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Sample records for korean surgical site

  1. A preliminary study for the development of indices and the current state of surgical site infections (SSIs) in Korea: the Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jae Gil; Choi, Hee Jung; Chun, Hee Kyung; Kang, Jung Gu

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to develop an effective system for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance and examine the current domestic state of SSIs for common abdominal surgeries in Korea. The Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program was developed as an SSI surveillance system. A prospective multicenter study in nine university-affiliated or general hospitals was conducted for patients who underwent gastrectomy, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, or proctectomy between August 16 and September 30 in 2012. Patients were monitored for up to 30 days by combining direct observation and a postdischarge surgeon survey. Data on SSIs were prospectively collected with KOSSIS secretarial support according to a common protocol. Operation-specific SSI rates were stratified according to risk factors and compared with data from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS) and National Healthcare Safety Network. A focus group interview was conducted with participating hospitals for feedback. A total of 1,088 operations were monitored: 207 gastrectomies, 318 cholecystectomies, 270 appendectomies, 197 colectomies, and 96 proctectomies. Operation-specific SSI rates determined by the KOSSIS program were substantially higher than those found in KONIS (7.73% [95% confidence interval, 4.5%-12.3%] vs. 3.4% for gastrectomies, 10.15% [95% confidence interval, 6.1%-15.2%] vs. 4.0% for colectomy, and 13.5% [95% confidence interval, 7.4%-22.0%] vs. 4.2% for proctectomy). Despite a short surveillance period and heterogenous group of hospitals, our results suggest that KOSSIS could be a useful program to enhance SSI surveillance in Korea.

  2. Five-year decreased incidence of surgical site infections following gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement surgery through active surveillance by the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Choi, H J; Adiyani, L; Sung, J; Choi, J Y; Kim, H B; Kim, Y K; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, Sang-Oh; Han, S H; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H M; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Yoo, J D; Koo, H-S; Cho, E H; Lee, K W

    2016-08-01

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection has been associated with a reduction in surgical site infection (SSI). To evaluate the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) in order to assess its effects on SSI since it was introduced. SSI data after gastrectomy, total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2008 and 2012 were analysed. The pooled incidence of SSI was calculated for each year; the same analyses were also conducted from hospitals that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years. Standardized SSI rates for each year were calculated by adjusting for SSI risk factors. SSI trends were analysed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The SSI rate following gastrectomy was 3.12% (522/16,918). There was a significant trend of decreased crude SSI rates over five years. This trend was also evident in analysis of hospitals that had participated for more than three years. The SSI rate for THA was 2.05% (157/7656), which decreased significantly from 2008 to 2012. The risk factors for SSI after THA included the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index, trauma, reoperation, and age (60-69 years). The SSI rate for TKA was 1.90% (152/7648), which also decreased significantly during a period of five years. However, the risk-adjusted analysis of SSI did not show a significant decrease for all surgical procedures. The SSI incidence of gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement declined over five years as a result of active surveillance by KONIS. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Surgical site infections].

    PubMed

    Sganga, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are recognized as a common surgical complication, occurring in about 2-5% of all surgical procedures. SSIs represent the third most frequent nosocomial infection, accounting for 14-16% of all infections observed in hospitalized patients and up to 38% of those observed among surgical patients. Knowledge of incidence, epidemiology, classification, process of wound healing, and pathogenesis of surgical site infection is of great importance. Given the high economic burden that infections provoke, beyond the increased morbidity and mortality, it appears mandatory to improve our tools in order to reduce their incidence, as a reduction of only 0.1% can result in a considerable saving of economic resources to be allocated to other activities, such as screening and prevention programs.

  4. Surgical Site Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Ken; Huang, Susan S.; Murphy, Michael V.; Yokoe, Deborah S.; Platt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are publicly reported as quality metrics and increasingly used to determine financial reimbursement. Objective: To evaluate the volume-outcome relationship as well as the year-to-year stability of performance rankings following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and hip arthroplasty. Research Design: We performed a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent CABG surgery or hip arthroplasty at US hospitals from 2005 to 2011, with outcomes analyzed through March 2012. Nationally validated claims-based surveillance methods were used to assess for SSI within 90 days of surgery. The relationship between procedure volume and SSI rate was assessed using logistic regression and generalized additive modeling. Year-to-year stability of SSI rates was evaluated using logistic regression to assess hospitals’ movement in and out of performance rankings linked to financial penalties. Results: Case-mix adjusted SSI risk based on claims was highest in hospitals performing <50 CABG/year and <200 hip arthroplasty/year compared with hospitals performing ≥200 procedures/year. At that same time, hospitals in the worst quartile in a given year based on claims had a low probability of remaining in that quartile the following year. This probability increased with volume, and when using 2 years’ experience, but the highest probabilities were only 0.59 for CABG (95% confidence interval, 0.52–0.66) and 0.48 for hip arthroplasty (95% confidence interval, 0.42–0.55). Conclusions: Aggregate SSI risk is highest in hospitals with low annual procedure volumes, yet these hospitals are currently excluded from quality reporting. Even for higher volume hospitals, year-to-year random variation makes past experience an unreliable estimator of current performance. PMID:27517331

  5. [Surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance].

    PubMed

    Harihara, Yasushi; Konishi, Toshiro

    2006-09-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are major complications after surgery. SSI leads to the longer hospital stay, higher costs and patients' dissatisfaction to the surgical treatment. SSI surveillance is not only an activity to investigate the incidence and causes of SSI but also an infection control activity to reduce SSI rates. The Japanese Society of Environmental Infections established the Japanese nosocomial infection surveillance UNIS) system and initiated SSI surveillance in Japan in 1999. The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare started a nation-wide SSI surveillance program in July 2002, and the SSI surveillance study group was founded in October 2002 to support the Ministry's SSI surveillance and to make activities aiming at a further spread and quality enhancement of SSI surveillance in Japan. Up to December 2004, 31, 436 cases from 50 institutions have been registered. SSI occurred in 2,346 cases (7.7%). With regard to surgical procedures, SSI rates are far much higher in gastrointestinal surgery than in other procedures. It is important for all Japanese surgeons to continue highly precise SSI surveillance and make efforts to reduce SSI rates, to provide safe medical practice of high-quality and adequate costs.

  6. Surgical site infection after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lake, AeuMuro G.; McPencow, Alexandra M.; Dick-Biascoechea, Madeline A.; Martin, Deanna K.; Erekson, Elisabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to estimate the occurrence of surgical site infections (SSI) after hysterectomy and associated risk factors. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 2005-09 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participant use data files to analyze hysterectomies. Different routes of hysterectomy were compared. The primary outcome was to identify the occurrence of 30-day superficial SSI (cellulitis) after hysterectomy. Secondary outcomes were the occurrence of deep and organ-space SSI after hysterectomy. Logistic regression models were conducted to further explore the associations of risks factors with SSI after hysterectomy. Results A total of 13,822 women were included in our final analysis. The occurrence of postoperative cellulitis after hysterectomy was 1.6% (n= 221). Risk factors associated with cellulitis were route of hysterectomy with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 3.74 (95% CI 2.26-6.22) for laparotomy compared with the vaginal approach, operative time > 75th percentile (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.40-2.44), American Society of Anesthesia Class ≥ 3 (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.31-2.43), body mass index ≥ 40kg/m2 (AOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.85-3.80), and diabetes mellitus (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.24) The occurrence of deep and organ-space SSI was 1.1% (n= 154) after hysterectomy. Conclusion Our finding of the decreased occurrence of superficial SSI after vaginal approach for hysterectomy reaffirms the role for vaginal hysterectomy as the route of choice for hysterectomy. PMID:23770467

  7. Reducing Surgical Site Infections: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, David E; Greenberg, James A

    2009-01-01

    Infection at or near surgical incisions within 30 days of an operative procedure contributes substantially to surgical morbidity and mortality each year. The prevention of surgical site infections encompasses meticulous operative technique, timely administration of appropriate preoperative antibiotics, and a variety of preventive measures aimed at neutralizing the threat of bacterial, viral, and fungal contamination posed by operative staff, the operating room environment, and the patient’s endogenous skin flora. It is the latter aspect of contamination, and specifically mechanical methods of prevention, on which this review focuses. PMID:20111657

  8. Surgical site markers: potential source of infection.

    PubMed

    Driessche, Ann Marie

    2012-01-01

    Observing licensed independent practitioners mark surgical sites with all types of marking pens is a concern related to the potential spread of infections from patient to patient. The practice of using the same marking pen to mark a surgical site has been questioned as a source of cross contamination. A literature review was done on recent studies and best practice recommendations to determine whether marking pens can act as fomites for nosocomial infections. The review indicated that surgical site markers, ink pens, and aging permanent marking pens can be a source for cross-infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, other bacteria, fungus, or virus. The type of marking pens used and the act of using the same marking pen from patient to patient could contribute to nosocomial infections. The literature reviewed recommends a single time use of a surgical marking pen. Interventions to prevent cross contamination and postoperative surgical site infections are a major concern in the care of the orthopaedic patient.

  9. [Surgical site infections: antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery].

    PubMed

    Asensio, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are very common, and represent more than 20% of all hospital-acquired infections. SSIs are associated with a higher mortality, as well as to an extended hospital stay and costs, depending on the surgical procedure and type of SSI. Advances in control practices for these infections include improvement in operating room ventilation, sterilization methods, barriers, and surgical techniques, as well as in surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. For the latter, the antimicrobial agent should: be active against the most common pathogens, be administered in an appropriate dosage and in a time frame to ensure serum and tissue concentrations over the period of potential contamination, be safe, and be administered over the shortest effective time period to minimize adverse events, development of resistances, and cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Pelvic Surgical Site Infections in Gynecologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lachiewicz, Mark P.; Moulton, Laura J.; Jaiyeoba, Oluwatosin

    2015-01-01

    The development of surgical site infection (SSI) remains the most common complication of gynecologic surgical procedures and results in significant patient morbidity. Gynecologic procedures pose a unique challenge in that potential pathogenic microorganisms from the skin or vagina and endocervix may migrate to operative sites and can result in vaginal cuff cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic abscesses. Multiple host and surgical risk factors have been identified as risks that increase infectious sequelae after pelvic surgery. This paper will review these risk factors as many are modifiable and care should be taken to address such factors in order to decrease the chance of infection. We will also review the definitions, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pelvic SSIs after gynecologic surgery. PMID:25788822

  11. Surgical manual of the Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group: ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The Surgery Treatment Modality Committee of the Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group has determined to develop a surgical manual to facilitate clinical trials and to improve communication between investigators by standardizing and precisely describing operating procedures. The literature on anatomic terminology, identification of surgical components, and surgical techniques were reviewed and discussed in depth to develop a surgical manual for gynecologic oncology. The surgical procedures provided here represent the minimum requirements for participating in a clinical trial. These procedures should be described in the operation record form, and the pathologic findings obtained from the procedures should be recorded in the pathologic report form. Here, we describe surgical procedure for ovarian, fallopian tubal, and peritoneal cancers. PMID:27670260

  12. [Current possibilities to influence surgical site infection].

    PubMed

    Bělina, F

    2017-01-01

    Infections associated with surgical procedures, also referred to as surgical site infections (SSIs), are the most common nosocomial infections (HAIs - Health Care-Associated Infections) in surgery departments. Although effectively preventable in most cases, they are still associated with significant morbidity and mortality, prolonged or repeated hospitalizations and increased treatment costs. Therefore, compliance with applicable procedures and guidelines is essential for SSI prevention, which was also shown in numerous EBM studies. Relevant procedures and clinical guidelines involve all phases of perioperative care, covering preoperative patient preparation, the course of the surgical procedure itself, as well as post-operative care. In order to effectively reduce the risk of postoperative infectious complications, these proven principles and procedures need to be implemented into daily practice with every single surgical patient. Continuous monitoring of compliance with these procedures, staff education, recording the incidence of SSI in individual departments with regular evaluation and presentation of results should form an integral part of these measures.Key words: surgical site infection - incidence - risk factors - prevention - guidelines.

  13. [Surgical site infection: clinical and microbiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Sikora, Agnieszka; Kozioł-Montewska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common and serious postoperative complication of modern surgery. It contributes to an increase of morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospitalization and costs of treatment. The optimal strategy in order to reduce wound infections in surgery is SSI knowledge of risk factors associated with a patient, surgery and postoperative care as well as the caution of fundamental recommendations concerning prevention, which include: preparation of patient for surgery, preparation of antiseptic principles for hand skin of the operation team, the proceedings in the case of allegation of infection or colonization within the operation team members, preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, procedures and aspects of aseptic surgical technique, postoperative care and the rules for monitoring infections in the surgical ward.

  14. Surgical site infections: epidemiology, microbiology and prevention.

    PubMed

    Owens, C D; Stoessel, K

    2008-11-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are defined as infections occurring up to 30 days after surgery (or up to one year after surgery in patients receiving implants) and affecting either the incision or deep tissue at the operation site. Despite improvements in prevention, SSIs remain a significant clinical problem as they are associated with substantial mortality and morbidity and impose severe demands on healthcare resources. The incidence of SSIs may be as high as 20%, depending on the surgical procedure, the surveillance criteria used, and the quality of data collection. In many SSIs, the responsible pathogens originate from the patient's endogenous flora. The causative pathogens depend on the type of surgery; the most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. Numerous patient-related and procedure-related factors influence the risk of SSI, and hence prevention requires a 'bundle' approach, with systematic attention to multiple risk factors, in order to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination and improve the patient's defences. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for the prevention of SSIs emphasise the importance of good patient preparation, aseptic practice, and attention to surgical technique; antimicrobial prophylaxis is also indicated in specific circumstances. Emerging technologies, such as microbial sealants, offer the ability to seal and immobilise skin flora for the duration of a surgical procedure; a strong case therefore exists for evaluating such technologies and implementing them into routine clinical practice as appropriate.

  15. Analysis of Malpractice Claims Associated with Surgical Site Infection in the Field of Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative infections are rare after plastic surgery; however, when present, they can affect the aesthetic outcome. Currently, many malpractice lawsuits are associated with surgical site infection. The present study aimed to analyze malpractice claims associated with surgical site infection in the field of plastic surgery through a review of Korean precedents. We analyzed the type of procedure, associated complications, and legal judgment in these cases. Most claimants were women, and claims were most often related to breast surgery. The common complications related to surgical site infection were deformity, scar, and asymmetry. Among the 40 cases, 34 were won by the plaintiff, and the mean claim settlement was 2,832,654 KRW (USD 2,636.6). The reasons for these judgements were as follows: 1) immediate bacterial culture tests were not performed and appropriate antibiotics were not used; 2) patients were not transferred to a high-level hospital or the infection control department was not consulted; 3) surgical site infection control measures were not appropriate; and 4) surgical procedures were performed without preoperative explanation about surgical site infection. The number of claims owing to surgical site infection after surgery is increasing. Infection handling was one of the key factors that influenced the judgement, and preoperative explanation about the possibility of infection is important. The findings will help surgeons achieve high patient satisfaction and reduce liability concerns. PMID:27822936

  16. Colon preparation and surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donald E

    2011-08-01

    Colon preparation for elective colon resection to reduce surgical site infection (SSI) remains controversial. A review of the published literature was undertaken to define evidence-based practices for colon preparation for elective colon resection. Seventy years of surgical literature has documented that mechanical bowel preparation alone does not reduce SSI. A body of clinical trials has documented the benefits of oral antibiotic bowel preparation compared with a placebo in the reduction of SSI. Clinical trials show the addition of the oral antibiotic bowel preparation to appropriate systemic preoperative preventive antibiotics provide the lowest rates of SSI. Mechanical bowel preparation alone does not reduce rates of SSI, but oral antibiotic preparation and systemic preoperative antibiotics are superior when compared with systemic antibiotics alone. Additional clinical trials are necessary to define the best combined overall mechanical and oral antibiotic regimen for elective colon surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reducing surgical site infections in hepatopancreatobiliary surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pitt, Henry A; House, Michael G; Kilbane, E Molly; Nakeeb, Attila; Schmidt, C Max; Zyromski, Nicholas J; Lillemoe, Keith D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patients undergoing complex hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) operations are at high risk for surgical site infection (SSI). Factors such as biliary obstruction, operative time and pancreatic or biliary fistulae contribute to the high SSI rate. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether a multifactorial approach would reduce the incidence and cost of SSI after HPB surgery. Methods From January 2007 to December 2009, 895 complex HPB operations were monitored for SSI through the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP). In 2008, surgeon-specific SSI rates were provided to HPB surgeons, and guidelines for the management of perioperative factors were established. Observed SSI rates were monitored before and after these interventions. Hospital cost data were analysed and cost savings were calculated. Results Observed SSI for hepatic, pancreatic and complex biliary operations decreased by 9.6% over a 2-year period (P < 0.03). The excess cost per SSI was US$11 462 and was driven by increased length of stay and hospital readmission for infection. Surgeons rated surgeon-specific feedback on SSI rate as the most important factor in improvement. Conclusions High SSI rates following complex HPB operations can be improved by a multifactorial approach that features process improvements, individual surgeon feedback and reduced variation in patient management. PMID:23557410

  18. Prospective surgical site infection surveillance in dogs.

    PubMed

    Turk, Ryen; Singh, Ameet; Weese, J Scott

    2015-01-01

    To 1) describe the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) in dogs undergoing surgery at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre; 2) describe and compare procedure-specific SSI rates; and 3) identify factors associated with development of SSI. Prospective, cohort study Dogs (n = 846) undergoing surgery during 45 weeks (September 2010-July 2011). Follow-up telephone conversation with dog owners was performed 30 days postoperatively, with additional 1-year follow-up performed for cases with surgical implants. A standardized questionnaire was administered to detect and characterize SSI. SSI were identified in 26 (3.0%) dogs; 11 (42%) were classified as superficial SSI, whereas 13 were deep, and 2 were organ/space. Of the confirmed SSI, only 17 (65%) were documented in the medical records. Hypotension (P = .011), class of surgery (P = .029), and use of an implant (P = .001) increased the risk of SSI. Microbial cultures were submitted for 19 cases (73%) and of those, 74% were staphylococci. SSI can result in devastating consequences in dogs and understanding risk factors is critical to target prevention practices. Whereas some risk factors such as hypotension are modifiable, others such as class of surgery are not. When possible, active surveillance should be used as part of a hospital infection control program. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Local antimicrobial administration for prophylaxis of surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Huiras, Paul; Logan, Jill K; Papadopoulos, Stella; Whitney, Dana

    2012-11-01

    Despite a lack of consensus guidelines, local antibiotic administration for prophylaxis of surgical site infections is used during many surgical procedures. The rationale behind this practice is to provide high antibiotic concentrations at the site of surgery while minimizing systemic exposure and adverse effects. Local antibiotic administration for surgical site prophylaxis has inherent limitations in that antibiotics are applied after the incision is made, rather than the current standard for surgical site prophylaxis that recommends providing adequate antibiotic concentrations at the site before the incision. The efficacy and safety of local application of antibiotics for surgical site prophylaxis have been assessed in different types of surgery with a variety of antibiotic agents and methods of application. We identified 22 prospective, randomized, controlled trials that evaluated local application of antibiotics for surgical site prophylaxis. These trials were subsequently divided and analyzed based on the type of surgical procedure: dermatologic, orthopedic, abdominal, colorectal, and cardiothoracic. Methods of local application analyzed included irrigations, powders, ointments, pastes, beads, sponges, and fleeces. Overall, there is a significant lack of level I evidence supporting this practice for any of the surgical genres evaluated. In addition, the literature spans several decades, and changes in surgical procedures, systemic antibiotic prophylaxis, and microbial flora make conclusions difficult to determine. Based on available data, the efficacy of local antibiotic administration for the prophylaxis of surgical site infections remains uncertain, and recommendations supporting this practice for surgical site prophylaxis cannot be made.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance development following surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Călina, Daniela; Docea, Anca Oana; Rosu, Lucica; Zlatian, Ovidiu; Rosu, Alexandra Floriana; Anghelina, Florin; Rogoveanu, Otilia; Arsene, Andreea Letiția; Nicolae, Alina Crenguța; Drăgoi, Cristina Manuela; Tsiaoussis, John; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Drakoulis, Nikolaos; Gofita, Eliza

    2017-02-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) determine an increase in hospitalization time and antibiotic therapy costs. The aim of this study was to identify the germs involved in SSIs in patients from the Clinical Emergency County Hospital of Craiova (SCJUC) and to assess their resistance to antimicrobials, with comparisons between surgical wards and the intensive care unit (ICU). The biological samples were subjected to classical bacteriological diagnostics. Antibiotic resistance was tested by disc diffusion. We used hierarchical clustering as a method to group the isolates based upon the antibiotic resistance profile. The most prevalent bacterial species isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus; 50.72%), followed by Escherichia coli (E. coli; 17.22%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 10.05%). In addition, at lower percentages, we isolated glucose-non-fermenting, Gram-negative bacteria and other Enterobacteriaceae. The antibiotic resistance varied greatly between species; the most resistant were the non-fermenting Gram‑negative rods. E. coli exhibited lower resistance to third generation cephalosporins, quinolones and carbapenems. By contrast, Klebsiella was resistant to many cephalosporins and penicillins, and to a certain extent to carbapenems due to carbapenemase production. The non-fermenting bacteria were highly resistant to antibiotics, but were generally sensitive to colistin. S. aureus was resistant to ceftriaxone (100%), penicillin (91.36%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (87.50%), amikacin (80.00%) and was sensitive to levofloxacin, doxycycline, gentamycin, tigecycline and teicoplanin. The Enterobacteriaceae resistance was only slightly higher in the ICU, particularly to carbapenems (imipenem, 31.20% in the ICU vs. 14.30% in the surgical wards; risk ratio = 2.182). As regards Staphylococcus species, but for non-fermenting bacteria, even if the median was almost the same, the antibiotic resistance index values were confined to the upper limit in the ICU

  1. Distal urethral polypropylene sling surgical management for urodynamic stress incontinence in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, Khae Hawn; Lee, Hyo Won; Kim, Kye Hyun; Choi, Joong Sub; Yoon, Sang Jin; Han, Jong Sul; Lee, Kyo Won

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the objective and subjective efficacy of the distal urethral polypropylene sling (DUPS) for urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) in Korean women. We performed DUPS in 89 consecutive patients with USI. The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) were used to evaluate the surgical outcomes. The mean operative time was 29.4 min (range 25-40). Concomitant procedures were performed including rectocele repair (n = 48), laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (n = 12) and laparoscopic myomectomy (n = 1). There were no intraoperative complications or major postoperative complications. The average follow-up was 15 months (range 12-18). Both mean IIQ-7 and UDI-6 scores decreased significantly after DUPS. In addition, 87% of the patients reported no symptoms of USI under any circumstances and 95% of the patients reported never or rarely being bothered by USI. DUPS is a safe, inexpensive, simple, and effective surgical method for USI. The procedure provides a high cure rate in Korean women. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Predictors of positive surgical margins and their location in Korean men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Choo, Min Soo; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Lee, Seung Bae; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Lee, Sang Eun; Jeong, Hyeon

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate preoperative predictors of positive surgical margins and their location in Korean men undergoing radical prostatectomy. A total of 3227 patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy (open, robotic or laparoscopic) for clinically localized prostate cancer at three centers between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. Patients were stratified by using the D'Amico risk criteria. Positive surgical margins were categorized according to their location. Patients were divided depending on their prostate volume: <29, 29-36, 36-46 and ≥46 mL. All of the patients had a minimum of six. A total of 2041 patients (84.9%) underwent 12-14 core biopsies. In each patient, the number and location of positive cores with cancer were assessed. In the analysis of predictive factors for positive surgical margin locations, regression analysis was carried out using only open and robotic prostatectomy. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, biopsy Gleason scores and clinical stage were significantly associated with an increased risk of positive surgical margins. The predictive variables for positive apical margin were small prostate volume (less than 29 mL) and positive apical biopsy. There were no statistically significant predictors for positive posterolateral or basal margin. Positive apical biopsy was the predictor of positive apical margin in open (odds ratio 1.7, P = 0.009) and robotic prostatectomy (odds ratio 2.2, P = 0.041). Small prostate volume was the predictor of positive apical margin in open prostatectomy (odds ratio 1.6, P = 0.012), but for positive basal margin in robotic radical prostatectomy (odds ratio 4.5, P < 0.001). In survival analysis, positive basal margin showed worse prognoses on biochemical recurrence than positive apical margin. High prostate-specific antigen and small prostate volume are predictive factors of positive surgical margin in Korean patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Apical positivity on

  3. Surgical site infections and their prevention.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Marin L; Herwaldt, Loreen A

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have assessed interventions and bundles of interventions to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs). We reviewed numerous studies to identify those with the strongest evidence supporting interventions for preventing SSIs. Bundles that included more than one intervention to decrease the risk of Staphylococcus aureus wound contamination, such as chlorhexidine bathing and nasal application of mupirocin, had the strongest supporting evidence. However, bundles should be tested to ensure that their components are not antagonistic. Vancomycin prophylaxis and extended antimicrobial prophylaxis should not be used routinely, but should be reserved for high-risk populations such as patients who carry methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Novel interventions to prevent SSIs (e.g., topical or oral antimicrobial agents, skin sealant, and antimicrobial sutures) need further evaluation before surgeons implement them routinely. There is some evidence that bundled interventions can reduce SSIs. However, more research should be done evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions. Future studies of bundles should use robust methodologies, such as randomized controlled trials, cluster randomized trials, or quasi-experimental studies analyzed by time series analysis.

  4. Surgical site infection rates following laparoscopic urological procedures.

    PubMed

    George, Arvin K; Srinivasan, Arun K; Cho, Jane; Sadek, Mostafa A; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2011-04-01

    Surgical site infections have been categorized by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as "never events". The incidence of surgical site infection following laparoscopic urological surgery and its risk factors are poorly defined. We evaluated surgical site infection following urological laparoscopic surgery and identified possible factors that may influence occurrence. Patients who underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic procedures during a 4-year period by a single laparoscopic surgeon were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical site infections were identified postoperatively and defined using the Centers for Disease Control criteria. Clinical parameters, comorbidities, smoking history, preoperative urinalysis and culture results as well as operative data were analyzed. Nonparametric testing using the Mann-Whitney U test, multivariable logistic regression and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In 556 patients undergoing urological laparoscopic procedures 14 surgical site infections (2.5%) were identified at mean postoperative day 21.5. Of the 14 surgical site infections 10 (71.4%) were located at a specimen extraction site. Operative time, procedure type and increasing body mass index were significantly associated with the occurrence of surgical site infections (p = 0.007, p = 0.019, p = 0.038, respectively), whereas history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.071) and intraoperative transfusion (p = 0.053) were found to trend toward significance. Age, gender, positive urine culture, steroid use, procedure type and smoking history were not significantly associated with surgical site infection. Body mass index and operative time remained significant predictors of surgical site infection on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Surgical site infection is an infrequent complication following laparoscopic surgery with the majority occurring at the specimen extraction site. Infection is associated with prolonged operative time and

  5. Surgical Adhesive Drape (IO-ban) as Postoperative Surgical Site Dressing.

    PubMed

    Felbaum, Daniel; Syed, Hasan R; Snyder, Rita; McGowan, Jason E; Jha, Ribhu T; Nair, Mani N

    2015-12-04

    Retrospective chart analysis. The objective of this study is to describe the senior author's (MNN) experience applying a widely available surgical drape as a postoperative sterile surgical site dressing for both cranial and spinal procedures. Surgical site infection (SSI) is an important complication of spine surgery that can result in significant morbidity. There is wide variation in wound care management in practice, including dressing type. Given the known bactericidal properties of the surgical drape, there may be a benefit of continuing its use immediately postoperatively. All of the senior author's cases from September 2014 through September 2015 were reviewed. These were contrasted to the previous year prior to the institution of a sterile surgical drape as a postoperative dressing. Only one surgical case out of 157 operative interventions (35 cranial, 124 spinal) required operative debridement due to infection. From September 2013 to September 2014, prior to the institution of a sterile surgical drape as dressing, the author had five infections out of 143 operations (46 cranial, 97 spinal) requiring intervention. The implementation of a sterile surgical drape as a closed postoperative surgical site dressing has led to a decrease in surgical site infections. The technique is simple and widely available, and should be considered for use to diminish surgical site infections.

  6. Surgical Adhesive Drape (IO-ban) as Postoperative Surgical Site Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Hasan R; Snyder, Rita; McGowan, Jason E; Jha, Ribhu T; Nair, Mani N

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective chart analysis. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the senior author’s (MNN) experience applying a widely available surgical drape as a postoperative sterile surgical site dressing for both cranial and spinal procedures. Summary of Background Data: Surgical site infection (SSI) is an important complication of spine surgery that can result in significant morbidity. There is wide variation in wound care management in practice, including dressing type. Given the known bactericidal properties of the surgical drape, there may be a benefit of continuing its use immediately postoperatively. Methods: All of the senior author’s cases from September 2014 through September 2015 were reviewed. These were contrasted to the previous year prior to the institution of a sterile surgical drape as a postoperative dressing. Results: Only one surgical case out of 157 operative interventions (35 cranial, 124 spinal) required operative debridement due to infection. From September 2013 to September 2014, prior to the institution of a sterile surgical drape as dressing, the author had five infections out of 143 operations (46 cranial, 97 spinal) requiring intervention. Conclusion: The implementation of a sterile surgical drape as a closed postoperative surgical site dressing has led to a decrease in surgical site infections. The technique is simple and widely available, and should be considered for use to diminish surgical site infections. PMID:26798570

  7. Surgical site infections and cellulitis after abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Savage, Mack W; Pottinger, Jean M; Chiang, Hsiu-Yin; Yohnke, Katherine R; Bowdler, Noelle C; Herwaldt, Loreen A

    2013-08-01

    To identify risk factors for and outcomes of surgical site infections and cellulitis after abdominal hysterectomies. We used logistic regression analysis to analyze data from a case-control study of 1104 patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomies at a university hospital between Jan. 1, 2007 and Dec. 30, 2010. Factors significantly associated with surgical site infections and with cellulitis were: pulmonary disease, operations done in Main Operating Room East, and seroma. Body mass index >35, no private insurance, and fluid and electrolyte disorders were risk factors for surgical site infections. The mean prophylactic dose of cefazolin was significantly higher for controls than for patients with surgical site infections. Preoperative showers with Hibiclens (Molnlycke Health Care US, LLC, Norcross, GA) and cefazolin prophylaxis were associated with a significantly decreased cellulitis risk. Surgical site infections and cellulitis were significantly associated with readmissions and return visits and surgical site infections were associated with reoperations. Preoperative showers, antimicrobial prophylaxis, surgical techniques preventing seromas, and the operating room environment may affect the risk of surgical site infections and cellulitis after abdominal hysterectomies. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Urologist's Practice Patterns Including Surgical Treatment in the Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Korean Nationwide Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dae Yul; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Sung Won; Moon, Ki Hak; Kim, Sae Woong; Kim, Soo Woong; Cho, Kang Su; Moon, Du Geon; Min, Kweonsik; Yang, Sang Kuk; Son, Hwancheol; Park, Kwangsung

    2013-12-01

    According to previous studies, the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) in Korea ranges from 11.3% to 33%. However, the actual practice patterns in managing patients with PE is not well known. In this study, we have endeavored to determine how contemporary urologists in Korea manage patients with PE. The e-mailing list was obtained from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians. A specifically designed questionnaire was e-mailed to the 2,421 urologists in Korea from May 2012 to August 2012. UROLOGISTS IN KOREA DIAGNOSED PE USING VARIOUS CRITERIA: the definition of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (63.4%), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (43.8%), International Statistical Classification of Disease, 10th edition (61.7%), or perceptional self-diagnosis by the patient himself (23.5%). A brief self-administered questionnaire, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, was used by only 42.5% of the urologists. Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy was the main treatment modality (91.5%) for PE patients. 40.2% of the urologists used phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, 47.6% behavior therapy, and 53.7% local anesthetics. Further, 286 (54.3%) urologists managed PE patients with a surgical modality such as selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN). A majority of Korean urologists diagnose PE by a multidimensional approach using various diagnostic tools. Most urologists believe that medical treatment with an SSRI is effective in the management of PE. At the same time, surgical treatment such as SDN also investigated as one of major treatment modality despite the lack of scientific evidence.

  9. Urologist's Practice Patterns Including Surgical Treatment in the Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Korean Nationwide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Yul; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Park, Hyun Jun; Moon, Ki Hak; Kim, Sae Woong; Kim, Soo Woong; Cho, Kang Su; Moon, Du Geon; Min, Kweonsik; Yang, Sang Kuk; Son, Hwancheol; Park, Kwangsung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose According to previous studies, the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) in Korea ranges from 11.3% to 33%. However, the actual practice patterns in managing patients with PE is not well known. In this study, we have endeavored to determine how contemporary urologists in Korea manage patients with PE. Materials and Methods The e-mailing list was obtained from the Korean Urological Association Registry of Physicians. A specifically designed questionnaire was e-mailed to the 2,421 urologists in Korea from May 2012 to August 2012. Results Urologists in Korea diagnosed PE using various criteria: the definition of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (63.4%), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (43.8%), International Statistical Classification of Disease, 10th edition (61.7%), or perceptional self-diagnosis by the patient himself (23.5%). A brief self-administered questionnaire, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, was used by only 42.5% of the urologists. Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy was the main treatment modality (91.5%) for PE patients. 40.2% of the urologists used phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, 47.6% behavior therapy, and 53.7% local anesthetics. Further, 286 (54.3%) urologists managed PE patients with a surgical modality such as selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN). Conclusions A majority of Korean urologists diagnose PE by a multidimensional approach using various diagnostic tools. Most urologists believe that medical treatment with an SSRI is effective in the management of PE. At the same time, surgical treatment such as SDN also investigated as one of major treatment modality despite the lack of scientific evidence. PMID:24459656

  10. A Thoracic Surgical Case Presented at the First Academic Meeting of the Chosun (Korean) Medical Association Held in 1947

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Gon

    2016-01-01

    The late Prof. Kyeok Boo Han (1913–2005) was one of the pioneers in the early stages of the establishment of thoracic surgery in Korea. He was in charge of thoracic surgery at Seoul National University Hospital from 1948 to the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. He presented a thoracic surgical case entitled “Adhesive (constrictive) pericarditis: one surgical case” at the first academic meeting of the Chosun (an old name for Korea) Medical Association, held in 1947. This presentation is considered to be the first thoracic surgical case presented by a Korean surgeon at a domestic medical meeting after the National Liberation from Japanese colonial rule in 1945. In this regard, this study was intended to analyze the content and the meaning of the case, published in a journal in 1948. PMID:27525248

  11. Early and late surgical site infections in ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Bastier, P L; Leroyer, C; Lashéras, A; Rogues, A-M; Darrouzet, V; Franco-Vidal, V

    2016-04-01

    A retroauricular approach is routinely used for treating chronic otitis media. The incidence of surgical site infections after ear surgery is around 10% in contaminated or dirty procedures. This observational prospective study describes surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery with the retroauricular approach and investigated their potential predictive factors. This observational prospective study included patients suffering from chronic otitis media and eligible for therapeutic surgery with a retroauricular approach. During follow-up, surgical site infections were defined as "early" if occurring within 30 days after surgery or as "late" if occurring thereafter. The data of 102 patients were analysed. Concerning early surgical site infections, four cases were diagnosed (3.9%) and a significant association was found with preoperative antibiotic therapy, wet ear at pre-operative examination, class III (contaminated) in the surgical wound classification, NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance) index > 1, and oral post-operative antibiotic use. Seven late surgical site infections were diagnosed (7.1%) between 90 and 160 days after surgery and were significantly correlated to otorrhoea during the 6 months before surgery, surgery duration ≤60 minutes, canal wall down technique and use of fibrin glue. Surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery seem to be associated with factors related to the inflammatory state of the middle ear at the time of surgery in early infections and with chronic inflammation in late infections.

  12. Performance improvement initiative: prevention of surgical site infection (SSI).

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai Khuan; Awad, Nawal

    2015-01-01

    Mafraq Hospital performs an average of 10,000 surgeries every year. The impact of having high volume high risk surgical procedures calls for the need to ensure safe surgery and a prevention of surgical site infection (SSI). SSI represents a significant portion of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The impact on morbidity, mortality, and cost of care has resulted in identifying the need to reduce SSI as a top priority to prevent healthcare associated infections. The good news is that the majority of SSIs are preventable. Mafraq Hospital performs a range of surgical procedures that covers 14 surgical specialties. The infection prevention and control team performs surveillance for SSI for all patients who undergo operative procedure included in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Operative Procedure Category (40 surgical procedures). Out of the 40 CDC NHSN listed, 33 operative procedures were performed at Mafraq Hospital, of which 17 were reported with SSI for 2013 and 2014. Surgical site infection has implicated an increase average length of stay from seven to 10 additional postoperative hospital days and additional costs of AED 10,000 to AED 100,000/SSI depending on procedure and pathogen. A multidisciplinary team was formed to develop and implement measures to reduce/eliminate surgical site infection, as well as evaluate and monitor compliance. Hence a group of multidisciplinary teams were initiated to analyse the results, find out the gaps, and implement a quality improvement project to correct the deficits. Recommendations for appropriate improvement measures were formed on evidence-based international guidelines from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and CDC. Evidence based practice supports that many of the causes of surgical site infection can be prevented with proper medical attention and care.

  13. Surgical attire, practices and their perception in the prevention of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    McHugh, S M; Corrigan, M A; Hill, A D K; Humphreys, H

    2014-02-01

    Clean surgical scrubs, surgical gowns and headgear are worn by operative teams to decrease bacterial contamination and lower surgical site infection (SSI) rates. A detailed review was undertaken of peer-reviewed publications and other sources of material in the English language over the last 50 years included. Surgical scrubs should be clean and made of tightly woven material. Studies investigating single-use gowns and drapes versus reusable gowns report conflicting evidence. Double gloving may reduce SSI rates in procedures where no antibiotic prophylaxis was administered. Bacterial contamination of the operative field has been shown to be decreased by the wearing of surgical headgear by the operating team. Further consideration and better trials are required to determine the impact of different theatre clothing on SSI rates. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Risk factors related to surgical site infection in elective surgery].

    PubMed

    Angeles-Garay, Ulises; Morales-Márquez, Lucy Isabel; Sandoval-Balanzarios, Miguel Antonio; Velázquez-García, José Arturo; Maldonado-Torres, Lulia; Méndez-Cano, Andrea Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors for surgical site infections in surgery should be measured and monitored from admission to 30 days after the surgical procedure, because 30% of Surgical Site Infection is detected when the patient was discharged. Calculate the Relative Risk of associated factors to surgical site infections in adult with elective surgery. Patients were classified according to the surgery contamination degree; patient with surgery clean was defined as no exposed and patient with clean-contaminated or contaminated surgery was defined exposed. Risk factors for infection were classified as: inherent to the patient, pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative. Statistical analysis; we realized Student t or Mann-Whitney U, chi square for Relative Risk (RR) and multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards. Were monitored up to 30 days after surgery 403 patients (59.8% women), 35 (8.7%) developed surgical site infections. The factors associated in multivariate analysis were: smoking, RR of 3.21, underweight 3.4 hand washing unsuitable techniques 4.61, transfusion during the procedure 3.22, contaminated surgery 60, and intensive care stay 8 to 14 days 11.64, permanence of 1 to 3 days 2.4 and use of catheter 1 to 3 days 2.27. To avoid all risk factors is almost impossible; therefore close monitoring of elective surgery patients can prevent infectious complications.

  15. Guidelines for the Surgical Management of Laryngeal Cancer: Korean Society of Thyroid-Head and Neck Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Hong, Hyun Jun; Kwon, Soon Young; Kwon, Kee Hwan; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Ryu, Junsun; Park, Jun Hee; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Lee, Guk Haeng; Lee, Sei Young; Lee, Jin Choon; Chung, Man Ki; Joo, Young Hoon; Ji, Yong Bae; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Minsu; Park, Young Min; Song, Chang Myeon; Shin, Sung-Chan; Ryu, Chang Hwan; Lee, Doh Young; Lee, Young Chan; Chang, Jae Won; Jeong, Ha Min; Cho, Jae-Keun; Cha, Wonjae; Chun, Byung Joon; Choi, Ik Joon; Choi, Hyo Geun; Lee, Kang Dae

    2017-03-01

    Korean Society of Thyroid-Head and Neck Surgery appointed a Task Force to develop clinical practice guidelines for the surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer. This Task Force conducted a systematic search of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed databases to identify relevant articles, using search terms selected according to the key questions. Evidence-based recommendations were then created on the basis of these articles. An external expert review and Delphi questionnaire were applied to reach consensus regarding the recommendations. The resulting guidelines focus on the surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer with the assumption that surgery is the selected treatment modality after a multidisciplinary discussion in any context. These guidelines do not, therefore, address non-surgical treatment such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The committee developed 62 evidence-based recommendations in 32 categories intended to assist clinicians during management of patients with laryngeal cancer and patients with laryngeal cancer, and counselors and health policy-makers.

  16. The Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Elective Colon Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Infections at the surgical site continue to occur in as many as 20% of elective colon resection cases. Methods to reduce these infections are inconsistently applied. Surgical site infection (SSI) is the result of multiple interactive variables including the inoculum of bacteria that contaminate the site, the virulence of the contaminating microbes, and the local environment at the surgical site. These variables that promote infection are potentially offset by the effectiveness of the host defense. Reduction in the inoculum of bacteria is achieved by appropriate surgical site preparation, systemic preventive antibiotics, and use of mechanical bowel preparation in conjunction with the oral antibiotic bowel preparation. Intraoperative reduction of hematoma, necrotic tissue, foreign bodies, and tissue dead space will reduce infections. Enhancement of the host may be achieved by perioperative supplemental oxygenation, maintenance of normothermia, and glycemic control. These methods require additional research to identify optimum application. Uniform application of currently understood methods and continued research into new methods to reduce microbial contamination and enhancement of host responsiveness can lead to better outcomes. PMID:24455434

  17. Epidemiology and prevention of surgical site infections after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, D; Bourigault, C; Roussel, J C; Lasserre, C; Leclère, B; Corvec, S; Pattier, S; Lepoivre, T; Baron, O; Despins, P

    2013-10-01

    Deep sternal wound infection is the major infectious complication in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate, and a longer hospital stay. The most common causative pathogen involved is Staphylococcus spp. The management of post sternotomy mediastinitis associates surgical revision and antimicrobial therapy with bactericidal activity in blood, soft tissues, and the sternum. The pre-, per-, and postoperative prevention strategies associate controlling the patient's risk factors (diabetes, obesity, respiratory insufficiency), preparing the patient's skin (body hair, preoperative showering, operating site antiseptic treatment), antimicrobial prophylaxis, environmental control of the operating room and medical devices, indications and adequacy of surgical techniques. Recently published scientific data prove the significant impact of decolonization in patients carrying nasal Staphylococcus aureus, on surgical site infection rate, after cardiac surgery.

  18. Teamwork and Collaboration for Prevention of Surgical Site Infections.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, E Patchen

    2016-04-01

    The surgeon has been regarded as the "captain of the ship" in the operating room (OR) for many years, but cannot accomplish successful operative intervention without the rest of the team. Review of the pertinent English-language literature. Many reports demonstrate very different impressions of teamwork and communication in the OR held by different members of the surgical team. Objective measures of teamwork and communication demonstrate a reduction in complications including surgical site infections with improved teamwork and communication, with fewer distractions such as noise, and with effective use of checklists. Efforts to improve teamwork and communication and promote the effective use of checklists promote patient safety and improved outcomes for patients with reduction in surgical site infections.

  19. Yield and Depth of Burial Hydrodynamic Calculations in Granodiorite: Implications for the North Korean Test Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    computational equation of state (EOS) for granite/ granodiorite and some examples of the models self-consistency. Our study focuses on the North...Yield and Depth of Burial Hydrodynamic Calculations in Granodiorite : Implications for the North Korean Test Site 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...structure, and b) the improvement of the computational equation of state (EOS) for granite/ granodiorite and some examples of the models self-consistency

  20. How to reduce the risk of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jennie

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are an important cause of healthcare- associated infection and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Although intrinsic factors in patients--such as age, underlying illness and site of the procedure--increase the risk, the quality of care delivered during the perioperative period is critical to preventing SSI. This article explores what is known about the epidemiology and pathogenesis of SSI, and practices that are effective in reducing the risk of SSI.

  1. Surgical site infection in women undergoing surgery for gynecologic cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Haider; Gojayev, Anar; Buechel, Megan; Knight, Jason; SanMarco, Janice; Lockhart, David; Michener, Chad; Moslemi-Kebria, Mehdi

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the rate and predictors of surgical site infection (SSI) after gynecologic cancer surgery and identify any association between SSI and postoperative outcome. Patients with endometrial, cervical, or ovarian cancers from 2005 to 2011 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The extent of surgical intervention was categorized into modified surgical complexity scoring (MSCS) system. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Odds ratios were adjusted for patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and operative factors. Of 6854 patients, 369 (5.4%) were diagnosed with SSI. Surgical site infection after laparotomy was 3.5 times higher compared with minimally invasive surgery (7% vs 2%; P < 0.001). Among laparotomy group, independent predictors of SSI included endometrial cancer diagnosis, obesity, ascites, preoperative anemia, American Society of Anesthesiologists class greater than or equal to 3, MSCS greater than or equal to 3, and perioperative blood transfusion. Among laparoscopic cases, independent predictors of SSI included only preoperative leukocytosis and overweight. For patients with deep or organ space SSI, significant predictors included hypoalbuminemia, preoperative weight loss, respiratory comorbidities, MSCS greater than 4, and perioperative blood transfusion for laparotomy and only preoperative leukocytosis for minimally invasive surgery. Surgical site infection was associated with longer mean hospital stay and higher rate of reoperation, sepsis, and wound dehiscence. Surgical site infection was not associated with increased risk of acute renal failure or 30-day mortality. These findings were consistent in subset of patients with deep or organ space SSI. Seven percent of patients undergoing laparotomy for gynecologic malignancy developed SSI. Surgical site infection is associated with longer hospital

  2. Re-evaluation of Probable Maximum Tsunamis for Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Park, Sang ho; Bae, Jae Seok; Cho, Yong-Sik; Yoon, Sung Bum

    2014-05-01

    Most of tsunami-triggering earthquakes occur in subduction zones around the Pacific Ocean area including the East Sea surrounded by Korea, Japan and Russia. In the East Sea, there were three major historical tsunami events occurred in 1964, 1983 and 1993. Among them, the Central East Sea Tsunami occurred in 1983, in special, caused huge losses of human lives and property damage at Korean coastal communities. There are several nuclear power plants under operation and several more plants will be built along the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula. These historical tsunamis were considered individually to evaluate the probable maximum tsunamis for Korean nuclear power plant sites. Recently, several catastrophic tsunamis have been occurred around the Pacific Ocean rim. Among them, the East Japan Tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011 has attracted social attention due to the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant site. The accident is still going on. Therefore, new approach to evaluate the probable maximum tsunamis for the Korean sites is investigated in this study. Joint rupture of historical tsunami sources and hypothetical tsunami sources is employed to define the new source parameters of the probable maximum tsunami. The hypothetical tsunamis are inferred from the seismic gap theories. The numerical model using the modified leap-frog finite difference scheme is used to simulate the propagation of the new probable maximum tsunami across the East Sea and the numerical model simulating the associated run-up process of tsunamis is then employed to estimate the maximum run-up heights. Predicted results will be used to make a measure against unexpected tsunami attacks.

  3. The role of antimicrobial sutures in preventing surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Leaper, D; Wilson, P; Assadian, O; Edmiston, C; Kiernan, M; Miller, A; Bond-Smith, G; Yap, J

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) are falling following widespread and enforced introduction of guidelines, particularly those that have addressed antibiotic resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus or emergent pathogens such as Clostridium difficile, but no such decline has been seen in the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI), either in the UK, the EU or the US. SSI is one of the HCAIs, which are all avoidable complications of a surgical patient's pathway through both nosocomial and community care. METHODS This report is based on a meeting held at The Royal College of Surgeons of England on 21 July 2016. Using PubMed, members of the panel reviewed the current use of antiseptics and antimicrobial sutures in their specialties to prevent SSI. FINDINGS The group agreed that wider use of antiseptics in surgical practice may help in reducing reliance on antibiotics in infection prevention and control, especially in the perioperative period of open elective colorectal, hepatobiliary and cardiac operative procedures. The wider use of antiseptics includes preoperative showering, promotion of hand hygiene, (including the appropriate use of surgical gloves), preoperative skin preparation (including management of hair removal), antimicrobial sutures and the management of dehisced surgical wounds after infection. The meeting placed emphasis on the level I evidence that supports the use of antimicrobial sutures, particularly in surgical procedures after which the SSI rate is high (colorectal and hepatobiliary surgery) or when a SSI can be life threatening even when the rate of SSI is low (cardiac surgery).

  4. Implementation of surgical quality improvement: auditing tool for surgical site infection prevention practices.

    PubMed

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Hobson, Deborah B; Bennett, Jennifer L; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections are a potentially preventable patient harm. Emerging evidence suggests that the implementation of evidence-based process measures for infection reduction is highly variable. The purpose of this work was to develop an auditing tool to assess compliance with infection-related process measures and establish a system for identifying and addressing defects in measure implementation. This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records. We used the auditing tool to assess compliance with 10 process measures in a sample of colorectal surgery patients with and without postoperative infections at an academic medical center (January 2012 to March 2013). We investigated 59 patients with surgical site infections and 49 patients without surgical site infections. First, overall compliance rates for the 10 process measures were compared between patients with infection vs patients without infection to assess if compliance was lower among patients with surgical site infections. Then, because of the burden of data collection, the tool was used exclusively to evaluate quarterly compliance rates among patients with infection. The results were reviewed, and the key factors contributing to noncompliance were identified and addressed. Ninety percent of process measures had lower compliance rates among patients with infection. Detailed review of infection cases identified many defects that improved following the implementation of system-level changes: correct cefotetan redosing (education of anesthesia personnel), temperature at surgical incision >36.0°C (flags used to identify patients for preoperative warming), and the use of preoperative mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics (laxative solutions and antibiotics distributed in clinic before surgery). Quarterly compliance improved for 80% of process measures by the end of the study period. This study was conducted on a small surgical cohort within a select subspecialty. The

  5. Surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Jussara Aparecida Souza do Nascimento; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to analyze the occurrence and predisposing factors for surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation, evaluating the relationship between cases of infections and the variables related to the patient and the surgical procedure. Method: retrospective cohort study, with review of the medical records of patients older than 18 years submitted to heart transplantation. The correlation between variables was evaluated by using Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Results: the sample consisted of 86 patients, predominantly men, with severe systemic disease, submitted to extensive preoperative hospitalizations. Signs of surgical site infection were observed in 9.3% of transplanted patients, with five (62.5%) superficial incisional, two (25%) deep and one (12.5%) case of organ/space infection. There was no statistically significant association between the variables related to the patient and the surgery. Conclusion: there was no association between the studied variables and the cases of surgical site infection, possibly due to the small number of cases of infection observed in the sample investigated. PMID:27579924

  6. Reducing surgical site infection in arthroplasty of the lower limb

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R.; Jameson, S. S.; Sanders, R. D.; Sargant, N. J.; Muller, S. D.; Meek, R. M. D.; Reed, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To review the current best surgical practice and detail a multi-disciplinary approach that could further reduce joint replacement infection. Methods Review of relevant literature indexed in PubMed. Results Surgical site infection is a major complication following arthroplasty. Despite its rarity in contemporary orthopaedic practice, it remains difficult to treat and is costly in terms of both patient morbidity and long-term health care resources. Conclusions Emphasis on education of patients and all members of the health-care team and raising awareness in how to participate in preventative efforts is imperative. PMID:23610703

  7. Daptomycin for the treatment of surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Ronald S; Culshaw, Darren L; Donovan, Brian J; Lamp, Kenneth C

    2009-08-01

    The increasing frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a cause of surgical site infections, and decreased susceptibility to vancomycin, highlight the need for alternative therapies. All patients with a surgical site infection enrolled in the Cubicin Outcomes Registry and Experience (CORE 2007 retrospective multicenter registry were studied. Outcome was assessed at the end of daptomycin therapy using protocol-defined criteria. Success was defined as cured or improved. Non-evaluable patients were excluded from the efficacy analysis but were included in the safety analysis. Of 962 patients in the CORE registry in 2007, 104 (11%) had a surgical infection and met the criteria for the efficacy analysis. The overall success rate was 91% (95/104). The distribution of surgical site infections by depth was 36% (38/104) superficial incisional, 36% (38/104) deep incisional, and 27% (28/104) organ/space. Success rates by infection depth were 92% for superficial incisional, 92% deep incisional, and 89% organ/space (P = .9). Success in patients with and without surgery was 89% (49/55) and 94% (46/49) (P = .5). The median final daptomycin dose was 5.5 mg/kg. The median duration of daptomycin therapy was 14 days. Prior antibiotic therapy was given to 79% of patients; 35% failed. Prior vancomycin was used in 45% of patients; 24% failed. Among vancomycin failures, the daptomycin success rate was 91% (10/11). Of those with a positive culture, common pathogens were S. aureus (68%; MRSA 61%) and enterococci (26%; vancomycin-resistant 36%). There were 9 possible treatment-related adverse events (AEs) in 8 of 118 (7%) patients; 2 serious AEs were reported in 1 patient. Success rates for patients with a surgical site infection treated with daptomycin were high and did not differ based on the need for surgical intervention. High success rates were achieved in patients with infection caused by MRSA as well as in patients who had failed to respond to previous

  8. Biopsy site selfies--a quality improvement pilot study to assist with correct surgical site identification.

    PubMed

    Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Lee, Erica H; Nehal, Kishwer S

    2015-04-01

    Determining the biopsy site location of a skin cancer before treatment is often challenging. To study the implementation and effectiveness of biopsy site selfies as a quality improvement measure for correct surgical site identification. In the first phase, the ability of dermatologic surgeon and patient to definitively identify the biopsy site and whether photography was needed to ensure site agreement were recorded. In the second phase, patients were requested to take biopsy site selfies, and after implementation, similar data were collected including whether a biopsy site selfie was helpful for definitive site identification. In the first phase, the physician and patient were unable to identify the biopsy site 17.6% (49/278) and 25.5% (71/278) of cases, respectively. A photograph was needed in 22.7% of cases (63/278). After implementation of biopsy site selfies, the physician and patient were unable to identify the biopsy site 17.4% (23/132) and 15.2% (20/132) of cases, respectively. Biopsy site selfies were available for 64.1% of cases for which no internal image was available and critical for site identification in 21.4% of these cases. Biopsy site selfies has proven to be helpful for correct surgical site identification by both the physician and the patient and may also provide further reassurance and confidence for patients.

  9. Adherence to surgical care improvement project measures and post-operative surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Awad, Samir S

    2012-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is unequivocally morbid and costly. The estimated 300,000 SSIs annually in the United States represent the second most common infection among surgical patients, prolong hospitalization by 7-10 days, and have an estimated annual incremental cost of $1 billion. The mortality rate associated with SSI is 3%, with about three quarters of deaths being attributable directly to the infection. Prevention is possible for the most part, and concerted effort has been made to limit these infections, arguably to little effect. Review of pertinent English-language literature. Numerous risk factors for SSI and tactics for prevention have been described, but efforts to bundle these tactics into an effective, comprehensive prevention program have been disappointing. Numerous studies now demonstrate that the Surgical Care Improvement Program (SCIP), which focused on process improvement rather than outcomes, has been ineffective despite governmental support, financial penalties for non-compliance, and consequent widespread implementation. Required reporting has increased awareness of the problem of SSI, but just as the complexity of SSI risk, pathogenesis, and preventions reflects the complexity of the disease, many other factors must be taken into account, including the skill and knowledge of the surgical team and promulgation of a culture of quality and safety in surgical patient care.

  10. Surgical site infections in paediatric otolaryngology operative procedures.

    PubMed

    Ifeacho, S N; Bajaj, Y; Jephson, C G; Albert, D M

    2012-07-01

    An assessment of the rate of surgical site infections associated with elective paediatric otolaryngology surgical procedures. Prospective data was collected for a 3-week period for all children undergoing surgery where either mucosa or skin was breached. The parents of the children were requested to complete a questionnaire at 30 days after the operation. Data was collected on 80 consecutive cases. The majority of cases were admitted on the day of the procedure. The procedures included adenotonsillectomy (24), grommets (12), cochlear implantation (6), bone-anchored hearing aid (2), submandibular gland excision (1), branchial sinus excision (1), cystic hygroma excision (3), nasal glioma excision (1), microlaryngobronchoscopy (13), tracheostomy (3) and other procedures (14). Nearly half the cases had more than one operation done at the same time. 26/80 (32.5%) patients had a temporary or permanent implant inserted at the time of operation (grommet, bone-anchored hearing aid, cochlear implant). 25/80 (31%) operative fields were classed as clean and 55/80 (68.7%) as clean contaminated operations. The duration of the operation varied from 6 min to 142 min. Hospital antibiotic protocol was adhered to in 69/80 (86.3%) cases but not in 11/80 cases. In our series, 3/80 (3.7%) patients had an infection in the postoperative period. Surgical site infections do occur at an appreciable rate in paediatric otolaryngology. With the potential for serious consequences, reduction in the risk of surgical site infections is important. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence of surgical site infection associated with robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Elizabeth D; Hinze, Tim; Sayles, Harlan; Sholtz, Lee; Rupp, Mark E

    2010-08-01

    Robot-assisted surgery is minimally invasive and associated with less blood loss and shorter recovery time than open surgery. We aimed to determine the duration of robot-assisted surgical procedures and the incidence of postoperative surgical site infection (SSI) and to compare our data with the SSI incidence for open procedures according to national data. Retrospective cohort study. A 689-bed academic medical center. All patients who underwent a surgical procedure with use of a robotic surgical system during the period from 2000-2007. SSIs were defined and procedure types were classified according to National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. National data for comparison were from 1992-2004. Because of small sample size, procedures were grouped according to surgical site or wound classification. Sixteen SSIs developed after 273 robot-assisted procedures (5.9%). The mean surgical duration was 333.6 minutes. Patients who developed SSI had longer mean surgical duration than did patients who did not (558 vs 318 minutes; P<.001). The prostate and genitourinary group had 5.74 SSIs per 100 robot-assisted procedures (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.81-11.37), compared with 0.85 SSIs per 100 open procedures from national data. The gynecologic group had 10.00 SSIs per 100 procedures (95% CI, 2.79-30.10), compared with 1.72 SSIs per 100 open procedures. The colon and herniorrhaphy groups had 33.33 SSIs per 100 procedures (95% CI, 9.68-70.00) and 37.50 SSIs per 100 procedures (95% CI, 13.68-69.43), respectively, compared with 5.88 and 1.62 SSIs per 100 open procedures from national data. Patients with a clean-contaminated wound developed 6.1 SSIs per 100 procedures (95% CI, 3.5-10.3), compared with 2.59 SSIs per 100 open procedures. No significant differences in SSI rates were found for other groups. Increased incidence of SSI after some types of robot-assisted surgery compared with traditional open surgery may be related to the learning curve associated with use of the

  12. Preventing surgical-site infections: measures other than antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chauveaux, D

    2015-02-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) due to intra-operative contamination are chiefly ascribable to airborne particles carrying microorganisms, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, which settle on the surgeon's hands and instruments. SSI prevention therefore rests on minimisation of airborne contaminated particle counts, although these have not been demonstrated to correlate significantly with SSI rates. Maintaining clear air in the operating room classically involves the use of ultra clean ventilation systems combining laminar airflow and high-efficiency particulate air filters to create a physical barrier around the surgical table; in addition to a stringent patient preparation protocol, appropriate equipment, and strict operating room discipline on the part of the surgeon and other staff members. SSI rates in clean surgery, although influenced by the type of procedure and by patient-related factors, are consistently very low, of about 1% to 2%. These low rates, together with the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic therapy and the multiplicity of parameters influencing the SSI risk, are major obstacles to the demonstration that a specific measure is effective in decreasing SSIs. As a result, controversy surrounds the usefulness of many measures, including laminar airflow, body exhaust suits, patient preparation techniques, and specific surgical instruments. Impeccable surgical technique and operating room behaviour, in contrast, are clearly essential.

  13. [Penal liability from retained foreign body inside the surgical site].

    PubMed

    Angiò, L G; Ventura Spagnolo, E; Pirrone, G; Cardia, G

    2011-03-01

    The Authors focus on the liability of the surgery team members in the case they inadvertently forget behind in the patient's body a foreign object, which causes injuries and/or death. The Authors underline that, according to the current case law regarding medical malpractice, both the main surgeon and their assistant/subordinate are liable for engaging in a markedly imprudent and/or negligent conduct, such as not double-checking scrupulously the surgical site before its closure in order to highlight forgotten foreign bodies. As well, the Authors underline that either the circulator nurse or the theatre nurse can be considered punishable by law when that medical error occurs, even if they are responsible for the count of the instruments used in the course of the surgery. Conversely, the main surgeon and his or her assistant are always directly responsible, due to the fact that the nurses' count procedure represents merely an additional control measure, without substituting at all the check the surgeons must obligatory conduct on the surgical site. Finally, the Authors point out that, as the count procedure is performed by the members of a surgical team, where a hierarchy-based relationship rules, the main surgeon is the liable for any preventable and avoidable adverse event provoked by the nursing staff as a consequence of the objective responsibility due to culpa in eligendo and culpa in vigilando.

  14. Surgical site infection prevention: time to move beyond the surgical care improvement program.

    PubMed

    Hawn, Mary T; Vick, Catherine C; Richman, Joshua; Holman, William; Deierhoi, Rhiannon J; Graham, Laura A; Henderson, William G; Itani, Kamal M F

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) improved surgical site infection (SSI) rates using national data at the patient level for both SCIP adherence and SSI occurrence. The SCIP was established in 2006 with the goal of reducing surgical complications by 25% in 2010. National Veterans' Affairs (VA) data from 2005 to 2009 on adherence to 5 SCIP SSI prevention measures were linked to Veterans' Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program SSI outcome data. Effect of SCIP adherence and year of surgery on SSI outcome were assessed with logistic regression using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for procedure type and variables known to predict SSI. Correlation between hospital SCIP adherence and SSI rate was assessed using linear regression. There were 60,853 surgeries at 112 VA hospitals analyzed. SCIP adherence ranged from 75% for normothermia to 99% for hair removal and all significantly improved over the study period (P < 0.001). Surgical site infection occurred after 6.2% of surgeries (1.6% for orthopedic surgeries to 11.3% for colorectal surgeries). None of the 5 SCIP measures were significantly associated with lower odds of SSI after adjusting for variables known to predict SSI and procedure type. Year was not associated with SSI (P = 0.71). Hospital SCIP performance was not correlated with hospital SSI rates (r = -0.06, P = 0.54). Adherence to SCIP measures improved whereas risk-adjusted SSI rates remained stable. SCIP adherence was neither associated with a lower SSI rate at the patient level, nor associated with hospital SSI rates. Policies regarding continued SCIP measurement and reporting should be reassessed.

  15. Multi-site study of surgical practice in neurosurgery based on surgical process models.

    PubMed

    Forestier, Germain; Lalys, Florent; Riffaud, Laurent; Louis Collins, D; Meixensberger, Jurgen; Wassef, Shafik N; Neumuth, Thomas; Goulet, Benoit; Jannin, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Surgical Process Modelling (SPM) was introduced to improve understanding the different parameters that influence the performance of a Surgical Process (SP). Data acquired from SPM methodology is enormous and complex. Several analysis methods based on comparison or classification of Surgical Process Models (SPMs) have previously been proposed. Such methods compare a set of SPMs to highlight specific parameters explaining differences between populations of patients, surgeons or systems. In this study, procedures performed at three different international University hospitals were compared using SPM methodology based on a similarity metric focusing on the sequence of activities occurring during surgery. The proposed approach is based on Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm combined with a clustering algorithm. SPMs of 41 Anterior Cervical Discectomy (ACD) surgeries were acquired at three Neurosurgical departments; in France, Germany, and Canada. The proposed approach distinguished the different surgical behaviors according to the location where surgery was performed as well as between the categorized surgical experience of individual surgeons. We also propose the use of Multidimensional Scaling to induce a new space of representation of the sequences of activities. The approach was compared to a time-based approach (e.g. duration of surgeries) and has been shown to be more precise. We also discuss the integration of other criteria in order to better understand what influences the way the surgeries are performed. This first multi-site study represents an important step towards the creation of robust analysis tools for processing SPMs. It opens new perspectives for the assessment of surgical approaches, tools or systems as well as objective assessment and comparison of surgeon's expertise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Cause and prevention of surgical site infection and hypertrophic scars].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Rei

    2012-03-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) occurs at the site of surgery within 1 month of an operation or within 1 year of an operation if a foreign body is implanted as part of the surgery. Most SSIs (about 70%) are superficial infections involving the skin and subcutaneous tissues only. The remaining infections are more serious and can involve tissues under the skin, organs, or implanted material. Hypertrophic scars( HSs) occur frequently on particular sites, including the anterior chest wall. The anterior chest wall is frequently subjected to skin stretching caused by the natural daily movements of the body. Most cases of SSIs and HSs can be prevented by (1) suture technique modification to prevent high stretching tension and ischemia, and (2) appropriate wound care after surgery. It would be useful to avoid subjecting wounded skin to sustained mechanical force, thereby permitting the wound to rest and heal normally.

  17. Costs Associated With Surgical Site Infections in Veterans Affairs Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Marin L; Cullen, Joseph J; Perencevich, Eli N; Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary S

    2014-06-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are potentially preventable complications that are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. To determine the excess costs associated with total, deep, and superficial SSIs among all operations and for high-volume surgical specialties. Surgical patients from 129 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals were included. The Veterans Health Administration Decision Support System and VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program databases were used to assess costs associated with SSIs among VA patients who underwent surgery in fiscal year 2010. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate incremental costs associated with SSIs, controlling for patient risk factors, surgical risk factors, and hospital-level variation in costs. Costs of the index hospitalization and subsequent 30-day readmissions were included. Additional analysis determined potential cost savings of quality improvement programs to reduce SSI rates at hospitals with the highest risk-adjusted SSI rates. Among 54,233 VA patients who underwent surgery, 1756 (3.2%) experienced an SSI. Overall, 0.8% of the cohort had a deep SSI, and 2.4% had a superficial SSI. The mean unadjusted costs were $31,580 and $52,620 for patients without and with an SSI, respectively. In the risk-adjusted analyses, the relative costs were 1.43 times greater for patients with an SSI than for patients without an SSI (95% CI, 1.34-1.52; difference, $11,876). Deep SSIs were associated with 1.93 times greater costs (95% CI, 1.71-2.18; difference, $25,721), and superficial SSIs were associated with 1.25 times greater costs (95% CI, 1.17-1.35; difference, $7003). Among the highest-volume specialties, the greatest mean cost attributable to SSIs was $23,755 among patients undergoing neurosurgery, followed by patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, general surgery, peripheral vascular surgery, and urologic surgery. If hospitals in the highest 10th percentile (ie, the worst hospitals) reduced their SSI rates to the

  18. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection After Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Warren, David K; Nickel, Katelin B; Wallace, Anna E; Mines, Daniel; Tian, Fang; Symons, William J; Fraser, Victoria J; Olsen, Margaret A

    2017-01-01

    There are limited data on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A retrospective cohort of commercially insured persons aged 18-64 years was assembled using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, 4th edition codes for cholecystectomy from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010. Complex procedures and patients (eg, cancer, end-stage renal disease) and procedures with pre-existing infection were excluded. Surgical site infections within 90 days after cholecystectomy were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Surgical site infections were identified after 472 of 66566 (0.71%) cholecystectomies; incidence was higher after open (n = 51, 4.93%) versus laparoscopic procedures (n = 421, 0.64%; P < .001). Independent risk factors for SSI included male gender, preoperative chronic anemia, diabetes, drug abuse, malnutrition/weight loss, obesity, smoking-related diseases, previous Staphylococcus aureus infection, laparoscopic approach with acute cholecystitis/obstruction (hazards ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1.96), open approach with (HR, 4.29; 95% CI, 2.45-7.52) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.96-8.34), conversion to open approach with (HR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.74-8.10) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 7.11; 95% CI, 3.87-13.08), bile duct exploration, postoperative chronic anemia, and postoperative pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Acute cholecystitis or obstruction was associated with significantly increased risk of SSI with laparoscopic but not open cholecystectomy. The risk of SSI was similar for planned open and converted procedures. These findings suggest that stratification by operative factors is important when comparing SSI rates between facilities.

  19. [Incidence of surgical site infection after open heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Marković-Denić, Lj; Mihajlović, B; Cemerlić-Adjić, N; Nićin, S; Pavlović, K; Golubović, M

    2010-01-01

    Despite modem surgical techniques, preoperative preventive use of antibiotics and optimal treatment of operative site, surgical site infections (SSI) are significant medical problem in the countries worldwide. The aim of this paper was to estimate the frequency of SSI after open heart surgery and to identify the most frequent causes of these infections. A prospective cohort study was performed during the period from January 2008 to December 2009 at the Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Vojvodina. The surveillance was consistent throughout the study period. During hospitalization, patients were evaluated daily by the infection control nurse. Isolation, identification and sensitivity tests of causative agents to antimicrobial drugs, obtained from patients' material, were carried out by standard microbiological methods. The descriptive epidemio-logical method was used. The incidence rates of hospital infections were calculated. During the study period, among 23 patients, 24 SSIs were registered. The average incidence rate of patients with SSI was 0.98% and SSI rate was 1.02% (ranged from 0% to 3.7%). There was no difference in the incidence rates according to gender (p = 0.65).The mean age of patients with SSI was 64.7 years. Except one, all patients had the ASA score higher than 2. The patients with SSIs were hospitalized approximately 3.8 times longer than the patient without SSI (p = 0.03). The most common causes of SSI were: Staphylococcus aureus (30%), coagulasa-negative Staphylococcus spp, Acinetobacter spp (8%), Enterococcus spp and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although the incidence rate of hospital infections is low, it is necessary to maintain continuous surveillance of surgical site infections and to implement the preventive measures.

