal disorders in students. Includes a description of the mechanics of voice production and exercises designed to help children use their voices more efficiently. (FL)

  6. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2009 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  7. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related…

  8. School Mobility and School-Age Children's Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Anderson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how nonpromotional school changes, a potentially major event for children, were associated with 3 forms of social maladjustment: isolation/withdrawal, affiliation with maladjusted peers, and aggression toward peers. Given that school mobility frequently co-occurs with family transitions, the moderating role of these transitions…

  9. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  10. School Mobility and School-Age Children's Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupere, Veronique; Archambault, Isabelle; Leventhal, Tama; Dion, Eric; Anderson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how nonpromotional school changes, a potentially major event for children, were associated with 3 forms of social maladjustment: isolation/withdrawal, affiliation with maladjusted peers, and aggression toward peers. Given that school mobility frequently co-occurs with family transitions, the moderating role of these transitions…

  11. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  12. Metacomprehension and School-Aged Children's Reading: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ann Jaffe

    Several research studies were reviewed to formulate a definition of metacomprehension in elementary school children. Although much additional research is needed, the one conclusion evident from the review is that metacomprehension is not a unitary phenomenon. It encompasses several kinds of abilities and degrees of awareness that may appear at…

  13. Dimensionality of Reading Skills with Elementary-School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 1,501 kindergarten to 5th-grade children who completed 3 measures of decoding, 3 measures of reading comprehension, and 3 measures of listening comprehension as part of a larger study were used to identify the dimensionality of reading skills across elementary school. A 1-factor (reading) model was the…

  14. Communication Attitudes of Japanese School-Age Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…

  15. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.

  16. Excess weight gain in elementary school-aged Hispanic children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current data was collected as part of a 6-year longitudinal study in which elementary schools from a southeast Texas school district were provided with resources to encourage children to make healthier choices. The objective of the current study was to evaluate children’s change in body mass ind...

  17. Communication attitudes of Japanese school-age children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version of the CAT could differentiate between the communication attitude of Japanese elementary school CWS and children who do not stutter (CWNS). A Japanese translation of the 1991 version of the Communication Attitude Test-Revised (CAT-R) was used in this study. Eighty Japanese CWS and 80 gender- and grade level-matched CWNS participated in the study. The results showed that CWS had a significantly more negative communication attitude than CWNS. Both CWS and CWNS in 1st grade showed significantly more positive communication attitudes than children in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th grades. Furthermore, a link between stuttering severity and CWS' communication attitude was found. Additional research is needed to confirm the results of the current study, which indicate that the communication attitude of Japanese CWS becomes more negative as they get older. The reader will be able to: (1) Describe the process that was used to develop a Japanese version of the Communication Attitude Test (CAT-J). (2) Discuss attitude differences between Japanese children who stutter and those who do not and how grade level impacts a negative attitude toward communication. (3) Explain the link between stuttering severity and attitudes of Japanese children who stutter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in reading strategies in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Sanabria Díaz, Gretel; Torres, María del Rosario; Iglesias, Jorge; Mosquera, Raysil; Reigosa, Vivian; Santos, Elsa; Lage, Agustín; Estévez, Nancy; Galán, Lidice

    2009-11-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important cognitive milestones in the human social environment. One of the most accepted models explaining such process is the Double-Route Cascaded Model. It suggests the existence of two reading strategies: lexical and sublexical. In the Spanish language there are some contradictions about how these strategies are applied for reading. In addition, there are only a few studies dealing with the analysis of shifts between them, achieving a fluent reading process. In this paper we use a reading task including words and pseudowords for characterizing the cost of shifting between reading strategies in children with developmental dyslexia and normal controls. Our results suggest the presence of both strategies in these two experimental groups. In controls, both strategies become more efficient in correspondence to the increased exposition to written material. However, in children with developmental dyslexia only the lexical strategy exhibits such improvement. Their also point to a low cost for shifting between strategies in controls and a much more significant one in children with developmental dyslexia, differentiating subgroups with distinct shifting patterns.

  19. Infant temperament and anxious symptoms in school age children.

    PubMed

    Kagan, J; Snidman, N; Zentner, M; Peterson, E

    1999-01-01

    A group of 164 children from different infant temperament categories were seen at 7 years of age for a laboratory battery that included behavioral and physiological measurements. The major results indicated that children who had been classified as high reactive infants at 4 months of age, compared with infants classified as low reactive, (a) were more vulnerable to the development of anxious symptoms at age 7 years, (b) were more subdued in their interactions with a female examiner, (c) made fewer errors on a task requiring inhibition of a reflex, and (d) were more reflective. Further, the high reactives who developed anxious symptoms differed from the high reactives without anxious symptoms with respect to fearful behavior in the second year and, at age 7 years, higher diastolic blood pressure, a narrower facial skeleton, and greater magnitude of cooling of the temperature of the fingertips to cognitive challenge. Finally, variation in magnitude of interference to fearful or aggressive pictures on a modified Stroop procedure failed to differentiate anxious from nonanxious or high from low reactive children.

  20. School-Age Children of Alcoholics and Non-Alcoholics: Their Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Phyllis; Robinson, Bryan E.

    1998-01-01

    Using sample of 108 students from fourth to eighth grades, study seeks to further clarify three major psychological dimensions among school-aged young children of alcoholics (YCOAs). Self-esteem, anxiety level, and locus of control were compared among school-aged children with and without alcoholic parents. YCOAs reported lower self-esteem, higher…

  1. An Insight into the Challenges Faced by Academic Women with Pre-School Age Children in Academic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günçavdi, Gizem; Göktürk, Söheyda; Bozoglu, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the challenges academic women, especially those who were mothers of pre-school age children, went through. The main guiding question of this study was "How do academic mothers with pre-school age children survive in the academia from pregnancy through all the various stages of parenting and motherhood?". This…

  2. Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

  3. Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

  4. Neighbourhood air quality and snoring in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Salehi, Mansour; Salarifar, Mohammad Hosein; Gozal, David

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of habitual snoring has been extensively explored in paediatric populations. Although exposure to cigarette smoke increases the risk of habitual snoring in a dose-dependent fashion, the potential contribution of air quality to habitual snoring remains unclear. 6000 questionnaires were distributed to 6- to 12-year-old children attending public schools in five distinct neighbourhoods within the city of Tehran, Iran, that were preselected based on air quality measures. Habitual snoring was defined as loud snoring ≥3 nights per week. Information regarding clinical and family-related habitual snoring risk factors was also obtained. Descriptive statistics followed by adjusted risk assessments were conducted. Among the 4322 (72%) completed datasets, the prevalence of habitual snoring was 11.6%. Partition of habitual snoring rates according to neighbourhood air quality characteristics revealed significantly higher habitual snoring frequencies among children residing in neighbourhoods with greatest pollution (24.5% and 12.1% in South and Central neighbourhoods versus 7.0% and 7.7% in North and East neighbourhoods, respectively). The regional variance in habitual snoring was primarily accounted for by an integrated measure of air quality, even after controlling for other risk factors. Environmental air quality emerges as a significant and potentially modifiable contributor to the risk for developing habitual snoring during childhood.

  5. The dimensionality of language ability in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Tomblin, J Bruce; Zhang, Xuyang

    2006-12-01

    This study asked if children's performance on language tests reflects different dimensions of language and if this dimensionality changes with development. Children were given standardized language batteries at kindergarten and at second, fourth, and eighth grades. A revised modified parallel analysis was used to determine the dimensionality of these items at each grade level. A confirmatory factor analysis was also performed on the subtest scores to evaluate alternate models of dimensionality. The revised modified parallel analysis revealed a single dimension across items with evidence of either test specific or language area specific minor dimensions at different ages. The confirmatory factor analysis tested models involving modality (receptive or expressive) and domain (vocabulary or sentence use) against a single-dimension model. The 2-dimensional model involving domains of vocabulary and sentence use fit the data better than the single-dimensional model; however, the single-dimension model also fit the data well in the lower grades. Much of the variance in standardized measures of language appears to be attributable to a single common factor or trait. There is a developmental trend during middle childhood for grammatical abilities and vocabulary abilities to become differentiated. These measures do not provide differential information concerning receptive and expressive abilities.

  6. Development of Daily Activities in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Schie, Petra; Dallmeijer, Annet; Jongmans, Marian; Lindeman, Eline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n = 116; 76 males, 40 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo) was…

  7. Iodine deficiency disorders in school age children in Kullu District, Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Chander, Sushil; Kapil, Umesh; Jain, Vandana; Sareen, Neha

    2013-09-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder is a major public health problem in Himachal Pradesh. A study was conducted in district Kullu to assess the prevalence of IDD in school age children. Clinical examination of the thyroid of 1986 children was conducted. On the spot urine and salt samples were collected. The Total Goiter Rate was found to be 23.4% and median urinary iodine excretion was 175 ug/L. The population is possibly in transition phase from iodine deficient to iodine sufficient nutrition.

  8. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  9. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.

  10. Development of Daily Activities in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Gorter, Jan Willem; van Schie, Petra; Dallmeijer, Annet; Jongmans, Marian; Lindeman, Eline

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the course of capabilities in self-care, mobility, and social function in school-age children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate associations with CP-, child-, and family-characteristics. A clinic-based sample of children with CP (n = 116; 76 males, 40 females; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo) was…

  11. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related and interpersonal-related impulsivity, as observed by teachers, parents, and the students themselves, are distinct, moderately correlated behavioral tendencies. Each demonstrates differentiated relationships with dimensions of childhood temperament, Big Five personality factors, and outcomes, such as sociometric popularity, report card grades, and classroom conduct. Implications for theoretical conceptions of impulsivity as well as for practical applications (e.g., domain-specific interventions) are discussed. PMID:24118714

  12. Cortisol Function Among Early School-aged Homeless Children

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, J. J.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Herbers, Janette E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Masten, Ann S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely reflecting family level negative life events predicted higher levels of morning cortisol and differences in initial level and change over the course of the session of cognitive tasks. In contrast, a socioeconomic cumulative risk score was not associated with morning or session-related differences in cortisol. PMID:20022181

  13. Humor and competence in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Masten, A S

    1986-04-01

    Multiple aspects of humor were evaluated in children between the ages of 10 and 14 and related to several areas of competence manifested at school. Humor measures assessed appreciation (including mirth, subjective ratings, and response sets), comprehension, and production, while competence measures included teacher ratings of classroom behavior, peer reputation, and achievement. Humor was related to competence in several ways consistent with previous theory and research: (1) through the manifestation of intellectual ability both in humor behaviors and in competent functioning; (2) through the role of mastery motivation enhancing both types of functioning; and (3) through peer relations, resulting from the effects of humor on peer acceptance or the effects of peer relations on humor behaviors. Ideas for further research relating humor to social competence, social cognition, and mastery motivation are discussed.

  14. [Television publicity and food preferences of school age children of the metropolitan region].

    PubMed

    Olivares, S; Albala, C; García, F; Jofré, I

    1999-07-01

    There is an alarming increase in the prevalence of child obesity in Chile. Lack of exercise and bad feeding habits strongly strongly contribute to the problem. To investigate the influence of television publicity on school age children food preferences. A semi structured interview was applied to a representative sample of 786 school age children aged 6 to 11 years old, living in Metropolitan Santiago. Time watching television during week days and the attitude towards food and beverage commercials was analyzed and related to food preferences. Ninety nine percent of school age children watch television during week days and 20% watches more the three hours daily. Snack commercials such as those about potato chips, chocolates, cookies and ice cream, are preferred by 35% of children. Soda commercials are preferred by 33% and yoghurt commercials by 12%. Eighty five percent of children had money to buy food. Of these, 66% bought snacks, 15% bought sodas and 7% yoghurt. The same tendency was observed in school collations. The high percentage of children, watching television and the influence of commercials in their food preferences, requires an urgent educational strategy to promote healthy feeding habits.

  15. [Overweight in primary school-age children. Prevalence and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Funk, M B; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Hanschmann, K M; Gerhards, B; Kuhn, K; Krackhardt, B

    2015-10-01

    Various studies show that pre-school age is a sensitive period for the development of overweight and obesity. During a longitudinal study between 2010 and 2013, the municipal health authority (city of Frankfurt) in cooperation with the university children's hospital investigated the development of weight in children aged 5 to 8. The weight and height of a collective of 5720 children were measured (2010/11). In addition, nutritional and exercise habits, as well as media consumption was documented for 4758 children through a questionnaire during the school enrolment procedure. The weight and height of 3481 children were measured again in the second grade (2012/13). Over a period of 24 months, the percentage of overweight (not obese) children increased from 7.5 to 9.4 % and that of obese children from 4.5 to 5.0 %. 164 of 2818 children with a normal initial weight (5.8 %) changed to percentile class overweight or obese. 79 of 260 children who were initially overweight, not obese (30 %), changed to the group of normal weight, but only 4 out of 156 obese children (3 %). Increased TV consumption (> 1 h per day), availability of their own television, lack of physical activity, and consumption of high-calorie drinks were risk factors for the development of overweight during the primary school age. 72 % of parents of overweight children and 22 % of obese children falsely classified their children as normal weight. Targeted education about the risk of obesity in the primary school age and offers for early intervention should be established in the healthcare services concerned.

  16. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Filtu Town, Somali region, Southeast Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gutema, Bekele; Adissu, Wondimagegn; Asress, Yaregal; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is one of the major public health problems affecting more than half of school-age children in developing countries. Anemia among children has been conclusively seen to delay psychomotor development, poor cognitive performance, impaired immunity and decrease working capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among school-age children in Filtu Town, Somali region, Southeast Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August, 2013 in Filtu Town. A total of 355 school-age children between 5-15 years old were included in the study. Socio-demographic data were obtained from each participant using structured questionnaire. Hemoglobin concentration was determined by HemoCue 201(+) photometer (HemoCue, Angelholm, Sweden) analyzer. Hemoglobin values below 11.5 g/dl and 12 g/dl were considered as anemic for age ranges of 5-11 and 12-15 years, respectively. Anthropometric data were taken from each study participant. Peripheral blood film and stool examination were done for hemoparasite and intestinal parasite screening, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Over all, prevalence of anemia was found to be 23.66%. The vast majority (73.81%) of the anemic children had mild anemia. Moderate and severe anemia accounted for 25% and 1.19% of the anemic children, respectively. Being from a family with low income (AOR = 9.44, 95% CI: 2.88, 30.99), stunted (AOR = 5.50, 95% CI: 2.83, 10.72), underweight (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.05) and having intestinal parasite infection (AOR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.05, 8.46) were identified as associated factors for anemia. Anemia is a moderate public health problem in school-age children for the study area. Interventions targeting nutritional deficiencies and parasitic infections are recommended.

  17. A comparison of blood pressure, body mass index, and acanthosis nigricans in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Otto, Debra E; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I; Shelton, Margarette L

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026 previously collected records from a state mandated public school health screening program in elementary school Grades 3, 5, 7, and 9, conducted by school nurses. Of 7,026 records, 6,867 were included for the secondary analysis. A logistic regression analysis was carried out with the AN marker as the dependant variable and school grade, gender, BMI, and BP as the independent variables. The results of the study suggest that a direct relationship exists between the AN marker, BMI, and BP in school-age children. Further study is warranted based on the number of school-age children who are now found to be obese.

  18. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  19. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  20. Factors Related to Emotional Responses in School-aged Children Who Have Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Veronica García

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed to answer the following questions (a) What factors contribute to the emotional responses of school-age children who have asthma? (b) What are the potential gaps in the literature regarding the emotional responses of school-age children (ages 6–12) who have asthma? (c) Are children with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) and those who are minorities represented in the literature proportionate to their prevalence? Two main focus areas regarding emotional responses were identified: (a) factors related to children who have asthma and (b) factors related to caregivers of children who have asthma. Internalizing disorders were reported consistently for children and caregivers of children who have asthma. Negative consequences of asthma for children included panic and asthma attacks, missed school days, and behavioral problems. Issues for caregivers included higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, asthma management deficits, and lower caregiver warmth and involvement. Gaps in the literature included separated studies for children ages 6–12, a lack of a standardized method to define SES, studies that were of a more experimental nature, and studies of minority children and caregivers commensurate with their asthma prevalence. PMID:22757594

  1. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    PubMed

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  2. Vital signs: sodium intake among U.S. school-aged children - 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Mary E; Yuan, Keming; Gunn, Janelle P; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sliwa, Sarah; Galuska, Deborah A; Barrett, Jan; Hirschman, Jay; Moshfegh, Alanna J; Rhodes, Donna; Ahuja, Jaspreet; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert; Bowman, Barbara A

    2014-09-12

    A national health objective is to reduce average U.S. sodium intake to 2,300 mg daily to help prevent high blood pressure, a major cause of heart disease and stroke. Identifying common contributors to sodium intake among children can help reduction efforts. Average sodium intake, sodium consumed per calorie, and proportions of sodium from food categories, place obtained, and eating occasion were estimated among 2,266 school-aged (6–18 years) participants in What We Eat in America, the dietary intake component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. U.S. school-aged children consumed an estimated 3,279 mg of sodium daily with the highest total intake (3,672 mg/d) and intake per 1,000 kcal (1,681 mg) among high school–aged children. Forty-three percent of sodium came from 10 food categories: pizza, bread and rolls, cold cuts/cured meats, savory snacks, sandwiches, cheese, chicken patties/nuggets/tenders, pasta mixed dishes, Mexican mixed dishes, and soups. Sixty-five percent of sodium intake came from store foods, 13% from fast food/pizza restaurants, 5% from other restaurants, and 9% from school cafeteria foods. Among children aged 14–18 years, 16% of total sodium intake came from fast food/pizza restaurants versus 11% among those aged 6–10 years or 11–13 years (p<0.05). Among children who consumed a school meal on the day assessed, 26% of sodium intake came from school cafeteria foods. Thirty-nine percent of sodium was consumed at dinner, followed by lunch (29%), snacks (16%), and breakfast (15%). Sodium intake among school-aged children is much higher than recommended. Multiple food categories, venues, meals, and snacks contribute to sodium intake among school-aged children supporting the importance of populationwide strategies to reduce sodium intake. New national nutrition standards are projected to reduce the sodium content of school meals by approximately 25%–50% by 2022. Based on this analysis, if there is no

  3. Self-care of school-age children with diabetes: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Kelo, Marjatta; Martikainen, Marja; Eriksson, Elina

    2011-10-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review of findings from empirical studies on self-care in school-age children with type 1 diabetes. The purpose is to generate insight into opportunities to develop empowering patient education. Managing diabetes is demanding and requires parental involvement in care. Good self-care forms the basis for diabetes management and self-care patterns are established at school age, but how and to what extent school-age children increase their self-care capabilities is unclear. A search for studies from 1998 to 2010 focusing on self-care in school-age children with diabetes was conducted through electronic databases. Using integrative methods, quantitative and qualitative papers surveyed were analysed separately, but the themes that arose were combined at the end of the analysis. Self-care is formed in a learning process involving the objectives of normality, being able to cope and independence. The content of self-care is a combination of knowledge and skills. Children have the technical skill, but they need their parents to participate in the care and share responsibility for it. The factors related to self-care comprised the characteristics of the child; the nature of the illness and care; and support from the parents, school environment, peers and healthcare team. A balance between diabetes care requirements and a child's maturity should be found. Nurses must adopt an empowering manner of education and recognize and assess a child's readiness to learn diabetes care and bear responsibility for it. Nurses must also help parents and other adults to gradually shift the responsibility to the children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Graph theoretical analysis of sedation's effect on whole brain functional system in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen; Alcauter, Sarael; Jin, Ke; Peng, Zi-Wen; Gao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The neurophysiological mechanism underlying sedation, especially in school-aged children, remains largely unknown. The recently emerged resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) technique, capable of delineating brain's functional interaction pattern among distributed brain areas, proves to be a unique and powerful tool to study sedation-induced brain reorganization. Based on a relatively large school-aged children population (n=28, 10.3±2.6 years, range 7-15 years) and leveraging rsfMRI and graph theoretical analysis, this study aims to delineate sedation-induced changes in brain's information transferring property from a whole brain system perspective. Our results show a global deterioration in brain's efficiency properties (p=0.0085 and 0.0018, for global and local efficiency, respectively) with a locally graded distribution featuring significant disruptions of key consciousness-related regions. Moreover, our results also indicate a redistribution of brain's information-processing hubs characterized by a right and posterior shift as consistent with the reduced level of consciousness during sedation. Overall, our findings inform a sedation-induced functional reorganization pattern in school-aged children that greatly improve our understanding of sedation's effect in children and may potentially serve as reference for future sedation-related experimental studies and clinical applications.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity and cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Mendy, A; Vieira, E R; Albatineh, A N; Gasana, J

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infects one-third of the world population, but its association with cognitive functions in school-aged children is unclear. We examined the relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and neuropsychological tests scores (including math, reading, visuospatial reasoning and verbal memory) in 1755 school-aged children 12-16 years old who participated to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, using multiple linear regressions adjusted for covariates. Toxoplasma seroprevalence was 7·7% and seropositivity to the parasite was associated with lower reading skills (regression coefficient [β] = -5·86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -11·11, -0·61, P = 0·029) and memory capacities (β = -0·86, 95% CI: -1·58, -0·15, P = 0·017). The interaction between T. gondii seropositivity and vitamin E significantly correlated with memory scores. In subgroup analysis, Toxoplasma-associated memory impairment was worse in children with lower serum vitamin E concentrations (β = -1·61, 95% CI: -2·44, -0·77, P < 0·001) than in those with higher values (β = -0·12, 95% CI: -1·23, 0·99, P = 0·83). In conclusion, Toxoplasma seropositivity may be associated with reading and memory impairments in school-aged children. Serum vitamin E seems to modify the relationship between the parasitic infection and memory deficiency.

  6. Mothers' perceptions of self-care in school-age children with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    To describe mothers' perceptions of the diabetes-related self-care abilities and practices of their school-age children with Type 1 diabetes. Qualitative study using the naturalistic inquiry method. Mothers of school-age children with diabetes were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview guide. The children were between the ages of 11 and 12 and had been diagnosed with diabetes for a minimum of 2 years. Twelve mothers were interviewed, generating 20 hours of qualitative data. Mothers reported that their children with diabetes had learned skills in a predictable sequence, were usually motivated by events in the here and now, and did not consistently perform all diabetes-related skills of which they were capable. Most of the children were becoming embarrassed about having diabetes. There were considerable gender differences in the children's self-care development. Nurses can use this study to help with anticipatory guidance for parents. It may be helpful for parents to know the sequence in which many children learn diabetes-related skills, and to learn that even though a child is capable of task performance, he or she may not necessarily be ready for the independent practice or daily execution of the skill. Encouraging parents to stay involved with their children's self-care practices past the early adolescent years may be effective in improving self-care practices, and helping children to identify reasons to meet the self-care demands associated with diabetes can be beneficial.

  7. Sleep patterns of school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-07-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty falling asleep. One week of sleep recording with diary and actigraphy confirmed that children in the AS/HFA group spent a longer time awake in bed before falling asleep than children in the control group, possibly because the children in the AS/HFA group had earlier bedtimes. Other essential aspects of sleep patterns coincided between the groups. The sleep patterns of children with AS and HFA did not differ.

  8. Dietary patterns are associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican school-age children.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, about one third of school-age population is overweight or obese and the diet is one of the main determinants. The purpose of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of Mexican school-age children and to determine their association with the risk of overweight/obesity. This study included 8252 school-age children who participated in the 2006 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006). Dietary data were collected using a 7-day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Foods were classified into 25 groups and dietary patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Body Mass Index and prevalence of overweight/obesity were calculated. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and overweight/obesity. Five dietary patterns were identified: Rural dietary pattern (high intake of tortilla and legumes), sweet cereal and corn dishes pattern (high intake of sugary cereals, tortilla, and maize products); diverse pattern (intake of several food groups); western pattern (high intake of sweetened beverages, fried snacks, industrial snack cakes, and sugary cereals), and whole milk and sweet pattern (high intake of whole milk and sweets). We found that children with sweet cereal and corn dishes and western dietary patterns showed an association with overweight and obesity (prevalence ratio 1.29 and 1.35, respectively, using as reference the rural dietary pattern). Patterns characterized by high intakes of sugary cereals, sweetened beverages, industrial snack, cakes, whole milk, and sweets were associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity among in Mexican school-age children.

