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  1. Korean women's breast cancer experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Eun Ok; Park, Young Sook

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore cultural meanings of breast cancer among Korean women in South Korea. A descriptive longitudinal study using methodological triangulation was conducted, and only qualitative findings are presented in this article. Ten Korean women who were newly diagnosed with a plan of surgery and subsequent chemotherapy, who did have severe fatigue at the time of recruitment, were recruited through Seoul National University Hospital. Data were collected using in-depth, 2-hour interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The themes emerged through the analysis process included: (a) "I did wrong," (b) "I cannot ask male physicians." (c) "I don't want to show the operation site to my husband." and (d) "I do household tasks by myself." The overriding theme was marginalization of the women within the context of their patriarchal culture. The findings suggest that culture is an important context circumscribing women's health/illness experience.

  2. Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Choe, Myoung-Ae

    2004-02-01

    In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior.

  3. Attitudes toward Women in Adolescent Korean Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Gahyun

    Since the 1960s Korean society has been influenced by a variety of Western cultures, resulting in considerable changes in the roles assumed by women, especially related to their increasing employment. However, less than 3% of all managers or administrators are women. The Attitudes Toward Women scale and questionnaires concerning other…

  4. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  5. Immigration patterns, social support, and adaptation among Korean immigrant women and Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Grant, D

    1997-01-01

    There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies.

  6. Korean and Japanese Women: An Analytic Bibliographical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Hesung Chun, Ed.

    This book is a selective bibliography and index of materials on Korean and Japanese women, their history, social and cultural patterns, sex roles, family and kinship patterns, and other characteristics. Designed to assist researchers in the systematic selection of information for descriptive or comparative research on Korean and Japanese women,…

  7. A feminist critique of breast cancer research among Korean women.

    PubMed

    Im, E O

    2000-08-01

    Studies indicate ethnic differences in incidence, mortality, and survival rate of breast cancer. Despite the low incidence rate of breast cancer among the Korean population, Koreans are reported to be less likely to survive breast cancer. In this article, using a feminist perspective, the reasons why Korean women have been reported to be less likely to survive breast cancer are analyzed through a critical review of research among Korean women. A total of 469 studies (145 unpublished master's theses and doctoral dissertations and 324 articles published in South Korea and in the United States) were reviewed, analyzed, and critiqued in terms of biases present in the research process. Through a feminist critique of the literature, four possible reasons are proposed: androcentric views and assumptions underlying the research, modesty issues imbedded in Korean culture, the victim-blaming tendency of Korean culture, and intense emotions without adequate support.

  8. Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

    2008-09-01

    American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain.

  9. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0

  10. A Qualitative Investigation of Korean Immigrant Women's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Eunju; Lee, Dal Yob; Koo, Young Ran; Yoo, Sung-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Postimmigration adjustment experiences of 10 Korean immigrant women were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Seven domains emerged: general life conditions; gender role; changes in family dynamics; ethnic/national identity, cultural competency, and belongingness; value changes; racial relationships; and support systems and…

  11. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  12. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  13. Health concept and health promotion process among Korean migrant women.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chiyoung

    2013-01-01

    My purpose in this study was to explore the concepts of health and the health promotion process among Korean women who migrated to North America for their children's education. Interviews and surveys were analyzed using a grounded theory analysis and descriptive statistics. Women in this study established their health concept and health promotion process in accordance to their socially constructed mother role. The women established unique meanings of health and developed an altruistic motivation to be healthy that allowed them to actively pursue health promotion despite their traditional care provider roles.

  14. Assimilation and health service utilization of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Son, Juyeon

    2013-11-01

    In this case study, I present descriptive findings with regard to immigrant incorporation and health service utilization. Using focus groups and survey of Korean immigrant women in Wisconsin, I examine whether the ways in which they adapt to the U.S. society is relevant to their health services utilization and the alternatives they seek when available health services are less than satisfactory. The findings suggest that adherence to Korean identity appears to be associated with health service utilization. This is evident in the immigrants' evaluation of the U.S. health services as compared to those of Korea, and the consideration given by these immigrants to seeking health services in Korea instead of the United States. Such concerns on the part of these immigrants have important implications for health researchers, as they highlight the significance of immigrants' transnational experiences and their sense of personal agency in the use of health care.

  15. Cancer screening behaviors among Korean-American women.

    PubMed

    Juon, H S; Choi, Y; Kim, M T

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate breast and cervical cancer screening tests and to examine the correlates of cancer screening behaviors. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 438 Korean-American women residing in Maryland was conducted. About 50% of women age 18 and older had had a Pap smear and 46.6% of these women age 40 and older had had a mammogram in the past 2 years. In multiple logistic regression analyses, the strongest correlate of screening behaviors was having a regular medical checkup. Age and acculturation were found to be important correlates of cancer screening tests: Women less than 50 years of age were more likely to have cancer screening tests than those 50 years and older. English language proficiency was associated with having a mammogram and the proportion of life spent in the United States was associated with having a Pap smear. Employment interacted with marital status for a Pap smear, with those married and unemployed being less likely to have a Pap smear than women who were both married and employed. For strategies to increase cancer-screening tests among Korean-American women, we need to aim at developing culturally appropriate educational programs about cancer for less acculturated and recent immigrants.

  16. The Curves Exercise Suppresses Endotoxemia in Korean Women with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome is a worldwide pandemic and associated with high cardiovascular risk. Metabolic endotoxemia (ME) is thought to be an underlying molecular mechanism. It triggers toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory adipokines and causes a chronic low grade inflammatory status, which results in cardiovascular risk increase. Exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment to improve prognosis. In this study, we examined the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women and investigated effects of exercise on it. Women over body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2 participated in a resistance training exercise, Curves. At baseline and after 12 weeks exercise, tests including blood samples were taken. In Korean obese women, the fasting endotoxin was 1.45 ± 0.11 EU/mL. Ingestion of a high calorie meal led to a peak level after 2 hours (postprandial 2 hours [PP2]) and a significant rise over the 4 hours (postprandial 4 hours [PP4]) in it (1.78 ± 0.15 and 1.75 ± 0.14 EU/mL for PP2 and PP4, P < 0.05 vs. fasting). After exercise, BMI and hip circumference were reduced significantly. The total cholesterol (TC) at fasting, PP2 and PP4 were decreased significantly. All levels of circulating endotoxin at fasting, PP2 and PP4 showed reduction. But, the peak change was only significant (baseline vs. 12 weeks for PP2; 1.78 ± 0.15 vs. 1.48 ± 0.06 EU/mL, P < 0.05). We report the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women for the first time. Also, we establish that energy intake leads to endotoxemia and exercise suppresses the peak endotoxemia after meal. It suggests an impact for a better prognosis in obese women who follow regular exercise. PMID:28049238

  17. Korean Culture and the Reentry Motivations of University-Graduated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Suh Young; Merriam, Sharan

    2004-01-01

    Well-educated Korean women are returning to higher education in unprecedented numbers. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the motivations of these women for returning to higher education. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 Korean full-time housewives aged 25 to 45 who already had a bachelor's degree and who enrolled as…

  18. Korean women's attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Pritham, U A; Sammons, L N

    1993-01-01

    A convenience sample of 40 native-born pregnant Korean women receiving prenatal care at a U.S. military facility in a major metropolitan area in Korea completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care. Responses revealed a family life characterized by positive maternal and paternal perceptions of the pregnancy and less preference for a male child than we had anticipated. Traditional beliefs in Tae Mong, a conception dream, and Tae Kyo, rituals for safe childbirth, were followed. Food taboos, including protein sources, were reported. Attitudes toward prenatal care services, care providers, and maternal health habits are described.