  20. Guidelines for the Surgical Management of Laryngeal Cancer: Korean Society of Thyroid-Head and Neck Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Hong, Hyun Jun; Kwon, Soon Young; Kwon, Kee Hwan; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Ryu, Junsun; Park, Jun Hee; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Lee, Guk Haeng; Lee, Sei Young; Lee, Jin Choon; Chung, Man Ki; Joo, Young Hoon; Ji, Yong Bae; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Minsu; Park, Young Min; Song, Chang Myeon; Shin, Sung-Chan; Ryu, Chang Hwan; Lee, Doh Young; Lee, Young Chan; Chang, Jae Won; Jeong, Ha Min; Cho, Jae-Keun; Cha, Wonjae; Chun, Byung Joon; Choi, Ik Joon; Choi, Hyo Geun; Lee, Kang Dae

    2017-01-01

    Korean Society of Thyroid-Head and Neck Surgery appointed a Task Force to develop clinical practice guidelines for the surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer. This Task Force conducted a systematic search of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed databases to identify relevant articles, using search terms selected according to the key questions. Evidence-based recommendations were then created on the basis of these articles. An external expert review and Delphi questionnaire were applied to reach consensus regarding the recommendations. The resulting guidelines focus on the surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer with the assumption that surgery is the selected treatment modality after a multidisciplinary discussion in any context. These guidelines do not, therefore, address non-surgical treatment such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The committee developed 62 evidence-based recommendations in 32 categories intended to assist clinicians during management of patients with laryngeal cancer and patients with laryngeal cancer, and counselors and health policy-makers. PMID:28043099

  1. Korean Lunar Lander - Concept Study for Landing-Site Selection for Lunar Resource Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Wöhler, Christian; Hyeok Ju, Gwang; Lee, Seung-Ryeol; Rodriguez, Alexis P.; Berezhnoy, Alexey A.; van Gasselt, Stephan; Grumpe, Arne; Aymaz, Rabab

    2016-06-01

    As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea's institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP) are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander - currently in pre-phase A - is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today's accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon's surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi-) automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches - including methods and tools - for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of analyses. By considering given

  2. Patients at High-Risk for Surgical Site Infection.

    PubMed

    Mueck, Krislynn M; Kao, Lillian S

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant healthcare quality issue, resulting in increased morbidity, disability, length of stay, resource utilization, and costs. Identification of high-risk patients may improve pre-operative counseling, inform resource utilization, and allow modifications in peri-operative management to optimize outcomes. Review of the pertinent English-language literature. High-risk surgical patients may be identified on the basis of individual risk factors or combinations of factors. In particular, statistical models and risk calculators may be useful in predicting infectious risks, both in general and for SSIs. These models differ in the number of variables; inclusion of pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative variables; ease of calculation; and specificity for particular procedures. Furthermore, the models differ in their accuracy in stratifying risk. Biomarkers may be a promising way to identify patients at high risk of infectious complications. Although multiple strategies exist for identifying surgical patients at high risk for SSIs, no one strategy is superior for all patients. Further efforts are necessary to determine if risk stratification in combination with risk modification can reduce SSIs in these patient populations.

  3. Surgical site infections in oncologic orthopaedic prosthetics surgery.

    PubMed

    Nobile, M; Navone, P; Domeniconi, G; Della Valle, A; Daolio, P A; Buccino, N A; Auxilia, F

    2015-01-01

    Literature reports an incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in oncological patients undergoing prosthetic replacement between 8% and 35% after first implantation and 43% after revision. The purpose of this retrospective study, conducted at the oncologic orthopaedic unit of G. Pini Orthopaedic Hospital in Milan, was to evaluate: - number of SSIs in oncological megaprosthetic reconstruction between 2008 and 2011, - possible risk factors associated with the onset of SSIs, - antibiotic prophylaxis applied. We reviewed medical records of patients who underwent megaprosthetic reconstruction and collected data on whole treatment and follow up after discharge, focusing on possible risk factors implied in the onset of SSIs such as patient characteristics, site of surgery, duration of surgery, number of persons in the operating room, size of resection, antibiotic prophylaxis. We recorded every SSI which met the criteria set by the Hospital in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS) protocol. One-hundred and eleven surgeries were evaluated. Administration of prophylaxis was generally recorded and continued postoperatively for an average of 18.89 days, often depending on the length of the post-surgical stay. Mean duration of surgery was 254 minutes with an average of 7 persons attending the operating room. We recorded 6 SSIs.

  4. Language Learning as a Site for Belonging: A Narrative Analysis of Korean Adoptee-Returnees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christina; Stoker, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Through analyzing narratives of Korean heritage language (HL) users, this article explores whether and to what degree these language users experience social inclusion and a sense of belonging in Korean society. We expand the field of HL research by investigating the experiences of four Korean-born, US-raised adoptee-returnees who currently reside…

  5. Robotic cholecystectomy using Revo-i Model MSR-5000, the newly developed Korean robotic surgical system: a preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jin Hong; Lee, Woo Jung; Park, Dong Won; Yea, Hye Jin; Kim, Se Hoon; Kang, Chang Moo

    2017-08-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has become the standard option for gastrointestinal surgeries. However, laparoscopic procedures require extended training times and are difficult for inexperienced surgeons. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery facilitates easy adaptation of laparoscopic procedures, but robotic surgical systems are expensive. In addition, their cost has remained high because there is currently only one manufacturer of commercially available systems. Recently, a new Korean robotic surgical system, Revo-i, has been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of Revo-i by performing robotic cholecystectomy in a porcine model. After approval by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Yonsei University Health System, cholecystectomy was performed in four pigs using the Revo-i robotic surgical system. Operative time and perioperative complications were recorded, and all animals were observed for postoperative complications for 2 weeks after surgery RESULTS: Robotic cholecystectomy was completed successfully and without gallbladder perforation in all cases. The mean operative time was 78 ± 12 min, the mean docking time was 4.5 ± 2.52 min, and the mean console time was 49.8 ± 14.17 min. There were no perioperative complications, and none of the animal used for the in vivo models exhibited abnormal behavior during the postoperative observation period. These preliminary results verify the safety and efficacy of robotic cholecystectomy using the Revo-i robotic surgical system. Human trials are slated to begin accordingly.

  6. Factors predicting surgical site infection after posterior lumbar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Hui; Yang, Da-Long; Jiang, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Li-Jun; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This is a retrospective study. The purpose of this study is to explore incidence and risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after posterior lumbar surgery. SSI is a common complication after posterior lumbar surgery, bringing mental and physical pain and prolonging hospital stay. However, predisposing factors, as reported less, remain controversial. Patients who underwent posterior lumbar surgery at 3 centers between 2006 and 2016 were included. The possible factors include 3 aspects: demographic variables-age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip radio (WHR), hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, smoking, drinking, steroidal injection, surgical time between June and September, preoperative shower; blood test variables-white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), total protein (TP), albumin, albumin/globulin (A/G), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and surgical related variables-operation time, blood loss, operative level, instrumentation, incision length. Factors related with SSI were also performed by multivariate analysis. The prevalence of SSI was 3.00% (267 cases of 8879) had a postoperative wound infection. There were significant difference in WHR (0.92 vs 0.83), WBC (4.31 vs 6.69), TP (58.7 vs 65.2), albumin (36.9 vs 43.2), CRP (2.01 vs 0.57), PCT (0.097 vs 0.067), operation time (217.9 vs 195.7), blood loss (997.1 vs 915.3) and operative level (3.05 vs 2.45) and incision length (24.1 vs 20.0) between SSI group and non-SSI group. >60 years old, female, BMI <18.5 and >30.0, diabetes, male smoking, preoperative steroidal injection, surgical time between June and September, no preoperative shower, instrumentation surgery were risk factors for SSI after posterior lumbar surgery. Many factors, >60 years old, female, BMI, WHR, diabetes, male smoking, preoperative steroidal injection, surgical time between June and September, preoperative shower, WBC, TP, albumin

  7. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection After Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Katelin B.; Wallace, Anna E.; Mines, Daniel; Tian, Fang; Symons, William J.; Fraser, Victoria J.; Olsen, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. There are limited data on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. A retrospective cohort of commercially insured persons aged 18–64 years was assembled using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, 4th edition codes for cholecystectomy from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010. Complex procedures and patients (eg, cancer, end-stage renal disease) and procedures with pre-existing infection were excluded. Surgical site infections within 90 days after cholecystectomy were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results. Surgical site infections were identified after 472 of 66566 (0.71%) cholecystectomies; incidence was higher after open (n = 51, 4.93%) versus laparoscopic procedures (n = 421, 0.64%; P < .001). Independent risk factors for SSI included male gender, preoperative chronic anemia, diabetes, drug abuse, malnutrition/weight loss, obesity, smoking-related diseases, previous Staphylococcus aureus infection, laparoscopic approach with acute cholecystitis/obstruction (hazards ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.96), open approach with (HR, 4.29; 95% CI, 2.45–7.52) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.96–8.34), conversion to open approach with (HR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.74–8.10) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 7.11; 95% CI, 3.87–13.08), bile duct exploration, postoperative chronic anemia, and postoperative pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Conclusions. Acute cholecystitis or obstruction was associated with significantly increased risk of SSI with laparoscopic but not open cholecystectomy. The risk of SSI was similar for planned open and converted procedures. These findings suggest that stratification by operative factors is

  8. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection Following Major Breast Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Margaret A.; Lefta, Mellani; Dietz, Jill R.; Brandt, Keith E.; Aft, Rebecca; Matthews, Ryan; Mayfield, Jennie; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections following breast surgery result in increased length of hospital stay, antibiotic utilization, and morbidity. Understanding SSI risk factors is essential to develop infection prevention strategies and improve surgical outcomes. Methods A retrospective case-control design was used to determine independent risk factors for surgical site infection in subjects selected from a cohort of patients who had mastectomy, breast reconstruction or reduction surgery between January 1998 and June 2002 at a tertiary-care university affiliated hospital. SSI cases within 1 year after surgery were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for wound infection or complication and/or positive wound cultures. The medical records of 57 case patients with breast SSI and 268 randomly selected uninfected control patients were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results During the 4.5-year study period, 57 patients developed SSIs involving a breast incision and 10 patients developed SSIs involving a donor site incision. Significant independent risk factors for SSI involving the breast incision included insertion of a breast implant or tissue expander (odds ratio (OR) 5.3, 95% confidence interval (CI):2.5–11.1), suboptimal prophylactic antibiotic dosing (OR 5.1, 95% CI: 2.5–0.2 ), transfusion (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3–9.0), mastectomy (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4–7.7), previous chest irradiation (OR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.2–6.5), and current or recent smoking (OR 2.1, 95% CI: 0.9–4.9). Local infiltration of an anesthetic agent was associated with significantly reduced risk of SSI (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.1–0.9). Conclusions Suboptimal prophylactic antibiotic dosing is a potentially modifiable risk factor for SSI following breast surgery. Risk of SSI was increased in patients undergoing mastectomy and in patients who had an implant or tissue expander placed during surgery. Knowledge of these risk factors can be

  9. Surgical site infection--the authors' own prospective research.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Danuta; Grzebieniak, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection is a common complication in surgery, which increases treatment cost, extends hospitalization time and can lead to septic complications. The aim of the study was analysis of postoperative infections in own material and finding significant risk factors with preserving the obligatory procedures in the clinic. Prospective analysis of 270 consecutively operated patients aged from 18 to 101 was performed with observation of early infection until 7th day postoperatively. Factors judged included: age, sex, BMI, operation type: elective or urgent, physical preparation for surgery, antibiotic prophylaxis, length and type of surgery. Wound observation card was used. Data were analysed statistically (t-Student's test, chi2 test, U Mann Whitney test and logistic regression analysis). Wound infection was observed in 33 patients (12.22% of the entire group). In 24 (8.88%) it was a superficial infection and in 9 (3.33%) deep infection. Statistically significant risk factors were age, presence of diabetes, operation time and operations on large bowel. The average age of patients with present infection was 61.2. In the group without infection there were 6,3% patients with diabetes and 20.8% in the group with infection. In our study diabetes increased the risk of infection four times. The longer the operation time the higher was the risk of deep infection (without complications 76.2 minutes, superficial 94.9 minutes, deep 148.9 minutes). Operations on large bowel were performed in 11.9%of all study patients. In the group of 33 patients with surgical wound infection, 39.4% had colon surgery, 39.4% of all deep infections and 29.2% of all superficial infections. In own study material significant risk factors of surgical wound infection were: age, presence of diabetes, length of operation, large bowel surgery. In preoperative course risk factors should be identified to perform certain prophylactic procedures to lower the risk of infectious complications.

  10. Operative Duration and Risk of Surgical Site Infection in Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Bekelis, Kimon; Coy, Shannon; Simmons, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    The association of surgical duration with the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) has not been quantified in neurosurgery. We investigated the association of operative duration in neurosurgical procedures with the incidence of SSI. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures from 2005 to 2012 and were registered in the American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Project registry. To control for confounding, we used multivariable regression models and propensity score conditioning. During the study period there were 94,744 patients who underwent a neurosurgical procedure and met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 4.1% developed a postoperative SSI within 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression showed an association between longer operative duration with higher incidence of SSI (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.20). Compared with procedures of moderate duration (third quintile, 40th-60th percentile), patients undergoing the longest procedures (>80th percentile) had higher odds (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.86-2.31) of developing SSI. The shortest procedures (<20th percentile) were associated with decreased incidence of SSI (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.61-0.83) compared with those of moderate duration. The same associations were present in propensity score adjusted models and models stratified by subgroups of cranial, spinal, peripheral nerve, and carotid procedures. In a cohort of patients from a national prospective surgical registry, longer operative duration was associated with increased incidence of SSI for neurosurgical procedures. These results can be used by neurosurgeons to inform operative management and to stratify patients with regard to SSI risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving prediction of surgical site infection risk with multilevel modeling.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lauren; Perennec-Olivier, Marion; Jarno, Pascal; L'Hériteau, François; Venier, Anne-Gaëlle; Simon, Loïc; Giard, Marine; Thiolet, Jean-Michel; Viel, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance is a key factor in the elaboration of strategies to reduce SSI occurrence and in providing surgeons with appropriate data feedback (risk indicators, clinical prediction rule). To improve the predictive performance of an individual-based SSI risk model by considering a multilevel hierarchical structure. Data were collected anonymously by the French SSI active surveillance system in 2011. An SSI diagnosis was made by the surgical teams and infection control practitioners following standardized criteria. A random 20% sample comprising 151 hospitals, 502 wards and 62280 patients was used. Three-level (patient, ward, hospital) hierarchical logistic regression models were initially performed. Parameters were estimated using the simulation-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. A total of 623 SSI were diagnosed (1%). The hospital level was discarded from the analysis as it did not contribute to variability of SSI occurrence (p  = 0.32). Established individual risk factors (patient history, surgical procedure and hospitalization characteristics) were identified. A significant heterogeneity in SSI occurrence between wards was found (median odds ratio [MOR] 3.59, 95% credibility interval [CI] 3.03 to 4.33) after adjusting for patient-level variables. The effects of the follow-up duration varied between wards (p<10-9), with an increased heterogeneity when follow-up was <15 days (MOR 6.92, 95% CI 5.31 to 9.07]). The final two-level model significantly improved the discriminative accuracy compared to the single level reference model (p<10-9), with an area under the ROC curve of 0.84. This study sheds new light on the respective contribution of patient-, ward- and hospital-levels to SSI occurrence and demonstrates the significant impact of the ward level over and above risk factors present at patient level (i.e., independently from patient case-mix).

  12. Evidence update on prevention of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Leaper, David; Ousey, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common healthcare-associated infection and complicates up to 10-20% of operations with considerable strain on healthcare resources. Apart from the widely adopted use of appropriate hair removal, antibiotic prophylaxis, avoidance of hypothermia and perioperative glycaemic control to reduce SSIs, this review has considered new research and systematic reviews, and whether their findings should be included in guidelines. The efficacy of preoperative bathing/showering, antibiotic prophylaxis for clean surgery and perioperative oxygen supplementation to reduce the risk of SSI is still in doubt. By contrast, the use of 2% chlorhexidine in alcohol skin preparation, postoperative negative pressure wound therapy and antiseptic surgical dressings do show promise. Antimicrobial sutures in independent meta-analyses were found to reduce the risk of SSI after all classes of surgery (except dirty) whereas the use of wound guards, or diathermy skin incision (compared with scalpel incision), did not. The incidence of SSI after surgery is not falling. Based on this review of published trials and evidence-based systematic reviews some advances might be included into these care bundles. More research is needed together with improved compliance with care bundles.

  13. Surgical site infection prevention initiative - patient attitude and compliance.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Nicholas; Skeete, Faith; Haas, Janet P; Hutzler, Lorraine; Slover, James; Phillips, Michael; Bosco, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Although the effect of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) decolonization on surgical site infection (SSI) rates has been studied, patient tolerance and acceptance of these regimens has not been assessed. Surgical patients at our hospital's Pre-Admission Testing Clinic (PAT) receive SA reduction protocols instructing the preoperative use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) soap and intranasal mupirocin ointment (MO). Certain insurers do not cover MO costs resulting in out of pocket (OOP) expenses for some patients. This study assessed patient attitudes and compliance with our hospital's SA decolonization regimen. One-hundred-forty-six patients received surveys. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. Of respondents fitting inclusion criteria, 81% followed the MO protocol (MO users) while 89% followed the CHG protocol (CHG users). Fifty-four percent of MO users reported OOP expenses and 13% reported a hard or very hard financial burden. Ninety-three percent of CHG users reported the protocol was easy or very easy to follow. Eighty-one percent of patients receiving the SA protocol were fully compliant despite cost or difficulty obtaining MO. Given these barriers and some difficulty with CHG application, we hypothesize compliance may be improved if MO is provided to patients without OOP expenses and if the CHG application method is simplified.

  14. The effect of Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) compliance on surgical site infections (SSI).

    PubMed

    Cataife, Guido; Weinberg, Daniel A; Wong, Hui-Hsing; Kahn, Katherine L

    2014-02-01

    The Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) has developed a set of process compliance measures in an attempt to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs). Previous research has been inconclusive on whether compliance with these measures is associated with lower SSI rates. To determine whether hospitals with higher levels of compliance with SCIP measures have lower incidence of SSIs and to identify the measures that are most likely to drive this association. Analysis of linked SCIP compliance rates and SSIs on 295 hospital groups observed annually over the study period 2007-2010. A hospital group comprises all hospitals sharing identical categories for location by state, teaching status, bed size, and urban/rural location. We used a generalized linear model regression with logistic link and binomial family to estimate the association between 3 SCIP measures and SSI rates. Hospital groups with higher compliance rates had significantly lower SSI rates for 2 SCIP measures: antibiotic timing and appropriate antibiotic selection. For a hospital group of median characteristics, a 10% improvement in the measure provision of antibiotic 1 hour before intervention led to a 5.3% decrease in the SSI rates (P<0.05). Rural hospitals had effect sizes several times larger than urban hospitals (P<0.05). A third-core measure, Timely Antibiotic Stop, showed no robust association. This analysis supports a clinically and statistically meaningful relationship between adherence to 2 SCIP measures and SSI rates, supporting the validity of the 2 publicly available healthcare-associated infection metrics.

  15. Improving Surveillance and Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Melissa; Hersey, Diane; Harrison, Sheilah; Joy, Brian; Naguib, Aymen; Galantowicz, Mark; Simsic, Janet

    2016-03-01

    Postoperative cardiovascular surgical site infections are preventable events that may lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. To improve surgical wound surveillance and reduce the incidence of surgical site infections. An institutional review of surgical site infections led to implementation of 8 surveillance and process measures: appropriate preparation the night before surgery and the day of surgery, use of appropriate preparation solution in the operating room, appropriate timing of preoperative antibiotic administration, placement of a photograph of the surgical site in the patient's chart at discharge, sending a photograph of the surgical site to the patient's primary care physician, 30-day follow-up of the surgical site by an advanced nurse practitioner, and placing a photograph of the surgical site obtained on postoperative day 30 in the patient's chart. Mean overall compliance with the 8 measures from March 2013 through February 2014 was 88%. Infections occurred in 10 of 417 total operative cases (2%) in 2012, in 8 of 437 total operative cases (2%) in 2013, and in 7 of 452 total operative cases (1.5%) in 2014. Institution of the surveillance process has resulted in improved identification of suspected surgical site infections via direct rather than indirect measures, accurate identification of all surgical site infections based on definitions of the National Healthcare Safety Network, collaboration with all persons involved, and enhanced communication with patients' family members and referring physicians. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  16. An outbreak of handscrubbing-related surgical site infections in vascular surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Grinbaum, R S; de Mendonça, J S; Cardo, D M

    1995-04-01

    To investigate an outbreak of surgical site infections (SSI) in a vascular surgery unit. A 60-bed unit of vascular surgery, where surgeons performed an average of 30 operations per month at the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, a 1,000-bed tertiary care hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We included in the case group nine patients who had limb amputations or arterial reconstructions, October 16 through 23, 1992. We included in the control group patients whose operations were performed within 30 days of the outbreak period. Control patients were matched for sex and type of operation. Six of 9 case patients experienced SSI, as compared with 3 of 18 control patients (P = .026) and 28 of 244 patients in the pre-epidemic period (P = .0002). Risk factors were identical for case and control groups. Factors assessed were American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) status, duration of surgery, wound class, emergency status, remote site infections, preoperative length of stay, use of prophylactic antibiotics, and underlying diseases. Possible common sources also were analyzed. No differences were observed concerning hair removal, preoperative shower, wound dressing, and surgical team present in the operating room. During the outbreak period, the operating room was not provided with povidone-iodine, used in our hospital for skin cleansing and handscrubbing. Surgeons from all departments, including vascular surgery, used 2% iodine with 70% alcohol for skin cleansing. Surgeons from other departments used this iodine solution for handscrubbing, but the vascular surgeons used plain soap for handscrubbing. No increases in SSI rates were reported in other services. Comparison of case and control groups for handscrubbing was statistically significant (P < .00001). After reinstitution of povidone-iodine, only one SSI was diagnosed in 13 vascular procedures. Although we could not demonstrate definitely that scrubbing with plain soap was related to SSI, we found a strong suggestion of

  17. Effect of immediate reconstruction on postmastectomy surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T JoAnna; Costa, Melinda A; Vidar, Evan N; Shahabi, Ahva; Peric, Mirna; Hernandez, Angela M; Chan, Linda S; Sener, Stephen F; Wong, Alex K

    2012-08-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are a source of significant postoperative morbidity and cost. Although immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy has become routine, the data regarding the incidence of SSI in immediate breast reconstruction is highly variable and series dependent. Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, all female patients undergoing mastectomy, with or without immediate reconstruction, from 2005 to 2009 were identified. Only "clean" procedures were included. The primary outcome was incidence of SSI within 30 days of operation. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with SSI. A total of 48,393 mastectomies were performed during the study period, of which 9315 (19.2%) had immediate breast reconstruction. The incidence of SSI was 3.5% (330/9315) (95% CI [confidence interval]: 3.2%-4%) in patients undergoing mastectomy with reconstruction and 2.5% (966/39,078) (95% CI: 2.3%-2.6%) in patients undergoing mastectomy without reconstruction (P < 0.001). Independent risk factors for SSI include increased preoperative body mass index (BMI), heavy alcohol use, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) score greater than 2, flap failure, and operative time of 6 hours or longer. Immediate breast reconstruction is associated with a statistically significant increase in risk of SSI in patients undergoing mastectomy (3.5% vs 2.5%). However, this difference was not considered to be clinically significant. In this large series, increased BMI, alcohol use, ASA class greater than 2, flap failure, and prolonged operative time were associated with increased risk of SSI.

  18. Epidemiology of Surgical Site Infection in a Community Hospital Network

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Arthur W.; Dicks, Kristen V.; Durkin, Michael J.; Weber, David J.; Lewis, Sarah S.; Moehring, Rebekah W.; Chen, Luke F.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Anderson, Deverick J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of complex surgical site infection (SSI) following commonly performed surgical procedures in community hospitals and to characterize trends of SSI prevalence rates over time for MRSA and other common pathogens METHODS We prospectively collected SSI data at 29 community hospitals in the southeastern United States from 2008 through 2012. We determined the overall prevalence rates of SSI for commonly performed procedures during this 5-year study period. For each year of the study, we then calculated prevalence rates of SSI stratified by causative organism. We created log-binomial regression models to analyze trends of SSI prevalence over time for all pathogens combined and specifically for MRSA. RESULTS A total of 3,988 complex SSIs occurred following 532,694 procedures (prevalence rate, 0.7 infections per 100 procedures). SSIs occurred most frequently after small bowel surgery, peripheral vascular bypass surgery, and colon surgery. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen. The prevalence rate of SSI decreased from 0.76 infections per 100 procedures in 2008 to 0.69 infections per 100 procedures in 2012 (prevalence rate ratio [PRR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82–1.00). A more substantial decrease in MRSA SSI (PRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54–0.89) was largely responsible for this overall trend. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of MRSA SSI decreased from 2008 to 2012 in our network of community hospitals. This decrease in MRSA SSI prevalence led to an overall decrease in SSI prevalence over the study period. PMID:26864617

  19. Surgical site infection after thyroidectomy: a rare but significant complication

    PubMed Central

    Elfenbein, Dawn M.; Schneider, David F.; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections (SSIs) after thyroidectomy are rare but can have significant consequences. Thyroidectomy is a clean case, and the patterns for use of prophylactic antibiotics vary. We hypothesized that patient and operative characteristics may predict a higher risk of SSI, and that SSI are associated with other complications leading to increased resource utilization. Methods Data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset for patients who underwent thyroidectomy through cervical incisions from 2005–2011 were included. Bivariate analysis using t-tests and chi-square tests were performed, and variables with P < 0.2 were considered for inclusion in a multivariate logistic regression model. Results A total of 49,326 patients underwent thyroidectomy from 2005–2011 and 179 (0.36%) had an SSI. On multivariate analysis, the strongest predictors of SSI were operative time (P < 0.001) and wound classification clean-contaminated (odds ratio 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 3.6, 10.3). Preoperative factors associated with SSI on multivariate analysis had lower magnitudes of influence on SSI risk but included obesity, alcohol use, and nonindependent functional status. Patients with SSI were more likely to have a wound dehiscence, renal insufficiency, bleeding requiring transfusion, and return to the operating room on a multivariate model of outcomes. Conclusions Although rare, SSI after thyroidectomy are associated with other postoperative complications. We have identified preoperative and intraoperative factors that are associated with SSI, and this may help identify high-risk patients who may benefit from selective use of antibiotics. PMID:24739508

  20. Deep Surgical Site Infections Following Pediatric Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Porter, David A; Glotzbecker, Michael P; Timothy Hresko, M; Hedequist, Daniel J

    2016-06-08

    This is the first reported series looking specifically at factors associated with deep surgical site infections (SSI) following pediatric cervical spine surgery. To identify risk factors present in pediatric patients who are at risk for SSI following cervical spine surgery. Level of evidence: level IV-retrospective case series. To date there are no studies regarding SSI in pediatric cervical spine surgery and thus no benchmark data or risk factors have been identified. Patients with acute deep SSIs occurring within 90 days of the index operation were identified. Patient and surgical characteristics were analyzed for possible predictors of SSI outcome using penalized likelihood logistic regression analysis. Characteristics analyzed included: age, diagnosis, comorbidity, levels fused, approach, implants used, allograft, halo, body mass index, revision, antibiotic dosing, and occipital plating. A total of 112 patients were included in the study at a mean age of 12.5 years (2 to 18 y). Comorbidities were present in 51 (46%) patients, 15 patients had a documented connective tissue disorder (CTD). The mean number of levels fused was 3.7 (2 to 7) and mean number of screws was 4.4 (2 to 11). Allograft was used alone in 48 patients, occipital plating in 28 patients, and a halo in 39 patients. Deep SSI occurred in 3 patients: two of which had a CTD (1 Trisomy 21, 1 Ehlers-Danlos) and 1 patient with postradiation cervical kyphosis. All were gram-positive infections requiring return to operating room with prolonged IV antibiotics. All patients recovered and fused with spinal implant retention. The incidence of deep SSI was 2.7%. It was determined that a CTD was the only significant predictor of SSI. Subjects with a CTD had 12 times the odds of SSI [odds ratio=12 (1.5, 137.0); P=0.02]. In our series of pediatric patients the incidence of a deep SSI was 2.7%. The only predictor of SSI was the presence of a CTD.

  1. Assessment of protocols for surgical-site preparation in a regional network of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Peñalver-Mompeán, Maria Dolores; Saturno-Hernández, Pedro Jesus; Fonseca-Miranda, Yadira; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Surgical-site infection is a preventable adverse event. Implementation of good practices for correct surgical-site preparation can contribute to lessen this safety problem. The objective of this study was to describe the presence and quality of protocols on surgical-site preparation in the Murcia (Spain) regional network of public hospitals. The indicator "existence of protocol for surgical-site preparation" was assessed, as well as the formal quality (expected attributes) and contents (compared to current evidence-based recommendations) of existing documents. Seven of the nine hospitals have a protocol for surgical-site preparation. Opportunities to improve have been identified in relation to the protocols' formal quality and contents. Recommendations related to skin asepsis are incomplete and those related to hair removal contradict existing evidence. Most hospitals have protocols for surgical-site preparation; however, there is great room for improvement, in relation to their expected attributes and to the inclusion of evidence-based recommendations.

  2. A comparison of 2 surgical site infection monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Ju, Mila H; Ko, Clifford Y; Hall, Bruce L; Bosk, Charles L; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Wick, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) has emerged as the leading publicly reported surgical outcome and is tied to payment determinations. Many hospitals monitor SSIs using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP), in addition to mandatory participation (for most states) in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), which has resulted in duplication of effort and incongruent data. To identify discrepancies in the implementation of the NHSN and the ACS NSQIP at hospitals that may be affecting the respective SSI rates. A pilot sample of hospitals that participate in both the NHSN and the ACS NSQIP. For each hospital, observed rates and risk-adjusted observed to expected ratios for year 2012 colon SSIs were collected from both programs. The implementation methods of both programs were identified, including telephone interviews with infection preventionists who collect data for the NHSN at each hospital. Collection methods and colon SSI rates for the NHSN at each hospital were compared with those of the ACS NSQIP. Of 16 hospitals, 11 were teaching hospitals with at least 500 beds. The mean observed colon SSI rates were dissimilar between the 2 programs, 5.7% (range, 2.0%-14.5%) for the NHSN vs 13.5% (range, 4.6%-26.7%) for the ACS NSQIP. The mean difference between the NHSN and the ACS NSQIP was 8.3% (range, 1.6%-18.8%), with the ACS NSQIP rate always higher. The correlation between the observed to expected ratios for the 2 programs was nonsignificant (Pearson product moment correlation, ρ = 0.4465; P = .08). The NHSN collection methods were dissimilar among interviewed hospitals. An SSI managed as an outpatient case would usually be missed under the current NHSN practices. Colon SSI rates from the NHSN and the ACS NSQIP cannot be used interchangeably to evaluate hospital performance and determine reimbursement. Hospitals should not use the ACS NSQIP colon SSI rates for

  3. Supplemental Perioperative Oxygen to Reduce Surgical Site Infection After High Energy Fracture Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0588 TITLE: Supplemental Perioperative Oxygen to Reduce Surgical Site Infection After High Energy Fracture Surgery...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30 Sep 2015 – 29 Sep 2016 30129/29/124. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Supplemental Perioperative Oxygen to Reduce Surgical Site...prospective randomized treatment trial investigating if supplemental perioperative oxygen use will reduce surgical site infection after surgery on fractures

  4. Dressings for the prevention of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Dumville, Jo C; Gray, Trish A; Walter, Catherine J; Sharp, Catherine A; Page, Tamara; Macefield, Rhiannon; Blencowe, Natalie; Milne, Thomas Kg; Reeves, Barnaby C; Blazeby, Jane

    2016-12-20

    Surgical wounds (incisions) heal by primary intention when the wound edges are brought together and secured, often with sutures, staples, or clips. Wound dressings applied after wound closure may provide physical support, protection and absorb exudate. There are many different types of wound dressings available and wounds can also be left uncovered (exposed). Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of wounds and this may be associated with using (or not using) dressings, or different types of dressing. To assess the effects of wound dressings compared with no wound dressings, and the effects of alternative wound dressings, in preventing SSIs in surgical wounds healing by primary intention. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register (searched 19 September 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 8); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, MEDLINE Daily and Epub Ahead of Print; 1946 to 19 September 2016); Ovid Embase (1974 to 19 September 2016); EBSCO CINAHL Plus (1937 to 19 September 2016).There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing wound dressings with wound exposure (no dressing) or alternative wound dressings for the postoperative management of surgical wounds healing by primary intention. Two review authors performed study selection, 'Risk of bias' assessment and data extraction independently. We included 29 trials (5718 participants). All studies except one were at an unclear or high risk of bias. Studies were small, reported low numbers of SSI events and were often not clearly reported. There were 16 trials that included people with wounds resulting from surgical procedures with a 'clean' classification, five trials that included people undergoing what was considered 'clean/contaminated' surgery, with the remaining studies including people

  5. The Effects of Local Warming on Surgical Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dellinger, E. Patchen; Weber, James; Swenson, Ron Edward; Kent, Christopher D.; Swanson, Paul E.; Harmon, Kurt; Perrin, Margot

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) account for a major proportion of hospital-acquired infections. They are associated with longer hospital stay, readmissions, increased costs, mortality, and morbidity. Reducing SSI is a goal of the Surgical Care Improvement Project and identifying interventions that reduce SSI effectively is of interest. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) we evaluated the effect of localized warming applied to surgical incisions on SSI development and selected cellular (immune, endothelial) and tissue responses (oxygenation, collagen). Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval and consent, patients having open bariatric, colon, or gynecologic-oncologic related operations were enrolled and randomly assigned to local incision warming (6 post-operative treatments) or non-warming. A prototype surgical bandage was used for all patients. The study protocol included intra-operative warming to maintain core temperature ≥36°C and administration of 0.80 FIO2. Patients were followed for 6 wks for the primary outcome of SSI determined by U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria and ASEPSIS scores (additional treatment; presence of serous discharge, erythema, purulent exudate, and separation of the deep tissues; isolation of bacteria; and duration of inpatient stay). Tissue oxygen (PscO2) and samples for cellular analyses were obtained using subcutaneous polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) tubes and oxygen micro-electrodes implanted adjacent to the incision. Cellular and tissue ePTFE samples were evaluated using flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and Sircol™ collagen assay (Biocolor Ltd., Carrickfergus, United Kingdom). Results: One hundred forty-six patients participated (n=73 per group). Study groups were similar on demographic parameters and for intra-operative management factors. The CDC defined rate of SSI was 18%; occurrence of SSI between groups did not differ (p=0.27). At 2 wks, warmed

  6. Improved Surgical Site Infection (SSI) rate through accurately assessed surgical wounds.

    PubMed

    John, Honeymol; Nimeri, Abdelrahman; Ellahham, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Sheikh Khalifa Medical City's (SKMC) Surgery Institute was identified as a high outlier in Surgical Site Infections (SSI) based on the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) - Semi-Annual Report (SAR) in January 2012. The aim of this project was to improve SSI rates through accurate wound classification. We identified SSI rate reduction as a performance improvement and safety priority at SKMC, a tertiary referral center. We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) best practice guidelines as a guide. ACS NSQIP is a clinical registry that provides risk-adjusted clinical outcome reports every six months. The rates of SSI are reported in an observed/expected ratio. The expected ratio is calculated based on the risk factors of the patients which include wound classification. We established a multidisciplinary SSI taskforce. The members of the SSI taskforce included the ACS NSQIP team members, quality, surgeons, nurses, infection control, IT, pharmacy, microbiology, and it was chaired by a colorectal surgeon. The taskforce focused on five areas: pre-op showering and hair removal, skin antisepsis, prophylactic antibiotics, peri-operative maintenance of glycaemia, and normothermia. We planned audits to evaluate our wound classification and our SSI rates based on the SAR. Our expected SSI rates in general surgery and the whole department were 2.52% and 1.70% respectively, while our observed SSI rates were 4.68% and 3.57% respectively, giving us a high outlier status with an odd's ratio of 1.72 and 2.03. Wound classifications were identified as an area of concern. For example, wound classifications were preoperatively selected based on the default wound classification of the booked procedure in the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) which led to under classifying wounds in many occasions. A total of 998 cases were reviewed, our rate of incorrect wound classification

  7. Improved Surgical Site Infection (SSI) rate through accurately assessed surgical wounds

    PubMed Central

    John, Honeymol; Nimeri, Abdelrahman; ELLAHHAM, SAMER

    2015-01-01

    Sheikh Khalifa Medical City's (SKMC) Surgery Institute was identified as a high outlier in Surgical Site Infections (SSI) based on the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) - Semi-Annual Report (SAR) in January 2012. The aim of this project was to improve SSI rates through accurate wound classification. We identified SSI rate reduction as a performance improvement and safety priority at SKMC, a tertiary referral center. We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) best practice guidelines as a guide. ACS NSQIP is a clinical registry that provides risk-adjusted clinical outcome reports every six months. The rates of SSI are reported in an observed/expected ratio. The expected ratio is calculated based on the risk factors of the patients which include wound classification. We established a multidisciplinary SSI taskforce. The members of the SSI taskforce included the ACS NSQIP team members, quality, surgeons, nurses, infection control, IT, pharmacy, microbiology, and it was chaired by a colorectal surgeon. The taskforce focused on five areas: pre-op showering and hair removal, skin antisepsis, prophylactic antibiotics, peri-operative maintenance of glycaemia, and normothermia. We planned audits to evaluate our wound classification and our SSI rates based on the SAR. Our expected SSI rates in general surgery and the whole department were 2.52% and 1.70% respectively, while our observed SSI rates were 4.68% and 3.57% respectively, giving us a high outlier status with an odd's ratio of 1.72 and 2.03. Wound classifications were identified as an area of concern. For example, wound classifications were preoperatively selected based on the default wound classification of the booked procedure in the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) which led to under classifying wounds in many occasions. A total of 998 cases were reviewed, our rate of incorrect wound classification

  8. Surgical Site Infection by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus- on Decline?

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Susmita; Pal, Kuhu; Jain, Sonia; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Konar, Jayashree

    2016-09-01

    Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is the most common healthcare associated infection that could be averted by antibiotics prophylaxis against the probable offending organisms. As Staphylococcus aureus has been playing a substantial role in the aetiology of SSIs, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) happens to be a problem while dealing with the postoperative wound infection. To determine the prevalence of SSI caused by MRSA and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of MRSA. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal from July 2009 to December 2012. A total of 19,359 surgical procedures were done of which 3003 culture positive SSIs have been documented. The clinical samples were collected from patients of both sexes and all ages suspected to be suffering from SSI from different specialities. Samples were processed according to CLSI, 2007 guidelines. The isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were screened for MRSA by detection of resistance to Cefoxitin disc (zone of inhibition was ≤21 mm) and slidex staph latex agglutination tests were done on cefoxitin resistant strains to spot phenotypic expression of mec A gene. Then PCR was performed for detection of mecA gene. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done following Kirby Bauer technique. In this 3½ year study, 1049 Staphylococcus aureus (34.93%) were reported from 3003 cases of SSI followed by Escherichia coli (20.34%), Klebsiella spp. (18.08%), Pseudomonas spp. (7.99%), Acinetobacter spp. (7.49%) respectively. Among the Staphylococcus aureus, 267 strains were derived as MRSA (25.45%). MRSA were isolated from 167 (62.54%) male patients and 100 (37.45%) female patients having surgical site infections. Inpatients and outpatients distribution of MRSA were 235 (88.01%) and 32 (11.98%) respectively. Majority of the MRSA cases were reported from Surgery (12.49%) and Orthopaedics (11.85%) departments in the age group above 75 years (15.63%). The MRSA strains

  9. Surgical Site Infection by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus– on Decline?

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Susmita; Jain, Sonia; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Konar, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgical Site Infection (SSI) is the most common healthcare associated infection that could be averted by antibiotics prophylaxis against the probable offending organisms. As Staphylococcus aureus has been playing a substantial role in the aetiology of SSIs, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) happens to be a problem while dealing with the postoperative wound infection. Aim To determine the prevalence of SSI caused by MRSA and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of MRSA. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Nil Ratan Sircar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal from July 2009 to December 2012. A total of 19,359 surgical procedures were done of which 3003 culture positive SSIs have been documented. The clinical samples were collected from patients of both sexes and all ages suspected to be suffering from SSI from different specialities. Samples were processed according to CLSI, 2007 guidelines. The isolated strains of Staphylococcus aureus were screened for MRSA by detection of resistance to Cefoxitin disc (zone of inhibition was ≤21 mm) and slidex staph latex agglutination tests were done on cefoxitin resistant strains to spot phenotypic expression of mec A gene. Then PCR was performed for detection of mecA gene. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done following Kirby Bauer technique. Results In this 3½ year study, 1049 Staphylococcus aureus (34.93%) were reported from 3003 cases of SSI followed by Escherichia coli (20.34%), Klebsiella spp. (18.08%), Pseudomonas spp. (7.99%), Acinetobacter spp. (7.49%) respectively. Among the Staphylococcus aureus, 267 strains were derived as MRSA (25.45%). MRSA were isolated from 167 (62.54%) male patients and 100 (37.45%) female patients having surgical site infections. Inpatients and outpatients distribution of MRSA were 235 (88.01%) and 32 (11.98%) respectively. Majority of the MRSA cases were reported from Surgery (12.49%) and Orthopaedics (11.85%) departments in the age

  10. Triclosan sutures for surgical site infection in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kanefumi; Takeno, Shinsuke; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Shiwaku, Hironari; Aisu, Naoya; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Tanimura, Syu; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    Among all procedures, surgical site infections (SSIs) in colorectal surgery continue to have the highest rate, accounting for 5%-45%. To prevent the bacterial colonization of suture material, which disables local mechanisms of wound decontamination, triclosan-coated sutures were developed. We assessed the effectiveness of triclosan-coated sutures used for skin closure on the rate of SSIs in colorectal cancer surgery. Until August 2012, we used conventional methods for skin closure in colorectal cancer surgery at the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine. Therefore, for the control group, we retrospectively collected surveillance data over a 1.5-y period. From September 2012, we began using triclosan-coated polydioxanone antimicrobial sutures (PDS plus) for skin and fascia closure. Hence, we collected data for the study group from September 2012 to October 2013. Differences in baseline characteristics and selection bias were adjusted using the propensity score-matching method. A total of 399 patients who underwent colorectal surgery were included in this study. There were 214 patients in the control group and 185 patients in the study group. Baseline patient characteristics were similar between the propensity score-matched groups. The incidence of SSIs was less in the study group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the site of the procedure, laparoscopic surgery, and using triclosan-coated sutures remained the independent predictors of SSIs. The use of triclosan-coated sutures was advantageous for decreasing the risk of SSIs after colorectal surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Operating room environment and surgical site infections in arthroplasty procedures.

    PubMed

    Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Schinca, E; Ottria, G; Spagnolo, A M

    2016-09-01

    The rate of surgical site infections (SSI) is strongly influenced by operating room quality, which is determined by the structural features of the facility and its systems and by the management and behavior of healthcare workers. The aim of the present study was to assess microbial contamination in the operating room during hip- and knee-replacement procedures, the behavior of operating room staff and the incidence of SSI through postdischarge surveillance. Microbial contamination was evaluated by active and passive sampling at rest and in operating conditions. Organizational and behavioral characteristics were collected through observational assessment. The incidence of SSI was evaluated in 255 patients, and follow-up examinations were carried out 30 and 365 days after the procedure. The mean values of the airborne and sedimenting microbial loads were 12.90 CFU/m(3) and 0.02 CFU/cm2/h, respectively. With regard to outcome, the infection rate proved to be 0.89% and was associated with knee-replacement procedures. The microorganism responsible for this superficial infection was Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical outcomes proved to be satisfactory, owing to the limited microbial load (in both at-rest and operating conditions), the appropriate behavior of the staff, compliance with the guidelines on preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, and efficient management of the ventilation system.

  12. Risk factors for implant removal after spinal surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Naoya; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Otsuki, Bungo; Izeki, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroaki; Ota, Masato; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Uchikoshi, Akira; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-09-14

    Few studies have investigated the risk factors for implant removal after treatment for spinal surgical site infection (SSI). Therefore, there is no firmly established consensus for the management of implants. We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for implant removal after SSI managed with instrumentation, and to examine potential strategies for avoiding implant removal. Following a survey of seven spine centers, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 55 patients who developed SSI and were treated with reoperation, out of 3967 patients who had spinal instrumentation between 2003 and 2012. We examined implant survival rate and applied logistic regression analysis to assess the potential risk factors for implant removal. The overall rate of implant retention was 60% (33/55). A higher implant retention rate was observed for posterior cervical surgery than for posterior-thoracic/lumbar surgery (100 vs. 49%, P < 0.001). On univariate analysis, significant risk factors for implant removal included greater blood loss, delay of reoperation, and delay of intervention with effective antibiotics. Multivariate analysis revealed that a delay in administering effective antibiotics was an independent and significant risk factor for implant removal in posterior-thoracic/lumbar surgery (odds ratio 1.17; 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.35, P = 0.028). Patients with SSI who underwent posterior cervical surgery are likely to retain the implants. Immediate administration of effective antibiotics improves implant survival in SSI treatment. Our findings can be applied to identify SSI patients at higher risk for implant removal.

  13. Surgical Site Infection Complicating Breast Cancer Surgery in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Abeer A.; Al-Mousa, Haifaa H.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common postoperative complication associated with breast cancer surgery. The present investigation aimed to determine the SSI rate after breast cancer surgeries and the causative microorganisms. Patients and Methods. All patients who underwent breast surgery in Kuwait Cancer Control Center as a treatment for breast cancer from January 2009–December 2010 were prospectively followed for the development of SSI. Indirect detection was used to identify SSIs through medical record to review and discussion with the treating surgeons. Results. The number of operations was 438. Females represented 434 (99.1%) cases while males constituted only 4 (0.9%) cases. SSIs were diagnosed after 10 operations, all for female cases. Most of the SSIs (8 cases; 80%) were detected after patients were discharged, during outpatient followup. Out of those 5/8; (62.5%) were readmitted for management of SSI. Nine patients (90%) received systemic antibiotic therapy for management of their wound infection. The SSI rate was 2.3%. The main causative organism was Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) which was responsible for 40% of infections. Gram negative bacteria were isolated from 40% of the cases. Conclusion. SSI is an important complication following breast cancer surgery. Microbiological diagnosis is an essential tool for proper management of such patients. PMID:24967132

  14. Preoperative oral antibiotics reduce surgical site infection following elective colorectal resections.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Jamie A; Altom, Laura K; Deierhoi, Rhiannon J; Morris, Melanie; Richman, Joshua S; Vick, Catherine C; Itani, Kamal M F; Hawn, Mary T

    2012-11-01

    Surgical site infection is a major cause of morbidity after colorectal resections. Despite evidence that preoperative oral antibiotics with mechanical bowel preparation reduce surgical site infection rates, the use of oral antibiotics is decreasing. Currently, the administration of oral antibiotics is controversial and considered ineffective without mechanical bowel preparation. The aim of this study is to examine the use of mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics and their relationship to surgical site infection rates in a colorectal Surgical Care Improvement Project cohort. This retrospective study used Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program preoperative risk and surgical site infection outcome data linked to Veterans Affairs Surgical Care Improvement Project and Pharmacy Benefits Management data. Univariate and multivariable models were performed to identify factors associated with surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery. This study was conducted in 112 Veterans Affairs hospitals. Included were 9940 patients who underwent elective colorectal resections from 2005 to 2009. The primary outcome measured was the incidence of surgical site infection. Patients receiving oral antibiotics had significantly lower surgical site infection rates. Those receiving no bowel preparation had similar surgical site infection rates to those who had mechanical bowel preparation only (18.1% vs 20%). Those receiving oral antibiotics alone had an surgical site infection rate of 8.3%, and those receiving oral antibiotics plus mechanical bowel preparation had a rate of 9.2%. In adjusted analysis, the use of oral antibiotics alone was associated with a 67% decrease in surgical site infection occurrence (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.21-0.50). Oral antibiotics plus mechanical bowel preparation was associated with a 57% decrease in surgical site infection occurrence (OR=0.43, 95% CI 0.34-0.55). Timely administration of parenteral antibiotics (Surgical Care Improvement

  15. Surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jussara Aparecida Souza do Nascimento; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2016-08-29

    to analyze the occurrence and predisposing factors for surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation, evaluating the relationship between cases of infections and the variables related to the patient and the surgical procedure. retrospective cohort study, with review of the medical records of patients older than 18 years submitted to heart transplantation. The correlation between variables was evaluated by using Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. the sample consisted of 86 patients, predominantly men, with severe systemic disease, submitted to extensive preoperative hospitalizations. Signs of surgical site infection were observed in 9.3% of transplanted patients, with five (62.5%) superficial incisional, two (25%) deep and one (12.5%) case of organ/space infection. There was no statistically significant association between the variables related to the patient and the surgery. there was no association between the studied variables and the cases of surgical site infection, possibly due to the small number of cases of infection observed in the sample investigated. analisar a ocorrência e os fatores predisponentes para infecção de sítio cirúrgico em pacientes submetidos a transplante cardíaco e verificar a relação entre os casos de infecção e as variáveis referentes ao paciente e ao procedimento cirúrgico. estudo de coorte retrospectivo, com exame dos prontuários médicos de pacientes maiores de 18 anos, submetidos a transplante cardíaco. A correlação entre variáveis foi realizada por meio dos testes exato de Fischer e de Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon. a amostra foi constituída por 86 pacientes, predominantemente homens, com doença sistêmica grave, submetidos a internações pré-operatórias extensas. Apresentaram sinais de infecção do sítio cirúrgico 9,3% dos transplantados, sendo cinco (62,5%) incisionais superficiais, duas (25%) profundas e um (12,5%) caso de infecção de órgão/espaço. Não houve associa

  16. Predictors of surgical site infection after open lower extremity revascularization.

    PubMed

    Greenblatt, David Yu; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Mell, Matthew W

    2011-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) after open surgery for lower extremity revascularization is a serious complication that may lead to graft infection, prolonged hospitalization, and increased cost. Rates of SSI after revascularization vary widely, with most studies reported from single institutions. The objective of this study was to describe the rate and predictors of SSI after surgery for arterial occlusive disease using national data, and to identify any association between SSI and length of hospital stay, reoperation, graft loss, and mortality. Patients who underwent lower extremity arterial bypass or thromboendarterectomy from 2005-2008 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) participant use files. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of SSI. Odds ratios were adjusted for patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and operative factors. The association between SSI and other 30-day outcomes such as mortality and graft failure was determined. Of 12,330 patients who underwent revascularization, 1367 (11.1%) were diagnosed with an SSI within 30 days. Multivariate predictors of SSI included female gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.6), obesity (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.4), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5), dialysis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), preoperative hyponatremia (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4), and length of operation >4 hours (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6). SSI was associated with prolonged (>10 days) hospital stay (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1) and higher rates of 30-day graft loss (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1) and reoperation (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 3.1-4.6). SSI was not associated with increased 30-day mortality. SSI is a common complication after open revascularization and is associated with a more than twofold increased risk of early graft loss and reoperation. Several patient and operation-related risk

  17. Surgical site infection and prevention guidelines: a primer for Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Valerie; Newman, Johanna

    2015-02-01

    Each year 500,000 surgical site infections occur in the US. Surgical site infections are the second most common healthcare-associated infections resulting in readmissions, prolonged hospital stays, higher medical costs, and increased morbidity and mortality. Surgical site infections are preventable in most cases by following evidence-based guidelines for hand hygiene, administration of prophylactic antibiotics, and perioperative patient temperature management. As attention to issues of healthcare quality heightens, the demands for positive surgical patient outcomes are intensifying. The Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist can provide transparent high-quality care by implementing evidence-based guidelines for timely and appropriate antibiotic use, maintenance of normothermia, and hand washing.

  18. Cretaceous Vertebrate Tracksites - Korean Cretaceous Dinosaur Coast World Heritage Nomination Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, M.; Woo, K. S.; Lim, J. D.; Paik, I. S.

    2009-04-01

    at least three other unnamed morphotypes are known . A total of 52 clutches containing 390 dinosaur eggs occur in several stratigraphic formations including seven dinosaur egg localities. The other fossils including turtles, crocodiles, fishes, wood fossil, plants, trace fossils and microfossils have also been discovered. The occurrences of Korean dinosaurs in diverse stratigraphic formations and sedimentological setting and in diverse sizes and morphotypes provide an opportunity to study the palaeoecologic and palaeoenvironmental conditions of the sites of the Late Cretaceous dinosaurs. Korea could serve as a global vertebrate ichnological standard for Cretaceous terrestrial sequences, and allow correlation with Japanese marine sequences to the east and classic Chinese sites to the west. The region plays a pivotal role in helping us understand vertebrate evolution and paleoecology on the margins of the Asian continent during the Cretaceous.

  19. Does Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery Minimize Surgical Site Infections?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ravish Shammi; Dutta, Shumayou

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Purpose To evaluate the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) in a cohort of patients and compare with available historical data on SSI in open spinal surgery cohorts, and to evaluate additional direct costs incurred due to SSI. Overview of Literature SSI can lead to prolonged antibiotic therapy, extended hospitalization, repeated operations, and implant removal. Small incisions and minimal dissection intrinsic to MISS may minimize the risk of postoperative infections. However, there is a dearth of literature on infections after MISS and their additional direct financial implications. Methods All patients from January 2007 to January 2015 undergoing posterior spinal surgery with tubular retractor system and microscope in our institution were included. The procedures performed included tubular discectomies, tubular decompressions for spinal stenosis and minimal invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). The incidence of postoperative SSI was calculated and compared to the range of cited SSI rates from published studies. Direct costs were calculated from medical billing for index cases and for patients with SSI. Results A total of 1,043 patients underwent 763 noninstrumented surgeries (discectomies, decompressions) and 280 instrumented (TLIF) procedures. The mean age was 52.2 years with male:female ratio of 1.08:1. Three infections were encountered with fusion surgeries (mean detection time, 7 days). All three required wound wash and debridement with one patient requiring unilateral implant removal. Additional direct cost due to infection was $2,678 per 100 MISS-TLIF. SSI increased hospital expenditure per patient 1.5-fold after instrumented MISS. Conclusions Overall infection rate after MISS was 0.29%, with SSI rate of 0% in non-instrumented MISS and 1.07% with instrumented MISS. MISS can markedly reduce the SSI rate and can be an

  20. Surgical management of brainstem hydatid cyst--an unusual site.

    PubMed

    Muthusubramanian, Vikram; Pande, Anil; Vasudevan, Madhabushi Chakravarthy; Ravi, Ramamurthi

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe their surgical experience of a hydatid cyst in the brainstem, which is an unusual site. The cyst was internally decompressed and totally excised. Although the Dowling technique has been described to be the ideal method for removal of hydatid cysts, it may not be possible when the cyst is in a deep-seated, vital, and eloquent location. We report the use of internal decompression by aspiration followed by total excision as an alternative method when the cyst is located in vital areas of the brain. A 40-year-old female presented with headache, progressive right-sided weakness, double vision, and unsteadiness of gait of 1-month duration. On examination, she had left one-and-a-half syndrome, right hemiparesis of 3/5, and left cerebellar signs. Computed tomographic and MRI scans of the brain revealed a solitary, stenciled-out cystic lesion in the brainstem more toward the left side with features suggestive of hydatid cyst. A left retromastoid craniectomy followed by left middle cerebellar peduncle approach, aspiration of the cyst, and total excision of the cyst was performed. Postoperatively, the patient improved progressively and was asymptomatic with minimal left cerebellar signs at 1-year follow-up. Hydatid cyst is a benign lesion. Appropriate management is mandatory for reducing the morbidity. Although the Dowling technique with its modifications is appropriate for cerebral parenchymal surfacing or superficial hydatid cysts, in deep-seated cysts located in eloquent and vital areas such as the brainstem, management by internal decompression by aspiration followed by extirpation of the cyst wall, protecting the surrounding cisterns and CSF spaces, is an alternative option.

  1. Can we define surgical site infection accurately in colorectal surgery?

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Traci L; Sawyer, Robert G; Hennessy, Sara A; Turrentine, Florence E; Friel, Charles M

    2014-08-01

    Increasingly, surgical site infection (SSI) is being tied to quality of care. The incidence of SSI after colorectal surgery differs widely. We hypothesize that it is difficult to define SSI reliably and reproducibly when adhering to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions. Elective intra-abdominal colorectal procedures via a clean-contaminated incision performed at a single institution between January 1 and May 1, 2011 were queried. Three attending surgeons examined all patients' records retrospectively for documentation of SSI. These data were compared with the institutional National Surgeon Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data with regard to deep and superficial incisional SSI. Seventy-one cases met the inclusion criteria. There were six SSIs identified by NSQIP, representing 8.4% of cases. Review of the three attending surgeons demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of SSI, at 27%, 38%, and 23% (p=0.002). The percent of overall agreement between all reviewers was 82.16 with a kappa of 0.64, indicating only modest inter-rater agreement. Lack of attending surgeon documentation and subjective differences in chart interpretation accounted for most discrepancies between the surgeon and NSQIP SSI capture rates. This study highlights the difficulty in defining SSI in colon and rectal surgery, which oftentimes is subjective and difficult to discern from the medical record. According to these preliminary data from our institution, there is poor reliability between clinical reviewers in defining SSI on the basis of the CDC criteria, which has serious implications. The interpretation of clinical trials may be jeopardized if we cannot define SSI accurately. Furthermore, according to current CDC definitions and infection tracking strategies, these data suggest that the institutional incidence of SSI may not be a reliable measure by which to compare institutions. Better methods for defining SSI should be implemented if these data are

  2. Laparoscope use and surgical site infections in digestive surgery.

    PubMed

    Romy, Sébastien; Eisenring, Marie-Christine; Bettschart, Vincent; Petignat, Christiane; Francioli, Patrick; Troillet, Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    To compare surgical site infection (SSI) rates in open or laparoscopic appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and colon surgery. To investigate the effect of laparoscopy on SSI in these interventions. Lower rates of SSI have been reported among various advantages associated with laparoscopy when compared with open surgery, particularly in cholecystectomy. However, biases such as the lack of postdischarge follow-up and confounding factors might have contributed to the observed differences between the 2 techniques. This observational study was based on prospectively collected data from an SSI surveillance program in 8 Swiss hospitals between March 1998 and December 2004, including a standardized postdischarge follow-up. SSI rates were compared between laparoscopic and open interventions. Factors associated with SSI were identified by using logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounding factors. SSI rates in laparoscopic and open interventions were respectively 59/1051 (5.6%) versus 117/1417 (8.3%) in appendectomy (P = 0.01), 46/2606 (1.7%) versus 35/444 (7.9%) in cholecystectomy (P < 0.0001), and 35/311 (11.3%) versus 400/1781 (22.5%) in colon surgery (P < 0.0001). After adjustment, laparoscopic interventions were associated with a decreased risk for SSI: OR = 0.61 (95% CI 0.43-0.87) in appendectomy, 0.27 (0.16-0.43) in cholecystectomy, and 0.43 (0.29-0.63) in colon surgery. The observed effect of laparoscopic techniques was due to a reduction in the rates of incisional infections, rather than in those of organ/space infections. When feasible, a laparoscopic approach should be preferred over open surgery to lower the risks of SSI.

  3. Surgical site infections in breast surgery: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Compte, Diana; Jacquemin, Benedicte; Robles-Vidal, Carlos; Volkow, Patricia

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of surgical site infections (SSIs) and identify associated risk factors for each type of breast surgery at a cancer hospital. We used a nested case-control design. Between February 1, 2000 and July 31, 2000, all breast surgeries performed were recorded on a daily basis. After hospital discharge, we evaluated patients simultaneously with surgeons three times a week for 30 days or longer. The odds ratio (OR) was estimated using logistic regression analysis. The study followed 280 patients (298 wounds). Altogether, 77 SSIs were detected, for an overall SSI rate of 25.8% (77/298). For excisions, conservative surgery, and radical mastectomies the SSI rates were 1.4%, 18.0%, and 38.3%, respectively. Excisions were excluded ( n = 68) for risk factor analysis. After multivariate analysis, risk factors associated with SSIs were obesity [OR 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.3], concomitant chemotherapy and radiation (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.3), radical surgery (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.6), insertion of a second drain during the late postoperative period (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.8-7.8), and drainage duration > or = 19 days (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.5-5.6). The bacteria most frequently isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( n = 18 ), Serratia sp. ( n = 18), Staphylococcus aureus ( n = 10), and Staphylococcus epidermidis ( n = 10). Poor compliance with infection control practices and wound management was detected throughout the study period. The overall frequency of SSIs for mastectomies was higher than the reported rates, which was principally related to the more radical surgery required for advanced-stage disease, preoperative irradiation, and inadequate wound and drain care.

  4. [Recommendations for prevention of surgical site infection in adult elective arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Chuluyán, Juan Carlos; Vila, Andrea; Chattás, Ana Laura; Montero, Marcelo; Pensotti, Claudia; Tosello, Claudia; Sánchez, Marisa; Vera Ocampo, Cecilia; Kremer, Guillermina; Quirós, Rodolfo; Benchetrit, Guillermo A; Pérez, Carolina Fernanda; Terusi, Ana Laura; Nacinovich, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infections complicating orthopedic implant surgeries prolong hospital stay and increase risk of readmission, hospitalization costs and mortality. These recommendations are aimed at: (i) optimizing compliance and incorporating habits in all surgery phases by detecting risk factors for surgical site infections which are potentially correctable or modifiable; and (ii) optimizing preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis as well as intraoperative and postoperative care.

  5. The effect of diabetes mellitus on surgical site infections after colorectal and noncolorectal general surgical operations.

    PubMed

    Ata, Ashar; Valerian, Brian T; Lee, Edward C; Bestle, Sharon L; Elmendorf, Sarah L; Stain, Steven C

    2010-07-01

    Patients undergoing colorectal surgery (CRS) are known to be at increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI). We assessed the effect of diabetes and other risk factors on SSI in patients undergoing CRS and patients undergoing general surgery (GS). American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Data File from 2005 to 2006 was used. Chi2 tests, t tests, and logistic regression were used to assess the risk factors. Of the 129,909 study patients 10.1 per cent were patients undergoing CRS. The incidence of SSI in patients undergoing CRS was 3.8 times higher (95% CI, 3.6-4.1) than in patients undergoing GS. The incidence of SSI was higher in diabetics than nondiabetics in patients undergoing CRS (15.4 vs. 11.0%, P < 0.001) and patients undergoing GS (5.3 vs. 3.1%, P < 0.001). The significant univariate predictors of SSI for patients undergoing GS and patients undergoing CRS were: males, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, diabetes emergency surgery, operation time, and greater than 2 units of intraoperative red blood cell transfusion. For patients undergoing GS, increasing age was also significant. After multivariate adjustment, significant predictors of SSI for patients undergoing GS and patients undergoing CRS were: male gender, diabetes, ASA class, emergency surgery, and operation time. For patients undergoing GS, age also remained significant. Among patients undergoing CRS, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were 1.32 (P < 0.05) times more likely than nondiabetics to develop SSI. Among patients undergoing GS, only IDDM (OR, 1.39; P < 0.001) were at increased risk. In this large hospital-based study, patients undergoing CRS were three times more likely to get SSI than patients undergoing GS. Diabetic patients with CRS (IDDM and NIDDM) and patients undergoing GS (IDDM) were at increased risk of SSI compared with nondiabetics. More intense glycemic

  6. Tsunami effects at Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites by Plate Boundary Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Bae, Jae Seok; Kim, Gun Hyeong; Yoon, Sung Bum

    2015-04-01

    Great earthquakes have occurred at the Nankai Trough due to the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath Honshu, Japan. The 1707 Hoei tsunami associated with the Mw 8.7 earthquake, in particular, was the largest event generated in this area. The Nankai Trough is one of the most earthquake-prone area near Japan. And the tsunami affected to Korea according to a Korean historic literature. In this study, new hypothetical plate boundary earthquakes (Mw 9.6) ruptured simultaneously from the Nankai Trough to the Ryukyu Trench (NTRT) are proposed and applied to evaluate the tsunami effects at the Nuclear Power Plant Sites in Korea. In order to make reasonable tsunami sources the asperity model is adapted. The numerical model using the modified leap-frog finite difference scheme is employed to simulate the propagation of tsunami generated at NTRT. This numerical model considering the dispersion effect and inundation of tsunami is then employed to estimate the maximum tsunami heights. Predicted results will be used to make the measures against unexpected tsunami attacks.

  7. Implant associated surgical site infection in orthopaedics: a regional hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Madu, K A; Enweani, U N; Katchy, A U; Madu, A J; Aguwa, E N

    2011-01-01

    Post operative surgical site infection following implant surgery is a major problem in orthopedic surgical practice. Infection occurring after internal fixation of a fracture is a devastating complication and may be difficult to treat. The frequency of occurrence of surgical site infection has decreased with improvements in aseptic technique. The objectives of the study are to determine the incidence of surgical site infection following orthopaedic related implant surgeries and to indentify the predisposing factors. The study was a prospective study conducted at the National orthopedic hospital, Enugu. Wound surveillance was carried out for the 97 patients included in this study for a period of 6 months postoperatively. The diagnosis of surgical site infection was in accordance with the CDC's guideline for prevention of surgical site infection published in 1999. The study included 61 males and 36 females giving a ratio of 1.7:1. The study population was aged 7 to 83 years with a mean age of 38.7 +/- 18.3 years. The infection rate was found to be 9.3% with staphylococcus aureus as the most common causative organism in 55.6% of cases. Two of the nine infected cases required implant removal. Significant factor was a theatre population of more than 6 persons. Surgical site infection following implant surgery is relatively common in our environment with staphylococcus aureus as the major causative organism. Increased theatre populations increase the risk of implant associated surgical site infection.

  8. Laparoendoscopic single site nephrectomy with the SPIDER surgical system: engineering advancements tested in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Salas, Nelson; Gorin, Michael A; Gorbatiy, Vladislav; Castle, Scott M; Bird, Vincent G; Leveillee, Raymond J

    2011-05-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: The Single Port Instrument Delivery Extended Reach (SPIDER) surgical system was developed for true continuous instrument triangulation during laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) surgery. We present our initial preclinical experience with the SPIDER surgical system during renal surgery. Bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomies were performed in a live adult porcine animal model using the SPIDER device. A standard surgical approach was used via direct video guidance. The procedure was successfully performed without surgical error or complication. The SPIDER system proved easy to use with only a minimal learning curve. Intracorporeal surgical knots were tied without difficulty using this single site system. Our initial experience with the SPIDER surgical system during renal surgery is promising. SPIDER allows for true single port instrument triangulation offering a superior operative experience to currently available LESS surgical systems.

  9. Effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the risk of surgical site infection in orthotopic liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Angel; Ramos, Antonio; Cuervas-Mons, Valentin; Cordero, Elisa; Sánchez-Turrión, Victor; Blanes, Marino; Cervera, Carlos; Gavalda, Joan; Aguado, Jose M; Torre-Cisneros, Julian

    2008-06-01

    Surgical site infections are common bacterial infections in orthotopic liver transplantation. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, timing, location, and risk factors, specifically antibiotic prophylaxis, for surgical site infections. A prospective study was performed that included a population of 1222 consecutive patients (73.0% males) who underwent liver transplantation in Spanish hospitals belonging to the Red de Estudio de la Infección en el Trasplante research network. One hundred seven patients developed surgical site infections. The predominant infection sites were incisional wound (53 episodes) and peritonitis (40 episodes). The timing of the organ/space surgical site infections was slightly delayed in comparison with incisional surgical site infections. Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii were the predominant pathogens. Choledochojejunal or hepaticojejunal reconstruction (odds ratio, 4.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-10.7), previous liver or kidney transplant (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-6.3), and more than 4 red blood cell units transfused (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.4) were independently associated with the development of surgical site infections. Biliary reconstruction by choledochojejunostomy or hepaticojejunostomy increases the risk of surgical site infections.