  9. Clinical Characteristics and Low Vision Rehabilitation Methods for Partially Sighted School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; Çalışkan, Deniz; İdil, Aysun; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. Results: The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7%) of them were male and 62 (41.3%) of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36%) followed by cortical visual impairment (18%). The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3%) for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7%) and telemicroscopic systems (26.0%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. Conclusion: A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation. PMID:27800263

  10. Fine motor function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disability and learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Coppede, Aline Cirelli; Valle, Talita Regina

    2010-01-01

    fine motor function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties. this study aimed to characterize the fine motor, sensory and perceptive function of school-aged children with dyslexia, learning disabilities and learning difficulties and to correlate these results with the analysis of the children's handwriting. participants were 80 2nd to 4th graders, ranging in age from 7 to 12 years, of both genders, divided as follows: GI: composed of 20 students with dyslexia, GII: composed of 20 students with learning disabilities, GIII: composed of 20 students with learning difficulties and GIV: composed of 20 good readers. All of the children were submitted to an assessment of the fine motor, sensorial and perceptive functions using the Dysgraphia Scale. the results indicated that most groups presented a poor performance in tests of FMF7 (fingers opposition), S8 (graphestesia) and P1 (body imitation). GI and GII were the groups that presented the worst performance in most of the tests when compared to GIII and GIV. Regarding handwriting, it was observed that all of the children in GII are dysgraphics. the presence of motor, sensorial and perceptive alterations is a characteristic of children with learning disabilities and dyslexia. However this characteristic may or may not be found in children with learning difficulties, therefore motor, sensorial and perceptive alterations are responsible for the dysgraphic behavior observed in the children with learning disabilities of the present study.

  11. Practices and policies of providers testing school-aged children for tuberculosis, Connecticut, 2008.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Christina M; Sosa, Lynn; Lobato, Mark N

    2010-10-01

    This study identified current practices and policies related to testing school children for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in Connecticut. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to a random sample of community pediatricians and family practitioners in Connecticut who provide health care services to children aged 4-18 years. The main outcome measure was adherence to national guidelines for tuberculosis (TB) testing of school-aged children. The response rate was 66.3% (345 of 520), 258 of whom provided services to children. Responses showed that 60% (152 of 252) of replying providers read the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published guidelines, and 85% routinely assess children for TB risk before skin testing although only a minority (22%) use a written questionnaire. Of 153 responding providers, 130 (85%) report that schools require formal TB risk assessments at mandated school physical examinations or at school entry. Results also showed providers who read AAP-published guidelines and who are trained in the United States are more likely to follow the national guidelines for TB testing of children. The majority of health care providers reported following AAP-published guidelines for screening school-aged children for LTBI and TB disease; however, an important number of providers still do not follow recommended guidelines. Public health officials should make efforts to increase provider awareness of, and adherence to, guidelines. School districts also should take steps to ensure the appropriate level of testing of children for TB disease and LTBI.

  12. [Characteristics of attention in school-age children with mild autism spectrum disorder].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Hong; Liu, Wen-Long

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of attention in school-age children with mild autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and to provide a basis for clinical treatment. A total of 20 school-age children with mild ASD were enrolled, and the intermediate visual and auditory continuous performance test (IVA-CPT) was used to assess their attention. A total of 20 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 40 healthy children were enrolled as controls. Compared with the normal control group, the ASD group showed significantly lower scores of full scale attention quotient, full scale response control quotient, visual/auditory full scale response control quotient, visual/auditory prudence quotient, auditory perseverance quotient, visual consistency quotient, visual/auditory vigilance quotient, visual attention quotient, visual speed quotient, number of correct visual/auditory reactions, and visual mean reaction time of the second and third phases (P<0.05). Compared with the ADHD group, the ASD group showed significantly higher scores of full scale response control quotient and auditory consistency quotient (P<0.05), as well as significantly lower scores of visual vigilance quotient and visual speed quotient (P<0.05). School-age children with mild ASD have attention deficit mainly manifested as the defect in the ability to focus attention, which is similar to the defect in children with ADHD, but ASD children have a lower degree of attention control impairment compared with children with ADHD. The defect in the ability to focus visual attention is more severe than that in the ability to focus auditory attention, while there is no significant difference between the defects in visual and auditory attention control.

  13. Parental Views of Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Overweight Preschoolers and School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2017-01-01

    Given the importance of parental influence on children’s eating habits, we explored perceptions of parents of overweight (body mass index–for-age percentile ≥85%) preschoolers (3-5 years) and overweight school-aged children (6-12 years) regarding challenges in promoting fruit and vegetable intake and how they and other family members influence their overweight children’s dietary habits. Focus groups were conducted with 13 parents of overweight preschoolers and 14 parents of overweight school-aged children. Codes and themes were developed by inductive data analysis. Four common themes were identified: short shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables prohibiting parents from purchasing, children’s taste changes in fruits and vegetables, parents having the primary influence on children’s dietary intake, and wanting fruits and vegetables “ready to go.” Parents of school-aged children were more concerned about their children’s weight, and extended family members negatively influenced children’s dietary intake compared with parents of preschoolers. Our findings provide valuable insight for nutrition/health educators when developing family-based interventions for weight management. PMID:28462357

  14. Sleep assessments in healthy school-aged children using actigraphy: concordance with polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David; Dayyat, Ehab; Roman, Adrienne; Molfese, Dennis L

    2011-03-01

    Actigraphic (ACT) recordings are used widely in schoolchildren as a less intrusive and more extended approach to evaluation of sleep problems. However, critical assessment of the validity and reliability of ACT against overnight polysomnography (NPSG) are unavailable. Thus, we explored the degree of concordance between NPSG and ACT in school-aged children to delineate potential ACT boundaries when interpreting pediatric sleep. Non-dominant wrist ACT was recorded simultaneously with NPSG in 149 healthy school-aged children (aged 4.1-8.8 years, 41.7% boys, 80.4% Caucasian) recruited from the community. Analyses were limited to the Actiware (MiniMitter-64) calculated parameters originating from 1-min epoch sampling and medium sensitivity threshold value of 40; i.e. sleep period time (SPT), total sleep time (TST) and wake after sleep onset (WASO). SPT was not significantly different between ACT and NPSG. However, ACT underestimated TST significantly by 32.2±33.4 min and overestimated WASO by 26.3±34.4 min. The decreased precision of ACT was also evident from moderate to small concordance correlation coefficients (0.47 for TST and 0.09 for WASO). ACT in school-aged children provides reliable assessment of sleep quantity, but is relatively inaccurate during determination of sleep quality. Thus, caution is advocated in drawing definitive conclusions from ACT during evaluation of the sleep-disturbed child.

  15. [Nutritional status of Mexican school age children, living in the frontier with United States].

    PubMed

    Aviña-Barrera, Mariel A; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Perales-Torres, Adriana; Aleman-Castillo, Sanjuana

    2016-03-01

    Undernutrition and obesity coexist among Mexican children due to poverty, sedentariness and inadequate food intake. To assess the nutritional status of school age children in a Mexican city located in the frontier with United States. Cross sectional assessment of children from 28 basic schools in 2005, 2008 and 2013. Using a cluster sampling methodology, 5 children per course were selected in each school, reaching a final sample 840 children aged 7 to 12 years old. Body mass index z scores were calculated. The pre valence of overweight and obesity among these children was 49, 54 and 45% in the assessments performed in 2005, 2008 and 2013 respectively. There is a trend towards a decrease in the frequency of obesity in these children from 2005 to 2013.

  16. Stress and coping responses to proficiency testing in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Skybo, Theresa; Buck, Jacalyn

    2007-01-01

    Nurses encounter school-age children experiencing multiple stressors and stress symptoms. Performance on proficiency tests is viewed as stressor. The purpose of this repeated measures study was to assess 53 fourth grade children's appraisal of proficiency tests, concurrent stressors, stress symptoms, and coping strategies. During October, February, March, and April, children completed a ranking of their stress associated with proficiency testing and also reported their stressors, stress symptoms, and coping strategies. Results indicated that children appraised proficiency tests as most stressful at the beginning of the school year but less stressful at the time of the test. Stressors and stress symptoms increased from baseline to 1 month before testing then declined. The number of coping strategies used by the children decreased throughout the year. Nurses can work with parents and teachers to identify children with test anxiety and target these children for interventions to improve their coping strategies.

  17. Feasibility of Comprehensive, Unattended Ambulatory Polysomnography in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Carole L.; Traylor, Joel; Biggs, Sarah N.; Roberts, Robin S.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Narang, Indra; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Davey, Margot J.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.; Cheshire, Maureen; Gibbons, K. Jeremy; Dix, Joanne; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Doyle, Lex W.; Opie, Gillian F.; D'ilario, Judy; Costantini, Lorrie; Bradford, Ruth; Schmidt, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although unattended ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) is frequently performed in adults, few studies have been performed in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive, ambulatory PSG, including electroencephalography, in school-aged children in the home environment. Methods: A total of 201 children, born premature with birth weights of 500-1,250 grams, currently aged 5-12 years and living in Canada and Australia, underwent unattended ambulatory PSG. Results: PSG was initially technically satisfactory in 183 (91%) cases. Fourteen studies were satisfactory when repeated, resulting in an overall satisfactory rate of 197 (98%). Artifact-free signals were obtained for ≥ 75% of recording time in more than 92% of subjects, with the exception of nasal pressure, which was satisfactory for ≥ 75% of recording time in only 67% of subjects. However, thermistry signals were satisfactory for ≥ 75% of recording time in 92% of subjects, and some measure of airflow was present for ≥ 75% of recording time in 96% of subjects. Children slept very well, with a long total sleep time (534 ± 73 [mean ± SD] minutes), high sleep efficiency (92% ± 5%), and low arousal index (9 ± 3/h). Parents and children reported a high rate of satisfaction with the study. Conclusions: This large, international study has shown that comprehensive, unattended, ambulatory PSG is feasible, technically adequate and well-tolerated in school-aged children when performed under research conditions. Further studies regarding the cost efficacy of this approach, and generalizability of the findings to a clinical population, are warranted. Citation: Marcus CL, Traylor J, Biggs SN, Roberts RS, Nixon GM, Narang I, Bhattacharjee R, Davey MJ, Horne RS, Cheshire M, Gibbons KJ, Dix J, Asztalos E, Doyle LW, Opie GF, D'ilario J, Costantini L, Bradford R, Schmidt B. Feasibility of comprehensive, unattended ambulatory polysomnography in school-aged children

  18. Emotion understanding, pictorial representations of friendship and reciprocity in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Di Norcia, Anna; Cannoni, Eleonora; Baumgartner, Emma; Bombi, Anna Silvia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional understanding, friendship representation and reciprocity in school-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-one Caucasian 6-year-old children (111 males and 140 females) took part in the study. The Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) were used. Children having a reciprocal friendship and children having a unilateral friendship with a child named as their "best friend" were compared on the emotional understanding task and on their pictorial representations of friendship. Multilevel analyses indicated that friendship status effects were not influenced by classroom-level differences. Results showed that children with reciprocal friendships drew themselves as more similar to and more cohesive with their best friends, and they showed better understanding of emotions, than children having a unilateral friendship. Finally, the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research development on friendship are discussed.

  19. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.

  20. Working memory in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-08-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks, but worse in block recall task and variant-visual-patterns test; (b) children with AS took longer time in most conditions of n-back tasks, and showed larger effects of task load. These findings indicated imbalance of working memory development in AS children: they had advantage in the phonological loop storing, but disadvantage in the visuospatial sketchpad storing, and partial deficit in central executive.

  1. Attention and memory in school-age children surviving the terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia.

    PubMed

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-05-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100 nonexposed children from another town of the Russian Federation. All children were tested using nonverbal neuropsychological measures of attention, memory, and visual-spatial performance. Predisaster traumatic events and terrorism-related exposure factors were evaluated. Findings revealed that overall, directly and indirectly exposed children performed significantly less well than controls in all domains. In addition, direct exposure and loss of a family member were associated with poor memory performance.

  2. Cytokines as the good predictors of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Mei, Shufen; Zhou, Yunlian; Huang, Meixia; Dong, Guijuan; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Excessive immune response against pathogens may play an important role in refracory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (RMPP). The aim of this study was to elucidate the associations between cytokines and the prediction of RMPP in school-aged patients. Retrospective analysis was performed on school-aged children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) hospitalized in our hospital between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2015. The clinical charcteristics, including the cytokines in serum between the RMPP group and the general Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (GMPP) group were compared and the predictive values of RMPP were explored. Of total 180 patients, 115 patients were in the GMPP group, 65 were in the RMPP group. We found the levels of cytokines, including nterleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in RMPP group were significantly higher than those in GMPP group (P < 0.01). In ROC curve analysis, IL-10 and IFN-γ were useful for differentiating patients with RMPP from those with GMPP. Logistic regression analysis showed that the IL-10 ≥ 3.65 pg/ml and IFN-γ ≥ 29.05 pg/ml were significant predictors regarding to RMPP. Additionally, a positive correlation between serum IL-10 and IFN-γ concentrations was observed. Conclusions: IL-10 and IFN-γ could be used as the good predictors of RMPP in school-aged children. PMID:27833154

  3. Prenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Is Not Associated with Intellectual Development of Young School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Yang, Wenfang; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is often prescribed during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on intellectual development in young school-aged children are less than clear. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid or multiple micronutrient (including iron and folic acid) supplementation vs. folic acid supplementation on the intellectual development of young school-aged children in rural China. Young school-aged children (aged 7-10 y, n = 1744) of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with various combinations of micronutrients and remained residents in 2 rural counties in China were followed. We measured their intellectual development by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV generated the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI). Multilevel analyses were used to assess the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on the intellectual development of children. The mean differences in FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI, respectively, were not significant between prenatal folic acid supplementation and either iron plus folic acid [-0.34 (P = 0.65), -0.06 (P = 0.95), -0.22 (P = 0.76), -0.01 (P = 0.99), and -1.26 (P = 0.11)] or multimicronutrient [-0.39 (P = 0.60), -0.64 (P = 0.48), 0.11 (P = 0.87), -0.43 (P = 0.59), and -0.34; (P = 0.65)] supplementation after adjusting for confounders. There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7-10 y. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08850194. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. A prospective study of body image dissatisfaction and BMI change in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Duchin, Ofra; Marin, Constanza; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Mendes de Leon, Carlos; Lee, Joyce M; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Body image dissatisfaction (BID) in school-age children is positively associated with weight status in cross-sectional studies; however, it is uncertain whether BID is a risk factor for the development of adiposity over time. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of BID with changes in BMI in school-age children. Longitudinal study. At recruitment, children were asked to indicate the silhouette that most closely represented their current and desired body shapes using child-adapted Stunkard scales. Baseline BID was calculated as the difference of current minus desired body image. Height and weight were measured at recruitment and then annually for a median of 2·5 years. Sex-specific BMI-for-age curves were estimated by levels of baseline BID, using mixed-effects models with restricted cubic splines. Public primary schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Six hundred and twenty-nine children aged 5-12 years. In multivariable analyses, thin boys who desired to be thinner gained an estimated 5·8 kg/m2 more BMI from age 6 to 14 years than boys without BID (P = 0·0004). Heavy boys who desired to be heavier or thinner gained significantly more BMI than boys without BID (P = 0·003 and P = 0·007, respectively). Thin girls who desired to be heavier or thinner gained significantly less BMI than girls without BID (P = 0·0008 and P = 0·05, respectively), whereas heavy girls who desired to be heavier gained an estimated 4·8 kg/m2 less BMI than girls without BID (P = 0·0006). BID was not related to BMI change in normal-weight children. BID is associated with BMI trajectories of school-age children in a sex- and weight-specific manner.

  5. Factors associated with the resilience of school-aged children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Im, Yeo Jin; Kim, Dong Hee

    2012-01-01

    To identify the factors associated with the resilience of school-aged children with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis, a common chronic skin condition in childhood with an increasing incidence rate, can impose many challenges to children and their families. Survey. The participants were 102 children, 7-15 years old, who were diagnosed with atopic dermatitis at least six months prior to data collection. The instruments used were a self-report questionnaire on the resilience of children suffering a chronic illness, the Childrearing Behavior Questionnaire to examine parenting practices and the Personal Relationship Measurement to evaluate relationships with friends and teachers. Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. There was statistically significant relationship between resilience and duration of illness (r = -0·312, p < 0·05), disease severity (r = -0·325, p < 0·05), the warmth-acceptance of mothers (r = 0·384, p < 0·01) and fathers (r = 0·363, p < 0·01) and relationship with friends (r = 0·343, p < 0·01) and teachers (r = 0·349, p < 0·01). There was no significant relationship between resilience and age, academic achievement, economic status, mother's age and education, parental rejection-restriction and permissiveness non-intervention variables. In multiple regression analysis, duration of illness (β = -0·392, p < 0·01) and relationships with friends (β = 0·300, p < 0·01) were identified as significant variables affecting resilience. School-aged children with atopic dermatitis who reported a shorter duration of illness, lower severity score and better relationships with parents, friends and teachers showed a higher resilience score than their counterparts. A comprehensive intervention programme for children with atopic dermatitis to promote the development of positive relationships with parents, friends and teachers is recommended. The careful nursing intervention to build a positive

  6. Consistency of Self-Report in School Age Children with Asthma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    AUTHOR(S) Barbara Jean Heiller, Major 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFIT Student Attending...41 0 (S F i SA’I,(’ C t.I I I QN ) ’ 7/ Abstract A-,.. : az* Consistency of Self-Report ,..., ’a in School Age Children with Asthma Barbara Jean ...1981). There’s a demon in your belly: children’s understanding of illness. Pediatrics, 0_, 841-849. Piaget , J. & Inhelder, B. (1969). The

  7. Speaking rate characteristics of elementary-school-aged children who do and do not stutter.

    PubMed

    Logan, Kenneth J; Byrd, Courtney T; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M; Gillam, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS) were divided into younger (M age=6;10) and older (M age=9;6) subgroups. Speech samples were elicited using the Modeled Sentences, Structured Conversation, and Narration tasks from an experimental version of the Test of Childhood Stuttering (Gillam, Logan, & Pearson, 2009). Speech rates (based on both fluent and disfluent utterances), articulation rates (based on only fluent utterances), disfluency frequency, and utterance length were compared across groups and tasks. CWNS had faster speech rates than CWS. Older children had faster speech rates than younger children during Modeled Sentences, and their Modeled Sentences speech rates were faster than their Structured Conversation and Narration speech rates. Disfluency frequency predicted speech rate better than age or utterance length for CWS and CWNS. Speech rate was negatively correlated with stuttering severity for CWS. Articulation rates for CWNS and CWS were not significantly different; however, older children had faster articulation rates than younger children, and articulation rates for both age groups were fastest during Modeled Sentences. Results provide age-based reference data for the speech and articulation rates of school-aged CWS and CWNS on three TOCS tasks and offer insight into the relative contributions of age, disfluency frequency, and utterance length to children's rate performance. After reading this paper readers should be able to: (1) summarize the main findings from past studies of children's speech rate and articulation rate; (2) describe how school-aged children who stutter compare to age-matched children who do not stutter with regard to speech rate and

  8. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-02-22

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two children with ASD and 34 controls were assessed with the Childhood Joint Attention Rating Scale (C-JARS). The C-JARS exhibited internally consistency, α = 0.88, and one factor explained 49% of the scale variance. Factor scores correctly identified between 88 and 94% of the children with ASD and 62-82% of controls. These scores were correlated with the ADOS-2, but not other parent-report symptom measures. The C-JARS appears to assess a unique dimension of the social-phenotype of children with ASD.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors of early atherosclerosis in school-aged children after Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun Jeong; Yang, Soo In; Kim, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jee Na

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children with Kawasaki disease (KD) have an increased risk for early atherosclerosis. Methods The study included 98 children. The children were divided into the following groups: group A (n=19), KD with coronary arterial lesions that persisted or regressed; group B (n=49), KD without coronary arterial lesions; and group C (n=30), healthy children. Anthropometric variables and the levels of biochemical markers, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, homocysteine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and brachial artery stiffness using pulse wave velocity were compared among the three groups. Results There were no significant differences in blood pressure and body index among the three groups. Additionally, there was no sex-specific difference. Moreover, the levels of triglyceride, HDL-C, apolipoprotein A, and hs-CRP did not differ among the three groups. However, the levels of total cholesterol (P=0.018), LDL-C (P=0.0003), and apolipoprotein B (P=0.029) were significantly higher in group A than in group C. Further, the level of homocysteine and the aortic pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in groups A and B than in group C (P=0.0001). Conclusion School-aged children after KD have high lipid profiles and arterial stiffness indicating an increased risk for early atherosclerosis. PMID:25045363

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors of early atherosclerosis in school-aged children after Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Jeong; Yang, Soo In; Kim, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jee Na; Kil, Hong Ryang

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children with Kawasaki disease (KD) have an increased risk for early atherosclerosis. The study included 98 children. The children were divided into the following groups: group A (n=19), KD with coronary arterial lesions that persisted or regressed; group B (n=49), KD without coronary arterial lesions; and group C (n=30), healthy children. Anthropometric variables and the levels of biochemical markers, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, homocysteine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and brachial artery stiffness using pulse wave velocity were compared among the three groups. There were no significant differences in blood pressure and body index among the three groups. Additionally, there was no sex-specific difference. Moreover, the levels of triglyceride, HDL-C, apolipoprotein A, and hs-CRP did not differ among the three groups. However, the levels of total cholesterol (P=0.018), LDL-C (P=0.0003), and apolipoprotein B (P=0.029) were significantly higher in group A than in group C. Further, the level of homocysteine and the aortic pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in groups A and B than in group C (P=0.0001). School-aged children after KD have high lipid profiles and arterial stiffness indicating an increased risk for early atherosclerosis.

  11. Narrative spoken language skills in severely hearing impaired school-aged children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    Cochlear implants have a significant positive effect on spoken language development in severely hearing impaired children. Previous work in this population has focused mostly on the emergence of early-developing language skills, such as vocabulary. The current study aims at comparing narratives, which are more complex and later-developing spoken language skills, of a contemporary group of profoundly deaf school-aged children using cochlear implants (n=66, median age=8 years 3 months) with matched normal hearing peers. Results show that children with cochlear implants demonstrate good results on quantity and coherence of the utterances, but problematic outcomes on quality, content and efficiency of retold stories. However, for a subgroup (n=20, median age=8 years 1 month) of deaf children without additional disabilities who receive cochlear implantation before the age of 2 years, use two implants, and are raised with one spoken language, age-adequate spoken narrative skills at school-age are feasible. This is the first study to set the goals regarding spoken narrative skills for deaf children using cochlear implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Food craving symptoms in older school age children and its relation to body-mass index].

    PubMed

    Světlák, M; Pšenicová, K

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings show that food craving represents an important co-factor in overweight and obesity etiology and its severity represents a good predictor of relapse during active weight control. Child overweight and obesity also represents significant predictive factor of adulthood obesity and evidence about its incidence in children is therefore important. In order to achieve this evidence the indices of food craving has measured in 150 older school age children (54 boys and 96 girls; mean age 13.6 ± 1.2). The food craving symptoms were measured by validated Czech translation of the General Food-Craving Questionnaire-Trait (G-FCQ-T). Body proportions of children were indexed by body-mass index (BMI). BMI were assessed according to cut-off points BMI references from the Czech Republic. Results have shown that older school children have experience with food craving symptoms, and that intensity of these symptoms is significantly associated with BMI value (r = 0.55; p < 0.0001). Statistical analysis also revealed higher incidence of food craving symptoms intensity in girls. These findings provide basic normative data about food craving symptoms occurrence and intensity in older school age children group. Presented results also indirectly support the hypothesis that food craving could represent important co-factor in childhood obesity etiology. The consequences for obesity psychotherapy will be discussed.