  19. Association between Parity and Blood Pressure in Korean Women: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Miae; Choi, Jiho; Kim, Beomseok; Kang, Jayeon; Kim, Yongchae; Cho, Sewook

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy considerably alters cardiovascular dynamics, and thereby affects the transition of blood pressure after delivery in women. We aimed to analyze the association between parity and blood pressure in Korean adult women. Methods We included 8,890 women who participated in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2012. We divided the population according to the menopause status and analyzed the association between parity and blood pressure by using multiple regression analysis, and on hypertension, by using logistic regression analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with parity in premenopausal women (β=-0.091 [P<0.001] and β=-0.069 [P<0.001], respectively). In the analysis that excluded women receiving antihypertensive medication, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of postmenopausal women were significantly associated with parity (β=-0.059 [P=0.022] and β=-0.054 [P=0.044], respectively). Parity was found to prevent hypertension after adjustment for confounders in postmenopausal women (odds ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.310-0.985). Conclusion We found that parity prevented hypertension in Korean women. PMID:26634103

  20. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  1. "Thank You, Sorry, Love" (TSL) Therapy with North Korean Refugee Women: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Jae Yop; Kim, Dong Goo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of The "Thank You, Sorry, Love" (TSL) family therapy program in potentially improving the marital relationships and health of North Korean refugee women. Methods: The participants included 12 married North Korean female refugees in their 20s to 40s. Using a blinded…

  2. Teaching about the Korean Comfort Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunduk

    2012-01-01

    During World War II, human rights violations against women took on gargantuan proportions of indescribable horror. The Japanese military engaged in the systematic abduction of women from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and other nations and confined them to military installations in Japanese-occupied territories to serve…

  3. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and depression in Korean women: results from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Eun; Lee, Jung Eun

    2011-12-30

    Depression is the fourth leading factor of disease burden for the global female population, but while increasing evidence has supported a contributing role of depression in cardiovascular disease, little is known about this association within the female population of Korea. We examined the association in a study of 5658 Korean women who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 279 cases of depression were included. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were associated with higher odds of depression: ORs (95% CIs) were 3.99 (2.25-7.05) for current smokers with <5 pack-years vs. never-smokers, 1.97 (1.18-3.30) for ≥28 vs. <20kg/m(2) of body mass index, 1.42 (1.03-1.95) for 100-125 vs. <100mg/dL of fasting serum glucose levels, and 2.10 (1.46-3.03) for a history of hyperlipidemia. Women with a history of two or three comorbid disorders (diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease) had a 1.63-fold higher OR for depression than women without any of these diseases. Korean women with depression had a greater prevalence of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease than women without depression.

  4. The Role of Leisure Engagement for Health Benefits Among Korean Older Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Irwin, Lori; Kim, May; Chin, Seungtae; Kim, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to examine the benefits of leisure to older Korean women. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, in this study we identified three categories of benefits from leisure activities: (a) developing social connections, (b) enhancing psychological well-being, and (c) improving physical health. The findings of this study demonstrate that involvement in leisure activities offers substantial physical, psychological, and social benefits for older Korean women. The results also suggest that these benefits can provide an opportunity for older Korean adults to improve their health and well-being, which, in turn, may help promote successful aging.

  5. Alternative view of health behavior: the experience of older Korean women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin Hyang; Yang, Bok Sun

    2011-03-01

    In this study we explored the perspectives of older Korean women on the principles and meanings of health behavior. Participants were 12 women age 65 and older, with no serious illnesses requiring hospitalization, who were living independently. We used an interpretative phenomenological approach for data collection and analysis. Seven themes emerged: (a) eating well in accordance with one's physical requirements; (b) maintaining one's inherited health; (c) controlling one's illness properly; (d) maintaining good relationships with close relatives and friends; (e) being modest and free from greed; (f) staying in harmony with nature; and (g) regaining energy and vitality. These experiences were mainly based on the traditional Korean concept of health promotion, "food is medicine," rather than on Western concepts of health promotion. In providing optimal geriatric nursing care for Korean older women, the results will be significant because they are based on older women's traditional Korean perspectives of health promotion rather than existing perspectives of Western medicine.

  6. Measuring health literacy among immigrants with a phonetic primary language: a case of Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Jiyun; Kim, Miyong T; Kim, Kim B

    2011-04-01

    While the need for understanding the issue of health literacy among ethnic minority groups with limited English skills is rapidly increasing in the US, it is difficult to find valid and useful health literacy tools for certain linguistic minorities. This study was designed to validate the Korean translation of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults-Short form (S-TOFHLA). Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA were administered to 98 Korean American women, together with REALM-English. Participants were first-generation immigrants who were educated in Korea. Both Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA resulted in a negatively-skewed distribution. REALM-English yielded well-distributed groups with significant correlations with Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P = 0.003 and 0.22, P = 0.03, respectively). Educational level was significantly correlated with REALM-English and Korean S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.39, P = 0.000 and 0.25, P = 0.014), but not with REALM-Korean. The translation of REALM and S-TOFHLA into the Korean language did not lead to a valid assessment of health literacy. A more systematic approach is needed to assess health literacy in immigrants with limited English skills, particularly those with a phonetic primary language. Meanwhile, REALM-English could be used as a crude health literacy test for individuals with some English skills.

  7. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Korean Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sil

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia, presarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods We measured the muscle mass and muscle function of 196 ambulatory women over the age of 65 years who visited the University Hospital Menopause Clinic. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Assessment of hand grip strength (HGS) of the dominant hand was performed to measure the muscle strength, and 4-m straight on-way path was used to measure gait speed for physical performance. The values used to define the presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia were based on the cutoff values proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Results The mean age of women was 71.2 years, and the mean SMI in 196 women was 5.94 kg/m2. The average HGS was 20.3 kg, and the mean gait speed was 1.08 m/sec. In 41 out of the 196 women (20.9%), the SMI was reduced to less than 5.4 kg/m2. Fifty-nine women (30.1%) had HGS of less than 18 kg, and gait speed was less than 0.8 m/sec in 12 women (6.1%). Twenty-six women (13.3%) were classified into the presarcopenia stage, and 15 women (7.6%) were classified into the sarcopenia stage. There was no case of severe sarcopenia. Conclusions One out of five relatively healthy women aged more than 65 years showed a decrease in muscle mass, and 7.6% of women showed a decrease in muscle mass and strength. The sarcopenia stage was also intensified with aging. PMID:26713310

  8. Health care seeking behavior of Korean women with lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myoung Ok

    2004-06-01

    The present biocultural study aimed to describe the health care use patterns of women with lymphedema. Data came from interviews and participant observations with eight key informants between February 2000 and February 2002. Analyzing the process of seeking health care, this paper explored how Korean women with lymphedema make use of all the available resources in the three sectors of the health care system: professional, folk and popular health. In these three sectors of the health care system, informants showed different patterns of behavior. In the professional health care sector, they behave based on scientific Western medicine and holistic herbal medical frameworks. Informants want scientific technological treatment from a Westernized doctor and perfect humanistic and holistic treatment from a herbal doctor. In the folk sector, informants' behavior is ruled by a pragmatic and supernatural framework. Informants seek religious healers who have strong spirituality and non-religious healers who have experience and skills. Informants complied with these healer's remedies based on efficacy and empirical healing evidence. In the popular sector of the health care system, informants behave based on their concept of illness and rules of daily life. They believe lymphedema comes from poor blood circulation and they want to be regarded as members of society, not as patients with lymphedema. Therefore, informants practised popular remedies that they believed were good for promoting blood circulation and keeping their social network active. This description about health care seeking behaviors being embedded in Korean socio-medical culture can serve to understand patients with other chronic health problems. With these results, we can put a bridge over the river of cultural conflict between health professionals and patients.