  10. Knowledge of and Practice Patterns for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Syndromes in Korean Surgical Residents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jangho; Lee, Soo Young; Kang, Sung-Bum; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Obtaining a detailed family history through detailed pedigree is essential in recognizing hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes. This study was performed to assess the current knowledge and practice patterns of surgery residents regarding familial risk of CRC. Methods A questionnaire survey was performed to evaluate the knowledge and the level of recognition for analyses of family histories and hereditary CRC syndromes in 62 residents of the Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions regarding practice patterns for, knowledge of, and resident education about hereditary CRC syndromes. Results Two-thirds of the residents answered that family history should be investigated at the first interview, but only 37% of them actually obtained pedigree detailed family history at the very beginning in actual clinical practice. Three-quarters of the residents answered that the quality of family history they obtained was poor. Most of them could diagnose hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer and recommend an appropriate colonoscopy surveillance schedule; however, only 19% knew that cancer surveillance guidelines differed according to the family history. Most of our residents lacked knowledge of cancer genetics, such as causative genes, and diagnostic methods, including microsatellite instability test, and indicated a desire and need for more education regarding hereditary cancer and genetic testing during residency. Conclusion This study demonstrated that surgical residents' knowledge of hereditary cancer was not sufficient and that the quality of the family histories obtained in current practice has to be improved. More information regarding hereditary cancer should be considered in education programs for surgery residents. PMID:24278856

  11. Compliance of Perioperative Antibiotic Dosing and Surgical Site Infection Rate in Office-Based Elective Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Steven P.; Jackson, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background: A best practice goal to reduce surgical site infection includes administration of antibiotics in the ideal preoperative window. This article evaluates an office surgical suite antibiotic administration rate and compares it with the timing of a local hospital treating a similar patient population. The hypothesis was that similar or better compliance and surgical site infection rates can be achieved in the office-based suite. Methods: A total of 277 office-based surgeries were analyzed for antibiotic administration time before incision and their corresponding surgical site infection rate. Results: Our facility administered timely prophylactic antibiotics in 96% of cases with a surgical site infection rate of 0.36%. This rate was significantly lower than a reported rate of 3.7%. Conclusion: Low infection rates with high antibiotic administration rate suggest that compliance with best possible practice protocols is possible in the outpatient setting. PMID:27579234

  12. Late Surgical-Site Infection in Immediate Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Indranil; Pusic, Andrea L; Wilkins, Edwin G; Hamill, Jennifer B; Chen, Xiaoxue; Kim, Hyungjin M; Guldbrandsen, Gretchen; Chun, Yoon S

    2017-01-01

    Surgical-site infection causes devastating reconstructive failure in implant-based breast reconstructions. Large national database studies offer insights into complication rates, but only capture outcomes within 30 days postoperatively. This study evaluates both early and late surgical-site infection in immediate implant-based reconstruction and identifies predictors. As part of the Mastectomy Reconstruction Outcomes Consortium Study, 1662 implant-based breast reconstructions in 1024 patients were evaluated for early versus late surgical-site infection. Early surgical-site infection was defined as infection occurring within 30 days postoperatively; late surgical-site infection was defined as infection occurring 31 days to 1 year postoperatively. Minor infection required oral antibiotics only, and major infection required hospitalization and/or surgical treatment. Direct-to-implant patients had 1-year follow-up, and tissue expander patients had 1-year post-exchange follow-up. Among 1491 tissue expander and 171 direct-to-implant reconstructions, overall surgical-site infection rate for tissue expander was 5.7 percent (85 of 1491) after first-stage, 2.5 percent (31 of 1266) after second-stage, and 9.9 percent (17 of 171) for direct-to-implant reconstruction. Over 47 to 71 percent of surgical-site infection complications were late surgical-site infection. Multivariate analysis identified radiotherapy and increasing body mass index as significant predictors of late surgical-site infection. No significant difference between the direct-to-implant and tissue expander groups in the occurrence of early, late, or overall surgical-site infection was found. The majority of surgical-site infection complications in immediate implant-based breast reconstructions occur more than 30 days after both first-stage and second-stage procedures. Radiotherapy and obesity are significantly associated with late-onset surgical-site infection. Current studies limited to early complications do

  13. Prophylactic Antibiotic Choice and Risk of Surgical Site Infection After Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Shitanshu; Harris, John; Al-Niaimi, Ahmed; Swenson, Carolyn W.; Pearlman, Mark D.; Reynolds, R. Kevin; Kamdar, Neil; Bazzi, Ali; Campbell, Darrell A.; Morgan, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations between prophylactic preoperative antibiotic choice and surgical site infection rates after hysterectomy. METHODS A retrospective cohort study was performed of patients in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative undergoing hysterectomy from July 2012 to February 2015. The primary outcome was a composite outcome of any surgical site infection (superficial surgical site infections or combined deep–organ space surgical site infections). Preoperative antibiotics were categorized based on the recommendations set forth by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Surgical Care Improvement Project. Patients receiving a recommended antibiotic regimen were categorized into those receiving beta-lactam antibiotics and those receiving alternatives to beta-lactam antibiotics. Patients receiving non-recommended antibiotics were categorized into those receiving overtreatment (excluded from further analysis) and those receiving non-standard antibiotics. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to estimate the independent effect of antibiotic choice. Propensity score matching analysis was performed to validate the results. RESULTS The study included 21,358 hysterectomies. The overall rate of any surgical site infection’ was 2.06% (N=441). Unadjusted rates of ‘any surgical site infection’ were 1.8%, 3.1% and 3.7% for beta-lactam, beta-lactam alternatives and non-standard groups, respectively. After adjusting for patient and operative factors within clusters of hospitals, compared to the beta-lactam antibiotics (reference group), the risk of ‘any surgical site infection’ was higher for the group receiving beta-lactam alternatives (OR 1.7, CI 1.27–2.07) or the non-standard antibiotics (OR 2.0, CI 1.31–3.1). CONCLUSION Compared to women receiving beta lactam antibiotic regimens, there is a higher risk of surgical site infection after hysterectomy among those receiving a recommended beta lactam

  14. Advance pre-operative chlorhexidine reduces the incidence of surgical site infections in knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Zywiel, Michael G; Daley, Jacqueline A; Delanois, Ronald E; Naziri, Qais; Johnson, Aaron J; Mont, Michael A

    2011-07-01

    Surgical site infections following elective knee arthroplasties occur most commonly as a result of colonisation by the patient's native skin flora. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of deep surgical site infections in knee arthroplasty patients who used an advance cutaneous disinfection protocol and who were compared to patients who had peri-operative preparation only. All adult reconstruction surgeons at a single institution were approached to voluntarily provide patients with chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated cloths and a printed sheet instructing their use the night before and morning of surgery. Records for all knee arthroplasties performed between January 2007 and December 2008 were reviewed to determine the incidence of deep incisional and periprosthetic surgical site infections. Overall, the advance pre-operative protocol was used in 136 of 912 total knee arthroplasties (15%). A lower incidence of surgical site infection was found in patients who used the advance cutaneous preparation protocol as compared to patients who used the in-hospital protocol alone. These findings were maintained when patients were stratified by surgical infection risk category. No surgical site infections occurred in the 136 patients who completed the protocol as compared to 21 infections in 711 procedures (3.0%) performed in patients who did not. Patient-directed skin disinfection using chlorhexidine gluconate-impregnated cloths the evening before, and the morning of, elective knee arthroplasty appeared to effectively reduce the incidence of surgical site infection when compared to patients who underwent in-hospital skin preparation only.

  15. Quality improvement initiative: Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Parizh, David; Ascher, Enrico; Raza Rizvi, Syed Ali; Hingorani, Anil; Amaturo, Michael; Johnson, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Objective A quality improvement initiative was employed to decrease single institution surgical site infection rate in open lower extremity revascularization procedures. In an attempt to lower patient morbidity, we developed and implemented the Preventative Surgical Site Infection Protocol in Vascular Surgery. Surgical site infections lead to prolonged hospital stays, adjunctive procedure, and additive costs. We employed targeted interventions to address the common risk factors that predispose patients to post-operative complications. Methods Retrospective review was performed between 2012 and 2016 for all surgical site infections after revascularization procedures of the lower extremity. A quality improvement protocol was initiated in January 2015. Primary outcome was the assessment of surgical site infection rate reduction in the pre-protocol vs. post-protocol era. Secondary outcomes evaluated patient demographics, closure method, perioperative antibiotic coverage, and management outcomes. Results Implementation of the protocol decreased the surgical site infection rate from 6.4% to 1.6% p = 0.0137). Patient demographics and comorbidities were assessed and failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference among the infection and no-infection groups. Wound closure with monocryl suture vs. staple proved to be associated with decreased surgical site infection rate ( p < 0.005). Conclusions Preventative measures, in the form of a standardized protocol, to decrease surgical site infections in the vascular surgery population are effective and necessary. Our data suggest that there may be benefit in the incorporation of MRSA and Gram-negative coverage as part of the Surgical Care Improvement Project perioperative guidelines.

  16. Prevalence and Characteristics of Surgical Site Infections Caused by Gram-negative Rod-shaped Bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriacae and Gram-positive Cocci from the Genus Staphylococcus in Patients who Underwent Surgical Procedures on Selected Surgical Wards.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska-Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kołomecki, Krzysztof; Wieloch-Torzecka, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Surgical site infections on surgical wards are the most common cause of postoperative complications. Prevalence of surgical site infections depends on the surgical specialization. Analysis of the causes of surgical site infections allows to conclude that microorganisms from the patient's own microbiota - Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriacae and from the patient's skin microbiota - Gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus are the most common agents inducing surgical site infections. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and characteristics of surgical site infections caused by Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Eneterobacteriacae and Gram-positive cocci from the genus Staphylococcus in patients who underwent surgical procedures at the Regional Specialist Hospital named after M. Copernika in Łódź on selected surgical wards.

  17. Identification of potential surgical site infections leveraging an enterprise clinical information warehouse.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Jennifer; Erdal, Selnur; Wellington, Linda; Mekhjian, Hagop; Kamal, Jyoti

    2008-11-06

    At The Ohio State University Medical Center (OSUMC), infection control practitioners (ICPs) need an accurate list of patients undergoing defined operative procedures to track surgical site infections. Using data from the OSUMC Information Warehouse (IW), we have created an automated report detailing required data. This report also displays associated surgical and pathology text or dictated reports providing additional information to the ICPs.

  18. Surgical site infection after cardiac surgery: a simplified surveillance method.

    PubMed

    Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2006-12-01

    We report the results of a 2-year, 7-center program of surveillance of deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after cardiac surgery. DSWI was defined as the need for reoperation. Stratification data were abstracted from computerized files. The incidence of DSWI was 2.2% (198 of 8,816 cardiac surgery procedures). The risk factors identified were obesity, age, coronary artery bypass grafting, postoperative mechanical ventilation, and early surgical reexploration. The resource efficiency of this simplified surveillance method is discussed.

  19. The RN first assistant: an expert resource for surgical site infection prevention.

    PubMed

    Pear, Suzanne M; Williamson, Theresa H

    2009-06-01

    The role of the RN first assistant (RNFA) has expanded and evolved during the past three decades. Studies that have examined patient care outcomes relative to RNFAs substituting for surgeons as first assistants have noted no resulting adverse consequences, and the use of RNFAs in surgery may improve patient outcomes. This article reports on an intervention to improve surgical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery that involved replacing surgical residents with RNFAs for the harvesting of saphenous vein grafts. The resulting benefits were a significant decrease in surgical times as well as improvement in surgical site infection rates.

  20. Do antibiotics reduce the frequency of surgical site infections after impacted mandibular third molar surgery?

    PubMed

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Sharaf, Basel; Dodson, Thomas B

    2011-11-01

    Surgical removal of impacted third molars remains the most common procedure performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Given the abundance of host bacteria within the operative sites, surgical site infections are among the most common complications of third molar removal, with an estimated frequency of 1% to 30%. In this setting, significant controversy has surrounded the use of prophylactic antibiotics in the surgical management of impacted third molars. This article provides a comprehensive review of the available data on antibiotic prophylaxis in impacted third molar surgery and offers specific recommendations on antibiotic use.

  1. Acute Chest Wall Infections: Surgical Site Infections, Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections, and Sternoclavicular Joint Infection.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Paul; Tieu, Brandon H

    2017-05-01

    Acute chest wall infections are uncommon and share similar risk factors for infection at other surgical sites. Smoking cessation has been shown to decrease the risk of surgical site infection. Depending on the depth of infection and/or involvement of the organ space, adequate therapy involves antibiotics and drainage. Early diagnosis and debridement of necrotizing soft tissue infections is essential to reduce mortality. Sternoclavicular joint infections require surgical debridement, en bloc resection, and antibiotic therapy. A standard approach to wound closure after resection has yet to be established. Vacuum-assisted closure is a valuable adjunct to standard therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does close temperature regulation affect surgical site infection rates?

    PubMed

    Leeds, Ira L; Wick, Elizabeth C; Melton, Genevieve B

    2014-01-01

    The argument for close temperature control, to which regulatory bodies have held health systems in an effort to reduce the burden of hospital-acquired infections, is not fully supported by current evidence. The literature is complex on the topic, and overinterpretation of historical data supporting close temperature regulation does not preclude an important recognition of these early works' contribution to high-quality surgical care. Avoidance of hypothermia through the regular use of active rewarming should be a routine part of safe surgical care. The biochemical basis of emphasizing temperature regulation is sound, and ample evidence shows the frank physiologic derangements seen when biological processes occur at suboptimal temperature. It is also recognized that patients tend to do better when warmed during the perioperative period, suggesting that warming devices are an important and essential adjunct to good perioperative care. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers must be careful in how they apply these well-supported findings to process metrics in an era of limited resources with increasingly stringent quality guidelines and outcomes measures. Discrete temperature targets in current measures are not supported by the existing literature. Not only do these targets artificially anchor clinicians to temperature values with an inadequate scientific basis but they demand intensive resources from health institutions that could potentially be better used on quality requirements with stronger evidence of their ultimate effect on patient care.

  3. Impact of using triclosan-antibacterial sutures on incidence of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Galal, Ibrahim; El-Hindawy, Khaled

    2011-08-01

    Surgical site infection is a common complication of surgery. Its morbidities range from delayed healing to systemic sepsis. It has impact on the economy and health care resources. This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled multicenter study aimed to compare triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 sutures with polyglactin 910 sutures for the reduction of surgical site infections. This article details the results from the Cairo University center. A total of 450 patients who had undergone different surgical procedures were enrolled; 230 were enrolled in the study group and 220 were enrolled in the control group. The study group and the control group were comparable regarding risk factors for surgical site infection. Surgical site infection incidence was 7% in the study group and 15% in the control group (P = .011). The mean extended stay as a result of infection was 3.71 days, with an average cost $91 US per day. Use of the triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 antimicrobial suture lead to reduction of surgical site infection and has an impact on saving health care resources. The triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 antimicrobial suture could save $1,517,727 yearly in this single center. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraoperative technique as a factor in the prevention of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    McHugh, S M; Hill, A D K; Humphreys, H

    2011-05-01

    Approximately five percent of patients who undergo surgery develop surgical site infections (SSIs) which are associated with an extra seven days as an inpatient and with increased postoperative mortality. The competence and technique of the surgeon is considered important in preventing SSI. We have reviewed the evidence on different aspects of surgical technique and its role in preventing SSI. The most recent guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK recommend avoiding diathermy for skin incision even though this reduces incision time and blood loss, both associated with lower infection rates. Studies comparing different closure techniques, i.e. continuous versus interrupted sutures, have not found a statistically significant difference in the SSI rate, but using continuous sutures is quicker. For contaminated wounds, the surgical site should be left open for four days to allow for treatment of local infection before subsequent healing by primary intention. Surgical drains should be placed through separate incisions, closed suction drains are preferable to open drains, and all drains should be removed as soon as possible. There are relatively few large studies on the impact of surgical techniques on SSI rates. Larger multicentre prospective studies are required to define what aspects of surgical technique impact on SSI, to better inform surgical practice and support education programmes for surgical trainees. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Outcomes in head and neck reconstruction by surgical site and donor site

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, JW; Sweeny, L; Carroll, WR; Peters, GE; Rosenthal, EL

    2012-01-01

    Objective Define surgical outcomes of specific donor sites for free tissue transfer in head and neck reconstruction. Design Retrospective cohort review Setting Academic tertiary care center. Patients A review of free tissue transfer procedures performed at a university-based tertiary care facility from October 2004 to April 2011. A total of 1051 patients underwent 6 types of free flaps: fasciocutaneous radial forearm (53%), osteocutaneous radial forearm (16%), rectus abdominus (11%), fibula (10%), anterior lateral thigh (7%), and latissimus dorsi (2%). Main Outcome Measures Demographic data was collected and outcomes measured were: length of hospital stay, flap viability, and major complications (infection, fistula, and hematoma). Results Of the 1051 flaps performed, the most common operative site was oral cavity (40% n=414) followed by hypopharynx/larynx (22%, n=234), cutaneous (20%, n=206), oropharynx (9%, n= 98), mid-face (7%, n= 76), and skull base (2%, n=23). The median hospital stay was 7.9 days (range 1-76) and the overall failure rate was 2.8%. Cutaneous defects required the shortest length of hospitalization (5.8 days, P< .0001), a low free flap failure rate (1.5%, n= 3), and limited major complications (6%, n= 12). Conversely, oropharynx defects were associated with the longest hospitalization (8.9 days). While midface defects had a high incidence of complications (15%, n= 11, P=.10). Defects above the angle of the mandible had higher overall complications when compared to below. Similarly, reconstruction for primary or recurrent cancer had a total failure rate of 2.5% while secondary reconstruction and radionecrosis had a failure rate of 4.0% (P=.29). Additionally, there was no statistical difference between outcomes based on donor site. Conclusions This review demonstrates that certain subsets of patients are at higher risk for complications after free tissue transfer. Patients undergoing free flap reconstruction for cutaneous defects have substantially

  6. Performance assessment of the risk index category for surgical site infection after colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanori; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Nomura, Satoshi; Hanawa, Hidetsugu; Chihara, Naoto; Mizutani, Satoshi; Yoshino, Masanori; Uchida, Eiji

    2015-02-01

    The traditional National Healthcare Safety Network (previously National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance) risk index is used to predict the risk of surgical site infection across many operative procedures. However, this index may be too simple to predict risk in the various procedures performed in colorectal surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the risk index by analyzing the impact of the risk index factors on surgical site infection after abdominal colorectal surgery. Using our surgical site infection surveillance database, we analyzed retrospectively 538 consecutive patients who underwent abdominal colorectal surgery between 2005 and 2010. Correlations between surgical site infection and the following risk index factors were analyzed: length of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, wound classification, and use of laparoscopy. The 75th percentile for length of operation was determined separately for open and laparoscopic surgery in the study model. Univariate analyses showed that surgical site infection was more strongly associated with a >75th percentile length of operation in the study model (odds ratio [OR], 2.07) than in the traditional risk index model (OR, 1.64). Multivariable analysis found that surgical site infection was independently associated with a >75th percentile length of operation in the study model (OR, 2.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-4.55), American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.10-4.34), wound classification ≥III (OR, 5.29; 95% CI, 2.62-10.69), and open surgery (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.07-5.17). Performance of the risk index category was improved in the study model compared with the traditional model. The risk index category is sufficiently useful for predicting the risk of surgical site infection after abdominal colorectal surgery. However, the 75th percentile length of operation should be set separately for open and laparoscopic surgery.

  7. Risk factors for acute surgical site infections after lumbar surgery: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qi; Song, Quanwei; Guo, Runsheng; Bi, Haidi; Liu, Xuqiang; Yu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Jianghao; Dai, Min; Zhang, Bin

    2017-07-19

    Currently, many scholars are concerned about the treatment of postoperative infection; however, few have completed multivariate analyses to determine factors that contribute to the risk of infection. Therefore, we conducted a multivariate analysis of a retrospectively collected database to analyze the risk factors for acute surgical site infection following lumbar surgery, including fracture fixation, lumbar fusion, and minimally invasive lumbar surgery. We retrospectively reviewed data from patients who underwent lumbar surgery between 2014 and 2016, including lumbar fusion, internal fracture fixation, and minimally invasive surgery in our hospital's spinal surgery unit. Patient demographics, procedures, and wound infection rates were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Twenty-six patients (2.81%) experienced acute surgical site infection following lumbar surgery in our study. The patients' mean body mass index, smoking history, operative time, blood loss, draining time, and drainage volume in the acute surgical site infection group were significantly different from those in the non-acute surgical site infection group (p < 0.05). Additionally, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoporosis, preoperative antibiotics, type of disease, and operative type in the acute surgical site infection group were significantly different than those in the non-acute surgical site infection group (p < 0.05). Using binary logistic regression analyses, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, preoperative antibiotics, fracture, operative type, operative time, blood loss, and drainage time were independent predictors of acute surgical site infection following lumbar surgery. In order to reduce the risk of infection following lumbar surgery, patients should be evaluated for the risk factors noted above.

  8. Impact of the difference in surgical site on the physique in gastrointestinal tract cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira; Kogure, Eisuke; Ishii, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe physical function, physique (only BMI), and nutrition status (evaluated by serum albumin levels) from before surgery to after discharge among perioperative patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer and to examine the effect of difference in surgical site (i.e., stomach, colon, and rectum) in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 70 patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer [36 males and 34 females, aged 59.3 ± 11.4 years (mean ± SD)]. The subjects were classified into three levels according to surgical site (stomach, colon, and rectum). We evaluated patients' physical function, physique, and nutrition status in the three points: before surgery, after surgery, and after discharge. The 6-minute walk distance was measured for physical function. Body mass index was measured for physique. The serum albumin level was measured for nutrition status. [Results] Significant declines in 6-minute walk distance, body mass index, and serum albumin were observed after surgery among the study subjects. In addition, a significant decline in body mass index was observed after discharge compared with before surgery. Regarding body mass index, a significant interaction between surgical site and evaluation times was observed for ANOVA. [Conclusion] These results suggest that BMI after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and that body mass index changes from before surgery to after surgery are efficacy the difference of surgical site in patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer.

  9. Obstetric Surgical Site Infections: 2 Grams Compared With 3 Grams of Cefazolin in Morbidly Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzia, Homa K; Patel, Emily M; Joshi, Dipa; Liao, Caiyun; Witter, Frank; Heine, R Phillips; Coleman, Jenell S

    2015-10-01

    To estimate whether morbidly obese gravid patients were less likely to develop a surgical site infection after receiving a higher dose of preoperative prophylactic antibiotics. A retrospective cohort study of morbidly obese pregnant women undergoing cesarean delivery was conducted at two tertiary care centers from 2008 to 2013. Exposure was defined as receiving 2 g compared with 3 g cefazolin preoperatively. Disease was defined by diagnosis of a surgical site infection using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. We estimated a sample size of 141 patients in each group for a 67% reduction (15% to 5%) in risk for a surgical site infection. There were 335 women included in the cohort with a median absolute weight of 310 (interquartile range 299-333) pounds. Forty-four (13.1%) women were diagnosed with a surgical site infection. There was no difference in surgical site infection among those women who received 2 g compared with 3 g cefazolin (13.1% [23/175] compared with 13.1% [21/160]; P=.996). Labor (crude odds ratio [OR] 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-4.40), internal labor monitoring (OR 2.78, 1.45-5.31), blood loss greater than 1,500 mL (OR 2.15, 1.09-5.78), and staple closure (OR 2.2, 1.15-4.21) were associated with a surgical site infection among the entire cohort. After multivariable analysis, blood loss greater than 1,500 mL (adjusted OR 3.32, 1.32-8.37) and staple closure (adjusted OR 2.45, 1.19-5.02) remained associated with an increased risk for a surgical site infection, whereas 3 g cefazolin still was not associated with reduced risk for a surgical site infection (adjusted OR 1.33, 0.64-2.74). In our multicenter retrospective cohort study, preoperative 3 g cefazolin prophylaxis administered to morbidly obese gravid patients did not reduce surgical site infections. III.

  10. Fluid Overload and Cumulative Thoracostomy Output Are Associated With Surgical Site Infection After Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sochet, Anthony A; Nyhan, Aoibhinn; Spaeder, Michael C; Cartron, Alexander M; Song, Xiaoyan; Klugman, Darren; Brown, Anna T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the impact of cumulative, postoperative thoracostomy output, amount of bolus IV fluids and peak fluid overload on the incidence and odds of developing a deep surgical site infection following pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. A single-center, nested, retrospective, matched case-control study. A 26-bed cardiac ICU in a 303-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital. Cases with deep surgical site infection following cardiothoracic surgery were identified retrospectively from January 2010 through December 2013 and individually matched to controls at a ratio of 1:2 by age, gender, Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery category, primary cardiac diagnosis, and procedure. None. Twelve cases with deep surgical site infection were identified and matched to 24 controls without detectable differences in perioperative clinical characteristics. Deep surgical site infection cases had larger thoracostomy output and bolus IV fluid volumes at 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively compared with controls. For every 1 mL/kg of thoracostomy output, the odds of developing a deep surgical site infection increase by 13%. By receiver operative characteristic curve analysis, a cutoff of 49 mL/kg of thoracostomy output at 48 hours best discriminates the development of deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 83%, specificity 83%). Peak fluid overload was greater in cases than matched controls (12.5% vs 6%; p < 0.01). On receiver operative characteristic curve analysis, a threshold value of 10% peak fluid overload was observed to identify deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 67%, specificity 79%). Conditional logistic regression of peak fluid overload greater than 10% on the development of deep surgical site infection yielded an odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI, 2-46.2). Increased postoperative peak fluid overload and cumulative thoracostomy output were associated with deep surgical site

  11. Forced-Air Warmers and Surgical Site Infections in Patients Undergoing Knee or Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Austin, Paul N

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the evidence indicates preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia reduces the incidence of many perioperative complications. Among the results of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia are increased bleeding, myocardial events, impaired wound healing, and diminished renal function. Most researchers agree there is an increased incidence of surgical site infections in patients who experience inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Forced-air warming is effective in preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Paradoxically, forced-air warmers have been implicated in causing surgical site infections in patients undergoing total knee or hip arthroplasty. The results of investigations suggest these devices harbor pathogens and cause unwanted airflow disturbances. However, no significant increases in bacterial counts were found when forced-air warmers were used according to the manufacturer's directions. The results of one study suggested the incidence of surgical site infections in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty was increased when using a forced-air warmer. However these researchers did not control for other factors affecting the incidence of surgical site infections in these patients. Current evidence does not support forced-air warmers causing surgical site infections in patients undergoing total knee or hip arthroplasty. Clinicians must use and maintain these devices as per the manufacturer's directions. They may consider using alternative warming methods. Well-conducted studies are needed to help determine the role of forced-air warmers in causing infections in these patients.

  12. ANALYSIS OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AFTER ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Mariana de Queiroz Leite; Costa, Ana Maria Magalhães; Mendes, Pedro Henrique Barros; Gomes, Saint Clair

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To describe the rate of surgical site infections in children undergoing orthopedic surgery in centers of excellence and analyze the patients’ profiles. Methods: Medical records of pediatric patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in the Jamil Haddad National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics from January 2012 to December 2013 were analyzed and monitored for one year. Patients diagnosed with surgical site infection were matched with patients without infection by age, date of admission, field of orthopedic surgery and type of surgical procedure. Patient, surgical and follow-up variables were examined. Descriptive, bivariate and correspondence analyses were performed to evaluate the patients’ profiles. Results: 347 surgeries and 10 surgical site infections (2.88%) were identified. There was association of infections with age - odds ratio (OR) 11.5 (confidence interval - 95%CI 1.41-94.9) -, implant - OR 7.3 (95%CI 1.46-36.3) -, preoperative period - OR 9.8 (95%CI 1.83-53.0), and length of hospitalization - OR 20.6 (95%CI 3.7-114.2). The correspondence analysis correlated the infection and preoperative period, weight, weight Z-score, age, implant, type of surgical procedure, and length of hospitalization. Average time to diagnosis of infection occurred 26.5±111.46 days after surgery. Conclusions: The rate of surgical site infection was 2.88%, while higher in children over 24 months of age who underwent surgical implant procedures and had longer preoperative periods and lengths of hospitalization. This study identified variables for the epidemiological surveillance of these events in children. Available databases and appropriate analysis methods are essential to monitor and improve the quality of care offered to the pediatric population.

  13. Supplemental Perioperative Oxygen to Reduce Surgical Site Infection After High Energy Fracture Surgery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Perioperative Oxygen compared to those treated without Supplemental Perioperative Oxygen . 2.1 Finalize Study Protocol The general progress and timing of...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0588 TITLE: Supplemental Perioperative Oxygen to Reduce Surgical Site Infection After High Energy Fracture Surgery...Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30 Sep 2014 – 29 Sep 2015 30129/29/124. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Supplemental Perioperative Oxygen to Reduce Surgical

  14. Infection prevention and control in the operating theatre: reducing the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs).

    PubMed

    Weaving, Paul; Cox, Felicia; Milton, Sherran

    2008-05-01

    Continuing advances in surgical techniques, asepsis, operating theatre protocols and ventilation systems that ensure an uninterrupted supply of clean air, should allow all patients to undergo both invasive and minimally-invasive procedures with reduced risk. Patients having surgery in the United Kingdom are probably less vulnerable to surgical site infections (SSIs) than ever before--despite persisting concerns about meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and increasing antibiotic resistance in other organisms such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE).

  15. Incidence and risk factors of surgical site infection following cesarean section at Dhulikhel Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, S; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, B; Dongol, A

    2014-01-01

    Cesarean Section (CS) is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in obstetrical and gynecological department. Surgical site infection (SSI) after a cesarean section increases maternal morbidity prolongs hospital stay and medical costs. The aim of this study was to find out the incidence and associated risk factors of surgical site infection among cesarean section cases. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted at Dhulikhel Hospital, department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology from July 2013 to June 2014. Total of 648 women who underwent surgical procedure for delivery during study period were included in the study. Data was collected from patient using structred pro forma and examination of wound till discharge was done. Data was compared in terms of presence of surgical site infection and study variables. Wound was evaluated for the development of SSI on third day, and fifth post-operative day, and on the day of discharge. Total of 648 cases were studied. The mean age was 24±4.18. Among the studied cases 92% were literate and 8% were illiterate. Antenatal clinic was attended by 97.7%. The incidence rate of surgical site infection was 82 (12.6%). SSI was found to be common in women who had rupture of membrane before surgery (p=0.020), who underwent emergency surgery (p=0.0004), and the women who had vertical skin incision (p=0.0001) and interrupted skin suturing (p=0.0001) during surgery. Surgical site infection following caesarean section is common. Various modifiable risk factors were observed in this study. Development of SSI is related to multifactorial rather than one factor. Development and strict implementation of protocol by all the health care professionals could be effective to minimize and prevent the infection rate after caesarean section.

  16. Skin Preparation for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection After Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Ivan M; Van Arsdale, Anne; Govindappagari, Shravya; Judge, Nancy E; Neto, Nicole K; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Peter S; Garry, David J

    2015-12-01

    To compare chlorhexidine with alcohol, povidone-iodine with alcohol, and both applied sequentially to estimate their relative effectiveness in prevention of surgical site infections after cesarean delivery. Women undergoing nonemergent cesarean birth at greater than 37 0/7 weeks of gestation were randomly allocated to one of three antiseptic skin preparations: povidone-iodine with alcohol, chlorhexidine with alcohol, or the sequential combination of both solutions. The primary outcome was surgical site infection reported within the first 30 days postpartum. Based on a surgical site infection rate of 12%, an anticipated 50% reduction for the combination group relative to either single skin preparation group, with a power of 0.90 and an α of 0.05, 430 women per group were needed to detect a difference. From January 2013 to July 2014, 1,404 women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: povidone-iodine with alcohol (n=463), chlorhexidine with alcohol (n=474), or both (n=467). The groups were similar with respect to demographics, medical disorders, indication for cesarean delivery, operative time, and blood loss. The overall rate of surgical site infection-4.3%-was lower than anticipated. The skin preparation groups had similar surgical site infection rates: povidone-iodine 4.6%, chlorhexidine with alcohol 4.5%, and sequential 3.9% (P=.85). The skin preparation techniques resulted in similar rates of surgical site infections. Our study provides no support for any particular method of skin preparation before cesarean delivery. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01870583. I.

  17. What Factors are Associated With a Surgical Site Infection After Operative Treatment of an Elbow Fracture?

    PubMed

    Claessen, Femke M A P; Braun, Yvonne; van Leeuwen, Wouter F; Dyer, George S; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Ring, David

    2016-02-01

    Surgical site infections are one of the more common major complications of elbow fracture surgery and can contribute to other adverse outcomes, prolonged hospital stays, and increased healthcare costs. We asked: (1) What are the factors associated with a surgical site infection after elbow fracture surgery? (2) When taking the subset of closed elbow fractures only, what are the factors associated with a surgical site infection? (3) What are the common organisms isolated from an elbow infection after open treatment? One thousand three hundred twenty adult patients underwent surgery for an elbow fracture between January 2002 and July 2014 and were included in our study. Forty-eight of 1320 patients (4%) had a surgical site infection develop. Thirty-four of 1113 patients with a closed fracture (3%) had a surgical site infection develop. For all elbow fractures, use of plate and screw fixation (adjusted odds ratio [OR]= 2.2; 95% CI, 1.0-4.5; p = 0.041) and use of external fixation before surgery (adjusted OR = 4.7; 95% CI, 1.1-21; p = 0.035) were associated with higher infection rates. When subset analysis was performed for closed fractures, only smoking (adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = 0.023) was associated with higher infection rates. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria cultured (59%). The only modifiable risk factor for a surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation was cigarette smoking. Plate fixation and temporary external fixation are likely surrogates for more complex injuries, therefore no recommendations should be inferred from this association. Surgeons should counsel patients who smoke. Level IV, prognostic study.

  18. Acoustic-hydrophysical testing of a shallow site in coastal waters of the Korean Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgunov, Yu. N.; Golov, A. A.; Strobykin, D. S.; Kim, Kiseon; Kim, Chansan; Ro, Shinrae

    2012-05-01

    The paper describes the results of testing experiments for solving problems of thermometry and positioning of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) in the Korean Strait in a shallow sea with less than 10 m of water. The studies were conducted on acoustic tracks up to 615 m long, sensed with complex phase-shift keyed signals with a centeral frequency of 2500 Hz. Under field experiment conditions, it was shown that the resolution of the structure of pulse responses makes it possible to sense temperature changes less than one degree and to secure positioning of the AUV with an accuracy better than 1 m when operating in the near-bottom layer.

  19. Institution of The Steiros Algorithm(®) Outpatient Surgical Protocol reduced orthopedic surgical site infections (SSI) rates.

    PubMed

    Watson, Paul A; Watson, Luke; Torress-Cook, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Control of surgical site infections (SSI) is imperative for the safety of our patients. As orthopedic surgeons we strive to have the lowest infection rate possible for all our surgical procedures. this study evaluates the effects of a simple outpatient peri-operative patient cleaning protocol (The Steiros Algorithm(®) Outpatient Surgery Protocol) on SSI rates. We retrospectively reviewed the hospital's infection rate database for all procedures from July 2005 until February 2011 performed by one general orthopedic surgeon (PAW) within one hospital system. The Steiros Algorithm(®) Outpatient Surgery Protocol was instituted on January 1(st), 2009. We calculated and compared the deep and superficial SSI rate for orthopedic surgeries performed before and after the Outpatient Protocol was instituted. All patients had a minimum of one-year follow-up data. Lowest previously published estimated costs for SSI were used for a cost analysis ($17,708). The July 1(st), 2005 through December 31(st), 2008 SSI rate was 1.0% (13/1292). From January 1(st), 2009 through February 28(th), 2011 the SSI rate was zero (0/875). the SSI rates decreased 100%. Due to the reduction in SSI, the hospital saved a minimum of $154,059 over a two year period. In this retrospective review, the Steiros Algorithm(®) Outpatient Surgery Protocol dramatically reduced the overall SSI rate to zero and saved money. We believe this is a simple, effective protocol that can be used for all orthopedic surgical procedures.

  20. Perceived Professional Needs of Korean Science Teachers Majoring in Chemical Education and Their Preferences for Online and On-Site Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noh, Taehee; Cha, Jeongho; Kang, Sukjin; Scharmann, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the perceived professional needs of Korean science teachers majoring in chemical education, and examined their preferences for online and on-site inservice teacher training programmes. The results were also compared with those of preservice teachers. Participants were 120 secondary school teachers and 67 preservice…

  1. Incidence and predictors of surgical site infection in Ethiopia: prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Legesse Laloto, Tamrat; Hiko Gemeda, Desta; Abdella, Sadikalmahdi Hussen

    2017-02-03

    Surgical site infections are commonest nosocomial infections and responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality as well as increased hospitalizations and treatment cost related to surgical operations. The aim of this study was to determine incidence and predictors of surgical site infections at surgical ward of Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia. We performed prospective study involving 105 patients that undergone major surgical procedure at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from March 2 to May 2, 2015. Data were extracted from paper based medical charts, operational and anesthesia note, by direct observation and patients' interview. All patients were followed daily before, during and after operation for 30 days starting from the date of operation. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for window version 20.0 software. Predictors of Surgical site infections were identified using multivariable logistic regression model. P-value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. We studied 105 patients. Sixty four patients (61%) were males. The mean age of the patients was 30.85 ± 17.72 years. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 21.6 ± 4 kg/m(2). Twenty patients (19.1%) developed surgical site infections. Age greater than 40 years, AOR = 7.7(95% CI [1.610-40.810 p = 0.016,]), preoperative hospital stay more than 7 days, AOR = 22.4(95% CI [4.544-110.780, p = 0.001]), duration of operation more than 1 hour, AOR = 8.01(95% CI [1.562-41.099, p = 0.013]) and administering antimicrobial prophylaxis before 1 hour of operation, AOR = 11.1 (95% CI [1.269-75.639, p = 0.014]) were independent predictors for surgical site infections. Surgical site infection is relatively high.

  2. A prospective randomised trial of isolated pathogens of surgical site infections (SSI).

    PubMed

    Alexiou, Konstantinos; Drikos, Ioannis; Terzopoulou, Maria; Sikalias, Nikolaos; Ioannidis, Argyrios; Economou, Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    Every surgical wound is colonized by bacteria, but only a small percentage displays symptoms of infection. The distribution of pathogens isolated in surgical site infections has not significantly changed over the last decades. Staph. Aureus, Coag(-) Staphylococci, Enterococcus spp and E. Coli are the main strains appearing. In addition, a continuously rising proportion of surgical site infections caused by resistant bacterial species (MRSA, C. Albicans) has been reported. This prospective and randomized clinical study was performed in the 1st Surgical Clinic of Sismanoglion General Hospital of Athens, from February 2009 to February 2015. Patients undergoing elective surgery in the upper or lower digestive system were randomized to receive antimicrobial treatment as chemoprophylaxis. Each patient filled a special monitoring form, recording epidemiological data, surgery related information, surgical site infections (deep and superficial), as well as postoperative morbidity (urinary and respiratory infections included). The monitoring of patients was carried by multiple visits on a daily basis during their hospitalization and continued after they were discharged via phone to postoperative day 30. Our overall SSI incidence was 4,3% (31patients out of a whole of 715 patients). Specifically, the incidence of SSIs for scheduled surgery of the upper GI tract was 2,2% (11 out of 500 patients) and for the lower GI tract was 9,3% (20 out of 215 patients). Seven main pathogens were isolated from patients with SSIs: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Their growth rates were respectively: S. Aureus (17,3%), E. faecalis (19,5%), P. aeruginosa (10,5%), B. Fragilis (13,4%) E. coli (20,4%), Enterobacter cloacae (9,1%) and K. Pneumoniae (9,8%). In addition, all the SSIs were found to be multimicrobial. Several studies have already revealed that patient

  3. Surgical Outcomes of Balanced Deep Lateral and Medial Orbital Wall Decompression in Korean Population: Clinical and Computed Tomography-based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Uk; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical outcomes of balanced deep lateral and medial orbital wall decompression and to estimate surgical effects using computed tomography (CT) images in Korean patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). Methods Retrospective chart review was conducted in TAO patients with exophthalmos who underwent balanced deep lateral and medial orbital wall decompression. Exophthalmos was measured preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 and 3 months. Postoperative complications were evaluated in all study periods. In addition, decompressed bone volume was estimated using CT images. Thereafter, decompression volume in each decompressed orbital wall was analyzed to evaluate the surgical effect and predictability. Results Twenty-four patients (48 orbits) with an average age of 34.08 ± 7.03 years were evaluated. The mean preoperative and postoperative exophthalmos at 1 and 3 months was 18.91 ± 1.43, 15.10 ± 1.53, and 14.91 ± 1.49 mm, respectively. Bony decompression volume was 0.80 ± 0.29 cm3 at the medial wall and 0.68 ± 0.23 cm3 at the deep lateral wall. Postoperative complications included strabismus (one patient, 2.08%), upper eyelid fold change (four patients, 8.33%), and dysesthesia (four patients, 8.33%). Postsurgical exophthalmos reduction was more highly correlated with the deep lateral wall than the medial wall. Conclusions In TAO patients with exophthalmos, balanced deep lateral and medial orbital wall decompression is a good surgical method with a low-risk of complications. In addition, deep lateral wall decompression has higher surgical predictability than medial wall decompression, as seen with CT analysis. PMID:27051255

  4. Data Mining of Web-Based Documents on Social Networking Sites That Included Suicide-Related Words Among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Song, Juyoung; Song, Tae Min; Seo, Dong-Chul; Jin, Jae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    To investigate online search activity of suicide-related words in South Korean adolescents through data mining of social media Web sites as the suicide rate in South Korea is one of the highest in the world. Out of more than 2.35 billion posts for 2 years from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012 on 163 social media Web sites in South Korea, 99,693 suicide-related documents were retrieved by Crawler and analyzed using text mining and opinion mining. These data were further combined with monthly employment rate, monthly rental prices index, monthly youth suicide rate, and monthly number of reported bully victims to fit multilevel models as well as structural equation models. The link from grade pressure to suicide risk showed the largest standardized path coefficient (beta = .357, p < .001) in structural models and a significant random effect (p < .01) in multilevel models. Depression was a partial mediator between suicide risk and grade pressure, low body image, victims of bullying, and concerns about disease. The largest total effect was observed in the grade pressure to depression to suicide risk. The multilevel models indicate about 27% of the variance in the daily suicide-related word search activity is explained by month-to-month variations. A lower employment rate, a higher rental prices index, and more bullying were associated with an increased suicide-related word search activity. Academic pressure appears to be the biggest contributor to Korean adolescents' suicide risk. Real-time suicide-related word search activity monitoring and response system needs to be developed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Is there a relationship between preoperative shaving (hair removal) and surgical site infection?

    PubMed

    Jose, Binu; Dignon, Andrée

    2013-01-01

    The preoperative preparation of patients for surgery has traditionally included the routine hair removal at the operating site as a part of cleanliness. This literature review will investigate the relationship between preoperative hair removal and surgical site infection. It aims to identify the best method of hair removal to reduce the infection if hair removal is necessary, and to apply the evidence findings into nursing practice.

  6. Novel wound management system reduction of surgical site morbidity after ventral hernia repairs: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Kevin C; Baltodano, Pablo A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cooney, Carisa M; Olorundare, Israel O; Cornell, Peter; Burce, Karen; Eckhauser, Frederic E

    2015-02-01

    Prophylactic incisional negative-pressure wound therapy use after ventral hernia repairs (VHRs) remains controversial. We assessed the impact of a modified negative-pressure wound therapy system (hybrid-VAC or HVAC) on outcomes of open VHR. A 5-year retrospective analysis of all VHRs performed by a single surgeon at a single institution compared outcomes after HVAC versus standard wound dressings. Multivariable logistic regression compared surgical site infections, surgical site occurrences, morbidity, and reoperation rates. We evaluated 199 patients (115 HVAC vs 84 standard wound dressing patients). Mean follow-up was 9 months. The HVAC cohort had lower surgical site infections (9% vs 32%, P < .001) and surgical site occurrences (17% vs 42%, P = .001) rates. Rates of major morbidity (19% vs 31%, P = .04) and 90-day reoperation (5% vs 14%, P = .02) were lower in the HVAC cohort. The HVAC system is associated with optimized outcomes following open VHR. Prospective studies should validate these findings and define the economic implications of this intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Postoperative surgical site infections in cardiac surgery--an overview of preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Gårdlund, Bengt

    2007-09-01

    Postoperative surgical site infections are a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. A surgical site infection occurs when the contaminating pathogens overcome the host defense systems and an infectious process begins. Bacteria may enter the operating site either by direct contamination from the patient's skin or internal organs, through the hands and instruments of the surgical staff or by bacteria-carrying particles that float around in the operating theatre and may land in the wound. The ability to withstand the contaminating bacteria depends on both local and systemic host defense. Successful preventive strategies are multiple and must include: 1) Minimizing the bacterial contamination of the surgical site (skin preparation, operating room ventilation, scrubbing, double gloving, etc.), 2) Minimizing the consequences of virulent contaminating bacteria by antibiotic prophylaxis (adequate dose, sort, timing, duration), 3) Minimizing injury to local host defense (atraumatic surgery, no excessive electrocautery, meticulous hemostasis, etc.), and 4) Optimizing general host defense (nutrition, tobacco smoking, weight loss, etc.). Compliance with these preventive procedures must be enforced through regular reviews of performance. Non-compliance with hygiene routines is often due to ignorance and poor planning. Education of personnel in these issues is a continuous process.

  8. Predictors and costs of surgical site infections in patients with endometrial cancer☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Dowdy, Sean C.; Borah, Bijan J.; Haas, Lindsey R.; Mariani, Andrea; Martin, Janice R.; Weaver, Amy L.; McGree, Michaela E.; Cliby, William A.; Podratz, Karl C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Technological advances in surgical management of endometrial cancer (EC) may allow for novel risk modification in surgical site infection (SSI). Methods Perioperative variables were abstracted from EC cases surgically staged between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2008. Primary outcome was SSI, as defined by American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Counseling and global models were built to assess perioperative predictors of superficial incisional SSI and organ/space SSI. Thirty-day cost of SSI was calculated. Results Among 1369 EC patients, 136 (9.9%) had SSI. In the counseling model, significant predictors of superficial incisional SSI were obesity, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score >2, preoperative anemia (hematocrit <36%), and laparotomy. In the global model, significant predictors of superficial incisional SSI were obesity, ASA score >2, smoking, laparotomy, and intraoperative transfusion. Counseling model predictors of organ/space SSI were older age, smoking, preoperative glucose >110 mg/dL, and prior methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Global predictors of organ/space SSI were older age, smoking, vascular disease, prior MRSA infection, greater estimated blood loss, and lymphadenectomy or bowel resection. SSI resulted in a $5447 median increase in 30-day cost. Conclusions Our findings are useful to individualize preoperative risk counseling. Hyperglycemia and smoking are modifiable, and minimally invasive surgical approaches should be the preferred surgical route because they decrease SSI events. Judicious use of lymphadenectomy may decrease SSI. Thirty-day postoperative costs are considerably increased when SSI occurs. PMID:23558053

  9. Reducing surgical site infections after hysterectomy: metronidazole plus cefazolin compared with cephalosporin alone.

    PubMed

    Till, Sara R; Morgan, Daniel M; Bazzi, Ali A; Pearlman, Mark D; Abdelsattar, Zaid; Campbell, Darrell A; Uppal, Shitanshu

    2017-08-01

    Organisms that are isolated from vaginal cuff infections and pelvic abscesses after hysterectomy frequently include anaerobic vaginal flora. Metronidazole has outstanding coverage against nearly all anaerobic species, which is superior to both cefazolin and second-generation cephalosporins. Cefazolin plus metronidazole has been demonstrated to reduce infectious morbidity compared with either cefazolin or second-generation cephalosporins in other clean-contaminated procedures, which include both as colorectal surgery and cesarean delivery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the combination of cefazolin plus metronidazole before hysterectomy was more effective in the prevention of surgical site infection than existing recommendations of cefazolin or second-generation cephalosporin. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative from July 2012 through February 2015. The primary outcome was surgical site infection. Patients who were >18 years old and who underwent abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, or robotic hysterectomy for benign or malignant indications were included if they received 1 of the following prophylactic antibiotic regimens: cefazolin, second-generation cephalosporin, or cefazolin plus metronidazole. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to evaluate the independent effect of an antibiotic regimen, and propensity score matching was used to validate the findings. The study included 18,255 hysterectomies. The overall rate of surgical site infection was 1.8% (n=329). The unadjusted rate of surgical site infection was 1.8% (n=267) for cefazolin, 2.1% (n=49) for second-generation cephalosporin, and 1.4% (n=13) for cefazolin plus metronidazole. After adjustment for differences in patient and operative factors among the antibiotic cohorts, compared with cefazolin plus metronidazole, we found the risk of surgical site infection was significantly higher for patients who received

  10. The Effects of Surgical Hand Scrubbing Protocols on Skin Integrity and Surgical Site Infection Rates: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang Qin; Mehigan, Sinead

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review aimed to critically appraise and synthesize updated evidence regarding the effect of surgical-scrub techniques on skin integrity and the incidence of surgical site infections. Databases searched include the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central. Our review was limited to eight peer-reviewed, randomized controlled trials and two nonrandomized controlled trials published in English from 1990 to 2015. Comparison models included traditional hand scrubbing with chlorhexidine gluconate or povidone-iodine against alcohol-based hand rubbing, scrubbing with a brush versus without a brush, and detergent-based antiseptics alone versus antiseptics incorporating alcohol solutions. Evidence showed that hand rubbing techniques are as effective as traditional scrubbing and seem to be better tolerated. Hand rubbing appears to cause less skin damage than traditional scrub protocols, and scrub personnel tolerated brushless techniques better than scrubbing using a brush. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibiotic Prophylaxis to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Khoshbin, Amir; So, Jeannette P; Aleem, Ilyas S; Stephens, Derek; Matlow, Anne G; Wright, James G

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) and surgical-site infection in pediatric patients. Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are a major cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies in adults, benefit of AP in preventing SSIs in children is uncertain. Patients aged 0 to 21 years who underwent surgical procedures at a pediatric acute care hospital from April 1, 2009, to December 31, 2010, were assessed. Antibiotic prophylaxis indication and administration according to an evidence-based guideline were recorded. Complete compliance was defined as AP given, when indicated, within 60 minutes before incision. Surgical-site infections were identified using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria and documented in the medical records using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Multiple logistic regressions adjusting for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, wound classification, admission status, surgical discipline, and surgical duration evaluated association of AP compliance and SSI. Of 5309 patients for whom antibiotics were indicated, 3901 (73.5%) with complete compliance had an infection rate of 3.0%, whereas 1408 (26.5%) who were not compliant had an infection rate of 4.3% (adjusted relative risk: 0.7; 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.9; P = 0.02). Of 4156 patients for whom antibiotics were not indicated, the 895 (21.5%) who received antibiotics had an infection rate of 1.7% compared with 0.7% in the 3261 (78.5%) who did not receive antibiotics (adjusted relative risk: 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.8-3.1; P = 0.18). In pediatric surgery, complete compliance with AP was associated with 30% decreased risk of SSI.

  12. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria Isolated From Surgical Site Infection of Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. Materials and Methods: One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. Results: A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusions: Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26421133

  13. [Use of vacuum-assisted closure in the treatment of surgical infection sites].

    PubMed

    Robledo-Ogazón, Felipe; Mier y Díaz, Juan; Sánchez-Fernández, Patricio; Suárez-Moreno, Roberto; Vargas-Rivas, Adriana; Bojalil-Durán, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the most important health problems representing an increase in morbi-mortality and economical devastation for the patient. There have been a variety of procedures that surgeons have employed to control this situation, from very refined surgical procedures, advanced antimicrobial therapy to local therapy with alginates, hydrocolloid dressings and many others with active topical substances. One of the newest treatments is the VAC (Vacuum-Assisted Closure). This therapy has been proven to be useful in wound infection control and we used it to carry out this study in 38 patients with wound infections. We present the results with this therapy in our institution.

  14. An Interprofessional Team Approach to Decreasing Surgical Site Infection After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nicole J; Villavaso, Chloe D

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) has a significant negative impact on health care. SSIs are associated with increased mortality, cost, readmissions, and prolonged length of stay. Although recent data show a 17% decrease in the incidence of SSIs among acute care hospitals in the United States, mortality related to SSIs remains clinically significant. The interprofessional team is a critical structure in evaluating surgical practices and outcomes and new evidence-based practices to direct education, interventions, and communication of SSI prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preventing surgical site infections after bariatric surgery: value of perioperative antibiotic regimens

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Teena; Zhao, Jing J; Alangaden, George; Wood, Michael H; Kaye, Keith S

    2010-01-01

    Bariatric surgery for obesity has emerged as an effective and commonly used treatment modality. This paper reviews the surgical site infections (SSIs) that occur post bariatric surgery and SSI prevention. The benefit of bariatric surgery resulting in profound weight loss brings with it consequences in the form of postoperative complications that can have profound effects on morbidity and mortality in these patients. This paper sets out to define different types of SSIs that occur following bariatric surgery and to discuss existing literature on the critical aspects of SSI prevention and the appropriate use of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis for bariatric surgery. PMID:20545596

  16. Surgical treatment approaches and reimbursement costs of surgical site infections post hip arthroplasty in Australia: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The treatment for deep surgical site infection (SSI) following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) varies internationally and it is at present unclear which treatment approaches are used in Australia. The aim of this study is to identify current treatment approaches in Queensland, Australia, show success rates and quantify the costs of different treatments. Methods Data for patients undergoing primary THA and treatment for infection between January 2006 and December 2009 in Queensland hospitals were extracted from routinely used hospital databases. Records were linked with pathology information to confirm positive organisms. Diagnosis and treatment of infection was determined using ICD-10-AM and ACHI codes, respectively. Treatment costs were estimated based on AR-DRG cost accounting codes assigned to each patient hospital episode. Results A total of n=114 patients with deep surgical site infection were identified. The majority of patients (74%) were first treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention (DAIR), which was successful in eradicating the infection in 60.3% of patients with an average cost of $13,187. The remaining first treatments were 1-stage revision, successful in 89.7% with average costs of $27,006, and 2-stage revisions, successful in 92.9% of cases with average costs of $42,772. Multiple treatments following ‘failed DAIR’ cost on average $29,560, for failed 1-stage revision were $24,357, for failed 2-stage revision were $70,381 and were $23,805 for excision arthroplasty. Conclusions As treatment costs in Australia are high primary prevention is important and the economics of competing treatment choices should be carefully considered. These currently vary greatly across international settings. PMID:23497364

  17. Incidence of and risk factors for surgical site infections in women undergoing hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Taru; Pasanen, Annukka; Leminen, Arto; Bützow, Ralf; Loukovaara, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and risk factors for, surgical site infections in a contemporary cohort of women with endometrial carcinoma. We retrospectively studied 1164 women treated for endometrial carcinoma by hysterectomy at a single institution in 2007-2013. In all, 912 women (78.4%) had minimally invasive hysterectomy. Data on surgical site infections were collected from medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for incisional and organ/space infections. Ninety-four women (8.1%) were diagnosed with a surgical site infection. Twenty women (1.7%) had an incisional infection and 74 (6.4%) had an organ/space infection. The associations of 17 clinico-pathologic and surgical variables were tested by univariate analyses. Those variables that were identified as potential risk factors in univariate analyses (p < 0.15) were used in logistic regression models with incisional and organ/space infections as dependent variables. Obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), diabetes, and long operative time (>80th centile) were independently associated with a higher risk of incisional infection, whereas minimally invasive surgery was associated with a smaller risk. Smoking, conversion to laparotomy, and lymphadenectomy were associated with a higher risk of organ/space infection. Organ/space infections comprised the majority of surgical site infections. Risk factors for incisional and organ/space infections differed. Minimally invasive hysterectomy was associated with a smaller risk of incisional infections but not of organ/space infections. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Surgical Site Infiltration for Abdominal Surgery: A Novel Neuroanatomical-based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Janis, Jeffrey E.; Haas, Eric M.; Ramshaw, Bruce J.; Nihira, Mikio A.; Dunkin, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Provision of optimal postoperative analgesia should facilitate postoperative ambulation and rehabilitation. An optimal multimodal analgesia technique would include the use of nonopioid analgesics, including local/regional analgesic techniques such as surgical site local anesthetic infiltration. This article presents a novel approach to surgical site infiltration techniques for abdominal surgery based upon neuroanatomy. Methods: Literature searches were conducted for studies reporting the neuroanatomical sources of pain after abdominal surgery. Also, studies identified by preceding search were reviewed for relevant publications and manually retrieved. Results: Based on neuroanatomy, an optimal surgical site infiltration technique would consist of systematic, extensive, meticulous administration of local anesthetic into the peritoneum (or preperitoneum), subfascial, and subdermal tissue planes. The volume of local anesthetic would depend on the size of the incision such that 1 to 1.5 mL is injected every 1 to 2 cm of surgical incision per layer. It is best to infiltrate with a 22-gauge, 1.5-inch needle. The needle is inserted approximately 0.5 to 1 cm into the tissue plane, and local anesthetic solution is injected while slowly withdrawing the needle, which should reduce the risk of intravascular injection. Conclusions: Meticulous, systematic, and extensive surgical site local anesthetic infiltration in the various tissue planes including the peritoneal, musculofascial, and subdermal tissues, where pain foci originate, provides excellent postoperative pain relief. This approach should be combined with use of other nonopioid analgesics with opioids reserved for rescue. Further well-designed studies are necessary to assess the analgesic efficacy of the proposed infiltration technique. PMID:28293525

  19. Relationship of hyperglycemia and surgical-site infection in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Richards, Justin E; Kauffmann, Rondi M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Obremskey, William T; May, Addison K

    2012-07-03

    The impact of perioperative hyperglycemia in orthopaedic surgery is not well defined. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for thirty-day surgical-site infection in orthopaedic trauma patients without a history of diabetes at hospital admission. Patients eighteen years of age or older with isolated orthopaedic injuries requiring acute operative intervention were studied. Patients with diabetes, injuries to other body systems, a history of corticosteroid use, or admission to the intensive care unit were excluded. Blood glucose values were obtained, and hyperglycemia was defined in two ways. First, patients with two or more blood glucose levels of ≥200 mg/dL were identified. Second, the hyperglycemic index, a validated measure of overall glucose control during hospitalization, was calculated for each patient. A hyperglycemic index of ≥1.76 (equivalent to ≥140 mg/dL) was considered to indicate hyperglycemia. The primary outcome was thirty-day surgical-site infection. Multivariable logistic regression models evaluating the effect of the markers of hyperglycemia, after controlling for open fractures, were constructed. Seven hundred and ninety patients were identified. There were 268 open fractures (33.9%). Twenty-one thirty-day surgical-site infections (2.7%) were recorded. Age, race, comorbidities, injury severity, and blood transfusion were not associated with the primary outcome. Of the 790 patients, 294 (37.2%) had more than one glucose value of ≥200 mg/dL. This factor was associated with thirty-day surgical-site infection, with thirteen (4.4%) of the 294 patients with that indication of hyperglycemia having a surgical-site infection versus eight (1.6%) of the 496 patients without more than one glucose value of ≥200 mg/dL (p = 0.02). One hundred and thirty-four (17.0%) of the 790 patients had a hyperglycemic index of ≥1.76, and this was also associated was thirty-day surgical-site infection (ten [7.5%] of 134 versus eleven [1

  20. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40–300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02–2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses. PMID:27471038

  1. Post-Caesarean Section Surgical Site Infection Surveillance Using an Online Database and Mobile Phone Technology.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Eliana; McIsaac, Corrine; MacDougall, Bhreagh; Wilson, Douglas; Kohr, Rosemary

    2017-08-01

    Obstetric surgical site infections (SSIs) are common and expensive to the health care system but remain under reported given shorter postoperative hospital stays and suboptimal post-discharge surveillance systems. SSIs, for the purpose of this paper, are defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (1999) as infection incurring within 30 days of the operative procedure (in this case, Caesarean section [CS]). Demonstrate the feasibility of real-life use of a patient driven SSIs post-discharge surveillance system consisting of an online database and mobile phone technology (surgical mobile app - how2trak) among women undergoing CS in a Canadian urban centre. Estimate the rate of SSIs and associated predisposing factors. Prospective cohort of consecutive women delivering by CS at one urban Canadian hospital. Using surgical mobile app-how2trak-predetermined demographics, comorbidities, procedure characteristics, and self-reported symptoms and signs of infection were collected and linked to patients' incision self-portraits (photos) on postpartum days 3, 7, 10, and 30. A total of 105 patients were enrolled over a 5-month period. Mean age was 31 years, 13% were diabetic, and most were at low risk of surgical complications. Forty-six percent of surgeries were emergency CSs, and 104/105 received antibiotic prophylaxis. Forty-five percent of patients (47/105) submitted at least one photo, and among those, one surgical site infection was detected by photo appearance and self-reported symptoms by postpartum day 10. The majority of patients whom uploaded photos did so multiple times and 43% of them submitted photos up to day 30. Patients with either a diagnosis of diabetes or self-reported Asian ethnicity were less likely to submit photos. Post-discharge surveillance for CS-related SSIs using surgical mobile app how2trak is feasible and deserves further study in the post-discharge setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Data Management and Site-Visit Monitoring of the Multi-Center Registry in the Korean Neonatal Network

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang Won

    2015-01-01

    The Korean Neonatal Network (KNN), a nationwide prospective registry of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, < 1,500 g at birth) infants, was launched in April 2013. Data management (DM) and site-visit monitoring (SVM) were crucial in ensuring the quality of the data collected from 55 participating hospitals across the country on 116 clinical variables. We describe the processes and results of DM and SVM performed during the establishment stage of the registry. The DM procedure included automated proof checks, electronic data validation, query creation, query resolution, and revalidation of the corrected data. SVM included SVM team organization, identification of unregistered cases, source document verification, and post-visit report production. By March 31, 2015, 4,063 VLBW infants were registered and 1,693 queries were produced. Of these, 1,629 queries were resolved and 64 queries remain unresolved. By November 28, 2014, 52 participating hospitals were visited, with 136 site-visits completed since April 2013. Each participating hospital was visited biannually. DM and SVM were performed to ensure the quality of the data collected for the KNN registry. Our experience with DM and SVM can be applied for similar multi-center registries with large numbers of participating centers. PMID:26566353

  3. Data Management and Site-Visit Monitoring of the Multi-Center Registry in the Korean Neonatal Network.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Won; Park, Moon Sung

    2015-10-01

    The Korean Neonatal Network (KNN), a nationwide prospective registry of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, < 1,500 g at birth) infants, was launched in April 2013. Data management (DM) and site-visit monitoring (SVM) were crucial in ensuring the quality of the data collected from 55 participating hospitals across the country on 116 clinical variables. We describe the processes and results of DM and SVM performed during the establishment stage of the registry. The DM procedure included automated proof checks, electronic data validation, query creation, query resolution, and revalidation of the corrected data. SVM included SVM team organization, identification of unregistered cases, source document verification, and post-visit report production. By March 31, 2015, 4,063 VLBW infants were registered and 1,693 queries were produced. Of these, 1,629 queries were resolved and 64 queries remain unresolved. By November 28, 2014, 52 participating hospitals were visited, with 136 site-visits completed since April 2013. Each participating hospital was visited biannually. DM and SVM were performed to ensure the quality of the data collected for the KNN registry. Our experience with DM and SVM can be applied for similar multi-center registries with large numbers of participating centers.

  4. Is Staphylococcal Screening and Suppression an Effective Interventional Strategy for Reduction of Surgical Site Infection?

    PubMed

    Edmiston, Charles E; Ledeboer, Nathan A; Buchan, Blake W; Spencer, Maureen; Seabrook, Gary R; Leaper, David

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has been recognized as a major microbial pathogen for over 100 y, having the capacity to produce a variety of suppurative and toxigenic disease processes. Many of these infections are life-threatening, with particularly enhanced virulence in hospitalized patients with selective risk factors. Strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have rapidly spread throughout the healthcare environment such that approximately 20% of S. aureus isolates recovered from surgical site infections are methicillin-resistant, (although this is now reducing following national screening and suppression programs and high impact interventions). Widespread nasal screening to identify MRSA colonization in surgical patients prior to admission are controversial, but selective, evidence-based studies have documented a reduction of surgical site infection (SSI) after screening and suppression. Culture methods used to identify MRSA colonization involve selective, differential, or chromogenic media. These methods are the least expensive, but turnaround time is 24-48 h. Although real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology provides rapid turnaround (1-2 h) with exceptional testing accuracy, the costs can range from three to 10 times more than conventional culture methodology. Topical mupirocin, with or without pre-operative chlorhexidine showers or skin wipes, is the current "gold-standard" for nasal decolonization, but inappropriate use of mupirocin is associated with increasing staphylococcal resistance. Selection of an effective active universal or targeted surveillance strategy should be based upon the relative risk of MSSA or MRSA surgical site infection in patients undergoing orthopedic or cardiothoracic device related surgical procedures.

  5. A statewide colectomy experience: the role of full bowel preparation in preventing surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Edward K; Sheetz, Kyle H; Bonn, Julie; DeRoo, Scott; Lee, Christopher; Stein, Isaac; Zarinsefat, Arya; Cai, Shijie; Campbell, Darrell A; Englesbe, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    To assess the utility of full bowel preparation with oral nonabsorbable antibiotics in preventing infectious complications after elective colectomy. Bowel preparation before elective colectomy remains controversial. We hypothesize that mechanical bowel preparation with nonabsorbable oral antibiotics is associated with a decreased rate of postoperative infectious complications when compared with no bowel preparation. Patient and clinical data were obtained from the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative-Colectomy Best Practices Project. Propensity score analysis was used to match elective colectomy cases based on primary exposure variable-full bowel preparation (mechanical bowel preparation with nonabsorbable oral antibiotics) or no bowel preparation (neither mechanical bowel preparation given nor nonabsorbable oral antibiotic given). The primary outcomes for this study were occurrence of surgical site infection and Clostridium difficile colitis. In total, 2475 cases met the study criteria. Propensity analysis created 957 paired cases (n = 1914) differing only by the type of bowel preparation. Patients receiving full preparation were less likely to have any surgical site infection (5.0% vs 9.7%; P = 0.0001), organ space infection (1.6% vs 3.1%; P = 0.024), and superficial surgical site infection (3.0% vs 6.0%; P = 0.001). Patients receiving full preparation were also less likely to develop postoperative C difficile colitis (0.5% vs 1.8%, P = 0.01). In the state of Michigan, full bowel preparation is associated with decreased infectious complications after elective colectomy. Within this context, the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative recommends full bowel preparation before elective colectomy.

  6. Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deverick J.; Podgorny, Kelly; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I.; Bratzler, Dale W.; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Greene, Linda; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Saiman, Lisa; Yokoe, Deborah S.; Maragakis, Lisa L.; Kaye, Keith S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,”1 published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.2 PMID:24799638

  7. Clinical and surgical factors associated with organ/space surgical site infection after laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kubota, Takeshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2017-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI), particularly organ/space SSI, remains a clinically important issue even after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for gastric cancer (GC). This study aimed to identify specific clinical and surgical factors associated with organ/space SSI after LG. This was a retrospective study of 407 patients who underwent LG for clinical stage I GC. SSI was defined according to the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System. The incidence and treatment outcomes of either incisional or organ/space SSI after LG were examined, and the risk factors for each type of SSI were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Organ/space SSI was observed in 21 patients (5.2 %), while incisional SSI was detected in 18 patients (4.4 %). Although no mortality was observed, the occurrence of either incisional or organ/space SSI significantly prolonged postoperative hospital stays (p = 0.000 and 0.000, respectively); however, organ/space SSI required more re-operations and re-admissions, and eventually longer total hospital stays than incisional SSI (p = 0.036). Intra-abdominal abscess around the pancreas was the main cause of organ/space SSI, while no anastomotic leakage was observed. Multivariate analyses identified male gender (odds ratio (OR) 3.385; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.073-15.07, p = 0.037), chronic liver disease (OR 8.897; 95 % CI 2.502-28.99, p = 0.001), and total gastrectomy (TG) (OR 3.817; 95 % CI 1.380-10.24, p = 0.011) as independent risk factors for organ/space SSI, while TG (OR 3.130; 95 % CI 1.102-8.768, p = 0.033) and operation time ≥320 min (OR 3.732; 95 % CI 1.109-16.98, p = 0.033) were independently associated with incisional SSI. Male gender, chronic liver disease, and TG are independent risk factors for organ/space SSI after LG for GC; thus, meticulous surgical procedures need to be performed among patients with these specific risk factors.

  8. The effect of preoperative skin preparation products on surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather L; Reese, Sara; Knepper, Bryan; Miller, Amber; Mauffrey, Cyril; Price, Connie S

    2014-12-01

    Skin preparation products contribute to surgical site infection (SSI) prevention. In a case-control study, diabetes was associated with increased SSI (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.22-27.0]), while the use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) plus isopropyl alcohol versus CHG alone was found to be protective (adjusted OR, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.12-6.20]).

  9. In-Depth Review of Symptoms, Triggers, and Surgical Deactivation of Frontal Migraine Headaches (Site I).

    PubMed

    Kurlander, David E; Ascha, Mona; Sattar, Abdus; Guyuron, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    This study reports details of the technique and assesses efficacy of surgical deactivation of frontal migraine headaches. In addition, this study examines the effect of surgical deactivation of frontal migraine headaches on migraine triggers and associated symptoms besides the pain. Charts of 270 patients undergoing surgery performed by a single surgeon for frontal migraine headaches, who were followed for at least 1 year, were analyzed. Median regression adjusted for age, sex, and follow-up time was used to determine postoperative reduction in frontal-specific Migraine Headache Index, which is the product of duration, frequency, and severity. Reduction in migraine-days, which is the product of duration and frequency, was also measured. The association between individual symptom or trigger resolution and frontal-specific Migraine Headache Index reduction was studied by logistic regression. Details of the surgical treatment are discussed and complication rates are reported. Eighty-six percent of patients reported a successful operation (≥50 percent improvement of frontal-specific Migraine Headache Index) at least 12 months after surgery (mean follow-up, 3 years). Eighty-four percent of patients had a successful operation as measured by migraine-days. Fifty-seven percent of patients reported complete elimination of frontal migraine headaches. Symptoms resolving with successful site I surgery beyond the headaches include visual aura and blurred or double vision (p < 0.05). Triggers resolving with successful site I surgery include fatigue, weather change, and missed meals (p < 0.05). Surgical deactivation of frontal migraine headaches provides long-lasting migraine relief. Successful site I surgery is associated with changes in specific symptoms and triggers. This information can assist in trigger avoidance and contribute to constellations used for frontal migraine headache trigger-site identification. Therapeutic, IV.