  13. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part II. Counseling recommendations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    School-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, it is important to counsel these patients about healthy lifestyle practices during well-child examinations. Children and families should be advised to eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat or nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meats, while limiting sugar, fast food, and highly processed foods. Children should engage in at least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games) should be limited to no more than one to two hours of quality programming daily. Most school-aged children require 11 hours of sleep per night. Decreased sleep is associated with behavioral issues, decreased concentration at school, and obesity. Children should brush their teeth twice per day with a toothpaste containing fluoride. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in this age group in the United States, and families should be counseled on traffic, water, sports, and firearm safety. Because high-risk behaviors may start in early adolescence, many experts recommend screening for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use beginning at 11 years of age. Sexually active adolescents should be counseled on protecting against sexually transmitted infections, and should be screened for these infections if indicated.

  14. Exposure to violence among urban school-aged children: is it only on television?

    PubMed

    Purugganan, O H; Stein, R E; Silver, E J; Benenson, B S

    2000-10-01

    To measure exposure to different types of violence among school-aged children in a primary care setting. Child interviews using an instrument measuring 4 types of exposure (direct victimization, witnessing, hearing reports, media). Violent acts measured include being beaten up, chased/threatened, robbed/mugged, stabbed/shot, killed. Pediatric primary care clinic of large urban hospital. Convenience sample of 175 children 9-12 years old and their mothers. A total of 53% of the children were boys, 55% were Hispanic, and 40% received public assistance. All children had been exposed to media violence. A total of 97% (170/175) had been exposed to more direct forms of violence; 77% had witnessed violence involving strangers; 49% had witnessed violence involving familiar persons; 49% had been direct victims; and 31% had witnessed someone being shot, stabbed, or killed. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with being male. Most school-aged children who visited a pediatric primary care clinic of a large urban hospital had directly experienced violence as witnesses and/or victims.

  15. Developmental changes in facial expression recognition in Japanese school-age children.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Susumu; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Mori, Kenji; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Takahara, Mitsue; Kagami, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Facial expressions hold abundant information and play a central part in communication. In daily life, we must construct amicable interpersonal relationships by communicating through verbal and nonverbal behaviors. While school-age is a period of rapid social growth, few studies exist that study developmental changes in facial expression recognition during this age. This study investigated developmental changes in facial expression recognition by examining observers' gaze on others' expressions. 87 school-age children from first to sixth grade (41 boys, 46 girls). The Tobii T60 Eye-tracker(Tobii Technologies, Sweden) was used to gauge eye movement during a task of matching pre-instructed emotion words and facial expressions images (neutral, angry, happy, surprised, sad, disgusted) presented on a monitor fixed at a distance of 50 cm. In the task of matching the six facial expression images and emotion words, the mid- and higher-grade children answered more accurately than the lower-grade children in matching four expressions, excluding neutral and happy. For fixation time and fixation count, the lower-grade children scored lower than other grade children, gazing on all facial expressions significantly fewer times and for shorter periods. It is guessed that the stage from lower grades to middle grades is a turning point in facial recognition.

  16. Luminance- and Texture-Defined Information Processing in School-Aged Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Rivest, Jessica B.; Jemel, Boutheina; Bertone, Armando; McKerral, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    According to the complexity-specific hypothesis, the efficacy with which individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) process visual information varies according to the extensiveness of the neural network required to process stimuli. Specifically, adults with ASD are less sensitive to texture-defined (or second-order) information, which necessitates the implication of several cortical visual areas. Conversely, the sensitivity to simple, luminance-defined (or first-order) information, which mainly relies on primary visual cortex (V1) activity, has been found to be either superior (static material) or intact (dynamic material) in ASD. It is currently unknown if these autistic perceptual alterations are present in childhood. In the present study, behavioural (threshold) and electrophysiological measures were obtained for static luminance- and texture-defined gratings presented to school-aged children with ASD and compared to those of typically developing children. Our behavioural and electrophysiological (P140) results indicate that luminance processing is likely unremarkable in autistic children. With respect to texture processing, there was no significant threshold difference between groups. However, unlike typical children, autistic children did not show reliable enhancements of brain activity (N230 and P340) in response to texture-defined gratings relative to luminance-defined gratings. This suggests reduced efficiency of neuro-integrative mechanisms operating at a perceptual level in autism. These results are in line with the idea that visual atypicalities mediated by intermediate-scale neural networks emerge before or during the school-age period in autism. PMID:24205355

  17. Health outcomes of school-aged children conceived using donor sperm.

    PubMed

    Amor, David J; Lewis, Sharon; Kennedy, Joanne; Habgood, Emily; McBain, John; McLachlan, Robert I; Rombauts, Luk J; Williams, Katrina; Halliday, Jane

    2017-07-06

    The use of donor sperm is increasing, yet limited information is available about the health and development of children conceived from donor sperm. This retrospective descriptive study aimed to assess health and development in a cohort of school-aged children who were conceived using donor sperm. Participants included 224 children, aged 5-11 years, who were conceived using donor sperm. Participants' mothers completed a questionnaire comprising validated scales examining their child's current and past physical, psychosocial and mental health, healthcare needs and child development, as well as the mothers' health and wellbeing. At the conclusion of the study, the response rate was 296 out of 407 (72.7%), with a participation rate of 224 out o 407 (55.0%). Compared with the normative Australian population, sperm donor-conceived children had similar physical, psychosocial and mental health and development. A modest increase in healthcare needs was evident. The study concludes that in school-aged children conceived using donor sperm, most aspects of child health and wellbeing are similar to the general population. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability and Validity of the Acanthosis Nigricans Screening Tool for Use in Elementary School-Age Children by School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie K.; Hall, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of an acanthosis nigricans (AN) screening tool for use in elementary school-age children of different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional data were collected via observation of 288, 5- to 12-year-old school-age children. Three nurse clinicians used a 0-4 grade AN screening tool to rate…

  19. Speech Disruptions in the Sentence Formulation of School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Many school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI)produce sentences that appear to conform to the adult grammar. It may be premature to conclude from this, however, that their language formulation ability is age appropriate. Aims In this study, we sought to determine whether a more subtle measure of language use, speech disruptions during sentence formulation, might serve to distinguish children with SLI from their typically-developing (TD) peers at an age when grammatical accuracy was high. We analyzed the rate of speech disruptions in simple sentence production in school-age children with SLI and TD age-matched peers. We predicted that (1) the SLI group would exhibit more speech disruptions than the TD group as a result of reduced language proficiency even when grammatical accuracy was high and, (2) the SLI group would demonstrate greater reductions in disruption frequency as compared to the TD group when given sentences that model the target syntactic structures. Methods & Procedures Twenty-eight children (17 SLI, 11 TD, M = 8;10 years) with no history of stuttering were presented with a series of picture pairs. The examiner described the first picture using a simple sentence and asked the child to repeat the sentence; the child then described the second picture. There were two priming conditions: Matching Syntax condition (paired pictures requiring the same syntactic structure) and Different Syntax condition (paired pictures requiring different syntactic structures). All testing was audio-recorded and speech disruptions (repetitions, revisions, fillers, long silent pauses) were transcribed and tabulated for each target response. The data were analyzed in an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Outcomes & Results T he SLI group demonstrated a significantly greater number of speech disruptions when compared to the TD group. There was no effect for priming. Conclusions & Implications School-age children with SLI appear to have difficulty with

  20. The silent burden of anemia in school age children: a community based study in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Soma; Taraphdar, Pranita; Roy, Tapobrata Guha; Haldar, Dibakar; Dey, Sujit Kumar; Purkait, Bulbul

    2012-01-01

    Under nutrition and anemia are common co-morbidities in school age children. Due to transition in dietary habits in developing countries, a paradoxical finding of coexistence of anemia and normal/over nutrition is also a cause of concern. > T o assess the nutritional status and prevalence of anemia among school age children (6 - 16 years) residing in rural and urban areas of a district of West Bengal and also to find out the association between weight status, measured as Body Mass Index(BMI) and anemia. Age, height & weight were measured in 86 rural and 86 urban school age (6 -16 years) children in rural and urban field practice areas of Midnapore Medical College. Their blood was estimated for haemoglobin concentration. Overall prevalence of anemia was 80.2%, and not significantly different between the rural (83.7%) and urban (76.7%) participants and across the genders both in rural (86.4% versus 80.9%) and urban (85.7% versus 72.4%) areas. Thinness was observed to be higher in urban area (48.8% versus 41.9%). However, severe thinness was higher in rural area (18.5% versus 13.9%). Significantly, higher proportion of boys revealed severely low BMI compared to girls in both rural (33.3% versus 4.5%) and urban (17.2% versus 7.1%) areas with no significant differences between the prevalence of anemia across the grades of underweight and normal nutritional status. Poor nutritional status and anemia are still, taking heavy toll and new program strategies are needed, particularly those that improve the overall nutrition status of children.

  1. Low back pain in school-age children: risk factors, clinical features and diagnostic managment.

    PubMed

    Boćkowski, L; Sobaniec, W; Kułak, W; Smigielska-Kuzia, J; Sendrowski, K; Roszkowska, M

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in adult population, and it is becoming a serious health concern in adolescents. On surveys, about every fifth child in the school-age reports LBP. The study objective was to analysis the natural history, risk factors, clinical symptoms, causes and diagnostic management in school-age children hospitalized with LBP. The study group consisted of 36 patients at the age between 10 and 18 years, 22 girls and 14 boys suffering from LBP hospitalized in our Department of Pediatric Neurology and Rehabilitation in years 2000-2004. The mean age of clinical onset of LBP in our group was 14.7 years, earlier in girls, later in boys. We find the family history of LBP in 50% children. Most frequent factors associated with LBP were: spina bifida (16.7%) and incorrect posture (13.9%). Half of patients pointed the factor initialising LBP: rapid, incoordinated move (39%) or heavy load rise (11%). 58% of patients present the symptoms of ischialgia. Diagnostic imaging showed disc protrusion in 11 children (31%) 6 in computed tomography, 4 in magnetic resonance imaging and 1 in X-Ray examination only. Other causes of LBP included: spondylolysis in 2 patients, Scheuermann disease in one case and juvenile reumatoid arthritis in one case. Some school-age children suffering on low back pain, particulary with sciatic neuralgia symptoms seek medical care in hospital. Althought the main causes are mechanical, associated with lack of physical activity or strenous exercise, serious diagnostic managment is strongly recommended.

  2. Odds, prevalence and predictors of sleep problems in school-age normal children.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; O'Brien, Louise M; Cluydts, Raymond; Verleye, Gino Benjamin; Ferri, Raffaele

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the prevalence, odds, and predictors of 36 paediatric sleep behaviours and describe their coexistence in a school-age normal population. The design was community-based questionnaire survey of sleep-wake patterns, sleep environment, and 36 sleep behaviours indicative of six sleep disorder-subscales using the Health-Behaviour Questionnaire. A caregivers' report of 3045 children aged 6-13 years in Belgium constituted the participants. Prevalence of each sleep behaviour was calculated. Log-linear modelling within and between the sleep disorder-subscales was used to screen for coexistence. The effect size of selected night-time parameters to the likelihood of sleep behaviours and disorder-subscale was expressed as odds ratios via logit regression analysis. Significant differences in sleep-wake patterns were found between weekday and weekend. Ranking by odds showed that: (1) sleep problems such as 'tired when waking up', 'repetitive limb movements', 'going to bed reluctantly', and 'sleep paralysis' and; (2) the disorder-subscale 'excessive somnolence' are common in children. Coexistences within and between disorder-subscales of sleep problems are evident in a school-age, normal population. These results suggest that disorders of excessive somnolence (DES) are highly prevalent in a non-clinical sample of school-age children. Furthermore, sleep-onset latency and a noisy, not well-darkened room are predictive towards the odds for exhibiting sleep problems and disorders. It is advocated that more information on the importance of good sleep-wake hygiene should reach parents and children.

  3. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Kang, Yijun; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hong

    2016-03-29

    Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronutrients and continued to reside in two rural counties in China were followed. We measured their Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) and Processing Speed Index (PSI) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). Multilevel analyses were used to assess sex differences in intellectual functioning in 7-10-year-old children in rural China. Boys' adjusted mean FSIQ score was 0.97 points higher (95% CI: -2.22 - 0.28) than that of girls. Girls obtained higher mean WMI and PSI scores, with 1.32 points (95% CI: 0.14 - 2.51) and 3.10 points (95% CI: 1.82-4.38) higher adjusted means, respectively. Boys' adjusted mean VCI and PRI scores were significantly higher than those of girls, and the mean differences were 2.44 points (95% CI: 0.95 - 3.94) and 3.68 points (95% CI: 2.36 - 5.01), respectively. There is no evidence to suggest sex differences in the general intelligence of early school-aged children in rural China. However, a difference in general intelligence between 10-year-old boys and girls was evident. Girls and boys in rural China tended to show different specific cognitive abilities.

  4. Changes in breathing pattern upon 100% oxygen in children at early school age.

    PubMed

    Jost, K; Lenherr, N; Singer, F; Schulzke, S M; Frey, U; Latzin, P; Yammine, S

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2MBW) is an increasingly used tidal breathing test in young children to assess ventilation inhomogeneity. However, the test requires 100% oxygen to perform. We aimed to examine the potential influence of pure oxygen on breathing pattern in school-aged children. We performed tidal breathing measurements under room air followed by N2MBW in 16 former preterm children and 24 healthy controls. We compared tidal volume (VT), coefficient of variation of VT (CVVT), respiratory rate (RR), and minute ventilation (VE) between tidal breathing and N2MBW, and between the start and end of tidal breathing. Mean (range) age was 6.8 (5.9, 9.0) years. VT, RR and VE showed no significant change upon oxygen-exposure, while CVVT significantly decreased by 5% (95% CI: 1.2, 9.0; p=0.012). However CVVT was also the only parameter which significantly decreased during tidal breathing. Overall, pure oxygen has no systematic effect on breathing pattern in young school-aged children. N2MBW can reliably be used as tracer gas in this age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy H Y; Stewart, Alistair W; Foster, Juliet M; Mitchell, Edwin A; Camargo, Carlos A; Harrison, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range) age 8.9 (6-15) years, 51% male) participated. Median (interquartile range) preventer adherence was 30% (17-48%) of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence), Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence), living in a smaller household (-3.0% adherence per person in the household), and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis) (all p<0.02). In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations.

  6. Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alistair W.; Foster, Juliet M.; Mitchell, Edwin A.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Harrison, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range) age 8.9 (6–15) years, 51% male) participated. Median (interquartile range) preventer adherence was 30% (17–48%) of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence), Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence), living in a smaller household (−3.0% adherence per person in the household), and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis) (all p<0.02). In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations. PMID:27730181

  7. Binocular Polaroid Test for vision screening of pre-school age children.

    PubMed

    Nuzzi, G; Leardi, E; Bonacini, M

    1987-01-01

    We report the results obtained with the Binocular Polaroid Test in a large population screening devised to detect vision disturbances in pre-school age children. The Binocular Polaroid Test is a new test for rapid detection of small unilateral scotoma in the binocular visual field. The test was performed on 1566 children age 3 to 6 years in a field examination. The reliability of the test was controlled in a study examination. A complete study examination was performed in 60 of the 96 subjects with a positive response to the test. One hundred subjects selected at random among those with a negative response were used as controls. The study examination disclosed vision disturbances in 41 of the 60 children with a positive response to the Binocular Polaroid Test. The remaining 19 results were normal. No vision disturbances were detected in the control group. The predictive value and the "phi" coefficient were calculated. The results indicate that the Binocular Polaroid Test appears very suitable for vision screening in pre-school age children for whom an early diagnosis is of paramount importance for treatment and prognosis of a vision alteration.

  8. Pilot testing Okay With Asthma: an online asthma intervention for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Tami H; Hauenstein, Emily J

    2008-06-01

    Asthma is the leading cause of missed school days despite advancements in asthma treatment. This may be, in part, due to a lack of understanding about asthma. Okay With Asthma, an online story with psychosocial management strategies for school-age children, was pilot tested to measure its effect on asthma knowledge and attitude. The online program delivers content about asthma through a digital story and story-writing program. Using a one-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design, 35 children with moderate to severe asthma completed a pretest measure of asthma knowledge and attitudes and then completed Okay With Asthma. At 1 week and 2 weeks after the intervention, the children completed the measures again. There were significant improvements in asthma knowledge scores at the 1- and 2-week evaluations and significant improvements in attitude scores 2 weeks after the program. Okay With Asthma specifically targets school-age children and teaches them how to use school resources and peers while managing their asthma.

  9. Effects of manual task complexity on gait parameters in school-aged children and adults.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzese, Laurel D; Rao, Ashwini K; Bellows, Rachel; Figueroa, Kristina; Levy, Jennifer; Lim, Esther; Puccio, Lauren

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the dual-task interference effects of complexity (simple vs. complex), type of task (carrying a pitcher vs. tray), and age (young adults vs. 7-10 year old children) on temporal-spatial and variability measures of gait. All participants first walked on the GAITRite walkway without any concurrent task, followed by four dual-task gait conditions. The group of children had a more variable step length and step time than adults across all walking conditions. They also slowed down, took fewer, smaller steps and spent more time in double limb support than adults in the complex dual task conditions. Gait in healthy young adults and school aged children was relatively unaffected by concurrent performance of simple versions of the manual tasks. Our overall analysis suggests that dual-task gait in school aged children is still developing and has not yet reached adult capacity. This study also highlights the critical role of task demand and complexity in dual-task interference.

  10. Talker familiarity and spoken word recognition in school-age children*

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.

    2014-01-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers’ voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German–English bilingual talkers and were tested on the speech of six bilinguals, three of whom were familiar. Results revealed that children do show improved spoken language processing when they are familiar with the talkers, but this improvement was limited to highly familiar lexical items. This restriction of the familiar talker advantage is attributed to differences in the representation of highly familiar and less familiar lexical items. In addition, children did not exhibit accent-general learning; despite having been exposed to German-accented talkers during training, there was no improvement for novel German-accented talkers. PMID:25159173

  11. Talker familiarity and spoken word recognition in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Levi, Susannah V

    2015-07-01

    Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English bilingual talkers and were tested on the speech of six bilinguals, three of whom were familiar. Results revealed that children do show improved spoken language processing when they are familiar with the talkers, but this improvement was limited to highly familiar lexical items. This restriction of the familiar talker advantage is attributed to differences in the representation of highly familiar and less familiar lexical items. In addition, children did not exhibit accent-general learning; despite having been exposed to German-accented talkers during training, there was no improvement for novel German-accented talkers.

  12. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-03

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.

  13. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weight< 1500 g. Their motor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  14. Suitability of Asthma Education Materials for School-age Children: Implications for Health Literacy.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2017-08-09

    This study investigated the suitability of asthma education materials for school-age children with asthma and elucidated how these children used their health-literacy abilities to identify whether the materials can be accepted, comprehended, and applied. Effective asthma self-management education is influenced by the suitability of materials and an individual's health literacy. A mixed-method research design was developed using quantitative and qualitative surveys. The suitability of the materials was assessed on the basis of the Chinese version of the Suitability Assessment of Materials by five experts. In addition, five school-age children (age: 8-12 years) were recruited and interviewed. In total, 25 pieces of asthma education material for children were collected. On the basis of their type, the materials were categorized as 9 brochures, 11 leaflets, and 5 videos. Of the 25 materials, 17 were rated as superior materials, whereas 8 were rated as adequate materials. The suitability scores of the video-based materials were significantly higher than those of the brochures and leaflets (p = .006). One print material was considered to have a reading level suitable for fifth-grade or younger children, whereas the remaining materials were considered suitable for sixth-grade or older children. The following six health-literacy domains were identified: recognizing asthma through body knowledge, posing reflective questions, identifying self-care difficulties, receiving adult guidance, learning with enjoyment, and addressing learning requirements. The video-based materials had integrated content and were appealing to children. Cartoon animations, interactive computer games, and skill demonstrations may enhance learning stimulation and motivation and increase learning effects in children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  16. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland dimensions in school aged children in our local environment.

    PubMed

    Marchie, T T; Oyobere, O; Eze, K C

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the measurement of normal range of ultrasound (US) thyroid gland dimensions in school-aged children (6-16 years) in our environment and compared with what is obtained elsewhere. A prospective ultrasound measurement study done in University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin, Nigeria. A prospective ultrasound (US) study of thyroid dimensions of 500 school-aged children in our environment consisting of 227 boys and 273 girls was done from 1 December 2006 to July 2007. The subjects were examined by the authors and subjects with palpable abnormal thyroid gland were excluded from the study. The thyroid dimensions (length, height, and diameter) were taken for each lobe by means of ultrasound (US). In addition volume of each thyroid lobe was calculated and the summation of volume of the lobes was taken as thyroid gland volume of each subject. Also height and weight of patients were documented from which the subject's body surface was calculated. Incidental thyroid gland lesion in US was excluded from the study. Using the Statistical program of social science (SPSS) and INSTAT (Graph Pad Inc. USA) the data were analyzed. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects and the study was done in line with the ethical guidelines of the centers. The US thyroid gland volume in school-aged children in Benin City from this study ranges between 1.17 cm 3 and 7.19 cm 3 , mean volume range of 1.76-4.95 cm 3 , median volume range of 1.73-4.73 cm 3 , and range of standard deviation from 0.39 cm 3 to 1.49 cm 3 . The average mean thyroid volume is 2.32 cm 3 with the following average dimensions; anteroposterior right lobe =1.06 cm, mediolateral right lobe = 1.01 cm and craniocaudal right lobe = 2.34 cm, and anteroposterior left lobe = 1.01 cm, mediolateral left lobe = 1.04 cm and craniocaudal left lobe = 2.41 cm for both boys and girls respectively. These data are significantly lower than data obtained by European based World Health

  17. Are language and social communication intact in children with congenital visual impairment at school age?

    PubMed

    Tadić, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-06-01

    Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism.(1) To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. We examined the presentation of language and social communication of 15 children with VI and normal-range verbal intelligence, age 6-12 years, using a standardised language assessment and parental reports of everyday social and communicative behaviours. Their profiles were compared to those of typically developing sighted children of similar age and verbal ability. Compared to their sighted peers, and relative to their own good and potentially superior structural language skills, children with VI showed significantly poorer use of language for social purposes. Pragmatic language weaknesses were a part of a broader socio-communicative profile of difficulties, present in a substantial proportion of these children and consistent with the pattern found in sighted children with autism. There are ongoing socio-communicative and pragmatic language difficulties in children with congenital VI at school age, despite their good intellectual abilities and advanced linguistic skills. Further research is required to unpack the underlying causes and factors maintaining this vulnerability in such children.

  18. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Concurrent and Construct Validity of Oral Language Measures with School Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, LaVae M.; Loeb, Diane Frome; Brandel, Jayne; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the psychometric properties of two oral language measures that are commonly used for diagnostic purposes with school age children who have language impairments. Methods: 216 children with SLI were assessed with the Test of Language Development-Primary, 3rd edition (TOLD-P:3) and the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL) within a three-month period. The concurrent and construct validity of these two published tests were explored through correlation analysis and principle component factor analysis. Results: The TOLD-P:3 Spoken Language Quotient and CASL Core Composite scores were found to have an inter-test correlation value of r = .596 within this sample, and a paired samples t-test revealed a statistically significant difference between these scores. Principle component factor analyses revealed a two factor structure solution for the TOLD-P:3, while data from the CASL supported a single factor model. Conclusions: Analyses of assessment measure performance data from a sample of school age children with specific language impairment revealed concurrent validity values and construct validity patterns that differed from those found in the norming samples as cited in examiner’s manuals. Implications for practice patterns and future research are discussed. PMID:21930614

  20. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Hosseinkhani, Zahra; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Aflatouni, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Findings Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5%) boys and 488 (47.5%) girls 679 (66.05%) cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%), 360 (35%) and 394 (38.3%) respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence. Conclusion Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended. PMID:23724176

  1. Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757

  2. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.