  9. Regulation of small dense LDL concentration in Korean and Scottish men and women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong Keun; Shin, Gilja; Ryu, Sung Kee; Jang, Yangsoo; Day, Stephen P; Stewart, Grace; Packard, Chris J; Shepherd, James; Caslake, Muriel J

    2002-09-01

    Small dense LDL is now emerging as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. The amount of the LDL III has been reported to differ between ethnic groups. To investigate differences in the distribution of LDL subfractions between Korean and Scottish populations, we measured the plasma concentration and percent distribution of three major LDL subfractions in age-and sex-matched, middle aged, healthy 124 Korean and Scottish subjects (32 Korean men vs. 32 Scottish men; 30 Korean women vs. 30 Scottish women). Body mass index and waist circumference did not differ between the two ethnic groups. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations were higher in Scottish men compared with Korean men (P<0.01), while plasma triglyceride concentration was higher in Korean men and women (P<0.01 in men, P<0.05 in women). HDL cholesterol concentrations in both Korean men and women were lower than that of their Scottish counterparts (P<0.05 in men; P<0.001 in women). Korean men had lower concentrations of total LDL (242+/-65 vs. 325+/-122 mg/dl, P<0.01), LDL I (24+/-18 vs. 60+/-36 mg/dl, P<0.001) and LDL II (110+/-56 vs. 196+/-78 mg/dl, P<0.001). In contrast, LDL III concentration was markedly higher in Korean men (108+/-75 vs. 70+/-65 mg/dl, P<0.05). Likewise, the percent of LDL I (10.0+/-7.3 vs. 19.1+/-10.1%, P<0.001) and LDL II (47.2+/-20.7 vs. 60.1+/-10.9%, P<0.01) were lower in Korean men, while that of LDL III was higher (42.8+/-24.9 vs. 20.8+/-15.0%, P<0.001). In the female population, there were no differences in total LDL and LDL I concentrations between Korean and Scottish. LDL II concentration was lower in Korean women (106+/-53 vs. 151+/-57 mg/dl, P<0.01). Korean women showed a higher percent of LDL III (24.8+/-24.7 vs. 14.2+/-5.9%, P<0.05) and a lower LDL II (47.8+/-19.1 vs. 61.0+/-10.0%, P<0.01). Multiple linear regression revealed that plasma triglyceride concentration was the most important determinant of the LDL III subfraction concentration in

  10. Social and cultural construction of urinary incontinence among Korean American elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youngmi; Crogan, Neva L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the social and cultural constructions that influence help-seeking for urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean American elderly women. Many Korean American elder women do not perceive UI as a problem worthy of attention. The reason may lie in its social and cultural construction. The social construction is rooted in the collectivist nature of Korean culture, which makes UI a family, rather than an individual, problem. The cultural construction is related to Confucianism, which directs conceptions about ageism, shame, and fatalism. This article will help the gerontological nurse to better understand Korean American elderly women's sociocultural background related to UI care and could lead to appropriate family centered interventions to manage or treat UI in this population.

  11. The stranded individualizer under compressed modernity: South Korean women in individualization without individualism.

    PubMed

    Kyung-Sup, Chang; Min-Young, Song

    2010-09-01

    South Korean families have functioned as a highly effective receptacle for the country's highly compressed conditions of modernity and late modernity. It is as much due to the success of South Korean families as an engine of compressed modernity as due to their failure that they have become functionally overloaded and socially risk-ridden. Such familial burdens and risks are particularly onerous to South Korean women because of the fundamentally gender-based structure of family relations and duties that has in part been recycled from the Confucian past and in part manufactured under industrial capitalism. Under these complicated conditions, South Korean women have had to dramatically restructure their family relations and duties as well as their individual life choices. Furthermore, under the most recent condition of what Beck calls second modernity, other institutions of modernity, such as the state, industrial economy, firms, unions, schools, and welfare systems, have become increasingly ineffective in helping to alleviate such (gender-based) familial burdens and dilemmas. As a result South Korean women have experienced dramatic changes in marriage patterns, fertility, family relations, etc. South Korean women's individualization has thereby taken place primarily as a matter of practicality rather than ideational change. A brief analysis of the situation in the neighbouring societies of Japan and Taiwan reinforces the conclusion that individualization without individualism, particularly among women, is a region-wide phenomenon in East Asia.

  12. Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  13. Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-12-01

    The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity.

  14. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women. The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: “traditional,” “western,” and “prudent.” The “prudent” dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the “prudent” dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36–0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59–0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43–0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42–0.68). However, the “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS. The “prudent” dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  15. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Nguyen, Tuong L; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Hopper, John L; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2015-09-01

    We carried out this study to evaluate the association between mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI and early-onset breast cancer in Asian women. We recruited 213 Korean patients with breast cancer (45% diagnosed before the age of 50 years) and 630 controls matched for age, menopausal status, and examination date. The percentage and absolute size of dense areas on digital mammograms were measured using a computer-assisted thresholding technique (Cumulus). We carried out an analysis using the conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for covariates. An increase by 1 SD in age and BMI-adjusted absolute dense area and percentage dense area was associated with a 1.15-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.29) and 1.20-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.37) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively. These associations were stronger for premenopausal disease (P=0.07 and 0.01, respectively) and for disease diagnosed before age 50 (P=0.07 and 0.02, respectively) than for postmenopausal disease (P=0.16 and 0.23, respectively) or later onset disease (P=0.10 and 0.10, respectively). There was no difference in the associations with premenopausal versus postmenopausal and early-onset versus late-onset disease. After adjusting for age and BMI, both a greater absolute dense area and a greater percentage dense area were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly at a young age.

  16. Face consciousness among South Korean women: a culture-specific extension of objectification theory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Yeon; Seo, Young Seok; Baek, Keun Young

    2014-01-01

    This study tested key tenets of objectification theory with South Korean women and explored the roles of sexually objectifying media and culture-specific standards of beauty in body image and eating disorder symptoms. Two pilot studies with South Korean college women (n = 40, n = 30) revealed that facial characteristics such as size and shape represent a discrete variable among culture-specific standards of beauty for South Korean women. Results with a sample of 562 South Korean college women indicated that media exposure had significant positive indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms through the mediating roles of internalization, body surveillance, and face surveillance. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty had significant positive direct relations with body surveillance and face surveillance and had both direct and indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Body and face surveillances had significant positive direct relations with body shame and had indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, body shame mediated the links from internalization and surveillance variables to eating disorder symptoms. The results support the applicability of objectification theory as it relates to South Korean women and point to the significance of culture-specific standards of beauty within that framework. These findings could contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research, with potential implications for therapist practices and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Vitamin D status and its associations with rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Jin, Woo Sung; Park, Juwon; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Bae, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, vitamin D status and its associations with rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women were investigated. Total 2,162 women’s data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008–2014 ware analyzed by complex sampling design logistic regression analysis and complex sampling design general linear model. Women who over 19 years old were included, and who has osteoporosis or abnormal parathyroid hormone or renal failure or liver cirrhosis or abnormal creatinine were excluded. Age and body mass index were used as covariate. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin D status were not associated with development of rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women as well were not associated with pain and quality of life in Korean women with rheumatoid arthritis. Based on the present study and considering the effects of vitamin D on fracture and osteoporosis, it can be suggested that additional cohort study and cost-effectiveness analysis are needed. PMID:28119885