  10. Influence of ASA score and Charlson Comorbidity Index on the surgical site infection rates.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mansoor; Rooh-ul-Muqim; Zarin, Mohammad; Khalil, Jawad; Salman, Muhammad

    2010-08-01

    To compare the frequencies of surgical site infections (SSI) in ASA class-I (American Society of Anaesthesiologists-I) with ASA class II-III and CCI-0 (Charlson Co-morbidity Index-0) with CCI 1-6 in clean (C) and clean contaminated (CC) surgeries. Analytical study. This study was conducted in a General Surgical Unit of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from December 2008 to April 2009. A total of 310 clean and clean contaminated general surgical interventions with pre-operative ASA score of I-III, were included in the study, excluding anal and cystoscopic procedures. On the basis of past medical record, patients were grouped into ASA-I (patients without any co-morbidity) and ASA II-III (patients with co-morbidities) on the basis of their ASA score pre-operatively. In the same way patients were divided into CCI-0 (patients without co-morbidities) and CC 1-6 (patients with co-morbidities) according to CCI score. All the patients were operated in the same environment by the same set of surgeons. Postoperatively the surgical wounds were observed for SSI by using ASEPSIS daily scoring system for one month prospectively. SSI rates in ASA-I was compared with SSI rates in ASA II-III. Similar comparison of SSI rates was performed in CCI-0 and CCI 1-6. Data was tested by using the Fisher's exact test with confidence interval of 95%. The overall SSI rate was 6.1% (n=19) with 4.23% (n=5) in clean cases (C) and 7.29% (n=14) in clean contaminated cases (CC). There were significantly higher surgical site infection rates among patients in ASA II-III than those with ASA-I in clean contaminated surgeries (p=0.003). There were also significantly higher surgical site infection rates among patients with CCI score 1-6 than those with CCI-0 in clean (p=0.024) and clean contaminated (p=0.002). American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) has strong influence on SSI rates in clean and clean contaminated cases. Patients' with co

  11. Does Preoperative Bowel Preparation Reduce Surgical Site Infections During Elective Ventral Hernia Repair?

    PubMed

    Krpata, David M; Haskins, Ivy N; Phillips, Sharon; Prabhu, Ajita S; Rosenblatt, Steven; Poulose, Benjamin K; Rosen, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    To date, little is known about the benefits of preoperative bowel preparation in patients undergoing elective ventral hernia repair (VHR). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of preoperative bowel preparation on 30-day wound events in patients undergoing elective VHR using the Americas Hernia Society Quality Collaborative (AHSQC). All patients undergoing elective VHR from January 2013 through January 2016 were identified within the AHSQC. Patients undergoing emergency VHR and those with a CDC wound class IV were excluded from our analysis. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Clean (CDC wound class I) and Contaminated (CDC wound classes II and III). The association of preoperative bowel preparation with 30-day wound events was investigated using logistic regression modeling. A total of 3,709 patients met inclusion criteria; 3,101 (83.6%) had CDC wound class I, and 608 (16.4%) had CDC wound classes II or III. Within the Clean group, patients who underwent preoperative bowel preparation were significantly more likely to experience a surgical site infection (SSI), surgical site occurrence (SSO), and surgical site occurrence requiring procedural intervention (SSOPI). Within the Contaminated group, patients who underwent preoperative bowel preparation were significantly more likely to experience an SSOPI. The use of preoperative bowel preparation in patients undergoing elective VHR does not reduce the risk of 30-day wound events. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The creation and evaluation of an ambulatory orthopedic surgical patient education web site to support empowerment.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Katja; Suomi, Reima; Jääskeläinen, Miika; Kaljonen, Anne; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Salanterä, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    The use and evaluation of Web sites in ambulatory surgery patients' education are rare; hence, innovative approaches to educate these patients should be adopted and evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the creation of and evaluate the utility and usability of an ambulatory orthopedic surgical patient education Web site. A descriptive study design was used. The evaluators were 72 ambulatory orthopedic surgery patients receiving education through a Web site. The data were collected after education preoperatively and 2 weeks postoperatively. Two instruments were used: "Patients' Evaluation of Education" and "Diary of the Use of the Website." Web site evaluators' scores for utility of the Web site ranged from 57.56 to 87.87 of 100. Utility of the Web site evaluations was significantly higher (P < .05) 2 weeks postoperatively than immediately after the operation. Web site evaluators' scores for usability of the Web site ranged from 85.69 to 88.32. The use of this program as educational material for orthopedic surgery patients was supported by the patients' opinions of the usability and utility of the Web site.

  13. Test performance of a local examination at a nonlocal site for evaluation of surgical clerks.

    PubMed

    Dunnington, G; Witzke, D; Hassett, J; Reisner, L; Fulginiti, J; Rubeck, R

    1990-08-01

    Surgical clerkships frequently use locally prepared examinations or nationally available test item banks as an alternative to Surgery Shelf Examinations from the National Board of Medical Examiners (SSNBME) for student evaluation. This study examines performance of a well-designed, item-analyzed local examination (available nationally through the Association for Surgical Education) at a nonlocal site. A 100-item test with a stratified sample from a 442-item bank was administered to 72 third-year students in addition to the SSNBME. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient between the two examinations was 0.61 (p less than 0.001). Test performance between the local site and nonlocal site was compared by the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 for subtest reliability (internal consistency) and difficulty index (percent correct responses) and the point biserial correlation coefficient (correlation of a student's performance on one item with performance on the rest of the items) for test item analysis. Data show that despite fair correlation with SSNBME, significant deteriorations in both test item performance and reliability occur with the use of a local examination at a nonlocal site. This likely results from problems with content validity at the nonlocal site. Clerkships that use local examinations or national test bank items are strongly advised to evaluate test performance and revise appropriately before using results for formal student evaluation.

  14. Diabetes and Risk of Surgical Site Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily T; Kaye, Keith S; Knott, Caitlin; Nguyen, Huong; Santarossa, Maressa; Evans, Richard; Bertran, Elizabeth; Jaber, Linda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the independent association between diabetes and surgical site infection (SSI) across multiple surgical procedures. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS Studies indexed in PubMed published between December 1985 and through July 2015 were identified through the search terms "risk factors" or "glucose" and "surgical site infection." A total of 3,631 abstracts were identified through the initial search terms. Full texts were reviewed for 522 articles. Of these, 94 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Standardized data collection forms were used to extract study-specific estimates for diabetes, blood glucose levels, and body mass index (BMI). A random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates, and meta-regression was used to evaluate specific hypothesized sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS The primary outcome was SSI, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria. The overall effect size for the association between diabetes and SSI was odds ratio (OR)=1.53 (95% predictive interval [PI], 1.11-2.12; I2, 57.2%). SSI class, study design, or patient BMI did not significantly impact study results in a meta-regression model. The association was higher for cardiac surgery 2.03 (95% PI, 1.13-4.05) compared with surgeries of other types (P=.001). CONCLUSIONS These results support the consideration of diabetes as an independent risk factor for SSIs for multiple surgical procedure types. Continued efforts are needed to improve surgical outcomes for diabetic patients. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):88-99.

  15. Hand-rubbing with an aqueous alcoholic solution vs traditional surgical hand-scrubbing and 30-day surgical site infection rates: a randomized equivalence study.

    PubMed

    Parienti, Jean Jacques; Thibon, Pascal; Heller, Remy; Le Roux, Yannick; von Theobald, Peter; Bensadoun, Henri; Bouvet, Alain; Lemarchand, François; Le Coutour, Xavier; Bensadoun, Hervé

    2002-08-14

    Surgical site infections prolong hospital stays, are among the leading nosocomial causes of morbidity, and a source of excess medical costs. Clinical studies comparing the risk of nosocomial infection after different hand antisepsis protocols are scarce. To compare the effectiveness of hand-cleansing protocols in preventing surgical site infections during routine surgical practice. Randomized equivalence trial. Six surgical services from teaching and nonteaching hospitals in France. A total of 4387 consecutive patients who underwent clean and clean-contaminated surgery between January 1, 2000, and May 1, 2001. Surgical services used 2 hand-cleansing methods alternately every other month: a hand-rubbing protocol with 75% aqueous alcoholic solution containing propanol-1, propanol-2, and mecetronium etilsulfate; and a hand-scrubbing protocol with antiseptic preparation containing 4% povidone iodine or 4% chlorhexidine gluconate. Thirty-day surgical site infection rates were the primary end point; operating department teams' tolerance of and compliance with hand antisepsis were secondary end points. The 2 protocols were comparable in regard to surgical site infection risk factors. Surgical site infection rates were 55 of 2252 (2.44%) in the hand-rubbing protocol and 53 of 2135 (2.48%) in the hand-scrubbing protocol, for a difference of 0.04% (95% confidence interval, -0.88% to 0.96%). Based on subsets of personnel, compliance with the recommended duration of hand antisepsis was better in the hand-rubbing protocol of the study compared with the hand-scrubbing protocol (44% vs 28%, respectively; P =.008), as was tolerance, with less skin dryness and less skin irritation after aqueous solution use. Hand-rubbing with aqueous alcoholic solution, preceded by a 1-minute nonantiseptic hand wash before each surgeon's first procedure of the day and before any other procedure if the hands were soiled, was as effective as traditional hand-scrubbing with antiseptic soap in

  16. Preoperative delay of more than 1 hour increases the risk of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Kris E; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Neusner, Alex; Kepler, Christopher K; Albert, Todd J; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2013-07-01

    Retrospective institutional database review. To determine whether preoperative in-room time is a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI). Prior to spine surgery, while the patient is in the operating room, several procedures may be performed that may delay surgery. During this time, the sterile field may be exposed and may become contaminated. The hypothesis of this study was that the length of time in the operative room prior to surgical incision (anesthesia ready time [ART]) was related to the risk of SSI. From 2005 to 2009, we identified 276 patients who developed SSI out of 7991 cases that underwent spine surgery from 2005 to 2009. Patient demographic factors, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, wound classification, number of levels, anatomic region, type of surgical approach, and length of surgery were extrapolated. ART was calculated as the time after the patient was brought into the operating room prior to surgical incision. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for SSI. Mean ART was significantly (P = 0.001) higher in patients with infection (68 min) compared with those without infection (60 min). The infection rate was higher in cases with ART more than 1 hour compared with those with less than 1 hour (4.9% vs. 2.3%, P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, ART more than 1 hour was an independent risk factor for SSI, along with number of levels, American Society of Anesthesiologists score and posterior approach. The highest percentage of cases with ART more than 1 hour occurred in August and September. Preoperative in-room time prior to the start of surgical incision is an independent risk factor for SSI. All possible steps should be taken prior to entry into the operating theater to reduce in-room time and opening of surgical sterile instrumentation be delayed until the surgery is ready to proceed.

  17. Surgical site infection and its associated factors following cesarean section: a cross sectional study from a public hospital in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelaw, Kelemu Abebe; Aweke, Amlaku Mulat; Astawesegn, Feleke Hailemichael; Demissie, Birhanu Wondimeneh; Zeleke, Liknaw Bewket

    2017-01-01

    A cesarean section is a surgical procedure in which incisions are made through a woman's abdomen and uterus to deliver her baby. Surgical site infections are a common surgical complication among patients delivered with cesarean section. Further it caused to increase maternal morbidity, stay of hospital and the cost of treatment. Hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the magnitude of surgical site infection following cesarean Site Infections and its associated factors at Lemlem Karl hospital July 1, 2013 to June 30, 2016. Retrospective card review was done on 384 women who gave birth via cesarean section at Lemlem Karl hospital from July 1, 2013 to June 30, 2016. Systematic sampling technique was used to select patient medical cards. The data were entered by Epi info version 7.2 then analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences windows version 20. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was done to test association between predictors and dependent variables. P value of < 0.05 was considered to declare the presence of statistically significantly association. Among 384 women who performed cesarean section, the magnitude of surgical site infection following cesarean section Infection was 6.8%. The identified independent risk factors for surgical site infections were the duration of labor AOR=3.48; 95%CI (1.25, 9.68), rupture of membrane prior to cesarean section AOR=3.678; 95%CI (1.13, 11.96) and the abdominal midline incision (AOR=5.733; 95%CI (2.05, 16.00). The magnitude of surgical site infection following cesarean section is low compare to other previous studies. The independent associated factors for surgical site infection after cesarean section in this study: Membranes rupture prior to cesarean section, duration of labor and sub umbilical abdominal incision. In addition to ensuring sterile environment and aseptic surgeries, use of WHO surgical safety checklist would appear to be a very important intervention to

  18. What Factors Impact Consumer Perception of the Effectiveness of Health Information Sites? An Investigation of the Korean National Health Information Portal.

    PubMed

    Choung, Ji Tae; Lee, Yoon Seong; Jo, Heui Sug; Shim, Minsun; Lee, Hun Jae; Jung, Su Mi

    2017-07-01

    Lay public's concerns around health and health information are increasing. In response, governments and government agencies are establishing websites to address such concerns and improve health literacy by providing better access to validated health information. Since 2011, the Korean government has constructed the National Health Information Portal (NHIP) website run in collaboration with the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS). This study therefore aimed to 1) examine consumer use of NHIP, with respect to the usage patterns, evaluation on health information provided, and perceived effectiveness of the site; and 2) identify factors that may impact perceived effectiveness of the site. An online survey was conducted with 164 NHIP users, recruited through a popup window on the main screen of the portal website from October to November 2015. The significant predicting factors supported by the data include the relevance of health information on the site, the usefulness of information in making health decisions, and the effective visualization of information. These factors can inform future efforts to design more effective health information websites, possibly based on metadata systems, to further advance the lay public's information seeking and health literacy. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Prevention of wrong-site and wrong-patient surgical errors.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Surgical errors recorded between 2002 and 2008 in a US medical liability insurance database have been analysed. Twenty-five wrong-patient procedures were recorded, resulting in 5 serious adverse events: three unnecessary prostatectomies were performed after prostate biopsy samples were mislabelled; vitrectomy was performed on the wrong patient in an ophthalmology department after confusion between two patients with identical names; and a child scheduled for adenoidectomy received a tympanic drain. There were also 107 wrong-site procedures, with one death resulting from implantation of a pleural drain on the wrong side. Another 38 patients experienced significant harm: 5 patients had surgery on the wrong vertebrae; 4 had chest tubes placed on the wrong side; 4 underwent vascular surgery at the wrong site; and 4 underwent resection of the wrong segment of the intestine. In addition, there were: 4 organ resection errors; 6 wrong-site or wrong-sided limb surgeries; 2 wrong-sided ovariectomies; 2 wrong-sided eye operations; 2 wrong-sided craniotomies; 2 wrong-sided ureteric procedures; 1 wrong-sided maxillofacial operation; and 2 radiation therapy field errors. Most errors were due to poor communication, incorrect diagnosis, or failure to implement a final set of preoperative checks. Other studies conducted in the United Kingdom and the United States have provided similar results, while data are lacking in France. The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist is an effective way of preventing such errors but its adoption by healthcare professionals is variable. In practice, surgical errors involving the wrong patient or wrong body site are preventable. Final pre-operative checks must be applied methodically and systematically.This includes asking the patient to confirm his/her identity and the intended site of the operation. Healthcare staff must be aware of these measures.

  20. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for surgical site infection after laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Drosdeck, Joseph; Harzman, Alan; Suzo, Andrew; Arnold, Mark; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Husain, Syed

    2013-12-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) and incisional hernia (IH) are among the most common complications after colorectal surgery. While many risk factors for these complications are unavoidable, evidence suggests that use of Pfannenstiel incisions for specimen extraction during laparoscopic procedures may reduce their incidence. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors for extraction site SSI (primary objective) and IH (secondary objective) in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal resections at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center between January 2006 and October 2012 were included. In addition to reviewing medical records, data were gathered from patient questionnaires with a focus on two end points: extraction site SSI and IH. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant associations between the two end points and the following variables: age, gender, ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) score, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), body mass index (BMI), diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, use of immunosuppressant medications, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, smoking, surgical history, surgery duration, duration of follow-up, use of hand-assistance, and utilization of Pfannenstiel incisions for specimen extraction. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant variables. A total of 419 patients met the inclusion criteria. The incidence of SSI was 10.3%. Higher BMI, presence of IBD, younger age, and hand-assisted procedures were associated with a significantly higher risk of SSI. Use of Pfannenstiel extraction sites was associated with lower infection rates; however, this association was not statistically significant. IBD, BMI, and hand-assistance were statistically significant on multivariate analysis. Odds ratios for SSI with IBD, hand-assistance and BMI (per unit increase) were 3.3, 2.2, and 1.06, respectively

  1. Preoperative Chlorhexidine Gluconate Use Can Increase Risk for Surgical Site Infections after Ventral Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Ajita S; Krpata, David M; Phillips, Sharon; Huang, Li-Ching; Haskins, Ivy N; Rosenblatt, Steven; Poulose, Benjamin K; Rosen, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    There is varying evidence about the use of preoperative chlorhexidine gluconate to decrease surgical site infection for elective surgery. This intervention has never been studied in ventral hernia repair, the most common general surgery procedure in the US. We aimed to determine whether preoperative chlorhexidine gluconate decreases the risk of 30-day wound morbidity in patients undergoing ventral hernia repair. All patients undergoing ventral hernia repair in the Americas Hernia Society Quality Collaborative were separated into 2 groups: 1 group received preoperative chlorhexidine scrub and the other did not. The 2 groups were evaluated for 30-day wound morbidity, including surgical site occurrence (SSO), surgical site infection (SSI), and SSO requiring procedural intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate regression analysis and propensity score modeling. Multiple factors were controlled for statistical analysis, including patient-related factors and operative factors. In total, 3,924 patients were included for comparison. After multivariate logistic regression modeling, the preoperative chlorhexidine scrub group had a higher incidence of SSOs (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.61) and SSIs (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.07). After propensity score modeling, the increased risk of SSO and SSI persisted (SSO: OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.70; SSI: OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.011 to 2.072, respectively). Prehospital chlorhexidine gluconate scrub appears to increase the risk of 30-day wound morbidity in patients undergoing ventral hernia repair. These findings suggest that the generalized use of prehospital chlorhexidine might not be desirable for all surgical populations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does site specific labeling of sextant biopsy cores predict the site of extracapsular extension in radical prostatectomy surgical specimen.

    PubMed

    Taneja, S S; Penson, D F; Epelbaum, A; Handler, T; Lepor, H

    1999-10-01

    We determine whether site specific labeling of sextant prostate biopsy cores predicts the site of extracapsular extension in a radical prostatectomy specimen, thereby justifying increased cost of pathological evaluation. Between January 1994 and December 1997, 407 radical prostatectomies were performed at our institution by a single surgeon (H. L.). Surgical specimens showing extracapsular extension were examined by a single pathologist (J. M.) to identify the site of extension. Several different methods of submitting transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy cores were used since the majority of cases did not undergo biopsy at our institution. In 243 cases sextant biopsies were labeled right versus left. Of these cases 103 specimen cores were individually labeled. The ability of the positive biopsy core location to predict the location of extracapsular extension in the surgical specimen was determined. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the ability of biopsy core characteristics, including Gleason score, percentage of cancer in the core, core location and number of positive cores in the specimen, to predict the site of extracapsular extension. A similar analysis was performed for the 243 cases with right versus left core labeling. The positive predictive value was 8.9+/-2.2% for a single positive core to identify the location of extracapsular extension correctly in the individually labeled core cases. The absence of cancer in a sextant biopsy had a negative predictive value of 96.9+/-1.4%. The overall sensitivity was 59.4+/-3.8% for a positive biopsy core. In the right versus left core cases the positive predictive value was 12.9+/-3.0% with a sensitivity of 85.1+/-3.2%. In an individual core Gleason score 8 or greater and/or cancer in more than 50% of tissue enhanced the positive predictive value but not to a clinically useful level. Multivariate logistic regression identified Gleason score, number of positive ipsilateral

  3. Continuous Intraoperative Cefazolin Infusion May Reduce Surgical Site Infections During Cardiac Surgical Procedures: A Propensity-Matched Analysis.

    PubMed

    Trent Magruder, J; Grimm, Joshua C; Dungan, Samuel P; Shah, Ashish S; Crow, Jessica R; Shoulders, Bethany R; Lester, Laeben; Barodka, Viachaslau

    2015-12-01

    The authors sought to determine whether an institutional transition from intermittent to continuous dosing of intraoperative antibiotics in cardiac surgery affected surgical site infection (SSI) outcomes. A retrospective chart review utilizing propensity matching. A single academic, tertiary care hospital. One thousand one hundred seventy-nine patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and/or cardiac valvular surgery between April 2013 and November 2014 who received perioperative cefazolin. By method of cefazolin administration, patients were divided into an "intermittent-dosing" (ID) group and a "continuous-infusion" (CI) group. Of the 1,179 patients who underwent cardiac surgery during the study period, 1:1 propensity score matching yielded 399 patients in each group. Rates of diabetes (33.6% ID v 33.8% CI, p = 0.94), coronary artery bypass (62.3% v 61.4%, p = 0.66), and bilateral internal mammary artery harvesting (6.0% v 8.3%, p = 0.22) were similar between groups. SSIs occurred in more ID patients than CI patients (2.3% v 0.5%, p = 0.03). This difference was driven by decreases in extremity and conduit harvest site SSIs (1.8% v 0.3%, p = 0.03), as there were no episodes of mediastinitis, and superficial sternal SSI rates did not differ (0.5% v 0.3%, p = 0.56). There also were significantly fewer episodes of pneumonia in the CI group (6.0% v 2.3%, p = 0.008). Intensive care unit and total lengths of stay did not differ. Thirty-day mortality was 2.8% in both groups (p = 1.00). As compared to ID regimens, CI cefazolin infusion may reduce post-cardiac surgery infectious complications. Further study in larger patient populations is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of a surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance program in orthopedics and traumatology.

    PubMed

    Mabit, C; Marcheix, P S; Mounier, M; Dijoux, P; Pestourie, N; Bonnevialle, P; Bonnomet, F

    2012-10-01

    Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) is a priority. One of the fundamental principles for the surveillance of SSI is based on receiving effective field feedback (retro-information). The aim of this study was to report the results of a program of SSI surveillance and validate the hypothesis that there is a correlation between creating a SSI surveillance program and a reduction in SSI. The protocol was based on the weekly collection of surveillance data obtained directly from the different information systems in different departments. A delay of 3 months was established before extraction and analysis of data and information from the surgical teams. The NNIS index (National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System) developed by the American surveillance system and the reduction of length of hospital stay index Journées d'hospitalisation évitées (JHE). Since the end of 2009, 7156 surgical procedures were evaluated (rate of inclusion 97.3%), and 84 SSI were registered with a significant decrease over time from 1.86% to 0.66%. A total of 418 days of hospitalization have been saved since the beginning of the surveillance system. Our surveillance system has three strong points: follow-up is continuous, specifically adapted to orthopedic traumatology and nearly exhaustive. The extraction of data directly from hospital information systems effectively improves the collection of data on surgical procedures. The implementation of a SSI surveillance protocol reduces SSI. Level III. Prospective study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Prediction scales and infection on surgical sites in 15625 surgeries. 2001-2003].

    PubMed

    Fajardo Rodríguez, Hugo A; Quemba Gordillo, Jeanette; Eslava Schmalbach, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Surgical infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality; it accounts for 25% of nosocomial infections. Through a program of intensified monitoring and telephone follow-up we sought to detect infections in the surgical site in ambulatory surgeries. A prospective cohort of patients who underwent surgery at the Carlos Lleras Hospital in Bogotá, belonging to the Social Security Institute, between August 2001 and February 2003 was studied. Inclusion criteria were: hospital or ambulatory surgery, completion of the survey of risk prediction and telephone follow-up. The CDC criteria for nosocomial infections were applied. 15625 patients were studied, being mainly of general surgery and ophtalmology. In the method of prediction SENIC, the variable abdominal surgery was the most frequent one and had the greatest sensitivity, whereas in the NNIS the best predicting variable was prolonged surgery. 69 patients with infection of surgical were detected yielding a 0.43 incidence of infection per 100 patients; surgery is the second cause of nosocomial infection in our institution accounting for 19.2% of cases. Bacterial isolation of germs was obtained in 47 cases; the most frequently identified bacteria was E. coil (14.9%). The program has had beneficial effects for its users identifying the risk and the early presence of post-surgical, diminishing it in a 25%.

  6. Compact teleoperated laparoendoscopic single-site robotic surgical system: Kinematics, control, and operation.

    PubMed

    Isaac-Lowry, Oran Jacob; Okamoto, Steele; Pedram, Sahba Aghajani; Woo, Russell; Berkelman, Peter

    2017-03-27

    To date a variety of teleoperated surgical robotic systems have been developed to improve a surgeon's ability to perform demanding single-port procedures. However typical large systems are bulky, expensive, and afford limited angular motion, while smaller designs suffer complications arising from limited motion range, speed, and force generation. This work was to develop and validate a simple, compact, low cost single site teleoperated laparoendoscopic surgical robotic system, with demonstrated capability to carry out basic surgical procedures. This system builds upon previous work done at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and includes instrument and endoscope manipulators as well as compact articulated instruments designed to overcome single incision geometry complications. A robotic endoscope holder was used for the base, with an added support frame for teleoperated manipulators and instruments fabricated mostly from 3D printed parts. Kinematics and control methods were formulated for the novel manipulator configuration. Trajectory following results from an optical motion tracker and sample task performance results are presented. Results indicate that the system has successfully met the goal of basic surgical functionality while minimizing physical size, complexity, and cost. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Visibility of surgical site marking: a prospective randomized trial of two skin preparation solutions.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Savyasachi C; Mears, Simon C

    2012-01-18

    An important component of the surgical time-out is to confirm surgical site skin markings to prevent wrong-site surgery. Different skin preparation solutions may have variable effects on the visibility of site markings after application. We performed a prospective randomized clinical trial to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the visibility of surgical site markings after the use of two commonly available skin preparation solutions. We enrolled twenty patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty at our institution. Preoperatively, a black permanent marker was used to mark the skin of each patient with a random combination of three letters, underlined by a single black line, and with the surgeon's initials. Patients were randomly selected to receive a chlorhexidine-based or an iodine-based skin preparation according to manufacturer guidelines. The skin markings were photographed digitally, before and after the application of solution. The photographs made after the application of solution were assessed quantitatively, by calculating the contrast (marker to skin) before and after the application of the solutions, and qualitatively by ten orthopaedic surgeons to identify the random initials and to recognize skin markings. The mean change in contrast level after application of the chlorhexidine-based solution was significantly greater than that after application of the iodine-based solution (mean and standard deviation, 59.8 ± 15.7 U versus 14.9 ± 11.4 U, respectively; p < 0.0001). Surgeons were an average of twenty-two times less likely (95% confidence interval, eight to sixty-eight) to judge markings as acceptable for site identification after preparation with the chlorhexidine-based solution than after preparation with the iodine-based solution. When examining individual letters, the surgeons correctly identified 296 of 300 letters in the group prepared with the iodine-based solution and 209 of 300 letters in the group prepared with the chlorhexidine

  8. 'This wound has spoilt everything': emotional capital and the experience of surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brian; Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    In this article we explore the experience of suffering from a surgical site infection, a common complication of surgery affecting around 5 per cent of surgical patients, via an interview study of 17 patients in the Midlands in the UK. Despite their prevalence, the experience of surgical site infections has received little attention so far. In spite of the impairment resulting from these iatrogenic problems, participants expressed considerable stoicism and we interpret this via the notion of emotional capital. This idea derives from the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Helga Nowotny and Diane Reay and helps us conceptualise the emotional resources accumulated and expended in managing illness and in gaining the most from healthcare services. Participants were frequently at pains not to blame healthcare personnel or hospitals, often discounting the infection's severity, and attributing it to chance, to 'germs' or to their own failure to buy and apply wound care products. The participants' stoicism was thus partly afforded by their refusal to blame healthcare institutions or personnel. Where anger was described, this was either defused or expressed on behalf of another person. Emotional capital is associated with deflecting the possibility of complaint and sustaining a deferential and grateful position in relation to the healthcare system. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Prevention of surgical site infection in abdominal surgery. A critical review of the evidence].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Tovar, Jaime; Badia, Josep M

    2014-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased morbidity, mortality and sanitary costs, and reduced patients quality of life. Many hospitals have adopted guidelines of scientifically-validated processes for prevention of surgical site and central-line catheter infections and sepsis. Most of these guidelines have resulted in an improvement in postoperative results. A review of the best available evidence on these measures in abdominal surgery is presented. The best measures are: avoidance of hair removal from the surgical field, skin decontamination with alcoholic antiseptic, correct use of antibiotic prophylaxis (administration within 30-60 min before incision, use of 1(st) or 2(nd) generation cephalosporins, single preoperative dosis, dosage adjustments based on body weight and renal function, intraoperative re-dosing if the duration of the procedure exceeds 2 half-lives of the drug or there is excessive blood loss), prevention of hypothermia, control of perioperative glucose levels, avoid blood transfusion and restrict intraoperative liquid infusion. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of surgical site occurrences and the role of closed incision negative pressure therapy.

    PubMed

    Willy, Christian; Engelhardt, Michael; Stichling, Marcus; Grauhan, Onnen

    2016-09-01

    Surgical site occurrences are observed in up to 60% of inpatient surgical procedures in industrialised countries. The most relevant postoperative complication is surgical site infection (SSI) because of its impact on patient outcomes and enormous treatment costs. Literature reviews ('SSI', 'deep sternal wound infections' (DSWI), 'closed incision negative pressure wound therapy' (ciNPT) were performed by electronically searching MEDLINE (PubMed) and subsequently using a 'snowball' method of continued searches of the references in the identified publications. Search criteria included publications in all languages, various study types and publication in a peer-reviewed journal. The SSI literature search identified 1325, the DSWI search 590 and the ciNPT search 103 publications that fulfilled the search criteria. Patient-related SSI risk factors (diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking, hypertension, female gender) and operation-related SSI risk factors (re-exploration, emergency operations, prolonged ventilation, prolonged operation duration) exist. We found that patient- and operation-related SSI risk factors were often different for each speciality and/or operative procedure. Based on the evidence, we found that high-risk incisions (sternotomy and incisions in extremities after high-energy open trauma) are principally recommended for ciNPT use. In 'lower'-risk incisions, the addition of patient-related or operation-related risk factors justifies the application of ciNPT. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A Study of the Efficacy of Antibacterial Sutures for Surgical Site Infection: A Retrospective Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Tanimura, Syu; Yamauchi, Yasushi; Noritomi, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    To reduce bacterial adherence to surgical sutures, triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 suture materials with antiseptic activity were developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the incidence of surgical site infections can be reduced when triclosan-coated sutures are used. Until December 2009, we used conventional polyglactin 910 sutures (VICRYL, Ethicon) for the closure of the fascia in digestive tract surgery. Therefore, for the control group we retrospectively collected surveillance data for 1.5 years. In the control group, 611 patients underwent digestive tract surgery with VICRYL sutures. Beginning in July 2010, we used triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 sutures (VICRYL Plus, Ethicon, Tokyo, Japan) for the closure of the fascia in all digestive surgeries. So, we collected data for the study group from July 2010 until June 2011. In the study group, 467 patients underwent digestive tract surgery with triclosan-coated VICRYL Plus sutures. In the control group, 75 patients (12.2%) developed wound infections. In the study group, 31 patients (6.6%) developed wound infections, which was significantly lower. Emergency cases; laparoscopic cases, including some cholecystectomy and colectomy cases; American Society of Anesthesiologists classification; the use of immunosuppressive therapy; colostomy cases; wound classification; and suture material were identified as the risk factors for wound infections. In both groups, as the wound classification worsened, the wound infection rate increased. Triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 antimicrobial sutures lead to a significant decrease in the incidence of surgical site infections, especially in clean/contaminated cases. PMID:23701147

  12. A study of the efficacy of antibacterial sutures for surgical site infection: a retrospective controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; Tanimura, Syu; Yamauchi, Yasushi; Noritomi, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    To reduce bacterial adherence to surgical sutures, triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 suture materials with antiseptic activity were developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the incidence of surgical site infections can be reduced when triclosan-coated sutures are used. Until December 2009, we used conventional polyglactin 910 sutures (VICRYL, Ethicon) for the closure of the fascia in digestive tract surgery. Therefore, for the control group we retrospectively collected surveillance data for 1.5 years. In the control group, 611 patients underwent digestive tract surgery with VICRYL sutures. Beginning in July 2010, we used triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 sutures (VICRYL Plus, Ethicon, Tokyo, Japan) for the closure of the fascia in all digestive surgeries. So, we collected data for the study group from July 2010 until June 2011. In the study group, 467 patients underwent digestive tract surgery with triclosan-coated VICRYL Plus sutures. In the control group, 75 patients (12.2%) developed wound infections. In the study group, 31 patients (6.6%) developed wound infections, which was significantly lower. Emergency cases; laparoscopic cases, including some cholecystectomy and colectomy cases; American Society of Anesthesiologists classification; the use of immunosuppressive therapy; colostomy cases; wound classification; and suture material were identified as the risk factors for wound infections. In both groups, as the wound classification worsened, the wound infection rate increased. Triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 antimicrobial sutures lead to a significant decrease in the incidence of surgical site infections, especially in clean/contaminated cases.

  13. Treatment of surgical site infections (SSI) IN patients with peripheral arterial disease: an observational study.

    PubMed

    van der Slegt, Jasper; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; de Groot, Hans G W; van der Laan, Lijckle

    2015-02-01

    The management of surgical site infections (SSI's) in vascular surgery has been challenging over the years. To assess the outcomes associated with the various strategies, we performed a review of all SSI's after elective vascular procedures in patients with moderate to severe peripheral arterial disease in a single centre hospital. All patients with a SSI after peripheral vascular surgery were retrieved from a database on Surgical site infections (SSI)-surveillance after vascular surgery between March 2009 and January 2012. At admission, all patients were approached by microbiological wound sampling and empirical start of antibiotics. Further wound management was based on personal experience and preference of the attending vascular surgeon. Endpoints were treatment success (complete wound healing while staying alive and without major amputation), survival and major amputation during one year follow up. A total of 40 patients with a SSI were identified (60% superficial SSI and 40% deep SSI). In 92% of the patients with a superficial SSI's were successfully treated with adjusted antibiotics and incisional drainages. In the contrast, 25% of the patients with deep-SSI's were successfully treated. No particular treatment was more successful than the others. Adjusted antibiotic use and adequate wound drainage are sufficient strategies for superficial SSI management. The management of deep-SSI's is a challenging undertaking and future research on indications and timing of these wide arrays of treatment options is suggested. Copyright © 2015 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ‘This wound has spoilt everything’: emotional capital and the experience of surgical site infections

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brian; Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore the experience of suffering from a surgical site infection, a common complication of surgery affecting around 5 per cent of surgical patients, via an interview study of 17 patients in the Midlands in the UK. Despite their prevalence, the experience of surgical site infections has received little attention so far. In spite of the impairment resulting from these iatrogenic problems, participants expressed considerable stoicism and we interpret this via the notion of emotional capital. This idea derives from the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Helga Nowotny and Diane Reay and helps us conceptualise the emotional resources accumulated and expended in managing illness and in gaining the most from healthcare services. Participants were frequently at pains not to blame healthcare personnel or hospitals, often discounting the infection's severity, and attributing it to chance, to ‘germs’ or to their own failure to buy and apply wound care products. The participants' stoicism was thus partly afforded by their refusal to blame healthcare institutions or personnel. Where anger was described, this was either defused or expressed on behalf of another person. Emotional capital is associated with deflecting the possibility of complaint and sustaining a deferential and grateful position in relation to the healthcare system. PMID:25470322

  15. Geologic Site Characterization of the North Korean Nuclear Test Site at Punggye-Ri: A Reconnaissance Mapping Redux

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-30

    geologic text states that Manthapsan is a multiphase intrusion into carbonate rocks of the Puktaechon Series, dipping 40 to 70 degrees towards the...Jurassic-Triassic, 250-145 Ma) intrusive igneous rocks , as well as Cenozoic and Quaternary (ɚ.5 Ma) (extrusive volcanic rocks extending toward the test...site area are low- porosity, dense, intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks, including granites (considered the most likely source rock), basalts, and

  16. Intrawound vancomycin powder decreases staphylococcal surgical site infections following posterior instrumented spinal arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Aaron; McIff, Terence E.; Lai, Sue-Min; Burton, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective historical cohort design. Objective To determine what effect the addition of intrawound vancomycin powder to the prophylactic regimen of posterior instrumented spinal arthrodesis procedures has had on acute surgical site infections. Summary of Background Data Surgical site infections (SSI) are known complications in instrumented spinal arthrodesis procedures, and are predominately caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Recent reports have suggested that placing vancomycin powder into the surgical wound prior to closure prevents surgical site infections in spinal surgery. Risk factors for SSIs in the setting of intrawound vancomycin powder use have not been previously reported on. Methods Surgical site infection rates following 342 posterior instrumented spinal arthrodeses (Oct. 2008 to Sept. 2011) in which intrawound vancomycin powder was used in addition to the standard antimicrobial prophylaxis (Vanco cohort) were compared to 341 posterior instrumented spinal arthrodeses (Apr. 2005 to Oct. 2008) in which no vancomyin powder was added (Non-Vanco cohort). Both two sample t-test and Chi-square test (Fisher’s where appropriate) were used for group comparisons. A sub-analysis of the Vanco cohort was undertaken to identify risk factors for SSIs despite intrawound vancomycin use. Results There was a significant reduction in the number of acute staphylococcal SSIs in the Vanco cohort (1.1%) compared to the Non-Vanco cohort (3.8%) (p=0.029). Deep staphylococcal infections decreased to 0 compared to 7 in the Non-Vanco cohort (2.1%) (p=0.008). Deep MRSA infections decreased to 0 compared to 5 in the Non-Vanco cohort (1.5%) (p=0.031). Sub-analysis of the Vanco cohort identified that being discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation or skilled nursing facility was associated with developing a SSI. Conclusions Intrawound vancomycin powder use has decreased the rate of acute staphylococcal SSIs in our posterior instrumented spine arthrodesis surgeries

  17. Surgical site infections in genital reconstruction surgery for gender reassignment, Detroit: 1984-2008.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing J; Marchaim, Dror; Palla, Mohan B; Bogan, Christopher W; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Tansek, Ryan; Moshos, Judy; Muthusamy, Arunkumar; Kotra, Harikrishna; Lephart, Paul R; Wilson, Alan N; Kaye, Keith S

    2014-04-01

    Gender reassignment surgery (i.e., male-to-female or female-to-male) entails a series of complex surgical procedures. We conducted a study to explore epidemiologic characteristics of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations as components of gender reassignment and to analyze risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) following these operations. The study was a retrospective cohort study conducted from 1984-2008 at Harper University Hospital, a tertiary hospital with 625 beds in Detroit, Michigan. Surgical site infection was defined according to established criteria. Records were available for 82 patients who underwent a total of 1,383 operations as part of genital-reconstruction processes. Thirty-nine (47.6%) of the patients underwent female-to-male reassignment (FTM) and 43 (52.4%) underwent male-to-female reassignment (MTF). The average age of the study cohort was 39.5±9.8 y. Of the patients in the cohort, 56 (68.3%) were Caucasian and 67 (81.7%) were single. The average number of operative encounters per patient was 11.8±4.6 for FTM and 4.9±2.4 for MTF. Forty-three (52.4%) patients developed an SSI at least once during their genital reconstruction process, of whom 34 (87%) were in the FTM group and nine (21%) in the MTF group (p<0.001). Staphylococci were the most common pathogens (61%) isolated in these infections, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (50%), Enterococcus (39%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%). Surgical site infection was associated independently with an increased frequency of operative procedures and operating room encounters. More than 50% of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations developed an SSI at some point during the genital reconstruction process. Surgical site infections are more common in FTM than in MTF reconstruction operations, and for both FTM and MTF, SSIs are associated independently with an increased frequency of total operative procedures and encounters.

  18. Surgical Site Infections in Genital Reconstruction Surgery for Gender Reassignment, Detroit: 1984–2008

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing J.; Palla, Mohan B.; Bogan, Christopher W.; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Tansek, Ryan; Moshos, Judy; Muthusamy, Arunkumar; Kotra, Harikrishna; Lephart, Paul R.; Wilson, Alan N.; Kaye, Keith S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gender reassignment surgery (i.e., male-to-female or female-to-male) entails a series of complex surgical procedures. We conducted a study to explore epidemiologic characteristics of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations as components of gender reassignment and to analyze risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) following these operations. Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study conducted from 1984–2008 at Harper University Hospital, a tertiary hospital with 625 beds in Detroit, Michigan. Surgical site infection was defined according to established criteria. Results: Records were available for 82 patients who underwent a total of 1,383 operations as part of genital-reconstruction processes. Thirty-nine (47.6%) of the patients underwent female-to-male reassignment (FTM) and 43 (52.4%) underwent male-to-female reassignment (MTF). The average age of the study cohort was 39.5±9.8 y. Of the patients in the cohort, 56 (68.3%) were Caucasian and 67 (81.7%) were single. The average number of operative encounters per patient was 11.8±4.6 for FTM and 4.9±2.4 for MTF. Forty-three (52.4%) patients developed an SSI at least once during their genital reconstruction process, of whom 34 (87%) were in the FTM group and nine (21%) in the MTF group (p<0.001). Staphylococci were the most common pathogens (61%) isolated in these infections, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (50%), Enterococcus (39%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%). Surgical site infection was associated independently with an increased frequency of operative procedures and operating room encounters. Conclusions: More than 50% of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations developed an SSI at some point during the genital reconstruction process. Surgical site infections are more common in FTM than in MTF reconstruction operations, and for both FTM and MTF, SSIs are associated independently with an increased frequency of total operative

  19. Study on the Application of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for the Nuclear Power Plant Site in Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, H. M.; Kim, M.; Sheen, D. H.; Choi, I. K.

    2014-12-01

    The necessity of study on the tsunami hazard assessment for Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site was suggested since the event of Fukushima in 2011 had been occurred. It has being emphasized because all of the NPPs in Korean Peninsula are located in coastal region. The tsunami hazard is regarded as the annual exceedance probability for the wave heights. The methodology for analysis of tsunami hazard is based on the seismic hazard analysis. The seismic hazard analysis had been performed by using both deterministic and probabilistic method. Recently, the probabilistic method had been received more attention than the deterministic method because the uncertainties of hazard analysis could be considered by using the logic tree approach. In this study, the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis for Uljin NPP site was performed by using the information of fault sources which was published by Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). The wave parameter is the most different parameter with seismic hazard. It could be estimated from the results of tsunami propagation analysis. The TSUNAMI_ver1.0 which was developed by Japan nuclear energy safety organization (JNES), was used for the tsunami simulation. The 80 cases tsunami simulations were performed and then the wave parameters were estimated. For reducing the sensitivity which was encouraged by location of sampling point, the wave parameters were estimated from group of sampling points.The probability density function on the tsunami height was computed by using the recurrence intervals and the wave parameters. And then the exceedance probability distribution was calculated from the probability density function. The tsunami hazards for the sampling groups were calculated. The fractile curves which were shown the uncertainties of input parameters were estimated from the hazards by using the round-robin algorithm. In general, tsunami hazard analysis is focused on the maximum wave heights. But the minimum wave height should be considered

  20. The influence of surgical sites on early postoperative hypoxemia in adults undergoing elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Xue, F S; Li, B W; Zhang, G S; Liao, X; Zhang, Y M; Liu, J H; An, G; Luo, L K

    1999-01-01

    To determine the influence of the surgical sites on early postoperative hypoxemia, we studied postoperative hypoxemia in 994 patients, ASA physical status I or II, aged 18-68 yr, scheduled for various types of elective surgery. Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of the surgical sites: Group 1 = elective superficial plastic surgery (n = 288); Group 2 = upper abdominal surgery (n = 452); and Group 3 = thoracoabdominal surgery (n = 254). Anesthesia was maintained with 1%-2% enflurane and 67% nitrous oxide in oxygen; thiopental or fentanyl was given IV as required. SpO2 levels were recorded while patients breathed room air shortly after arrival in the recovery room (0 min) and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 120, and 180 min thereafter. The results showed that during the early postoperative period, the degree of arterial desaturation and the incidences of hypoxemia (SpO2 86%-90%) and severe hypoxemia (SpO2 85%) were closely related to the operative sites and were greatest for thoracoabdominal operations, less for the upper abdominal operation, and least for the peripheral surgery. The incidence of hypoxemia and severe hypoxemia in the recovery room was 7% and 0.7%, respectively, in Group 1, 38% and 3% in Group 2, and 52% and 20% in Group 3. Mild airway obstruction and hypothermia in the postanesthesia recovery unit (PAR) were the predictive factors of early postoperative hypoxemia. We conclude that during the early postoperative period, there were significant differences in SpO2 levels and incidences of hypoxemia and severe hypoxemia among the three groups. We found that the severity of arterial desaturation and the incidence of hypoxemia during the early postoperative period are closely related to the surgical sites and are strongest for thoracoabdominal surgery, less for upper abdominal surgery, and least for peripheral surgery.

  1. Preoperative hair removal and surgical site infections: network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, A; Saliou, P; Lucet, J C; Mimoz, O; Keita-Perse, O; Grandbastien, B; Bruyère, F; Boisrenoult, P; Lepelletier, D; Aho-Glélé, L S

    2015-10-01

    Preoperative hair removal has been used to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs) or to prevent hair from interfering with the incision site. We aimed to update the meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials about hair removal for the prevention of SSIs, and conduct network meta-analyses to combine direct and indirect evidence and to compare chemical depilation with clipping. The PubMed, ScienceDirect and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials analysing different hair removal techniques and no hair removal in similar groups. Paired and network meta-analyses were conducted. Two readers independently assessed the study limitations for each selected article according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. No study compared clipping with chemical depilation. Network meta-analyses with shaving as the reference showed significantly fewer SSIs with clipping, chemical depilation, or no depilation [relative risk 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.79; 0.60, 0.36-0.97; and 0.56, 0.34-0.96, respectively]. No significant difference was observed between the absence of depilation and chemical depilation or clipping (1.05, 0.55-2.00; 0.97, 0.51-1.82, respectively] or between chemical depilation and clipping (1.09, 0.59-2.01). This meta-analysis of 19 randomized controlled trials confirmed the absence of any benefit of depilation to prevent surgical site infection, and the higher risk of surgical site infection when shaving is used for depilation. Chemical depilation and clipping were compared for the first time. The risk of SSI seems to be similar with both methods.

  2. Orthopedic surgical site infections: analysis of causative bacteria and implications for antibiotic stewardship.

    PubMed

    Norton, Thomas D; Skeete, Faith; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Phillips, Michael S; Bosco, Joseph D; Mehta, Sapna A

    2014-05-01

    Data that can be used to guide perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in our era of emerging antibiotic resistance are limited. We reviewed orthopedic surgeries complicated by surgical site infections (SSIs). Eighty percent of 69 arthroplasty and 80 spine fusion SSIs were infected with Gram-positive bacteria; most were staphylococcal species; and more than 25% of Staphylococcus aureus and more than 65% of coagulase-negative staphylococci were methicillin-resistant. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 30% of arthroplasty SSIs and 25% of spine fusion SSIs. Resistance to cefazolin was higher than 40%. A significant proportion of SSIs were caused by resistant organisms, and antibiotic guidelines were altered to provide more adequate surgical prophylaxis.

  3. [IMPACT OF PREOPERATIVE BOWEL PREPARATION ON PREVENTION OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTION].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Minako; Kusunoki, Masato

    2015-07-01

    Preoperative preparation of the bowel includes two methods, mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) to remove gross feces and oral antibiotic bowel preparation (OABP) to reduce the colonic bacterial load. MBP and OABP have been performed since the 1940s to 1950s. MBP is routinely performed to reduce the morbidity and mortality of elective colorectal surgery and has been a surgical dogma since the early 1970s. However, numerous prospective, randomized, controlled trials and meta-analyses have questioned the need for MBP in elective colorectal surgery, and a meta-analysis showed that significantly more anastomotic leaks were found after MBP. OABP decreases postoperative infectious complications considerably, although the results differ with the type of antibiotic used. Recently, several large retrospective studies have demonstrated that MBP plus OABP is associated with reduced postoperative infectious complications including surgical site infection rates after elective colorectal surgery. Further prospective, randomized trials of MBP and OABP alone and in combination should be conducted.

  4. Towards optical fibre based Raman spectroscopy for the detection of surgical site infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Alex J.; Koziej, Lukasz; Williams, Huw D.; Elson, Daniel S.; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are common post-surgical complications that remain significant clinical problems, as they are associated with substantial mortality and morbidity. As such, there is significant interest in the development of minimally invasive techniques that permit early detection of SSIs. To this end, we are applying a compact, clinically deployable Raman spectrometer coupled to an optical fibre probe to the study of bacteria, with the long term goal of using Raman spectroscopy to detect infection in vivo. Our system comprises a 785 nm laser diode for excitation and a commercial (Ocean Optics, Inc.) Raman spectrometer for detection. Here we discuss the design, optimisation and validation of this system, and describe our first experiences interrogating bacterial cells (Escherichia coli) in vitro.

  5. Predictive factors of post-discharge surgical site infections among patients from a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Adriana Estela Biasotti; Cavalcante, Ricardo de Souza; Pavan, Erika Cibele Pereira; Freitas, Elaine da Silva; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) often manifest after patients are discharged and are missed by hospital-based surveillance. We conducted a case-reference study nested in a prospective cohort of patients from six surgical specialties in a teaching hospital. The factors related to SSI were compared for cases identified during the hospital stay and after discharge. Among 3,427 patients, 222 (6.4%) acquired an SSI. In 138 of these patients, the onset of the SSI occurred after discharge. Neurological surgery and the use of steroids were independently associated with a greater likelihood of SSI diagnosis during the hospital stay. Our results support the idea of a specialty-based strategy for post-discharge SSI surveillance.

  6. Relationship between skin microbial counts and surgical site infection after neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Cronquist, A B; Jakob, K; Lai, L; Della Latta, P; Larson, E L

    2001-10-15

    A prospective study was performed to describe the density of bacterial counts on the skin of neurosurgical patients and examine the association between total colony-forming unit (cfu) counts of skin flora at the operative site and surgical site infection (SSI). Two skin cultures were obtained, immediately before and after skin preparation, from the operative sites of 609 neurosurgical patients. SSI surveillance that used Centers for Disease Control/National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance definitions was performed. Predictors for high bacterial counts and SSI among craniotomies were analyzed by means of logistic regression. Neither pre- nor postpreparation counts were associated with SSI. Other SSI risk factors were obesity (relative risk [RR], 2.5), duration of surgery (RR, 1.3 for every additional 30 minutes) and age (RR, 0.7 for each additional 10 years). Duration of skin preparation was not correlated with postpreparation cfu counts. We were unable to detect an association between preoperative bacterial skin counts and SSI.

  7. Incidence of surgical site infections in children: active surveillance in an Italian academic children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Ciofi Degli Atti, M L; Serino, L; Piga, S; Tozzi, A E; Raponi, M

    2017-01-01

    Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) account for 16-34% of all health-care associated infections. This study aimed to assess the incidence rate of SSIs in children who underwent surgical procedures in an academic children's hospital in Italy. Prospective cohort study. We actively followed-up 0-17 year old children at 30 days of surgical procedures without implants conducted during one index week per quarter, from the second quarter of 2014, to the first quarter of 2016 (8 index weeks in total). Follow up data were collected by telephone interview, or derived by clinical records if patients were still hospitalized. SSIs were defined according to case definitions of Centers for Diseases Control, Atlanta, USA. We calculated cumulative incidence of SSIs per 100 surgical procedures, by patient characteristics, procedure characteristics, and quarter. To investigate variables associated with SSIs, we compared characteristics of procedures with SSIs with those of procedures without SSIs. Over the study period, SSI incidence was 1.0% (19 cases/1,830 surgical procedures). SSI incidence was significantly lower after ear, nose and throat procedures compared to all other procedures, and significantly decreased over time. Duration of surgery was a risk factor for SSIs; patients with SSIs had a significantly longer total length of stay (LOS), due to a prolonged post-operative LOS. As reported in adults, this study confirms that SSIs are associated with longer hospitalizations in children. Active surveillance of SSIs is an important component of the overall strategy to reduce the incidence of these infections in children.

  8. Surgical site infection in elective operations for colorectal cancer after the application of preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Serra-Aracil, Xavier; García-Domingo, María Isabel; Parés, David; Espin-Basany, Eloi; Biondo, Sebastiano; Guirao, Xavier; Orrego, Carola; Sitges-Serra, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of surgical site infection (SSI) after elective operations for colon and rectal cancer after the application of evidence-based preventive measures and to identify risk factors for SSI. Prospective, observational, multicenter. Tertiary and community public hospitals in Catalonia, Spain. Consecutive patients undergoing elective surgical resections for colon and rectal cancer during a 9-month period. The prevalence of SSI within 30 days after the operations and risk factors for SSI. Data from 611 patients were documented: 383 patients underwent operations for colon cancer and 228 underwent operations for rectal cancer. Surgical site infection was observed in 89 (23.2%) colon cancer patients (superficial, 12.8%; deep, 2.1%; and organ/space, 8.4%) and in 63 (27.6%) rectal cancer patients (superficial, 13.6%; deep, 5.7%; and organ/space, 8.3%). For colon procedures, the following independent predictive factors were identified: for incisional SSI, open procedure vs laparoscopy; for organ/space SSI, hyperglycemia at 48 hours postoperatively (serum glucose level, >200 mg/dL), ostomy, and National Nosocomial Infection System index of 1 or more. In rectal procedures, no risk factors were identified for incisional SSI; hyperglycemia at 48 hours postoperatively (serum glucose level, >200 mg/dL) and temperature lower than 36°C at the time of surgical incision were associated with organ/space SSI. The prevalence of SSI in elective colon and rectal operations remains high despite the application of evidence-based preventive measures.

  9. Evaluation of long-term surgical site occurrences in ventral hernia repair: implications of preoperative site independent MRSA infection.

    PubMed

    Baucom, R B; Ousley, J; Oyefule, O O; Stewart, M K; Phillips, S E; Browman, K K; Sharp, K W; Holzman, M D; Poulose, B K

    2016-10-01

    Previous work demonstrated that prior MRSA infection [MRSA(+)] is associated with 30-day surgical site infection (SSI) following ventral hernia repair (VHR). We aimed to determine the impact of MRSA(+) on long-term wound outcomes after VHR. A retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary center between July 11, 2005, and May 18, 2012, of patients undergoing elective VHR with class I wounds. Patients with documented preoperative MRSA infection at any site (urinary, bloodstream, SSI, etc.) were considered MRSA(+). Primary outcome was 2-year surgical site occurrence (SSO), defined as SSI, cellulitis, necrosis, nonhealing wound, seroma, hematoma, dehiscence, or fistula. SSOs were subdivided into those that required procedural intervention (SSOPI) and those that did not. Among 632 patients, 46 % were female with average age 53 ± 13 years. There were 368 SSOs in 193 patients (31 %); an SSOPI occurred in 9.8 % (n = 62). The most common SSOs were cellulitis (91/632), seroma (91/632), and serous drainage (58/632). The rate of 2-year SSO was higher with MRSA(+) compared to those without (46 vs. 29 %, p = 0.023), attributed to increased soft tissue necrosis, purulent drainage, serous drainage, cellulitis, and fistula. In multivariable analysis, MRSA(+) was not associated with 2-year SSO (HR 1.5, 95 % CI 0.91-2.55, p = 0.113); factors associated with SSO included obesity, immunosuppression, mesh repair, and operative times. This study is the first to evaluate long-term SSOs and SSOPIs after VHR, highlighting the importance of long-term follow-up. Though not independently associated with SSOs, MRSA(+) may be a marker of hernia complexity.

  10. Estimating and exploiting the outgoing seismic wavefield at the North Korean nuclear test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbons, Steven J.

    2017-04-01

    Between October 2006 and September 2016, 5 declared underground nuclear explosions were carried out at the Punggye-ri test-site in North Korea. All events were detected clearly both at regional and teleseismic distances. Waveform similarity allows us to estimate relative locations of all 5 events using classical double-difference techniques. However, using a simple 1D velocity model, these estimates are quite sensitive to the set of stations used with inter-event distances estimated using regional Pn phases consistently longer than those estimated using teleseismic P-phases; the seismic wavefield leaving the test-site is more complicated than the 1D velocity model description. We seek perturbations to the horizontal slownesses of each of the rays leaving the source region which ultimately reach the sensors at which the correlations are performed. We find spatially consistent perturbations which reduce the double-difference time residuals and provide relative location estimates which are consistent on both regional and teleseismic measurements. The perturbations are almost sinusoidal with azimuth, as is frequently observed with the observation of incoming wavefronts at seismic arrays. The spatial form of the outgoing wavefield can also be estimated using classical array processing methods on a virtual source array. The source-array analysis supports independently the perturbations to the outgoing wavefield obtained previously and, given the number of events now recorded at this site, may allow accurate relative location estimates for subsequent events which are recorded by a less favorable set of stations. One such scenario is a lower magnitude event recorded only at regional distances, with the associated limitations in azimuthal coverage. Another scenario is of a test in a different part of the test site for which the waveform similarity at some stations, a particularly acute problem for regional phases, may be significantly diminished.

  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 2017.

    PubMed

    Berríos-Torres, Sandra I; Umscheid, Craig A; Bratzler, Dale W; Leas, Brian; Stone, Erin C; Kelz, Rachel R; Reinke, Caroline E; Morgan, Sherry; Solomkin, Joseph S; Mazuski, John E; Dellinger, E Patchen; Itani, Kamal M F; Berbari, Elie F; Segreti, John; Parvizi, Javad; Blanchard, Joan; Allen, George; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Donlan, Rodney; Schecter, William P

    2017-08-01

    The human and financial costs of treating surgical site infections (SSIs) are increasing. The number of surgical procedures performed in the United States continues to rise, and surgical patients are initially seen with increasingly complex comorbidities. It is estimated that approximately half of SSIs are deemed preventable using evidence-based strategies. To provide new and updated evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of SSI. A targeted systematic review of the literature was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from 1998 through April 2014. A modified Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of evidence and the strength of the resulting recommendation and to provide explicit links between them. Of 5759 titles and abstracts screened, 896 underwent full-text review by 2 independent reviewers. After exclusions, 170 studies were extracted into evidence tables, appraised, and synthesized. Before surgery, patients should shower or bathe (full body) with soap (antimicrobial or nonantimicrobial) or an antiseptic agent on at least the night before the operative day. Antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered only when indicated based on published clinical practice guidelines and timed such that a bactericidal concentration of the agents is established in the serum and tissues when the incision is made. In cesarean section procedures, antimicrobial prophylaxis should be administered before skin incision. Skin preparation in the operating room should be performed using an alcohol-based agent unless contraindicated. For clean and clean-contaminated procedures, additional prophylactic antimicrobial agent doses should not be administered after the surgical incision is closed in the operating room, even in the presence of a drain. Topical antimicrobial agents should not be applied to the surgical incision. During surgery, glycemic control should be

  12. Surgical anatomy of endoscope-assisted approaches to common aneurysm sites.

    PubMed

    Peris-Celda, Maria; Da Roz, Leila; Monroy-Sosa, Alejandro; Morishita, Takashi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2014-03-01

    The endoscope is being introduced as an adjuvant to improve visualization of certain areas in open cranial surgery. To describe the endoscopic anatomy of common aneurysm sites and to compare it with the microsurgical anatomy. Pterional, anterior interhemispheric, and subtemporal approaches to the most common aneurysm sites were examined in cadaveric heads under the surgical microscope and with the endoscope. The endoscopic view, particularly with the angled endoscopes, provides a significant improvement compared with the microscopic view, especially for poorly visualized sites such as the medial aspect of the supraclinoid carotid artery and its branches, the area below the anterior perforated substance and optic tract, and the carotid and basilar bifurcations. The endoscope aided in the early visualization of perforating branches at each aneurysm site except the middle cerebral artery. Small-diameter optics (2.7 mm) provided greater space for dissection and less potential for tissue damage in narrow places, whereas the larger 4-mm diameter optics provided better visualization and less panoramic distortion. The positioning of the endoscope for each aneurysm site is reviewed. The endoscope provides views that complement or improve the microscopic view at each aneurysm site except the middle cerebral artery. Endoscopy training and a thorough knowledge of endoscopic vascular anatomy are essential to safely introduce endoscopic assistance in vascular surgery.

  13. Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus simulans Causing Surgical Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus simulans is a normal part of the microbiota in humans and animals and is rarely associated with human invasive infections. We present here the genome sequence of S. simulans CJ16, which caused the first case of surgical site infection. Adhesion proteins, including fibronectin-binding protein (FnbA), elastin-binding protein (EbpS), and cell wall-anchored protein (SasA, SasF, and SasH), were detected in the genome, which might promote the survival of S. simulans on human skin and pathogenesis of infections. PMID:27313298

  14. Infirmity and injury complexity are risk factors for surgical-site infection after operative fracture care.

    PubMed

    Bachoura, Abdo; Guitton, Thierry G; Smith, R Malcolm; Vrahas, Mark S; Zurakowski, David; Ring, David

    2011-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgical-site infections prolong hospital stays, double rehospitalization rates, and increase healthcare costs. Additionally, patients with orthopaedic surgical-site infections (SSI) have substantially greater physical limitations and reductions in their health-related quality of life. However, the risk factors for SSI after operative fracture care are unclear. We determined the incidence and quantified modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for SSIs in patients with orthopaedic trauma undergoing surgery. We retrospectively indentified, from our prospective trauma database and billing records, 1611 patients who underwent 1783 trauma-related procedures between 2006 and 2008. Medical records were reviewed and demographics, surgery-specific data, and whether the patients had an SSI were recorded. We determined which if any variables predicted SSI. Six factors independently predicted SSI: (1) the use of a drain, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-3.8); (2) number of operations OR 3.4, 95% CI (2.0-6.0); (3) diabetes, OR 2.1, 95% CI (1.2-3.8); (4) congestive heart failure (CHF), OR 2.8, 95% CI (1.3-6.5); (5) site of injury tibial shaft/plateau, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-4.2); and (6) site of injury, elbow, OR 2.2, 95% CI (1.1-4.7). The risk factors for SSIs after skeletal trauma are most strongly determined by nonmodifiable factors: patient infirmity (diabetes and heart failure) and injury complexity (site of injury, number of operations, use of a drain). Level II, prognostic study. See the Guideline for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  15. [Effect of compliance with an antibiotic prophylaxis protocol in surgical site infections in appendectomies. Prospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Santana, Tomás; Del-Moral-Luque, Juan Antonio; Gil-Yonte, Pablo; Bañuelos-Andrío, Luis; Durán-Poveda, Manuel; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is the most suitable tool for preventing surgical site infection. This study assessed compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery for acute appendicitis, and the effect of this compliance on surgical site infection. Prospective cohort study to evaluate compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis protocol in appendectomies. An assessment was made of the level of compliance with prophylaxis, as well as the causes of non-compliance. The incidence of surgical site infection was studied after a maximum incubation period of 30 days. The relative risk adjusted with a logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of non-compliance of prophylaxis on surgical site infection. The study included a total of 930 patients. Antibiotic prophylaxis was indicated in all patients, and administered in 71.3% of cases, with an overall protocol compliance of 86.1%. The principal cause of non-compliance was time of initiation. Cumulative incidence of surgical site infection was 4.6%. No relationship was found between inadequate prophylaxis compliance and infection (relative risk=0.5; 95% CI: 0.1-1.9) (P>.05). Compliance of antibiotic prophylaxis was high, but could be improved. No relationship was found between prophylaxis compliance and surgical site infection rate. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Surveillance of surgical site infections: decade of experience at a Colombian tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Arias, Cesar A; Quintero, Gustavo; Vanegas, Blanca E; Rico, Clara Luz; Patiño, Jose Felix

    2003-05-01

    A protocol for surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) was established in a tertiary care center in 1991 in Bogota, Colombia and followed for 10 years. Wounds were classified according to the Centers for Disease Control guidelines. The National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance and Study of the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control scores for risk factors were included from June 1999. A total of 33027 surgical procedures were followed by the surveillance team. The overall infection rate was 2.6%. Most surgical procedures (70.6%) were classified as clean; 25.3%, 3.8%, and 0.26% were classified as clean/contaminated, contaminated, and dirty, respectively. Infection rates according to wound classification were 1.28%, 3.9%, 15.4%, and 38.4% for clean, clean/contaminated, contaminated, and dirty procedures, respectively. Escherichia coli and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated microorganisms from SSI: 23.9% and 22.8% of isolates, respectively. A program of surveillance of SSIs has been successfully implemented in a country with limited resources and has maintained the infection rate within international standards.

  17. Prolonged Operative Duration Increases Risk of Surgical Site Infections: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hang; Chen, Brian Po-Han; Soleas, Ireena M; Ferko, Nicole C; Cameron, Chris G; Hinoul, Piet

    The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) across surgical procedures, specialties, and conditions is reported to vary from 0.1% to 50%. Operative duration is often cited as an independent and potentially modifiable risk factor for SSI. The objective of this systematic review was to provide an in-depth understanding of the relation between operating time and SSI. This review included 81 prospective and retrospective studies. Along with study design, likelihood of SSI, mean operative times, time thresholds, effect measures, confidence intervals, and p values were extracted. Three meta-analyses were conducted, whereby odds ratios were pooled by hourly operative time thresholds, increments of increasing operative time, and surgical specialty. Pooled analyses demonstrated that the association between extended operative time and SSI typically remained statistically significant, with close to twice the likelihood of SSI observed across various time thresholds. The likelihood of SSI increased with increasing time increments; for example, a 13%, 17%, and 37% increased likelihood for every 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of surgery, respectively. On average, across various procedures, the mean operative time was approximately 30 min longer in patients with SSIs compared with those patients without. Prolonged operative time can increase the risk of SSI. Given the importance of SSIs on patient outcomes and health care economics, hospitals should focus efforts to reduce operative time.

  18. Incidence of surgical site infection in postoperative patients at a tertiary care centre in India.

    PubMed

    Akhter, M Siddique J; Verma, R; Madhukar, K Premjeet; Vaishampayan, A Rajiv; Unadkat, P C

    2016-04-01

    A prospective observational was carried out to calculate the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI) along with the main risk factors and causative organisms in postoperative patients at a tertiary care setting in Mumbai. A total number of 1196 patients between June 2011 to March 2013 admitted to the general surgical ward or surgical ICU of our hospital were included in the study. Post laproscopy patients and organ space SSIs were excluded. Patient data were collected using a preformed pro forma and a wound Southampton score tabulated and checked repeatedly until suture removal of patient. Regular follow-up was maintained until at least 30 days postoperatively. The study showed a SSI rate of 11%. Risk factors associated with a higher incidence of SSI were found to be age (>55 years), diabetes mellitus (especially uncontrolled sugar in the perioperative period), immunocompromised patients (mainly HIV and immunosuppressive therapy patients), surgeon skill (higher in senior professors compared with junior residents), nature of the cases, (emergency surgeries), placement of drains, wound class (highest in dirty wounds), type of closure (multilayer closure), prolonged duration of hospital stay, longer duration of surgery (>2 hours), type of surgery (highest in cholecystectomy). The highest rates of causative organisms for SSIs found were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella ssp. Prevention of SSIs requires a multipronged approach with particular emphasis on optimising preoperative issues, adhering religiously to strict protocols during the intraoperative period and addressing and optimising metabolic and nutritional status in postoperative period.

  19. Surgical site infection of scrotal and inguinal lesions after urologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Teruhisa; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ichihara, Kohji; Hiyama, Yoshiki; Hashimoto, Jiro; Kurimura, Yuichiro; Masumori, Naoya

    2014-03-01

    To clarify the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after urological scrotal and inguinal surgical procedures and the preventive effect of antimicrobial prophylaxis for SSI, retrospective analysis was performed. The patients who underwent scrotal and inguinal operations from 2001 to 2010 were included in this analysis. A first or second generation cephalosporin was administered as antimicrobial prophylaxis just before the start of surgery and no additional prophylaxis was conducted. The surgery was classified into 76 (38%) cases with testicular sperm extraction (TESE), 72 (36%) with radical orchiectomy, 29 (14.5%) with bilateral orchiectomy (surgical castration) and 23 (11.5%) with other scrotal and inguinal operations. The median age and age range were 36 years and 18-81 years, respectively. SSI occurred in 7 (3.5%) cases. The frequencies of SSI were 6.5% in the patients with urological inguinal surgery and 1.6% in those with scrotal surgery. The frequency of SSI in the patients with urological inguinal surgery was not negligible even though it is considered a clean operation, and further analysis is warranted to prevent SSI.