    PubMed

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2015-05-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the United States, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he or she knows who his or her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with nonadopted children. This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the nonadopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher's report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children

    PubMed Central

    Decaluwe, Béatrice; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Poirier, Marie-Andrée; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Muckle, Gina

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of Inuit children in Arctic Quebec are adopted in accordance with traditional Inuit customs. In contrast to adoptions in Southern Canada and the USA, the child is adopted at birth and by a close family member; he/she knows who his/her biological parents are, and will typically have contact with them. Studies of other populations have reported an increased incidence of behavior problems in adopted compared with non-adopted children. Objectives This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. Methods In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 non-adopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Results Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with those of the non-adopted children. The adoption status was not related to the teacher’s report of attention problems, externalizing or internalizing behaviors, after controlling for confounders. Conclusion Despite less favorable socioeconomic circumstances, a higher extent of behavioral problems was not seen at school age in Inuit children adopted at birth by a family member. Psychosocial stressors associated with adoption are more likely to be responsible for an association with higher levels of childhood behavior problems rather than adoption per se. PMID:25985112

  4. Whooping cough in school age children with persistent cough: prospective cohort study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Harnden, Anthony; Grant, Cameron; Harrison, Timothy; Perera, Rafael; Brueggemann, Angela B; Mayon-White, Richard; Mant, David

    2006-07-22

    To estimate the proportion of school age children with a persistent cough who have evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection. Prospective cohort study (October 2001 to March 2005). General practices in Oxfordshire, England. 172 children aged 5-16 years who presented to their general practitioner with a cough lasting 14 days or more who consented to have a blood test. Serological evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection; symptoms at presentation; duration and severity of cough; sleep disturbance (parents and child). 64 (37.2%, 95% confidence interval 30.0% to 44.4%) children had serological evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection; 55 (85.9%) of these children had been fully immunised. At presentation, children with whooping cough were more likely than others to have whooping (odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.39 to 5.82), vomiting (4.35, 2.04 to 9.25), and sputum production (2.39, 1.14 to 5.02). Children with whooping cough were also more likely to still be coughing two months after the start of their illness (85% v 48%; P = 0.001), continue to have more than five coughing episodes a day (P = 0.049), and cause sleep disturbance for their parents (P = 0.003). For school age children presenting to primary care with a cough lasting two weeks or more, a diagnosis of whooping cough should be considered even if the child has been immunised. Making a secure diagnosis of whooping cough may prevent inappropriate investigations and treatment.

  5. Screen-related sedentary behaviours of school-aged children: Principals' and teachers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    He, Meizi; Piché, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2011-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. METHOD: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six classroom teachers in 14 randomly selected elementary schools in London and Middlesex County, Ontario. Fourteen principals and 39 classroom teachers participated in the study. Inductive content analysis was performed independently by two researchers. RESULTS: Both principals and teachers were very concerned about children's excessive screen activities, but they did not perceive that they could play a key role in reducing these behaviours. Key barriers were identified to reducing screen-related sedentary behaviour and to children's active living both at and away from school. They included competing demands from other subjects, limited gym resources/space within the school, a lack of control over the home environment, and a perception that parents were poor role models. Notwithstanding the above barriers, principals and teachers still recommended increasing children's daily physical activity both within and outside of school hours. Furthermore, they stressed the need for parents to play a key role in reducing their children's screen-related sedentary behaviours and increasing their level of physical activity. CONCLUSION: School principals and teachers were very concerned about excessive screen-behaviour among school-aged children when away from school and suggested that interventions should emphasize increasing daily physical education, promoting recreational sports at or away from school, and engaging parents in regulating screen time at home.

  6. Children Negotiating Korean American Ethnic Identity through Their Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary study provides an interpretive reading of focus group interviews of four Korean American children in the Phoenix metropolitan area. It examines how these Korean American children are negotiating their ethnic identity as Korean Americans while learning Korean as a heritage language. It shows that maintaining heritage language is…

  7. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment.

  8. Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages.

    PubMed

    Hart, C H; Nelson, D A; Robinson, C C; Olsen, S F; McNeilly-Choque, M K

    1998-07-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior as described in Western psychological literature were measured in an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children's overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children.

  9. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    PubMed

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  10. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children.

  11. Structural brain differences in school-age children with residual speech sound errors

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Fulbright, Robert K.; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Seki, Ayumi; Felsenfeld, Susan; Pugh, Kenneth R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify structural brain differences in school-age children with residual speech sound errors. Voxel based morphometry was used to compare gray and white matter volumes for 23 children with speech sound errors, ages 8;6-11;11, and 54 typically speaking children matched on age, oral language, and IQ. We hypothesized that regions associated with production and perception of speech sounds would differ between groups. Results indicated greater gray matter volumes for the speech sound error group relative to typically speaking controls in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. There was greater white matter volume in the corpus callosum for the speech sound error group, but less white matter volume in right lateral occipital gyrus. Results may indicate delays in neuronal pruning in critical speech regions or differences in the development of networks for speech perception and production. PMID:24342151

  12. The dissociation of small- and large-scale spatial abilities in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Petra

    2009-10-01

    This experiment with school-age children was designed to assess the extent to which training in a "small-scale space"--so-called manual rotation training--can improve performance in a "large-scale space." In a preliminary test, 72 9- and 10-yr.-olds completed a direction estimation test. Half of the children then completed manual rotation training or played a nonspatial computer game. All of the children subsequently performed the direction estimation test again. Performance in direction estimation did not differ between the preliminary test and the posttest. Thus, in contrast to the parallel study with adults, the "small-scale spatial ability" was not associated with "large-scale ability."

  13. Longitudinal Impact on Quality of Life for School-aged Children with Amblyopia Treatment: Perspective from Children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanyan; Chen, Xinhong; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Jingwei; Xu, Jinling; Yu, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the longitudinal impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during amblyopia treatment for school-aged children from children's perspective. School-aged children prescribed amblyopia treatment for the first time were recruited into the current study. Using a questionnaire, subjects' HRQOL was assessed before patching treatment, and at 8 weeks and 16 weeks after the commencement of patching treatment. Evaluation of visual function and psychosocial aspect was included in the questionnaire. Visual acuity and demographic data of the subjects were recorded. Forty-four children, aged 7-12 years, with anisometropic amblyopia were included in the study. Visual acuity in the amblyopic eye improved 1.90 (0.41-3.74) and 3.98 (2.22-5.11) lines at follow-up weeks 8 and 16, respectively. Both the total score and subscales of the questionnaire were reduced at the first follow-up and recovered at the second follow-up. Scores at week 16 were higher than those before treatment in the psychosocial aspect (p = 0.003), and lower in the visual function aspect (p < 0.001), without significant difference in total score (p = 0.207). Visual acuity in the amblyopic eye and psychosocial expectations for treatment were the most important factors that influenced HRQOL during treatment. From the children's perspective, the impacts on visual function and psychosocial aspect were significant in the first two months of treatment, and could be adapted during therapy for school-aged children. More attention should be paid to negative effects of treatment on daily life and study at the stage of amblyopia treatment for school-aged children. Meanwhile, necessary precautions should be taken to help reduce the impacts.

  14. Salivary Cortisol, Socioemotional Functioning, and Academic Performance in Anxious and Non-Anxious Children of Elementary and Middle School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathewson, Karen J.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Individual and contextual variables were examined in relation to children's ability to cope with socioemotional and academic challenges in a sample of typically developing (n = 51) and anxious (n = 72) children of elementary and middle school age. Anxious children had greater social difficulties than controls and showed…

  15. Mothers' Parenting Behaviors in Families of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Observational and Questionnaire Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…

  16. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  17. Mothers' Parenting Behaviors in Families of School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Observational and Questionnaire Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…

  18. How Strong and Weak Readers Perform on the Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM): Norms for Latvian School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdjukova, Jelena; Ekimane, Lasma; Valeinis, Janis; Skilters, Jurgis; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine DEM test performance norms for school-aged children in Latvia, assess how DEM test results correlate with children's reading rates, compare test performance between strong and weak readers. A modified DEM test and a newly developed reading test were administered to 1487 children during a screening survey. Our…

  19. How Strong and Weak Readers Perform on the Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM): Norms for Latvian School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdjukova, Jelena; Ekimane, Lasma; Valeinis, Janis; Skilters, Jurgis; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine DEM test performance norms for school-aged children in Latvia, assess how DEM test results correlate with children's reading rates, compare test performance between strong and weak readers. A modified DEM test and a newly developed reading test were administered to 1487 children during a screening survey. Our…

  20. Salivary Cortisol, Socioemotional Functioning, and Academic Performance in Anxious and Non-Anxious Children of Elementary and Middle School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathewson, Karen J.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Individual and contextual variables were examined in relation to children's ability to cope with socioemotional and academic challenges in a sample of typically developing (n = 51) and anxious (n = 72) children of elementary and middle school age. Anxious children had greater social difficulties than controls and showed…

  1. [Protein profile and vitamin A in children of school age in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Yapi, H F; Ahiboh, H; Ago, K; Aké, M; Monnet, D

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this transverse prospective study was to determine blood nutritional, immunity and inflammatory proteins change in vitamin A deficiency in children of school-age (262 children, aged 7 to 15 years). Blood vitamin A has been determined by HPLC with UV detection. Proteins have been measured by radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini. Results showed that 96 children (36.6%) presented a vitamin A deficiency (vitamin A < 200 microg/L with a retinol binding protein/transthyretin molar ratio = 0.29 +/- 0.06) while 166 (63.3%) children presented normal blood concentrations of vitamin A (vitamin A > or = 200 microg/L with a Retinol Binding Protein/Transthyretin molar ratio = 0.40 +/- 0.08). This study showed that the retinol binding protein and the immunoglobulin A are lower in children with vitamin A deficiency. On the other hand, an isolated increase of alpha-1 glycoprotein acid has been observed in boys with vitamin A deficiency. The vitamin A deficiency observed in this survey is due to a micronutrients deficiency in the diet which is essentially based on glucides. The positive correlation between vitamin A and immunoglobulin A concentrations might be the result of the vitamin A inductive effect during immunoglobulins A synthesis. The isolated increasing of alpha-1 glycoprotein acid in boys with vitamin A deficiency has been assigned to the ecosensitiveness of the unfavourable environment. We therefore concluded that, in Ivorian primary-school-aged children with vitamin A deficiency, nutritional, immunity and inflammatory proteins which are modified are respectively retinol binding protein, immunoglobulin A and alpha-1 glycoprotein acid.

  2. Association between urine cotinine levels, continuous performance test variables, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability symptoms in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cho, S C; Hong, Y C; Kim, J W; Park, S; Park, M H; Hur, J; Park, E J; Hong, S B; Lee, J H; Shin, M S; Kim, B N; Yoo, H J; Cho, I H; Bhang, S Y; Hahn, S; Han, S K

    2013-01-01

    We examined the cross-sectional relationship between environmental tobacco smoke exposure, continuous performance test (CPT) measures, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disability symptoms in school-aged children. In total, 989 children (526 boys, mean age 9.1 ± 0.7 years), recruited from five South Korean cities participated in this study. We used urine cotinine as a biomarker for environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and obtained the children's scores on a CPT. Parents completed the Korean versions of the ADHD rating scale-IV (ADHD-RS) and learning disability evaluation scale (LDES). Using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we assessed the associations between urine cotinine concentrations, neuropsychological variables, and symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Additionally, we conducted structural equation models to explore the effects' pathways. After adjusting for a range of relevant covariates, GLMM showed urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with CPT scores on omission errors, commission errors, response time, and response time variability, and with parent- and teacher-rated ADHD-RS scores. In addition, urine cotinine levels were negatively associated with LDES scores on spelling and mathematical calculations. The structural equation model revealed that CPT variables mediated the association between urine cotinine levels and parental reports of symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Our data indicate that environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with ADHD and learning disabilities in children, and that impairments in attention and inhibitory control probably mediate the effect.

  3. Obesity-risk behaviors and their associations with body mass index (BMI) in Korean American children.

    PubMed

    Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret; Sadler, Lois; Jeon, Sangchoon; Nam, Soohyun; Song, Hee-Jung; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of the paper was to describe obesity-risk behaviors (diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) and examine the relationships of the obesity-risk behaviors with body mass index (BMI) in school-aged Korean American children. Korean American children have a risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing obesity-related complications; however, there is limited research about obesity-risk behaviors in Korean American children. A cross-sectional study. Obesity-risk behaviors of children were assessed with well-validated self-report questionnaires (i.e., Elementary-level School-based Nutrition Monitoring Questionnaire) from children and their mothers. Height and weight of children were measured. Data were analyzed with bivariate and multivariate analyses using mixed effects models to incorporate the correlation within siblings. A total of 170 Korean American children [mean age 10.9 (2.0) years; 52.4% girls; mean BMI 19.3(3.2); 28.7% ≥85 percentiles] participated in the study. Only 38.3% of Korean American children met established recommendations of 5 fruits/vegetables per day; 56.5% met recommendations for more than 3 days per week of vigorous physical activity, and 40.8% met recommendations for less than 2 hours of recreational screen time per day. Sixty percent and 88.8% of children met the recommendation of sleep on a weekday and weekend, respectively. Only screen time was positively associated with child BMI Z-score (β=0.08; p<.03). Health care providers need to be aware of the increased rate of overweight and obesity in Korean American children and initiate clinical interventions to improve obesity-risk behaviors, especially sedentary behavior, in Korean American children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  5. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  6. Attention and written expression in school-age, high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zajic, Matthew C; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain-Lerro, Lindsay; Novotny, Stephanie; Oswald, Tasha; Mundy, Peter

    2016-12-09

    High-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders often find writing challenging. These writing difficulties may be specific to autism spectrum disorder or to a more general clinical effect of attention disturbance, as these children are often comorbid for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology (and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder often also find writing challenging). To examine this issue, this study investigated the role of attention disturbance on writing in 155 school-age children across four diagnostic groups: high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) with lower ADHD symptoms (HFASD-L), HFASD with higher ADHD symptoms (HFASD-H), ADHD symptoms but no autism spectrum disorder symptoms, and typical development. Both HFASD subgroups and the ADHD group displayed lower word production writing scores than the typical development group, but the clinical groups did not differ. The HFASD-H and ADHD groups had significantly lower theme development and text organization writing scores than the typical development group, but the HFASD-L and typical development groups were not significantly different. The findings support prior research reporting writing problems in children with autism spectrum disorder but also suggest that children with HFASD-H may be at greater risk for writing difficulties than children with HFASD-L. Better understanding the role of attention in writing development could advance methods for assessment and intervention for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder at risk for writing difficulties.

  7. Sonographic Biometry of Normal Kidney Dimensions among School-age Children in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eze, CU; Agwu, KK; Ezeasor, DN; Agwuna, KK; Aronu, AE; Mba, EI

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some kidney diseases are usually associated with changes in kidney size. Objective: To determine sonographically the normal limits and percentile curves of the kidney dimensions according to age, gender and somatometric parameters among school-age children. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional research design and convenience sampling method were utilized. Participants included 947 normal subjects (496 boys and 451 girls) aged 6–17 years old. The sonographic examination was performed on a Shenzhen DP-1100 machine with 3.5 MHz convex transducer. Longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the kidneys were obtained in coronal plane with the subject in the supine or left lateral decubitus position. Results: The means of right and left kidney lengths in mm were 79.6 ± 8.1 and 81.6 ± 8.3, respectively while those of the right and left kidney widths in mm were 35.03 ± 3.6 and 35.09 ± 3.6, respectively. Dimensions of the kidneys were not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between right and left kidney length (p < 0.05). Height correlated best with both kidney lengths. Thus the normal limits, prediction models and percentile curves of kidney lengths were established with respect to height. Conclusion: Sonographic determination of pathologic changes in the size of the kidney necessitates knowing the normal ranges of its length especially with respect to height in school-age children. PMID:25303194

  8. The methodology of the Italian HBSC 2010 study (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children).

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, G; Giacchi, M V; Dalmasso, P; Vieno, A; Nardone, P; Lamberti, A; Spinelli, A; Cavallo, F

    2013-01-01

    Italy has participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since 2000. These surveys collect data every four years on the well-being and health behaviour of boys and girls aged 11, 13 and 15. Until 2007, the coordination group of the University of Turin, Siena and Padua directly sent the questionnaires to each sampled school to collect the data. The sample of about 4500 students was nationally representative. In 2008 the HBSC became part of the project "Surveys on behavioral risks in children aged 6-17 years", coordinated by the National Institute of Health (ISS) and promoted by the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, University and Research. For the first time, in 2010, the survey was conducted by health workers in collaboration with teachers in all regions with a representative sample, not just at the national level, but also at regional level. In the 2,504 sampled schools, 77,113 students (25,079 eleven-year-old, 26,048 thirteen-year-old and 25,986 fifteen-year-old) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Knowledge of the health-related behaviour of school-aged adolescents may help monitoring and enable policies for young people to be formulated and implemented.

  9. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685

  10. Utterance-final position and pitch marking aid word learning in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Piera; Laaha, Sabine; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of word order and prosody on word learning in school-age children. Third graders viewed photographs belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing four-word nonsense utterances containing a target word. In the control condition, all words had the same pitch and, across trials, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance. The only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of target words and referents. This cue was present in all conditions. In the Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and at the same fundamental frequency as all the other words of the utterance. In the Pitch peak condition, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance across trials, and produced with pitch contrasts typical of infant-directed speech (IDS). In the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and was marked with a pitch contrast typical of IDS. Word learning occurred in all conditions except the control condition. Moreover, learning performance was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence (control condition) only for the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition. We conclude that, for school-age children, the combination of words' utterance-final alignment and pitch enhancement boosts word learning.

  11. Intellectual and Academic Functioning of School-Age Children With Single-Suture Craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Collett, Brent R.; Wallace, Erin R.; Starr, Jacqueline R.; Cradock, Mary Michaeleen; Buono, Lauren; Cunningham, Michael; Kapp-Simon, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the developmental status of school-age children with single-suture craniosynostosis (case group) and unaffected children (control group). Within the case group we compared the performance of children distinguished by location of suture fusion (sagittal, metopic, unicoronal, lambdoid). METHODS: We administered standardized tests of intelligence, reading, spelling, and math to 182 case participants and 183 control participants. This sample represented 70% of those tested during infancy before case participants had corrective surgery. RESULTS: After adjustment for demographics, case participants’ average scores were lower than those of control participants on all measures. The largest observed differences were in Full-Scale IQ and math computation, where case participants’ adjusted mean scores were 2.5 to 4 points lower than those of control participants (Ps ranged from .002 to .09). Adjusted mean case–control differences on other measures of achievement were modest, although case deficits became more pronounced after adjustment for participation in developmental interventions. Among case participants, 58% had no discernible learning problem (score <25th percentile on a standardized achievement test). Children with metopic, unicoronal, and lambdoid synostosis tended to score lower on most measures than did children with sagittal fusions (Ps ranged from <.001 to .82). CONCLUSIONS: The developmental delays observed among infants with single-suture craniosynostosis are partially evident at school age, as manifested by lower average scores than those of control participants on measures of IQ and math. However, case participants’ average scores were only slightly lower than those of control participants on reading and spelling measures, and the frequency of specific learning problems was comparable. Among case participants, those with unicoronal and lambdoid fusions appear to be the most neurodevelopmentally vulnerable. PMID:25713274

  12. School-age children talk about chess: does knowledge drive syntactic complexity?

    PubMed

    Nippold, Marilyn A

    2009-08-01

    This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion-the game of chess. Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing chess. Children's chess knowledge and experience was assessed, and each child was classified as a novice or an expert player. Each child participated in 3 speaking tasks: General Conversation, Chess Conversation, and Chess Explanation. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed into Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (J. F. Miller & R. Chapman, 2003), segmented into T-units, and coded for finite clauses. Each speaking task was analyzed for total T-units; mean length of T-unit; clausal density; and nominal, relative, and adverbial clause use. Total T-units, mean length of T-unit, clausal density, and the use of each type of subordinate clause was substantially higher in the Chess Explanation task compared with the Chess Conversation task or the General Conversation task. Compared with the novices, the experts knew more about chess, had played longer, and were stronger players. Nevertheless, the novices and experts did not differ on any of the language factors for any of the speaking tasks. Language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children are strongly influenced by the speaking task. When children are presented with a motivating and challenging topic, they rise to the occasion to explain the finer details of it to a naïve adult.

  13. Relationship between Sugar Intake and Obesity among School-Age Children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Fang-Yu; Chen, Ting-Chun; Chen, Wen-Lee; Doong, Jia-Yau; Shikanai, Saiko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence and problem of overweight and obesity in Taiwanese children have increased. There are many reports that the excessive intake of sugar increases the risk of lifestyle-related disease. However, sugar intake in Taiwanese children is not known. In this study, we investigated sugar intake from sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts among school-age children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. We also tried to determine the relationship between sugar intake and body mass index (BMI). We contacted all the public elementary schools (10 schools) in a district, Kaohsiung, and obtained permission from 3 schools. The survey subjects were 410 (210 boys, 200 girls) school-age children (7, 10 and 12 y old). A nutrition survey was conducted using 3 non-consecutive days of the 24 h dietary recall method for sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts. Height and weight were measured. Sugar intakes were not significantly different among the different genders or ages (p>0.05) and average intake of all was 51.6 g/d. Percentages of each sugar in total intake were sucrose 60%, glucose 18%, fructose 16%, and lactose 6%. The intake of glucose and fructose may have come from isomerized sugar. Contributions of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks (desserts) were 83.5% and 16.5%, respectively. Among the sugar-sweetened beverages the top 3 sources were tea (22%), milk tea (19%) and milk beverages (18%). A relationship between sugar intake and BMI was not observed. In conclusion, sugar intake of the children was higher than the WHO recommendation due to the high intake from beverages; however, sugar was not the cause of the high obesity rate.

  14. [Dyslipidemias in school-age chilean children: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Barja Yáñez, Salesa; Arnaiz Gómez, Pilar; Villarroel Del Pino, Luis; Domínguez de Landa, Angélica; Castillo Valenzuela, Oscar; Farías Jofré, Marcelo; Mardones Santander, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    Dyslipidemias are a key cardiovascular risk factor, and are increased since early childhood. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, characteristics of dyslipidemias and associated factors in a population of Chilean children. Cross-sectional study done in school-age children from Santiago, Chile (2009-2011). Parents answered questions about family medical history and children answered questions about physical activity. Anthropometry was performed and in a blood sample (12 hours fast) lipid profile, glycemia and insulinemia were measured. We recruited 2900 euglycemic children, 11.4 ± 0.97 years old, 52% girls. According to BMI, 22.5% were overweight and 15,3% had obesity. Considering recommended cut-off points for lipids, 69.3% were in acceptable range, 19.2% at risk and 11.5% at high cardiovascular risk. In total, 32% of the population had any clinical form of dyslipidemia: Isolated hypertriglyceridemia (9.4%), low HDL-C (7.6%), isolated hypercholesterolemia (4.9%), atherogenic dyslipidemia (6.24%) and mixed dyslipidemia (3.9%). Except for isolated hypercholesterolemia, dyslipidemias were more frequent in girls (globally 36.2% vs. 27.4%, p<0.0001). Low HDL-C was associated with sedentary lifestyle. In multiple logistic regression analysis, nutritional status was the most important associated factor, with less influence of age, sex, central obesity, insulin resistance and history of parental cardiovascular risk factors. In this population of Chilean school-age children, we found a high prevalence of dyslipidemia, and the principal determinant was weight excess. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. The assessment of multifocal ERG responses in school-age children with history of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Michalczuk, Marta; Urban, Beata; Chrzanowska-Grenda, Beata; Oziębło-Kupczyk, Monika; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina; Krętowska, Małgorzata

    2016-02-01

    The authors examined macular function in preterm-born children, using multifocal ERG (mfERG). Possible alterations in P1 amplitudes, P1 amplitudes density and P1 implicit time between school-age children with history of prematurity and their peers were researched. The correlations between parameters of mfERG responses and birth weight, gestational age, macular volume and central macular thickness were verified. A group of 18 preterm-born school-age children were analyzed (mean age 10.18 ± 1.21 years). The study group was compared to the group of 15 peers born appropriate for gestational age (mean age 10.8 ± 1.52 years). The mfERG was evaluated in all children. There were statistically significant differences for P1 amplitudes from ring 1 (p = 0.0001) and P1 amplitudes density from ring 1 (p = 0.0001). Calculating the correlation coefficients, we receive significant results for P1 amplitudes from ring 1 versus gestational age (r = 0.54; p = 0.026), birth weight (r = 0.54; p = 0.026) and central macular thickness (r = -0.62; p = 0.008), and for P1 amplitudes density from ring 1 versus central macular thickness (r = -0.51; p = 0.034). The study suggests that P1 amplitudes and P1 amplitudes density vary in preterm-born children in comparison with their peers born appropriate for gestational age, which might suggest discreet macular dysfunction. The correlation between low birth weight, early gestational age, central macular thickness and mFERG components from ring 1 might evidence that decreased bipolar cells density caused by premature birth is the result of altered development of central retina reflecting in structural anomalies of the fovea.