  18. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), 2004-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Ha; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) is a continuous nationwide survey implemented by the National Cancer Center in Korea since 2004. The purpose of the present study was to report trends in cancer screening rates for the five major cancers (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) in Korean men and women. Materials and Methods The study used KNCSS data collected between 2004 and 2010. The survey was conducted on Korean men aged 40-74 years and Korean women aged 30-74 years with no history of cancer diagnosis. The annual percentage change and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to examine changes in annual screening rates. Results Screening rates with recommendation increased by 4.4% annually for stomach cancer, 1.5% for liver cancer, 2.8% per year for colorectal cancer, 4.5% for breast cancer, and 1.2% for cervix uteri cancer. The increasing trend in cancer screening rates, with the exception of liver cancer, was significant. Conclusion Cancer screening rates have increased consistently from 2004 to 2010 among Korean men and women. Stomach and breast cancer screening rates in particular have increased markedly. PMID:22022290

  19. A randomized controlled trial of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women: preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun S; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Bernstein, Kunsook; Fang, Hua; Choi, Won S; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Korean women are reluctant to pursue in-person smoking cessation treatment due to stigma attached to women smokers and prefer treatment such as telephone and online smoking cessation programs that they can access secretively at home. However, there is some evidence that face-to-face interaction is the most helpful intervention component for them to quit smoking. Methods This study is a pilot clinical trial that examined the acceptability and feasibility of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women and compared its preliminary efficacy with a telephone-based intervention. Women of Korean ethnicity were recruited nationwide in the United States and randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to either a video arm or a telephone arm. Both arms received eight 30-minute weekly individualized counseling sessions of a deep cultural smoking cessation intervention and nicotine patches for 8 weeks. Participants were followed over 3 months from the quit day. Results The videoconferencing intervention was acceptable and feasible for Korean women aged <50 years, whereas it was not for older women. Self-reported abstinence was high at 67% and 48% for the video and telephone arm at 1 month post-quit, respectively. The rates declined to 33% for the video arm and 28% for the telephone arm at 3 months post-quit when salivary cotinine test was performed. Conclusion Findings support that both videoconferencing and telephone counseling can be effective, and personal preference is likely an important factor in treatment matching. The deep cultural smoking cessation intervention may account for the outcomes of telephone counseling being better than prior studies in the literature for Korean women. PMID:27660494

  20. Re/membering (to) Shifting Alignments: Korean Women's Transnational Narratives in U.S. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2006-01-01

    At the location of alter-native researcher in US higher education, the author interweaves two Korean women's transnational narratives that intersect with her autobiographical route. Through this re-narrativization, the paper discusses the material and ideological specificities that place each individual differently in engagements with various…

  1. Coping with Breast Cancer: Reflections from Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Patricia; Nuñez, Alicia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Lim, Jung-Won; Flores, Katrina; Nápoles, Anna María

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study identified and compared the coping strategies of Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Chinese- (n = 21), Korean- (n = 11), and Mexican-American (n = 9) BCS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated for thematic content analysis of coping experiences and strategies. Results Women reported the use of eight coping strategies (religious/spiritual, benefit finding, fatalism, optimism, fighting spirit, information seeking, denial, and self-distraction). Among Chinese-American BCS, benefit finding was the most referenced coping strategy, whereas religious/spiritual coping was most frequently reported among Korean- and Mexican-American BCS. Denial and self-distraction were the least cited strategies. Conclusions Survivors draw upon new found inner strength to successfully integrate their cancer experience into their lives. Coping models must consider the diversity of cancer survivors and the variability in coping strategies among cultural ethnic minority BCS. PMID:26389720

  2. Do christian denominations exhibit higher rates of alcohol consumption? A study of Korean American women in California.

    PubMed

    Kang Sim, D Eastern; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Ayers, John W; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-03-01

    Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption among Korean American women in California. Polychotomous regression models were used to provide estimates of the associations between religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption. Catholic Korean American women (OR 5.61 P < 0.01) and Independent Christian women (OR 4.87 P < 0.01) showed stronger associations to heavy alcohol consumption when compared to Conservative Christian Korean American women. Path analysis suggested that specific denominations had both direct and indirect effects on the outcome of interest, and that religious commitment and drinking models served as moderators for this phenomenon.

  3. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery.

  4. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening.

  5. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Medicine Seoul, Korea * S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SUM ARY Urban rats captured in Seoul and four nearby Korean cities were found to have...rattus, urban Korean cities, 1980. . . . 15 Table 2. Isolation of Hantaan virus from antigen-positive wild house rats, Korea , 1980 .... ........... .. 16...Figures Figure 1. Map of Seoul City, South Korea and metropolitan area showing locations of urban Korean hemorrhagic fever cases, andRattu s positive

  6. Prospects from Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    South Korea , China, the United States and, to a lesser extent, Japan and Russia will be examined to determine prospects from Korean reunification...the “tilt” of a unified Korea , and with it, the future Northeast Asian strategic environment. 1 PROSPECTS FROM KOREAN REUNIFCATION Throughout most of...the 20th century, the Korean people have yearned for the establishment of an independent and unified Korea . Before World War II, this was denied to

  7. Parathyroid hormone, calcium, and sodium bridging between osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Soo; Choi, Soo Beom; Rhee, Yumie; Chung, Jai Won; Choi, Eui-Young; Kim, Deok Won

    2015-05-01

    The coexistence of osteoporosis and hypertension, which are considered distinct diseases, has been widely reported. In addition, daily intake of calcium and sodium, as well as parathyroid hormone levels (PTH), is known to be associated with osteoporosis and hypertension. This study aimed to determine the association of low calcium intake, high sodium intake, and PTH levels with osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women. Data for postmenopausal Korean women aged 50 years or older were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Osteoporosis was diagnosed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, while hypertension was diagnosed using blood pressure data. The odds ratios for osteoporosis and hypertension were calculated using logistic regression analysis for quartiles of the daily calcium intake, daily sodium intake, and PTH levels. Women with hypertension had a high coexistence of osteoporosis (43.6 vs. 36.5 %; P = 0.022), and vice versa (21.1 vs. 16.6 %; P = 0.022). PTH was significantly associated with osteoporosis and hypertension, and a high intake of calcium was strongly correlated with a low incidence of osteoporosis. This is the first study to report the characteristics of postmenopausal Korean women who have high dietary sodium intake and low dietary calcium intake, in association with the incidence of osteoporosis and hypertension. Osteoporosis and hypertension were strongly associated with each other, and PTH appears to be a key mediator of both diseases, suggesting a possible pathogenic link.

  8. Trends in Cervical Cancer Mortality by Socioeconomic Status in Korean Women between 1998 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Park, Sung-Min; Ko, Gwang Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Background Death from uterine cervical cancer could be preventable by an active participation of women at risk in a screening program such as the Papanicolaou test. In order to examine the presence of socioeconomic disparity in preventable deaths, we evaluated the time trends of cervical cancer mortality by socioeconomic status in Korean women. Methods We selected level of educational attainment and marital status as surrogate indices of socioeconomic status. Using death certificate data and Korean Population and Housing Census data from Korea National Statistical office, we calculated age-standardized yearly mortality rates from cervical cancer between 1998 and 2009 according to the level of education as well as marital status. Results Cervical cancer mortality peaked in 2003 and then decreased gradually over time. Cervical cancer mortality was the highest in the group with the lowest level of educational attainment in all age groups and the gap between the lowest and the highest educational level has increased over time. Cervical cancer mortality was lower in married women than unmarried women in all age groups, and the degree of difference did not change over time. Conclusion In the Korean population, socioeconomic differential in cervical cancer mortality has persisted over time. PMID:23904955

  9. Spoken Korean: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukoff, Fred

    This text is designed for students planning to learn spoken Korean. Ten lessons and two review sections based on cultural experiences commonly shared by Koreans are included in the text. Grouped in series of five lessons, the instructional materials include (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  10. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) occurred for the first time in Korea , 1951, although it had previously been known to both the Japanese and Russians...After Korean war, the disease has been fixed in the areas of DMZ as an endemic one, and from 100 to 400 cases have been being reportee every year

  11. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  12. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies.