  20. Abdominal surgical site infections: a prospective study of determinant factors in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Muchuweti, David; Jönsson, Kent U G

    2015-10-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are reported in lower frequencies in the developed countries than in the developing world. A prospective evaluation of risk factors in 285 patients undergoing abdominal surgery procedures in Zimbabwe was therefore undertaken. Overall infection rate was 26%. The age group 30-39 years had the highest number of dirty wounds and the highest rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Multivariate regression analysis showed a correlation between wound class and SSI (P < 0·05). This was also noted for American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (P < 0·05). HIV-infected patients had 52% SSIs and non-infected patients had 26% (P < 0·05). Patients receiving blood transfusion had 51% SSIs and those not transfused had 17% (P < 0·01). Patients receiving pre- and intra-operative prophylactic antibiotics had 18% SSIs and those receiving postoperative administration had 37% (P < 0·01). Treatment ranged from dressings only in 11% to surgical intervention in 30% resulting in prolongation of median hospital stay from 8 to 18 days (P < 0·001). Mortality was 7%. High wound class, high ASA score, blood transfusion, HIV infection and delayed use of prophylactic antibiotics were risk factors for SSIs, resulting in surgical interventions, prolonged hospital stay and mortality.

  1. Healthcare associated infection: novel strategies and antimicrobial implants to prevent surgical site infection

    PubMed Central

    Leaper, David; McBain, Andrew J; Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Sanchez, Jose Luis Alfonso; Lumio, Jukka; Kiernan, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This report is based on a Hygienist Panel Meeting held at St Anne's Manor, Wokingham on 24–25 June 2009. The panel agreed that greater use should be made of antiseptics to reduce reliance on antibiotics with their associated risk of antibiotic resistance. When choosing an antiseptic for clinical use, the Biocompatibility Index, which considers both the microbiocidal activity and any cytotoxic effects of an antiseptic agent, was considered to be a useful tool. The need for longer and more proactive post-discharge surveillance of surgical patients was also agreed to be a priority, especially given the current growth of day-case surgery. The introduction of surgical safety checklists, such as the World Health Organization's Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative, is a useful contribution to improving safety and prevention of SSIs and should be used universally. Considering sutures as ‘implants’, with a hard or non-shedding surface to which micro-organisms can form biofilm and cause surgical site infections, was felt to be a useful concept. PMID:20819330

  2. Medicaid status is associated with higher surgical site infection rates after spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Manoso, Mark W; Cizik, Amy M; Bransford, Richard J; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens; Lee, Michael J

    2014-09-15

    The Spine End Results Registry (2003-2004) is a registry of prospectively collected data of all patients undergoing spinal surgery at the University of Washington Medical Center and Harborview Medical Center. Insurance data were prospectively collected and used in multivariate analysis to determine risk of perioperative complications. Given the negative financial impact of surgical site infections (SSIs) and the higher overall complication rates of patients with a Medicaid payer status, we hypothesized that a Medicaid payer status would have a significantly higher SSI rate. The medical literature demonstrates lesser outcomes and increased complication rates in patients who have public insurance than those who have private insurance. No one has shown that patients with a Medicaid payer status compared with Medicare and privately insured patients have a significantly increased SSI rate for spine surgery. The prospectively collected Spine End Results Registry provided data for analysis. SSI was defined as treatment requiring operative debridement. Demographic, social, medical, and the surgical severity index risk factors were assessed against the exposure of payer status for the surgical procedure. The population included Medicare (N = 354), Medicaid (N = 334), the Veterans' Administration (N = 39), private insurers (N = 603), and self-pay (N = 42). Those patients whose insurer was Medicaid had a 2.06 odds (95% confidence interval: 1.19-3.58, P = 0.01) of having a SSI compared with the privately insured. The study highlights the increased cost of spine surgical procedures for patients with a Medicaid payer status with the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 provisions could cause a reduction in reimbursement to the hospital for taking care of patients with Medicaid insurance due to their higher complication rates and higher costs. This very issue could inadvertently lead to access

  3. Diabetes and Risk of Surgical Site Infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Keith S.; Knott, Caitlin; Nguyen, Huong; Santarossa, Maressa; Evans, Richard; Bertran, Elizabeth; Jaber, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the independent association between diabetes and SSI across multiple surgical procedures. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Studies indexed in PubMed published between December 1985 and through July 2015 were identified through the search terms “risk factors” or “glucose” and “surgical site infection”. A total of 3,631 abstracts were identified through the initial search terms. Full texts were reviewed for 522 articles. Of these, 94 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Standardized data collection forms were used to extract study-specific estimates for diabetes, blood glucose levels, and body mass index (BMI). Random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates and meta-regression was used to evaluate specific hypothesized sources of heterogeneity. Results The primary outcome was SSI, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria. The overall effect size for the association between diabetes and SSI was OR=1.53 (95% Predictive Interval 1.11, 2.12, I2: 57.2%). SSI class, study design, or patient BMI did not significantly impact study results in a meta-regression model. The association was higher for cardiac surgery 2.03 (95% Predictive Interval 1.13, 4.05) compared to surgeries of other types (p=0.001). Conclusion These results support the consideration of diabetes as an independent risk factor for SSIs for multiple surgical procedure types. Continued efforts are needed to improve surgical outcomes for diabetic patients. PMID:26503187

  4. The impact of recent hospitalization on surgical site infection after a pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Dominic E; Strasberg, Steven M; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan C

    2015-09-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are a major cause of increased morbidity and cost after a pancreatectomy. Patients undergoing a pancreatectomy frequently have had recent inpatient hospital admissions prior to their surgical admission (recent pre-surgical admission, RPSA), which could increase the risk of SSI. The 2009-2011 Healthcare Cost Utilization Project California State Inpatient Database was used. Chi-square tests, Student's t-tests and multivariable logistic regression were used. Three thousand three hundred and seventy-six patients underwent a pancreatectomy, and 444 (13.2%) had RPSA. One hundred and eighty (40.5%) RPSAs were to different hospitals other than where patients' pancreatectomy took place. In univariate analysis, patients with RPSA had a significantly higher rate of post-operative SSIs, and this was associated with a longer length of post-operative stay, higher post-operative hospital costs and increased postoperative 30-day readmission rates (Table 1). In Multivariate analysis, RPSA was an independent predictor of post-operative SSI [odds ratio (OR) = 1.68, P = 0.013], and the risk of SSI increased with increasing RPSA length of stay (OR = 1.07 per day, P = 0.001). Recent pre-surgical admission is an important risk factor for SSI after a pancreatectomy. Many patients with RPSA are not admitted pre-operatively to the same hospital where the pancreatectomy occurs; in such circumstances, SSI rates may not be a sole reflection of the care provided by operating hospitals. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  5. Comparison of two surgical site protocols for cattle in a field setting.

    PubMed

    Bourel, Clara; Buczinski, Sébastien; Desrochers, André; Harvey, Denis

    2013-02-01

    To compare 2 preoperative surgical site protocols for standing laparotomy in cattle in a field setting. Cohort study. Dairy cows (n = 73) undergoing a clean standing laparotomy (no visceral perforation during surgery). Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 preoperative skin-preparations protocols with chlorhexidine used as an antiseptic. A standard protocol (3 minutes [min] cleansing scrub, tap water rinse, 3 minutes surgical scrub with a sterile one-use chlorhexidine scrub and alternate passage of alcohol and 2% chlorhexidine solution (7 minutes; n = 32) was compared with a 3 minutes abbreviated preoperative protocol, consisting of two 90 seconds period of cleansing scrub and 3 passages of 0.5% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% in isopropyl alcohol solution (4 minutes; n = 32). Pre- and postoperative skin bacterial counts and clinical assessment of wounds 10-15 days after surgery, as well as standardized interview with the producers focused on wound infection 30 days after the surgery were used to compare both protocols. There was no difference between protocols for absolute colony forming units (CFU) and percentage CFU reduction perioperatively as well as for surgical wound clinical score 10-15 days after the surgery. The infection rate at 30 days was 10.5% (6/57) but no significant difference was observed between protocols 10% (3/30) versus 11.5% (3/27). An abbreviated preoperative protocol using nonsterile reusable material can be as effective as a standard protocol using sterile one-use brush in reducing skin microflora and preventing surgical wound infection. © Copyright 2013 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Use of administrative data for surgical site infection surveillance after congenital cardiac surgery results in inaccurate reporting of surgical site infection rates.

    PubMed

    Atchley, Krista D; Pappas, Janine M; Kennedy, Andrea T; Coffin, Susan E; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Fuller, Stephanie M; Spray, Thomas L; McCardle, Kenneth; Gaynor, J William

    2014-02-01

    The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) is a safety surveillance system managed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that monitors procedure specific rates of surgical site infections (SSIs). At our institution, SSI data is collected and reported by three different methods: (1) the NHSN database with reporting to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; (2) the hospital billing database with reporting to payers; and (3) The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. A quality improvement initiative was undertaken to better understand issues with SSI reporting and to evaluate the effect of different data sources on annual SSI rates. Annual cardiac surgery procedure volumes for all three data sources were compared. All episodes of SSI identified in any data source were reviewed and adjudicated using NHSN SSI criteria, and the effect on SSI rates was evaluated. From January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2011, 2,474 cardiac procedures were performed and reported to The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Billing data identified 1,865 cardiac surgery procedures using the 63 CARD International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes from the NHSN inclusion criteria. Only 1,425 procedures were targeted for NHSN surveillance using the NHSN's CARD operative procedure group in the same period. Procedures identified for NHSN surveillance annually underestimated the number of cardiac operations performed by 17% to 71%. As a result, annual SSI rates potentially differed by 12% to 270%. The NHSN CARD surveillance guidelines for SSI fail to identify all pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. Failure to target all at-risk procedures leads to inaccurate reporting of SSI rates largely based on identifying the denominator. Inaccurate recording of SSI data has implications for public reporting, benchmarking of outcomes, and denial of payment. Use of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery

  7. High prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains isolated from surgical site infections in Kinshasa.

    PubMed

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Wambale, José Mulwahali; Lukukula, Cyprien Mbundu; za Balega Takaisi-Kikuni, Ntondo

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) after surgery are usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). In low income countries, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS) surgical site infections are particularly associated with high treatment cost and remain a source of mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the sensitivity to antibiotics of MRSA and MR-CNS isolated from SSIs. Wound swabs were collected from 130 hospitalized surgical patients in two major hospitals of Kinshasa. S. aureus and CNS strains were identified by standard microbiological methods and latex agglutination test (Pastorex Staph-Plus). The antibiotic susceptibility of all staphylococcal strains was carried out using disk-diffusion method. Eighty nine staphylococcal strains were isolated. Out of 74 S. aureus and 15 CNS isolated, 47 (63.5%) and 9 (60%) were identified as MRSA and MR-CNS respectively. Among the MRSA strains, 47 strains (100%) were sensitive to imipenem, 39 strains (89%) to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and 38 strains (81%) to vancomycin. All MR-CNS were sensitive to imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin. The isolated MRSA and MR-CNS strains showed multidrug resistance. They were both resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. The results of the present study showed a high prevalence of MRSA and MR-CNS. Imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin were the most active antibiotics. This study suggests that antibiotic surveillance policy should become national priority as MRSA and MR-CNS were found to be multidrug resistant.

  8. High prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains isolated from surgical site infections in Kinshasa

    PubMed Central

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Wambale, José Mulwahali; Lukukula, Cyprien Mbundu; Takaisi-Kikuni, Ntondo za Balega

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs) after surgery are usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). In low income countries, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CNS) surgical site infections are particularly associated with high treatment cost and remain a source of mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the sensitivity to antibiotics of MRSA and MR-CNS isolated from SSIs. Methods Wound swabs were collected from 130 hospitalized surgical patients in two major hospitals of Kinshasa. S. aureus and CNS strains were identified by standard microbiological methods and latex agglutination test (Pastorex Staph-Plus). The antibiotic susceptibility of all staphylococcal strains was carried out using disk-diffusion method. Results Eighty nine staphylococcal strains were isolated. Out of 74 S. aureus and 15 CNS isolated, 47 (63.5%) and 9 (60%) were identified as MRSA and MR-CNS respectively. Among the MRSA strains, 47 strains (100%) were sensitive to imipenem, 39 strains (89%) to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and 38 strains (81%) to vancomycin. All MR-CNS were sensitive to imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin. The isolated MRSA and MR-CNS strains showed multidrug resistance. They were both resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime. Conclusion The results of the present study showed a high prevalence of MRSA and MR-CNS. Imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and vancomycin were the most active antibiotics. This study suggests that antibiotic surveillance policy should become national priority as MRSA and MR-CNS were found to be multidrug resistant. PMID:25478043

  9. Versatility of the Latissimus Dorsi Free Flap during the Treatment of Complex Postcraniotomy Surgical Site Infections

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background: Some intractable cases of postcraniotomy infection, which can involve compromised skin, an open frontal air sinus, and residual epidural dead space, have been reported. In such cases, reconstructing the scalp and skull is challenging. Methods: Between 2009 and 2016, the author treated 12 patients with recalcitrant postcraniotomy surgical site infections with latissimus dorsi (LD) free flaps. The patients’ ages ranged from 37 to 79 years (mean, 63.5 years), and their underlying diseases included subarachnoid hemorrhaging (n = 5), brain tumors (n = 4), and cerebral arteriovenous malformations (n = 3). Results: The LD free flap was used for scalp reconstruction in 3 cases, scalp reconstruction and separation of the intracranial and nasal cavities in 5 cases, and the obliteration of epidural dead space in 4 cases. Debridement followed by staged cranial reconstruction was carried out in 8 cases, and single-stage cranial reconstruction was conducted in 2 cases. The bone defects of the other 2 cases, which were small, were filled with LD musculo-adipose free flaps. The postoperative local appearance of the wounds was acceptable in every case, and no complications occurred. Conclusions: The LD free flap is a versatile tool for the treatment of complex postcraniotomy surgical site infections. This vascularized muscle flap is useful for controlling local infections because of its abundant vascularity. Moreover, its variety of uses means that it can resolve several problems in cases involving complex cranial wounds. PMID:28740770

  10. Incidence and Etiology of Surgical Site Infections in Appendectomies: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Arias, Ariadna Villanueva; Sandoval, Cristobal A. Pancorbo; García, Elias Guilarte; Gamboa, Moraima E. Valle; Sado, Adam Bode; Serrano, Ramón N. Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Surgical site infections (SSIs) constitute a threat, especially in complicated appendicitis, and are commonly due to gram-negative organisms. We sought to describe the incidence of SSIs in appendectomies performed during a three-year period (January 2013 to December 2015) in a community hospital in Qatar, and compare this with external benchmarks. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study at The Cuban Hospital, Qatar. We used the standardized surveillance criteria to define SSI developed by the Centers for Disease Control. Information about age, sex, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus status, body mass index, and the result of bacteriologic studies were collected. Results Of a total 603 patients, 22 (3.6%) cases of SSI were reported, with an infection rate of 13.6%, 4.5%, and 1.0% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. SSIs were observed more frequently in patients with contaminated/dirty wounds (6.6%). About 65% of isolates from the surgical site were multidrug-resistant organisms (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.). Conclusions This study describes the incidence of SSI in appendectomy, which could be used as a benchmark for the facility improvement program. The high frequency of multidrug-resistant organisms in SSIs requires additional studies focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the current preventive practices with a particular reference to antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:28042400

  11. Retrospective Multicenter Study on Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infections after Appendectomy for Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Giesen, Louis J.X.; van den Boom, Anne Loes; van Rossem, Charles C.; den Hoed, P.T.; Wijnhoven, Bas P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are seen in up to 5% of patients after appendectomy for acute appendicitis. SSI are associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased costs. The aim of this multicenter study was to identify factors associated with SSI after appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Methods Patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis between June 2014 and January 2015 in 6 teaching hospitals in the southwest of the Netherlands were included. Patient, diagnostic, intra-operative and disease-related factors were collected from the patients' charts. Primary outcome was surgical site infection. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results Some 637 patients were included. Forty-two patients developed a SSI. In univariable analysis body temperature >38°C, CRP>65 and complex appendicitis were associated with SSI. After multivariable logistic regression with stepwise backwards elimination, complex appendicitis was significantly associated with SSI (OR 4.09; 95% CI 2.04-8.20). Appendiceal stump closure with a stapler device was inversely correlated with SSI (OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.24-0.97) Conclusions Complex appendicitis is a risk factor for SSI and warrants close monitoring postoperatively. The use of a stapler device for appendiceal stump closure is associated with a reduced risk of SSI. PMID:27631081

  12. Rodent burrows in late Pleistocene paleosols at Korean Palaeolithic sites and their implications for paleoclimate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H.; Park, S.; Lee, J.; Lee, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Rodent burrows are commonly found at many Paleolithic archaeological sites in Korea. They are nearly straight in horizontal view and gently inclined in lateral view. Burrow diameters are mostly 7 - 10cm, and burrow length may reach a few meters. Vertical penetration depths are generally about 1 m from the surface, and the thickness of the burrow-bearing layer is about 1-2 m. Although no remains (bones, teeth, claws, and coprolites) were found within burrows, they are interpreted to have been produced by rodent-like mammals (probably ground squirrels) based on the size and architecture. According to the previous study, the age of these burrows was constrained to be between ca. 40,000 and 25,000 yr BP by tephrochronology, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating results (Lim et al., 2007). However, little is known about the reason why these burrows have disappeared after late Pleistocene time. For this question, two explanations can be considered: extinction or migration. Since same kinds of burrows are still found in the high-latitude regions, such as Mongolia and North America, the possibility of extinction can be ruled out. Therefore, migration seems to be the most likely explanation. Our results show that the destruction of habitat caused by climate change during this period is the main reason for the northward migration of burrowing animals. This study suggests that rodent burrows found in the late Pleistocene paleosols can provide useful information on paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental changes.

  13. Alcohol drinking does not affect postoperative surgical site infection or anastomotic leakage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol abuse appears to increase postoperative complications, but clinical trials have reported conflicting results. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify how alcohol drinking affects postoperative surgical site infection and anastomotic leakage and to determine the impact of perioperative alcohol intervention. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched. Observational studies assessing surgical site infection and anastomotic leakage for alcohol drinkers and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studying perioperative alcohol interventions were included. Meta-analyses were performed with random effects models. Methodological quality was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Cochrane methodology. Fifteen observational studies and 2 RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses were performed for alcohol drinkers vs nondrinkers and moderate drinkers (≤ 2 U/day), respectively. No difference between alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers was found. When drinkers and moderate drinkers were compared, a significantly higher incidence of surgical site infection and anastomotic leakage was found in unadjusted studies. In the meta-analysis of studies adjusting for smoking and age, alcohol drinking did not significantly affect surgical site infection and anastomotic leakage. The RCTs did not show any effect of perioperative alcohol abstinence or pharmacological withdrawal treatment on outcome. Alcohol drinking is not an independent risk factor for surgical site infection and anastomotic leakage. Interventions which aim to make patients quit alcohol or treat withdrawal symptoms do not seem to affect the surgical outcomes of interest.

  14. Nasal decontamination for the prevention of surgical site infection in Staphylococcus aureus carriers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenmi; Norman, Gill; Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Wong, Jason Kf; Crosbie, Emma J; Wilson, Peter

    2017-05-18

    Surgical site infection rates in the month following surgery vary from 1% to 5%. Due to the large number of surgical procedures conducted annually, the costs of these surgical site infections (SSIs) can be considerable in financial and social terms. Nasal decontamination using antibiotics or antiseptics is performed to reduce the risk of SSIs by preventing organisms from the nasal cavity being transferred to the skin where a surgical incision will be made. Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) colonises the nasal cavity and skin of carriers and can cause infection in open or unhealed surgical wounds. S aureus is the leading nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pathogen in hospitals worldwide. The potential effectiveness of nasal decontamination of S aureus is thought to be dependent on both the antibiotic/antiseptic used and the dose of application; however, it is unclear whether nasal decontamination actually reduces postoperative wound infection in S aureus carriers. To assess the effects of nasal decontamination on preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) in people who are S aureus carriers undergoing surgery. In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched three clinical trial registries and the references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which enrolled S aureus carriers with any type of surgery and assessed the use of nasal decontamination with antiseptic/antibiotic properties were included in the review. Two review authors independently performed study selection, data extraction, risk of bias assessment and GRADE assessment. We located two studies (291 participants) for inclusion in this review. The

  15. Effects of food colouring added to 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 70% alcohol for surgical site antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jason; Ng, Jonathan; Pun, Alvin

    2013-11-01

    Preoperative cleansing of a patient's skin with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in alcohol is superior to cleansing with povidone-iodine for preventing surgical site infection (SSI) after clean-contaminated surgery (Darouilche et al 2010). However, 2% CHG in 70% alcohol, tinted pink, is colourless when applied to limbs for surgery and complete coverage cannot be assured. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of food colouring added to CHG in preoperative skin preparation. Two hundred and eight subjects were randomly selected from a population of healthy young adults and were given a questionnaire. They were excluded if they had a known allergy to CHG or food dye, a current infection at the preparation site, or previous preparation with CHG at the site. CHG with food dye additive was applied on the subject's left foot while CHD without the additive was applied on the right. Skin swabs were then taken of both feet and plated on blood agar plates and incubated for 48 hours. Assessment of growth was compared. Patients treated with tinted CHG had around 3.4 times (95% CI: 1.5, 7.8) the risk of a positive bacterial swab compared with those treated with untinted CHG. The efficacy of CHG significantly decreased with food colouring additive. This is consistent with previous studies conducted on similar incompatible substances. In order to have the full efficacy of CHG as a preparation, much thought and care needs to be taken to prevent contamination of the site and substance.

  16. Factors predicting surgical site infection after posterior lumbar surgery: A multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Hui; Yang, Da-Long; Jiang, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Li-Jun; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    This is a retrospective study.The purpose of this study is to explore incidence and risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after posterior lumbar surgery.SSI is a common complication after posterior lumbar surgery, bringing mental and physical pain and prolonging hospital stay. However, predisposing factors, as reported less, remain controversial.Patients who underwent posterior lumbar surgery at 3 centers between 2006 and 2016 were included. The possible factors include 3 aspects: demographic variables-age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip radio (WHR), hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, smoking, drinking, steroidal injection, surgical time between June and September, preoperative shower; blood test variables-white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), total protein (TP), albumin, albumin/globulin (A/G), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and surgical related variables-operation time, blood loss, operative level, instrumentation, incision length. Factors related with SSI were also performed by multivariate analysis.The prevalence of SSI was 3.00% (267 cases of 8879) had a postoperative wound infection. There were significant difference in WHR (0.92 vs 0.83), WBC (4.31 vs 6.69), TP (58.7 vs 65.2), albumin (36.9 vs 43.2), CRP (2.01 vs 0.57), PCT (0.097 vs 0.067), operation time (217.9 vs 195.7), blood loss (997.1 vs 915.3) and operative level (3.05 vs 2.45) and incision length (24.1 vs 20.0) between SSI group and non-SSI group. >60 years old, female, BMI <18.5 and >30.0, diabetes, male smoking, preoperative steroidal injection, surgical time between June and September, no preoperative shower, instrumentation surgery were risk factors for SSI after posterior lumbar surgery.Many factors, >60 years old, female, BMI, WHR, diabetes, male smoking, preoperative steroidal injection, surgical time between June and September, preoperative shower, WBC, TP, albumin, CRP, PCT

  17. Predictors of surgical site infection in laparoscopic and open ventral incisional herniorrhaphy.

    PubMed

    Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Kaufman, Derrick; Reda, Domenic; Itani, Kamal M F

    2010-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) after ventral incisional hernia repair (VIH) can result in serious consequences. We sought to identify patient, procedure, and/or hernia characteristics that are associated with SSI in VIH. Between 2004 and 2006, patients were randomized in four Veteran Affairs (VA) hospitals to undergo laparoscopic or open VIH. Patients who developed SSI within eight weeks postoperatively were compared to those who did not. A bivariate analysis for each factor and a multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to determine factors associated with SSI. The variables studied included patient characteristics and co-morbidities (e.g., age, gender, race, ethnicity, body mass index, ASA classification, diabetes, steroid use), hernia characteristics (e.g., size, duration, number of previous incisions), procedure characteristics (e.g., open versus laparoscopic, blood loss, use of postoperative drains, operating room temperature) and surgeons' experience (resident training level, number of open VIH previously performed by the attending surgeon). Antibiotic prophylaxis, anticoagulation protocols, preparation of the skin, draping of the wound, body temperature control, and closure of the surgical site were all standardized and monitored throughout the study period. Out of 145 patients who underwent VIH, 21 developed a SSI (14.5%). Patients who underwent open VIH had significantly more SSIs than those who underwent laparoscopic VIH (22.1% versus 3.4%; P = 0.002). Among patients who underwent open VIH, those who developed SSI had a recorded intraoperative blood loss greater than 25 mL (68.4% versus 40.3%; P = 0.030), were more likely to have a drain placed (79.0% versus 49.3%; P = 0.021) and were more likey to be operated on by surgeons with less than 75 open VIH case experience (52.6% versus 28.4%; P = 0.048). Patient and hernia characteristics were similar between the two groups. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the open surgical technique was

  18. Comparison of preoperative hair removal methods for the reduction of surgical site infections: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Dingmei; Yao, Yao; Yu, Weifei

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of different methods of preoperative hair removal in reducing surgical site infections. Surgical site infections are a major source of morbidity and prolonged hospitalisation following surgery. However, there is a lack of data regarding the impact of different preoperative hair removal techniques on the incidence of surgical site infections. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials reporting the impact of different methods of preoperative hair removal on reducing surgical site infections were collected through databases, including the Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute Library, PubMed, Elsevier, EMBASE, Nursing Consult, China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang data. The articles were published from 1 January 1990-15 March 2016. Meta-analyses were conducted with review manager version 5.0. Fourteen trials were included (16 comparisons) in the review, including 11 randomised controlled trials and three controlled clinical trials. Interventions in the studies were shaving, clipping, no hair removal and the use of depilatory cream. The meta-analyses included 7278 patients, from 10 countries. Nine studies compared shaving with no hair removal, four studies compared shaving with clipping, two studies compared shaving with depilatory cream, and one study compared clipping with no hair removal. No significant differences in the frequency of surgical site infections were observed between any of the methods assessed. No significant differences between shaving, clipping, no hair removal and depilatory cream were observed in the frequency of surgical site infections. Preoperative hair removal should be avoided unless necessary. When it is necessary to remove hair, the existing evidence suggests that clipping is more effective in reducing surgical site infections than shaving or depilatory cream. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Bacterial Species and Surgical Sites Involved in Contamination During Strabismus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bloomberg, Justin D; Wang, Grace; Suh, Donny W

    2013-01-01

    Residual bacterial colonization of the eye after strabismus surgery is common. This study aimed to identify the bacterial pathogens and contaminated sites involved during strabismus surgery. A prospective, case-control study of 44 patients aged 1-78 years who underwent strabismus surgery. Before participation, we received clinical research board approval, and informed consent was obtained from each of the patients or the parents. Five percent povidone-iodine was used to sterilize the surgical site in all cases. Intraoperative swabs were taken from conjunctival incision site, plain gut suture, scleral surgery site, Vicryl suture, and lid specula. Bacteria isolates were identified by culture growth and Gram staining. Positive and negative control samples were collected. Samples from 13 (29.5%) of 44 cases were positive for growth of bacteria. The conjunctival incision site was involved in 9 cases (20.5%), and the lid speculum in 7 cases (15.9%). All 13 colonized plates grew the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strain. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 1 case (2.3%) and was associated with the only case of postoperative infection. The S. aureus cultures came from both the conjunctival incision site and the lid speculum. Despite a high contamination rate of 29.5%, incidence of clinically significant infection was low. Our study suggests involvement of the eyelids and conjunctiva in harboring bacteria even after the use of povidone-iodine. Regardless of the mechanism of contamination, we should continue to focus our efforts on reducing intraoperative conjunctival bacterial load. Irregular tear film can contribute to postoperative complications.

  20. What Factors Impact Consumer Perception of the Effectiveness of Health Information Sites? An Investigation of the Korean National Health Information Portal

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Lay public's concerns around health and health information are increasing. In response, governments and government agencies are establishing websites to address such concerns and improve health literacy by providing better access to validated health information. Since 2011, the Korean government has constructed the National Health Information Portal (NHIP) website run in collaboration with the Korean Academy of Medical Sciences (KAMS). This study therefore aimed to 1) examine consumer use of NHIP, with respect to the usage patterns, evaluation on health information provided, and perceived effectiveness of the site; and 2) identify factors that may impact perceived effectiveness of the site. An online survey was conducted with 164 NHIP users, recruited through a popup window on the main screen of the portal website from October to November 2015. The significant predicting factors supported by the data include the relevance of health information on the site, the usefulness of information in making health decisions, and the effective visualization of information. These factors can inform future efforts to design more effective health information websites, possibly based on metadata systems, to further advance the lay public's information seeking and health literacy. PMID:28581262

  1. Surgical Site Infection and Analytic Morphometric Assessment of Body Composition in Patients Undergoing Midline Laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jay S; Terjimanian, Michael N; Tishberg, Lindsay M; Alawieh, Abbas Z; Harbaugh, Calista M; Sheetz, Kyle H; Holcombe, Sven A; Wang, Stewart C; Sonnenday, Christopher J; Englesbe, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is a known risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI). Our hypothesis is that morphometric measures of midline subcutaneous fat will be associated with increased risk of SSI, and will predict SSI better than conventional measures of obesity. Study Design We identified 655 patients who underwent midline laparotomy (2006 - 2009) using the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative database. Using novel, semi-automated analytic morphometric techniques, the thickness of subcutaneous fat along the linea alba was measured between T12 and L4. To adjust for variations in patient size, subcutaneous fat was normalized to the distance between the vertebrae and anterior skin. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors independently associated with the incidence of SSI. Results Overall, SSIs were observed in 12.5% (n = 82) of the population. Logistic regression revealed that patients with increased subcutaneous fat had significantly greater odds of developing a superficial incisional SSI (OR = 1.76 per 10% increase, 95% CI: 1.10 – 2.83, p = 0.019). Smoking, steroid use, ASA classification, and incision-to-close operative time were also significant independent risk factors for superficial incisional SSI. When comparing subcutaneous fat and body mass index (BMI) as the only model variables, subcutaneous fat significantly improved model predictions of superficial incisional SSI (AUC: 0.60, p = 0.023) while BMI did not (AUC = 0.52, p = 0.73). Conclusions Abdominal subcutaneous fat is an independent predictor of superficial incisional SSI following midline laparotomy. Novel morphometric measures may improve risk stratification and help elucidate the pathophysiology of surgical complications. PMID:21601491

  2. Hospital costs associated with surgical site infections in general and vascular surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Melissa M; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Julian, Kathleen G; Ortenzi, Gail; Dillon, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    Although much has been written about excess cost and duration of stay (DOS) associated with surgical site infections (SSIs) after cardiothoracic surgery, less has been reported after vascular and general surgery. We used data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to estimate the total cost and DOS associated with SSIs in patients undergoing general and vascular surgery. Using standard NSQIP practices, data were collected on patients undergoing general and vascular surgery at a single academic center between 2007 and 2009 and were merged with fully loaded operating costs obtained from the hospital accounting database. Logistic regression was used to determine which patient and preoperative variables influenced the occurrence of SSIs. After adjusting for patient characteristics, costs and DOS were fit to linear regression models to determine the effect of SSIs. Of the 2,250 general and vascular surgery patients sampled, SSIs were observed in 186 inpatients. Predisposing factors of SSIs were male sex, insulin-dependent diabetes, steroid use, wound classification, and operative time (P < .05). After adjusting for those characteristics, the total excess cost and DOS attributable to SSIs were $10,497 (P < .0001) and 4.3 days (P < .0001), respectively. SSIs complicating general and vascular surgical procedures share many risk factors with SSIs after cardiothoracic surgery. Although the excess costs and DOS associated with SSIs after general and vascular surgery are somewhat less, they still represent substantial financial and opportunity costs to hospitals and suggest, along with the implications for patient care, a continuing need for cost-effective quality improvement and programs of infection prevention. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors of surgical site infections in patients with Crohn's disease complicated with gastrointestinal fistula.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kun; Ren, Jianan; Li, Guanwei; Hu, Qiongyuan; Wu, Xiuwen; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2017-05-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common complication following surgical procedures. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with SSI in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) complicated with gastrointestinal fistula. This was a retrospective review of patients who underwent surgical resection in gastrointestinal fistula patients with CD between January 2013 and January 2015, identified from a prospectively maintained gastrointestinal fistula database. Demographic information, preoperative medication, intraoperative findings, and postoperative outcome data were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was carried out to assess possible risk factors for SSI. A total of 118 patients were identified, of whom 75.4% were men, the average age of the patients was 34.1 years, and the average body mass index (BMI) was 18.8 kg/m(2). The rate of SSI was 31.4%. On multivariate analysis, preoperative anemia (P = 0.001, OR 7.698, 95% CI 2.273-26.075), preoperative bacteria present in fistula tract (P = 0.029, OR 3.399, 95% CI 1.131-10.220), and preoperative enteral nutrition (EN) <3 months (P < 0.001, OR 11.531, 95% CI 3.086-43.079) were predictors of SSI. Notably, preoperative percutaneous abscess drainage was shown to exert protection against SSI in fistulizing CD (P = 0.037, OR 0.258, 95% CI 0.073-0.920). Preoperative anemia, bacteria present in fistula tract, and preoperative EN <3 months significantly increased the risk of postoperative SSI in gastrointestinal fistula complicated with CD. Preoperative identification of these risk factors may assist in risk assessment and then to optimize preoperative preparation and perioperative care.

  4. Collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate reduces surgical site infection in vascular surgery: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Costa Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Perdigão; Reis, Luis; Carvalho, Luis; Costa Almeida, Carlos Manuel

    2014-10-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication after vascular surgery. It may cause exposure of the underlying prosthesis causing graft infection, which may require the removal of the vascular graft, increasing amputation and mortality risks. Graft contamination usually occurs during operative procedure or by direct spread from an infected wound. It is therefore advisable to a strong effort in reducing SSI. Topic antibiotics have not been fully studied in vascular surgery, but collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate has shown to reduce SSI in cardiac surgery, orthopaedics, and general surgery procedures. Sixty (60) non-diabetic and non-obese patients with lower limb ischaemia with indication for femoropopliteal PTFE prosthetic bypass were allocated into 2 groups of 30 patients. A collagen implant impregnated with gentamicin sulphate (Collatamp(®)) was applied in the groin incision adjacent to the prosthesis in one group, and the other was a control group. The same surgical team operated all patients. Szilagyi classification was used. There was no SSI (0% - 0/30) in the collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate group, contrasting with 6 cases (20% - 6/30) of SSI (grade I and II) in the control group (p = 0.024). In-hospital day's data shows a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.004) with a mean of 5.66 days for implant group and 8.10 days for control group. There was no SSI grade III. Collagen implant with gentamicin sulphate (Collatamp(®)) reduces SSI in the groin incision in ischaemic patients submitted to femoropopliteal PTFE prosthetic bypass. Days of hospitalization are also reduced. Decreasing SSI rate and in-hospital days, this implant may also reduce health care costs. Because this is a small pilot study, a multicentre RCT is necessary for validation. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of a Surgical Site Discharge Teaching Tool Using Pictures and a Mirror.

    PubMed

    Foertsch, Lisa Y; Hoffmann, Rosemary L; Ren, Dianxu; Stolar, Jennifer; Tuite, Patricia K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop, implement, and evaluate a teaching tool for self-assessment of surgical incisions after laparotomy surgery. Hospitalized patients have an increased level of acuity and are discharged earlier. Shorter length of stay limits the nurses' ability to provide comprehensive discharge instructions and validate understanding of surgical incision care. Two sets of discharge instructions, 1 with text only and 1 with text and pictures plus a mirror, were provided to patients after laparotomy surgery. A total of 60 patients were recruited over a 3-month period. The first 30 patients received standard discharge instructions (text only). The next 30 patients received discharge instructions using the new program and a handheld mirror to assist with visualization of the incision. A follow-up telephone questionnaire was completed on day 7 after surgery to assess patients' ability to inspect their incision for infection and determine comprehension with discharge instructions. Patients receiving the revised program had improvement in comprehension of instructions, felt that instructions were clearly stated, and were confident in their ability to identify normal healing versus a surgical site infection (SSI) and about notifying physicians. Compared with the text-only group, the text, picture, and mirror group using the teaching program (text, pictures, and mirror) felt more confident on self-assessment to identify SSI. The revised teaching program (text and pictures) and use of a handheld mirror improved patient confidence in self-assessing an incision and increased ease in detecting an SSI. Clinical nurse specialists can influence patient outcomes. Discharge instructions that include text and pictures plus a mirror should be part of a comprehensive packet for patients asked to assess an incision.

  6. Surgical Site Infections Following Bimaxillary Orthognathic, Osseous Genioplasty, and Intranasal Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Posnick, Jeffrey C; Choi, Elbert; Chavda, Anish

    2017-03-01

    Frequency estimates of surgical site infection (SSI) after orthognathic surgery vary considerably. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and site of SSIs and associated risk factors after bimaxillary orthognathic, osseous genioplasty, and intranasal surgery. The authors executed a retrospective cohort study of patients with a bimaxillary developmental dentofacial deformity (DFD) and symptomatic chronic obstructive nasal breathing. All patients underwent at a minimum Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal ramus osteotomies (SROs), septoplasty, inferior turbinate reduction, and osseous genioplasty. The primary outcome variable studied was the incidence and site of SSI. Predictor variables were type and extent of prophylactic antibiotic used, demographic (age and gender), and anatomic (pattern of DFD, surgical site, and presence of third molar). Two hundred sixty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. Their average age at surgery was 25 years (range, 13 to 63 yr) and there were 134 female patients (51%). The major presenting patterns of DFD included long face (30%) and maxillary deficiency (25%). Forty percent of patients undergoing an SRO and 47% of those undergoing a Le Fort I osteotomy underwent simultaneous removal of a third molar. Ninety percent of patients received cefazolin or cephalexin antibiotics. Overall, 5 of 1,048 (0.5%) osteotomy sites sustained an infection, including 1 chin and 4 ramus SSIs. There were no delays in bone healing. Fixation hardware removal was not required in any patient who developed an infection. Two of the 25 patients (8%) given clindamycin prophylaxis developed an SSI, whereas 3 of 237 patients (1%) receiving cefazolin did. Three of the 4 patients who developed an SRO SSI underwent simultaneous removal of an erupted or partially erupted mandibular third molar (P < .05). In this study, the incidence of SSI was limited to 1% of patients who were given cefazolin or cephalexin extended for 5 days. The removal of

  7. A simple protocol for the management of deep sternal surgical site infection: a retrospective study of twenty-five cases.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Chang, Shun-Cheng; Wang, Chih-Hsin; Dai, Niann-Tzyy; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Chen, Tim-Mo; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    Deep sternal incisional surgical site infection is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication after open heart surgery. Although a rare post-operative complication, the rates of post-operative morbidity and mortality are greater in patients who develop a deep sternal incisional surgical site infection than in those who do not. We evaluated retrospectively the results of patients who developed a deep sternal incisional surgical site infection who were treated with either a pectoralis major flap or delayed primary closure after previous negative-pressure wound therapy (NWPT). From July 2007 to July 2012, 25 patients had a deep sternal incisional surgical site infection after open heart surgery in the Departments of Plastic Surgery and Cardiac Surgery of the Tri-Service General Hospital Medical Center. Sternal refixation was not performed in our patients. In 15 patients, a unilateral or bilateral pectoralis major advancement flap with a myocutaneous or muscle flap was used. In seven patients, delayed primary closure was performed after NPWT. One patient received a rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap and another received a free anterior lateral thigh flap. One patient died after developing nosocomial pneumonia with severe sepsis after debridement. In our series, no patient required sternal re-fixation. Our findings suggest that delayed primary closure and use of a unilateral or bilateral pectoralis major flap following NPWT for a deep sternal incisional surgical site infection are simple and quick methods for managing such difficult surgical incisions even if the deep sternal surgical site infection is located in the lower one-third of the sternum.

  8. Surgical site infection following spinal instrumentation for scoliosis: a multicenter analysis of rates, risk factors, and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, W G Stuart; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Williams, Brendan A; Corona, Jacqueline; Lee, Christopher; Cody, Stephanie R; Covington, Lisa; Saiman, Lisa; Flynn, John M; Skaggs, David L; Roye, David P; Vitale, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    Surgical site infection following correction of pediatric scoliosis is well described. However, we are aware of no recent multicenter study describing the rates of surgical site infection, and associated pathogens, among patients with different etiologies for scoliosis. A multicenter, retrospective review of surgical site infections among pediatric patients undergoing spinal instrumentation to correct scoliosis was performed at three children's hospitals in the United States. Study subjects included all patients undergoing posterior spinal instrumentation from January 2006 to December 2008. Surgical site infections were defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network case definition, with infections occurring within one year after surgery. Following the analysis of 1347 procedures performed in 946 patients, surgical site infection rates varied among procedures performed in patients with different scoliosis etiologies. Procedures performed in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis had the highest surgical site infection rates (9.2%), followed by those performed in patients with syndromic scoliosis (8.8%), those performed in patients with other scoliosis (8.4%), those performed in patients with congenital scoliosis (3.9%), and those performed in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (2.6%). Surgical site infection rates varied among procedures in patients undergoing primary spinal arthrodesis based on etiology, ranging from 1.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.1% to 1.3%) in patients with idiopathic scoliosis to 13.1% (95% confidence interval, 8.4% to 17.8%) in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Surgical site infection rates following primary and revision procedures were similar among patients with different etiologies. In distraction-based growing constructs, rates were significantly lower for lengthening procedures than for revision procedures (p = 0.012). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that non

  9. Surgical Site Infections in Breast Surgery: The Use of Preoperative Antibiotics for Elective, Nonreconstructive Procedures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical site infections (SSIs) for breast surgery is widespread, but the benefit in clean surgical cases is not well defined. Methods. A retrospective analysis of 855 patients undergoing elective, nonreconstructive breast operations was performed, with 401 patients receiving no antibiotics and 454 patients receiving a single dose of preoperative antibiotic. Results. Administration of a preoperative antibiotic did not decrease the SSI rate. In this community-based study, antibiotic use practices varied considerably by surgeon. In univariate analyses, SSI rates appeared to increase with prophylactic antibiotic use (12% SSI with antibiotics versus 4% without, p < 0.0001), likely because the use of underdosed antibiotics was associated with higher rates of SSI (13.2% SSI with cefazolin 1 gram, p < 0.0001, and 15.4% SSI with clindamycin 300 mg or less, p = 0.0269). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate from SSI cultures, 31.8% (7 of 22). In multivariable analyses, increased risk of SSI was associated with BMI > 25 kg/m2 (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04–1.11, p < 0.0001). Conclusion. The administration of a single dose of preoperative antibiotic did not decrease the rate of SSI in this large series of patients undergoing clean breast operations. BMI >25 kg/m2 and the use of an inadequate dose of antibiotics for prophylaxis may increase risk of SSI. PMID:27800185

  10. [Effect of Preoperative Bowel Preparation on Surgical Site Infection in Liver Surgery].

    PubMed

    Orimo, Tatsuya; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Yokoo, Hideki; Kakisaka, Tatsuhiko; Wakayama, Kenji; Tsuruga, Yosuke; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2015-11-01

    In our institute, the protocol for preoperative bowel preparation before liver surgery has been changed from polyethylene glycol lavage (NiflecR: N group) to magnesium citrate (MagcorolR: M group). Ninety patients who underwent hepatectomy without reconstruction of the bile duct, gastorectomy, or colorectal resection from 2012 to 2013 were enrolled in this study. The impacts of preoperative bowel preparation were compared between the 2 groups. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of surgical procedure, operative time, bleeding amount, and duration of postoperative hospital stay. Surgical-site infection did not occur in both groups. There were no significant differences in the white blood cell count and platelet count of the patients in both groups. The C-reactive protein level in the M group was significantly lower than that in the N group on days 1, 3, and 5 after the operation, whereas the ammonia level in the M group was significantly lower than that in the N group on day 5 after the operation. It is possible to simplify preoperative bowel preparation associated with liver surgery while ensuring appropriate safety.

  11. Obesity and the Risk for Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Robert D; Reese, Stacey; Bochicchio, Kelly; Mazuski, John E; Bochicchio, Grant V

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) after abdominal procedures; however, data characterizing the risk of SSI in obese patients during abdominal procedures are lacking. We hypothesized that obesity is an independent risk factor for SSI across wound classes. We analyzed American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) data for 2011. We calculated body mass index (BMI), classifying patients according to National Institute of Health (NIH) BMI groups. We excluded records in which height/weight was not recorded and patients with BMI less than 18.5. We examined patients undergoing open abdominal procedures, performing univariate and multivariate analyses to assess the relative contribution of obesity to SSI. Study criteria were met by 89,148 patients. Obese and morbidly obese patients had significantly greater SSI rates in clean and clean-contaminated cases but not contaminated or dirty/infected cases. Logistic regression confirmed obesity and morbid obesity as being independently associated with the overall SSI development, specifically in clean [Obesity odds ratio (OR) = 1.757, morbid obesity OR = 2.544, P < 0.001] and clean-contaminated (obesity OR = 1.239, morbid obesity OR = 1.287, P < 0.001) cases. Obesity is associated with increased risk of SSI overall, specifically in clean and clean-contaminated abdominal procedures; this is independent of diabetes mellitus. Novel techniques are needed to reduce SSI in this high-risk patient population.

  12. Role of preoperative biliary stents, bile contamination and antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical site infections after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Gavazzi, Francesca; Ridolfi, Cristina; Capretti, Giovanni; Angiolini, Maria Rachele; Morelli, Paola; Casari, Erminia; Montorsi, Marco; Zerbi, Alessandro

    2016-03-31

    The routine use of preoperative biliary drainage before pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains controversial. This observational retrospective study compared stented and non-stented patients undergoing PD to assess any differences in post-operative morbidity and mortality. A total of 180 consecutive patients who underwent PD and had intra-operative bile cultures performed between January 2010 and February 2013 were retrospectively identified. All patients received peri-operative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis, primarily cefazolin. Overall incidence of post-operative surgical complications was 52.3 %, with no difference between stented and non-stented patients (53.4 % vs. 51.1 %; p = 0.875). However, stented patients had a significantly higher incidence of deep incisional surgical site infections (SSIs) (p = 0.038). In multivariate analysis, biliary stenting was confirmed as a risk factor for deep incisional SSIs (p = 0.044). Significant associations were also observed for cardiac disease (p = 0.010) and BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) (p = 0.045). Enterococcus spp. were the most frequent bacterial isolates in bile (74.5 %) and in drain fluid (69.1 %). In antimicrobial susceptibilty testing, all Enterococci isolates were cefazolin-resistant. Given the increased risk of deep incisional SSIs, preoperative biliary stenting in patients underging PD should be used only in selected patients. In stented patients, an antibiotic with anti-enterococcal activity should be chosen for PD prophylaxis.

  13. Surgical site infection in tibial plateau fractures with ipsilateral compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dubina, Andrew G; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Manson, Theodore T; Allmon, Christopher; O'Toole, Robert V

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of compartment syndrome and timing of fasciotomy wound closure on surgical site infection (SSI) after surgical fixation of tibial plateau fractures. Our primary hypothesis was that SSI rate is increased for fractures with compartment syndrome versus those without, even accounting for confounders associated with infection. Our secondary hypothesis was that infection rates are unrelated to timing of fasciotomy closure or fixation. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of operative tibial plateau fractures with ipsilateral compartment syndrome (n=71) treated with fasciotomy at our level I trauma center from 2003 through 2011. A control group consisted of 602 patients with 625 operatively treated tibial plateau fractures without diagnosis of compartment syndrome. The primary outcome measure was deep SSI after ORIF. Fractures with compartment syndrome had a higher rate of SSI (25% versus 8%, p<0.001). The difference remained significant in our multivariate model (odds ratio, 7.27; 95% confidence interval, 3.8-13.9). Delay in timing of fasciotomy closure was associated with a 7% increase per day in odds of infection (95% confidence interval, 0.2-13; p<0.05). Tibial plateau fractures with ipsilateral compartment syndrome have a significant increase in rates of SSI compared with those without compartment syndrome (p<0.001). Delays in fasciotomy wound closure were also associated with increased odds of SSI (p<0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and surgical site infections: benefits of screening and decolonization before surgery.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, H; Becker, K; Dohmen, P M; Petrosillo, N; Spencer, M; van Rijen, M; Wechsler-Fördös, A; Pujol, M; Dubouix, A; Garau, J

    2016-11-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections, and contribute significantly to patient morbidity and healthcare costs. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common microbial cause. The epidemiology of S. aureus is changing with the dissemination of newer clones and the emergence of mupirocin resistance. The prevention and control of SSIs is multi-modal, and this article reviews the evidence on the value of screening for nasal carriage of S. aureus and subsequent decolonization of positive patients pre-operatively. Pre-operative screening, using culture- or molecular-based methods, and subsequent decolonization of patients who are positive for meticillin-susceptible S. aureus and meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) reduces SSIs and hospital stay. This applies especially to major clean surgery, such as cardiothoracic and orthopaedic, involving the insertion of implanted devices. However, it requires a multi-disciplinary approach coupled with patient education. Universal decolonization pre-operatively without screening for S. aureus may compromise the capacity to monitor for the emergence of new clones of S. aureus, contribute to mupirocin resistance, and prevent the adjustment of surgical prophylaxis for MRSA (i.e. replacement of a beta-lactam agent with a glycopeptide or alternative).

  15. Improving awareness of best practices to reduce surgical site infection: a multistakeholder approach.

    PubMed

    Skoufalos, Alexandria; Clarke, Janice L; Napp, Marc; Abrams, Kenneth J; Berman, Bettina; Armellino, Donna; Schilling, Mary Ellen; Pracilio, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is recognized as a focus area by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Joint Commission, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, and the Institute of Medicine. An estimated 47% to 84% of SSIs present after discharge from the hospital or ambulatory care facility and, as a result, go undetected by standard SSI surveillance programs. Evidence-based processes and practices that are known to reduce the incidence of SSIs tend to be underused in routine practice. This article describes a multistakeholder process used to develop an educational initiative to raise awareness of best practices to reduce SSIs. The goal was to create a patient-centric educational initiative that involved an active partnership among all stakeholders-medical professional organizations, hospitals/health systems, health insurers, employers and other purchasers, and consumers/patients-to provide the climate necessary to create and sustain a culture of safety.

  16. Novel Closing Method Using Subcutaneous Continuous Drain for Preventing Surgical Site Infections in Radical Cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Yasuhiko; Ando, Ryosuke; Nakane, Akihiro; Etani, Toshiki; Iida, Keitaro; Akita, Hidetoshi; Okamura, Takehiko; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after radical cystectomy, a new closing method using subcutaneous continuous aspiration drain was developed and compared to the conventional closing method. The new method involved (a) closed aspiration with an indwelling aspiration drain without suture of the subcutaneous fat and (b) covering with hydrocolloid wound dressing after suture of the dermis with 4-0 absorbable thread and reinforcement using strips. The incidence of SSI was significantly improved by using the new method. Furthermore, univariate and multivariate analysis associated with SSI revealed that the new closing method was statistically correlated with 85% reduction of SSI (odds ratio: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.03–0.69).Our new method using continuous aspiration with subcutaneous drain is useful for preventing SSI through removal of effusions and reduction of dead space by apposition of the subcutaneous fat. PMID:24734201

  17. Surgical site infections in dermatologic surgery: etiology, pathogenesis, and current preventative measures.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Karim; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2015-05-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) after dermatologic surgery continue to represent undesirable complications that affect patients in several aspects. The etiology and pathogenesis of SSIs are not completely understood, and as a result, current preventative measures are debatable. To review and summarize the current available literature specific to SSIs in dermatologic surgery. The pathogenesis of SSIs, factors contributing to SSIs, current preventative guidelines, and evidence supporting their use are explored. A review of the medical literature. Most measures used to prevent SSIs in dermatologic surgery are based on studies of wounds in general surgery. Evidence specific to dermatologic surgery is scarce. More research related to the pathogenesis of SSIs is needed to establish effective preventative measures that are key to reducing incidences of SSIs.

  18. Use of antibacterial sutures for skin closure in controlling surgical site infections: a systematic review of published randomized, controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Muhammad S.; Craciunas, L.; Sains, P.; Singh, K.K.; Baig, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to systematically analyse the randomized, controlled trials that compare the use of antibacterial sutures (ABS) for skin closure in controlling surgical site infections. Methods: Randomized, controlled trials on surgical patients comparing the use of ABS for skin closure in controlling the surgical site infections were analysed systematically using RevMan® and combined outcomes were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and standardized mean differences (SMD). Results: Seven randomized, controlled trials evaluating 1631 patients were retrieved from electronic databases. There were 760 patients in the ABS group and 871 patients in the simple suture group. There was moderate heterogeneity among trials (Tau2 = 0.12; chi2 = 8.40, df = 6 [P < 0.01]; I2 = 29%). Therefore in the random-effects model, the use of ABS for skin closure in surgical patients was associated with a reduced risk of developing surgical site infections (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.37, 0.99; z = 2.02; P < 0.04) and postoperative complications (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.32, 0.98 z = 2.04; P = 0.04). The durations of operation and lengths of hospital stay were similar following the use of ABS and SS for skin closure in patients undergoing various surgical procedures. Conclusion: Use of ABS for skin closure in surgical patients is effective in reducing the risk of surgical site infection and postoperative complications. ABS is comparable with SS in terms of length of hospital stay and duration of operation. PMID:24759666

  19. Post Liposuction Mycobacterium Abscessus Surgical Site Infection in a Returned Medical tourist Complicated by a Paradoxical Reaction During Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Siong H.; Noonan, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacterial skin and soft tissue infections are known to complicate cosmetic surgical procedures. Treatment consists of more surgery and prolonged antibiotic therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing. Paradoxical reactions occurring during antibiotic therapy can further complicate treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. We report a case of post liposuction Mycobacterium abscessus surgical site infection in a returned medical tourist and occurrence of paradox during treatment. PMID:26753088

  20. Post Liposuction Mycobacterium Abscessus Surgical Site Infection in a Returned Medical tourist Complicated by a Paradoxical Reaction During Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hui, Siong H; Noonan, Lisa; Chavada, Ruchir

    2015-12-22

    Rapidly growing mycobacterial skin and soft tissue infections are known to complicate cosmetic surgical procedures. Treatment consists of more surgery and prolonged antibiotic therapy guided by drug susceptibility testing. Paradoxical reactions occurring during antibiotic therapy can further complicate treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. We report a case of post liposuction Mycobacterium abscessus surgical site infection in a returned medical tourist and occurrence of paradox during treatment.

  1. Enterobacteriaceae surgical site infection after cardiac surgery: the hypothetical role of vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Pham, Anne-Dominique; Mouet, Audrey; Pornet, Carole; Desgue, Julien; Ivascau, Calin; Thibon, Pascal; Morello, Rémy; Le Coutour, Xavier

    2013-08-01

    In the middle of October 2011, the Hygiene Department of Caen University Hospital suspected an outbreak of surgical site infections (SSI) after open-heart operations with an unusually high proportion of microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. The attack rate was 3.8%, significantly different (p = 0.035) from the attack rate of 1.2% in 2010 over the equivalent period. A case-control study was conducted to search specifically for risk factors for Enterobacteriaceae infections after median sternotomy in cardiac patients. Case patients were defined retrospectively as patients with superficial or deep surgical site infection with Enterobacteriaceae within 30 days of median sternotomy. Four control patients were selected per case patient from patients matched for date of operation (± 15 days) and European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (<5, [5-10], >10). Univariate analysis identified the following risk factors: inappropriate skin preparation on the morning of the intervention (p = 0.046), use of vancomycin (p = 0.030), and number of sternotomy dressings (p = 0.033). A multivariate logistic regression analysis found that vancomycin use was independently associated with an increased risk of postoperative SSI with Enterobacteriaceae (p = 0.019; odds ratio = 7.4). Although vancomycin is known to be effective for preventing infection with methicillin-sensitive organisms, our results suggest that it was associated with a risk for the development of SSI with gram-negative organisms after median sternotomy. This study led to a multidisciplinary meeting that defined new guidelines for prophylactic antibiotic therapy before open-heart operations. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Agreement among health care professionals in diagnosing case Vignette-based surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Lepelletier, Didier; Ravaud, Philippe; Baron, Gabriel; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    To assess agreement in diagnosing surgical site infection (SSI) among healthcare professionals involved in SSI surveillance. Case-vignette study done in 2009 in 140 healthcare professionals from seven specialties (20 in each specialty, Anesthesiologists, Surgeons, Public health specialists, Infection control physicians, Infection control nurses, Infectious diseases specialists, Microbiologists) in 29 University and 36 non-University hospitals in France. We developed 40 case-vignettes based on cardiac and gastrointestinal surgery patients with suspected SSI. Each participant scored six randomly assigned case-vignettes before and after reading the SSI definition on an online secure relational database. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess agreement regarding SSI diagnosis on a seven-point Likert scale and the kappa coefficient to assess agreement for superficial or deep SSI on a three-point scale. Based on a consensus, SSI was present in 21 of 40 vignettes (52.5%). Intraspecialty agreement for SSI diagnosis ranged across specialties from 0.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.59) (anesthesiologists and infection control nurses) to 0.73 (0.32-0.90) (infectious diseases specialists). Reading the SSI definition improved agreement in the specialties with poor initial agreement. Intraspecialty agreement for superficial or deep SSI ranged from 0.10 (-0.19-0.38) to 0.54 (0.25-0.83) (surgeons) and increased after reading the SSI definition only among the infection control nurses from 0.10 (-0.19-0.38) to 0.41 (-0.09-0.72). Interspecialty agreement for SSI diagnosis was 0.36 (0.22-0.54) and increased to 0.47 (0.31-0.64) after reading the SSI definition. Among healthcare professionals evaluating case-vignettes for possible surgical site infection, there was large disagreement in diagnosis that varied both between and within specialties.

  3. Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Resistance in Surgical Site Infection After Immediate Tissue Expander Reconstruction of the Breast.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Meghan C; Chu, Carrie K; Duggal, Claire S; Losken, Albert; Carlson, Grant W

    2016-11-01

    A recent survey of plastic surgeons showed that the majority prescribed prophylactic antibiotics after hospital discharge for breast reconstruction. There is no clinical evidence that this practice reduces surgical site infection (SSI) after immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction. Furthermore, multiple studies have suggested that current antibiotic choices may not be appropriately covering the causative organisms of SSI. An institutional breast reconstruction database from January 2005 to December 2011 was queried to identify patients undergoing immediate tissue expander reconstruction of the breast. The bacteriology of the infection, prophylactic and empiric antibiotic use, and antibiotic sensitivities were analyzed. In 557 cases of immediate tissue expander breast reconstruction performed in 378 patients, SSIs were diagnosed in 50 (9.0%) cases. Two hundred patients were given oral antibiotics at discharge; 178 did not receive antibiotics. Surgical site infection developed in 12.0% of patients given oral antibiotics and in 13.5% of those not receiving antibiotics (P = 0.67). Wound culture data were obtained in 34 SSIs. Twenty-nine had positive cultures. The most common offending organisms were methicillin-sensitive (11) and methicillin-resistant (6) Staphylococcus aureus. Despite increased use of postoperative prophylaxis over the years, SSI incidence remained unchanged. However, trends toward increased resistance of SSI organisms to the preoperative and postoperative prophylaxis agents were observed. When first-generation cephalosporins were used as prophylaxis, SSI organisms showed resistance rates of 20.5% (preoperative cefazolin) and 54.5% (postoperative cephalexin). Administration of extended prophylactic antibiotics does not reduce overall risk of SSI after expander-based breast reconstruction but may influence antibiotic resistance patterns when infections occur. The organisms most commonly responsible for SSI are often resistant to cefazolin.

  4. Factors associated with nosocomial surgical-site infections for craniotomy in Mexico City hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Arenas, Rosalinda; Rivera-García, Blanca Elsa; Grijalva-Otero, Israel; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Rangel-Frausto, Sigfrido

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial surgical-site infection (NSSI) after craniotomy is responsible for an increase in deaths and/or disabilities that affect quality of life. It is necessary to identify factors to be included in an index for their control. The aim of this study was to a) identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with NSSI after craniotomy and b) obtain the infection risk attributed to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors as well as to compare their predictive capability with the NNISS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System) index. A case-control study was conducted during a 2-year period in patients who underwent craniotomy in hospitals affiliated with the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Patients were selected according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for NSSI. During the study period 737 craniotomies were performed, 41 of which presented with NSSI. Intrinsic factors associated with NSSI were the presence of chronic diseases (OR = 2.18) and craniotomy due to nontraumatic causes (OR = 1.87), whereas extrinsic factors were procedures performed during the late shift (OR = 2.6) and another surgery at the same surgical site (OR = 5.2). These factors comprised the index with intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors were 1.7 times higher than intrinsic factors, in addition to having a larger area under the ROC curve (0.731). The risk obtained with the NNISS index for patients who had one factor was 1.5, whereas that for patients who had two or three factors was 4.7. In the studied population, patients who underwent a craniotomy with extrinsic factors showed a higher association with NSSI.

  5. Foaming Betadine Spray as a potential agent for non-labor-intensive preoperative surgical site preparation.

    PubMed

    Kargupta, Roli; Hull, Garret J; Rood, Kyle D; Galloway, James; Matthews, Clinton F; Dale, Paul S; Sengupta, Shramik

    2015-04-02

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) report published in 2009 shows that there were about 16,000 cases of surgical site infection (SSI) following ~ 850,000 operative procedures making SSI one of the most predominant infection amongst nosocomial infections. Preoperative skin preparation is a standard procedure utilized to prevent SSIs thereby improving patient outcomes and controlling associated healthcare costs. Multiple techniques/ products have been used for pre-operative skin preparation, like 2 step scrubbing and painting, 2 step scrubbing and drying, and 1 step painting with a drying time. However, currently used products require strict, time consuming and labor-intensive protocols that involve repeated mechanical scrubbing. It can be speculated that a product requiring a more facile protocol will increase compliance, thus promoting a reduction in SSIs. Hence, the antimicrobial efficacy of a spray-on foaming formulation containing Betadine (povidone-iodine aerosol foam) that can be administered with minimum effort is compared to that of an existing formulation/technique (Wet Skin Scrub). In vitro antimicrobial activities of (a) 5% Betadine delivered in aerosolized foam, (b) Wet Skin Scrub Prep Tray and (c) liquid Betadine are tested against three clinically representative microorganisms (S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa,) on two surfaces (agar-gel on petri-dish and porcine skin). The log reduction/growth of the bacteria in each case is noted and ANOVA statistical analysis is used to establish the effectiveness of the antimicrobial agents, and compare their relative efficacies. With agar gel as the substrate, no growth of bacteria is observed for all the three formulations. With porcine skin as the substrate, the spray-on foam's performance was not statistically different from that of the Wet Skin Scrub Prep technique for the microorganisms tested. The povidone-iodine aerosolized foam

  6. [Post-appendectomy surgical site infection: overall rate and type according to open/laparoscopic approach].

    PubMed

    Aranda-Narváez, José Manuel; Prieto-Puga Arjona, Tatiana; García-Albiach, Beatriz; Montiel-Casado, María Custodia; González-Sánchez, Antonio Jesús; Sánchez-Pérez, Belinda; Titos-García, Alberto; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2014-02-01

    To compare the incidence and profile of surgical site infection (SSI) after laparoscopic (LA) or open (OA) appendicectomy. Observational and analytical study was conducted on patients older than 14years-old with suspected acute appendicitis operated on within a 4-year period (2007-2010) at a third level hospital (n=868). They were divided in two groups according to the type of appendicectomy (LA, study group, 135; OA, control group, 733). The primary endpoint was a surgical site infection (SSI), and to determine the overall rate and types (incisional/organ-space). The risk of SSI was stratified by: i)National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) index (low risk: 0E, 0 and 1; high risk: 2 and 3); ii)status on presentation (low risk: normal or phlegmonous; high risk: gangrenous or perforated). The statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS. The main result and stratified analysis was determined with χ(2), and the risk parameters using OR and Mantel-Haenszel OR with 95%CI, accepting statistical significance with P<.05. Age, gender, ASA index and incidence of advanced cases were similar in both groups. The overall SSI rate was 13.4% (more than a half of them detected during follow-up after discharge). Type of SSI: OA, 13% (superficial 9%, deep 2%, organ-space 2%); AL, 14% (superficial 5%, deep 1%, organ-space 8%) (overall: not significant; distribution: P<.000). Stratified analysis showed that there is an association between incisional SSI/OA and organ-space SSI/LA, and is particularly stronger in those patients with high risk of postoperative SSI (high risk NNIS or gangrenous-perforated presentation). OA and LA are associated with a higher rate of incisional and organ-space SSI respectively. This is particularly evident in patients with high risk of SSI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgical site infections following colorectal cancer surgery: a randomized prospective trial comparing common and advanced antimicrobial dressing containing ionic silver

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An antimicrobial dressing containing ionic silver was found effective in reducing surgical-site infection in a preliminary study of colorectal cancer elective surgery. We decided to test this finding in a randomized, double-blind trial. Methods Adults undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery at two university-affiliated hospitals were randomly assigned to have the surgical incision dressed with Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber dressing or a common dressing. To blind the patient and the nursing and medical staff to the nature of the dressing used, scrub nurses covered Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber with a common wound dressing in the experimental arm, whereas a double common dressing was applied to patients of control group. The primary end-point of the study was the occurrence of any surgical-site infection within 30 days of surgery. Results A total of 112 patients (58 in the experimental arm and 54 in the control group) qualified for primary end-point analysis. The characteristics of the patient population and their surgical procedures were similar. The overall rate of surgical-site infection was lower in the experimental group (11.1% center 1, 17.5% center 2; overall 15.5%) than in controls (14.3% center 1, 24.2% center 2, overall 20.4%), but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.451), even with respect to surgical-site infection grade 1 (superficial) versus grades 2 and 3, or grade 1 and 2 versus grade 3. Conclusions This randomized trial did not confirm a statistically significant superiority of Aquacel® Ag Hydrofiber dressing in reducing surgical-site infection after elective colorectal cancer surgery. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00981110 PMID:22621779

  8. Risk of Orthopedic Surgical Site Infections in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Antitumor Necrosis Factor Alfa Therapy

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Bernardo Matos; Maria Henrique da Mota, Licia; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. International guidelines recommend interruption of anti-TNF medications in the perioperative period, but there are no randomized trials to support such recommendation. Objectives. To study literature evidence assessing the risk of surgical site infections in orthopedic surgery patients with RA using anti-TNF drugs, compared to untreated patients or those using conventional DMARD. Methods. Systematic review of cohort studies is concerning surgical site infections in orthopedic procedures in patients with RA. Results. Three studies were selected. Only one was considered of high-quality, albeit with low statistical power. The review resulted in inconclusive data, since the best quality study showed no significant differences between groups, while others showed increased risk of infections in patients using anti-TNF medications. Conclusion. It is unclear whether patients with RA using anti-TNF medications are at increased risk of surgical site infections. Randomized controlled trials or new high quality observational studies are needed to clarify the issue. PMID:22500176

  9. Role of Recipient-site Preparation Techniques and Post-operative Wound Dressing in the Surgical Management of Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadidi, Nour; Griffith, James L; Al-Jamal, Mohammed S; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder characterized by the destruction of melanocytes resulting in achromic macules and patches involving the affected skin. Multiple methods of treatments have emerged to manage vitiligo, including medical and surgical techniques. Among the surgical techniques described in the management of vitiligo are minipunch grafting, split-thickness skin grafting, hair follicle transplantation, suction blister grafting, and cultured and non-cultured autologous melanocyte transplantation. However, prior to grafting optimal recipient-site preparation is needed for graft survival and successful repigmentation outcomes. Similarly, post-operative care of the recipient site is vital to yielding a viable graft irrespective of the transplantation technique employed. This article reviews the multiple methods employed to prepare the recipient site in vitiligo surgeries and the post-surgical conditions which optimize graft viability. A pubmed search was conducted utilizing the key words listed below.

  10. Role of Recipient-site Preparation Techniques and Post-operative Wound Dressing in the Surgical Management of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadidi, Nour; Griffith, James L; Al-Jamal, Mohammed S; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder characterized by the destruction of melanocytes resulting in achromic macules and patches involving the affected skin. Multiple methods of treatments have emerged to manage vitiligo, including medical and surgical techniques. Among the surgical techniques described in the management of vitiligo are minipunch grafting, split-thickness skin grafting, hair follicle transplantation, suction blister grafting, and cultured and non-cultured autologous melanocyte transplantation. However, prior to grafting optimal recipient-site preparation is needed for graft survival and successful repigmentation outcomes. Similarly, post-operative care of the recipient site is vital to yielding a viable graft irrespective of the transplantation technique employed. This article reviews the multiple methods employed to prepare the recipient site in vitiligo surgeries and the post-surgical conditions which optimize graft viability. A pubmed search was conducted utilizing the key words listed below. PMID:26157306

  11. Derivation of site-specific surface water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic ecosystems near a Korean military training facility.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study suggested the first Korean site-specific ecological surface water quality criteria for the protection of ecosystems near an artillery range at a Korean military training facility. Surface water quality (SWQ) criteria in Korea address human health protection but do not encompass ecological criteria such as limits for metals and explosives. The first objective of this study was to derive site-specific SWQ criteria for the protection of aquatic ecosystems in Hantan River, Korea. The second objective was to establish discharge criteria for the artillery range to protect the aquatic ecosystems of Hantan River. In this study, we first identified aquatic organisms living in the Hantan River, including fishes, reptiles, invertebrates, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and amphibians. Second, we collected ecotoxicity data for these aquatic organisms and constructed an ecotoxicity database for Cd, Cu, Zn, TNT, and RDX. This study determined the ecological maximum permissible concentrations for metals and explosives based on the ecotoxicity database and suggested ecological surface water quality criteria for the Hantan River by considering analytical detection limits. Discharge limit criteria for the shooting range were determined based on the ecological surface water quality criteria suggested for Hantan River with further consideration of the dilution of the contaminants discharged into the river.