  16. Towards a richer understanding of school-age children's experiences of domestic violence: the voices of children and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence.

  17. [Evaluation of physical fitness in children of pre-school age including postural problems].

    PubMed

    Jagucka-Metel, Wioletta; Brzeska, Paulina; Sokołowska, Ewa; Baranowska, Agata; Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Sobolewska, Ewa; Machoy-Mokrzyńska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Pre-school age is a period of intensive development when children shape their posture, habits and motor memory. In recent years an increased incidence of postural problems has been observed among children and adolescents. This process results from civilisation progress and sedentary life style. Most of the early-detected abnormalities are of a functional nature and are relatively easy to correct. However, if no preventive measures are taken, deformities of bones and joints may develop which are difficult to treat and result in serious health disorders. The aim of our study was to evaluate physical fitness in children of pre-school age depending on diagnosed postural problems. The study included 64 children aged 6-7 years, in which abnormalities of body posture were diagnosed using the Wolański method. The children were classified into two groups. Group 1 comprised children with abnormalities in the chest and shoulder girdle, and group 2 comprised children with lower limb abnormalities. Physical fitness was evaluated using the Modified Wrocław Test for Physical Fitness by B. Sekita (1988). We found a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0148) between groups in a 20 m run. Test results demonstrated that dysfunctions of lower limbs influenced the times for longer distance runs, but no statistically significant difference was found between the groups for shuttle run times. Children from group 2 had lower long jump scores compared to group 1, but the difference was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference (p = 0.0375) was found for medicine ball throw scores. Children from group 1 had higher scores. This can be explained by the higher number of boys in that group, who have greater physical strength than girls. Abnormalities of lower limbs in the studied group of children had a statistically significant influence on reduced physical fitness measured with the Sekita test. Abnormalities of the shoulder girdle and chest in the studied

  18. Assessment of iodine deficiency in school age children in Nainital District, Uttarakhand State.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Umesh; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Prakash, Shyam; Kabra, Madhulika; Sareen, Neha; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is a major public health problem in Uttarakhand. The present study was conducted in district Nainital, Uttarakhand state with an objective to assess the prevalence of IDD in school age children. A total of 2269 children in the age group of 6-12 years were included. Clinical examination of thyroid of all children was undertaken. "On the spot" urine samples were collected from 611 children. Salt samples were collected from the family kitchen for 642 children. The Total Goitre Rate (TGR) was 15.9%. The proportion of children with urinary iodine excretion levels <20, 20-49, 50-99, 100-199 and 200 μg/L and above, was nil, 11.8, 24.9, 38.3 and 25.0 percent, respectively. The median Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 125μg/L. About 57.7% of the children were consuming salt with iodine content of 15 ppm and more. Findings of the present study indicates that the population is possibly in transition phase from iodine deficient as revealed by Total Goitre Rate of 15.9% to iodine sufficient as revealed by median urinary iodine excretion level of 125 μg/L. There is a need to further strengthen the existing monitoring system for the quality of iodized salt in the district in order to achieve the elimination of IDD.

  19. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, E.; Steinschneider, M.; Lee, W.; Lawson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7–15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. PMID:24548430

  20. Sleep and television and computer habits of Swedish school-age children.

    PubMed

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time reported a significantly lower degree of enjoyment of school. Short sleep was found to be associated with having a bedroom TV, spending more than 2 hr a day at the TV or the computer, being tired in school, and having difficulties both in waking up and in sleeping. Discussing sleep and media habits with schoolchildren and their parents regarding matters of optimal sleep and of how media habits affect sleep and learning is seen to be an important task of the school health service.

  1. Lexical and phrasal prominence patterns in school-aged children's speech.

    PubMed

    Shport, Irina A; Redford, Melissa A

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the integration of word- and phrase-level prominences in speech produced by twenty-five school-aged children (6;2 to 7;3) and twenty-five adults. Participants produced disyllabic number words in a straight count condition and in two phrasal conditions, namely, a stress clash and non-clash phrasal context. Duration and amplitude measures of syllable rhymes were used to assess the realization of lexical stress, and fundamental frequency (F0) measures were used to assess the realization of phrasal pitch accents across conditions. Results showed that the duration and F0 correlates varied independently of each other as a function of condition in child speech, but much less so in adult speech. The group differences were taken to indicate that six-year-old children have yet to develop prosodic structures with integrated prominence. Structural and pragmatic interpretations of the results are discussed.

  2. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review.

    PubMed

    Cain, Neralie; Gradisar, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research.

  3. Lexical and Phrasal Prominence Patterns in School-Aged Children's Speech

    PubMed Central

    Shport, Irina A.; Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the integration of word- and phrase-level prominences in speech produced by 25 school-aged children (6;2 to 7;3) and 25 adults. Participants produced disyllabic number words in a straight count condition and in two phrasal conditions, namely, a stress clash and non-clash phrasal context. Duration and amplitude measures of syllable rhymes were used to assess the realization of lexical stress, and fundamental frequency (F0) measures were used to assess the realization of phrasal pitch accents across conditions. Results showed that the duration and F0 correlates varied independently of each other as a function of condition in child speech, but much less so in adult speech. The group differences were taken to indicate that 6-year-old children have yet to develop prosodic structures with integrated prominence. Structural and pragmatic interpretations of the results are discussed. PMID:24020889

  4. Interlimb Coordination during Forward and Backward Walking in Primary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Meyns, Pieter; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Duysens, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies comparing forward (FW) and backward (BW) walking suggested that the leg kinematics in BW were essentially those of FW in reverse. This led to the proposition that in adults the neural control of FW and BW originates from the same basic neural circuitry. One aspect that has not received much attention is to what extent development plays a role in the maturation of neural control of gait in different directions. BW has been examined either in adults or infants younger than one year. Therefore, we questioned which changes occur in the intermediate phases (i.e. in primary school-aged children). Furthermore, previous research focused on the lower limbs, thereby raising the question whether upper limb kinematics are also simply reversed from FW to BW. Therefore, in the current study the emphasis was put both on upper and lower limb movements, and the coordination between the limbs. Total body 3D gait analysis was performed in primary school-aged children (N = 24, aged five to twelve years) at a preferred walking speed to record angular displacements of upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot with respect to the vertical (i.e. elevation angle). Kinematics and interlimb coordination were compared between FW and BW. Additionally, elevation angle traces of BW were reversed in time (revBW) and correlated to FW traces. Results showed that upper and lower limb kinematics of FW correlated highly to revBW kinematics in children, which appears to be consistent with the proposal that control of FW and BW may be similar. In addition, age was found to mildly alter lower limb kinematic patterns. In contrast, interlimb coordination was similar across all children, but was different compared to adults, measured for comparison. It is concluded that development plays a role in the fine-tuning of neural control of FW and BW. PMID:23626852

  5. Micronutrient status and global DNA methylation in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Rozek, Laura S.; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Duchin, Ofra; Marin, Constanza; Forero, Yibby; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations in global LINE-1 DNA methylation have been related to risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Micronutrients including methyl-donors and retinoids are involved in DNA methylation pathways. We investigated associations of micronutrient status and LINE-1 methylation in a cross-sectional study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements was quantified in 568 children 5–12 years of age using pyrosequencing technology. We examined the association of LINE-1 methylation with erythrocyte folate, plasma vitamin B12, vitamin A ferritin (an indicator of iron status) and serum zinc concentrations using multivariable linear regression. We also considered associations of LINE-1 methylation with socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics. Mean (± SD) LINE-1 methylation was 80.25 (± 0.65) percentage of 5-mC (%5-mC). LINE-1 methylation was inversely related to plasma vitamin A. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with retinol levels higher than or equal to 1.05 µmol/L showed 0.19% 5-mC lower LINE-1 methylation than children with retinol levels lower than 0.70 µmol/L. LINE-1 methylation was also inversely associated with C-reactive protein, a marker of chronic inflammation, and female sex. We identified positive associations of maternal body mass index and socioeconomic status with LINE-1 methylation. These associations were not significantly different by sex. Whether modification of these exposures during school-age years leads to changes in global DNA methylation warrants further investigation. PMID:22918385

  6. Inhibition of the mirror generalization process in reading in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Ahr, Emmanuel; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2016-05-01

    A striking error in reading is the early and sometimes persistent confusion of mirror letters such as b and d. These mirror errors are likely a result of the mirror generalization process that allows one to identify a visual stimulus regardless of its presentation side. A previous study demonstrated that preventing mirror errors in reading requires the inhibition of the mirror generalization process in expert adult readers (Borst et al., 2015). Using the same experimental paradigm, the current study aimed at replicating this result in school-aged children. Three age groups-1st, 3rd, and 5th graders-performed a negative priming study in which they were asked to determine on the primes whether two letters were identical and on the probes whether two animals facing opposite directions were identical. All three groups of children required more time to discriminate two letters that were lateral mirror images of one another (e.g., b/d) than two letters that were not (e.g., f/t). Crucially, children required more time to determine that two animals facing opposite directions were identical when preceded by two letters that were lateral mirror images of one another (b/d) than when preceded by letters that were not mirror images of one another (f/t). Importantly, the amplitude of the negative priming effect did not vary with age. Our results suggest that overcoming mirror errors in reading, regardless of the reading proficiency of school-aged children, is rooted in the ability to inhibit the mirror generalization process.

  7. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

    PubMed Central

    Anbar, Ran D; Slothower, Molly P

    2006-01-01

    Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17). When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children. PMID:16914044

  8. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009-2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents' health status of 3,542 children aged 4-12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  10. Breastfeeding is associated with enhanced learning abilities in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Johanna Inhyang; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Kim, Jae-Won; Hong, Soon-Beom; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2017-01-01

    The majority of studies on the associations between breastfeeding and cognitive functioning have focused on IQ, with only a few investigating learning skills, and none of the latter adjusting for maternal IQ. We examined the association between breastfeeding and learning abilities in school-aged children using a cross-sectional design. We recruited 868 children, aged 8-11 years and parents completed the Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). Multivariable linear regression models were used and age, gender, area of residence, annual family income, maternal education, and maternal age at delivery, were included as covariates. Maternal IQ was added to further adjust for the effects of maternal cognitive ability. Path analysis was conducted to investigate the mediation effect of maternal IQ between breastfeeding and learning skills. Children who were ever-breastfed had higher learning quotient scores on the LDES (p = 0.001) as well as higher scores on subscales related to speaking (p = 0.001), reading (p = 0.005), writing (p = 0.004), spelling (p = 0.003), and mathematical calculation (p = 0.003) than the never-breastfed participants. All of these variables remained significant after adjusting for gestational and socioeconomic factors and for maternal IQ as covariates. The path analysis showed that breastfeeding had both indirect and direct effects on the learning quotient. The results suggest that breastfeeding is positively associated with learning skills in school-aged children.

  11. Korean speech sound development in children from bilingual Japanese-Korean environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoung Suk; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Yoon Mi; Kim, Hyun Gi; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Sun Jun

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates Korean speech sound development, including articulatory error patterns, among the Japanese-Korean children whose mothers are Japanese immigrants to Korea. The subjects were 28 Japanese-Korean children with normal development born to Japanese women immigrants who lived in Jeonbuk province, Korea. They were assessed through Computerized Speech Lab 4500. The control group consisted of 15 Korean children who lived in the same area. The values of the voice onset time of consonants /p(h)/, /t/, /t(h)/, and /k(*)/ among the children were prolonged. The children replaced the lenis sounds with aspirated or fortis sounds rather than replacing the fortis sounds with lenis or aspirated sounds, which are typical among Japanese immigrants. The children showed numerous articulatory errors for /c/ and /l/ sounds (similar to Koreans) rather than errors on /p/ sounds, which are more frequent among Japanese immigrants. The vowel formants of the children showed a significantly prolonged vowel /o/ as compared to that of Korean children (P<0.05). The Japanese immigrants and their children showed a similar substitution /n/ for /ɧ/ [Japanese immigrants (62.5%) vs Japanese-Korean children (14.3%)], which is rarely seen among Koreans. The findings suggest that Korean speech sound development among Japanese-Korean children is influenced not only by the Korean language environment but also by their maternal language. Therefore, appropriate language education programs may be warranted not only or immigrant women but also for their children.

  12. Adolescent mothers and their children: changes in maternal characteristics and child developmental and behavioral outcome at school age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W

    1996-06-01

    This study examines stability and change in characteristics of adolescent mothers from their child's infancy to school age, describes cognitive and behavioral characteristics of their children at school age, and reports on the relationship between maternal characteristics and child behavior and development at school age. Cognitive status and childrearing attitudes were assessed in 43 adolescent mothers (mean age 16.3 years) when their children were infants (Time 1) and again when children were school age (Time 2). At school age, mothers also completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist, and children were administered the Slosson Intelligence Test and the Wide Range Achievement Test. Significant correlations were obtained between maternal measures at Time 1 and Time 2, and no significant differences were observed between mean scores at Time 1 and Time 2 on any measures. Children demonstrated average intelligence, but mean achievement was almost 1 SD below average. Significantly more children had high scores than expected on scales for hyperactivity and academic disability. Except for maternal vocabulary, maternal measures obtained at Time 1 were not directly related to children's IQ or behavior problems. Maternal vocabulary and authoritarian and hostile childrearing attitudes assessed at Time 1 contributed independently to prediction of achievement test scores in a positive direction. Mothers' vocabulary at Time 2 and high or increased hostile childrearing attitudes contributed positively to prediction of child IQ. Mothers who still had high scores in authoritarian childrearing attitudes or whose scores increased had children with lower IQs. Changes in attitudes or contemporary measures of attitudes were also related to behavior problems at school age.

  13. Identification of Serologic Markers for School-Aged Children With Congenital Rubella Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Terri B; Sato, Helena Keico; Hao, LiJuan; Flannery, Brendan; Zheng, Qi; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Ciccone, Flávia Helena; de Sousa Marques, Heloisa; Weckx, Lily Yin; Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira Moraes, Eliane; Pinhata, Marisa Mussi; Olbrich Neto, Jaime; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecilia; Tabith Junior, Alfredo; Monteiro, Tatiana Alves; Figueiredo, Cristina Adelaide; Andrus, Jon K; Reef, Susan E; Toscano, Cristiana M; Castillo-Solorzano, Carlos; Icenogle, Joseph P

    2015-07-01

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) case identification is challenging in older children since laboratory markers of congenital rubella virus (RUBV) infection do not persist beyond age 12 months. We enrolled children with CRS born between 1998 and 2003 and compared their immune responses to RUBV with those of their mothers and a group of similarly aged children without CRS. Demographic data and sera were collected. Sera were tested for anti-RUBV immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG avidity, and IgG response to the 3 viral structural proteins (E1, E2, and C), reflected by immunoblot fluorescent signals. We enrolled 32 children with CRS, 31 mothers, and 62 children without CRS. The immunoblot signal strength to C and the ratio of the C signal to the RUBV-specific IgG concentration were higher (P < .029 for both) and the ratio of the E1 signal to the RUBV-specific IgG concentration lower (P = .001) in children with CRS, compared with their mothers. Compared with children without CRS, children with CRS had more RUBV-specific IgG (P < .001), a stronger C signal (P < .001), and a stronger E2 signal (P ≤ .001). Two classification rules for children with versus children without CRS gave 100% specificity with >65% sensitivity. This study was the first to establish classification rules for identifying CRS in school-aged children, using laboratory biomarkers. These biomarkers should allow improved burden of disease estimates and monitoring of CRS control programs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Neurodevelopmental outcome at early school age of children born to mothers with gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ornoy, A; Wolf, A; Ratzon, N; Greenbaum, C; Dulitzky, M

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To study the metabolic derangements in the second half of pregnancy caused by gestational diabetes, on the long term development of children.
METHODS—The neuropsychological function of 32 school age children born to 32 mothers with well controlled gestational diabetes and 57 control children matched by age, birth order, and parental socioeconomic status was studied.
RESULTS—There were no differences in head circumference and height, but the children born to diabetic mothers were heavier. The verbal IQ scores of index children below the age of 9 years were lower than those of control children. No differences were found between the groups in various sensory and motor functions and in the Touwen and Prechtl neurological test. The young index group children performed less well than controls in fine and gross motor functions, as observed on the Bruininks-Oseretzky test of motor proficiency. The scores of young children born to mothers with gestational diabetes were also lower than controls on the Pollack tapper test, and there were more index group children who scored abnormally on the parents' Conners questionnaire. No correlation was found between the performance of the index group children on various neurodevelopmental tests and the severity of perinatal complications. The differences tended to disappear with age.
CONCLUSIONS—Gestational diabetes, as a result of the metabolic abnormalities in the second half of pregnancy, induces long term minor neurological deficits which are more pronounced in younger children. There does not seem to be any direct relation between the appearance of congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental outcome.

 PMID:10375355

  15. School-age outcomes in children with birth weights under 750 g.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Eiben, R; Schatschneider, C; Mercuri-Minich, N

    1994-09-22

    Since the mid-1980s, increasing numbers of children with birth weights under 750 g have survived to school age. We matched a regional cohort of 68 surviving children born from 1982 through 1986 with birth weights under 750 g (mean, 670 g; gestational age, 25.7 weeks) with 65 children weighting 750 to 1499 g at birth and 61 children born at term. Growth, neurosensory status, and functioning at school age in the three groups were compared. Associations of biologic and social risk factors with major developmental outcomes were examined by means of logistic-regression analyses. Children with birth weights under 750 g were inferior to both comparison groups in cognitive ability, psychomotor skills, and academic achievement. They had poorer social skills and adaptive behavior and more behavioral and attention problems. The mean (+/- SD) Mental Processing Composite score for the cohort was 87 +/- 15, as compared with 93 +/- 14 for children with birth weights of 750 to 1499 g and 100 +/- 13 for children born at term (P < 0.001). The rates of mental retardation (IQ < 70) in the three groups were 21, 8, and 2 percent, respectively; the rates of cerebral palsy were 9, 6, and 0 percent; and the rates of severe visual disability were 25, 5, and 2 percent. Major cerebral ultrasonographic abnormalities were associated with mental retardation (odds ratio, 5.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 15.8) and cerebral palsy (odds ratio, 15.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 3.0 to 77.4). Oxygen dependence at 36 weeks was associated with mental retardation (odds ratio, 4.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 10.7) and severe visual disability (odds ratio, 4.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3 to 14.2). Social disadvantage, though associated with several neuropsychological outcomes, was not associated with major developmental impairment. Children with birth weights under 750 g who survive represent a subgroup of very-low-birth-weight children who are at high risk for

  16. Vocal fold nodules in school age children: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a potential risk factor.

    PubMed

    D'Alatri, Lucia; Petrelli, Livia; Calò, Lea; Picciotti, Pasqualina Maria; Marchese, Maria Raffaella; Bussu, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the presence of symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in a population of school age children affected by vocal fold nodules. Parents and teachers of 18 children with vocal fold nodules (10 males, eight females; aged between 6 and 12 years) and 20 matched controls without dysphonia and/or vocal fold diseases (11 males, nine females; aged between 6 and 12 years) completed Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) rating scale for parents (SDAG [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Genitori]) and teachers (SDAI [Scala per i Disturbi di Attenzione/Iperattività per Insegnanti) rating scales containing in two subscales items that specifically evaluate the symptoms of ADHD according to the DSM-IV. All children were subjected to videolaryngoscopy. The group with vocal fold nodules scored significantly higher than the controls; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant for both the subscales of both questionnaires (SDAG and SDAI) (P < 0.05). Four children in the group with vocal fold nodules who scored higher than 14 in at least one subscale were referred for psychiatric evaluation. For two of the children, both male, a diagnosis of combined ADHD was formulated. ADHD is a possible risk factor for the development of vocal fold nodules in childhood. SDAG and SDAI rating scales may supplement the diagnostic assessment of children with vocal fold nodules. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Voice problems in school-aged children following very preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Victoria; Meldrum, Suzanne; Simmer, Karen; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; French, Noel

    2016-06-01

    Very preterm children may be at risk of voice abnormalities (dysphonia). Risk factors previously identified in extremely preterm children include female gender, multiple intubations, complicated intubation and very low birth weight. This study sought to identify the prevalence of dysphonia in very preterm children, at school age. Children born between 23 and 32 weeks' gestation were included in this prospective observational study. Participants were randomly selected from a sample stratified by gestational age and number of intubations, and were aged between 5 and 12 years at the time of assessment. Clinical voice assessments were conducted by a speech pathologist, and a diagnosis of dysphonia was made based on the presence and severity of disturbance to the voice. Retrospective chart review identified medical and demographic characteristics. 178 participants were assessed. The prevalence of dysphonia in this cohort was 61%. 31% presenting with significant dysphonia, that is, voice disturbance of greater than mild in severity. Female gender (p=0.009), gestational age (p=0.031) and duration of intubation (p=0.021) were significantly associated with dysphonia although some preterm children with dysphonia were never intubated. Significant voice abnormalities were observed in children born at up to 32 weeks' gestation, with intubation a major contributing factor. ACTRN12613001015730. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. [Intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Ma, Hong-Wei; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2009-10-01

    To study the intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The intelligence levels were tested by the Wechsler Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in 54 children with FGR and in 84 normal children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the FGR group were 105.9+/-10.3, 112.4+/-11.2 and 97.1+/-10.6 respectively, and they all were in a normal range. But the PIQ was significantly lower than that in the control group (104.8+/-10.5; p<0.001), and the picture arrangement and the decipher subtest scores were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.01). The scores of perception/organization and memory/attention factors in the FGR group were 99.8+/-11.1 and 116.3+/-14.4, respectively, which were inferior to those in the control group (104.6+/-11.5 and 113.4+/-14.5 respectively; p<0.05). The total intelligence level of children with FGR is normal, but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure and dysfunctions in performance ability related to right cerebral hemisphere. Performance trainings should be done from the infancy in children with FGR.

  19. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    PubMed

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (p<.05). Girls had more significant changes than boys in the general subscale score and the total self-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends.

  20. No association between cognitive achievements, academic performance and serum cholesterol concentrations among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Perry, Lewis A; Stigger, Cagney B; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Zhang, Jian

    2009-08-01

    The uncertainty of the role of serum cholesterol in neurodevelopment of children has largely hampered the implementation of the fat recommendation to children in the general population. We explored whether serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with cognitive achievements, academic performance in school-aged children and adolescents at the population level. In the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, blood specimens were collected from 4248 6-16-year-old children and adolescents to assess three serum cholesterol measures, e.g. total serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cognitive achievements and academic performance were measured on standard tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, non-verbal reasoning and short-term memory. No significant difference in measures of cognitive and academic performance was observed between children and adolescents stratified by the levels of serum total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol. Our results suggest that differences within the normal range of serum lipids at a population level are not associated with intelligence and cognition developmental outcomes of children and adolescents.

  1. Screen-based behaviour in school-aged children with long-term illness.

    PubMed

    Husarova, Daniela; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Blinka, Lukas; Sevcikova, Anna; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-02-09

    Evidence is lacking on the screen-based behaviour of adolescents with a chronic condition. The aim of our study was to analyse differences in screen-based behaviour of adolescents by long-term illness, asthma and learning disabilities. We used data from the cross-sectional Health Behaviour of School-aged Children study collected in 2014 among Slovak adolescents (age 13 to 15 years old, N = 2682, 49.7 % boys). We analysed the associations between screen-based behaviour and long-term illness, asthma and learning disabilities using logistic regression models adjusted for gender. We found no associations between screen-based behaviour and long-term illness, except that children with asthma had a 1.60-times higher odds of excessively playing computer games than healthy children (95 % confidence interval of odds ratio (CI): 1.11-2.30). Children with learning disabilities had 1.71-times higher odds of risky use of the Internet (95 % CI: 1.19-2.45). Adolescents with a long-term illness or with a chronic condition or a learning disability do not differ from their peers in screen-based activities. Exceptions are children with asthma and children with learning disabilities, who reported more risky screen-based behaviour.