  13. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p<0.02). THb and malignancy index were the two best single predictors of malignancy, with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  14. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.

  15. Development of a sampling strategy and sample size calculation to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Mi Jin; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2012-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is a known risk factor for breast cancer. To conduct a survey to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women, appropriate sampling strategies for representative and efficient sampling design were evaluated through simulation. Using the target population from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP) for breast cancer in 2009, we verified the distribution estimate by repeating the simulation 1,000 times using stratified random sampling to investigate the distribution of breast density of 1,340,362 women. According to the simulation results, using a sampling design stratifying the nation into three groups (metropolitan, urban, and rural), with a total sample size of 4,000, we estimated the distribution of breast density in Korean women at a level of 0.01% tolerance. Based on the results of our study, a nationwide survey for estimating the distribution of mammographic breast density among Korean women can be conducted efficiently.

  16. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    AD-A<m 761 KOREA UNIV SEOUL COLL OF MEDICINE KOREAN HEM0RRHA6IC FEVER.(U) MAR 80 H W LEE UNCLASSIFIED ICFI F/6 6/5 DAM017-79-6-9<*55 NL...I» > I,,iu. •Uli ••-. SUMMARY There were 364 hospitalized cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) in 1979 in Korea . Lee et al...STANDARDS-1963-A ?H "LEVEtf® AD <o KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC F EVER A D A 09 47 Final Report HO WANG LEE, M. D. March 1980 i MIL. IIB«I . Mm k iw

  17. Increasing Adherence to Follow-up of Breast Abnormalities in Low-Income Korean American Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    abnormalities in low-income Korean American women. Era of Hope Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 8...Breast Abnormalities in Low-Income Korean American Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Annette...burden to Department of Defense , Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis

  18. Association between the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and the Level of Coffee Consumption among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keyhoon; Kim, Kyuwoong; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Background As coffee consumption is increasing remarkably over the past decade, the health effects concerning the coffee drinking has gained a wide attention across the nation. However, there is not a true consensus regarding the effects of coffee on metabolic disease. Therefore, this study aims to examine the association between coffee intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean women Methods We used publicly accessible datasets collected through Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 20,435 individuals from five consecutive years’ worth of data from 2007 to 2011, only 15,691 subjects qualified for statistical analysis upon applying the exclusion criteria. We carried out the statistical analysis utilizing SPSS Statistics version 13.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY.) and STATA statistical software release 13.0 (STATA Corp., College Station, TX). Results We found that the frequency of coffee intake inversely correlates with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women. Upon adjusting for life-style factors, socioeconomic status, and nutritional profile, the subjects from the highest coffee consumption quartile exhibited 40% lower odds of suffering from metabolic syndrome compared to those in the control (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.67–0.84; P for trend < 0.001). Also, we observed that age- and BMI-adjusted HOMA-IR decreased as the coffee consumption increased (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of our study suggest that coffee consumption might be associated with reduction of metabolic syndrome in Korean women. To elucidate this cross-sectional association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome in women, cohort studies are warranted to confirm this relationship. PMID:27977716

  19. Can religion help prevent obesity? Religious messages and the prevalence of being overweight or obese among Korean women in California.

    PubMed

    Ayers, John W; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Song, Yoonju; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Yong; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N = 591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI > 23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging “excessive eating” or encouraging “exercise” from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders’ messages, the frequency of congregants’ messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms.

  20. Abdominal obesity is associated with stress urinary incontinence in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Han, Myung Ok; Lee, Nan Young; Park, Hye Soon

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between abdominal obesity and stress urinary incontinence in Korean women. Women aged 30 and over, who visited the Department of Family Medicine of Asan Medical Center were recruited to participate in this study. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were taken, and associated factors of stress urinary incontinence was assessed by questionnaire. Stress urinary incontinence was significantly associated with physical work, vaginal delivery, and high waist circumference. In comparison with women in the lowest quartile of waist circumference, the odds ratios (OR) for stress urinary incontinence in women in the second, third, and fourth quartiles were increased significantly (1.79, 95% CI 1.07-2.98; 3.50, 95% CI 2.02-6.07; and 6.07, 95% CI 3.23-11.40, respectively). Our results indicate that high waist circumference may be a risk factor associated with stress urinary incontinence in women.

  1. A genome-wide association study of gestational diabetes mellitus in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Soo Heon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Young Min; Go, Min Jin; Cho, Yoon Shin; Choi, Sung Hee; Moon, Min Kyong; Jung, Hye Seung; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kang, Hyun Min; Cho, Nam H; Lee, In Kyu; Kim, Seong Yeon; Han, Bok-Ghee; Jang, Hak C; Park, Kyong Soo

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge regarding the genetic risk loci for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still limited. In this study, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association analysis in Korean women. In the stage 1 genome scan, 468 women with GDM and 1,242 nondiabetic control women were compared using 2.19 million genotyped or imputed markers. We selected 11 loci for further genotyping in stage 2 samples of 931 case and 783 control subjects. The joint effect of stage 1 plus stage 2 studies was analyzed by meta-analysis. We also investigated the effect of known type 2 diabetes variants in GDM. Two loci known to be associated with type 2 diabetes had a genome-wide significant association with GDM in the joint analysis. rs7754840, a variant in CDKAL1, had the strongest association with GDM (odds ratio 1.518; P=6.65×10(-16)). A variant near MTNR1B, rs10830962, was also significantly associated with the risk of GDM (1.454; P=2.49×10(-13)). We found that there is an excess of association between known type 2 diabetes variants and GDM above what is expected under the null hypothesis. In conclusion, we have confirmed that genetic variants in CDKAL1 and near MTNR1B are strongly associated with GDM in Korean women. There seems to be a shared genetic basis between GDM and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Korea has fortified all the frontline areas, building underground positions and concealing various weapons. It is even constructing gun positions...also noted that North Korean Frog missiles and self-propelled guns posted just north of the DMZ can hit Seoul directly. North Korean engineer...being major figures in radical student movement. They include U Su- chin , 22, of Songgyung- wan University who is also chairman of the radical student

  3. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts...Pyongyang Domestic Service, 23 Dec 86) l Commentary on White Paper About Kumgangsan Dam (Cho Tu-ul; Pyongyang Domestic Service, 26 Dec 86) 3 Party...ruin. /8309 CSO: 4110/056 INTER-KOREAN AFFAIRS COMMENTARY ON WHITE PAPER ABOUT KUMGANGSAN DAM SK280105 Pyongyang Domestic Service in Korean 1150

  4. Patterns of leisure time and non-leisure time physical activity of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; Wilbur, Joellen; Kim, Mi Ja

    2011-02-01

    Our purpose in this study was to examine the patterns of physical activity and demographic characteristics associated with those patterns in Korean immigrants in the United States. Participants were 197 women, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was utilized. The inactive pattern was the most frequent pattern in all domains of physical activity except household physical activity. There were differences among the patterns of physical activity that were associated with variations in demographic characteristics. Health care providers who serve immigrants should assess physical activity level and demographic characteristics of the immigrants to enhance their physical activity.

  5. Two hypotheses of dense breasts and viral infection for explaining incidence of breast cancer by age group in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer, the second leading type of cancer in Korean women, has shown increasing incidence over the past 10 years. However, the curves of incidence by age group cast doubt on the birth cohort effect hypothesis. To explain the curves, here I suggest two alternative hypotheses of breast density and viral infection based on pre-existing evidences. Evaluating these hypotheses would require important clues to find unknown risk factors of breast cancer and to plan more effective strategies for breast cancer control in Korean women.