  12. Is chlorhexidine-gluconate superior than Povidone-Iodine in preventing surgical site infections? A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Safia; Shah, Syed Aslam; Qureshi, Shamim; Siddiqui, Taranum Ruba; Soomro, Iftikhar Ahmed; Ahmed, Waquaruddin; Alam, Syed Ejaz

    2015-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate scrubs in preventing surgical site infections. The randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted from May 2012 to April 2013 in two public-sector hospitals of Pakistan; one each in Karachi and Islamabad. Patients undergoing clean or clean contaminated surgeries were included and were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: group I comprised patients whose skin was preoperatively disinfected using 10% povidone-iodine, and in group II by 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in 70% alcohol. A predesigned proforma was filled for all patients to record demographic data, diagnosis, surgical procedure and antibiotic used. Patients in both groups were followed up for one month postoperatively to monitor any signs of surgical site infections. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 388 patients from the two hospitals, 220(57%) were in group I and 168(43%) were in group II. Surgical site infection was observed in 22(10%) cases in group I and 12(7.1%) in group II (p=0.324). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.5%) was the predominant pathogen associated with surgical site infections followed by Staphylococcus aureus (17.6%). Chlorhexidine gluconate was associated with lower infection rates compared to povidone-iodine; but it was not statistically significant.

  13. Epidemiological Surveillance of Surgical Site Infection and its Risk Factors in Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Figuerola-Tejerina, Angels; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil; Bustamante-Munguira, Juan; María San Román-Montero, Jesús; Durán-Poveda, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Surgical site infection in cardiac surgery is uncommon. The aim of the present study was to examine the incidence of this infection, compare it with national and international data, and evaluate its risk factors. This prospective cohort study included patients who underwent valve surgery or coronary revascularization during a 6-year period. The incidence of surgical site infection was studied. Associations between risk factors and infection were evaluated using odds ratios (OR). The infection rate was compared with Spanish and American data using the standardized infection ratio. A total of 1557 patients were included. The overall cumulative incidence of infection was 4% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 3.6%-5.6%), 3.6% in valve surgery (95%CI, 2.5%-4.7%) and 4.3% in coronary revascularization (95%CI, 2.3%-6.3%). Risk factors for surgical site infection in valve surgery were diabetes mellitus (OR=2.8; P<.05) and obesity (OR=6.6; P<.05). Risk factors for surgical site infection in coronary revascularization were diabetes mellitus (OR=2.9; P<.05) and reoperation for bleeding (OR=8.8; P<.05). Diabetes mellitus and obesity favor surgical site infection in valve surgery, whereas diabetes mellitus and reoperation for bleeding favor surgical site infection in coronary revascularization. Infection surveillance and control programs permit evaluation and comparison of infection rates in cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. A Case of Surgical Site Infection Caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum, following Herniorrhaphy

    PubMed Central

    Malini, A; Sangma, Mima Maychet B

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria (RGM) are opportunistic pathogens found in the environment. Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae and M.abscessus are the important human pathogens of this group. They cause wound infections, disseminated cutaneous disease, pulmonary infection in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis, bone and joint infections and keratitis. Infections due to these Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly reported. Post laparoscopic wound infections, mesh site infections and other surgical site infections due to M. fortuitum and M. chelonae have been reported. Usually wound infections due to atypical mycobacteria have delayed onset and do not respond to conventional antibiotics. Identification of RGM can be done by a set of cumbersome biochemical tests, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), molecular methods using DNA probes or by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We here report a case of post-herniorrhaphy wound infection due to M. fortuitum which was identified by molecular method (HAIN mycobacterial species system). This case report underscores the importance of examining Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain of all exudates with sterile culture on day one for non fastidious bacteria. Timely identification can lead to prompt therapy of patients preventing further complications. PMID:28050369

  15. Does Transumbilical Incision Influence Surgical Site Infection Rates of the Laparoscopic Sigmoidectomy and Anterior Resection?

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Tanaka, Keitaro; Asakuma, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Keisaku; Isii, Masatsugu; Hamamoto, Hiroki; Okuda, Junji; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is widespread and is safe and effective for the management of patients with colorectal cancer. However, surgical site infection (SSI) remains an unresolved complication. The present study investigated the comparative effect of supraumbilical incision versus transumbilical incision (TU) on the incidence of SSI in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer. Medical records from patients with colorectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic sigmoid and rectosigmoid colon surgeries with either supraumbilical incision (n = 150) or TU (n = 150) were retrospectively reviewed. There was no difference in demographics, comorbidities, or operative variables between the two groups. The transumbilical group and the supraumbilical group were comparable with regards to overall SSI (6.0% vs 4.0%; P = 0.4062), superficial SSI (6.0% vs 3.3%; P = 0.2704), and deep SSI (0% vs 0.7%; P = 0.2385). SSI developed after laparoscopic sigmoid and rectosigmoid colon cancer surgery in 15 (5.0%) of the 300 patients. Of these superficial SSI, all wounds were in the left lower quadrant incision, and the transumbilical port sites did not become infected. Univariate analysis failed to identify any risk factors for SSI. Avoidance of the umbilicus offers no benefit with regard to SSI compared with TU.

  16. A Case of Surgical Site Infection Caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum, following Herniorrhaphy.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, N S; Malini, A; Sangma, Mima Maychet B

    2016-11-01

    Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria (RGM) are opportunistic pathogens found in the environment. Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae and M.abscessus are the important human pathogens of this group. They cause wound infections, disseminated cutaneous disease, pulmonary infection in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis, bone and joint infections and keratitis. Infections due to these Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly reported. Post laparoscopic wound infections, mesh site infections and other surgical site infections due to M. fortuitum and M. chelonae have been reported. Usually wound infections due to atypical mycobacteria have delayed onset and do not respond to conventional antibiotics. Identification of RGM can be done by a set of cumbersome biochemical tests, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), molecular methods using DNA probes or by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). We here report a case of post-herniorrhaphy wound infection due to M. fortuitum which was identified by molecular method (HAIN mycobacterial species system). This case report underscores the importance of examining Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain of all exudates with sterile culture on day one for non fastidious bacteria. Timely identification can lead to prompt therapy of patients preventing further complications.

  17. Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration at the surgical site for the management of postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Thomas W; Athanassoglou, Vassilis; Mellon, Stephen; Strickland, Louise H; Trivella, Marialena; Murray, David; Pandit, Hemant G

    2017-02-01

    Despite multi-modal analgesic techniques, acute postoperative pain remains an unmet health need, with up to three quarters of people undergoing surgery reporting significant pain. Liposomal bupivacaine is an analgesic consisting of bupivacaine hydrochloride encapsulated within multiple, non-concentric lipid bi-layers offering a novel method of sustained-release analgesia. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of liposomal bupivacaine infiltration at the surgical site for the management of postoperative pain. On 13 January 2016 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase, ISI Web of Science and reference lists of retrieved articles. We obtained clinical trial reports and synopses of published and unpublished studies from Internet sources, and searched clinical trials databases for ongoing trials. Randomised, double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled clinical trials in people aged 18 years or over undergoing elective surgery, at any surgical site, were included if they compared liposomal bupivacaine infiltration at the surgical site with placebo or other type of analgesia. Two review authors independently considered trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We performed data analysis using standard statistical techniques as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, using Review Manager 5.3. We planned to perform a meta-analysis and produce a 'Summary of findings' table for each comparison however there were insufficient data to ensure a clinically meaningful answer. As such we have produced two 'Summary of findings' tables in a narrative format. Where possible we assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE. We identified nine studies (10 reports, 1377 participants) that met inclusion criteria. Four Phase II dose-escalating/de-escalating trials, designed to evaluate and demonstrate efficacy and safety, presented pooled data that we could not use. Of the remaining five parallel

  18. Origin of Propionibacterium in Surgical Wounds and Evidence-Based Approach for Culturing Propionibacterium from Surgical Sites

    PubMed Central

    Matsen, Frederick A.; Butler-Wu, Susan; Carofino, Bradley C.; Jette, Jocelyn L.; Bertelsen, Alexander; Bumgarner, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background: To explore the origin of Propionibacterium in surgical wounds and to suggest an optimized strategy for culturing this organism at the time of revision surgery, we studied the presence of this organism on the skin and in the surgical wounds of patients who underwent revision arthroplasty for reasons other than apparent infection. Methods: Specimens were cultured in broth and on aerobic and anaerobic media. The presence and degree of positivity of Propionibacterium cultures were correlated with sex. The results of dermal and deep cultures were correlated. Times to positivity and the yields of each media type and specimen source were investigated. Results: Propionibacterium grew in twenty-three of thirty cultures of specimens obtained preoperatively from the unprepared epidermis over the area where a skin incision was going to be made for a shoulder arthroplasty; males had a greater average degree of positivity than females (p < 0.002). Twelve of twenty-one male subjects and zero of twenty female subjects who had cultures of dermal specimens obtained during revision shoulder arthroplasty had positive findings for Propionibacterium (p = 0.0001). Twelve of twenty male subjects and only one of twenty female subjects had positive deep cultures (p = 0.0004). The positivity of dermal cultures for Propionibacterium was significantly associated with the positivity of deep cultures for this organism (p = 0.0001). If Propionibacterium was present in deep tissues, it was likely that it would be recovered by culture if four different specimens were obtained and cultured for a minimum of seventeen days on three different media: aerobic, anaerobic, and broth. Conclusions: Because the surgical incision of dermal sebaceous glands may be a source of Propionibacterium in deep wounds, strategies for minimizing the risk of Propionibacterium infections may need to be directed at minimizing the contamination of surgical wounds from these bacteria residing in rather than on the

  19. Body Mass Index: Surgical Site Infections and Mortality After Lower Extremity Bypass from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2005-2007

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Kristina A.; Hamdan, Allen D.; Pomposelli, Frank B.; Wyers, Mark C.; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Patients undergoing lower extremity bypass are at high risk for surgical site infections (SSI). We examine lower extremity bypasses by graft origin and body mass index (BMI) classification to analyze differences in postoperative mortality and SSI occurrence. Methods The 2005-2007 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), a multi-institutional risk-adjusted database, was queried to compare perioperative mortality (30-day), overall morbidity, and SSIs after lower extremity arterial bypass for peripheral arterial disease. Bypass was stratified by graft origin as aorto-iliac, femoral, or popliteal. Patient demographics, comorbidities, operative, and post-operative occurrences were analyzed. Results There were 7,595 bypasses performed (1,596 aorto-iliac, 5,483 femoral, and 516 popliteal origin). Mortality was similar regardless of bypass origin (2.8%, 2.4%, & 2.7%, P=.57). Surgical site infections occurred in 11% of overall cases (10%, 11%, & 11%, P=.47). Graft failure was significantly associated with postoperative SSI occurrence (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.9-3.1, P<.001) as was postoperative sepsis (OR 6.5, 95%CI 5.1-8.3, P<.001). Independent predictors of mortality were age, aorto-iliac bypass origin, underweight, normal weight, or morbid obesity (compared to overweight and obese), end stage renal disease, poor preoperative functional status, preoperative sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypoalbuminemia, and cardiac disease. Independent predictors of SSI were obesity, diabetes, poor preoperative functional status, a history of smoking, and female gender. Conclusions Surgical site infections occur frequently after lower extremity bypass regardless of bypass origin and are associated with early graft failure and sepsis. Obesity predicts postoperative SSI. Mortality risk was greatest in the underweight followed by morbidly obese and normal weight patients, while overweight and mild-moderate obesity were associated with the lowest mortality

  20. Impact of a surgical site infection reduction strategy after colorectal resection.

    PubMed

    Connolly, T M; Foppa, C; Kazi, E; Denoya, P I; Bergamaschi, R

    2016-09-01

    This study was performed to determine the impact of a surgical site infection (SSI) reduction strategy on SSI rates following colorectal resection. American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data from 2006-14 were utilized and supplemented by institutional review board-approved chart review. The primary end-point was superficial and deep incisional SSI. The inclusion criterion was colorectal resection. The SSI reduction strategy consisted of preoperative (blood glucose, bowel preparation, shower, hair removal), intra-operative (prophylactic antibiotics, antimicrobial incisional drape, wound protector, wound closure technique) and postoperative (wound dressing technique) components. The SSI reduction strategy was prospectively implemented and compared with historical controls (pre-SSI strategy arm). Statistical analysis included Pearson's chi-square test, and Student's t-test performed with spss software. Of 1018 patients, 379 were in the pre-SSI strategy arm, 311 in the SSI strategy arm and 328 were included to test durability. The study arms were comparable for all measured parameters. Preoperative wound class, operation time, resection type and stoma creation did not differ significantly. The SSI strategy arm demonstrated a significant decrease in overall SSI rates (32.19% vs 18.97%) and superficial SSI rates (23.48% vs 8.04%). Deep SSI and organ space rates did not differ. A review of patients testing durability demonstrated continued improvement in overall SSI rates (8.23%). The implementation of an SSI reduction strategy resulted in a 41% decrease in SSI rates following colorectal resection over its initial 3 years, and its durability as demonstrated by continuing improvement was seen over an additional 2 years. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Risk factors for surgical-site infection following primary total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Minnema, Brian; Vearncombe, Mary; Augustin, Anne; Gollish, Jeffrey; Simor, Andrew E

    2004-06-01

    To identify risk factors associated with the development of surgical-site infection (SSI) following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A case-control study. A 1,100-bed, university-affiliated, tertiary-care teaching hospital. Case-patients with SSI occurring up to 1 year following primary TKA performed between January 1999 and December 2001 were identified prospectively by infection control practitioners using National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System methods. Three control-patients were selected for each case-patient, matched by date of surgery. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relation of potential risk factors to the development of infection. Twenty-two patients with infections (6 superficial and 16 deep) were identified. Infection rates per year were 0.95%, 1.07%, and 1.19% in 1999, 2000, and 2001, respectively. Logistic regression analysis identified two variables independently associated with the development of infection: the use of closed suction drainage (odds ratio [OR], 7.0; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 2.1-25.0; P = .0015) and increased international normalized ratio (INR) (OR, 2.4; CI95, 1.1-5.7; P = .035). Factors not statistically associated with the development of infection included age, NNIS System risk index score, presence of various comorbidities, surgeon, duration of procedure or tourniquet time, type of bone cement or prosthesis used, or receipt of blood product transfusions. The use of closed suction drainage and a high postoperative INR were associated with the development of SSI following TKA. Avoiding the use of surgical drains and careful monitoring of anticoagulant prophylaxis in patients undergoing TKA should reduce the risk of infection.

  2. Intrawound Vancomycin Powder Decreases Staphylococcal Surgical Site Infections After Posterior Instrumented Spinal Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Heller, Aaron; McIff, Terence E; Lai, Sue-Min; Burton, Douglas C

    2015-12-01

    A retrospective historical cohort design. To determine what effect the addition of intrawound vancomycin powder to the prophylactic regimen of posterior instrumented spinal arthrodesis procedures has had on acute surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are known complications in instrumented spinal arthrodesis procedures, and are predominately caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Recent reports have suggested that placing vancomycin powder into the surgical wound before closure prevents SSIs in spinal surgery. Risk factors for SSIs in the setting of intrawound vancomycin powder use have not been previously reported on. SSI rates after 342 posterior instrumented spinal arthrodeses (October 2008-September 2011) in which intrawound vancomycin powder was used in addition to the standard antimicrobial prophylaxis (Vanco cohort) were compared with 341 posterior instrumented spinal arthrodeses (April 2005-October 2008) in which no vancomycin powder was added (non-Vanco cohort). Both 2 sample t test and χ test (Fisher where appropriate) were used for group comparisons. A subanalysis of the Vanco cohort was undertaken to identify risk factors for SSIs despite intrawound vancomycin use. There was a significant reduction in the number of acute staphylococcal SSIs in the Vanco cohort (1.1%) compared with the non-Vanco cohort (3.8%; P=0.029). Deep staphylococcal infections decreased to 0 compared with 7 in the non-Vanco cohort (2.1%; P=0.008). Deep methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections decreased to 0 compared with 5 in the non-Vanco cohort (1.5%; P=0.031). A subanalysis of the Vanco cohort identified that being discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation or skilled nursing facility was associated with developing a SSI. Intrawound vancomycin powder use has decreased the rate of acute staphylococcal SSIs in our posterior instrumented spine arthrodesis surgeries. Patients who are discharged to skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities are at an increased risk for developing SSIs

  3. Impact of bacterial contamination of the abdominal cavity during pancreaticoduodenectomy on surgical-site infection.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, T; Mizuno, T; Okamura, Y; Ito, T; Yamamoto, Y; Kawamura, I; Kurai, H; Uesaka, K

    2015-11-01

    Several risk factors for complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy have been reported. However, the impact of intraoperative bacterial contamination on surgical outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy has not been examined in depth. This retrospective study included patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and peritoneal lavage using 7000 ml saline between July 2012 and May 2014. The lavage fluid was subjected to bacterial culture examination. The influence of a positive bacterial culture on surgical-site infection (SSI) and postoperative course was evaluated. Risk factors for positive bacterial cultures were also evaluated. Forty-six (21.1 per cent) of 218 enrolled patients had a positive bacterial culture of the lavage fluid. Incisional SSI developed in 26 (57 per cent) of these 46 patients and in 13 (7.6 per cent) of 172 patients with a negative lavage culture (P < 0.001). Organ/space SSI developed in 32 patients with a positive lavage culture (70 per cent) and in 43 of those with a negative culture (25.0 per cent) (P < 0.001). Grade B/C pancreatic fistula was observed in 22 (48 per cent) and 48 (27.9 per cent) respectively of patients with positive and negative lavage cultures (P = 0.010). Postoperative hospital stay was longer in patients with a positive lavage culture (28 days versus 21 days in patients with a negative culture; P = 0.028). Multivariable analysis revealed that internal biliary drainage, combined colectomy and a longer duration of surgery were significant risk factors for positive bacterial culture of the lavage fluid. Intraoperative bacterial contamination has an adverse impact on the development of SSI and grade B/C pancreatic fistula following pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Benefits of Bowel Preparation Beyond Surgical Site Infection: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Althumairi, Azah A; Canner, Joseph K; Pawlik, Timothy M; Schneider, Eric; Nagarajan, Neeraja; Safar, Bashar; Efron, Jonathan E

    2016-12-01

    To examine whether the administration of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) plus oral antibiotic bowel preparation (OABP) was associated with reduced surgical site infections (SSIs), which in turn leads to a reduction of non-SSI-related postoperative complications. Administration of MBP/OABP before elective colectomy reduces the incidence of SSI. We hypothesized that reduction of SSI is on causal pathway between the use of MBP/OABP and the reduction of other postoperative complications. The study population consisted of all colectomy cases in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Colectomy Targeted Participant Use Data File for 2012 and 2013. Postoperative outcomes were compared based on the type of bowel preparation: none, MBP only, OABP only, and MBP plus OABP adjusting for other covariates. The cohort included 19,686 patients. Of these 5060 (25.7%) patients did not receive any form of bowel preparation, 8020 (40.7%) received MBP only, 641 (3.3%) received OABP only, and 5965 (30.3%) received MBP plus OABP. Patients who received MBP plus OABP had a lower incidence of superficial SSI, deep SSI, organ space SSI, any SSI, anastomotic leak, postoperative ileus, sepsis, readmission, and reoperation compared with patients who received neither (all P < 0.01). The reduction in SSI incidence was associated with a reduction in wound dehiscence, anastomotic leak, pneumonia, prolonged requirement of mechanical ventilator, sepsis, septic shock, readmission, and reoperation. Combined MBP plus OABP before elective colectomy was associated with reduced SSI, which ultimately was associated with a reduction in non-SSI-related complications.

  5. Microbial sealants do not decrease surgical site infection for clean-contaminated colorectal procedures.

    PubMed

    Doorly, M; Choi, J; Floyd, A; Senagore, A

    2015-05-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are costly complications that may cause significant morbidity and increase the cost of care, particularly in colorectal surgery. Microbial sealants (MS) are a new class of wound barriers aimed at decreasing SSI; however, there is only evidence of benefit in clean class 1 procedures. Based on its success in class 1 procedures, we hypothesized that a microbial sealant could reduce the rate of SSI by half for clean-contaminated colorectal procedures (class 2). This was a single institution, multihospital, prospective, randomized study approved by the institutional review board. The primary objective was to determine the rate of SSI when microbial sealant (InteguSeal© Kimberly-Clark) is used compared to control (no microbial sealant). Data collected included: open versus laparoscopy, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and morbidity [American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class], hospital readmission, reoperation and wound dehiscence. Enrolled subjects received the same preoperative mechanical bowel preparation with oral antibiotics, operative skin preparation (Chloraprep), Surgical Care Improvement Project guidelines implementation), and postoperative care glycemic control for diabetics. A total of 100 subjects were recruited over 15 months (MS-50; no MS-50). The overall incidence of SSI was 12 %, 14 % (7/50) in the MS versus 10 % (5/50) in the no MS group (p = 0.545). SSI incidence with and without microbial sealant was not significantly different in either the open or the laparoscopic subgroup. Laparoscopy decreased absolute risk of SSI by 16 %. Secondary data (age, BMI, diabetes, ASA) and tertiary data (readmission, reoperation, wound dehiscence) were positively correlated with SSI. Microbial sealant as employed in this study did not appear to offer any benefit in a class 2 (clean contaminated) operative procedure when perioperative care is standardized. The relative benefit of laparoscopy was also confirmed but unaffected by

  6. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infections Following Neurosurgical Spinal Fusion Operations: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Thomas L; Querry, Ashley M; McCool, Sheila; Galdys, Alison L; Shutt, Kathleen A; Saul, Melissa I; Muto, Carlene A

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors for the development of surgical site infections (SSIs) in neurosurgery patients undergoing spinal fusion. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. SETTING Large, academic, quaternary care center. PATIENTS The study population included all neurosurgery patients who underwent spinal fusion between August 1, 2009, and August 31, 2013. Cases were defined as patients in the study cohort who developed an SSI. Controls were patients in the study cohort who did not develop an SSI. METHODS To achieve 80% power with an ability to detect an odds ratio (OR) of 2, we performed an unmatched case-control study with equal numbers of cases and controls. RESULTS During the study period, 5,473 spinal fusion procedures were performed by neurosurgeons in our hospital. With 161 SSIs recorded during the study period, the incidence of SSIs associated with these procedures was 2.94%. While anterior surgical approach was found to be a protective factor (OR, 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.52), duration of procedure (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.29-1.93), American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or 4 (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.00-3.18), and hospitalization within the prior 30 days (OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.37-24.57) were found in multivariate analysis to be independent predictors of SSI following spinal fusion. Prior methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nares colonization was highly associated with odds 20 times higher of SSI following spinal fusion (OR, 20.30; 95% CI, 4.64-8.78). CONCLUSIONS In additional to nonmodifiable risk factors, prior colonization with MRSA is a modifiable risk factor very strongly associated with development of SSI following spinal fusion. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:348-352.

  7. Discharge after discharge: predicting surgical site infections after patients leave hospital.

    PubMed

    Daneman, N; Lu, H; Redelmeier, D A

    2010-07-01

    In this population-based retrospective cohort study, we examined the frequency, severity, and prediction of post-discharge surgical site infections (SSIs). We evaluated all patients admitted for their first elective surgical procedure in Ontario, Canada, between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2008. Procedure and patient characteristics were derived from linked hospital, emergency room and physician claims databases within Canada's universal healthcare system. The 30 day risk of SSI was derived from the initial hospital admission, outpatient consultations, return emergency room visits and readmissions. The cohort included 622 683 patients, of whom 84 081 (13.5%) were diagnosed with SSI, and more than half (48 725) were diagnosed post-discharge. Post-discharge infections were associated with an increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio: 2.28; 95% confidence interval: 2.11-2.48), return emergency room visit (9.08; 8.89-9.27), and readmission (6.16; 5.98-6.35). The most common risk index predicted incremental increases in the risk of in-hospital SSI, but did not predict increases in the risk of post-discharge infection. Patients with post-discharge infections had baseline characteristics more akin to uninfected patients than patients with in-hospital infections. Predictors of post-discharge infection included shorter procedure duration, shorter length of stay, rural residence, alcoholism, diabetes and obesity. Post-discharge SSIs are frequent, severe, scattered over time and location, and hard to predict using common risk indices. They represent an important hidden burden in our healthcare system.

  8. Detection of clinically important colorectal surgical site infection using Bayesian network.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Larson, David W; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Naessens, James M; Alabbad, Jasim Y; Liu, Hongfang

    2017-03-01

    Despite extensive efforts to monitor and prevent surgical site infections (SSIs), real-time surveillance of clinical practice has been sparse and expensive or nonexistent. However, natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (i.e., Bayesian network analysis) may provide the methodology necessary to approach this issue in a new way. We investigated the ability to identify SSIs after colorectal surgery (CRS) through an automated detection system using a Bayesian network. Patients who underwent CRS from 2010 to 2012 and were captured in our institutional American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) comprised our cohort. A Bayesian network was applied to detect SSIs using risk factors from ACS-NSQIP data and keywords extracted from clinical notes by NLP. Two surgeons provided expertise informing the Bayesian network to identify clinically meaningful SSIs (CM-SSIs) occurring within 30 d after surgery. We used data from 751 CRS cases experiencing 67 (8.9%) SSIs and 78 (10.4%) CM-SSIs. Our Bayesian network detected ACS-NSQIP-captured SSIs with a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.827, but this value increased to 0.892 when using surgeon-identified CM-SSIs. A Bayesian network coupled with NLP has the potential to be used in real-time SSI surveillance. Moreover, surgeons identified CM-SSI not captured under current NSQIP definitions. Future efforts to expand CM-SSI identification may lead to improved and potentially automated approaches to survey for postoperative SSI in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical Site Infections Following Spine Surgery: Eliminating the Controversies in the Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Chahoud, Jad; Kanafani, Zeina; Kanj, Souha S.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) following spine surgery is a dreaded complication with significant morbidity and economic burden. SSIs following spine surgery can be superficial, characterized by obvious wound drainage or deep-seated with a healed wound. Staphylococcus aureus remains the principal causal agent. There are certain pre-operative risk factors that increase the risk of SSI, mainly diabetes, smoking, steroids, and peri-operative transfusions. Additionally, intra-operative risk factors include surgical invasiveness, type of fusion, implant use, and traditional instead of minimally invasive approach. A high level of suspicion is crucial to attaining an early definitive diagnosis and initiating appropriate management. The most common presenting symptom is back pain, usually manifesting 2–4 weeks and up to 3 months after a spinal procedure. Scheduling a follow-up visit between weeks 2 and 4 after surgery is therefore necessary for early detection. Inflammatory markers are important diagnostic tools, and comparing pre-operative with post-operative levels should be done when suspecting SSIs following spine surgery. Particularly, serum amyloid A is a novel inflammatory marker that can expedite the diagnosis of SSIs. Magnetic resonance imaging remains the diagnostic modality of choice when suspecting a SSI following spine surgery. While 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography is not widely used, it may be useful in challenging cases. Despite their low yield, blood cultures should be collected before initiating antibiotic therapy. Samples from wound drainage should be sent for Gram stain and cultures. When there is a high clinical suspicion of SSI and in the absence of superficial wound drainage, computed tomography-guided aspiration of paraspinal collections is warranted. Unless the patient is hemodynamically compromised, antibiotics should be deferred until proper specimens for culture are secured. PMID:25705620

  10. Preoperative prognostic nutritional index predicts postoperative surgical site infections in gastrointestinal fistula patients undergoing bowel resections

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qiongyuan; Wang, Gefei; Ren, Jianan; Ren, Huajian; Li, Guanwei; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Li, Ranran; Guo, Kun; Deng, Youming; Li, Yuan; Hong, Zhiwu; Wu, Lei; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have implied a prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in postoperative septic complications of elective colorectal surgeries. However, the evaluation of PNI in contaminated surgeries for gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients is lack of investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive value of PNI in surgical site infections (SSIs) for GI fistula patients undergoing bowel resections. A retrospective review of 290 GI patients who underwent intestinal resections between November 2012 and October 2015 was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for SSIs, and receiver operating characteristic cure was used to quantify the effectiveness of PNI. SSIs were diagnosed in 99 (34.1%) patients, with incisional infection identified in 54 patients (18.6%), deep incisional infection in 13 (4.5%), and organ/space infection in 32 (11.0%). receiver operating characteristic curve analysis defined a PNI cut-off level of 45 corresponding to postoperative SSIs (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.72, 76% sensitivity, 55% specificity). Furthermore, a multivariate analysis indicated that the PNI < 45 [odd ratio (OR): 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–4.61, P = 0.029] and leukocytosis (OR: 3.70, 95% CI: 1.02–13.42, P = 0.046) were independently associated with postoperative SSIs. Preoperative PNI is a simple and useful marker to predict SSIs in GI fistula patients after enterectomies. Measurement of PNI is therefore recommended in the routine assessment of patients with GI fistula receiving surgical treatment. PMID:27399098

  11. Stratification of surgical site infection by operative factors and comparison of infection rates after hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Margaret A; Nickel, Katelin B; Wallace, Anna E; Mines, Daniel; Fraser, Victoria J; Warren, David K

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether operative factors are associated with risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after hernia repair. Retrospective cohort study. Patients Commercially insured enrollees aged 6 months-64 years with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, fourth edition, codes for inguinal/femoral, umbilical, and incisional/ventral hernia repair procedures from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2010. SSIs within 90 days after hernia repair were identified by diagnosis codes. The χ2 and Fisher exact tests were used to compare SSI incidence by operative factors. A total of 119,973 hernia repair procedures were analyzed. The incidence of SSI differed significantly by anatomic site, with rates of 0.45% (352/77,666) for inguinal/femoral, 1.16% (288/24,917) for umbilical, and 4.11% (715/17,390) for incisional/ventral hernia repair. Within anatomic sites, the incidence of SSI was significantly higher for open versus laparoscopic inguinal/femoral (0.48% [295/61,142] vs 0.34% [57/16,524], P=.020) and incisional/ventral (4.20% [701/16,699] vs 2.03% [14/691], P=.005) hernia repairs. The rate of SSI was higher following procedures with bowel obstruction/necrosis than procedures without obstruction/necrosis for open inguinal/femoral (0.89% [48/5,422] vs 0.44% [247/55,720], P<.001) and umbilical (1.57% [131/8,355] vs 0.95% [157/16,562], P<.001), but not incisional/ventral hernia repair (4.01% [224/5,585] vs 4.16% [491/11,805], P=.645). The incidence of SSI was highest after open procedures, incisional/ventral repairs, and hernia repairs with bowel obstruction/necrosis. Stratification of hernia repair SSI rates by some operative factors may facilitate accurate comparison of SSI rates between facilities.

  12. Agreement among Health Care Professionals in Diagnosing Case Vignette-Based Surgical Site Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lepelletier, Didier; Ravaud, Philippe; Baron, Gabriel; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess agreement in diagnosing surgical site infection (SSI) among healthcare professionals involved in SSI surveillance. Methods Case-vignette study done in 2009 in 140 healthcare professionals from seven specialties (20 in each specialty, Anesthesiologists, Surgeons, Public health specialists, Infection control physicians, Infection control nurses, Infectious diseases specialists, Microbiologists) in 29 University and 36 non-University hospitals in France. We developed 40 case-vignettes based on cardiac and gastrointestinal surgery patients with suspected SSI. Each participant scored six randomly assigned case-vignettes before and after reading the SSI definition on an online secure relational database. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess agreement regarding SSI diagnosis on a seven-point Likert scale and the kappa coefficient to assess agreement for superficial or deep SSI on a three-point scale. Results Based on a consensus, SSI was present in 21 of 40 vignettes (52.5%). Intraspecialty agreement for SSI diagnosis ranged across specialties from 0.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.00–0.59) (anesthesiologists and infection control nurses) to 0.73 (0.32–0.90) (infectious diseases specialists). Reading the SSI definition improved agreement in the specialties with poor initial agreement. Intraspecialty agreement for superficial or deep SSI ranged from 0.10 (−0.19–0.38) to 0.54 (0.25–0.83) (surgeons) and increased after reading the SSI definition only among the infection control nurses from 0.10 (−0.19–0.38) to 0.41 (−0.09–0.72). Interspecialty agreement for SSI diagnosis was 0.36 (0.22–0.54) and increased to 0.47 (0.31–0.64) after reading the SSI definition. Conclusion Among healthcare professionals evaluating case-vignettes for possible surgical site infection, there was large disagreement in diagnosis that varied both between and within specialties. PMID:22529980

  13. Financial impact of surgical site infections on hospitals: the hospital management perspective.

    PubMed

    Shepard, John; Ward, William; Milstone, Aaron; Carlson, Taylor; Frederick, John; Hadhazy, Eric; Perl, Trish

    2013-10-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) may increase health care costs, but few studies have conducted an analysis from the perspective of hospital administrators. To determine the change in hospital profit due to SSIs. Retrospective study of data from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2010. The study was performed at 4 of The Johns Hopkins Health System acute care hospitals in Maryland: Johns Hopkins Bayview (560 beds); Howard County General Hospital (238 beds); The Johns Hopkins Hospital (946 beds); and Suburban Hospital (229 beds). Eligible patients for the study included those patients admitted to the 4 hospitals between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, with complete data and the correct International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code, as determined by the infection preventionist. Infection preventionists performed complete medical record review using National Healthcare Safety Network definitions to identify SSIs. Patients were stratified using the All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups to estimate the change in hospital profit due to SSIs. Surgical site infections. The outcomes of the study were the difference in daily total charges, length of stay (LOS), 30-day readmission rate, and profit for patients with an SSI when compared with patients without an SSI. The hypothesis, formulated prior to data collection, that patients with an SSI have higher daily total costs, a longer LOS, and higher 30-day readmission rates than patients without an SSI, was tested using a nonpaired Mann-Whitney U test, an analysis of covariance, and a Pearson χ2 test. Hospital charges were used as a proxy for hospital cost. RESULTS The daily total charges, mean LOS, and 30-day readmission rate for patients with an SSI compared with patients without an SSI were $7493 vs $7924 (P = .99); 10.56 days vs 5.64 days (P < .001); and 51.94 vs 8.19 readmissions per 100 procedures (P < .001). The change in profit due SSIs was $2 268 589. The data suggest that

  14. Effectiveness of local vancomycin powder to decrease surgical site infections: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Yin; Herwaldt, Loreen A; Blevins, Amy E; Cho, Edward; Schweizer, Marin L

    2014-03-01

    Some surgeons use systemic vancomycin to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs), but patients who do not carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have an increased risk of SSIs when given vancomycin alone for intravenous prophylaxis. Applying vancomycin powder to the wound before closure could increase the local tissue vancomycin level without significant systemic levels. However, the effectiveness of local vancomycin powder application for preventing SSIs has not been established. Our objective was to systematically review and evaluate studies on the effectiveness of local vancomycin powder for decreasing SSIs. Meta-analysis. We included observational studies, quasi-experimental studies, and randomized controlled trials of patients undergoing surgical procedures that involved vancomycin powder application to surgical wounds, reported SSI rates, and had a comparison group that did not use local vancomycin powder. The primary outcome was postoperative SSIs. The secondary outcomes included deep incisional SSIs and S. aureus SSIs. We performed systematic literature searches in PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via Wiley, Scopus (including EMBASE abstracts), Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, BMC Proceedings, ProQuest Dissertation, and Thesis in Health and Medicine, and conference abstracts from IDWeek, the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, and the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons annual meetings, and also the Scoliosis Research Society Annual Meeting and Course. We ran the searches from inception on May 9, 2013 with no limits on date or language. After reviewing 373 titles or abstracts and 22 articles in detail, we included 10 independent studies and used a random-effects model when pooling risk estimates to assess the effectiveness of local

  15. USA300 genotype community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mukesh; Kumar, Ritu A; Stamm, Alan M; Hoesley, Craig J; Moser, Stephen A; Waites, Ken B

    2007-10-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains are increasingly recovered from nosocomial settings. We conducted a retrospective study of surgical site infections (SSI) during 2004 and 2005 to determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA; 57% of MRSA strains tested belonged to the USA300 genotype. CA-MRSA has become a prominent cause of SSI at our institution.

  16. Do Prolonged Prophylactic Antibiotics Reduce the Incidence of Surgical-Site Infections in Immediate Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Wang, Frederick; Chin, Robin; Piper, Merisa; Esserman, Laura; Sbitany, Hani

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 50,000 women in the United States undergo mastectomy and immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction annually, and most receive postoperative prophylactic antibiotics. The effect of these antibiotics on the risk of surgical-site infections remains unclear. The authors searched the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for studies that compared less than 24 hours and greater than 24 hours of antibiotics following immediate prosthetic breast reconstruction. Primary outcomes were surgical-site infections and implant loss. Conservative random effects models were used to obtain pooled relative risk estimates. The authors identified 927 studies, but only four cohort studies and one randomized controlled trial met their inclusion criteria. Unadjusted incidences of surgical-site infections were 14 percent with more than 24 hours of antibiotics, 19 percent with less than 24 hours of antibiotics, and 16 percent overall. Unadjusted incidences of implant loss were 8 percent with more than 24 hours of antibiotics, 10 percent with less than 24 hours of antibiotics, and 9 percent overall. The pooled relative risk of implant loss was 1.17 (95 percent CI, 0.39 to 3.6) with less than 24 hours of antibiotics, which was not statistically significant. Prolonged antibiotic use did not have a statistically significant effect on reducing surgical-site infections or implant loss. There was significant heterogeneity between studies, and prolonged antibiotics may have increased the risk of implant loss in the randomized controlled trial. Definitive evidence may only be obtained with data from more prospective randomized controlled trials.

  17. Postoperative recovery after mandibular third molar surgery: a criteria for selection of type of surgical site closure.

    PubMed

    Damodar, Neeliahgari Durga Akhila; Nandakumar, Hanumanthaiah; Srinath, Narashimha Murthy

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate postoperative recovery after mandibular third molar surgery, with and without the use of sutures. This study utilized 50 healthy subjects (19 females and 31 males, 18-40 years of age) with bilateral impacted third molars. Two impacted teeth were removed from each patient (60 min maximum operating time). For each patient, the surgical site on one side of the mouth was closed for primary healing by using nonresorbable sutures, while the surgical site on the other side of the mouth was left open for secondary healing. Postoperative recovery was assessed by determining pain (using a visual analog scale) and swelling (by measuring anatomical landmarks pre- and postoperatively on Days 2, 5, and 7) Any incidence of socket infection and hemorrhage were considered to be complications. Both statistical analysis and clinical observation showed that the surgical sites with nonresorbable sutures showed greater swelling and a higher intensity of pain than the surgical sites without sutures; however, there were no statistical or clinical differences in pain and swelling postsurgery at Day 7. The results suggest secondary closure (that is, without sutures) after third molar surgery will produce less postoperative discomfort than primary closure (with nonresorbable sutures).

  18. ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes vs. Wound Cultures for the Diagnosis of Surgical Site Infection after Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Margaret A.; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2012-01-01

    We compared surveillance of surgical site infection after major breast operations using a combination of ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes to microbiology-based surveillance. The sensitivity was 87.5% for the coding algorithm and 78.1% for wound cultures. Our results suggest that SSI surveillance can be reliably performed using claims data. PMID:20334508

  19. Evidence-Based Bundles and Cesarean Delivery Surgical Site Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ebony B; Temming, Lorene A; Fowler, Susan; Eppes, Catherine; Gross, Gilad; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Macones, George A; Colditz, Graham A; Tuuli, Methodius G

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the association of implementation of evidence-based bundles with surgical site infection rates after cesarean delivery. We searched MEDLINE through PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing evidence-based infection prevention bundles for cesarean delivery, defined as implementation of three or more processes proven to prevent surgical site infection such as chlorhexidine skin preparation, antibiotic prophylaxis, and hair clipping, with usual care. The primary outcome was overall surgical site infection, defined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. Secondary outcomes were superficial or deep surgical site infection and endometritis. Quality of studies and heterogeneity were assessed using validated measures. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using random-effects models. Numbers needed to treat were estimated for outcomes with significant reduction. We found no randomized controlled trials. Fourteen preintervention and postintervention studies met inclusion criteria. Eight were full-text articles, and six were published abstracts. Quality of most of the primary studies was adequate with regard to the intervention, but modest in terms of implementation. The rate of surgical site infection was significantly lower after implementing an evidence-based bundle (14 studies: pooled rates 6.2% baseline compared with 2.0% intervention, pooled RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.25-0.43, number needed to treat=24). Evidence-based bundles were also associated with a lower rate of superficial or deep surgical site infection (six studies: pooled rate 5.9% baseline compared with 1.1% intervention, pooled RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12-0.32, number needed to treat=21). The rate of endometritis was low at baseline and not significantly different after

  20. Improving risk-adjusted measures of surgical site infection for the national healthcare safety network.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yi; Edwards, Jonathan R; Horan, Teresa C; Berrios-Torres, Sandra I; Fridkin, Scott K

    2011-10-01

    The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) has provided simple risk adjustment of surgical site infection (SSI) rates to participating hospitals to facilitate quality improvement activities; improved risk models were developed and evaluated. Data reported to the NHSN for all operative procedures performed from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2008, were analyzed. Only SSIs related to the primary incision site were included. A common set of patient- and hospital-specific variables were evaluated as potential SSI risk factors by univariate analysis. Some ific variables were available for inclusion. Stepwise logistic regression was used to develop the specific risk models by procedure category. Bootstrap resampling was used to validate the models, and the c-index was used to compare the predictive power of new procedure-specific risk models with that of the models with the NHSN risk index as the only variable (NHSN risk index model). From January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2008, 847 hospitals in 43 states reported a total of 849,659 procedures and 16,147 primary incisional SSIs (risk, 1.90%) among 39 operative procedure categories. Overall, the median c-index of the new procedure-specific risk was greater (0.67 [range, 0.59-0.85]) than the median c-index of the NHSN risk index models (0.60 [range, 0.51-0.77]); for 33 of 39 procedures, the new procedure-specific models yielded a higher c-index than did the NHSN risk index models. A set of new risk models developed using existing data elements collected through the NHSN improves predictive performance, compared with the traditional NHSN risk index stratification.

  1. Surgical Site Infection following Cesarean Delivery: Patient, Provider, and Procedure-Specific Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Shree, Raj; Park, Seo Young; Beigi, Richard H; Dunn, Shannon L; Krans, Elizabeth E

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify risk factors for cesarean delivery (CD) surgical site infection (SSI). study design: Retrospective analysis of 2,739 CDs performed at the University of Pittsburgh in 2011. CD SSIs were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria. Chi-square test and t-test were used for bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify SSI risk factors. Of 2,739 CDs, 178 (6.5%) were complicated by SSI. Patients with a SSI were more likely to have Medicaid, have resident physicians perform the CD, an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class of ≥ 3, chorioamnionitis, tobacco use, and labor before CD. In multivariable analysis, labor (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.65-3.38), chorioamnionitis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.25-3.83), resident teaching service (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.54-3.00), tobacco use (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.04-2.70), ASA class ≥ 3 (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.06-2.39), and CDs performed for nonreassuring fetal status (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26-0.67) were significantly associated with CD SSI. Multiple patient, provider, and procedure-specific risk factors contribute to CD SSI risk which may be targeted in infection-control efforts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Incisional surgical site infection after elective open surgery for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kosuke; Kusumi, Takaya; Hosokawa, Masao; Nishida, Yasunori; Sumikawa, Sosuke; Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence and risk factors for incisional surgical site infections (SSI) in patients undergoing elective open surgery for colorectal cancer. We conducted prospective surveillance of incisional SSI after elective colorectal resections performed by a single surgeon for a 1-year period. Variables associated with infection, as identified in the literature, were collected and statistically analyzed for their association with incisional SSI development. A total of 224 patients were identified for evaluation. The mean patient age was 67 years, and 120 (55%) were male. Thirty-three (14.7%) patients were diagnosed with incisional SSI. Multivariate analysis suggested that incisional SSI was independently associated with TNM stages III and IV (odds ratio [OR], 2.4) and intraoperative hypotension (OR, 3.4). The incidence of incisional SSI in our cohort was well within values generally reported in the literature. Our data suggest the importance of the maintenance of intraoperative normotension to reduce the development of incisional SSI.

  3. Surgical site infection after caesarean section: space for post-discharge surveillance improvements and reliable comparisons.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Federica; Piselli, Pierluca; Pittalis, Silvia; Ruscitti, Luca E; Cimaglia, Claudia; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Puro, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) after caesarean section (CS) represent a substantial health system concern. Surveying SSI has been associated with a reduction in SSI incidence. We report the findings of three (2008, 2011 and 2013) regional active SSI surveillances after CS in community hospital of the Latium region determining the incidence of SSI. Each CS was surveyed for SSI occurrence by trained staff up to 30 post-operative days, and association of SSI with relevant characteristics was assessed using binomial logistic regression. A total of 3,685 CS were included in the study. A complete 30 day post-operation follow-up was achieved in over 94% of procedures. Overall 145 SSI were observed (3.9% cumulative incidence) of which 131 (90.3%) were superficial and 14 (9.7%) complex (deep or organ/space) SSI; overall 129 SSI (of which 89.9% superficial) were diagnosed post-discharge. Only higher NNIS score was significantly associated with SSI occurrence in the regression analysis. Our work provides the first regional data on CS-associated SSI incidence, highlighting the need for a post-discharge surveillance which should assure 30 days post-operation to not miss data on complex SSI, as well as being less labour intensive.

  4. Supplemental Perioperative Oxygen to Reduce Surgical Site Infection After High-Energy Fracture Surgery (OXYGEN Study).

    PubMed

    OʼToole, Robert V; Joshi, Manjari; Carlini, Anthony R; Sikorski, Robert A; Dagal, Armagan; Murray, Clinton K; Weaver, Michael J; Paryavi, Ebrahim; Stall, Alec C; Scharfstein, Daniel O; Agel, Julie; Zadnik, Mary; Bosse, Michael J; Castillo, Renan C

    2017-04-01

    Supplemental perioperative oxygen (SPO) therapy has been proposed as one approach for reducing the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Current data are mixed regarding efficacy in decreasing SSI rates and hospital inpatient stays in general and few data exist for orthopaedic trauma patients. This study is a phase III, double-blind, prospective randomized clinical trial with a primary goal of assessing the efficacy of 2 different concentrations of perioperative oxygen in the prevention of SSIs in adults with tibial plateau, pilon (tibial plafond), or calcaneus fractures at higher risk of infection and definitively treated with plate and screw fixation. Patients are block randomized (within center) in a 1:1 ratio to either treatment group (FiO2 80%) or control group (FiO2 30%) and stratified by each study injury location. Secondary objectives of the study are to compare species and antibacterial sensitivities of the bacteria in patients who develop SSIs, to validate a previously developed risk prediction model for the development of SSI after fracture surgery, and to measure and compare resource utilization and cost associated with SSI in the 2 study groups. SPO is a low cost and readily available resource that could be easily disseminated to trauma centers across the country and the world if proved to be effective.

  5. Reducing the risk of surgical site infection using a multidisciplinary approach: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Kang, Evelyn; Roberts, Shelley; Lin, Frances; Morley, Nicola; Finigan, Tracey; Homer, Allison; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify and describe the strategies and processes used by multidisciplinary teams of health care professionals to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs). Materials and methods An integrative review of the research literature was undertaken. Searches were conducted in April 2015. Following review of the included studies, data were abstracted using summary tables and the methodological quality of each study assessed using the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence guidelines by two reviewers. Discrepancies were dealt with through consensus. Inductive content analysis was used to identify and describe the strategies/processes used by multidisciplinary health care teams to prevent SSI. Results and discussion In total, 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 studies used quantitative methods, while a single study used qualitative interviews. The majority of the studies were conducted in North America. All quantitative studies evaluated multifaceted quality-improvement interventions aimed at preventing SSI in patients undergoing surgery. Across the 13 studies reviewed, the following multidisciplinary team-based approaches were enacted: using a bundled approach, sharing responsibility, and, adhering to best practice. The majority of studies described team collaborations that were circumscribed by role. None of the reviewed studies used strategies that included the input of allied health professionals or patient participation in SSI prevention. Conclusion Patient-centered interventions aimed at increasing patient participation in SSI prevention and evaluating the contributions of allied health professionals in team-based SSI prevention requires future research. PMID:26508870

  6. Reducing the risk of surgical site infection using a multidisciplinary approach: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Kang, Evelyn; Roberts, Shelley; Lin, Frances; Morley, Nicola; Finigan, Tracey; Homer, Allison; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    To identify and describe the strategies and processes used by multidisciplinary teams of health care professionals to reduce surgical site infections (SSIs). An integrative review of the research literature was undertaken. Searches were conducted in April 2015. Following review of the included studies, data were abstracted using summary tables and the methodological quality of each study assessed using the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence guidelines by two reviewers. Discrepancies were dealt with through consensus. Inductive content analysis was used to identify and describe the strategies/processes used by multidisciplinary health care teams to prevent SSI. In total, 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 studies used quantitative methods, while a single study used qualitative interviews. The majority of the studies were conducted in North America. All quantitative studies evaluated multifaceted quality-improvement interventions aimed at preventing SSI in patients undergoing surgery. Across the 13 studies reviewed, the following multidisciplinary team-based approaches were enacted: using a bundled approach, sharing responsibility, and, adhering to best practice. The majority of studies described team collaborations that were circumscribed by role. None of the reviewed studies used strategies that included the input of allied health professionals or patient participation in SSI prevention. Patient-centered interventions aimed at increasing patient participation in SSI prevention and evaluating the contributions of allied health professionals in team-based SSI prevention requires future research.

  7. Full-text automated detection of surgical site infections secondary to neurosurgery in Rennes, France.

    PubMed

    Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Garcelon, Nicolas; Jarno, Pascal; Chapplain, Jean Marc; Cuggia, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The surveillance of Surgical Site Infections (SSI) contributes to the management of risk in French hospitals. Manual identification of infections is costly, time-consuming and limits the promotion of preventive procedures by the dedicated teams. The introduction of alternative methods using automated detection strategies is promising to improve this surveillance. The present study describes an automated detection strategy for SSI in neurosurgery, based on textual analysis of medical reports stored in a clinical data warehouse. The method consists firstly, of enrichment and concept extraction from full-text reports using NOMINDEX, and secondly, text similarity measurement using a vector space model. The text detection was compared to the conventional strategy based on self-declaration and to the automated detection using the diagnosis-related group database. The text-mining approach showed the best detection accuracy, with recall and precision equal to 92% and 40% respectively, and confirmed the interest of reusing full-text medical reports to perform automated detection of SSI.

  8. The role of oral antibiotics prophylaxis in prevention of surgical site infection in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Koullouros, Michalis; Khan, Nadir; Aly, Emad H

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) continues to be a challenge in colorectal surgery. Over the years, various modalities have been used in an attempt to reduce SSI risk in elective colorectal surgery, which include mechanical bowel preparation before surgery, oral antibiotics and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis at induction of surgery. Even though IV antibiotics have become standard practice, there has been a debate on the exact role of oral antibiotics. The primary aim was to identify the role of oral antibiotics in reduction of SSI in elective colorectal surgery. The secondary aim was to explore any potential benefit in the use of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) in relation to SSI in elective colorectal surgery. Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. Any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or cohort studies after 1980, which investigated the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis and/or MBP in preventing SSIs in elective colorectal surgery were included. Twenty-three RCTs and eight cohorts were included. The results indicate a statistically significant advantage in preventing SSIs with the combined usage of oral and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. Furthermore, our analysis of the cohort studies shows no benefits in the use of MBP in prevention of SSIs. The addition of oral antibiotics to systemic antibiotics could potentially reduce the risk of SSIs in elective colorectal surgery. Additionally, MBP does not seem to provide a clear benefit with regard to SSI prevention.

  9. [Incidence of surgical site infections in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Ngaroua; Ngah, Joseph Eloundou; Bénet, Thomas; Djibrilla, Yaouba

    2016-01-01

    Surgical Site Infections (SSI) cause morbi-mortality and additional healthcare expenditures. Developing countries are the most affected. The objective was to estimate the pooled incidence of SSI in Sub-Saharan Africa and describe its major risk factors. Systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted using the databases of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, PubMed and standard search to select electronic articles published between 2006 and 2015. Only articles investigating SSI impact and risk factors in Sub-Saharan African countries were retained. Out of 95 articles found, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Only 9 countries out of 45 have contributed, with a huge amount of information coming from Nigeria (5 articles out of 11). The impact of SSI ranged from 6.8% to 26% with predominance in general surgery. The pooled incidence of SSI was 14.8% (95% CI: 15,5-16,2%) with significant heterogeneity according to the specialty and the method of monitoring. Most cited risk factors were long procedure length and categories 3 and 4 of Altemeier contamination class. Other factors included hospital environment, inadequate care practices and underlying pathologies. SSI incidence is high in Sub-Saharan Africa. Studies in this area could improve knowledge, prevention and control of these multiple risk factors.

  10. The effect of antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines on surgical-site infections associated with cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Skjeldestad, Finn Egil; Bjørnholt, Jørgen V; Gran, Jon M; Erisken, Hanne-Merete

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of Norwegian antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines on rates of superficial and deep surgical-site infections (SSIs) associated with cesarean delivery (CD). A cross-sectional study was conducted that analyzed the physician-diagnosed SSIs by regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis among women who underwent planned or emergency CD at one of 42 hospitals between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010. The antibiotic prophylaxis regimen was verified using a hospital survey, whereas guideline compliance was assessed as part of the mandatory Norwegian Surveillance System for Healthcare-Associated Infections. Data for 4498 patients were used. Hospitals that practiced antibiotic prophylaxis for all CDs (n=4) provided antibiotics more often in both emergency and planned CDs than did those that used this approach for emergency CDs only (n=33) or had no written guidelines or used prophylaxis on indication only (n=5) (P<0.001). The provision of antibiotic prophylaxis for all cases of CD was associated with markedly lowered rates of superficial SSIs among planned CDs, whereas no differences in rates of deep SSIs were observed between the guidelines in either planned or emergency CDs. Hospitals that provided antibiotic prophylaxis to all women undergoing CD reported high compliance and had reduced rates of superficial SSIs among planned CDs. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An intraoperative irrigation regimen to reduce the surgical site infection rate following adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    van Herwijnen, B; Evans, N R; Dare, C J; Davies, E M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a gentamicin antibiotic intraoperative irrigation regimen (regimen A) with a povidone-iodine intraoperative irrigation regimen (regimen B) and to evaluate the ability of adjunctive local vancomycin powder (regimen C) to reduce the surgical site infection (SSI) rate following idiopathic scoliosis correction. This was a retrospective, single centre, two-surgeon cohort study of paediatric scoliosis procedures involving 118 patients under the age of 18 years who underwent correction for idiopathic scoliosis over a period of 42 months. Patients' baseline characteristics, pseudarthrosis and rates of SSI were compared. Baseline characteristics were comparable in all three groups, with the exception of sex distribution. Over a quarter (27%) of patients with regimen B were male compared with 13% and 6% for regimens A and C respectively. Patients were mostly followed up for a minimum of 12 months. The SSI rate for both superficial and deep infections was higher with regimen A (26.7%) than with regimens B and C (7.0% and 6.3% respectively). The SSI rates for regimens B and C were comparable. No patients developed complications related to vancomycin toxicity, metalwork failure or pseudarthrosis. Wound irrigation with a povidone-iodine solution reduces SSIs following adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery. The direct application of vancomycin powder to the wound is safe but does not reduce the SSI rate further in low risk patients. Additional studies are needed to elucidate whether it is effective at higher doses and in high risk patient groups.

  12. Surgical site infection following cesarean delivery: patient, provider and procedure specific risk factors

    PubMed Central

    SHREE, Raj; Park, Seo Young; Beigi, Richard H.; Dunn, Shannon L.; Krans, Elizabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for cesarean delivery (CD) surgical site infection (SSI). Study Design Retrospective analysis of 2739 CDs performed at the University of Pittsburgh in 2011. CD SSI’s were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria. Chi-square and t tests were used for bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify SSI risk factors. Results Of 2739 CDs, 178 (6.5%) were complicated by SSI. Patients with a SSI were more likely to have Medicaid, have resident physicians perform the CD, an ASA class of ≥3, chorioamnionitis, use tobacco and labor prior to CD. In multivariable analysis, labor (2.35;1.65–3.38), chorioamnionitis (2.24;1.25–3.83), resident teaching service (2.15;1.54–3.00), tobacco use (1.70; 1.04–2.70), ASA class ≥3 (1.61; 1.06–2.39) and CDs performed for non-reassuring fetal status (0.43; 0.26–0.67) were significantly associated with CD SSI. Conclusion Multiple patient, provider and procedure specific-risk factors contribute to CD SSI risk which may be targeted in infection control efforts. PMID:26344010

  13. Umbilical Microflora, Antiseptic Skin Preparation, and Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kleeff, Jörg; Erkan, Mert; Jäger, Carsten; Menacher, Maximilian; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Hartel, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) following abdominal surgery are frequent and a major cause of postoperative morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. Besides antibiotic prophylaxis, antiseptic skin preparation is an important measure to prevent SSI. Here we prospectively analyzed the effectiveness of antiseptic skin preparation in a cohort of 93 patients undergoing laparotomy, with special emphasis on the umbilical region. The microflora of the umbilicus contained a large number of resident (mostly staphylococci species and corynebacteria) and transient germs (including enterococci species). Following antiseptic skin preparation, bacteria could still be cultured from 24.7% of the patients' umbilici. In case of postoperative SSI, only one of seven SSI was caused by the microorganism that was present in the umbilicus before and after skin preparation. Antiseptic skin preparation fails to completely eradicate the microflora of the umbilical region in one quarter of the patients. However, at least in abdominal surgery, the vast majority of SSI are caused by intra-abdominal contamination rather than the skin microflora.

  14. Standardizing preoperative preparation to reduce surgical site infections among pediatric neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Schaffzin, Joshua K; Simon, Katherine; Connelly, Beverly L; Mangano, Francesco T

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Surgical site infections (SSIs) are costly to patients and the health care system. Pediatric neurosurgery SSI risk factors are not well defined. Intraoperative protocols have reduced, but have not eliminated, SSIs. The effect of preoperative intervention is unknown. Using quality improvement methods, a preoperative SSI prevention protocol for pediatric neurosurgical patients was implemented to assess its effect on SSI rate. METHODS Patients who underwent a scheduled neurosurgical procedure between January 2014 and December 2015 were included. Published evidence and provider consensus were used to guide preoperative protocol development. The Model for Improvement was used to test interventions. Intraoperative and postoperative management was not standardized or modified systematically. Staff, family, and overall adherence was measured as all-or-nothing. In addition, SSI rates among eligible procedures were measured before and after protocol implementation. RESULTS Within 4 months, overall protocol adherence increased from 51.3% to a sustained 85.7%. SSI rates decreased from 2.9 per 100 procedures preintervention to 0.62 infections postintervention (p = 0.003). An approximate 79% reduction in SSI risk was identified (risk ratio 0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.56; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Clinical staff and families successfully collaborated on a standardized preoperative protocol for pediatric neurosurgical patients. Standardization of the preoperative phase of care alone reduced SSI rates. Attention to the preoperative in addition to the intraoperative and postoperative phases of care may lead to further reduction in SSI rates.

  15. The Incidence of Postoperative Endophthalmitis Before and After a Revised Preoperative Surgical Site Preparation Protocol.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Rachel P W; Yip, Wilson W K; Jhanji, Vishal; Chan, Vesta C K; Young, Alvin L

    2016-01-01

    To compare the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis before and after the implementation of a preoperative surgical site preparation protocol for cataract surgery. Retrospective cohort study. Records of patients with postoperative endophthalmitis between January 2006 and August 2013 were reviewed. A revised protocol implemented after January 2009 included the addition of preoperative 0.3% topical tobramycin, 10% povidone-iodine for cleansing, and using a disposable sterile drape. The incidence, microbiological profile, and outcomes of these cases were analyzed. The incidence of preprotocol endophthalmitis was significantly higher than in the postprotocol period (P = 0.018). More patients in the preprotocol group grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae as compared with those in the postprotocol group (P = 0.014). A smaller number of patients attained a poor visual outcome after the implementation of the revised protocol (P = 0.035). In our study, the addition of antibiotic eye drops before cataract surgery and perioperative cleansing with 10% povidone-iodine were effective means to reduce the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  16. Postoperative wound dealing and superficial surgical site infection in open radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Fukashi; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yamashita, Mauso; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soishi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-10-01

    The number of open radical prostatectomy (RP) surgeries has been decreasing owing to the spread of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, which has implications for postoperative wound healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate and document the current status of postoperative wound healing and superficial surgical site infection (SSI) in open RPs. One hundred and seventy-five antegrade RPs with the same or similar kinds of prophylactic antibiotic administration were divided into two groups: (i) 'no intervention' (wound covering group) and (ii) 'washing', using a washing solution from the second postoperative day to the day of skin staple removal (wound washing group). We compared these groups for the occurrence of superficial SSI. The wound covering group had three (3·03%) cases of superficial SSI, with one case caused by methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). The wound washing group had nine (11·8%) cases of superficial SSI, with three cases caused by MSSA, two cases caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and one by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The wound covering group showed a significantly lower ratio of superficial SSI (P = 0·0472). In conclusion, the postoperative wound status data in this study suggests that no wound intervention after RP resulted in a comparatively lower ratio of superficial SSI than in the wound washing group. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The association of noise and surgical-site infection in day-case hernia repairs.

    PubMed

    Dholakia, Shamik; Jeans, John Paul; Khalid, Usman; Dholakia, Shruti; D'Souza, Charlotte; Nemeth, Kristof

    2015-06-01

    Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are associated with an increased duration of hospital stay, poorer quality of life, and an marked increase in cost to the hospital. Lapses in compliance with aseptic principles are a substantial risk factor for SSI, which may be attributable to distractions such as noise during the operation. The aims of this study were to assess whether noise levels in the operating room are associated with the development of SSI and to elucidate the extent to which these levels affect the financial burden of surgery. Prospective data collection from elective, day-case male patients undergoing elective hernia repairs was undertaken. Patients were included if they were fit and at low risk for SSI. Sound levels during procedures was measured via a decibel meter and correlated with the incidence of SSI. Data analysis was performed with IBM SPSS (IBM, Armonk, NY). Noise levels were substantially greater in patients with SSI from time point of 50 minutes onwards, which correlated to when wound closure was occurring. Additional hospital costs for these patients were £243 per patient based on the National Health Service 2013 reference costing. Decreasing ambient noise levels in the operating room may aid in reducing the incidence of SSIs, particularly during closure, and decrease the associated financial costs of this complication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surveillance of surgical site infections after thyroidectomy in a one-day surgery setting.

    PubMed

    Dionigi, G; Rovera, F; Boni, L; Dionigi, R

    2008-01-01

    Different studies underline the importance of hospital stay on the development of infectious complications. We performed an audit of surgical site infections (SSI) after thyroidectomy was performed in a one-day surgery setting. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients admitted between April 2007 and discharged before May 2008 were studied. Patient selection criteria for one-day surgery were specific medical and social-logistic status. The technique of thyroidectomy was standardized. SSI affect 2.6% of patients undergoing thyroid surgery with short hospitalization. The incidence of SSI was 3.2% following thyroidectomy, 2% for lobectomy. Mean time interval to symptom onset was 3 days (range 2-6). Most likely organism was Staphylococcus aureus. WI was associated with prolonged ambulatory medications. Rates of SSI are similar to those described in the literature with longer hospitalization. All SSI become evident only after patient discharge. Prevention of SSI is very much the responsibility of the persons working in the operating theater. Effort should be made to improve sterile technique. Appropriate antibiotic coverage is indicated when infection develops postoperatively.

  19. Administrative data measured surgical site infection probability within 30 days of surgery in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    van Walraven, Carl; Jackson, Timothy D; Daneman, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Elderly patients are inordinately affected by surgical site infections (SSIs). This study derived and internally validated a model that used routinely collected health administrative data to measure the probability of SSI in elderly patients within 30 days of surgery. All people exceeding 65 years undergoing surgery from two hospitals with known SSI status were linked to population-based administrative data sets in Ontario, Canada. We used bootstrap methods to create a multivariate model that used health administrative data to predict the probability of SSI. Of 3,436 patients, 177 (5.1%) had an SSI. The Elderly SSI Risk Model included six covariates: number of distinct physician fee codes within 30 days of surgery; presence or absence of a postdischarge prescription for an antibiotic; presence or absence of three diagnostic codes; and a previously derived score that gauged SSI risk based on procedure codes. The model was highly explanatory (Nagelkerke's R(2), 0.458), strongly discriminative (C statistic, 0.918), and well calibrated (calibration slope, 1). Health administrative data can effectively determine 30-day risk of SSI risk in elderly patients undergoing a broad assortment of surgeries. External validation is necessary before this can be routinely used to monitor SSIs in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic Value of Dispensing Home-Based Preoperative Chlorhexidine Bathing Cloths to Prevent Surgical Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Rachel R.; Stuckey, Dianna R.; Norman, Bryan A.; Duggan, Andrew P.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Connor, Diana L.; Lee, Ingi; Muder, Robert R.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the economic value of dispensing preoperative home-based chlorhexidine bathing cloth kits to orthopedic patients to prevent surgical site infection (SSI). METHODS A stochastic decision-analytic computer simulation model was developed from the hospital’s perspective depicting the decision of whether to dispense the kits preoperatively to orthopedic patients. We varied patient age, cloth cost, SSI-attributable excess length of stay, cost per bed-day, patient compliance with the regimen, and cloth antimicrobial efficacy to determine which variables were the most significant drivers of the model’s outcomes. RESULTS When all other variables remained at baseline and cloth efficacy was at least 50%, patient compliance only had to be half of baseline (baseline mean, 15.3%; range, 8.23%–20.0%) for chlorhexidine cloths to remain the dominant strategy (ie, less costly and providing better health outcomes). When cloth efficacy fell to 10%, 1.5 times the baseline bathing compliance also afforded dominance of the preoperative bath. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study favor the routine distribution of bathing kits. Even with low patient compliance and cloth efficacy values, distribution of bathing kits is an economically beneficial strategy for the prevention of SSI. PMID:21515977

  1. [Implementation of a post-discharge surgical site infection system in herniorrhaphy and mastectomy procedures].

    PubMed

    San Juan Sanz, Isabel; Díaz-Agero-Pérez, Cristina; Robustillo-Rodela, Ana; Pita López, María José; Oliva Iñiguez, Lourdes; Monge-Jodrá, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring surgical site infection (SSI) performed during hospitalization can underestimate its rates due to the shortening in hospital stay. The aim of this study was to determine the actual rates of SSI using a post-discharge monitoring system. All patients who underwent herniorraphy or mastectomy in the Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2011 were included. SSI data were collected prospectively according to the continuous quality improvement indicators (Indicadores Clinicos de Mejora Continua de la Calidad [INCLIMECC]) monitoring system. Post-discharge follow-up was conducted by telephone survey. A total of 409patients were included in the study, of whom 299 underwent a herniorraphy procedure, and 110 underwent a mastectomy procedure. For herniorrhaphy, the SSI rate increased from 6.02% to 7.6% (the post-discharge survey detected 21.7% of SSI). For mastectomy, the SSI rate increased from 1.8% to 3.6% (the post-discharge survey detected 50% of SSI). Post-discharge monitoring showed an increased detection of SSI incidence. Post-discharge monitoring is useful to analyze the real trend of SSI, and evaluate improvement actions. Post-discharge follow-up methods need to standardised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Surgical Site Infection after Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery: Risk Assessment Using a New Scoring System

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Satoshi; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Setoguchi, Takao; Sasaki, Hiromi; Shimada, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Ichiro; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Kamizono, Junichi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Kawamura, Hideki; Komiya, Setsuro

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) has not been extensively studied in musculoskeletal tumors (MST) owing to the rarity of the disease. We analyzed incidence and risk factors of SSI in MST. SSI incidence was evaluated in consecutive 457 MST cases (benign, 310 cases and malignant, 147 cases) treated at our institution. A detailed analysis of the clinical background of the patients, pre- and postoperative hematological data, and other factors that might be associated with SSI incidence was performed for malignant MST cases. SSI occurred in 0.32% and 12.2% of benign and malignant MST cases, respectively. The duration of the surgery (P = 0.0002) and intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.0005) was significantly more in the SSI group than in the non-SSI group. We established the musculoskeletal oncological surgery invasiveness (MOSI) index by combining 4 risk factors (blood loss, operation duration, preoperative chemotherapy, and the use of artificial materials). The MOSI index (0–4 points) score significantly correlated with the risk of SSI, as demonstrated by an SSI incidence of 38.5% in the group with a high score (3-4 points). The MOSI index score and laboratory data at 1 week after surgery could facilitate risk evaluation and prompt diagnosis of SSI. PMID:24672281

  3. Socioeconomic effects of surgical site infection after cardiac surgery in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Junjiro; Kusachi, Shinya; Sawa, Yoshiki; Motomura, Noboru; Imoto, Yutaka; Makuuchi, Haruo; Tanemoto, Kazuo; Shimahara, Yusuke; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu

    2015-04-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) increases medical costs and prolongs hospitalization; however, there has been no multicenter study examining the socioeconomic effects of SSI after cardiovascular surgery in Japan. A retrospective 1:1 matched, case-controlled study on hospital stay and health care expenditure after cardiovascular surgery was performed in four hospitals. Patients selected for the study had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve surgery between April, 2006 and March, 2008. Data were obtained for 30 pairs of patients. The mean postoperative stay for the SSI group was 49.1 days, being 3.7 times longer than that for the non-SSI group. The mean postoperative health care expenditure for the SSI group was ¥ 2,763,000 (US$27,630), being five times higher than that for the non-SSI group. Charges for drug infusion and hospitalization for inpatient care were significantly higher for the SSI group than for the non-SSI group. The increased health care expenditure was mainly attributed to the cost of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. SSI after cardiovascular surgery not only prolonged the length of hospital stay, but also increased medical expenditure. Thus, the prevention of SSI after cardiovascular surgery is of great socioeconomic importance.