  2. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children with and without Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    SHAMSAEI, Farshid; CHERAGHI, Fatemeh; ZAMANI, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mental health problems frequently occur in children with epilepsy but the diagnosis is frequently missed and therapeutic opportunities are often lost. The aim of this study was to compare mental health statues between school-aged children with epilepsy and the healthy group. Materials & Methods In this case, control study, 120 children aged 6 to 12 years with idiopathic epilepsy and 240 healthy control groups were followed up. Children with epilepsy were enrolled from Iranian Epilepsy Association in 2014. The parent version of Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-Square test was used to assess the difference between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Results There were statistically significant differences between children with epilepsy and control group as for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, separation anxiety, social phobia, motor and vocal tics and oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusion The carefully evaluating and prospectively following the psychopathology symptom of children with epilepsy are critical for early identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:27375754

  3. Increasing social interaction using prelinguistic milieu teaching with nonverbal school-age children with autism.

    PubMed

    Franco, Jessica H; Davis, Barbara L; Davis, John L

    2013-08-01

    Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in social interaction within salient play routines. Prelinguistic milieu teaching (PMT) techniques were used to teach the children to communicate intentionally during these routines. Intervention focused on the children's social interaction with an adult. The effects of intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. At study onset, the participants demonstrated few consistent interaction with others. With intervention, all of the children improved their ability to sustain social interactions, as evidenced by an increase in the number of communicative interactions during play routines. Participants also increased their overall rate of initiated intentional communication. Development of intentional prelinguistic communication within salient social routines creates opportunities for an adult to teach social and communication skills to young school-age children with autism who function at a nonverbal level.

  4. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender.

  6. Effects of Psychosocial Interventions for School-aged Children's Internet Addiction, Self-control and Self-esteem: Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeun, Young Ran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to perform an effect size analysis of psychosocial interventions for internet addiction and to identify the intervention moderators applied to school-aged children. Methods For the meta-analysis, studies were included that were published in English or Korean until January 2015, without limitation in terms of the year. They were retrieved from 11 electronic databases and by manual searches according to predefined inclusion criteria. Results A total of 37 studies were selected, which included 11 treatment conditions and covered a total of 1,490 participants. The effect size estimates showed that psychosocial interventions had a large effect for reducing internet addiction (standardized mean difference [SMD], –1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], –1.52 to –0.87) and improving self-control (SMD, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.47) and self-esteem (mean difference, 3.58; 95% CI, 2.03 to 5.12). The moderator analyses reveals that group treatments, a selective approach, a long duration, a community setting, or higher school grade had a larger effect. Conclusions The findings of this review suggest that psychosocial intervention may be used to prevent Internet addiction in school-aged children, although further research should be conducted using a randomized controlled trial design or diverse age groups to provide evidence-based recommendations. PMID:27525163

  7. School-Aged Children Who Are Educated at Home by Their Parents: Is There a Role for Educational Psychologists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Tiny C. M. J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on home education with reference to issues that may concern educational psychologists. It notes the fast growing number of families (at present, 1% of the UK school population) who have chosen to educate their school-aged children at home. The great majority of home-educated children are reported to be well…

  8. Articulatory Placement for /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/ Targets in School Age Children with Speech Disorders Associated with Cleft Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Fiona; Ellis, Lucy; Crampin, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This study used electropalatography (EPG) to identify place of articulation for lingual plosive targets /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/ in the speech of 15 school age children with repaired cleft palate. Perceptual judgements indicated that all children had correct velar placement for /k/, /g/ targets, but /t/, /d/ targets were produced as errors involving…

  9. Information Processing by School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from a Modality Effect Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Cowan, Nelson; Marler, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 age-matched controls were tested for immediate recall of digits presented visually, auditorily, or audiovisually. Recall tasks compared speaking and pointing response modalities. SLI children showed small recency effects as well as an unusually poor recall when visually…

  10. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  11. When It Comes to Explaining: A Preliminary Investigation of the Expository Language Skills of African American School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the expository language of school-age speakers of African American English. Specifically, the study describes the language productivity, syntax, and pragmatic features present in expository language samples produced by African American children and compares their performance with White children in the extant literature.…

  12. Sodium intake among U.S. school-age children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake which occurs among 90% of U.S. school-aged children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 2,142 U.S. children aged 6...

  13. Nonword Repetition and Phoneme Elision Skills in School-Age Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Byrd, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Nonword repetition and phoneme elision represent the combined influence of several speech and language processes. In the present study we investigated nonword repetition and phoneme elision performance in school-age children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CNS). Participants were 14 CWS (mean = 11.7 years, SD = 2.1 years) and…

  14. Nonword Repetition and Phoneme Elision Skills in School-Age Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Byrd, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Nonword repetition and phoneme elision represent the combined influence of several speech and language processes. In the present study we investigated nonword repetition and phoneme elision performance in school-age children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CNS). Participants were 14 CWS (mean = 11.7 years, SD = 2.1 years) and…

  15. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  16. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  17. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  18. Feasibility of Using Actigraphy and Motivational-Based Interviewing to Improve Sleep among School-Age Children and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children. The…

  19. The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…

  20. Observable Indicators of Flow Experience: A Developmental Perspective on Musical Engagement in Young Children from Infancy to School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custodero, Lori A.

    2005-01-01

    Flow experience is an optimal state determined by an individual's perception of high skill and high challenge for a given task. In this study, young children's flow experience is examined in four naturally occurring music learning environments: infants and two-year-olds in childcare settings, and school-age children in Suzuki violin and Dalcroze…

  1. Feasibility of Using Actigraphy and Motivational-Based Interviewing to Improve Sleep among School-Age Children and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children. The…

  2. Prevalence of Thinness, Stunting and Anemia Among Rural School-aged Sudanese Children: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sarar; Hussein, Mohamed Diab

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional status of school-aged children has an important impact on their physical and mental development. Data on anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children were limited. To determine the prevalence of anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children. This cross-sectional study enrolled 835 primary school children aged 6-14 years, who live in Dolgo area in the northern region of Sudan. Weight and height of each child were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. All measurements were plotted on the World Health Organization (WHO) height for age and BMI charts. Hemoglobin was also measured for all participants, and anemia was defined according to the WHO standards. Anthropometric measurements showed that 59 children (7.1%) were stunted and 193 were thin (23.1%). The prevalence of anemia was 29.7%. Stunting, thinness and anemia were significantly common in children <10 years of age (p < 0.0001). We found a high prevalence of stunting, thinness and anemia among school-aged children in a rural area in Sudan. Our findings warrant the need to implement interventions to improve nutritional status of children in Sudan. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. When It Comes to Explaining: A Preliminary Investigation of the Expository Language Skills of African American School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the expository language of school-age speakers of African American English. Specifically, the study describes the language productivity, syntax, and pragmatic features present in expository language samples produced by African American children and compares their performance with White children in the extant literature.…

  4. Vocabulary Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Sara C.; Mills, Monique T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional…

  5. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  6. Story Discourse and Use of Mental State Language between Mothers and School-Aged Children with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadic, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims: To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare…

  7. Information Processing by School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from a Modality Effect Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Cowan, Nelson; Marler, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    Sixteen school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 age-matched controls were tested for immediate recall of digits presented visually, auditorily, or audiovisually. Recall tasks compared speaking and pointing response modalities. SLI children showed small recency effects as well as an unusually poor recall when visually…

  8. Story Discourse and Use of Mental State Language between Mothers and School-Aged Children with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadic, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims: To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare…

  9. Concurrent and Construct Validity of Oral Language Measures with School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, LaVae M.; Loeb, Diane Frome; Brandel, Jayne; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the psychometric properties of 2 oral language measures that are commonly used for diagnostic purposes with school-age children who have language impairments. Method: Two hundred sixteen children with specific language impairment were assessed with the Test of Language Development--Primary, Third Edition (TOLD-P:3;…

  10. The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…

  11. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-Age African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural and dialectal characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method: Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, generated a fictional narrative and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a…

  12. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  13. Complications of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Konstantinopoulou, Sofia; Gallagher, Paul; Elden, Lisa; Garetz, Susan L; Mitchell, Ron B; Redline, Susan; Rosen, Carol L; Katz, Eliot S; Chervin, Ronald D; Amin, Raouf; Arens, Raanan; Paruthi, Shalini; Marcus, Carole L

    2015-02-01

    Adenotonsillectomy is the treatment of choice for most children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but can lead to complications. Current guidelines recommend that high-risk children be hospitalized after adenotonsillectomy, but it is unclear which otherwise-healthy children will develop post-operative complications. We hypothesized that polysomnographic parameters would predict post-operative complications in children who participated in the Childhood AdenoTonsillectomy (CHAT) study. Children in the CHAT study aged 5-9 years with apnea hypopnea index 2-30/h or obstructive apnea index 1-20/h without comorbidities other than obesity/asthma underwent adenotonsillectomy. Associations between demographic variables and surgical complications were examined with Chi square and Fisher's exact tests. Polysomnographic parameters between subjects with/without complications were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Of the 221 children (median apnea hypopnea index 4.7/h, range 1.2-27.7/h; 31% obese), 16 (7%) children experienced complications. 3 (1.4%) children had respiratory complications including pulmonary edema, hypoxemia and bronchospasm. Thirteen (5.9%) had non-respiratory complications, including dehydration (4.5%), hemorrhage (2.3%) and fever (0.5%). There were no statistically significant associations between demographic parameters (gender, race, and obesity) or polysomnographic parameters (apnea hypopnea index, % total sleep time with SpO2<92%, SpO2 nadir, % sleep time with end-tidal CO2>50Torr) and complications. This study showed a low risk of post-adenotonsillectomy complications in school-aged healthy children with obstructive apnea although many children met published criteria for admission due to obesity, or polysomnographic severity. In this specific population, none of the polysomnographic or demographic parameters predicted post-operative complications. Further research could identify the patients at greatest risk of post-operative complications. Copyright

  14. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.

  15. Developmental trajectories of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van Den Heuvel, E; Manders, E; Swillen, A; Zink, I

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Twelve monolingual Dutch-speaking children with WS aged 5.10 to 13.3 years were assessed by means of standardised structural language tests measuring receptive and expressive vocabulary and sentence comprehension and production. Pragmatic language was evaluated by means of an expressive referential communication task and a retelling test. All of these language abilities were re-evaluated with the same measures after a period of 18 to 24 months. Performance was compared to 12 children with IID pairwise matched for chronological age (CA) and non-verbal fluid reasoning (Gf) at Time 1. Non-verbal mental age (NVMA) was taken into account when delineating developmental trajectories. Children with WS outperformed children with IID on expressive vocabulary development. In contrast, sentence comprehension was significantly poorer than in children with IID at the second time point. Increased variability and rather poor performance on pragmatic language tasks were demonstrated in the WS group. Irrelevant and off-topic extraneous information transfer continued to be a syndrome-specific characteristic of children with WS. The data provide new insights into diverging developmental trajectories across language domains. Expressive structural language skills tend to progress more rapidly than receptive language skills in children with WS causing more distinctive language profiles over time. Some children with WS seem to benefit from the growth in expressive structural language abilities to enhance their expressive pragmatic language skills, while in some others these abilities remain challenging. This study highlights the need for continued follow-up of language challenges in

  16. Complications of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea in school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinopoulou, Sofia; Gallagher, Paul; Elden, Lisa; Garetz, Susan L.; Mitchell, Ron B.; Redline, Susan; Rosen, Carol L.; Katz, Eliot S.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Amin, Raouf; Arens, Raanan; Paruthi, Shalini; Marcus, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenotonsillectomy is the treatment of choice for most children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but can lead to complications. Current guidelines recommend that high-risk children be hospitalized after adenotonsillectomy, but it is unclear which otherwise-healthy children will develop post-operative complications. We hypothesized that polysomnographic parameters would predict post-operative complications in children who participated in the Childhood AdenoTonsillectomy (CHAT) study. Methods Children in the CHAT study aged 5–9 years with apnea hypopnea index 2–30/hr or obstructive apnea index 1–20/hr without comorbidities other than obesity/asthma underwent adenotonsillectomy. Associations between demographic variables and surgical complications were examined with Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests. Polysomnographic parameters between subjects with/without complications were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Results Of the 221 children (median apnea hypopnea index 4.7/hr, range 1.2–27.7/hr; 31% obese), 16 (7%) children experienced complications. 3 (1.4%) children had respiratory complications including pulmonary edema, hypoxemia and bronchospasm. Thirteen (5.9%) had non-respiratory complications, including dehydration (4.5%), hemorrhage (2.3%) and fever (0.5%). There were no statistically significant associations between demographic parameters (gender, race, and obesity) or polysomnographic parameters (apnea hypopnea index, % total sleep time with SpO2<92%, SpO2 nadir, % sleep time with end-tidal CO2>50 Torr) and complications. Conclusions This study showed a low risk of post-adenotonsillectomy complications in school-aged healthy children with obstructive apnea although many children met published criteria for admission due to obesity, or polysomnographic severity. In this specific population, none of the polysomnographic or demographic parameters predicted post-operative complications. Further research could identify the patients at

  17. Organophosphate pesticide exposure, PON1, and neurodevelopment in school-age children from the CHAMACOS study.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim G; Bouchard, Maryse; Bradman, Asa; Boyd-Barr, Dana; Johnson, Caroline; Holland, Nina

    2014-10-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides remain widely used in agriculture. Previously, we reported that PON1 genotype was directly associated with neurodevelopment at age two, and that PON1 genotype may increase susceptibility to OP exposure. We examined the relationships of maternal and child PON1 genotype and enzyme activity levels and neurodevelopment at school age and examined their interaction with maternal dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolite levels to investigate differential susceptibility to OP-related neurotoxicity. Participants were from the CHAMACOS longitudinal birth cohort of Latino families in an agricultural region of California. We measured DAP metabolites of OP pesticides in maternal and child urine samples, and analyzed PON1192 and PON1-108 genotypes and enzyme activity [arylesterase (ARYase), paraoxonase (POase)] in maternal and child blood. We examined their association with children׳s performance on the Conners׳ Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) at 5 years (n=296) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) at 7 years (n=327). Maternal and child PON1 genotype was not related to performance on K-CPT or WISC, although WISC scores tended to be lowest in children and children of mothers who carried the PON-108TT genotype. Pregnancy ARYase levels were positively associated with all WISC subscales (e.g., 4.0 point increase in Full Scale IQ per standard deviation increase in ARYase, 95% CI=1.6, 6.4), while pregnancy POase levels were positively associated with WISC Processing Speed only. Maternal PON1-108 weakly modified the relationship of maternal DAPS and K-CPT scores (pinteraction=0.21) and WISC verbal IQ (pinteraction=0.71). The association between DAPs and Full-Scale IQ was strongest for children of mothers with lowest-tertile ARYase levels (pinteraction=0.27). This relationship held for both diethyl and dimethyl DAPs and for all subscales of the WISC. We extend our previous findings that PON1 genotype and enzyme levels may be

  18. Mental imagery and idiom comprehension: a comparison of school-age children and adults.

    PubMed

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Duthie, Jill K

    2003-08-01

    Previous research has shown that transparent idioms (e.g., paddle your own canoe) are generally easier for children to interpret than opaque idioms (e.g., paint the town red), results that support the metasemantic hypothesis of figurative understanding (M. A. Nippold, 1998). This is the view that beyond exposure to idioms and attention to the linguistic context, the learner analyzes the expressions internally to infer meaning, a process that is easier to execute when the literal and nonliteral meanings overlap. The present study was designed to investigate mental imagery in relation to the discrepancy in difficulty between transparent and opaque expressions. Twenty familiar idioms, half transparent and half opaque, were presented to 40 school-age children (mean age = 12;3 [years;months]) and 40 adults (mean age = 27;0) who were asked to describe in writing their own mental images for each expression. The participants were also given a written multiple-choice task to measure their comprehension of the idioms. The results indicated that mental imagery for idioms undergoes a developmental process and is associated with comprehension. Although school-age children were able to report relevant mental images for idioms, their images were less sophisticated than those of adults and were more likely to be concrete and to reflect only a partial understanding of the expressions. In contrast, the images reported by adults were more likely to be figurative. The findings suggest that the mental images people report for idioms may serve as a barometer of their depth of understanding of the expressions.

  19. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rachel Gick; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2,500 g) infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III) was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8). The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9) compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2). Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001) and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. PMID:23917653

  1. Trends of smoking prevalence among Lithuanian school-aged children in 1994-2006.

    PubMed

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Zemaitiene, Nida; Grabauskas, Vilius; Veryga, Aurelijus; Petkevicius, Robertas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite much effort spent on antismoking programs in schools in different countries, limited effects have been observed in many cases. Evidence from European countries shows that active tobacco control actions such as ban on tobacco advertising, increase of tobacco taxes could lead to successful results. Our study was aimed to analyze time trends on smoking in Lithuanian school-aged children during the period of 1994-2006 in the context of antismoking policies, which were implemented in Lithuania. MATERIAL AND METHODS. This study was a part of WHO Cross-National Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study carried out in Lithuania. The standardized methods of international HBSC study protocol were applied. Stratified random representative samples of 5428, 4513, 5645, and 5632 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years were included into school-based anonymous questionnaire surveys in 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively (spring semester). Questions on frequency of smoking, age of initiation and other questions were included. Response rates of each of these four questionnaire surveys were higher than 90%. RESULTS. Smoking behavior was more common among boys. The prevalence gap in smoking between boys and girls diminished during period of observation. Prevalence of smoking increased significantly among boys during the period of 1994-2002 (11.3%, 19.8%, and 23.6% in 1994, 1998, and 2002, respectively), but started to decline after (17.3% in 2006, P<0.05). Similar trends were observed among girls: 3.6%, 8.5%, 14.6%, and 12.5% of girls reported smoking in cross-sectional surveys of 1994, 1998, 2002, and 2006, respectively. Boys living in rural areas were more frequent smokers than those living in urban areas in 1994-1998 (9.5% vs 13.9%, P<0.05). However, the surveys of 2002-2006 showed opposite changes (25.6% vs 22.1%, P<0.05 and 17.8% vs 16.9%, P>0.05). Urban girls have reported smoking more frequently in comparison with rural girls. CONCLUSIONS. An

  2. Phonological Acquisition of Korean Consonants in Conversational Speech Produced by Young Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minjung; Kim, Soo-Jin; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the phonological acquisition of Korean consonants using conversational speech samples collected from sixty monolingual typically developing Korean children aged two, three, and four years. Phonemic acquisition was examined for syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants. Results showed that Korean children acquired stops…

  3. [A comparative study of the perceptual and motor performance at school age of preterm and full term children].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Catarina, Patrícia Wendling; Barbosa, Vanêssa Maziero; Mancini, Marisa Cota; Paixão, Maria Lúcia

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the perceptualmotor performance in school age children who were born preterm and full term. Two groups of children, ages 5 to 7, participated in this study. Group I had 35 children, from low-income families, born up to the 34 week of gestation and/or weight bellow 1500 g. Group II had 35 full-term children, matched by age, gender and socioeconomic status to the children in Group I. Children were tested on the Bender gestalt, the motor accuracy test and on balance and postural responses measures. The preterm group obtained significantly lower scores in the majority of the tests. These besides reinforcing the importance of the follow-up of preterm children up to school age, also indicate the need to stimulate the fine motor and postural control Devment, even among preterm children who do not show evidence of neurological impairment.

  4. Relationship between activity limitation and health-related quality of life in school-aged children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Young

    2017-04-28

    Information on health-related quality of life is becoming increasingly important in children with cerebral palsy. This study investigated the relationship between activity limitation and health-related quality of life in school-aged children with cerebral palsy. Data were collected from 71 children aged 6-15 years with cerebral palsy. Activity limitations were assessed using functional classification systems, including the Korean-Gross Motor Function Classification System (K-GMFCS) and the Korean-Manual Ability Classification System (K-MACS). Health-related quality of life was assessed using the Korean version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire. Physical therapists collected the data by interviewing the parents of the subjects. Both the K-GMFCS and the K-MACS were significantly positively correlated with the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire. The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire score differed significantly with respect to the functional classification systems. The differences in the ratings according to the K-GMFCS levels were significant, except those between levels I and II, levels II and III, levels III and IV, and levels IV and V. In the K-MACS, there were no significant differences between levels I and II, levels III and IV, and levels IV and V. The K-GMFCS and the K-MACS were significant predictors of health-related quality of life, demonstrating 75.5% of the variance (p < 0.05). Comprehensive information on children with cerebral palsy should be gathered to provide professionals with a better understanding of health-related quality of life.

  5. Bicycle-riding circumstances and injuries in school-aged children. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Senturia, Y D; Morehead, T; LeBailly, S; Horwitz, E; Kharasch, M; Fisher, J; Christoffel, K K

    1997-05-01

    To identify bicycle-riding circumstances associated with bicycle-related injury among school-aged children. Case-control. One metropolitan emergency department and 3 suburban emergency departments. Consecutive sample of children aged 7 through 18 years who experienced bicycle-related trauma and control children seen for non-bicycle-related trauma (matched for age within 1 year, sex, and area of residence [urban vs suburban]). Parents and case children were interviewed by telephone about the bicycle ride resulting in their visit to the emergency department. Parents and control children were interviewed about their most recent bicycle ride. The survey instrument addressed the following potential risk factors: helmet use, bicycle speed, road conditions, riding location, bicycle condition, an adult presence, riding destination, bicycle style, and stunt riding. Interviews were completed with 47 (73%) of 64 eligible case children and 42 (69%) of 61 control children with the following age distribution: 27 (30%) of the interviews were completed with children aged 7 to 9 years, 40 (45%) of the interviews were completed with children aged 10 to 14 years, and 22 (25%) of the interviews were completed with children aged 15 to 18 years. Fourteen children (16%) were wearing helmets. There was a high degree of agreement between parent and child responses, higher for case children than for control children. In univariate analyses, injury was associated with riding with other children (vs riding alone or with adults), riding fast or slow (vs normal speed), riding a BMX-style (motocross) bicycle (vs another standard or multispeed style bicycle), playing on the bicycle (vs going to school or other purposeful or nonpurposeful trip), and riding only on the sidewalk (vs in the street). More case children than control children were farther than 3/4 mile (> 1.2 km) from home (38% vs 19%, P = .05). Multiple logistic regression identified' slow riding speed (odds ratio, 10.3;95% confidence

  6. [Food promotion and food preferences in Chilean school age children from different socioeconomic levels].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Sonia; Lera, Lydia; Mardones, María Angélica; Araneda, Jacqueline; Bustos, Nelly; Olivares, María Antonieta; Colque, María Ester

    2011-06-01

    To determine the attitude towards marketing of food and beverages a sample of 1,048 school children ages 8 to 13 from three cities of Chile (north, center and south of the country) were interviewed. The instrument applied was a validated questionnaire used in previous studies. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and differences were determined by region, socioeconomic level (SEL) and gender using Chi2 test. Differences per SEL were higher in Santiago. A greater proportion of school children of medium-low SEL watched more than 2 hours of TV during weekdays and weekends (p < 0.001). The proportion of children that liked food and beverage commercials was greater in medium-low SEL in Santiago (66%) (p < 0.001), as opposed to 26 to 35% in the medium high SEL. A high percentage indicated that they liked promotional campaigns of foods at supermarkets, on the streets, shopping centers and on the Internet. The preferred commercials were those for beverages, chocolates, ice-creams and cereals. Most common foods taken from home to school were cookies, fruits and yogurt. Most of the children had money available to buy food and the products more frequently preferred were cookies, sweets, French fries, beverages with sugar, chocolates, ice-creams and hot-dogs. marketing of food and beverages is recognized and remembered by school age children, influencing what they buy and consume regularly at school.