  6. Koreans in Japan: Their Influence on Korean-Japanese Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    realization that their homeland was a far cry from heaven. More and more people came to see 23 the reality, that food and shelter were not readily available...exclusive or militant but are strongly individualistic and perservering , and they are adaptable and disunited. 84 The Korean disposition is attributed to the...District in China are surprised that they maintain the Korean style of living almost completely, speaking Korean, eating Korean food , living in ondol

  7. Comparisons of the gait parameters of young Korean women carrying a single-strap bag.

    PubMed

    An, Duk-Hyun; Yoon, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Won-Gyu; Kim, Kyeong-Mi

    2010-03-01

    This study compared the gait parameters of young women using various methods to carry a single-strap bag during walking. Twenty-one Korean healthy women walked on a GAITRite-instrumented carpet at a self-paced speed for each of the four following conditions in random order: no bag, carrying a bag over the shoulder, carrying a bag on the forearm, and carrying a bag by the hand on the dominant (right) side. There was a significant reduction in the stride length for the contralateral leg when carrying a bag on the forearm, a significant decrease in the heel-to-heel base of support, and a significant increase in the toe angle on the ipsilateral leg when carrying a bag by hand. The results of our study suggest that, among the asymmetric bag-carrying methods preferred by Korean young women during walking, the "over-the-shoulder" method has the least effect on gait parameters relative to not carrying a bag.

  8. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  9. Development and validation of osteoporosis risk-assessment model for Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun Min; Nam, Byung-Ho; Rhee, Yumie; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Deog Young; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for detecting osteoporosis, but is not recommended for general population screening. Therefore, this study aims to develop an osteoporosis risk-assessment model to identify high-risk individuals among Korean postmenopausal women. Data from 1,209 and 1,046 postmenopausal women who participated in the 2009 and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, respectively, were used for development and validation of an osteoporosis risk-assessment model. Osteoporosis was defined as T score less than or equal to -2.5 at either the femoral neck or lumbar spine. Performance of the candidate models and the Osteoporosis Self assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) were compared with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). To compare the developed Korean Osteoporosis Risk-Assessment Model (KORAM) with OSTA, a net reclassification improvement was further calculated. In the development dataset, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 33.9 %. KORAM, consisting of age, weight, and hormone therapy, had a sensitivity of 91.2 %, a specificity of 50.6 %, and an AUC of 0.709 with a specific cut-off score of -9. Comparable results were shown in the validation dataset: sensitivity 84.8 %, specificity 51.6 %, and AUC 0.682. Additionally, risk categorization with KORAM showed improved reclassification over that of OSTA from 7.4 to 41.7 %. KORAM can be easily used as a pre-screening tool to identify candidates for DXA tests. Further studies investigating cost-effectiveness and replicability in other datasets are required to establish the clinical utility of KORAM.

  10. Psychological distress and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) in infertile Korean women: The first validation study of Korean FertiQoL

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il-Hae; Sun, Hong-Gil; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Kyeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate psychological distress and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) in infertile Korean women, and to investigate whether a correlation exists between psychological distress and FertiQoL. Methods Participants in this study were made up of 141 infertile women and 65 fertile women. We conducted a survey on psychological distress (using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales [DASS]-42 questionnaire) and administered a FertiQoL questionnaire. The levels of stress hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] and cortisol) in serum were assessed. Results The scores for depression (13.7±8.4), anxiety (10.7±6.4), and stress (18.0±8.3) among the infertile women were significantly higher than the scores for depression (9.4±7.5), anxiety (6.6±6.0), and stress (12.2±8.3, p<0.001) among the fertile women. There was no difference in the scores for depression (13.5±8.2, 13.8±8.6), anxiety (10.0±6.2, 11.5±6.6) and stress (17.7±8.4, 18.4±8.1) between younger (≤34) and older (≥35) participants. The mind-body (r =–0.495) and emotional (r =–0.590) subscales showed a higher negative correlation with stress compared with other scales of psychological distress. At the same time, the social (r =–0.537) and relational (r =–0.385) subscales showed a higher negative correlation with depression. Levels of cortisol and ACTH in infertile women were 9.1 µg/mL and 11.9 pg/mL, respectively, which are within normal ranges. Conclusion The levels of psychological distress and quality of life in infertile Korean women seem to require psychological intervention. This study provides a baseline measurement of psychological distress and FertiQoL in infertile women in Korea, which will be available for developing psychological interventions for infertile Korean women. PMID:27689041

  11. Pregnancy increases urinary loss of carnitine and reduces plasma carnitine in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Woon; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2005-05-01

    This study compared plasma and urinary carnitine concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant Korean women. The subjects were fifty pregnant women and thirty non-pregnant women aged 24-28 years. During the first trimester, dietary carnitine intakes in the pregnant women were much lower than in non-pregnant women (70.00 (SD 29.22) micromol/d), but over the course of pregnancy carnitine intake increased from 44.64 (SD 24.84) micromol/d during the first trimester to 96.11 (SD 36.56) micromol/d during the third trimester. Pregnant women had a significantly lower plasma carnitine concentration than non-pregnant women. Plasma concentrations of non-esterified carnitine, acid-soluble acylcarnitine and total carnitine were significantly lower during the second and third trimesters than the first. Plasma acid-insoluble acylcarnitine levels, which tended to be higher in the non-pregnant women compared with the pregnant women, increased significantly as gestation proceeded. The urinary excretion of non-esterified carnitine, acid-soluble acylcarnitine and total carnitine was significantly higher in the pregnant women during the first and second trimesters than in non-pregnant women and decreased significantly as gestation proceeded. We found that there was a significant decrease in plasma carnitine level even though dietary carnitine intake increased as gestation proceeded. The low urinary excretion of carnitine in late pregnancy may be caused by an increased demand during pregnancy.

  12. Establishment of Trimester-Specific Reference Intervals for Thyroid Hormones in Korean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee-Won; Chung, Hee-Jung; Park, Chul-Min; Hur, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishment of trimester- and assay-specific reference intervals for every population is recommended. The aim of this study was to establish a trimester- and assay-specific reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in Korean pregnant women. Methods From April 2012 to December 2012, 531 pregnant women receiving prenatal care and 238 age-matched, non-pregnant women were enrolled in this study. After excluding patients with pregnancy-associated complications or thyroid-specific autoantibody, 465 pregnant and 206 non-pregnant women were included. Non-parametric analysis (2.5-97.5th percentile) was performed to determine the reference interval. Levels of TSH and FT4 were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys thyroid tests, Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Results The TSH reference intervals were 0.01-4.10, 0.01-4.26, and 0.15-4.57 mIU/L for the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. From the first trimester to the third trimester, the median TSH levels showed a significantly increasing trend (P<0.0001). The FT4 reference intervals were 0.83-1.65, 0.71-1.22, and 0.65-1.13 ng/dL for the first, second, and third trimester, respectively, showing a significantly decreasing trend (P<0.0001). Conclusions Establishing trimester-specific reference intervals in pregnant women is essential for accurate assessment of thyroid function. Our population-specific and method-specific reference intervals will be useful for screening Korean pregnant women for thyroid disease. PMID:25729721

  13. Productive activity and life satisfaction in Korean elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of participation in productive activities on life satisfaction and its implications for social evaluation of productive aging. This study uses data collected from 1,250 elderly women living in urban areas. The regression model was used to examine the influence of elderly women's participation in productive activities on their life satisfaction. Elderly women who participate in volunteer work, learning, and social group activities commonly recognized their activities as meaningful, feeling like worthwhile members of society, and evaluated such activities as very positive. In contrast, elderly women who participated in household chores and family care activities expressed a negative life satisfaction. The difference in life satisfaction regarding productive activities stems not only from the physical and environmental differences but also from the gap between the official social value underpinned by the recognition of surrounding people, their support, and the value of productive activities.