  4. Surgical site infections following colorectal surgery in patients with diabetes: association with postoperative hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Yarrow J; Johnson, Paul M; Porter, Geoff A

    2009-03-01

    Postoperative glycemic control reduces sternal infections following cardiac surgery in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between postoperative glycemic control and surgical site infections (SSI) in patients with DM undergoing colorectal resection. A cohort of patients with DM who underwent colorectal resection (April 2001-May 2006) at our institution were reviewed. SSI were defined by Centers for Disease Control criteria. From a study cohort of 149 patients, 24% had poor postoperative glycemic control (defined as a mean 48-h postoperative capillary glucose (MCG) >11.0 mmol/L or 200 mg/dL), and these patients developed SSI at a significantly higher rate than those with a 48-h MCG < or =11.0 mmol/L (29.7% vs. 14.3%; odds ratio (OR) 2.5, p = 0.03). On multivariate logistic regression, 48-h MCG >11.0 mmol/L was significantly associated with SSI (OR 3.6, p = 0.02), independent of the dose and regimen of postoperative insulin administration. In conclusion, 48-h MCG >11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) was independently associated with increased SSI following colorectal resection in patients with DM. Prospective studies are required to validate this relationship, address the role of preoperative glycemic control, and examine strategies to improve glycemic control following colorectal resection.

  5. Delayed Propionibacterium acnes surgical site infections occur only in the presence of an implant

    PubMed Central

    Shiono, Yuta; Ishii, Ken; Nagai, Shigenori; Kakinuma, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Aya; Funao, Haruki; Kuramoto, Tetsuya; Yoshioka, Kenji; Ishihama, Hiroko; Isogai, Norihiro; Takeshima, Kenichiro; Tsuji, Takashi; Okada, Yasunori; Koyasu, Shigeo; Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Aizawa, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Morio

    2016-01-01

    Whether Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) causes surgical-site infections (SSI) after orthopedic surgery is controversial. We previously reported that we frequently find P. acnes in intraoperative specimens, yet none of the patients have clinically apparent infections. Here, we tracked P. acnes for 6 months in a mouse osteomyelitis model. We inoculated P. acnes with an implant into the mouse femur in the implant group; the control group was treated with the bacteria but no implant. We then observed over a 6-month period using optical imaging system. During the first 2 weeks, bacterial signals were detected in the femur in the both groups. The bacterial signal completely disappeared in the control group within 28 days. Interestingly, in the implant group, bacterial signals were still present 6 months after inoculation. Histological and scanning electron-microscope analyses confirmed that P. acnes was absent from the control group 6 months after inoculation, but in the implant group, the bacteria had survived in a biofilm around the implant. PCR analysis also identified P. acnes in the purulent effusion from the infected femurs in the implant group. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that P. acnes causes SSI only in the presence of an implant. PMID:27615686

  6. Laparoscopic Repair Reduces Incidence of Surgical Site Infections for All Ventral Hernias

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Nestor A.; Nguyen, Mylan T.; Nguyen, Duyen H.; Berger, Rachel L.; Lew, Debbie F.; Suliburk, James T.; Askenasy, Erik P.; Kao, Lillian S.; Liang, Mike K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of laparoscopic repair of ventral hernias remains incompletely defined. We hypothesize that laparoscopy, compared to open repair with mesh, decreases surgical site infection (SSI) for all ventral hernia types. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were reviewed to identify studies evaluating outcomes of laparoscopic versus open repair with mesh of ventral hernias and divided into groups (primary or incisional). Studies with high risk of bias were excluded. Primary outcomes of interest were recurrence and SSI. Fixed effects model was used unless significant heterogeneity, assessed with the Higgins I-square (I2), was encountered. Results There were five and fifteen studies for primary and incisional cohorts. No difference was seen in recurrence between laparoscopic and open repair in the two hernia groups. SSI was more common with open repair in both hernia groups: primary (OR 4.17, 95%CI [2.03–8.55]) and incisional (OR 5.16, 95%CI [2.79–9.57]). Conclusions Laparoscopic repair, compared to open repair with mesh, decreases rates of SSI in all types of ventral hernias with no difference in recurrence. This data suggests that laparoscopic approach may be the treatment of choice for all types of ventral hernias. PMID:25294541

  7. A surgical site infection cluster: the process and outcome of an investigation--the impact of an alcohol-based surgical antisepsis product and human behavior.

    PubMed

    Haessler, Sarah; Connelly, Neil Roy; Kanter, Gary; Fitzgerald, Jan; Scales, Mary Ellen; Golubchik, Anneta; Albert, Michael; Gibson, Charles

    2010-04-01

    The institution of a process used to successfully execute a perioperative antibiotic administration system is but 1 component of preventing postoperative infections. Continued surveillance of infections is an important part of the process of decreasing postoperative infections. We recently experienced an increase in the number of postoperative infections in our patients. Using standard infection control methods of outbreak investigation, we tracked multiple variables to search for a common cause. We describe herein the process by which Quality Improvement methodology was used to investigate and manage this surgical site infection (SSI) cluster. As part of routine surveillance for SSI, the infection control division seeks out evidence of postoperative infections. Patients were defined as having an SSI according to National Healthcare Safety Network SSI criteria. SSI data are reviewed monthly and aggregated on a quarterly basis. The SSI rate was above our usual level for 3 consecutive quarters of 2007. This increase in the infection rate led to an internal outbreak investigation, termed a "cluster investigation." This investigation comprised multiple concurrent methods including manual chart review of all cases; review of microbiological data; and inspection of operating rooms, instrument processing facilities, and storage areas. During 3 quarters, a trend emerged in our general surgical population that demonstrated that 4 surgical types had a sustained increase in SSI. The institutional antibiotic protocol was appropriate for prevention of the majority of these SSIs. As part of the investigation, direct observation of hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis technique was undertaken. At this time, there were 2 types of surgical hand preparation being used, at the discretion of the clinician: either a "standard" scrub with an antimicrobial soap or the application of a chlorhexidine gluconate and alcohol-based surgical hand antisepsis product. Observers noted

  8. Improving Readiness and Reducing Costs: An Analysis of Factors That Influence Site Selection for Army Outpatient Surgical Services.

    PubMed

    Little, Katherine E; Martinez, Katie M; Forman, Jessica L; Richter, Jason P; Wade, Michael L

    The variable costs of providing surgical procedures for military beneficiaries are greater when care is rendered in the civilian purchased care network than when provided at a direct care military treatment facility (MTF). To reduce healthcare-related costs, retaining surgical services is a priority at MTFs across the U.S. Army Medical Command. This study is the first to identify factors significantly associated with outpatient surgical service site selection in the military health system (MHS). We analyzed 1,000,305 patient encounters in fiscal year 2014, of which 970,367 were direct care encounters and 29,938 were purchased care encounters. We used multiple binomial logistic regression to assess and compare the odds of site selection at a purchased care facility and an MTF. We found that an increase in provider administrative time (OR = 1.024, p < .001) and an increase in case complexity (OR = 1.334, p < .001) were associated with increased odds that an outpatient surgical service was provided in a purchased care setting. The increased odds that highly complex cases were seen in purchased care has the potential to affect the medical readiness of military providers and the efficacy of graduate medical education programs. Healthcare administrators can use the results of this study to develop and implement MTF level policies to enhance outpatient surgical service practices in the Army medical system. These efforts may reduce costs and increase military provider medical readiness.

  9. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection in Patients Undergoing Sacral Nerve Modulation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Brueseke, Taylor; Livingston, Briana; Warda, Hussein; Osann, Kathryn; Noblett, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for surgical site infection in patients undergoing sacral nerve modulation (SNM) surgery. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 290 patients undergoing a total of 669 SNM procedures between 2002 and 2012 by 2 fellowship-trained female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery attending physicians at the University of California-Irvine Medical Center. Infection was defined as a charted abnormal examination finding at the implantation site (erythema, induration, purulent discharge) resulting in prescription of antibiotics, hospitalization, or explantation. We extracted information from the medical record regarding possible risk factors for infection including age, body mass index, immunosuppression (diabetes mellitus, chronic steroid use, smoker, chemotherapy), number of procedures per patient, and number of days between stages 1 and 2. In addition, we compared infection rates before and after 2008 when a clinical practice change was made with the implementation of home chlorhexidine washing (CHW) prior to SNM surgery. Thirty infections occurred, 25 of which were managed with oral antibiotics. Nine required intravenous antibiotics, and 11 required removal of the implanted device. Three patients experienced infection on 2 separate occasions. Seventeen infections had culture data available. Nine of the patients who underwent explantation had wound cultures positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.Thirteen of the 26 patients who developed infection had medical histories significant for immunosuppression. Three patients developed late-onset abscess formation at 234, 257, and 687 days after stage 2, respectively. The median time between the most recent SNM procedure and development of infection was 14 days (range, 6-88 days).Body mass index and immunosuppression were significant predictors of infection, whereas age, parity, indication for procedure, and number of days between stages 1 and 2 were

  10. Abdominal Hysterectomy: Reduced Risk of Surgical Site Infection Associated with Robotic and Laparoscopic Technique.

    PubMed

    Colling, Kristin P; Glover, James K; Statz, Catherine A; Geller, Melissa A; Beilman, Greg J

    2015-10-01

    Hysterectomy is one of the most common procedures performed in the United States. New techniques utilizing laparoscopic and robotic technology are becoming increasingly common. It is unknown if these minimally invasive surgical techniques alter the risk of surgical site infections (SSI). We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy at our institution between January 2011 and June 2013. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth edition (ICD-9) codes and chart review were used to identify patients undergoing hysterectomy by open, laparoscopic, or robotic approach and to identify patients who developed SSI subsequently. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to identify univariate risk factors and logistic regression was used to perform multivariable analysis. During this time period, 986 patients were identified who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy, with 433 receiving open technique (44%), 116 laparoscopic (12%), 407 robotic (41%), and 30 cases that were converted from minimally invasive to open (3%). Patients undergoing laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy were significantly younger and had lower body mass index (BMI) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores than those undergoing open or robotic hysterectomy. There were no significant differences between patients undergoing open versus robotic hysterectomy. The post-operative hospital stay was significantly longer for open procedures compared with those using laparoscopic or robotic techniques (5.1, 1.7, and 1.6 d, respectively; p<0.0001). The overall rate of SSI after all hysterectomy procedures was 4.2%. More SSI occurred in open cases (6.5%) than laparoscopic (0%) or robotic (2.2%) (p<0.0001). Cases converted to open also had an increased rate of SSI (13.3%). In both univariate and multivariable analyses, open technique, wound class of III/IV, age greater than 75 y, and morbid obesity were all associated with increased risk of

  11. Predictors of Surgical Site Infection after Hospital Discharge in Patients Undergoing Major Vascular Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wiseman, Jason T.; Fernandes-Taylor, Sara; Barnes, Maggie L.; Saunders, R. Scott; Saha, Sandeep; Havlena, Jeffrey; Rathouz, Paul J.; Kent, K. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Objective Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common post-operative complications following vascular reconstruction, producing significant morbidity and hospital readmission. In contrast to SSI that develops while patients are still hospitalized, little is known about the cohort of patients that develop SSI following discharge. In this study, we explore the factors that lead to post-discharge SSI, investigate the differences between risk factors for in-hospital versus post-discharge SSI, and develop a scoring system to identify patients that might benefit from post-discharge monitoring of their wounds. Methods Patients who underwent major vascular surgery from 2005–2012 for aneurysm and lower extremity occlusive disease were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Files. Patients were categorized as having no SSI, in-hospital SSI, or SSI after hospital discharge. Predictors of post-discharge SSI were determined by multivariable logistic regression and internally validated by bootstrap resampling. Risk scores were assigned to all significant variables in the model. Summative risk scores were collapsed into quartile-based ordinal categories and defined as low-, low/moderate-, moderate/high-, and high-risk. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of in-hospital SSI. Results Of the 49,817 patients who underwent major vascular surgery, 4,449 (8.9%) were diagnosed with SSI (2.1% in-hospital; 6.9% post-discharge). By multivariable analysis, factors significantly associated with increased odds of post-discharge SSI include female gender, obesity, diabetes, smoking, hypertension, coronary artery disease, critical limb ischemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyspnea, neurological disease, prolonged operative time >4 hours, American Society of Anesthesiology classification IV or V, lower extremity revascularization or aortoiliac procedure, and groin

  12. Diagnoses influence surgical site infections (SSI) in colorectal surgery: a must consideration for SSI reporting programs?

    PubMed

    Pendlimari, Rajesh; Cima, Robert R; Wolff, Bruce G; Pemberton, John H; Huebner, Marianne

    2012-04-01

    Colorectal surgery is associated with high rates of surgical site infection (SSI). The National Surgery Quality Improvement Program is a validated, risk-adjusted quality-improvement program for surgical patients. Patient stratification and risk adjustment are associated with Current Procedural Terminology codes and primary disease diagnosis is not considered. Our aim was to determine the association between disease diagnosis and SSI rates. Data from all 2009 National Surgery Quality Improvement Program institutions were analyzed. ICD-9 codes were used to differentiate patients into cancer (colon or rectal), ulcerative colitis, regional enteritis, diverticular disease, and others. Diagnosis-specific SSI rates were compared with benign neoplasm, which had the lowest rate (8.9%). Logistic regression was performed adjusting for age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, wound type, and relative value unit. There were 24,673 colorectal procedures, with 1,956 superficial incisional (SSSI), 398 deep incisional (DSSI), and 1,096 organ/space (O/SSSI) infections. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals compared with benign neoplasm diagnosis were computed after adjustment for each diagnosis category. In rectal cancer patients, significantly more SSSI (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1; p < 0.0001), DSSI (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7; p = 0.006), and O/SSSI (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6-3.0; p < 0.0001) developed. In diverticular patients, more SSSI (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0; p < 0.0001), but not DSSI or O/SSSI, developed. In ulcerative colitis patients, more DSSI (OR = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; p = 0.01), O/SSSI (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1; p = 0.0004), but fewer SSSIs, developed. We found that SSI type is associated with the underlying disease diagnosis. To facilitate colorectal SSI-reduction efforts, the disease process must be considered to design appropriate interventions. In addition, institutional comparisons based on aggregate or stratified SSI rates

  13. Influence of Peri-Operative Hypothermia on Surgical Site Infection in Prolonged Gastroenterological Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Toshie; Takesue, Yoshio; Ichiki, Kaoru; Uede, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhiko; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Uchino, Motoi

    2016-10-01

    There have been several recent studies on the correlation between intra-operative hypothermia and the occurrence of surgical site infection (SSI). Differences in the depth and timing of hypothermia and the surgical procedure may have led to conflicting results. Patients undergoing gastroenterologic surgery with a duration of >3 h were analyzed. Hypothermia was defined as a core temperature <36°C and was classified as mild (35.5-35.9°C), moderate (35.0-35.4°C), or severe (<35.0°C). Hypothermia also was classified as early-nadir (<36°C within two h of anesthesia induction) and late-nadir (after that time). Risk factors for SSIs were analyzed according to these classifications. Among 1,409 patients, 528 (37.5%) had hypothermia, which was classified as mild in 358, moderate in 137, and severe in 33. Early-nadir and late-nadir hypothermia was found in 23.7% and 13.8%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of SSIs between patients with and without hypothermia (relative risk 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.25; p = 0.997). However, there was a significantly greater incidence of SSIs in patients with severe hypothermia (33.3%) than in those with normothermia (19.2%; p = 0.045) or mild hypothermia (17.0%; p = 0.021). The incidence of SSIs also was significantly greater in patients with late-nadir than in those with early-nadir hypothermia (23.7% vs. 16.5%; p = 0.041). The incidence of organ/space SSIs was significantly greater in patients with late-nadir hypothermia (19.6%) than in patients with normothermia (12.7%; p = 0.012). In multivariable analysis, neither severe hypothermia (odds ratio 1.24; 95% CI 0.56-2.77] nor late-nadir hypothermia (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.46-1.01) was an independent risk factor for SSIs. Severe and late-nadir hypothermia were associated with a greater incidence of SSIs and organ/space SSIs. However, neither of these patterns was identified as an independent risk factor for SSIs, possibly

  14. Morbidity associated with 30-day surgical site infection following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Rocque, Brandon G

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Morbidity associated with surgical site infection (SSI) following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgical procedures is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze acute morbidity and mortality associated with SSI after nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide cohort. METHODS The authors reviewed data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) 2012-2014 database, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients. Procedures were categorized by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. CSF shunts were excluded. Deep and superficial SSIs occurring within 30 days of an index procedure were identified. Deep SSIs included deep wound infections, intracranial abscesses, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and ventriculitis. The following outcomes occurring within 30 days of an index procedure were analyzed, along with postoperative time to complication development: sepsis, wound disruption, length of postoperative stay, readmission, reoperation, and death. RESULTS A total of 251 procedures associated with a 30-day SSI were identified (2.7% of 9296 procedures). Superficial SSIs were more common than deep SSIs (57.4% versus 42.6%). Deep SSIs occurred more frequently after epilepsy or intracranial tumor procedures. Superficial SSIs occurred more frequently after skin lesion, spine, Chiari decompression, craniofacial, and myelomeningocele closure procedures. The mean (± SD) postoperative length of stay for patients with any SSI was 9.6 ± 14.8 days (median 4 days). Post-SSI outcomes significantly associated with previous SSI included wound disruption (12.4%), sepsis (15.5%), readmission (36.7%), and reoperation (43.4%) (p < 0.001 for each). Post-SSI sepsis rates (6.3% vs 28.0% for superficial versus deep SSI, respectively; p < 0.001), wound disruption rates (4.9% vs 22.4%, p < 0.001), and reoperation rates (23.6% vs 70.1%, p < 0.001) were significantly greater for patients

  15. Morbidity associated with 30-day surgical site infection following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Sherrod, Brandon A.; Rocque, Brandon G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Morbidity associated with surgical site infection (SSI) following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgical procedures is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze acute morbidity and mortality associated with SSI after nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide cohort. Methods The authors reviewed data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric (NSQIP-P) 2012–2014 database, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients. Procedures were categorized by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. CSF shunts were excluded. Deep and superficial SSIs occurring within 30 days of an index procedure were identified. Deep SSIs included deep wound infections, intracranial abscesses, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and ventriculitis. The following outcomes occurring within 30 days of an index procedure were analyzed, along with postoperative time to complication development: sepsis, wound disruption, length of postoperative stay, readmission, reoperation, and death. Results A total of 251 procedures associated with a 30-day SSI were identified (2.7% of 9296 procedures). Superficial SSIs were more common than deep SSIs (57.4% versus 42.6%). Deep SSIs occurred more frequently after epilepsy or intracranial tumor procedures. Superficial SSIs occurred more frequently after skin lesion, spine, Chiari decompression, craniofacial, and myelomeningocele closure procedures. The mean (± SD) postoperative length of stay for patients with any SSI was 9.6 ± 14.8 days (median 4 days). Post-SSI outcomes significantly associated with previous SSI included wound disruption (12.4%), sepsis (15.5%), readmission (36.7%), and reoperation (43.4%) (p < 0.001 for each). Post-SSI sepsis rates (6.3% vs 28.0% for superficial versus deep SSI, respectively; p < 0.001), wound disruption rates (4.9% vs 22.4%, p < 0.001), and reoperation rates (23.6% vs 70.1%, p < 0.001) were significantly greater for

  16. Preoperative skin antiseptics for preventing surgical site infections: what to do?

    PubMed

    Poulin, Paule; Chapman, Kelly; McGahan, Lynda; Austen, Lea; Schuler, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    Safe and effective patient preoperative skin antisepsis is recommended to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs), reduce patient morbidity, and reduce systemic costs. However, there is lack of consensus among best practice recommendations regarding the optimal skin antiseptic solution and method of application. In 2010 and 2011 the health technology appraisal committee of the Surgery Operational Clinical Network (SOCN), of Alberta Health Services (AHS), conducted an environmental scan to determine the current preoperative skin antisepsis in Alberta, reviewed key publications and existing guidelines, and requested a systematic review from the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). Using this information, and an established protocol for evidence-informed recommendations, the health technology appraisal committee made recommendations that were, in 2012, reviewed and endorsed by the SOCN executive and the AHS-Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) group. The environmental scan revealed practice variation in the types of antiseptic solutions and application methods being used in the 18 Alberta hospitals surveyed. The systematic review suggested that preoperative antiseptic showering reduces skin flora but the effect on SSI rates was inconclusive. While the review found no conclusive evidence to recommend an optimal antiseptic solution or application method, the results of two large randomized controlled trials suggest that chlorhexidine in 70% alcohol is more effective than povidone iodine in the prevention of SSIs. These results and the recommendations from Safer Healthcare Now!, a program of the Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI), were used to inform the recommendations for AHS. These recommendations included abandoning preoperative showering with antiseptics except for special cases (high-risk surgeries such as sternotomies and implants as recommended by IPC) and standardizing skin antiseptic application methods and solution to

  17. Stratification of Surgical Site Infection by Operative Factors and Comparison of Infection Rates after Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Margaret A.; Nickel, Katelin B.; Wallace, Anna E.; Mines, Daniel; Fraser, Victoria J.; Warren, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The National Healthcare Safety Network does not risk adjust surgical site infection (SSI) rates after hernia repair by operative factors. We investigated whether operative factors are associated with risk of SSI after hernia repair. Design Retrospective cohort study. Patients Commercially-insured enrollees aged 6 months–64 years with ICD-9-CM procedure or CPT-4 codes for inguinal/femoral, umbilical, and incisional/ventral hernia repair procedures from 1/1/2004–12/31/2010. Methods SSIs within 90 days after hernia repair were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to compare SSI incidence by operative factors. Results A total of 119,973 hernia repair procedures were included in the analysis. The incidence of SSI differed significantly by anatomic site, with rates of 0.45% (352/77,666) for inguinal/femoral, 1.16% (288/24,917) for umbilical, and 4.11% (715/17,390) for incisional/ventral hernia repair. Within anatomic sites, the incidence of SSI was significantly higher for open versus laparoscopic inguinal/femoral (0.48% [295/61,142] versus 0.34% [57/16,524], p=0.020) and incisional/ventral (4.20% [701/16,699] versus 2.03% [14/691], p=0.005) hernia repairs. The rate of SSI was higher following procedures with bowel obstruction/necrosis than procedures without obstruction/necrosis for open inguinal/femoral (0.89% [48/5,422] versus 0.44% [247/55,720], p<0.001) and umbilical (1.57% [131/8,355] versus 0.95% [157/16,562], p<0.001), but not incisional/ventral hernia repair (4.01% [224/5,585] versus 4.16% [491/11,805], p=0.645). Conclusions The incidence of SSI was highest after open procedures, incisional/ventral repairs, and hernia repairs with bowel obstruction/necrosis. Our findings suggest that stratification of hernia repair SSI rates by some operative factors may be important to facilitate accurate comparison of SSI rates between facilities. PMID:25695175

  18. Surgical and Antimicrobial Treatment of Prosthetic Vascular Graft Infections at Different Surgical Sites: A Retrospective Study of Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Elzi, Luigia; Gurke, Lorenz; Battegay, Manuel; Widmer, Andreas F.; Weisser, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about optimal management of prosthetic vascular graft infections, which are a rare but serious complication associated with graft implants. The goal of this study was to compare and characterize these infections with respect to the location of the graft and to identify factors associated with outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study over more than a decade at a tertiary care university hospital that has an established multidisciplinary approach to treating graft infections. Cases of possible prosthetic vascular graft infection were identified from the hospital's infectious diseases database and evaluated against strict diagnostic criteria. Patients were divided into groups according to the locations of their grafts: thoracic-aortic, abdominal-aortic, or peripheral-arterial. Statistical analyses included evaluation of patient and infection characteristics, time to treatment failure, and factors associated specifically with cure rates in aortic graft infections. The primary endpoint was cure at one year after diagnosis of the infection. Results Characterization of graft infections according to the graft location did show that these infections differ in terms of their characteristics and that the prognosis for treatment seems to be influenced by the location of the infection. Cure rate and all-cause mortality at one year were 87.5% and 12.5% in 24 patients with thoracic-aortic graft infections, 37.0% and 55.6% in 27 patients with abdominal-aortic graft infections, and 70.0% and 30.0% in 10 patients with peripheral-arterial graft infections. In uni- and multivariate analysis, the type of surgical intervention used in managing infections (graft retention versus graft replacement) did not affect primary outcome, whereas a rifampicin-based antimicrobial regimen was associated with a higher cure rate. Conclusions We recommend that future prospective studies differentiate prosthetic vascular graft infections according to the location of the

  19. Surgical Site Infections Rates in More Than 13,000 Surgical Procedures in Three Cities in Peru: Findings of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Wong, Fernando M; Atencio-Espinoza, Teodora; Rosenthal, Victor D; Ramirez, Eliza; Torres-Zegarra, Socorro L; Díaz Tavera, Zoila Rosa; Sarmiento López, Favio; Silva Astete, Nazario; Campos Guevara, Francisco; Bazan Mendoza, Carlos; Valencia Ramírez, Augusto; Soto Pastrana, Javier

    2015-10-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a threat to patient safety. However, there are not available data on SSI rates stratified by surgical procedure (SP) in Peru. From January 2005 to December 2010, a cohort prospective surveillance study on SSIs was conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in four hospitals in three cities of Peru. Data were recorded from hospitalized patients using the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) methods and definitions for SSI. Surgical procedures (SPs) were classified into 4 types, according to ICD-9 criteria. We recorded 352 SSIs, associated to 13,904 SPs (2.5%; CI, 2.3-2.8) SSI rates per type of SP were the following for this study's Peruvian hospitals, compared with rates of the INICC and CDC-NHSN reports, respectively: 2.9% for appendix surgery (vs. 2.9% vs. 1.4%); 2.8% for gallbladder surgery (vs. 2.5% vs. 0.6%); 2.2% for cesarean section (vs. 0.7% vs. 1.8%); 2.8% for vaginal hysterectomy (vs. 2.0% vs. 0.9%). Our SSIs rates were higher in all of the four analyzed types of SPs compared with CDC-NHSN, whereas compared with INICC, most rates were similar. This study represents an important advance in the knowledge of SSI epidemiology in Peru that will allow us to introduce targeted interventions.

  20. [Surgical Site Infections after Open Appendectomy and Effectiveness of Complex Approach to Their Prevention].

    PubMed

    Golub, A V; Kozlov, R S; Pleshkov, V G; Moskalev, A P; Alibegov, R A; Chelombitko, M A

    2016-01-01

    To assess an incidence rate of surgical site infections (SSI) after open appendectomy and effectiveness of combined preventive measures (CPM). This study was performed at three surgical departments of Smolensk hospitals. A total of 150 consecutive patients (50 at each department) hospitalized since January 2012 were included into the retrospective observation (period I). In order to perform prospective evaluation of CPM, a total of 66 consecutive patients (randomized 1:1) hospitalized since December 2012 (period II) were followed up at each of the departments. Antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) with IV amoxicillin/clavulanate (1.2 g) was planned for all patients from period II. The study group (group 1) included patients with surgical wound closure with triclosan-coated polyglactin 910 and additionally with a skin 2-octylcyanoacrylate-based adhesive. The control group (group 2) included patients with surgical wound closure with non-triclosan-coated polyglactin 910. Each patient from the period II was assigned to an "Individual SSI Prevention Package" (IPP), which included an antibiotic, sutures, skin adhesive (only in a package for CPM) and label "AP" for patients' medical records. Patients' medical records were reviewed by one expert. Exclusion criteria were: age <14 years; transition to midline laparotomy; drainage of the abdominal cavity through the surgical wound; simultaneous interventions; secondary appendicitis; refusal to use of sutures from the IPP. In order to determine signs of SSI presence/absence within 30 days after surgery, attempts to contact with patients by phone were made. The data obtained was recorded into case report forms and then entered into the study database. A total of 322 patients were included into the final analysis (mean age: 34.8±17.1 years). The mean length of hospital stay was 8.2±2.5 days. The mean duration of hospital stay with or without SSI was 7.9±1.8 and 14.2±4.0 days, respectively (p<0.001). The AP during the periods I and II

  1. Improving wound healing and preventing surgical site complications of closed surgical incisions: a possible role of Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy. A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Alessandro; Calamita, Roberto; Tartaglione, Caterina; Pierangeli, Marina; Bolletta, Elisa; Gioacchini, Matteo; Gesuita, Rosaria; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Advances in preoperative care, surgical techniques and technologies have enabled surgeons to achieve primary closure in a high percentage of surgical procedures. However, often, underlying patient comorbidities in addition to surgical-related factors make the management of surgical wounds primary closure challenging because of the higher risk of developing complications. To date, extensive evidence exists, which demonstrate the benefits of negative pressure dressing in the treatment of open wounds; recently, Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (INPWT) technology as delivered by Prevena™ (KCI USA, Inc., San Antonio, TX) and Pico (Smith & Nephew Inc, Andover, MA) systems has been the focus of a new investigation on possible prophylactic measures to prevent complications via application immediately after surgery in high-risk, clean, closed surgical incisions. A systematic review was performed to evaluate INPWT's effect on surgical sites healing by primary intention. The primary outcomes of interest are an understanding of INPWT functioning and mechanisms of action, extrapolated from animal and biomedical engineering studies and incidence of complications (infection, dehiscence, seroma, hematoma, skin and fat necrosis, skin and fascial dehiscence or blistering) and other variables influenced by applying INPWT (re-operation and re-hospitalization rates, time to dry wound, cost saving) extrapolated from human studies. A search was conducted for published articles in various databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Scopus Database from 2006 to March 2014. Supplemental searches were performed using reference lists and conference proceedings. Studies selection was based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria and data extraction regarding study quality, model investigated, epidemiological and clinical characteristics and type of surgery, and the outcomes were applied to all the articles included. 1 biomedical engineering study, 2 animal studies, 15

  2. Does Preadmission Cutaneous Chlorhexidine Preparation Reduce Surgical Site Infections After Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Zhou, Peter L; Jauregui, Julio J; Mont, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Many preventive methodologies seek to reduce the risk of surgical site infections after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), including the use of preoperative chlorhexidine baths and cloths. Although we have demonstrated in previous studies that this may be an efficacious method for infection prevention, our study was underpowered and we therefore set out to evaluate this with a larger sample size. (1) Does a preadmission chlorhexidine cloth skin preparation protocol decrease the risk of surgical site infection in patients undergoing TKA? (2) When stratified using the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) risk categories, which categories are associated with risk reduction from the preadmission chlorhexidine preparation protocol? In our study, all patients (3717 total) who had undergone primary or revision TKA at a single institution between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013, were identified, of whom 991 patients used the chlorhexidine cloths before surgery and 2726 patients did not. All patients were provided cloths with instructions before surgery; however, as a result of a lack of compliance, we were able to substratify patients into treatment and control cohorts. Additionally, we substratified patients by NHSN risk category to determine differences in infection between the two cohorts (cloth versus no cloth). Patient medical records and an infection-tracking database were reviewed to determine the development of periprosthetic infection (patients who had superficial infections were excluded from our study) in both groups after 1 year surveillance. We then calculated relative risk reductions with use of chlorhexidine gluconate and stratified results based on NHSN risk category. Use of a preoperative chlorhexidine cloth skin preparation protocol is associated with reduced relative risk of periprosthetic infection after TKA (infections with protocol: three of 991 [0.3%]; infections in control: 52 of 2726 [1.9%]; relative risk [RR]: 6.3 [95% confidence interval

  3. Surgical site infections after lower extremity revascularization procedures involving groin incisions.

    PubMed

    Kuy, SreyRam; Dua, Anahita; Desai, Sapan; Dua, Arshish; Patel, Bhavin; Tondravi, Nader; Seabrook, Gary R; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Lee, Cheong J; Kuy, SreyReath; Subbarayan, Rishi; Rossi, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the incidence, epidemiology, and factors associated with surgical site infections (SSIs) after lower extremity revascularization procedures involving groin incisions and determine outcomes based on SSI status. This is a single-institution, retrospective cohort study of 106 patients who underwent lower extremity revascularization procedures involving femoral artery exposure through a groin incision at a tertiary referral hospital. The primary outcome was occurrence of SSI at the groin wound. The duration of hospital stay, reoperation within 30 days, discharge disposition, and 30-day mortality were also evaluated. Independent variables included patient demographics and operative variables (i.e., procedure type, transfusion requirements, preoperative antibiotics, intraoperative vasopressors, and operative duration). Statistical analysis included chi-squared tests, t-tests, and multivariable regression analysis. Of the 106 patients who underwent a lower extremity revascularization procedure with a groin incision for femoral artery exposure, 62% were male, and the mean age was 62 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (93%), dyslipidemia (65%), statin use (63%), active smoker (50%), diabetes (24%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (23%). All patients received preoperative antibiotics, 50% required intraoperative pressors, 21% received a blood transfusion, and the mean operative time was 296 min. The overall duration of stay was 10.7 days, the 30-day reoperation rate was 18%, and the 30-day mortality rate was 12%. Overall, 22% developed a seroma or hematoma, and 31% developed a SSI. Patients who developed an SSI compared with those who did not were more likely to have a postoperative seroma or hematoma (55% vs 5%) and to receive a blood transfusion (33% vs 15%), but less likely to be treated with a statin (47% vs 69%) or carry a diagnosis of dyslipidemia (50% vs 72%), respectively, all P < 0.05. Patients with an SSI had a longer

  4. Distinction of Risk Factors for Superficial vs Organ-Space Surgical Site Infections After Pancreatic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Irmina A; Chan, Carmen; Russell, Tara A; Dann, Amanda M; Williams, Jennifer L; Damato, Lauren; Chung, Hallie; Girgis, Mark D; Hines, O Joe; Reber, Howard A; Donahue, Timothy R

    2017-07-12

    Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are increasingly used as a quality metric. However, risk factors for SSI in pancreatic surgery remain undefined. To stratify superficial and organ-space SSIs after pancreatectomy and investigate their modifiable risk factors. This retrospective analysis included 201 patients undergoing pancreatic surgery at a university-based tertiary referral center from July 1, 2013, through June 30, 2015, and 10 371 patients from National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Hepatopancreaticobiliary (NSQIP-HPB) Collaborative sites from January 1, 2014, through December 31, 2015. Superficial, deep-incisional, and organ-space SSIs, as defined by NSQIP. Among the 201 patients treated at the single center (108 men [53.7%] and 93 women [46.3%]; median age, 48.6 years [IQR, 41.4-57.3 years]), 58 had any SSI (28.9%); 28 (13.9%), superficial SSI; 8 (4%), deep-incisional SSI; and 24 (11.9%), organ-space SSI. Independent risk factors for superficial SSI were preoperative biliary stenting (odds ratio [OR], 4.81; 95% CI, 1.25-18.56; P = .02) and use of immunosuppressive corticosteroids (OR, 13.42; 95% CI, 1.64-109.72; P = .02), whereas soft gland texture was the only risk factor for organ-space SSI (OR, 4.45; 95% CI, 1.35-14.66; P = .01). Most patients with organ-space infections also had grades B/C fistulae (15 of 24 [62.5%] vs 4 of 143 [2.8%] in patients with no SSI; P < .001). Organ/space but not superficial SSI was associated with an increased rate of sepsis (7 of 24 [29.2%] vs 4 of 143 [2.8%]; P < .001) and prolonged length of hospital stay (12 vs 8 days; P = .04). Among patients in the NSQIP-HPB Collaborative, 2057 (19.8%) had any SSI; 719 (6.9%), superficial SSI; 207 (2%), deep-incisional SSI; and 1287 (12.4%), organ-space SSI. Preoperative biliary stenting was confirmed as an independent risk factor for superficial SSI (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.58-2.71; P < .001). In this larger data set, soft gland texture was an

  5. Staphylococcus aureus screening and decolonization in orthopaedic surgery and reduction of surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Chen, Antonia F; Wessel, Charles B; Rao, Nalini

    2013-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism responsible for orthopaedic surgical site infections (SSIs). Patients who are carriers for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus or methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) have a higher likelihood of having invasive S. aureus infections. Although some have advocated screening for S. aureus and decolonizing it is unclear whether these efforts reduce SSIs. The purposes of this study were to determine (1) whether S. aureus screening and decolonization reduce SSIs in orthopaedic patients and (2) if implementing this protocol is cost-effective. Studies for this systematic review were identified by searching PubMed, which includes MEDLINE (1946-present), EMBASE.com (1974-present), and the Cochrane Library's (John Wiley & Sons) Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessment Database (HTAD), and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHSEED). Comprehensive literature searches were developed using EMTREE, MeSH, and keywords for each of the search concepts of decolonization, MRSA, and orthopedics/orthopedic surgery. Studies published before 1968 were excluded. We analyzed 19 studies examining the ability of the decolonization protocol to reduce SSIs and 10 studies detailing the cost-effectiveness of S. aureus screening and decolonization. All 19 studies showed a reduction in SSIs or wound complications by instituting a S. aureus screening and decolonization protocol in elective orthopaedic (total joints, spine, and sports) and trauma patients. The S. aureus screening and decolonization protocol also saved costs in orthopaedic patients when comparing the costs of screening and decolonization with the reduction of SSIs. Preoperative screening and decolonization of S. aureus in orthopaedic patients is a cost-effective means to reduce SSIs. Level IV, systematic review of Level I-IV studies. See the

  6. An intraoperative irrigation regimen to reduce the surgical site infection rate following adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery

    PubMed Central

    van Herwijnen, B; Evans, NR; Dare, CJ; Davies, EM

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a gentamicin antibiotic intraoperative irrigation regimen (regimen A) with a povidone-iodine intraoperative irrigation regimen (regimen B) and to evaluate the ability of adjunctive local vancomycin powder (regimen C) to reduce the surgical site infection (SSI) rate following idiopathic scoliosis correction. Methods This was a retrospective, single centre, two-surgeon cohort study of paediatric scoliosis procedures involving 118 patients under the age of 18 years who underwent correction for idiopathic scoliosis over a period of 42 months. Patients’ baseline characteristics, pseudarthrosis and rates of SSI were compared. Results Baseline characteristics were comparable in all three groups, with the exception of sex distribution. Over a quarter (27%) of patients with regimen B were male compared with 13% and 6% for regimens A and C respectively. Patients were mostly followed up for a minimum of 12 months. The SSI rate for both superficial and deep infections was higher with regimen A (26.7%) than with regimens B and C (7.0% and 6.3% respectively). The SSI rates for regimens B and C were comparable. No patients developed complications related to vancomycin toxicity, metalwork failure or pseudarthrosis. Conclusions Wound irrigation with a povidone-iodine solution reduces SSIs following adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery. The direct application of vancomycin powder to the wound is safe but does not reduce the SSI rate further in low risk patients. Additional studies are needed to elucidate whether it is effective at higher doses and in high risk patient groups. PMID:27087324

  7. Orthopaedic surgical site infection surveillance in NHS England: national audit of current practice.

    PubMed

    Tissingh, E K; Sudlow, A; Jones, A; Nolan, J F

    2017-02-01

    The importance of accurate identification and reporting of surgical site infection (SSI) is well recognised but poorly defined. Public Health England (PHE) mandated collection of orthopaedic SSI data in 2004. Data submission is required in one of four categories (hip prosthesis, knee prosthesis, repair of neck of femur, reduction of long bone fracture) for one quarter per year. Trusts are encouraged to carry out post-discharge surveillance but this is not mandatory. Recent papers in the orthopaedic literature have highlighted the importance of SSI surveillance and the heterogeneity of surveillance methods. However, details of current orthopaedic SSI surveillance practice has not been described or quantified. All 147 NHS trusts in England were audited using a structured questionnaire. Data was collected in the following categories: data collection; data submission to PHE; definitions used; resource constraints; post-discharge surveillance and SSI rates in the four PHE categories. The response rate was 87.7%. Variation in practice was clear in all categories in terms of methods and timings of data collection and data submission. There was little agreement on SSI definitions. At least six different definitions were used, some trusts using more than one definition. Post-discharge surveillance was carried out by 62% of respondents but there was again variation in both the methods and staff used. More than half of the respondents felt that SSI surveillance in their unit was limited by resource constraints. SSI rates ranged from 0% to 10%. This paper quantifies the heterogeneity of SSI surveillance in England. It highlights the importance of adequate resourcing and the unreliability of relying on voluntary data collection and submission. Conformity of definitions and methods are recommended to enable meaningful SSI data to be collated. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:171-4. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. Surgical Site Infections: Volume-Outcome Relationship and Year-to-Year Stability of Performance Rankings.

    PubMed

    Calderwood, Michael S; Kleinman, Ken; Huang, Susan S; Murphy, Michael V; Yokoe, Deborah S; Platt, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) rates are publicly reported as quality metrics and increasingly used to determine financial reimbursement. To evaluate the volume-outcome relationship as well as the year-to-year stability of performance rankings following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and hip arthroplasty. We performed a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent CABG surgery or hip arthroplasty at US hospitals from 2005 to 2011, with outcomes analyzed through March 2012. Nationally validated claims-based surveillance methods were used to assess for SSI within 90 days of surgery. The relationship between procedure volume and SSI rate was assessed using logistic regression and generalized additive modeling. Year-to-year stability of SSI rates was evaluated using logistic regression to assess hospitals' movement in and out of performance rankings linked to financial penalties. Case-mix adjusted SSI risk based on claims was highest in hospitals performing <50 CABG/year and <200 hip arthroplasty/year compared with hospitals performing ≥200 procedures/year. At that same time, hospitals in the worst quartile in a given year based on claims had a low probability of remaining in that quartile the following year. This probability increased with volume, and when using 2 years' experience, but the highest probabilities were only 0.59 for CABG (95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.66) and 0.48 for hip arthroplasty (95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.55). Aggregate SSI risk is highest in hospitals with low annual procedure volumes, yet these hospitals are currently excluded from quality reporting. Even for higher volume hospitals, year-to-year random variation makes past experience an unreliable estimator of current performance.

  9. Reduction of surgical site infections after laparoscopic gastric bypass with circular stapled gastrojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Shabino, Patrick J; Khoraki, Jad; Elegbede, Anuoluwapo F; Schmocker, Ryan K; Nabozny, Michael J; Funk, Luke M; Greenberg, Jacob A; Campos, Guilherme M

    2016-01-01

    Circular stapled gastrojejunostomy (GJ) is favored by many surgeons during laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). However, it has been associated with higher rates of surgical site infection (SSI). To study the impact of introducing standard technical modifications (intervention) on the incidence of SSI after LRYGB with circular stapled GJ. Tertiary academic medical center. Consecutive patients who underwent primary LRYGB between May 2010 and September 2014 were separated into preintervention and postintervention cohorts. The intervention consisted of the use of a stapler cover, wound irrigation, antibiotic application to the wound, and primary wound closure. Predictor variables studied included patient demographic characteristics, the intervention, and other operative and perioperative factors. The primary outcome studied was SSI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine factors independently associated with SSI. Three hundred thirty patients underwent LRYGB (preintervention n = 200, postintervention n = 130). Patients' characteristics were similar in both groups. A 21-mm stapler and chlorhexidine-based skin preparation were more frequently used in the postintervention group. SSI rate decreased from 15% to 3.8% (P<.01) after the intervention. On multivariate analysis, the intervention (OR .28, 95% CI .09-0.86, P = .026), use of chlorhexidine-based prep (OR .37, 95%CI .15-.93, P = .034), and maintenance of patient temperature (OR .47 95%CI .26-0.85, P = .012) were independently associated with reduced SSI rates. Use of a stapler cover, wound irrigation, wound antibiotic application, and primary wound closure were associated with a significantly lower wound infection rate after LRYGB with the circular stapled GJ. The observed SSI rates after our intervention are similar to those reported after hand-sewn and linear stapled techniques. In addition, other factors associated with decreasing the likelihood of developing SSI were use of

  10. Perioperative high inspired oxygen fraction therapy reduces surgical site infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rats.

    PubMed

    Kroin, Jeffrey S; Li, Jinyuan; Goldufsky, Josef W; Gupta, Kajal H; Moghtaderi, Masoomeh; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Shafikhani, Sasha H

    2016-08-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) remains one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections, accounting for ~17 % of all hospital-acquired infections. Although short-term perioperative treatment with high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) has shown clinical benefits in reducing SSI in colorectal resection surgeries, the true clinical benefits of FiO2 therapy in reducing SSI remain unclear because randomized controlled trials on this topic have yielded disparate results and inconsistent conclusions. To date, no animal study has been conducted to determine the efficacy of short-term perioperative treatments with high (FiO2>60 %) versus low (FiO2<40 %) oxygen in reducing SSI. In this report, we designed a rat model for muscle surgery to compare the effectiveness of short-term perioperative treatments with high (FiO2=80 %) versus a standard low (FiO2=30 %) oxygen in reducing SSI with Pseudomonas aeruginosa - one of the most prevalent Gram-negative pathogens, responsible for nosocomial SSIs. Our data demonstrate that 5 h perioperative treatment with 80 % FiO2 is significantly more effective in reducing SSI with P. aeruginosa compared to 30 % FiO2 treatment. We further show that whilst 80 % FiO2 treatment does not affect neutrophil infiltration into P. aeruginosa-infected muscles, neutrophils in the 80 % FiO2-treated and infected animal group are significantly more activated than neutrophils in the 30 % FiO2-treated and infected animal group, suggesting that high oxygen perioperative treatment reduces SSI with P. aeruginosa by enhancing neutrophil activation in infected wounds.

  11. Systematic review of risk factors for surgical site infection in pediatric scoliosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, Rajeev; Schaffzin, Joshua; Cudilo, Elizabeth M; Rao, Marepalli B; Varughese, Anna M

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) in children derived from the studies in the adult population are potentially misleading because of differences in pathophysiology and management. This systematic review addresses the key question: What are the risk factors for SSI in pediatric patients undergoing scoliosis surgery? This is a qualitative systematic literature review. Retrospective and observational trials of children undergoing scoliosis surgery reported on the occurrence of risk factors for SSI and the occurrence of SSI. Pubmed (Medline), Ovid Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR), Scopus, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) were searched electronically for relevant articles in all the languages between January 1, 1991 and August 27, 2012, and cross-references were checked. Two independent reviewers identified articles and appraised quality with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) criteria based on a weighted scoring of 0 to 100. Our search identified 135 abstracts and 14 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The AHRQ grading showed that five articles were high quality with a score of greater than 67, and five articles were moderate quality with a score between 50 and 67. The percent agreement between the two independent reviewers was 84%, and kappa agreement score was 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-1.03). There were 76 risk factors identified, of which 22 factors were reported in more than one study. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were reported inconsistently. Pooled p analysis of high- and moderate-quality articles identified five risk factors predictive of SSI: inappropriate antibiotic use (p=.001), neuromuscular scoliosis (p=.014), instrumentation (p=.023), increased hospital stay days (p=.003), and residual postoperative curve (p=.003). The systematic review identified inappropriate antibiotic use, neuromuscular scoliosis, instrumentation, increased hospital stay days, and residual postoperative curve

  12. Incidence of surgical site infection following caesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Richard A; Corcoran, Paul; O'Neill, Sinéad M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Caesarean section (CS) rates have increased globally during the past three decades. Surgical site infection (SSI) following CS is a common cause of morbidity with reported rates of 3–15%. SSI represents a substantial burden to the health system including increased length of hospitalisation and costs of postdischarge care. The definition of SSI varies with the postoperative follow-up period among different health systems, resulting in differences in the reporting of SSI incidence. We propose to conduct the first systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the pooled estimate for the overall incidence of SSI following CS. Methods and analysis We will perform a comprehensive search to identify all potentially relevant published studies on the incidence of SSI following CS reported from 1992 in the English language. Electronic databases including PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Scopus will be searched using a detailed search strategy. Following study selection, full-text paper retrieval, data extraction and synthesis, we will appraise study quality and risk of bias and assess heterogeneity. Incidence data will be combined where feasible in a meta-analysis using Stata software and fixed-effects or random-effects models as appropriate. This systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required as this review will use published data. The review will evaluate the overall incidence of SSI following CS and will provide the first quantitative estimate of the magnitude of SSI. It will serve as a benchmark for future studies, identify research gaps and remaining challenges, and emphasise the need for appropriate prevention and control measures for SSI post-CS. A manuscript reporting the results of the systematic review and meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal and presented at scientific conferences

  13. A Prognostic Scoring Tool for Cesarean Organ/Space Surgical Site Infections: Derivation and Internal Validation.

    PubMed

    Assawapalanggool, Srisuda; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Arora, Rajin; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin

    Organ/space surgical site infections (SSIs) are serious complications after cesarean delivery. However, no scoring tool to predict these complications has yet been developed. This study sought to develop and validate a prognostic scoring tool for cesarean organ/space SSIs. Data for case and non-case of cesarean organ/space SSI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 from a tertiary care hospital in Thailand were analyzed. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used to select the best predictor combination and their coefficients were transformed to a risk scoring tool. The likelihood ratio of positive for each risk category and the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were analyzed on total scores. Internal validation using bootstrap re-sampling was tested for reproducibility. The predictors of 243 organ/space SSIs from 4,988 eligible cesarean delivery cases comprised the presence of foul-smelling amniotic fluid (four points), vaginal examination five or more times before incision (two points), wound class III or greater (two points), being referred from local setting (two points), hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL (one point), and ethnic minorities (one point). The likelihood ratio of cesarean organ/space SSIs with 95% confidence interval among low (total score of 0-1 point), medium (total score of 2-5 points), and high risk (total score of ≥6 points) categories were 0.11 (0.07-0.19), 1.03 (0.89-1.18), and 13.25 (10.87-16.14), respectively. Both AUROCs of the derivation and validation data were comparable (87.57% versus 86.08%; p = 0.418). This scoring tool showed a high predictive ability regarding cesarean organ/space SSIs on the derivation data and reproducibility was demonstrated on internal validation. It could assist practitioners prioritize patient care and management depending on risk category and decrease SSI rates in cesarean deliveries.

  14. Impact of Postoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Duration on Surgical Site Infections in Autologous Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Drury, Kerry E; Lanier, Steven T; Khavanin, Nima; Hume, Keith M; Gutowski, Karol A; Thornton, Brian P; Hansen, Nora M; Murphy, Robert X; Fine, Neil A; Kim, John Y S

    2016-02-01

    Although some surgeons prescribe prolonged postoperative antibiotics after autologous breast reconstruction, evidence is lacking to support this practice. We used the Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons database to evaluate the association between postoperative antibiotic duration and the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) in autologous breast reconstruction. The intervention of interest for this study was postoperative duration of antibiotic prophylaxis: either discontinued 24 hours after surgery or continued beyond 24 hours. The primary outcome variable of interest for this study was the presence of SSI within 30 days of autologous breast reconstruction. Cohort characteristics and 30-day outcomes were compared using χ² and Fischer exact tests for categorical variables and Student t tests for continuous variables. Multivariate logistic regression was used to control for confounders. A total of 1036 patients met inclusion criteria for our study. Six hundred fifty-nine patients (63.6%) received antibiotics for 24 hours postoperatively, and 377 patients (36.4%) received antibiotics for greater than 24 hours. The rate of SSI did not differ significantly between patients given antibiotics for only 24 hours and those continued on antibiotics beyond the 24-hour postoperative time period (5.01% vs 2.92%, P = 0.109). Furthermore, antibiotic duration was not predictive of SSI in multivariate regression modeling. We did not find a statistically significant difference in the rate of SSI in patients who received 24 hours of postoperative antibiotics compared to those that received antibiotics for greater than 24 hours. These findings held for both purely autologous reconstruction as well as latissimus dorsi reconstruction in conjunction with an implant. Thus, our study does not support continuation of postoperative antibiotics beyond 24 hours after autologous breast reconstruction.

  15. Does Preadmission Cutaneous Chlorhexidine Preparation Reduce Surgical Site Infections After Total Hip Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Jauregui, Julio J; Murray, Daniel P; Mont, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Periprosthetic hip infections are among the most catastrophic complications after total hip arthroplasty (THA). We had previously proven that the use of chlorhexidine cloths before surgery may help decrease these infections; hence, we increased the size of the previously reported cohort. (1) Does a preadmission chlorhexidine cloth skin preparation protocol decrease the risk of surgical site infection in patients undergoing THA? (2) When stratified using the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) risk categories, which categories are associated with risk reduction from the preadmission chlorhexidine preparation protocol? Between 2007 and 2013, a group of 998 patients used chlorhexidine cloths before surgery, whereas a group of 2846 patients did not use them and underwent standard perioperative disinfection only. Patient records were reviewed to determine the development of periprosthetic infection in both groups of patients. Patients without the preoperative chlorhexidine gluconate disinfection protocol had a higher risk of infections (infections with protocol: six of 995 [0.6%]; infections in control: 46 of 2846 [1.62%]; relative risk: 2.68 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.15-0.26]; p = 0.0226). When stratified based on risk category, no differences were detected; preadmission chlorhexidine preparation was not associated with reduced infection risk for low, medium, and high NHSN risk categories (p = 0.386, 0.153, and 0.196, respectively). The results of our study suggest that this cloth application appears to reduce the risk of infection in patients undergoing THA. When stratified by risk categories, we found no difference in the infection rate, but these findings were underpowered. Although future multicenter randomized trials will need to confirm these preliminary findings, the intervention is inexpensive and is unlikely to be risky and so might be considered on the basis of this retrospective, comparative study. Level III, therapeutic study.

  16. Combination of Oral Antibiotics and Mechanical Bowel Preparation Reduces Surgical Site Infection in Colorectal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ohman, Kerri A; Wan, Leping; Guthrie, Tracey; Johnston, Bonnie; Leinicke, Jennifer A; Glasgow, Sean C; Hunt, Steven R; Mutch, Matthew G; Wise, Paul E; Silviera, Matthew L

    2017-10-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) are a common complication after colorectal surgery. An infection prevention bundle (IPB) was implemented to improve outcomes. A standardized IPB that included the administration of oral antibiotics with a mechanical bowel preparation, preoperative shower with chlorhexidine, hair removal and skin preparation in holding, antibiotic wound irrigation, and a "clean-closure" protocol was implemented in January 2013. Data from the American College of Surgeons NSQIP were analyzed at a single academic institution to compare pre-IPB and post-IPB SSI rates. In January 2014, a prospective database was implemented to determine compliance with individual IPB elements and their effect on outcomes. For the 24 months pre-IPB, the overall SSI rate was 19.7%. During the 30 months after IPB implementation, the SSI rate decreased to 8.2% (p < 0.0001). A subset of 307 patients was identified in both NSQIP and our prospective compliance databases. Elements of IPB associated with decreased SSI rates included preoperative shower with chlorhexidine (4.6% vs 16.2%; p = 0.005), oral antibiotics (3.4% vs 15.4%; p < 0.001), and mechanical bowel preparation (4.4% vs 14.3%; p = 0.008). Patients who received a full bowel preparation of both oral antibiotics and a mechanical bowel preparation had a 2.7% SSI rate compared with 15.8% for all others (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, full bowel preparation was independently associated with significantly fewer SSI (adjusted odds ratio 0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.9; p = 0.006). Implementation of an IPB was successful in decreasing SSI rates in colorectal surgery patients. The combination of oral antibiotics with a mechanical bowel preparation was the strongest predictor of decreased SSI. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgical site infection rates and risk factors in orthopedic pediatric patients in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Viqueira, Almudena Quintás; Caravaca, Gil Rodríguez; Quesada Rubio, José Antonio; Francés, Victoria Soler

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study is to study surgical site infection (SSI) rates and risk factors in a pediatric population. We conducted a prospective cohort study to estimate the SSI rate at a national pediatric referral center, covering all patients managed at the Orthopedic Surgery Department of the Niño Jesús Children's University Teaching Hospital from January 2010 through December 2012. Risk factors and antibiotic prophylaxis were monitored. A comparison between Spanish and US data was performed, with a breakdown by National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance risk indices. We also conducted a comparative study of SSI rates from 2010 to 2012 to assess the impact of the epidemiologic surveillance system. The study population of 1079 patients had a SSI rate of 2.8%. SSI rates were calculated for spinal fusion and other musculoskeletal procedures according to the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance risk index. In the case of other musculoskeletal procedures, our SSI rates were 0.8 times lower than the overall Spanish rate, but higher than US rates for all risk categories. For spinal fusion procedures, our SSI rates were 1.2 times higher than the Spanish rates and 3.5 times higher than National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance rates. This latter finding should be interpreted with caution because it was based on a small sample. The multivariate analysis indicated that the only predictive factors of SSI were American Society of Anesthesiologists score and age. The surveillance program showed that for clean procedures, SSI incidence decreased from 4% in 2010 to 3.2% in 2011 and to 2.4% in 2012.

  18. Past history of skin infection and risk of surgical site infection after elective surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraday, Nauder; Rock, Peter; Lin, Elaina E; Perl, Trish M; Carroll, Karen; Stierer, Tracey; Robarts, Polly; McFillin, Angela; Ross, Tracy; Shah, Ashish S; Riley, Lee H; Tamargo, Rafael J; Black, James H; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Guallar, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    To identify baseline patient characteristics associated with increased susceptibility to surgical site infection (SSI) after elective surgery. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services considers SSI to be preventable through adherence to current infection control practices; however, the etiology of wound infection is incompletely understood. Prospective cohort study involving patients undergoing cardiac, vascular, craniotomy, and spinal surgery at 2 academic medical centers in Baltimore, MD. A comprehensive medical history was obtained at baseline, and participants were followed for 6 months using active inpatient and outpatient surveillance for deep SSI and infectious death. Infection control best practices were monitored perioperatively. The relative risk of SSI/infectious death was determined comparing those with versus those without a past medical history of skin infection using Cox proportional hazards models. Of 613 patients (mean [SD] = 62.3 [11.5] years; 42.1% women), 22.0% reported a history of skin infection. The cumulative incidence of deep SSI/infectious death was 6.7% versus 3.1% for those with and without a history of skin infection, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.98-5.14; P = 0.055). Risk estimates increased after adjustments for demographic and socioeconomic variables (HR = 2.82; 95% CI, 1.18-6.74; P = 0.019) and after propensity score adjustment for all potential confounders (HR = 3.41; 95% CI, 1.36-8.59; P = 0.009). Adjustments for intraoperative infection risk factors and adherence to infection control best practice metrics had no impact on risk estimates. A history of skin infection identified a state of enhanced susceptibility to SSI at baseline that is independent of traditional SSI risk factors and adherence to current infection control practices.

  19. Nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takesue, Yoshio; Watanabe, Akira; Hanaki, Hideaki; Kusachi, Shinya; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Yagisawa, Morimasa; Sato, Junko; Oguri, Toyoko; Nakanishi, Kunio; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Kitagawa, Yuko; Wakabayashi, Go; Koyama, Isamu; Yanaga, Katsuhiko; Konishi, Toshiro; Fukushima, Ryoji; Seki, Shiko; Imai, Shun; Shintani, Tsunehiro; Tsukada, Hiroki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro; Omura, Kenji; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Kusunoki, Masato; Kubo, Shoji; Shimizu, Junzo; Hirai, Toshihiro; Ohge, Hiroki; Kadowaki, Akio; Okamoto, Kohji; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the trends of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens isolated from surgical site infections (SSI), a Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide survey. Seven main organisms were collected from SSI at 27 medical centers in 2010 and were shipped to a central laboratory for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 702 isolates from 586 patients with SSI were included. Staphylococcus aureus (20.4 %) and Enterococcus faecalis (19.5 %) were the most common isolates, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.4 %) and Bacteroides fragilis group (15.4 %). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus among S. aureus was 72.0 %. Vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains accounted for 9.7 %. In Escherichia coli, 11 of 95 strains produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (Klebsiella pneumoniae, 0/53 strains). Of E. coli strains, 8.4 % were resistant to ceftazidime (CAZ) and 26.3 % to ciprofloxacin (CPFX). No P. aeruginosa strains produced metallo-β-lactamase. In P. aeruginosa, the resistance rates were 7.4 % to tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), 10.2 % to imipenem (IPM), 2.8 % to meropenem, cefepime, and CPFX, and 0 % to gentamicin. In the B. fragilis group, the rates were 28.6 % to clindamycin, 5.7 % to cefmetazole, 2.9 % to TAZ/PIPC and IPM, and 0 % to metronidazole (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron; 59.1, 36.4, 0, 0, 0 %). MIC₉₀ of P. aeruginosa isolated 15 days or later after surgery rose in TAZ/PIPC, CAZ, IPM, and CPFX. In patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥3, the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to TAZ/PIPC and CAZ were higher than in patients with ASA ≤2. The data obtained in this study revealed the trend of the spread of resistance among common species that cause SSI. Timing of isolation from surgery and the patient's physical status affected the selection of resistant organisms.

  20. Development of a Risk Prediction Model to Individualize Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection after Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Margaret A.; Nickel, Katelin B.; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Fox, Ida K.; Ball, Kelly E.; Mines, Daniel; Wallace, Anna E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little data are available regarding individual patients’ risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following mastectomy with or without immediate reconstruction. Our objective was to develop a risk prediction model for mastectomy-related SSI. Methods We established a cohort of women < 65 years of age with mastectomy from 1/1/2004–12/31/2011 using commercial claims data. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify SSI within 180 days after surgery. SSI risk factors were determined with multivariable logistic regression using derivation data from 2004-2008 and validated with 2009–2011 data using discrimination and calibration measures. Results In the derivation cohort 595 SSIs were identified in 7,607 (7.8%) women, and 396 SSIs were coded in 4,366 (9.1%) women in the validation cohort. Independent risk factors for SSIs included rural residence, rheumatologic disease, depression, diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, obesity, preexisting pneumonia or urinary tract infection, tobacco use disorder, smoking-related diseases, bilateral mastectomy, and immediate reconstruction. Receipt of home health care was associated with lower risk. The model performed equally in the validation cohort per discrimination (C statistics 0.657 and 0.649) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P=0.091 and 0.462 for derivation and validation, respectively). Three risk strata were created based on predicted SSI risk, which demonstrated good correlation with the proportion of observed infections in the strata. Conclusions We developed and internally validated an SSI risk prediction model that can be used to counsel women concerning their individual risk of SSI post-mastectomy. Immediate reconstruction, diabetes, and smoking-related diseases were important risk factors for SSI in this nonelderly population of women undergoing mastectomy. PMID:26822880

  1. Surgical Site Infection (SSI) After Breast Surgery: Impact of 2010 CDC Reporting Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Degnim, Amy C.; Throckmorton, Alyssa D.; Boostrom, Sarah Y.; Boughey, Judy C.; Holifield, Andrea; Baddour, Larry M.; Hoskin, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reported surgical site infection (SSI) rates after breast operations range from 0.8–26% in the literature. Aims of the present study were to characterize SSI after breast/axillary operations and determine the impact on the SSI rate of the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reporting guidelines that now specifically exclude cellulitis. Methods Retrospective chart review identified 368 patients, with 449 operated sides, between 07/2004 and 6/2006. SSI was defined using CDC criteria: purulent drainage (CDC #1), positive aseptically collected culture (CDC #2), signs of inflammation with opening of incision and absence of negative culture (CDC#3), or physician diagnosis of infection (CDC #4). The impact of excluding cellulitis was assessed. Results Using prior CDC reporting guidelines, among 368 patients, 32 (8.7%) experienced SSI in 33/449 (7.3%) operated sides. Of these, 11 (33%) met CDC criteria 1–3, while 22 (67%) met CDC criterion 4. Excluding cellulitis cases per 2010 CDC SSI reporting guidelines eliminates 21 of the 22 infections previously meeting CDC criterion 4. Under the new reporting guidelines, the SSI rate is 12/449 (2.7%) operated sides. SSI rates varied by procedure but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Cellulitis after breast and axillary surgery is much more common than other criteria for SSI, and SSI rates are reduced almost three-fold if cellulitis cases are excluded. Recently revised CDC reporting guidelines may result in underestimates of the clinical burden of SSI after breast/axillary surgery. PMID:22732837

  2. Patient-related risk factors for surgical site infection following eight types of gastrointestinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, H

    2016-08-01

    To identify patient-related risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) following eight types of gastrointestinal surgery that could be collected as part of infection surveillance efforts. Record linkage from existing datasets comprising the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (JANIS) and Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) programmes. Patient data from 35 hospitals were retrieved using JANIS and DPC from 2007 to 2011. Patient-related factors and the incidence of SSI were recorded and analysed. Risk factors associated with SSI were examined using multi-level mixed-effects logistic regression models. In total, 2074 appendectomies; 2084 bile duct, liver or pancreatic procedures; 3460 cholecystectomies; 7273 colonic procedures; 482 oesophageal procedures; 4748 gastric procedures; 2762 rectal procedures and 1202 small bowel procedures were analysed. Using multi-variate analyses, intra-operative blood transfusion was found to be a risk factor for SSI following all types of gastrointestinal surgery, except appendectomy and small bowel surgery. In addition, diabetes was found to be a risk factor for SSI following colon surgery [odds ratio (OR) 1.23, P=0.028] and gastric surgery (OR 1.70, P<0.001). Use of steroids was significantly associated with a higher incidence of SSI following cholecystectomy (OR 2.83, P=0.003) and colon surgery (OR 1.27, P=0.040). Intra-operative blood transfusion, diabetes and use of steroids are risk factors for SSI following gastrointestinal surgery, and should be included as part of SSI surveillance for these procedures. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine preoperative antisepsis reduce surgical site infection in cranial neurosurgery?

    PubMed

    Davies, B M; Patel, H C

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Surgical site infection (SSI) is a significant cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Effective preoperative antisepsis is a recognised prophylactic, with commonly used agents including chlorhexidine (CHG) and povidone-iodine (PVI). However, there is emerging evidence to suggest an additional benefit when they are used in combination. Methods We analysed data from our prospective SSI database on patients undergoing clean cranial neurosurgery between October 2011 and April 2014. We compared the case-mix adjusted odds of developing a SSI in patients undergoing skin preparation with CGH or PVI alone or in combination. Results SSIs were detected in 2.6% of 1146 cases. Antisepsis with PVI alone was performed in 654 (57%) procedures, while 276 (24%) had CHG alone and 216 (19%) CHG and PVI together. SSIs were associated with longer operating time (p<0.001) and younger age (p=0.03). Surgery type (p<0.001) and length of operation (p<0.001) were significantly different between antisepsis groups. In a binary logistic regression model, CHG and PVI was associated with a significant reduction in the likelihood of developing an SSI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.63) than either agent alone. There was no difference in SSI rates between CHG and PVI alone (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.24-1.5). Conclusions Combination skin preparation with CHG and PVI significantly reduced SSI rates compared to CHG or PVI alone. A prospective, randomized study validating these findings is now warranted.

  4. Short Operative Duration and Surgical Site Infection Risk in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Procedures.

    PubMed

    Dicks, Kristen V; Baker, Arthur W; Durkin, Michael J; Anderson, Deverick J; Moehring, Rebekah W; Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J; Weber, David J; Lewis, Sarah S

    2015-12-01

    To determine the association (1) between shorter operative duration and surgical site infection (SSI) and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI risk among first-time hip and knee arthroplasties. Retrospective cohort study A total of 43 community hospitals located in the southeastern United States. Adults who developed SSIs according to National Healthcare Safety Network criteria within 365 days of first-time knee or hip arthroplasties performed between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012. Log-binomial regression models estimated the association (1) between operative duration and SSI outcome and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI outcome. Hip and knee arthroplasties were evaluated in separate models. Each model was adjusted for American Society of Anesthesiology score and patient age. A total of 25,531 hip arthroplasties and 42,187 knee arthroplasties were included in the study. The risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration shorter than the 25th percentile was 0.40 times the risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration between the 25th and 75th percentile (risk ratio [RR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.56; P<.01). Short operative duration did not demonstrate significant association with SSI for hip arthroplasties (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.79-1.37; P=.36). Knee arthroplasty surgeons with shorter median operative durations had a lower risk of SSI than surgeons with typical median operative durations (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43-0.64; P<.01). Short operative durations were not associated with a higher SSI risk for knee or hip arthroplasty procedures in our analysis.