  7. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Delnatus, Jacques R; Odom, Audrey R; Eaton, Jacob C; Griggs, Jennifer J; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B

    2015-11-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3-13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30-4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Visual search in school-aged children with unilateral brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Netelenbos, J Bernard; Van Rooij, Louise

    2004-05-01

    In this preliminary study, visual search for targets within and beyond the initial field of view was investigated in seven school-aged children (five females, two males; mean age at testing 8 years 10 months, SD 1 year 3 months; range 6 to 10 years) with various acquired, postnatal, focal brain injuries (haematoma, haemorrhage, meningioma, neuroblastoma, and cerebral abscess) in anterior or posterior sites of the left or right hemisphere, and seven control children (matched for age and sex) were also studied. All participants attended mainstream primary schools. The children with lesions underwent surgery after diagnosis (mean age at diagnosis 5 years 4 months, SD 2 years 7 months). Group results indicated that for the overall scores on three psychometric tests of visuospatial and fine motor abilities (Southern California Figure Ground Perception Test, Visual Organization Test, and Visual-Motor Integration Test), no difference between the children with left and right lesions was present. However, children with lesions in the right hemisphere, and not in the left hemisphere, took significantly more time than the controls to locate visual targets presented within and beyond the field of view. Examination of individual data suggested that, in accordance with brain imaging research, right-sided anterior cerebral lesions sustained in early childhood might have an enduring detrimental effect on voluntary visual search performance during development. This persistent effect of early brain injury might imply that developmental plasticity of the brain does not apply to certain specific functions of particular areas of the right hemisphere.

  9. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  10. The internal structure of foster-parent completed SDQ for school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Stine; Bøe, Tormod; Breivik, Kyrre

    2017-01-01

    Mental health problems are common in foster-children, and tools to measure the mental health of these children are needed. One candidate instrument is the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a measure of child psychological adjustment that is increasingly being employed by Child Protection services. The aim of the current study was to examine the structural validity of the foster parent completed SDQ in a sample of 237 school aged foster children. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the foster parent completed SDQ data to a five-factor model (CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05, 90% CI [0.04, 0.06]), thus confirming the structural validity of the five-factor model for the parent-version of the SDQ in Norwegian foster children. Measurement invariance analyses indicated that boys had lower thresholds for fighting with or bullying other children than girls. Girls were on their side more likely to be rated as less popular than boys with a similar level of peer problems.

  11. Development of interactions between sensorimotor representations in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2014-04-01

    Reliable sensory-motor integration is a pre-requisite for optimal movement control; the functionality of this integration changes during development. Previous research has shown that motor performance of school-age children is characterized by higher variability, particularly under conditions where vision is not available, and movement planning and control is largely based on kinesthetic input. The purpose of the current study was to determine the characteristics of how kinesthetic-motor internal representations interact with visuo-motor representations during development. To this end, we induced a visuo-motor adaptation in 59 children, ranging from 5 to 12years of age, as well as in a group of adults, and measured initial directional error (IDE) and endpoint error (EPE) during a subsequent condition where visual feedback was not available, and participants had to rely on kinesthetic input. Our results show that older children (age range 9-12years) de-adapted significantly more than younger children (age range 5-8years) over the course of 36 trials in the absence of vision, suggesting that the kinesthetic-motor internal representation in the older children was utilized more efficiently to guide hand movements, and was comparable to the performance of the adults.

  12. [BREV: a rapid clinical scale for cognitive function evaluation in preschool and school-age children].

    PubMed

    Billard, C; Vol, S; Livet, M O; Motte, J; Vallée, L; Gillet, P; Marquet, T

    2002-02-01

    BREV, standing for the French "Batterie Rapide d'Evaluation des Fonctions Cognitive", is a rapid test to screen children with disorders of higher functions and to define the patterns of these disorders. We describe here two phases of the validation procedure. The first phase consisted in measuring the internal validity of the scale by testing 500 normal school children free of disability. The validation process provided appropriate values for each of the 18 subtests assessing cognitive functions (oral language, non-verbal abilities, attention and memory, education and memory, educational achievment) in ten age groups from 4 to 8 years. All subtests with the same content for any revealed values which increased significantly with age. Inter-reliability was tested by retesting 70 children. The second phase of validation, comparing BREV results and those from a large classical neuropsychological battery, tested specificity and sensitivity. Each of the BREV subtests were correlated with the similar subtest of the classical battery. Correlations between verbal and non-verbal scores and verbal and performance intellectual quotient (Weschler scale) were very significant. Sensitivity and specificity of BREV were above 75p.100;. This confirms the reliability of this battery for children, with good sensitivity and specificity. BREV is a reliable test, with carefully established norms, appropriate for preschool and school-age children.

  13. Bangladeshi school-age children's experiences and perceptions on child maltreatment: A qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Atiqul Haque, M; Janson, S; Moniruzzaman, S; Rahman, A K M F; Mashreky, S R; Eriksson, U-B

    2017-09-04

    Child maltreatment (CM) is a public health problem and is recognized as a huge barrier for child development. Most of the research and definitions on CM are from the perspective of high-income western countries. Because no major studies have been conducted on CM in Bangladesh, the aim of the current study was to explore the experiences of and perceptions on CM in school-age children in rural and urban Bangladesh in order to understand maltreatment in a local context and from a child perspective. Semistructured individual interviews with 24 children (13 boys and 11 girls), between the ages of 9 and 13 years of which 11 were schoolgoing and 13 non-schoolgoing, were conducted during July 2013 and analysed according to qualitative content analysis. CM was a common and painful experience with serious physical and emotional consequences but highly accepted by the society. Vulnerable groups were especially young children, girls, and poor children. The children's voices were not heard due to their low status and low position in their families, schools, and working places. The main theme that emerged in the analysis was children's subordination, which permeated the five categories: (a) perception of children's situation in society, (b) understanding children's development and needs, (c) CM associated to school achievement, (d) negative impact of CM, and (e) emotional responses. Different kinds of abuse are obviously common in Bangladesh, and the schools do not follow the law from 2011 prohibiting corporal punishment at school. The society has to take further steps to live up to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was ratified already in 1990, to protect the Bangladeshi children from CM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Understanding Immigrated Korean Children's Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    2003-01-01

    Korean children's school experiences as new immigrants to the United States are often emotionally turbulent because of environmental and psychological stresses that result when moving from one culture to another. With some basic knowledge and some suggested approaches, teachers can assist these children, whose numbers are increasing, to have a…

  15. Health effects of digital textbooks on school-age children: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Seomun, Gyeongae; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Young; Im, Meeyoung; Kim, Miran; Park, Sun-A; Lee, Youngjin

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "physical" and "psychological" symptoms. Adverse health effects related to digital textbook usage were addressed via both "student-led" and "instructor-led" coping strategies. Students' coping strategies were often inefficient, but instructor-led strategies seemed to prevent health problems. When health issues were well managed, students tended to accept digital textbooks as educational tools. Our findings suggest that students can form healthy computer habits if digital textbook usage is directed in a positive manner.

  16. A simple system for auditing the quality of primary care screening in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Longo, G; Bembi, B; Benussi, G; Carrara, F

    1988-01-01

    A system for auditing quality of care and increasing effectiveness was applied to a health screening program for school-age children and the results were analyzed during 2 subsequent years. A problem-oriented record to be filled in whenever the screening was positive represented the basic tool for the evaluation. The record was sent to the specialist who was requested to make a diagnostic assessment and a treatment plan. The same record returned back to the first-level staff thus providing feedback information about diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of the screening. Periodic self-evaluation meetings and a tutorial system for diagnostic procedures were instituted leading to a general improvement in quality indexes.

  17. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S.

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  18. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758

  19. Schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso after a decade of preventive chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Hamado; Drabo, François; Zongo, Dramane; Bagayan, Mohamed; Bamba, Issouf; Pima, Tiba; Yago-Wienne, Fanny; Toubali, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the impact of a decade of biennial mass administration of praziquantel on schistosomiasis in school-age children in Burkina Faso. Methods In 2013, in a national assessment based on 22 sentinel sites, 3514 school children aged 7–11 years were checked for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni infection by the examination of urine and stool samples, respectively. We analysed the observed prevalence and intensity of infections and compared these with the relevant results of earlier surveys in Burkina Faso. Findings S. haematobium was detected in 287/3514 school children (adjusted prevalence: 8.76%, range across sentinel sites: 0.0–56.3%; median: 2.5%). The prevalence of S. haematobium infection was higher in the children from the Centre-Est, Est and Sahel regions than in those from Burkina Faso’s other eight regions with sentinel sites (P < 0.001). The adjusted arithmetic mean intensity of S. haematobium infection, among all children, was 6.0 eggs per 10 ml urine. Less than 1% of the children in six regions had heavy S. haematobium infections – i.e. at least 50 eggs per 10 ml urine – but such infections were detected in 8.75% (28/320) and 11.56% (37/320) of the children from the Centre-Est and Sahel regions, respectively. Schistosoma mansoni was only detected in two regions and 43 children – i.e. 1 (0.31%) of the 320 from Centre-Sud and 42 (8.75%) of the 480 from Hauts Bassins. Conclusion By mass use of preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso may have eliminated schistosomiasis as a public health problem in eight regions and controlled schistosome-related morbidity in another three regions. PMID:26769995

  20. Nutritional status and growth parameters of school-age Roma children in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Spiroski, Igor; Dimitrovska, Zlatanka; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Mikik, Vladimir; Efremova-Stefanoska, Vesna; Naunova-Spiroska, Daniela; Kendrovski, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of school age Roma children in Macedonia in order to detect precursors of possible health risks at an early age. The study was designed as a comparative case control study. Study group consisted of 229 Roma school children from the 1st and 272 from the 5th grade residing in different towns in Macedonia. The control group was recruited from other than Roma ethnic background and consisted of 283 children attending 1st and 356 children attending 5th grade. Every participant was measured for his/hers body height and weight. The t-test and Chi square (Chi2) were applied to test statistical significance of variables. The WHO's AnthroPlus software was applied to assess growth parameters and population at risk. There were significant differences in values of the body weight (p = 0.001) and height (p = 0.001) between Roma and non-Roma children attending the 1st grade of primary school. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age indexes of the 1st grade children significantly differred in in the same intervals of SD (> or = -2SD and < -1SD; > or = -1SD and median; > +1SD and < or = +2SD; between Roma and non-Roma 5th graders. Anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of Roma children in Macedonia are significantly different than those of their non-Roma peers. Their health risks are predominantly related to underweight. The parameters related to health risks of overweight or obesity are lower in Roma than in non-Roma children.

  1. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  2. Meal and snacking patterns of school-aged children in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Macdiarmid, J; Loe, J; Craig, L C A; Masson, L F; Holmes, B; McNeill, G

    2009-11-01

    Current lifestyles and the choice and availability of foods may influence the eating patterns of children. The aim of this study was to investigate the meal and snacking patterns of school-aged children in Scotland. A sub-sample of 156 children (5-17 years) from the national Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland completed a 4-day non-weighed diet diary. Meals and snacks were defined using a food-based classification system based on 'core' and 'non-core' foods. The first eating event containing a solid food item up to and including 0900 hours (1100 hours on weekend days) was defined as breakfast. Frequency of meal and snack consumption was compared between age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and socio-economic sub-groups, between term-time and school holidays and between weekdays and weekend days. Intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) on these days were also compared. Children ate a median of 3.3 meals plus 2.0 snacks per day, which did not vary between age and BMI groups. In all, 83% of children ate breakfast on all 4 days. Boys ate more meals than girls but the number of snacks was similar. Children from lower socio-economic groups tended to eat more meals and fewer snacks. Snacks accounted for 21% of the total daily energy intake, 22% of total fat, 24% of SFA and 39% of NMES intake. Daily intake of energy, total fat, SFA and NMES did not differ between term-time and holidays or weekdays and weekend days. Children tended to follow a traditional pattern of three meals a day, which was consistent between age and BMI subgroups and between school term-time and holidays.

  3. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA.

  4. [Orthodontic treatment need in school-age children in the Leningrad region].

    PubMed

    Bagnenko, N M; Bagnenko, A S; Grebnev, G A; Madai, D Y

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of dentoalveolar anomalies is undoubtedly important, but in terms of the organization of orthodontic care, greater interest are data on the needs in this type of treatment. In a situation of limited manpower and resources for the provision of orthodontic care information about needs in orthodontic treatment allows you to define a group of patients with the primary need for orthodontic treatment, and to identify priorities to optimize the organization of orthodontic care in the region. Such data can be obtained by using the Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI) and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiology of various forms of dentoalveolar anomalies school-age children of Kirishi district of Leningrad region, as well as their needs in orthodontic treatment in accordance with objective evaluation indices. The study involved 734 pupils of Kirishi lyceum №1 of Leningrad region. Analysis of the prevalence of dentoalveolar anomalies, as well as needs in the orthodontic treatment was conducted in three age groups: I mixed dentition period (6-9 years), II mixed dentition period (10-13 years), and permanent dentition (14-17). To determine the needs in the orthodontic treatment were used two most common international index (DAI and IOTN). In Kirishi district of Leningrad region dentoalveolar anomalies were found in 88.8% of children of school age, which is in accordance with the indices and IOTN DAI needs in orthodontic treatment is 38.8% and 54.5%, respectively. In order to reduce unnecessarily high load volume medical institutions orthodontic profile, optimize utilization of financial resources, as well as reducing social tension it is recommended to introduce the practice of doctors-orthodontists methodology for determining the needs in orthodontic treatment by objective indices.

  5. Screen-related sedentary behaviours of school-aged children: Principals’ and teachers’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    He, Meizi; Piché, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Objective To solicit school principals’ and teachers’ perspectives on children’s screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six classroom teachers in 14 randomly selected elementary schools in London and Middlesex County, Ontario. Fourteen principals and 39 classroom teachers participated in the study. Inductive content analysis was performed independently by two researchers. Results Both principals and teachers were very concerned about children’s excessive screen activities, but they did not perceive that they could play a key role in reducing these behaviours. Key barriers were identified to reducing screen-related sedentary behaviour and to children’s active living both at and away from school. They included competing demands from other subjects, limited gym resources/space within the school, a lack of control over the home environment, and a perception that parents were poor role models. Notwithstanding the above barriers, principals and teachers still recommended increasing children’s daily physical activity both within and outside of school hours. Furthermore, they stressed the need for parents to play a key role in reducing their children’s screen-related sedentary behaviours and increasing their level of physical activity. Conclusion School principals and teachers were very concerned about excessive screen-behaviour among school-aged children when away from school and suggested that interventions should emphasize increasing daily physical education, promoting recreational sports at or away from school, and engaging parents in regulating screen time at home. PMID:21468163

  6. Caffeine intake from carbonated beverages among primary school-age children.

    PubMed

    Wierzejska, Regina; Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna; Siuba-Strzelińska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess caffeine intake from cola beverages and energy drinks, as well as the consumption frequency among primary-school-age children in relation to other dietary habits. The study included 329 children (aged 11-13 years) from five randomly selected schools in Warsaw. Caffeine intake was assessed from a food frequency questionnaire. The face-to-face interview method was selected. 89.7% of the children consumed carbonated beverages whom caffeine, of which nearly 24% consumed energy drinks. The median caffeine intake from carbonated beverages was 0.12 mg/kg body weight/day, accounting for 4.8% of the recommended maximum daily intake from all dietary sources. Frequent consumers of cola drinks were often found to eat fast foods, as well as salty snacks. Caffeine intake in the studied group of children turned out to be at a safe level. The safe dose of caffeine does not mean that consumption of carbonated drinks should not raise any concerns. The recently established legal ban on selling unhealthy foods at school is a good idea, since the school should not be a place for improper dietary models.

  7. Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure and Inhibitory Control among Young School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Derauf, Chris; LaGasse, Linda L.; Smith, Lynne M.; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Neal, Charles; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure and inhibitory control in 66 month old children followed since birth in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Study design The sample included 137 children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure and 130 comparison children, matched for race, birth weight, maternal education and type of insurance. Inhibitory control, an executive function related to emotional and cognitive control, was assessed using a computerized Stroop-like task developed for young children. Hierarchical linear modeling tested the relationship between the extent (heavy, some and no use) of prenatal methamphetamine exposure and accuracy and reaction time outcomes, adjusting for prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco and marijuana, age, sex, socioeconomic status, caregiver IQ and psychological symptoms, child protective services report of physical or sexual abuse, and site. Results In adjusted analyses, heavy prenatal methamphetamine exposure was related to reduced accuracy in both the incongruent and mixed conditions on the Stroop task. Caregiver psychological symptoms and Child Protective Services (CPS) report of physical or sexual abuse were associated with reduced accuracy in the incongruent and mixed, and incongruent conditions, respectively. Conclusions Heavy prenatal methamphetamine exposure, along with caregiver psychological distress and child maltreatment, is related to subtle deficits in inhibitory control during the early school-aged years. PMID:22424953

  8. Self-care and deviance in elementary school-age children.

    PubMed

    Pettine, A; Rosén, L A

    1998-08-01

    Fourth-, fifth- and sixth-grade students were surveyed to investigate whether self-care was related to self-reports of behavioral or attitudinal deviance, liking for school, or both. The Child Self-Care Measure (CSCM), a multiscale self-report instrument, measured self-care as a developmental task with four major dimensions: temporal, physical, structural, and psychological. Self-care in general was not linked to deviance. However, increases in psychological self-care were strongly correlated with reductions in children's liking for school. Additionally, children in self-care who cared for younger siblings for more than a year reported more deviant behaviors than those without responsibility for younger siblings; children in the care of older siblings less than 16 years old for more than 4 years reported more tolerance for deviance than peers in self-care without older sibling caregivers. Findings support earlier speculations that children in self-care may not be developmentally ready to take responsibility for elementary school-aged siblings. Results also indicated that although girls in self-care manifest problems earlier than boys, long term self-care may be more problematic for boys than girls.

  9. [ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICATORS AND CARDIOMETABOLIC EVENTS AMONG SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN FROM SONORA, MEXICO].

    PubMed

    Peralta Peña, Sandra Lidia; Reséndiz González, Eunice; Rubí Vargas, María; Terrazas Medina, Efraín Alonso; Cupul Uicab, Lea Aurora

    2015-10-01

    obesity in childhood is predictive of obesity in adulthood and it is associated with adverse health effect apparent since childhood; however, the joint assessment of obesity and adverse events among children in clinical settings is unusual. to assess the association of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat with systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP] blood pressure, lipid profile and glucose levels; and to identify the best anthropometric indicator of such events. we conducted a cross-sectional study in a sample of 412 schoolchildren. The presence of overweight and obesity, abdominal obesity and excess body fat was determined among all participants; levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoproteins, and glucose were measured in a subsample (n = 133). The associations of interest were assessed using adjusted linear and logistic regression models. 33% of the children were overweight or obese. Overall, overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity, and excess body fat were associated with elevated SBP and DBP and with a lipid profile and glucose levels that could indicate health risks among these children. Overweight and obesity were the best predictors of such events. among these school-aged children, we observed that obesity was associated with high odds of having adverse health outcomes such as high blood pressure, lipids and glucose. Such adverse events can be predicted by the presence of obesity measured by BMI, which is a noninvasive, inexpensive and easy to implement measure. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive functioning over 2 years after intracerebral hemorrhage in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lexa K; Compas, Bruce E; Gindville, Melissa C; Reeslund, Kristen L; Jordan, Lori C

    2017-09-06

    Previous research investigating outcomes after pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has generally been limited to global and sensorimotor outcomes. This study examined cognitive outcomes after spontaneous ICH in school-aged children with serial assessments over 2 years after stroke. Seven children (age range 6-16y, median 13; six males, one female; 57% white, 43% black) presenting with spontaneous ICH (six arteriovenous malformations) were assessed at 3 months, 12 months, and 24 months after stroke. The Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) quantified neurological outcome and Wechsler Intelligence Scales measured cognitive outcomes: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. PSOM scales showed improved neurological function over the first 12 months, with mild to no sensorimotor deficits and moderate overall deficits at 1- and 2-year follow-ups (median 2-year sensorimotor PSOM=0.5, total PSOM=1.5). Changes in cognitive function indicated a different trajectory; verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning improved over 24 months; low performance was sustained in processing speed and working memory. Age-normed centile scores decreased between 1- and 2-year follow-ups for working memory, suggesting emerging deficits compared with peers. Early and serial cognitive testing in children with ICH is needed to assess cognitive functioning and support children in school as they age and cognitive deficits become more apparent and important for function. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  11. The Chartres Study: I. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among French school-age children.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, E

    1994-01-01

    A survey of child psychiatric disorders was conducted in a community sample of 2441 French school-aged children selected from 18 public and private schools; children attending special classes were oversampled. A two-stage survey design was used to identify disorders. Measures were the Child Behavior Checklist and the Rutter teacher scale for screening. The Isle of Wight parental interview was used in the second phase for 217 home interviews, along with the Children Global Assessment Scale as an index of impaired functioning. Response rates were excellent, and non-respondents in the screening phase were shown to have higher levels of psychopathology as gauged by their teacher scale scores. Several weights were used in the analysis to adjust for differential probabilities of selection and participation in each survey phase. The overall prevalence rate among 8-11-year-olds was estimated to be 12.4% (5.9% for more severe disorders), with roughly equal rates of disruptive and emotional disorders (6.5% and 5.9%). Prevalence was higher in boys (15.0%) than in girls (9.5%), owing to a threefold increase in their frequency of conduct disturbances. Rates of disturbance were twice as high among children with special educational needs, while no difference was found between private and public schools. The frequency of behavioural problems appeared to be similar in the urban and semi-rural subsamples.

  12. Increasing body mass index, blood pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans abnormalities in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Otto, Debra E; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A; Rodriguez, Melinda C; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-12-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression analysis was carried out with AN as the dependent variable, with year, gender, BMI, and BP as independent variables. The results indicate that the rate of children in each grade with three positive markers increased 2% during a 3-year period between 2008 and 2010. In the 5-year period between 2005 and 2010, a clear trend of significantly higher numbers of children with both AN and BMI markers was apparent. Gender played a significant role as females were more likely to have the AN marker than males. Further study is indicated based on the increasing trend of school-age children in Texas with positive markers for AN, increased BMI and BP.

  13. Epidemiology of tinea capitis among school-age children in Meiganga, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kechia, F A; Kouoto, E A; Nkoa, T; Nweze, E I; Fokoua, D C M; Fosso, S; Somo, M R

    2014-06-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) commonly called scalp ringworm is a worldwide concern and a public health problem in Africa. This study aimed at determining the epidemiologic profile of TC among school-aged children in the savanna zone of Cameroon. All children present at school during this study period, August 2011-July 2012, were examined for signs suggestive of TC. Children not registered at school were excluded from the study. Pathologic specimens were taken from suspected head lesions and cultured. Amongst the 4601 children, average age 10.7±0.16 years, 377 presented with suggestive TC lesions giving a prevalence of 8.1%. The proportion of boys with TC was (63.7%) higher than in girls (36.3%) (P≤0.05). TC manifestations varied; small plaques of alopecia 59.26% were the most frequent. Communal living was the most incriminated risk factor. Three hundred and thirty six isolates were obtained in culture. The prevalence was significantly higher (P<0.05) in age range between 8 and 12 years, followed by that between 13 and 15. The most prevalent isolate was T. soudannense 56.8%, followed by T. rubrum 29.2%. Only 6.0% of the isolates belonged to the genus Microsporum.

  14. Functional handwriting performance in school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Duval-White, Cherie J; Jirikowic, Tracy; Rios, Dianne; Deitz, Jean; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a critical skill for school success. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often present with fine motor and visual-motor impairments that can affect handwriting performance, yet handwriting skills have not been systematically investigated in this clinical group. This study aimed to comprehensively describe handwriting skills in 20 school-age children with FASD. Children were tested with the Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition (PAL-II), and the Visuomotor Precision subtest of NEPSY, a developmental neuropsychological assessment. Participants performed below average on PAL-II measures of handwriting legibility and speed and on NEPSY visual-motor precision tasks. In contrast, PAL-II measures of sensorimotor skills were broadly within the average range. Results provide evidence of functional handwriting challenges for children with FASD and suggest diminished visual-motor skills and increased difficulty as task complexity increases. Future research is needed to further describe the prevalence and nature of handwriting challenges in this population.