  14. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  15. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young, Middle, and Older Women of Korean Descent in California

    PubMed Central

    Liles, Sandy; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Beeston, Tara; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Data were grouped by age. In each group, psychological aggression was the most common type of IPV in the past year, followed by a moderate form of sexual coercion, while physical assault and injury were infrequent. Immigration stress was associated with psychological aggression in all three groups, and partner alcohol use was associated in none. Other predictors varied by group. Results suggest that psychological abuse is a serious issue, and that women’s life stage is an important consideration in IPV among Korean Americans. Findings, which sometimes diverged from those of prior studies of this population, merit further investigation. PMID:23645971

  17. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population.

  18. Association between Sleep Duration and Measurable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Healthy Korean Women: The Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV and V)

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hyeyeon; Um, Yoo Jin; Jang, Bum Sup; Shin, Doosup; Choi, EunJoo

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. To examine the association between sleep duration and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in healthy Korean women. Design. Cross-sectional study, using the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Methods. Among 8505 women (25–70 years) from KNHANES IV and V, participants were classified into five sleep groups based on self-reported sleep duration. MetS and its components were defined using the criteria set forth in National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. After adjusting for various confounders, shorter sleep duration (≤6 h) was found to have an association with low risk of reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglycerides, whereas very long sleep duration was found to have high risk of increased triglycerides. However, abdominal obesity showed an opposite trend: short sleep duration was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity than long sleep duration. Fasting glucose levels increased as sleep duration increased, but without significance. Moreover, blood pressure was not significantly associated with sleep duration. Consequently, MetS was less prevalent in those with short sleep duration. Conclusions. Sleep duration was positively associated with MetS, especially dyslipidemia and fasting hyperglycemia, but inversely associated with abdominal obesity. PMID:27956898

  19. Prevalence of Low Bone Mineral Density and Associated Risk Factors in Korean Puerperal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although pregnancy is a medical condition that contributes to bone loss, little information is available regarding bone mineral density (BMD) in puerperal women. This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and to identify associated risk factors. We surveyed all puerperal women who had BMD measurements taken 4–6 weeks after delivery in a tertiary university hospital, and did not have any bone loss-related comorbidities. Among the 1,561 Korean puerperal women, 566 (36.3%) had low BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and/or trochanter. Multivariate analysis revealed that underweight women had a significantly higher risk of low BMD compared with obese women at pre-pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83–5.63). Also, women with inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) were 1.4 times more likely to have low BMD than women with excessive GWG (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.04–1.94). One-way ANOVA showed that BMDs at the lumbar spine and total hip were significantly different between the 4 BMI groups (both P < 0.001) and also between the 3 GWG groups (both P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study identifies a high prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and thus suggests the need for further evaluation about the change of BMD in pregnancy and postpartum period. PMID:27709858

  20. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants.

  1. Marital power process of Korean men married to foreign women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miyoung; Park, Gyeong Sook; Windsor, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study explored how Korean men married to migrant women construct meaning around married life. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 10 men who had had been married to migrant women for ≥ 2 years. Data collection and analysis were performed concurrently using a grounded theory approach. The core category generated was the process of sustaining a family unit. The men came to understand the importance of a distribution of power within the family in sustaining the family unit. Constituting this process were four stages: recognizing an imbalance of power, relinquishing power, empowering, and fine-tuning the balance of power. This study provides important insight into the dynamics of marital power from men's point of view by demonstrating a link between the way people adjust to married life and the process by which married couples adjust through the distribution and redistribution of power.

  2. Association between blood lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Roh, Seung-Ju; Kim, Han-Na; Shim, Unjin; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Su-Jin; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age  = 24.9±4.6 years (range 17-39)] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between blood lipid levels

  3. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) occurred for the first time in Korea , 1951, although it had previously been known to both the Japanese and Russians...After Korean war, the disease has been fixed in the areas of DMZ as an endemic one, and from 100 to 300 cases have been reported every year. The aims...but in 1971 affected the middle districts and in 1972 invaded the southern parts of South Korea . The number of patients and the areas of KHF in 1972

  4. Macronutrient Composition and Sodium Intake of Diet Are Associated with Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Myoungsook; Kim, Young Ok

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and hypertriglycemia are the most important contributors to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease risk in South Koreans with a relatively lean body mass. These major contributors differ from those identified in Western populations. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the Korean diet associated with increased risk of MetS, whose prevalence has been steadily increasing in South Korea. On the basis of data collected from 5,320 subjects by the 2007–2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 3 dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and their association with the risk of MetS and its components was examined. The balanced Korean diet, a typical Korean diet of rice and kimchi intake supplemented by a variety of foods had a desirable macronutrient composition and was associated with a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.45–0.84) and hypertriglyceridemia (0.69, 0.49–0.88) in men and a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (0.59, 0.41–0.85) and MetS (0.67, 0.47–0.96) in women. The unbalanced Korean diet, characterized by a high intake of carbohydrates and sodium and little variety, was associated with a higher risk of MetS (1.44, 1.03–2.01) and elevated blood pressure (1.41, 1.00–1.98) in women. The semi-western diet, characterized by a relatively high intake of meat, poultry, and alcohol, was associated with a lower risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.70, 0.54–0.89) in women. Thus, macronutrient composition and sodium intake are associated with the risk of MetS and prehypertension in women. Maintaining a desirable macronutrient composition and avoiding excessive consumption of carbohydrates and sodium should be emphasized for prevention of MetS and hypertension in South Korean women. PMID:24205105

  5. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    while attempting to put the cart before the horse and trying to make U.S. commitment of the South Korean armed forces to squashing of the uprising...Minister Rajiv Gandhi . This proposal, modeled on the Helsinki Conference for East- West security, is nothing but an Asian version of the Warsaw Pact

  6. Finite Control in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kum Young

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…

  7. Korean Phrase Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This is a brief guide to Korean pronunciation and phrases, prepared for U.S. Navy personnel. Expressions are grouped according to the following headings: (1) emergency expressions; (2) general expressions; (3) personal needs; (4) location and terrain; (5) roads and transportation; (6) communications; (7) letters, numbers, size, time, etc.; (8)…

  8. Body Fat and Physical Activity Modulate the Association Between Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis in Elderly Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhwan; Cho, Jinkyung; Jin, Youngyun; Ha, Changduk; Kim, Taehee; Kang, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as body fatness and physical activity, modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. In a cross-sectional design, 269 postmenopausal women, aged 65 years and older, underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to measure their body fat percentage, total fat mass, total fat-free mass, appendicular lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content. The participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive days to quantify daily physical activity. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and a binary logistic regression. Pearson correlation analyses showed that total neck/femur BMD was positively associated with weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and objectively-measured physical activities. ASM was positively associated with body fatness. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was substantially attenuated but remained marginally significant when adjusted for age and postmenopausal period (OR = 2.370 and p = 0.050). However, the OR was no longer significant when additionally adjusted for body fatness (OR = 2.218 and p = 0.117) and physical activity (OR = 1.240 and p = 0.448). The findings of the study showed that, in this sample of elderly Korean women, modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as body fatness and physical inactivity played an important role in determining the association between sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Key points Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are major health conditions responsible for an increased risk of bone fractures and reduced functional capacity, respectively, in older adults. We investigated whether lifestyle-related risk factors modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis in older Korean adults. The current findings of the study suggest that physical activity and