  5. A prospective study on surgical-site infections in thyroid operation.

    PubMed

    Bures, Claudia; Klatte, Tobias; Gilhofer, Monika; Behnke, Michael; Breier, Ann-Christin; Neuhold, Nikolaus; Hermann, Michael

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the incidence and the microbe spectrum of surgical-site infections (SSIs) in patients undergoing elective thyroid operation and to develop a risk factor-based predictive model. This prospective study included 6,778 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid operation at a single institution between 2007 and 2012. SSI was defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Regression models were fitted to evaluate risk factors for SSI. A predictive nomogram was constructed from relevant variables in the multivariable analysis. Discrimination and calibration of the nomogram were assessed. The cumulative incidence of SSI after 30 days was 0.49%. The median time from operation to SSI was 7 days (interquartile range, 4-10.5 days). SSI was classified as superficial incisional in 30 cases (93.8%), deep incisional in 1 case (3.1%), and organ/space in 1 case (3.1%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate. In multivariable analysis, duration of operation (P = .004) and American Society of Anesthesiologists' score (P = .031) were identified as independent risk factors for SSI. These variables formed the basis of a nomogram, which was validated internally by bootstrapping and reached a predictive accuracy of 70.1%. The calibration curve showed a good agreement between predicted probability and actual observation. The cumulative incidence of SSI in thyroid operation is <0.5%. American Society of Anesthesiologists' score and the duration of operation are independent risk factors for SSI. Antibiotic prophylaxis may be considered for selected patients based on the individual risk profile. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors for unavoidable removal of instrumentation after surgical site infection of spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Takao; Kawamura, Hideki; Kawamura, Ichiro; Nagano, Satoshi; Abematsu, Masahiko; Tanabe, Fumito; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Takuya; Komiya, Setsuro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Surgical site infection (SSI) after spine instrumentation is difficult to treat, and often requires removal of instrumentation. The removal of instrumentation after spine surgery is a severe complication that can lead to the deterioration of activities of daily living and poor prognosis. Although there are many reports on SSI after spine surgery, few reports have investigated the risk factors for the removal of instrumentation after spine surgery SSI. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for unavoidable removal of instrumentation after SSI of spine surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 511 patients who underwent spine surgery with instrumentation at Kagoshima University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2014. Risk factors associated with SSI were analyzed via multiple logistic regression analysis. Parameters of the group that needed instrumentation removal were compared with the group that did not require instrumentation removal using the Mann–Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. The posterior approach was used in most cases (453 of 511 cases, 88.6%). SSI occurred in 16 of 511 cases (3.14%) of spine surgery with instrumentation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified 2 significant risk factors for SSI: operation time, and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification ≥ 3. Twelve of the 16 patients with SSI (75%) were able to keep the instrumentation after SSI. Pseudarthrosis occurred in 2 of 4 cases (50%) after instrumentation removal. Risk factors identified for instrumentation removal after spine SSI were a greater number of past surgeries, low preoperative hemoglobin, high preoperative creatinine, high postoperative infection treatment score for the spine, and the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In these high risk cases, attempts should be made to decrease the risk factors preoperatively, and careful postoperative monitoring should be conducted. PMID:27787365

  7. Does chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine preoperative antisepsis reduce surgical site infection in cranial neurosurgery?

    PubMed Central

    Davies, BM; Patel, HC

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgical site infection (SSI) is a significant cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Effective preoperative antisepsis is a recognised prophylactic, with commonly used agents including chlorhexidine (CHG) and povidone-iodine (PVI). However, there is emerging evidence to suggest an additional benefit when they are used in combination. Methods We analysed data from our prospective SSI database on patients undergoing clean cranial neurosurgery between October 2011 and April 2014. We compared the case-mix adjusted odds of developing a SSI in patients undergoing skin preparation with CGH or PVI alone or in combination. Results SSIs were detected in 2.6% of 1146 cases. Antisepsis with PVI alone was performed in 654 (57%) procedures, while 276 (24%) had CHG alone and 216 (19%) CHG and PVI together. SSIs were associated with longer operating time (p<0.001) and younger age (p=0.03). Surgery type (p<0.001) and length of operation (p<0.001) were significantly different between antisepsis groups. In a binary logistic regression model, CHG and PVI was associated with a significant reduction in the likelihood of developing an SSI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02–0.63) than either agent alone. There was no difference in SSI rates between CHG and PVI alone (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.24–1.5). Conclusions Combination skin preparation with CHG and PVI significantly reduced SSI rates compared to CHG or PVI alone. A prospective, randomized study validating these findings is now warranted. PMID:27055411

  8. Surgical site infection in orthopedic trauma: A case–control study evaluating risk factors and cost

    PubMed Central

    Thakore, Rachel V.; Greenberg, Sarah E.; Shi, Hanyuan; Foxx, Alexandra M.; Francois, Elvis L.; Prablek, Marc A.; Nwosu, Samuel K.; Archer, Kristin R.; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M.; Obremskey, William T.; Sethi, Manish K.

    2015-01-01

    Background With the shift of our healthcare system toward a value-based system of reimbursement, complications such as surgical site infections (SSI) may not be reimbursed. The purpose of our study was to investigate the costs and risk factors of SSI for orthopedic trauma patients. Methods Through retrospective analysis, 1819 patients with isolated fractures were identified. Of those, 78 patients who developed SSIs were compared to 78 uninfected control patients. Patients were matched by fracture location, type of fracture, duration of surgery, and as close as possible to age, year of surgery, and type of procedure. Costs for treatment during primary hospitalization and initial readmission were determined and potential risk factors were collected from patient charts. A Wilcoxon test was used to compare the overall costs of treatment for case and control patients. Costs were further broken down into professional fees and technical charges for analysis. Risk factors for SSIs were analyzed through a chi-squared analysis. Results Median cost for treatment for patients with SSIs was $108,782 compared to $57,418 for uninfected patients (p < 0.001). Professional fees and technical charges were found to be significantly higher for infected patients. No significant risk factors for SSIs were determined. Conclusions Our findings indicate the potential for financial losses in our new healthcare system due to uncompensated care. SSIs nearly double the cost of treatment for orthopedic trauma patients. There is no single driver of these costs. Reducing postoperative stay may be one method for reducing the cost of treating SSIs, whereas quality management programs may decrease risk of infection. PMID:26566333

  9. Timing of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Preventing Surgical Site Infections in Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    PubMed

    Tantigate, Direk; Jang, Eugene; Seetharaman, Mani; Noback, Peter C; Heijne, A M; Greisberg, Justin K; Vosseller, J Turner

    2017-03-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most troublesome complications after foot and ankle surgery. Previous literature has emphasized the significance of appropriate timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. However, the optimal timing of antibiotic prophylaxis for SSI prevention is still inconclusive. Our study aimed to investigate the optimal timing of antibiotic administration and to elucidate the risk factors for SSIs in foot and ankle surgery. A retrospective review of 1933 foot and ankle procedures in 1632 patients from January 1, 2011, through August 31, 2015, was performed. Demographic data; type, amount, and timing of antibiotic administration; incision; and closure time were recorded. Subsequent wound infection and incision and drainage procedure (I&D) within 30 days and 90 days were documented. Outcomes and demographic variables were compared between procedures in which antibiotics were administered less than 15 minutes and between 15 to 60 minutes prior to incision. A total of 1569 procedures met inclusion criteria. There were 17 cases (1.1%) of subsequent wound infection, of which 6 required a subsequent I&D within 30 days. There were 63 additional cases (4%) of wound complications, which did not meet SSI criteria. When comparing SSI and non-SSI groups, the only significant independent predictors were longer surgeries and nonambulatory surgeries (both P < .05). Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that 91.8% of the risk of an SSI could be predicted by ASA score and length of surgery alone. In foot and ankle surgeries, the timing of intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis did not appear to play a significant role in the risk of SSI. Host factors and duration of surgery appear to have played a much larger role in SSI than the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  10. Antimicrobial-coated sutures to decrease surgical site infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Kubilay, N Z; Ren, J; Allegranzi, B; Bischoff, P; Zayed, B; Pittet, D; Li, J

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of antimicrobial-coated sutures compared with non-coated sutures in reducing surgical site infection (SSI) and develop recommendations for World Health Organization (WHO) SSI prevention guidelines. We searched Medline, Embase, Cinahl, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and WHO Global Health from 1990-16/02/2015 with language restricted to English, Spanish, and French. Meta-analysis was performed with a random-effects model. Meta-regression analysis assessed whether the effect of antimicrobial coating changed according to the type of suture and surgery. Subgroup analyses were based on types of sutures. Quality of the retrieved evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and five observational studies (OBSs) met the inclusion criteria. Antimicrobial sutures significantly reduced SSI risk (for RCTs: OR 0.72, 95 % CI 0.59-0.88, p = 0.001, I(2) = 14 %; for OBSs: OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.40-0.83, p = 0.003, I(2) = 22 %). Only Vicryl Plus vs Vicryl revealed consistent results in favor of antimicrobial sutures (for seven RCTs: OR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.44-0.88, p = 0.007, I(2) = 3 %; for four OBSs: OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.37-0.92, p = 0.02, I(2) = 41 %). The effect of antimicrobial coating was similar between different suture, wound, and procedure types. Quality of RCT evidence was moderate, and OBS evidence was very low quality. Triclosan-coated sutures may reduce SSI risk. However, the available evidence is of moderate/low quality, and many studies had conflicts of interest.

  11. Short Operative Duration and Surgical Site Infection Risk in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Kristen V.; Baker, Arthur W.; Durkin, Michael J.; Anderson, Deverick J.; Moehring, Rebekah W.; Chen, Luke F.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Weber, David J.; Lewis, Sarah S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the association (1) between shorter operative duration and surgical site infection (SSI) and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI risk among first-time hip and knee arthroplasties. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study SETTING A total of 43 community hospitals located in the southeastern United States. PATIENTS Adults who developed SSIs according to National Healthcare Safety Network criteria within 365 days of first-time knee or hip arthroplasties performed between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012. METHODS Log-binomial regression models estimated the association (1) between operative duration and SSI outcome and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI outcome. Hip and knee arthroplasties were evaluated in separate models. Each model was adjusted for American Society of Anesthesiology score and patient age. RESULTS A total of 25,531 hip arthroplasties and 42,187 knee arthroplasties were included in the study. The risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration shorter than the 25th percentile was 0.40 times the risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration between the 25th and 75th percentile (risk ratio [RR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38–0.56; P <.01). Short operative duration did not demonstrate significant association with SSI for hip arthroplasties (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.79–1.37; P =.36). Knee arthroplasty surgeons with shorter median operative durations had a lower risk of SSI than surgeons with typical median operative durations (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43–0.64; P <.01). CONCLUSIONS Short operative durations were not associated with a higher SSI risk for knee or hip arthroplasty procedures in our analysis. PMID:26391277

  12. Surgical site infection complicating internal fixation of fractures: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Thanni, Lateef O. A.; Aigoro, Nofiu O.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of data on surgical site infections (SSIs) complicating internal fixation of fractures from Nigeria. AIMS: To determine the incidence and risk factors for SSIs following internal fixation of fracture. METHODS: A cohort of 90 patients with long bone fractures that were stabilized internally with metallic devices was studied prospectively and retrospectively. RESULTS: The incidence of SSI was 12%. The isolated organisms were Staphylococcus aureus in four patients, Pseudomonas spp. in three, and Escherichia coli in one patient. Diabetes mellitus and perioperative transfusion with allogeneic blood were not predictive of SSI. Duration of operation longer than 120 minutes was a strong predictor (OR 2.25, 95% CL 0.48-10.16). Other risk factors were male sex (OR 2.01, 95% CL 0.44-10.45), injury-operation interval less than six months (OR 2.00, 95% CL 0.22-46.08), fracture fixation with plates and screws (OR 1.51, 95% CL 0.36-6.40), white blood cell count (WBC) less than 5,000 per cumm (OR 1.50, 95% CL 0.15-16.37), preoperative urinary catheterization (OR 1.48, 95% CL 0.00-16.19), and postoperative urinary catheterization (OR 1.24, 95% CL 0.29-5.00). CONCLUSION: The incidence of SSI after internal fixation of long bone fractures in our centers is 12%, and this is within the previously reported range. Use of plates and screws, WBC less than 5,000 per cumm, and perioperative urinary catheterization are important risk factors. PMID:15303412

  13. Increased Risk of Surgical Site Infection Among Breast-Conserving Surgery Re-Excisions

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Margaret A.; Nickel, Katelin B.; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Wallace, Anna E.; Mines, Daniel; Miller, J. Philip; Fraser, Victoria J.; Warren, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after primary breast-conserving surgery (BCS) versus re-excision among women with carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer. Methods We established a retrospective cohort of women aged 18–64 years with ICD-9-CM procedure or CPT-4 codes for BCS from 6/29/2004–12/31/2010. Prior insurance plan enrollment of at least 180 days was required to establish the index BCS; subsequent re-excisions within 180 days were identified. SSIs occurring 2–90 days after BCS were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. The attributable surgery was defined based on SSI onset compared to the BCS date(s). A chi-square test and generalized estimating equations model were used to compare the incidence of SSI after index and re-excision BCS procedures. Results 23,001 women with 28,827 BCS were identified; 23.2% of women had >1 BCS. The incidence of SSI was 1.82% (418/23,001) for the index BCS and 2.44% (142/5,826) for re-excision BCS (p=0.002). The risk of SSI after re-excision remained significantly higher after accounting for multiple procedures within a woman (odds ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval, 1.07–1.68). Conclusions Surgeons need to be aware of the increased risk of SSI after re-excision BCS compared to the initial procedure. Our results suggest that risk adjustment of SSI rates for re-excision would allow for better comparison of BCS SSI rates between institutions. PMID:25358666

  14. Developing a Risk Stratification Model for Surgical Site Infection after Abdominal Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Margaret A.; Higham-Kessler, James; Yokoe, Deborah S.; Butler, Anne M.; Vostok, Johanna; Stevenson, Kurt B.; Khan, Yosef; Fraser, Victoria J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) ranges widely from 2-21% after hysterectomy. There is insufficient understanding of risk factors to build a specific risk stratification index. Methods Retrospective case-control study of 545 abdominal and 275 vaginal hysterectomies from 7/1/03 - 6/30/05 at four institutions. SSIs were defined using CDC/NNIS criteria. Independent risk factors for abdominal hysterectomy were identified by logistic regression. Results There were 13 deep incisional, 53 superficial incisional, and 18 organ-space SSI after abdominal and 14 organ-space SSI after vaginal hysterectomy. Because risk factors for organ-space SSI were different in univariate analysis, further analyses focused on incisional SSI after abdominal hysterectomy. The maximum serum glucose within 5 days after operation was highest in patients with deep incisional SSI, lower in patients with superficial incisional SSI and lowest in uninfected patients (median 189, 156, and 141mg/dL, p = .005). Independent risk factors for incisional SSI included blood transfusion (odds ratio (OR) 2.4) and morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) > 35, OR 5.7). Duration of operation > 75th percentile (OR 1.7), obesity (BMI 30-35, OR 3.0), and lack of private health insurance (OR 1.7) were marginally associated with increased odds of SSI. Conclusions Incisional SSI after abdominal hysterectomy was associated with increased BMI and blood transfusion. Longer operative time and lack of private health insurance were marginally associated with SSI. A specific risk stratification index could help to more accurately predict the risk of incisional SSI following abdominal hysterectomy. PMID:19803722

  15. The predictors of surgical site infection post cardiac surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Musallam, Eyad

    2014-09-01

    We sought to conduct a systematic review to evaluate the predictors of surgical site infection (SSI) after cardiac surgery. We included published, peer-reviewed, English-language, retrospective and prospective studies identified in a search of Medline, CINAHL, and PubMed from 2005 and through February 20, 2012. The studies involved adults (age >18 years) undergoing cardiac surgery (defined by ICD-9 codes) and could be of any study design, in English, published within last 7 years, with data collection taking place in United States within last 10 years. We excluded animal studies, duplicates, summaries, commentaries, editorials, case reports, studies that conducted outside United States, and studies published before last 7 years or studies with data collection take place before last 10 years (2002). Three types of predictors emerge: Predictors of general infection post cardiac surgery, predictors of micro-organisms' specific SSIs and tracheotomy, and allogenic blood transfusion as specific predictors of SSI. Although the reviewed articles cover wide range of SSIs predictors, none of these articles investigate preoperative skin preparation, using pre- and postoperative prophylaxes antibiotics, postoperative wound care (appropriate time for first dressing), and patient nutritional status as a predictors of SSIs after cardiac surgery. Investigating these predictors for SSIs will enhance nurses' understanding of the importance of specific types of nutrition in preventing SSIs and enhancing wound healing, implementing a protocol for the wound care postoperatively, and implementing a protocol for the use of prophylactic antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Revisiting the effectiveness of interventions to decrease surgical site infections in colorectal surgery: A Bayesian perspective.

    PubMed

    Phatak, Uma R; Pedroza, Claudia; Millas, Stefanos G; Chang, George J; Lally, Kevin P; Kao, Lillian S

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the evidence for interventions to decrease surgical site infections (SSIs) in colorectal operations using Bayesian meta-analysis. Interventions other than appropriate administration of prophylactic antibiotics to prevent SSIs have not been adopted widely, in part because of lack of recommendations for these interventions based on traditional meta-analyses. Bayesian methods can provide probabilities of specific thresholds of benefit, which may be more useful in guiding clinical decision making. We hypothesized that Bayesian meta-analytic methods would complement the interpretation of traditional analyses regarding the effectiveness of interventions to decrease SSIs. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane database for reviews of interventions to decrease SSIs after colorectal surgery other than prophylactic antibiotics. Traditional and Bayesian meta-analyses were performed using RevMan (Nordic Cochrane Center, Copenhagen, Denmark) and WinBUGS (MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge, UK). Bayesian posterior probabilities of any benefit, defined as a relative risk of <1, were calculated using skeptical, neutral, and enthusiastic prior probabilities. Probabilities were also calculated that interventions decreased SSIs by ≥10%, and ≥20% using neutral prior probability distributions. A total of 9 Cochrane reviews met the search criteria. Using traditional meta-analysis methods, only laparoscopic colorectal surgery resulted in a significant reduction in SSIs and a recommendation for use of the intervention. Using Bayesian analysis, several interventions that did not result in "significant" decreases in SSIs using traditional analytic methods had a >85% probability of benefit. Also, nonuse of 2 interventions (mechanical bowel preparation and adhesive drapes) had a high probability of decreasing SSIs compared with their use. Bayesian probabilities and traditional point estimates of treatment effect yield similar information in terms of potential

  17. Meta-analysis of local gentamicin for prophylaxis of surgical site infections in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yan-Fei; Wang, Jian; Dong, Feng; Yang, Dian-Hui

    2016-02-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) following colorectal surgery is common, and local application of gentamicin for SSIs in the surgery remains controversial. To identify whether local application of gentamicin reduces incidence of SSIs in colorectal surgery. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Science Citation Index were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reference list up to November 2014. Two independent reviewers screened the records from the electronic databases, selected relevant studies, assessed the methodological quality, and extracted the data from included articles. Stata 12.0 was used to conduct a pooled analysis for main outcomes. Eight relevant randomized controlled trials with a total of 1685 patients were included in the meta-analysis. All included studies were of moderate to high quality by the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. There was no significant difference being found in the total pooled results for wound infection (relative risk (RR) 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.12) and organ space infection (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.59). However, subgroup analysis showed that the significant decrease of wound infection was associated with the population in the Western Europe (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.87) and follow-up periods of 30 days (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.94). Local application of gentamicin significantly reduced incidence of wound infection following colorectal surgery in Western Europe, and it was also associated with lower risk of wound infection during follow-up period of 30 days. However, its effectiveness on prophylaxis of perineal wound infection and organ space infection still lacked evidence.

  18. Dialkylcarbamoyl Chloride Dressings in the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections after Nonimplant Vascular Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bua, Nelson; Smith, George E; Totty, Joshua P; Pan, Daniel; Wallace, Tom; Carradice, Daniel; Chetter, Ian C

    2017-10-01

    Dressings coated with dialkylcarbamoyl chloride (DACC) are highly hydrophobic and irreversibly bind multiple types of bacteria, trapping them in the dressing and reducing the number of organisms at the wound surface. We aimed to assess the impact of DACC-coated postoperative dressings on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in nonimplant vascular surgery patients. Two hundred patients undergoing nonimplant vascular surgery were prospectively recruited at a single vascular center. The initial 100 patients had their operative wounds dressed with conventional dressings followed by 100 patients who received DACC-coated postoperative dressings. Wounds were reviewed at day 5 and day 30 to determine the presence of SSI using the ASEPSIS scoring system. The variation in outcomes between groups was assessed using chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis to assess the effects of other variables, which may affect healing. Between August 1, 2015 and February 29, 2016, a total of 120 men and 80 women were recruited. The mean age was 63 (range 27-97) years, 92% were current or ex-smokers and 45.5% were diabetic. Rate of SSI at 5 days was significantly lower in the DACC group compared with standard dressings (1% vs. 10%, P < 0.05). There was no difference in the rates of SSI at 30 days. Logistic regression suggested that the type of dressing used was the most prominent predictor variable for the presence of early SSI (P = 0.028, odds ratio = 0.09, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.77). DACC-coated dressings were associated with a significant reduction in SSI rates in the early postoperative period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact of Kidney Disease on Acute Tubular Necrosis and Surgical Site Infection After Lumbar Fusion.

    PubMed

    Nakhla, Jonathan; de la Garza Ramos, Rafael; Bhashyam, Niketh; Kobets, Andrew; Nasser, Rani; Echt, Murray; Lang, Gernot; Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Jada, Ajit; Kinon, Merritt; Yassari, Reza

    2017-09-01

    Kidney disease in spine surgery can be associated with serious complications. To investigate the rate of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and surgical site infection (SSI) after lumbar fusion in patients with kidney disease. A review of the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2002 to 2011 was performed to identify patients who underwent lumbar fusion for degenerative spine disease or disk herniation. Four groups were established: no kidney disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and posttransplant. A multivariate analysis was performed to control for age, sex, and comorbidities. A total of 268,158 patients met the criteria; 263,757 with no kidney disease (98.4%), 3576 with CKD (1.3%), 586 with ESRD (0.2%), and 239 posttransplant (0.1%). Rates of ATN were 0.1%, 2.9%, 3.6%, and 0.0% for the 4 groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Rates of SSI were 0.3%, 0.4%, 1.0%, and 0.0%, respectively (P = 0.002). After controlling for patient age, sex, and medical comorbidities, patients with CKD (odds ratio [OR], 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.14-7.09; P < 0.001) and ESRD (OR, 6.32; 95% CI, 3.89-10.33; P < 0.001) were significantly more likely to develop ATN compared with patients without kidney disease. However, CKD (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.20-3.12; P = 0.754) or ESRD (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 0.38-10.00; P = 0.415) did not increase the risk for SSI on multivariate analysis. The rate of ATN significantly increases based on severity of kidney disease. However, patients with transplants have ATN and SSI rates comparable with patients without kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Peri-operative glycaemic control regimens for preventing surgical site infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Kao, Lillian S; Meeks, Derek; Moyer, Virginia A; Lally, Kevin P

    2009-07-08

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization and are potentially preventable. Peri-operative hyperglycaemia has been associated with increased SSIs and previous recommendations have been to treat glucose levels above 200 mg/dL. However, recent studies have questioned the optimal glycaemic control regimen to prevent SSIs. Whether the benefits of strict or intensive glycaemic control with insulin infusion as compared to conventional management outweigh the risks remains controversial. To summarise the evidence for the impact of glycaemic control in the peri-operative period on the incidence of surgical site infections, hypoglycaemia, level of glycaemic control, all-cause and infection-related mortality, and hospital length of stay and to investigate for differences of effect between different levels of glycaemic control. A search strategy was developed to search the following databases: Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 25 March 2009), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 1; Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to March Week 2 2009); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2009 Week 12) and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to March Week 3 2009). The search was not limited by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for inclusion if they evaluated two (or more) glycaemic control regimens in the peri-operative period (within one week pre-, intra-, and/or post-operative) and reported surgical site infections as an outcome. The standard method for conducting a systematic review in accordance with the Cochrane Wounds Group was used. Two review authors independently reviewed the results from the database searches and identified relevant studies. Two review authors extracted study data and outcomes from each study and reviewed each study for methodological quality. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion or by referral to a third review author. Five

  1. Closed Incision Negative Pressure Therapy Effects on Postoperative Infection and Surgical Site Complication After Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Redfern, Roberta E; Cameron-Ruetz, Claire; O'Drobinak, Simone K; Chen, John T; Beer, Karl J

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study is to determine whether negative pressure wound therapy, used prophylactically in clean surgical incisions, reduces surgical site infection, hematoma, and seroma after total joint replacement. A single center, open-label study with a prospective cohort of patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty treated with closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) of clean surgical wounds was conducted. One hundred ninety-six incisions treated with ciNPT in 192 patients were compared with a historical control group of 400 patients treated with traditional gauze dressing. The rates of clinically significant hematoma, seroma, dehiscence, surgical site infection, and complication were compared using univariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. The rate of deep infection was unchanged in the ciNPT group compared with control (1.0% vs 1.25%); however, the overall rate of infection (including superficial wound infection) decreased significantly (3.5% vs 1.0%, P = .04). Overall complication rate was lower in the ciNPT group than controls (1.5% vs 5.5%, P = .02). Upon logistic regression, only treatment group was associated with complication; patients treated with ciNPT were about 4 times less likely to experience a surgical site complication compared with control (P = .0277, odds ratio 4.251, 95% confidence interval 1.172-15.414). ciNPT for total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty in a comprehensive patient population reduced overall incidence of complication, but did not significantly impact the rate of deep infection. Further research to determine clinical and economic advantages of routine use of ciNPT in total joint arthroplasty is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is duration of surgery a risk factor for extracranial complications and surgical site infections after intracranial tumor operations?

    PubMed

    Golebiowski, Arthur; Drewes, Christina; Gulati, Sasha; Jakola, Asgeir Store; Solheim, Ole

    2015-02-01

    Duration of surgery has not been much explored as a possible risk factor for complications in neurosurgery. To explore the possible impact of duration of surgery on the risk of developing extracranial complications and surgical site infections following intracranial tumor surgery. Retrospective review of 1,000 consecutive patients who underwent planned surgery for intracranial tumors at a single institution. Complications within 30 days of surgery were registered. Of all patients, 18.6 % acquired extracranial complications, and they were seen in 14.3, 17.7, 22.1 and 37.4 % after operations lasting <2, 2-4, 4-6 and ≥6 h (p = 0.025). In multivariate analyses, duration of surgery per hour [OR 1.14 (1.04-1.25)], ASA 3-4 [OR 1.37 (1.14-1.63)] and acquired neurological deficits [OR 1.47 (1.02-2.11)] were associated with extracranial complications. For surgical site infections, there was a significant association between increased risk and increased duration of surgery (p < 0.001). Duration of surgery together with comorbidity and acquired neurological deficits is an independent risk factor for extracranial complications after brain tumor surgery. Duration of surgery is also associated with surgical site infections. Knowledge about the potential harm of slow surgery should be of interest to neurosurgeons when deciding on various surgical approaches, surgical tools or providing training. Also if acquiring ethical approval or informed consent in technical research projects, the risks associated with prolonging brain surgery should be considered. Special consideration should be warranted in patients with significant comorbidity, planned long surgery and higher risk of acquiring neurological deficits after surgery.

  3. Multivariable predictors of postoperative surgical site infection after general and vascular surgery: results from the patient safety in surgery study.

    PubMed

    Neumayer, Leigh; Hosokawa, Patrick; Itani, Kamal; El-Tamer, Mahmoud; Henderson, William G; Khuri, Shukri F

    2007-06-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) is a potentially preventable complication. We developed and tested a model to predict patients at high risk for surgical site infection. Data from the Patient Safety in Surgery Study/National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from a 3-year period were used to develop and test a predictive model of SSI using logistic regression analyses. From October 2001 through September 2004, 7,035 of 163,624 (4.30%) patients undergoing vascular and general surgical procedures at 14 academic and 128 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers experienced SSI. Fourteen variables independently associated with increased risk of SSI included patient factors (age greater than 40 years, diabetes, dyspnea, use of steroids, alcoholism, smoking, recent radiotherapy, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 2 or higher), preoperative laboratory values (albumin<3.5 mg/dL, total bilirubin>1.0 mg/dL), and operative characteristics (emergency, complexity [work relative value units>/=10], type of procedure, and wound classification). The SSI risk score is more accurate than the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance score in predicting SSI (c-indices 0.70, 0.62, respectively). We developed and tested an accurate prediction score for SSI. Clinicians can use this score to predict their patient's risk of an SSI and implement appropriate prevention strategies.

  4. Effect of laminar airflow ventilation on surgical site infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Peter; Kubilay, N Zeynep; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Egger, Matthias; Gastmeier, Petra

    2017-05-01

    The role of the operating room's ventilation system in the prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs) is widely discussed, and existing guidelines do not reflect current evidence. In this context, laminar airflow ventilation was compared with conventional ventilation to assess their effectiveness in reducing the risk of SSIs. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and WHO regional medical databases from Jan 1, 1990, to Jan 31, 2014. We updated the search for MEDLINE for the period between Feb 1, 2014, and May 25, 2016. We included studies most relevant to our predefined question: is the use of laminar airflow in the operating room associated with the reduction of overall or deep SSI as outcomes in patients of any age undergoing surgical operations? We excluded studies not relevant to the study question, studies not in the selected languages, studies published before Jan 1, 1990, or after May 25, 2016, meeting or conference abstracts, and studies of which the full text was not available. Data were extracted by two independent investigators, with disagreements resolved through further discussion. Authors were contacted if the full-text article was not available, or if important data or information on the paper's content was absent. Studies were assessed for publication bias. Grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation was used to assess the quality of the identified evidence. Meta-analyses were done with RevMan (version 5.3). We identified 1947 records of which 12 observational studies were comparing laminar airflow ventilation with conventional turbulent ventilation in orthopaedic, abdominal, and vascular surgery. The meta-analysis of eight cohort studies showed no difference in risk for deep SSIs following total hip arthroplasty (330 146 procedures, odds ratio [OR] 1·29, 95% CI 0·98-1·71; p=0·07, I(2)=83%). For total knee arthroplasty, the meta-analysis of six cohort studies showed no difference

  5. Influence of Surgical Technique, Performance Status, and Peritonitis Exposure on Surgical Site Infection in Acute Complicated Diverticulitis: A Matched Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Zonta, Sandro; De Martino, Michela; Podetta, Michele; Viganò, Jacopo; Dominioni, Tommaso; Picheo, Roberto; Cobianchi, Lorenzo; Alessiani, Mario; Dionigi, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Acute generalized peritonitis secondary to complicated diverticulitis is a life-threatening condition; the standard treatment is surgery. Despite advances in peri-operative care, this condition is accompanied by a high peri-operative complication rate (22%-25%). No definitive evidence is available to recommend a preferred surgical technique in patients with Hinchey stage III/IV disease. A matched case-control study enrolling patients from four surgical units at Italian university hospital was planned to assess the most appropriate surgical treatment on the basis of patient performance status and peritonitis exposure, with the aim of minimizing the surgical site infection (SSI). A series of 1,175 patients undergoing surgery for Hinchey III/IV peritonitis in 2003-2013 were analyzed. Cases (n=145) were selected from among those patients who developed an SSI. control ratio was 1:3. Cases and control groups were matched by age, gender, body mass index, and Hinchey grade. We considered three surgical techniques: T1=Hartman's procedure; T2=sigmoid resection, anastomosis, and ileostomy; and T3=sigmoid resection and anastomosis. Six scoring systems were analyzed to assess performance status; subsequently, patients were divided into low, mild, and high risk (LR, MR, HR) according to the system producing the highest area under the curve. We classified peritonitis exposition as P1=<12 h; P2=12-24 h; P3=>24 h. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. The Apgar scoring system defined the risk groups according to performance status. Lowest SSI risk was expected when applying T3 in P1 (OR=0.22), P2 (OR=0.5) for LR and in P1 (OR=0.63) for MR; T2 in P2 (OR=0.5) in LR and in P1 (OR=0.61) in MR; T1 in P3 (OR=0.56) in LR; in P2 (OR=0.63) and P3 (OR=0.54) in MR patients, and in each P subgroup (OR=0.93;0.97;1.01) in HR. Pre-operative assessment based on Apgar scoring system integrated with peritonitis exposure in complicated diverticulitis may offer a ready-to-use tool

  6. Impact of wound edge protection devices on surgical site infection after laparotomy: multicentre randomised controlled trial (ROSSINI Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Melanie; Bartlett, David C; Gheorghe, Adrian; Redman, Val; Dowswell, George; Hawkins, William; Mak, Tony; Youssef, Haney; Richardson, Caroline; Hornby, Steven; Magill, Laura; Haslop, Richard; Wilson, Sue; Morton, Dion

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical effectiveness of wound edge protection devices in reducing surgical site infection after abdominal surgery. Design Multicentre observer blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants Patients undergoing laparotomy at 21 UK hospitals. Interventions Standard care or the use of a wound edge protection device during surgery. Main outcome measures Surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, assessed by blinded clinicians at seven and 30 days and by patient’s self report for the intervening period. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, duration of stay in hospital, and the effect of characteristics of the patient and operation on the efficacy of the device. Results 760 patients were enrolled with 382 patients assigned to the device group and 378 to the control group. Six patients in the device group and five in the control group did not undergo laparotomy. Fourteen patients, seven in each group, were lost to follow-up. A total of 184 patients experienced surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, 91/369 (24.7%) in the device group and 93/366 (25.4%) in the control group (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.36; P=0.85). This lack of benefit was consistent across wound assessments performed by clinicians and those reported by patients and across all secondary outcomes. In the secondary analyses no subgroup could be identified in which there was evidence of clinical benefit associated with use of the device. Conclusions Wound edge protection devices do not reduce the rate of surgical site infection in patients undergoing laparotomy, and therefore their routine use for this role cannot be recommended. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 40402832 PMID:23903454

  7. Nanocrystalline silver dressing and subatmospheric pressure therapy following neoadjuvant radiation therapy and surgical excision of a feline injection site sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Woods, Samantha; de Castro Marques, Ana I; Renwick, Mala G; Argyle, Sally A; Yool, Donald A

    2012-03-01

    CLINICAL SUMMARY: This is the first clinical report of use of a combination of nanocrystalline silver and subatmospheric pressure therapy to treat a resistant wound infection, following tumour removal and radiation therapy, in a difficult-to-manage surgical site in a cat. The therapy was well tolerated and the authors suggest it is a valid treatment protocol for management of non-healing or infected wounds in the cat.

  8. Impact of wound edge protection devices on surgical site infection after laparotomy: multicentre randomised controlled trial (ROSSINI Trial).

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Thomas D; Calvert, Melanie; Bartlett, David C; Gheorghe, Adrian; Redman, Val; Dowswell, George; Hawkins, William; Mak, Tony; Youssef, Haney; Richardson, Caroline; Hornby, Steven; Magill, Laura; Haslop, Richard; Wilson, Sue; Morton, Dion

    2013-07-31

    To determine the clinical effectiveness of wound edge protection devices in reducing surgical site infection after abdominal surgery. Multicentre observer blinded randomised controlled trial. Patients undergoing laparotomy at 21 UK hospitals. Standard care or the use of a wound edge protection device during surgery. Surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, assessed by blinded clinicians at seven and 30 days and by patient's self report for the intervening period. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, duration of stay in hospital, and the effect of characteristics of the patient and operation on the efficacy of the device. 760 patients were enrolled with 382 patients assigned to the device group and 378 to the control group. Six patients in the device group and five in the control group did not undergo laparotomy. Fourteen patients, seven in each group, were lost to follow-up. A total of 184 patients experienced surgical site infection within 30 days of surgery, 91/369 (24.7%) in the device group and 93/366 (25.4%) in the control group (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.36; P=0.85). This lack of benefit was consistent across wound assessments performed by clinicians and those reported by patients and across all secondary outcomes. In the secondary analyses no subgroup could be identified in which there was evidence of clinical benefit associated with use of the device. Wound edge protection devices do not reduce the rate of surgical site infection in patients undergoing laparotomy, and therefore their routine use for this role cannot be recommended. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 40402832.

  9. Predictive factors for surgical site infection in head and neck cancer surgery: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Henry, J S; Buffet-Bataillon, S; Deberge, S; Jegoux, F

    2014-01-01

    Surgical Site Infection (SSI) after head and neck cancer surgery may be life threatening and induces increasing in healthcare cost. The objective of this present study was to identify predictive factors associated to surgical site infection in head and neck cancer surgery. Numerous predictive factors were analyzed with univariate case-control method, then with multivariate method. This retrospective study included 71 patients who have been hospitalized in our department during 2010 for a head and neck cancer surgery. The incidence of surgical site infection was 15.5%. The T3-T4 stages were identified as an independent predictive factor (p = 0.04). Our study does not find other predictive factor for a SSI. The NNIS index (National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance), used by the Center for disease control and prevention as predictive factor, was not valid in our study. A specific predictive index should include the tumor stage for Head and Neck Cancer surgery and should be taken into account for the management of a preventive antibiotic treatment.

  10. Particular Features of Surgical Site Infection in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hak; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Go We

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous reports have observed differences only in infection rates between posterolateral fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). There have been no reports that describe the particular features of surgical site infection (SSI) in PLIF. In this study, we endeavor to identify the distinguishing characteristics and risk factors of SSI in PLIF. Methods Our study undertook a review of a case series of an institute. Patients who had undergone PLIF consecutively in the author's hospital were reviewed. Two proactive procedures were introduced during the study period. One was irrigation of the autolocal bone, and the other was the intradiscal space irrigation with a nozzle. Infection rate and risk factors were analyzed. For subgroup analysis, the elapsed time to a diagnosis (ETD), clinical manifestations, hematologic findings, and causative bacteria were examined in patients with SSI. Results In a total of 1,831 cases, there were 30 cases of SSI (1.6%). Long operation time was an independent risk factor (p = 0.008), and local bone irrigation was an independent protective factor (p = 0.001). Two cases of referred SSI were included in the subgroup analysis. There were 6/32 (19%) superficial incisional infections (SII), 6/32 (19%) deep incisional infections (DII), and 20/32 (62%) organ/space infections (O/SI). The difference of incidence among three groups was significant (p = 0.002).The most common bacteria encountered were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis followed by methicillin-resistant S. aureus in incisional infections, and no growth followed by S. epidermidis in O/SI. ETD was 8.5 ± 2.3 days in SII, 8.7 ± 2.3 days in DII and 164.5 ± 131.1 days in O/SI (p = 0.013). Conclusions The rate of SSI in PLIF was 1.6%, with the most common type being O/SI. The causative bacteria of O/SI was of lower virulence than in the incisional infection, and thus diagnosis was delayed due to its latent and insidious feature. Contamination of auto

  11. Nutritional status as a predictive marker for surgical site infection in total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Alfargieny, Randa; Bodalal, Zuhir; Bendardaf, Riyad; El-Fadli, Mustafa; Langhi, Salem

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) is considered one of the most serious complications in total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study seeks to analyze the predictive value of preoperative and postoperative nutritional biomarkers for SSI in elective TJA. Methodology: Nutritional markers were gathered retrospectively utilizing patient's records from the orthopedics department at Benghazi Medical Center (BMC). The sample spanned cases admitted during the 20-month period between January 2012 and August 2013 and had undergone either elective total hip replacement or total knee replacement. The collected lab results included a complete blood count, total lymphocyte count (TLC), and serum albumin (S. alb.) levels. The patients were then divided into two groups based on the occurrence of an SSI. Results: A total of 135 total knee (81.5%, n = 110/135) and total hip (18.5%, n = 25/135) replacements were performed at BMC during the study period. Among these cases, 57% (n = 78/135) had patient records suitable for statistical analysis. The average preoperative TLC was 2.422 ×103 cells/mm3 (range = 0.8–4.7 ×103 cells/mm3) whereas that number dropped after the surgery to 1.694 ×103 cells/mm3 (range = 0.6–3.8 ×103 cells/mm3). S. alb. levels showed a mean of 3.973 g/dl (range = 2.9–4.7 g/dl) preoperatively and 3.145 g/dl (range = 1.0–4.1 g/dl) postoperatively. The majority of TJA patients did not suffer any complication (67.4%, n = 91/135) while eight cases (5.9%) suffered from a superficial SSI. Conclusion: Preoperative S. alb. was identified as the only significant predictor for SSI (P = 0.011). Being a preventable cause of postoperative morbidity, it is recommended that the nutritional status (especially preoperative S. alb.) of TJA patients be used as a screening agent and appropriate measures be taken to avoid SSI. PMID:26629466

  12. Risk Adjustment for Determining Surgical Site Infection in Colon Surgery: Are All Models Created Equal?

    PubMed

    Muratore, Sydne; Statz, Catherine; Glover, J J; Kwaan, Mary; Beilman, Greg

    2016-04-01

    Colon surgical site infections (SSIs) are being utilized increasingly as a quality measure for hospital reimbursement and public reporting. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) now require reporting of colon SSI, which is entered through the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). However, the CMS's model for determining expected SSIs uses different risk adjustment variables than does NHSN. We hypothesize that CMS's colon SSI model will predict lower expected infection rates than will NHSN. Colon SSI data were reported prospectively to NHSN from 2012-2014 for the six Fairview Hospitals (1,789 colon procedures). We compared expected quarterly SSIs and standardized infection ratios (SIRs) generated by CMS's risk-adjustment model (age and American Society of Anesthesiologist [ASA] classification) vs. NHSN's (age, ASA classification, procedure duration, endoscope [including laparoscope] use, medical school affiliation, hospital bed number, and incision class). The patients with more complex colon SSIs were more likely to be male (60% vs. 44%; p = 0.011), to have contaminated/dirty incisions (21% vs. 10%; p = 0.005), and to have longer operations (235 min vs. 156 min; p < 0.001) and were more likely to be at a medical school-affiliated hospital (53% vs. 40%; p = 0.032). For Fairview Hospitals combined, CMS calculated a lower number of expected quarterly SSIs than did the NHSN (4.58 vs. 5.09 SSIs/quarter; p = 0.002). This difference persisted in a university hospital (727 procedures; 2.08 vs. 2.33; p = 0.002) and a smaller, community-based hospital (565 procedures; 1.31 vs. 1.42; p = 0.002). There were two quarters in which CMS identified Fairview's SIR as an outlier for complex colon SSIs (p = 0.05 and 0.04), whereas NHSN did not (p = 0.06 and 0.06). The CMS's current risk-adjustment model using age and ASA classification predicts lower rates of expected colon

  13. Predictors of Surgical Site Infection Following Craniotomy for Intracranial Neoplasms: An Analysis of Prospectively Collected Data in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Database.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Brandon A; Ubl, Daniel S; Babu, Maya; Maloney, Patrick; Murphy, Meghan; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Bydon, Mohamad; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Parney, Ian

    2016-04-01

    To determine the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) after resection of an intracranial neoplasm using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set and to identify potential risk factors associated with SSI. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Data File was queried during the period 2006-2013 for patients who underwent a resection for an intracranial neoplasm. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with SSI. Inclusion criteria were met by 12,021 patients. SSI occurred at a rate of 2.04%. SSI was significantly associated with increased rates of return to the operating room (56.1% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and postoperative lengths of stay >30 days (5.3% vs. 1.3%, P < 0.001) on unadjusted bivariate analysis. On multivariable analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.991, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.982-0.999) and female sex (OR = 0.697, 95% CI = 0.538-0.902) were associated with a reduction in the odds of SSI. Preoperative wound infections (OR = 3.833, 95% CI = 1.834-8.0011) and operative times >4 hours (OR = 1.891, 95% CI = 1.298-2.756) were associated with an increased odds of SSI. Among cases with available chemotherapy data (n = 3504), recent chemotherapy (OR = 3.007, 95% CI = 1.460-6.196) was associated with an increased odds of SSI. This study identified patient risk factors that may assist clinical decision making regarding patient risk stratification, timing of surgery, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with an intracranial neoplasm undergoing craniotomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Skin Antiseptic Agents in Reducing Surgical Site Infections: A Report from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program

    PubMed Central

    Hakkarainen, Timo W; Dellinger, E Patchen; Evans, Heather L; Farjah, Farhood; Farrokhi, Ellen; Steele, Scott R; Thirlby, Richard; Flum, David R

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections (SSI) are an important source of morbidity and mortality. Chlorhexidine in isopropyl alcohol is effective in preventing central venous-catheter associated infections, but its effectiveness in reducing SSI in clean-contaminated procedures is uncertain. Surgical studies to date have had contradictory results. We aimed to further evaluate the relationship of commonly used antiseptic agents and SSI, and to determine if isopropyl alcohol had a unique effect. Study Design We performed a prospective cohort analysis to evaluate the relationship of commonly used skin antiseptic agents and SSI for patients undergoing mostly clean-contaminated surgery from January 2011 through June 2012. Multivariate regression modeling predicted expected rates of SSI. Risk adjusted event rates (RAERs) of SSI were compared across groups using proportionality testing. Results Among 7,669 patients the rate of SSI was 4.6%. The RAERs were 0.85 (p=0.28) for chlorhexidine (CHG), 1.10 (p=0.06) for chlorhexidine in isopropyl alcohol (CHG+IPA), 0.98 (p=0.96) for povidone-iodine (PVI) and 0.93 (p=0.51) for iodine-povacrylex in isopropyl alcohol (IPC+IPA). The RAERs were 0.91 (p=0.39) for the non-IPA group and 1.10 (p=0.07) for the IPA group. Among elective colorectal patients the RAERs were 0.90 (p=0.48) for CHG, 1.04 (p=0.67) for CHG+IPA, 1.04 (p=0.85) for PVI and 1.00 (p=0.99) for IPC+IPA. Conclusions For clean-contaminated surgical cases, this large-scale state cohort study does not demonstrate superiority of any commonly-used skin antiseptic agent in reducing the risk of SSI, nor does it find any unique effect of isopropyl alcohol. These results do not support the use of more expensive skin preparation agents. PMID:24364925

  15. Single-site Versus Multiport Robotic Hysterectomy in Benign Gynecologic Diseases: A Retrospective Evaluation of Surgical Outcomes and Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bogliolo, Stefano; Ferrero, Simone; Cassani, Chiara; Musacchi, Valentina; Zanellini, Francesca; Dominoni, Mattia; Spinillo, Arsenio; Gardella, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    To compare the surgical outcomes and costs of robotic-assisted hysterectomy with the single-site (RSSH) or multiport approach (RH). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database (Canadian Task Force classification II1). A university hospital. Consecutive women who underwent robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for the treatment of benign gynecologic diseases. Data on surgical approach, surgical outcomes, and costs were collected in a prospective database and retrospectively analyzed. The total operative time, console time, docking time, estimated blood loss, conversion rate, and surgical complications rate were compared between the 2 study groups. Cost analysis was performed. One hundred four patients underwent total robotic-assisted hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (45 RSSH and 59 RH). There was no significant difference in the indications for surgery and in the characteristics of the patients between the 2 study groups. There was no significant difference between the single-site and multiport approach in console time, surgical complication rate, conversion rate, and postoperative pain. The docking time was lower in the RH group (p = .0001). The estimated blood loss and length of hospitalization were lower in the RSSH group (p = .0008 and p = .009, respectively). The cost analysis showed significant differences in favor of RSSH. RSSH should be preferred to RH when hysterectomy is performed for benign disease because it could be at least as equally effective and safe with a potential cost reduction. However, because of the high cost and absence of clear advantages, the robotic approach should be considered only for selected patients. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shorter duration of femoral-popliteal bypass is associated with decreased surgical site infection and shorter hospital length of stay.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tze-Woei; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Hamburg, Naomi M; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Eberhardt, Robert T; Farber, Alik

    2012-10-01

    Duration of femoral-popliteal bypass is based on multiple patient-specific, system-specific, and surgeon-specific factors, and is subject to considerable variability. We hypothesized that shorter operative duration is associated with improved outcomes and might represent a potential quality-improvement measure. Patients who underwent primary femoral-popliteal bypass with autogenous vein between 2005 and 2009 were identified from the American College of Surgeons NSQIP dataset using ICD-9 codes. Operative duration quartiles (Q) were determined (Q1: ≤149 minutes, Q2: 150 to 192 minutes, Q3: 193 to 248 minutes; and Q4: ≥249 minutes). Perioperative outcomes included mortality, surgical site infection, cardiopulmonary complications, and length of hospital stay. Relevant patient-specific and system-specific confounders, including age, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, end-stage renal disease, indication, American Society of Anesthesiologists' class, type of anesthesia, intraoperative transfusion, nonoperative time in the operating room, and participation of a trainee during the procedure, were adjusted for using multivariable regression. There were 2,644 femoral-popliteal bypass procedures in our study. Mean age was 65.9 years and 62% of patients were male. Longer duration of surgery was associated with increased perioperative surgical site infection (Q1: 6.3%; Q2: 9.0%; Q3: 10.1%; and Q4: 13.9%; p < 0.001) and longer length of stay (5.4 ± 6.8 days; 6.1 ± 6.7 days; 7.0 ± 11.3 days; 8.1 ± 8.0 days, respectively; p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, longer operative duration was independently associated with higher surgical site infection and longer hospital length of stay. Operative duration of ≥260 minutes increased the risk of surgical site infection by 50% compared with operative time of 150 minutes. Longer duration of femoral-popliteal bypass with autogenous vein was associated with a significantly higher risk of perioperative surgical site infection and

  17. The inter-rater reliability of the diagnosis of surgical site infection in the context of a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, J.; Evaniew, N.; Thornley, P.; Griffin, A.; Deheshi, B.; O’Shea, T.; Wunder, J.; Ferguson, P.; Randall, R. L.; Turcotte, R.; Schneider, P.; McKay, P.; Bhandari, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The diagnosis of surgical site infection following endoprosthetic reconstruction for bone tumours is frequently a subjective diagnosis. Large clinical trials use blinded Central Adjudication Committees (CACs) to minimise the variability and bias associated with assessing a clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the level of inter-rater and intra-rater agreement in the diagnosis of surgical site infection in the context of a clinical trial. Materials and Methods The Prophylactic Antibiotic Regimens in Tumour Surgery (PARITY) trial CAC adjudicated 29 non-PARITY cases of lower extremity endoprosthetic reconstruction. The CAC members classified each case according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria for surgical site infection (superficial, deep, or organ space). Combinatorial analysis was used to calculate the smallest CAC panel size required to maximise agreement. A final meeting was held to establish a consensus. Results Full or near consensus was reached in 20 of the 29 cases. The Fleiss kappa value was calculated as 0.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35 to 0.53), or moderate agreement. The greatest statistical agreement was observed in the outcome of no infection, 0.61 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.72, substantial agreement). Panelists reached a full consensus in 12 of 29 cases and near consensus in five of 29 cases when CDC criteria were used (superficial, deep or organ space). A stable maximum Fleiss kappa of 0.46 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.35) at CAC sizes greater than three members was obtained. Conclusions There is substantial agreement among the members of the PARITY CAC regarding the presence or absence of surgical site infection. Agreement on the level of infection, however, is more challenging. Additional clinical information routinely collected by the prospective PARITY trial may improve the discriminatory capacity of the CAC in the parent study for the diagnosis of infection. Cite this article: J. Nuttall, N. Evaniew, P. Thornley

  18. Wound Edge Protectors in Open Abdominal Surgery to Reduce Surgical Site Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mihaljevic, André L.; Müller, Tara C.; Kehl, Victoria; Friess, Helmut; Kleeff, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Importance Surgical site infections remain one of the most frequent complications following abdominal surgery and cause substantial costs, morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess the effectiveness of wound edge protectors in open abdominal surgery in reducing surgical site infections. Evidence Review A systematic literature search was conducted according to a prespecified review protocol in a variety of data-bases combined with hand-searches for randomized controlled trials on wound edge protectors in patients undergoing laparotomy. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of included trials was conducted. Findings We identified 16 randomized controlled trials including 3695 patients investigating wound edge protectors published between 1972 and 2014. Critical appraisal uncovered a number of methodological flaws, predominantly in the older trials. Wound edge protectors significantly reduced the rate of surgical site infections (risk ratio 0.65; 95%CI, 0.51–0.83; p = 0.0007; I2 = 52%). The results were robust in a number of sensitivity analyses. A similar effect size was found in the subgroup of patients undergoing colorectal surgery (risk ratio 0.65; 95%CI, 0.44–0.97; p = 0.04; I2 = 56%). Of the two common types of wound protectors double ring devices were found to exhibit a greater protective effect (risk ratio 0.29; 95%CI, 0.15–0.55) than single-ring devices (risk ratio 0.71; 95%CI, 0.54–0.92), but this might largely be due to the lower quality of available data for double-ring devices. Exploratory subgroup analyses for the degree of contamination showed a larger protective effect in contaminated cases (0.44; 95%CI, 0.28–0.67; p = 0.0002, I2 = 23%) than in clean-contaminated surgeries (0.72, 95%CI, 0.57–0.91; p = 0.005; I2 = 46%) and a strong effect on the reduction of superficial surgical site infections (risk ratio 0.45; 95%CI, 0.24–0.82; p = 0.001; I2 = 72%). Conclusions and Relevance Wound edge protectors significantly reduce the rate of

  19. Gene-set based genome-wide association analysis for the speed of sound in two skeletal sites of Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Kim, Sangsoo

    2014-01-01

    The speed of sound (SOS) value is an indicator of bone mineral density (BMD). Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified a number of genes, whose variations may affect BMD levels. However, their biological implications have been elusive. We re-analyzed the GWA study dataset for the SOS values in skeletal sites of 4,659 Korean women, using a gene-set analysis software, GSA-SNP. We identified 10 common representative GO terms, and 17 candidate genes between these two traits (PGS < 0.05). Implication of these GO terms and genes in the bone mechanism is well supported by the literature survey. Interestingly, the significance levels of some member genes were inversely related, in several gene-sets that were shared between two skeletal sites. This implies that biological process, rather than SNP or gene, is the substantial unit of genetic association for SOS in bone. In conclusion, our findings may provide new insights into the biological mechanisms for BMD. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(6): 348-353] PMID:24286325

  20. Multi-Institution Analysis of Infection Control Practices Identifies the Subset Associated with Best Surgical Site Infection Performance: A Texas Alliance for Surgical Quality Collaborative Project.

    PubMed

    Davis, Catherine H; Kao, Lillian S; Fleming, Jason B; Aloia, Thomas A

    2017-08-16

    In an effort to reduce surgical site infection (SSI) rates, a large number of infection control practices (ICPs), including operating room attire policies, have been recommended. However, few have proven benefits and many are costly, time-consuming, and detrimental to provider morale. The goal of this multi-institution study was to determine which ICPs are associated with lower postoperative SSI rates. Twenty American College of Surgeons NSQIP and Texas Alliance for Surgical Quality-affiliated hospitals completed this Quality Improvement Assessment Board-approved study. Surgeon champions at each hospital ranked current surgery, anesthesia, and nursing adherence to 38 separate ICPs in 6 categories (attire, preoperative, intraoperative, preoperative, intraoperative, antibiotics, postoperative, and reporting) on 4-point scales for general surgery cases. These data were compared with the risk-adjusted general surgery SSI odds ratios contained in the July 2016 American College of Surgeons NSQIP hospital-level, risk-adjusted reports. Compliance rates were compared between the 7 best (median SSI odds ratio, 0.64; range, 0.56 to 0.70) and 7 worst (median SSI odds ratio, 1.16; range, 0.94 to 1.65) performers using ANOVA. Nearly all hospitals reported maximal adherence to hair removal with clippers (Surgical Care Improvement Project measure Inf-6) and to best-practice prophylactic antibiotic metrics (Surgical Care Improvement Project measure Inf-1-3). Variable adherence was identified across many ICPs and more frequent compliance with 8 ICPs correlated with lower SSI odds ratios, including preoperative shower; skin preparation technique; using clean instruments, gowns, and gloves for wound closure and dressing changes; and transparent internal reporting of SSI data. Operating room attire ICPs, including coverage of nonscrubbed provider head and arm hair, did not correlate with SSI rates. This analysis suggests that the subset of ICPs that focus on perioperative patient

  1. Risk factors for surgical site infection following cesarean section in a Brazilian Women's Hospital: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Farret, Túlio Cícero Franco; Dallé, Jessica; Monteiro, Vinícius da Silva; Riche, Cezar Vinícius Würdig; Antonello, Vicente Sperb

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated patients with diagnosis of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean section and their controls to determinate risk factors and impact of antibiotic prophylaxis on this condition. All cesareans performed from January 2009 to December 2012 were evaluated for SSI, based on criteria established by CDC/NHSN. Control patients were determined after inclusion of case patients. Medical records of case and control patients were reviewed and compared regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Our study demonstrated an association following univariate analysis between post-cesarean SSI and number of internal vaginal examinations, time of membrane rupture, emergency cesarean and improper use of antibiotic prophylaxis. This same situation did not repeat itself in multivariate analysis with adjustment for risk factors, especially with regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, considering the emergency cesarean factor only. The authors of the present study not only question surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis use based on data presented here and in literature, but suggest that the prophylaxis is perhaps indicated primarily in selected groups of patients undergoing cesarean section. Further research with greater number of patients and evaluated risk factors are fundamental for better understanding of the causes and evolution of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy in colorectal surgery. Effects on surgical site events: current status and call to action.

    PubMed

    Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Selvaggi, Francesco; Canonico, Silvestro

    2015-09-01

    Surgical site events, including surgical site infections (SSI), represent a major problem in general surgery. SSI are responsible of nuisance for patients, and can lead to important complications and disability, often needing prolonged postoperative stay with specific treatment and recovery in Intensive Care Units. These justify the higher costs due to SSI. Despite the growing body of evidence concerning SSI in general surgery, literature dealing with SSI after colorectal surgery is scarce, reflecting in suboptimal perception of such a relevant issue by colorectal surgeons and health authorities in Italy, though colorectal surgery is associated with higher rates of SSI. The best strategy for reducing the impact of SSI on costs of care and patients quality of life would be the development of a preventive bundle, similar to that adopted in the US through the colorectal section of the National Surgery Quality Improvement Project of the American College of Surgeons (ACS-NSQIP). This policy has been showed to significantly reduce the rates of SSI. In this scenario, incisional negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is likely to play a pivotal role. We herein reviewed the literature to report on the current status of preventive NPWT on surgical wounds of patients undergoing colorectal procedures with primary wound closure, suggesting evidence-based measures to reduce the impact of SSI, and to contain the costs associated with conventional NPWT devices by means of newer available technologies. Some explicative real life cases are presented.

  3. Deep Surgical Site Infections after Open Radical Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion Significantly Increase Hospitalisation Time and Total Treatment Costs.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Mathias; Oelke, Matthias; Lutze, Bettina; Weingart, Markus; Kuczyk, Markus A; Chaberny, Iris F; Graf, Karolin

    2017-01-01

    Deep surgical site infections (DSSI) usually require secondary treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the total length of hospitalisation (LOH), intensive care unit (ICU) duration, and total treatment costs in patients with DSSI versus without DSSI after open radical cystectomy (ORC) and urinary diversion. Prospective case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in patients after ORC with urinary diversion during April 2008 to July 2012. DSSI was defined based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Matched-pair analysis for patients with versus without DSSI was done in 1:2 ratios. Patients with superficial surgical site infections (SSI) were excluded from analysis. In total, 189 operations were performed. Thirty-eight patients (20.1%) developed SSI of which 28 patients (14.8%) had DSSI. Out of 28 patients, 27 (96.4%) were with DSSI and required surgical re-intervention. Due to insufficient matching criteria, 11 patients with DSSI were excluded from analyses. Consequently, 17 patients with DSSI were matched with 34 patients without DSSI. Significant differences were seen for median overall LOH (30 vs. 18 days, p < 0.001), median ICU duration (p = 0.024), and median overall treatment costs (€17,030 vs. €11,402, p = 0.011). DSSI significantly increases LOH (67%) and treatment costs (49%), adding up to a financial loss for the hospital of approximately €5,500 in patients with DSSI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Strategies for handling missing clinical data for automated surgical site infection detection from the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Melton, Genevieve B; Arsoniadis, Elliot G; Wang, Yan; Kwaan, Mary R; Simon, Gyorgy J

    2017-03-16

    Proper handling of missing data is important for many secondary uses of electronic health record (EHR) data. Data imputation methods can be used to handle missing data, but their use for analyzing EHR data is limited and specific efficacy for postoperative complication detection is unclear. Several data imputation methods were used to develop data models for automated detection of three types (i.e., superficial, deep, and organ space) of surgical site infection (SSI) and overall SSI using American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP) Registry 30-day SSI occurrence data as a reference standard. Overall, models with missing data imputation almost always outperformed reference models without imputation that included only cases with complete data for detection of SSI overall achieving very good average area under the curve values. Missing data imputation appears to be an effective means for improving postoperative SSI detection using EHR clinical data.

  5. Economic and clinical contributions of an antimicrobial barrier dressing: a strategy for the reduction of surgical site infections.

    PubMed

    Leaper, David; Nazir, Jameel; Roberts, Chris; Searle, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In patients at risk of surgical site infection (SSI), there is evidence that an antimicrobial barrier dressing (Acticoat* ) applied immediately post-procedure is effective in reducing the incidence of infection. The objective of this study was to assess when it is appropriate to use an antimicrobial barrier dressing rather than a post-operative film dressing, by evaluating the net cost and budget impact of the two strategies. An economic model was developed, which estimates expected expenditure on dressings and the expected costs of surgical site infection during the initial inpatient episode, based on published literature on the pre-discharge costs of surgical infection and the efficacy of an antimicrobial barrier dressing in preventing SSI. At an SSI risk of 10%, an antimicrobial barrier dressing strategy is cost neutral if the incidence of infection is reduced by at least 9% compared with a post-operative film dressing. At 35% efficacy, expenditure on dressings would be higher by £30,760 per 1000 patients, and the cost of treating infection would be lower by £111,650, resulting in a net cost saving of £80,890. The break-even infection risk for cost neutrality is 2.6%. Although this cost analysis is based on published data, there are limitations in methodology: the model is dependent on and subject to the limitations of the data used to populate it. Further studies would be useful to increase the robustness of the conclusions, particularly in a broader range of surgical specialties. A strategy involving the use of an antimicrobial barrier dressing in patients at moderate (5-10%) or high (>10%) risk of infection appears reasonable and cost saving in light of the available clinical evidence.

  6. Increasing Compliance With an Antibiotic Prophylaxis Guideline to Prevent Pediatric Surgical Site Infection: Before and After Study.

    PubMed

    So, Jeannette P; Aleem, Ilyas S; Tsang, Derek S; Matlow, Anne G; Wright, James G

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate an intervention for improving antibiotic prophylaxis (AP) guideline compliance to prevent surgical site infections in children. Although appropriate AP reduces surgical site infection, and guidelines improve quality of care, changing practice is difficult. To facilitate behavioral change, various barriers need to be addressed. A multidisciplinary task force at a pediatric hospital developed an evidence-based AP guideline. Subsequently, the guideline was posted in operating rooms and the online formulary, only recommended antibiotics were available in operating rooms, incoming trainees received orientation, antibiotic verification was included in time-out, computerized alerts were set for inappropriate postoperative prophylaxis, and surgeons received e-mails when guideline was not followed. AP indication and administration were documented for surgical procedures in July 2008 (preintervention), September 2011 (postintervention), and April-May 2013 (follow-up). Compliance was defined as complete--appropriate antibiotic, dose, timing, redosing, and duration when prophylaxis was indicated; partial--appropriate drug and timing when prophylaxis was indicated; and appropriate use--complete compliance when prophylaxis was indicated, no antibiotics when not indicated. Compliance at preintervention and follow-up was compared using χ(2) tests. AP was indicated in 43.9% (187/426) and 62.0% (124/200) of surgical procedures at preintervention and follow-up, respectively. There were significant improvements in appropriate antibiotic use (51.6%-67.0%; P < 0.001), complete (26.2%-53.2%; P < 0.001) and partial compliance (73.3%-88.7%, P = 0.001), correct dosage (77.5%-90.7%; P = 0.003), timing (83.3%-95.8%; P = 0.001), redosing (62.5%-95.8%, P = 0.003), and duration (47.1%-65.3%; P < 0.002). A multifaceted intervention improved compliance with a pediatric AP guideline.

  7. The effect of nurse-performed preoperative skin preparation on postoperative surgical site infections in abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Dizer, Berna; Hatipoglu, Sevgi; Kaymakcioglu, Nihat; Tufan, Turgut; Yava, Ayla; Iyigun, Emine; Senses, Zeynep

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effect of preoperative skin preparation procedures performed by nurses on postoperative surgical site infection in abdominal surgery. Despite all interventions, postoperative SSIs still greatly affect mortality and morbidity. This is an experimental study. Procedures developed for nurse application of preoperative skin preparations were tested on a control group (n = 39) and study group (n = 43). Only clinical routines for preoperative skin preparation were performed on the control group patients. Control group members' skins were mostly prepared by shaving with a razor blade (41%). For the study group members, the researchers used the preoperative skin preparation procedure. Clippers were used to prepare 55.8% of study group members while 44.2% of them were not treated with the clipper because their wounds were clean. As a requirement of the procedure, all members of the study group had a chlorhexidine bath at least twice after being hospitalised and at least once a night before the operation under controlled conditions. In the group where chlorhexidine bath was not applied, the infection risk was found to be 4.76 times (95%CI = 1.20-18.83) greater even after corrections for age and gender had been made. The difference between control group and study group with respect to surgical site infections was also statistically significant (p < 0.05). Preoperative skin preparation using clipper on the nights before an operation and a 50 ml chlorhexidine bath excluding head area taken twice in the pre-operative period are useful to reduce SSI during postoperative period. We find that preoperative skin preparation using the procedures developed as a result of findings of this study is useful in reducing surgical site infection during the postoperative period.

  8. Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Intraoperative Application of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma on Surgical Site Infection or Delayed Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    SanGiovanni, Thomas P; Kiebzak, Gary M

    2016-05-01

    Prevention of surgical site infections and the reduction of wound-related complication rates have become increasingly emphasized by hospital task groups and government agencies given the degree of economic burden it places on the health care system. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors and other biomolecules that promote endogenous microbicidal activity. We hypothesized that PRP would help prevent postoperative infection and delayed wound healing (DWH). We randomized patients having foot or ankle surgery to the treatment group receiving intraoperative PRP (applied to operative field) and platelet-poor plasma at closing (PPP, on the sutured skin) or the control group (no PRP/PPP). The incidence of deep surgical site infection and DWH (collectively called endpoints) was compared between groups (n = 250/group). PRP had a mean 5.3-fold platelet concentration compared to whole blood, with concentrated white blood cells. Mean age (±SD) of patients was 52 years (±15), 65% were women. Minor and major operative procedures were included. Patients were followed for 60 days. Seventy controls had PRP prepared for assay of growth factors. Procedure mix, ASA scores, mean operative times, and comorbidity mix were similar between groups. The primary result was no difference in number of endpoints between groups: 19 patients in the PRP group (7.6%) versus 18 controls (7.2%). Endpoints were deep surgical site infections in 2 PRP/PPP patients and 1 control, and DWH in 17 PRP/PPP patients and 17 controls. Analysis of PRP samples revealed a large variation in growth factor concentrations between patients. Intraoperative application of PRP/PPP did not reduce the incidence of postoperative infection or DWH. Growth factor profiles varied greatly between patients, suggesting that the potentially therapeutic treatment delivered was not consistent from patient-to-patient. Level I, prospective randomized trial. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. A Multi-Disciplinary Review of the Potential Association between Closed-Suction Drains and Surgical Site Infection

    PubMed Central

    Reiffel, Alyssa J.; Barie, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the putative advantages conferred by closed-suction drains (CSDs), the widespread utilization of post-operative drains has been questioned due to concerns regarding both efficacy and safety, particularly with respect to the risk of surgical site infection (SSI). Although discipline-specific reports exist delineating risk factors associated with SSI as they relate to the presence of CSDs, there are no broad summary studies to examine this issue in depth. Methods The pertinent medical literature exploring the relationship between CSDs and SSI across multiple surgical disciplines was reviewed. Results Across most surgical disciplines, studies to evaluate the risk of SSI associated with routine post-operative CSD have yielded conflicting results. A few studies do suggest an increased risk of SSI associated with drain placement, but are usually associated with open drainage and not the use of CSDs. No studies whatsoever attribute a decrease in the incidence of SSI (including organ/space SSI) to drain placement. Conclusions Until additional, rigorous randomized trials are available to address the issue definitively, we recommend judicious use and prompt, timely removal of CSDs. Given that the evidence is scant and weak to suggest that CSD use is associated with increased risk of SSI, there is no justification for the prolongation of antibiotic prophylaxis to “cover” an indwelling drain. PMID:23718273

  10. Risk of surgical site infection in older patients in a cohort survey: targets for quality improvement in antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Agodi, Antonella; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Barchitta, Martina; Adornetto, Veronica; Cocuzza, Aldo; Latino, Rosalia; Li Destri, Giovanni; Di Cataldo, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) assess surgical site infection (SSI) incidence in a cohort of surgical patients and (2) estimate the compliance with national guidelines for perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP). SSIs, among the most common health care-associated infections, are an important target for surveillance and an official priority in several European countries. SSI commonly complicates surgical procedures in older people and is associated with substantial attributable mortality and costs. The implementation of PAP guidelines is difficult among surgeons, and failure to comply with the standard of care has been widely reported. A 12-month prospective survey was performed in accordance with the methods, protocols, and definitions of the Hospital in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS) protocol. The compliance of the current PAP practices with the published national guidelines was assessed. A total of 249 patients were enrolled. The cumulative SSI incidence was 3.2 per 100 operative procedures. Cumulative compliance for PAP was 12.4%. Overall, only infection risk index ≥ 1 was confirmed as a significant risk factor for SSI (odds ratio, 6.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-42.59; P = 0.045). When only older patients (age >65 years) were considered, no significant risk factors for SSI were identified. Our study indicates an overall inadequate compliance with PAP recommendations, thus highlighting the need to develop multimodal and targeted intervent