  15. Participation and social networks of school-age children with complex communication needs: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Thirumanickam, Abirami; Raghavendra, Parimala; Olsson, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    Social participation becomes particularly important in middle childhood, as it contributes towards the acquisition and development of critical life skills such as developing friendships and a sense of belonging. However, only limited literature is available on the impact of communication difficulties on social participation in middle childhood. This study compared the participation patterns of school-age children with and without physical disabilities and complex communication needs in extracurricular activities. Participants included five children between 6-9 years of age with moderate-severe physical disability and complex communication needs, and five matched peers. Findings showed that children with physical disability and complex communication needs engaged in activities with reduced variety, lower frequency, fewer partners and in limited venues, but reported higher levels of enjoyment and preference for activity participation, than their matched peers. These children also had fewer same-aged friends, but more paid workers in their social circle. This small-scale descriptive study provides some preliminary evidence about the impact of severe communication difficulties on participation and socialization.

  16. Cognitive and adaptive functioning after severe TBI in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Recla, Monica; Bardoni, Alessandra; Galbiati, Susanna; Pastore, Valentina; Dominici, Chiara; Tavano, Alessandro; Locatelli, Federica; Strazzer, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Persistent cognitive and behavioural deficits have been documented in children suffering severe TBI. The aim of the present study was to examine the cognitive and adaptive profile of children of school age with severe TBI. This study selected 118 patients and divided them into three groups according to the severity of their clinical-functional picture. All the patients received a functional assessment using the Wee-FIM. Subjects with reduced responsiveness were evaluated by LOCFAS. Last, the cognitive profile children with a better recovery were described with WISC-III and Leiter-R and their adaptive behaviour with VABS. Group 1 (n = 77) showed a borderline cognitive level with a disharmonious profile between VIQ and PIQ, significant deficits in the Processing Speed and Perceptual Organization Indices, lastly specific adaptive behavioural deficits. Length of coma correlated with their cognitive and adaptive profile. Group 2 (n = 14) included subjects with severe language and/or motor disabilities presenting with a partial cognitive functioning level moderately impaired. Group 3 (n = 27) included patients with reduced responsiveness (LOCFAS ≤ 3). In the first 12 months following severe TBI, 22.9% children stayed in minimal responsiveness, 11.9% showed debilitating language and motor deficits and 65.2% showed a more favourable cognitive recovery and could be assessed by WISC-III.

  17. The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns--Sleepiness Scale: a self-report measure for school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Lisa J; Biggs, Sarah; Reynolds, Amy; Avis, Kristin T; Crabtree, Valerie McLaughlin; Bevans, Katherine B

    2012-04-01

    To establish the psychometric properties of a self-report measure of daytime sleepiness for school-aged children. Three hundred eighty-eight children aged 8-12years (inclusive) from paediatrician's offices, sleep clinic/labs, children's hospitals, schools, and the general population were recruited. A multi-method approach was used to validate the Children's Report of Sleep Patterns--Sleepiness Scale (CRSP-S), including self-report measures (questions about typical sleep), parent-report measures (Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire [CSHQ], proxy version of CRSP-S, Children's Sleep Hygiene Scale [CSHS], morningness-eveningness) and objective measures (actigraphy and polysomnography [PSG]). The CRSP-S was shown to be internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77) and the scale's unidimensionality was supported by a one-factor confirmatory factor analysis. A Rasch-Masters Partial Credit model demonstrated that items cover a broad range of sleepiness experiences with minimal redundancy, gaps in coverage, or bias against age, gender, or clinical groups. Test-retest reliability was 0.82. Construct and convergent validity were demonstrated with actigraphy, parental reports of children's sleepiness, sleep disturbances, sleep hygiene, circadian preference, and comparison of groups of children (e.g., sleep clinic/lab vs. school children). The CRSP-S is a reliable and valid self-report measure of sleepiness for school-aged children. As an adjunct to parental report measures and objective measures of sleep, the CRSP-S provides a brief and psychometrically robust measure of children's sleepiness. Children who endorse sleepiness should have a more detailed screening for underlying sleep disruptors or causes of insufficient sleep. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between personal, maternal, and familial factors with mental health problems in school-aged children in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Listening Effort Through Depth of Processing in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Benson Cheng-Lin; Vanpoucke, Filiep; van Wieringen, Astrid

    A reliable and practical measure of listening effort is crucial in the aural rehabilitation of children with communication disorders. In this article, we propose a novel behavioral paradigm designed to measure listening effort in school-age children based on different depths and levels of verbal processing. The paradigm consists of a classic word recognition task performed in quiet and in noise coupled to one of three additional tasks asking the children to judge the color of simple pictures or a certain semantic category of the presented words. The response time (RT) from the categorization tasks is considered the primary indicator of listening effort. The listening effort paradigm was evaluated in a group of 31 normal-hearing, normal-developing children 7 to 12 years of age. A total of 146 Dutch nouns were selected for the experiment after surveying 14 local Dutch-speaking children. Windows-based custom software was developed to administer the behavioral paradigm from a conventional laptop computer. A separate touch screen was used as a response interface to gather the RT data from the participants. Verbal repetition of each presented word was scored by the tester and a percentage-correct word recognition score (WRS) was calculated for each condition. Randomized lists of target words were presented in one of three signal to noise ratios (SNR) to examine the effect of background noise on the two outcome measures of WRS and RT. Three novel categorization tasks, each corresponding to a different depth or elaboration level of semantic processing, were developed to examine the effect of processing level on either WRS or RT. It was hypothesized that, while listening effort as measured by RT would be affected by both noise and processing level, WRS performance would be affected by changes in noise level only. The RT measure was also hypothesized to increase more from an increase in noise level in categorization conditions demanding a deeper or more elaborate form of

  20. Dense Deposit Disease in Korean Children: A Multicenter Clinicopathologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Jin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Ha, Tae-Sun; Lim, Beom Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Park, Yong Hoon; Lee, Dae Yeol; Kim, Pyung Kil; Kim, Kyo Sun; Chung, Woo Yeong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic characteristics of dense deposit disease (DDD) in Korean children and to determine whether these characteristics differ between Korean and American children with DDD. In 2010, we sent a structured protocol about DDD to pediatric nephrologists throughout Korea. The data collected were compared with previously published data on 14 American children with DDD. Korean children had lower 24-hr urine protein excretion and higher serum albumin levels than American children. The light microscopic findings revealed that a higher percentage of Korean children had membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis patterns (Korean, 77.8%; American, 28.6%, P = 0.036), whereas a higher percentage of American children had crescents (Korean, 0%; American, 78.6%, P < 0.001). The findings from the electron microscopy revealed that Korean children were more likely to have segmental electron dense deposits in the lamina densa of the glomerular basement membrane (Korean, 100%; American, 28.6%, P = 0.002); mesangial deposit was more frequent in American children (Korean, 66.7%; American, 100%, P = 0.047). The histological findings revealed that Korean children with DDD were more likely to show membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis patterns than American children. The degree of proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia was milder in Korean children than American children. PMID:23091320

  1. The association between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Faught, Erin L; Williams, Patty L; Willows, Noreen D; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children's academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children. Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status). Children completed FFQ. Data were prospectively linked to children's performance on standardized exams written one year later. Mixed-effect logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and likelihood of meeting academic expectations adjusting for socio-economic status, diet quality and potential confounders. Nova Scotia, Canada in 2011-2012. Students (n 4105) in grade 5 (10-11 years; 2167 girls) and their parents. Low food security was reported by 9·8 % of households; very low food security by 7·1 % of households. Students from low-income households and reporting poor diet quality were less likely to do well in school. Children who lived in households reporting very low food security had 0·65 times the odds (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) of meeting expectations for reading and 0·62 times the odds (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·86) of meeting expectations for mathematics. Very low household insecurity is associated with poor academic achievement among children in Nova Scotia.

  2. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders.

    PubMed

    Sussman, E; Steinschneider, M; Lee, W; Lawson, K

    2015-02-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7-15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Academic performance and intelligence scores of primary school-aged children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth

    2013-11-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.

  4. Prosody and its relationship to language in school-aged children with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    McCann, Joanne; Peppé, Susan; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'Hare, Anne; Rutherford, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Disordered expressive prosody is a widely reported characteristic of individuals with autism. Despite this, it has received little attention in the literature and the few studies that have addressed it have not described its relationship to other aspects of communication. To determine the nature and relationship of expressive and receptive language, phonology, pragmatics, and non-verbal ability in school-aged children with high-functioning autism and to determine how prosody relates to these abilities and which aspects of prosody are most affected. A total of 31 children with high-functioning autism and 72 typically developing children matched for verbal mental age completed a battery of speech, language, and non-verbal assessments and a procedure for assessing receptive and expressive prosody. Language skills varied, but the majority of children with high-functioning autism had deficits in at least one aspect of language with expressive language most severely impaired. All of the children with high-functioning autism had difficulty with at least one aspect of prosody and prosodic ability correlated highly with expressive and receptive language. The children with high-functioning autism showed significantly poorer prosodic skills than the control group, even after adjusting for verbal mental age. Investigating prosody and its relationship to language in autism is clinically important because expressive prosodic disorders add an additional social and communication barrier for these children and problems are often life-long even when other areas of language improve. Furthermore, a receptive prosodic impairment may have implications not only for understanding the many functions of prosody but also for general language comprehension.

  5. Academic achievement in school-aged children with active epilepsy: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F C; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2014-12-01

    To provide population-based data on the performance of school-aged children with epilepsy on measures of academic achievement and factors associated with this performance after controlling for IQ. Eighty-five (74%) of 115 children with "active" epilepsy (experienced a seizure in the past year and/or on antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) underwent psychological assessment including measures of IQ, aspects of working memory and processing speed. Sixty-five of the 85 were able to complete subtests on the Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition (WRAT-4). Paired sample t-tests were conducted to compare subtest scores. Factors associated with academic performance after controlling for IQ were examined using linear regression. Seventy-two percent of the children, who could complete subtests on the WRAT-4, displayed "low achievement" (1 standard deviation [SD] below test mean) and 42% displayed "underachievement" (1 SD below assessed IQ) on at least one of the four WRAT-4 subtests. The mean scores on the Math Computation subtest and Sentence Comprehension subtest were significantly lower than scores on the Word Reading (p < 0.05) and Spelling (p < 0.001) subtests. Younger age at seizure onset was associated (p < 0.05) with decreased scores on three of the four WRAT-4 subtests after controlling for IQ. Difficulties with auditory working memory were associated with difficulties on reading comprehension (p < 0.05), and parent-reported difficulties with school attendance were associated with decreased scores on the Spelling and Word Reading subtests after controlling for IQ (p < 0.05). Difficulties with academic achievement are common in school-aged children with "active" epilepsy. Much of the difficulties can be attributed to lowered global cognition. However, specific cognitive deficits, younger onset of first seizure, and school attendance difficulties may contribute to difficulties independent of global cognition. There is a need to screen all children with "active

  6. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with gastrointestinal and respiratory morbidity in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Kathryn A; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Marín, Constanza; Villamor, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity throughout childhood. Poor micronutrient status is a risk factor for infection-related morbidity in young children, but it is not clear whether these associations persist during school-age years. We examined the relation between blood concentrations of micronutrient status biomarkers and risk of gastrointestinal and respiratory morbidity in a prospective study of 2774 children aged 5-12 y from public schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Retinol, zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, hemoglobin, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 concentrations were measured in blood at enrollment into the cohort. Children were followed for 1 academic year for incidence of morbidity, including diarrhea with vomiting, cough with fever, earache or ear discharge with fever, and doctor visits. Compared with adequate vitamin A status (≥30.0 μg/dL), vitamin A deficiency (<10.0 μg/dL) was associated with increased risk of diarrhea with vomiting [unadjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR): 2.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 4.96; P-trend = 0.03] and cough with fever (unadjusted IRR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.31; P-trend = 0.05). After adjustment for several sociodemographic characteristics and hemoglobin concentrations, every 10 μg/dL plasma retinol was associated with 18% fewer days of diarrhea with vomiting (P < 0.001), 10% fewer days of cough with fever (P < 0.001), and 6% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.01). Every 1 g/dL of hemoglobin was related to 17% fewer days with ear infection symptoms (P < 0.001) and 5% fewer doctor visits (P = 0.009) after controlling for sociodemographic factors and retinol concentrations. Zinc, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte folate, and vitamin B-12 status were not associated with morbidity or doctor visits. Vitamin A and hemoglobin concentrations were inversely related to rates of morbidity in school-age children. Whether vitamin A supplementation reduces the risk or severity of infection in children over 5 y of age needs to

  7. An overview of indoor air quality and its impact on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Choo, Chua Poh; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment is a major source of human exposure to pollutants. Some pollutants can have concentrations that are several times higher indoors than outdoors. Prolonged exposure may lead to adverse biologic effects, even at low concentrations. Several studies done in Malaysia had underlined the role of indoor air pollution in affecting respiratory health, especially for school-aged children. A critical review was conducted on the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution with respiratory illnesses among school-aged children. This paper reviews evidence of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and its implications on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children. This review summarizes six relevant studies conducted in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Previous epidemiologic studies relevant to indoor air pollutants and their implications on school-aged children's respiratory health were obtained from electronic database and included as a reference in this review. The existing reviewed data emphasize the impact of IAQ parameters, namely, indoor temperature, ventilation rates, indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matters (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne microbes, on children's respiratory health. The study found that most of the Malaysian school-aged children are exposed to the inadequate environment during their times spent either in their houses or in their classrooms, which is not in compliance with the established standards. Children living in households or studying in schools in urban areas are more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses compared with children living in homes or studying in schools in rural areas.

  8. Play and video effects on mood and procedure behaviors in school-aged children visiting the pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Burns-Nader, Sherwood; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Thoma, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.

  9. Nutritional status of school-aged children of Buenos Aires, Argentina: data using three references.

    PubMed

    Kovalskys, I; Rausch Herscovici, C; De Gregorio, M J

    2011-09-01

    Childhood overweight has been reported in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a standardized classification system in order to facilitate comparison across countries and studies. This study aims to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in a group of 10-11-year-old children using three references [the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000, the the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 2000 and the WHO, 2007]. A representative sample of 1588 children (771 boys and 817 girls) resulted from the randomization of 80 public schools from Buenos Aires. The prevalence of overweight, including obesity, for the whole sample was 35.5, 27.9 and 27.9%, respectively, depending on the reference used. For overweight, no gender differences were observed regardless of the reference used. Obesity was significantly more frequent among boys, and this remained consistent for the three references. Thinness frequency was 1.6 and 2.5% for the boys and 2.7 and 4.5% for the girls when considering the WHO and CDC cut-off points, respectively, and frequency increased in both boys and girls for each age group. There is a high prevalence of overweight and obese cases among school-aged children of Buenos Aires regardless of the reference used. Epidemiological data provided by this study suggests the urgent need to design preventive interventions.

  10. Temporal and bidirectional associations between physical activity and sleep in primary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Grace E; Barnett, Lisa M; Lubans, David R; Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2017-03-01

    The directionality of the relationship between children's physical activity and sleep is unclear. This study examined the temporal and bidirectional associations between objectively measured physical activity, energy expenditure, and sleep in primary school-aged children. A subgroup of children (n = 65, aged 8-11 years) from the Fitness, Activity and Skills Testing Study conducted in Melbourne, Australia, had their sleep and physical activity assessed using the SenseWear Pro Armband for 8 consecutive days. Outcome measures included time spent in light-intensity physical activiy (LPA), moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), activity energy expenditure (AEE), time in bed, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency. Multilevel analyses were conducted using generalized linear latent mixed models to determine whether physical activity on 1 day was associated with sleep outcomes that night, and whether sleep during 1 night was associated with physical activity the following day. No significant associations were observed between time in bed, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency with LPA, MVPA, and AEE in either direction. This study found no temporal or bidirectional associations between objectively measured physical activity, AEE, and sleep. Future research is needed to understand other sleep dimensions that may impact on or be influenced by physical activity to provide potential intervention targets to improve these outcomes.

  11. Genetic and environmental determinants of growth of school-aged children in a rural Colombian population.

    PubMed

    Mueller, W H; Titcomb, M

    1977-01-01

    Parent-offspring correlations and heritabilities of body measurements from midparent-offspring regressions are presented for school-aged children from the village of Tenza, Colombia (N = 403 families). Parent-child correlations and midparent regressions in this subsistence farming sample, are similar in magnitude to those for well nourished, urban industrial samples, suggesting that the environmental component of variability in body size is the same regardless of the environment. Tenza children are significantly shorter and lighter than upper class Bogota children, and Tenza parents have mean heights and weights similar to those of other lower class Colombian samples. Thus, chronic undernutrition has affected the growth of parents and continues to affect the growth of the present generation. Although it has been hypothesized that heritability of growth might be reduced in samples experiencing malnutrition and its sequelae, such a reduction may only be observable where environment of parents during their development is different from that of their offspring, which is not the case here. The pattern of heritabilities with respect to different body measurements in Tenza, is similar to that seen in well nourished samples, except that measurements of breadth (biacromial, bicristal, bicondylar) have heritabilities similar in magnitude to those of linear measurements (height, sitting-height, subischial length) especially in males; and heritabilities of some measurements related to adiposity are significantly higher in daughters than in sons.

  12. Minimally verbal school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder: the neglected end of the spectrum.

    PubMed

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Kasari, Connie

    2013-12-01

    It is currently estimated that about 30% of children with autism spectrum disorder remain minimally verbal, even after receiving years of interventions and a range of educational opportunities. Very little is known about the individuals at this end of the autism spectrum, in part because this is a highly variable population with no single set of defining characteristics or patterns of skills or deficits, and in part because it is extremely challenging to provide reliable or valid assessments of their developmental functioning. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge based on research including minimally verbal children. We review promising new novel methods for assessing the verbal and nonverbal abilities of minimally verbal school-aged children, including eye-tracking and brain-imaging methods that do not require overt responses. We then review what is known about interventions that may be effective in improving language and communication skills, including discussion of both nonaugmentative and augmentative methods. In the final section of the paper, we discuss the gaps in the literature and needs for future research.

  13. Indoor mold levels and current asthma among school-aged children in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, O; Kirychuk, S P; Lawson, J A; Karunanayake, C; Cockcroft, D W; Willson, P J; Senthilselvan, A; Rennie, D C

    2017-03-01

    Current knowledge regarding the association between indoor mold exposures and asthma is still limited. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured indoor mold levels and current asthma among school-aged children. Parents completed a questionnaire survey of health history and home environmental conditions. Asthma cases had a history of doctor-diagnosed asthma or current wheeze without a cold in the past 12 months. Controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Vacuumed dust samples were collected from the child's indoor play area and mattress. Samples were assessed for mold levels and quantified in colony-forming units (CFU). Sensitization to mold allergens was also determined by skin testing. Being a case was associated with family history of asthma, pet ownership, and mold allergy. Mold levels (CFU/m(2) ) in the dust samples of children's mattress and play area floors were moderately correlated (r = 0.56; P < 0.05). High mold levels (≥30 000 CFU/m(2) ) in dust samples from play [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.03-6.43] and mattress (aOR) = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.11-8.00) areas were significantly associated with current asthma. In this study high levels of mold are a risk factor for asthma in children.

  14. Factors associated with screen time among school-age children in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics with screen time among school-age children in Korea. This study employed a nonexperimental, cross-sectional study design. A total of 370 children attending four elementary schools participated in the study. Self-report method was used, and instruments included screen time (time spent on TV/video/computer/video games), sleep duration, eating behavior, pros and cons of exercise, and exercise self-efficacy. According to the results, 45.7% of the children had screen time of 1-2.9 hr/day and 8.9% had 3 or more hr/day. Increased screen time showed an association with gender (boy), higher body mass index, fast food consumption, higher cons of exercise, having a working mother, and attendance at a school in an inner city area (p < .05). Understanding the factors associated with screen time may provide useful information in the development of health promotion programs aimed at decreasing sedentary behaviors.

  15. Modifications of adiposity in school-age children according to nutritional status: a 20-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Tatiane K; Ferrari, Gerson Luis M; Silva Júnior, João Pedro da; Silva, Leonardo José da; Oliveira, Luís C; Matsudo, Victor K R

    2012-05-01

    To analyze adiposity changes in school-age children over a 20 year-period, according to nutritional status. The study is part of the Ilhabela Longitudinal Mixed Project on Growth, Development and Physical Fitness. A sample of 1,095 school students of both sexes, from 7 to 10 years, met the following inclusion criteria: (a) at least one complete assessment in one of the analyzed periods; (b) to be in prepubertal stage of sexual maturation; (c) to be apparently healthy. The periods analyzed were 1990/1991 (initial), 2000/2001 (10 years) and 2010/2011 (20 years). The variables analyzed were: body weight, height and adiposity through individual analysis of each skinfold. Children were classified as eutrophic, overweight and obese, according to the curves of body mass index for age and sex proposed by the World Health Organization. The statistical analysis used was one-way ANOVA, followed by Scheffé's post-hoc test, with p < 0.01. In boys, the largest increase occurred in the overweight group, followed by the obese and eutrophic groups. In girls, the largest increases occurred in the groups with overweight and eutrophic children, followed by the obese group. During the 20-year period analyzed, there were changes in adiposity, even when the nutritional status was controlled, showing that individuals who have similar body mass indexes may vary in proportion and distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue. In both sexes, the increase was higher in the overweight group, and mainly in central skinfolds.

  16. Features of severe asthma in school-age children: Atopy and increased exhaled nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Teague, W. Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with severe asthma have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). The differentiating features of severe asthma in children are poorly defined. Objective To identify features of severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma in school-age children using noninvasive assessments of lung function, atopy, and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 75 children (median age, 10 years) with asthma underwent baseline characterization including spirometry and lung volume testing, methacholine bronchoprovocation, allergy evaluation, and offline measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). Twenty-eight were followed longitudinally over 6 months. Participants were assigned to the severe asthma subgroup if they required high-dose ICS plus 2 or more minor criteria. Results Children with severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma had more symptoms, greater airway obstruction, more gas trapping, and increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. Subjects with severe asthma also had higher concentrations of FENO and significantly greater sensitization to aeroallergens. With long-term study, both the reduction in FEV1 and increase in FENO persisted in the severe versus mild-to-moderate group. Furthermore, despite adjustments in ICS doses, the frequency of exacerbations was significantly higher in subjects with severe (83%) versus mild-to-moderate asthma (43%). Conclusion Severe asthma in childhood is characterized by poor symptom control despite high-dose ICS treatment and can be differentiated from mild-to-moderate asthma by measurement of lung function and FENO. Clinical implications Clinicians should suspect severe asthma in children with poor response to ICS, airway obstruction, and high FENO. PMID:17157650

  17. Sleep Patterns in School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…

  18. Sleep Patterns in School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…

  19. Accelerometer-Determined Physical Activity among Elementary School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Wen; Chu, Chia-Hua; Li, Ya-Lin; Huang, Shih-Tse

    2011-01-01

    To examine age-related physical activity (PA) patterns between- and within-day in elementary school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). PA was recorded every 5-s by uniaxial accelerometry in 35 children (grades 1-2, n = 13; grades 3-4, n = 13; grades 5-6, n = 9) for up to five weekdays and two weekend days. Younger children were…

  20. Dynamic assessment of school-age children's narrative ability: an experimental investigation of classification accuracy.

    PubMed

    Peña, Elizabeth D; Gillam, Ronald B; Malek, Melynn; Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Resendiz, Maria; Fiestas, Christine; Sabel, Tracy

    2006-10-01

    intervention (modifiability) and posttest storytelling than for measures of pretest storytelling. Observation of modifiability was the single best indicator of language impairment. Posttest measures and modifiability together yielded no misclassifications. The first experiment supported the use of 2 wordless picture books as stimulus materials for collecting narratives before and after mediation within a dynamic assessment paradigm. The second experiment supported the use of dynamic assessment for accurately identifying language impairments in school-age children.