  9. North Korean Paradoxes. Circumstances, Costs, and Consequences of Korean Unification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    paper) 1. Korean reunification question (1945- ) 2. Korea (North)-Economic policy. 3. Korea (North)--Politics and government. 4. Security, International...order@rand.org Preface This monograph, focusing on North Korea , analyzes some of the economic, political, and security issues associated with Korean ...Northeast Asia. iii iv North Korean Paradoxes This research was performed within the International Security and Defense Policy Center of the RAND National

  10. Are Western Knee Designs Dimensionally Correct for Korean Women? A Morphometric Study of Resected Femoral Surfaces during Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Suk-Joo; Kang, Hyung Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the shape of the distal femur of Korean women compared with the prostheses currently available in Korea. Methods Morphometric data (5 parameters) were measured in 356 resected femurs of Korean women undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) utilizing the LCS knee implant (DePuy). The data were then compared with 5 additional contemporary TKA implant systems. Results Implant designs based on Caucasian population data do not ideally match the distal femoral morphology of Korean women. Overhang at the anterior mediolateral width was observed in 84.8% for the LCS while a gender-specific implant resulted in undercoverage of the bone in 86%. Posterior overhang was observed in up to 51.2%. Most implant designs have a narrower intercondylar notch than the morphologic data of Korean women. Conclusions Since there is some difference between the shape of distal femur of Korean women and that of the implants, surgeons should have this in mind when selecting an implant for a patient. These data may also be used as a guideline for future prosthetic design options for Korean women population. PMID:27583107

  11. Naval Cooperation After Korean Unification,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    Korean Unification _ ’ - < ~ ■::-■;-■’ "’&■ ■ *>’ -■ ■’■ I Analyses for Defense Analyses Center for Korea ... Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) held a workshop in Washington, DC, from December 4 to 6, 1995, to examine the prospects for U.S.- Korean ... Korean Navy, coastal missions are certain to continue. Korea will still require defense of its coastlines; regulatory missions to enforce

  12. Liberation psychological implications for pastoral care of Korean military wives.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bocheol

    2010-01-01

    Native Korean women frequently suffer poverty, sexual violence, and Confucian gender discrimination. Once in America Korean military wives also experience racial and sexual oppression, intercultural familial conflicts and violence, and identity crisis and lead to feelings of isolation and non-belonging, a sense of anomie. Korean American pastors tend to understate and oversimplify the complexity of psychological and spiritual suffering of Korean military wives and overemphasize individual faith development as a solution. Liberation psychology evolved from an awareness of similar dehumanizing realities. The context-based perspective of liberation psychology offers a model to interpret and assist in the psychological and spiritual healing of Korean military wives. The healing power of conscientization offered in Liberation psychology for oppressed individuals encourages self-awakening suggesting it as an ideal interventional model to help Korean military wives and would be a useful approach for Korean American pastors.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability about influenza vaccination in Korean women of childbearing age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to investigate the women's perspective on influenza infection and vaccination and to evaluate how they influence vaccine acceptability, in Korean women of childbearing age. Methods This was a prospective study by random survey of women of childbearing age (20 to 45 years). They were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes and acceptability of influenza vaccination before and during pregnancy. This study utilized data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2008 and 2012, to analyze the recent influenza vaccination trends. Results According to KNHANES (2008-2012), influenza vaccination rates in women of childbearing age have increased up to 26.4%, after 2009. The questionnaire was completed by 308 women. Vaccination rate during pregnancy or planning a pregnancy was 38.6%. The immunization rate increased significantly with the mean number of correct answers (P<0.001). Women who received influenza vaccination were more likely to be previously informed of the recommendations concerning the influenza vaccination before or during pregnancy, received the influenza vaccination in the past, and of the opinion that influenza vaccination is not dangerous during pregnancy, with odds ratios of 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.44 to 33.33; P<0.0001), 3.6 (95% CI, 1.84 to 6.97; P=0.0002) and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.34 to 5.47; P=0.0057). Conclusion Influenza vaccination rate in women of childbearing age has increased in this study and national data. More information and recommendation by healthcare workers, especially obstetricians, including safety of vaccination, might be critical for improving vaccination rate in women of childbearing age. PMID:25798420

  14. Association between Health Behaviors and a Family History of Cancer among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Youngsun; Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the health-related behaviors related to a family history of cancer (FHCA) among Korean women underwent cancer screening. Materials and Methods A total of 8,956 women who underwent cancer screenings during 2001-2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea, were analyzed. The association between health-related behaviors and a FHCA were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.65), to be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.65), and less likely to engage in regular exercise (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.41). Combined effects of selected health behaviors for FHCA were significant, although no statistically significant interactions were observed between selected health behaviors. Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to simultaneously smoke and be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.31) and to simultaneously smoke and be physically inactive (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). Conclusion The study found that women with a FHCA exhibited unhealthy behaviors compared to women without FHCA. Higher emphasis on lifestyle modifications using a new standardized tool is strongly recommended for those with a FHCA, as well as individuals who are at high risk, together with their family members. PMID:26511810

  15. Etiologic characteristics and index pregnancy outcomes of recurrent pregnancy losses in Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gi Su; Rhee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and clinical outcomes of Korean recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients. And also, we investigated the differences between primary and secondary RPL patients, between two and three or more pregnancy losses. Methods One hundred seventy eight women diagnosed as RPL were enrolled. We performed chromosomal analysis, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, blood glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, natural killer cell proportion, anticardiolipin antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, anti-β2glycoprotein-1 antibodies, antinuclear antibody, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, homocysteine, MTFHR gene, factor V Leiden mutation, and hysterosalphingography/hysteroscopic evaluation. Results The mean age was 34.03±4.30 years, and mean number of miscarriages was 2.69±1.11 (range, 2 to 11). Anatomical cause (13.5%), chromosomal abnormalities (5.6%), and endocrine disorders (34.3%) were observed in RPL women. Elevated natural killer cell and antiphospholipid antibodies were observed in 43.3% and 7.3% each. Among of 178 women, 77 women were pregnant. After management of those women, live birth rate was 84.4% and mean gestational weeks was 37.63±5.12. Women with three or more RPL compared with women with two RPL had more common anatomical cause such as intrauterine adhesions and lower rates of spontaneous pregnancy. Compare with secondary RPL women, immunological abnormalities were more common in primary RPL. However, miscarriage rates were not different. Conclusion Immunological factor including autoimmune and alloimmune disorders was most common etiology of RPL. Inherited thrombophilia showed different patterns with other ethnic countries. Miscarriage rates were not different between primary and secondary RPL, or between two and three or more miscarriages group. PMID:27668201

  16. Decreased Renal Function Is a Risk Factor for Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Cho, Si Hyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Decreased renal function is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Our study was planned to verify the association of decreased renal function and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 251 Korean postmenopausal women who visited the health promotion center for a routine health checkup. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used to show renal function, which was estimated by calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Results Women with reduced eGFR (< 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2) had significantly higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) than women with normal eGFR (≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2). The eGFR was negatively correlated with baPWV (r = -0.352, P < 0.001), significantly. The eGFR was lower in women with coronary atherosclerosis than in normal control women, markedly. Reduced eGFR was significantly associated with the presence of coronary atherosclerosis (odds ratio [OR] = 7.528, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.728-20.772, P < 0.001). Conclusions Decreased eGFR was closely associated with increased arterial stiffness and coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Evaluating subclinical atherosclerosis by screening the renal function in postmenopausal women may be helpful screening high risk group and considering starting menopausal hormone therapy before atherosclerosis development. PMID:28119897

  17. Bone Mineral Density and Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Korean Women with Low-Energy Distal Radius Fractures.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong Jun; Park, Ho Youn; Kim, Jin Sam; Yoon, Jun-O; Jeon, In-Ho

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women with low-energy distal radius fractures and compared with those of aged-matched normal Korean women. Two hundred and six patients with distal radius fractures between March 2006 and March 2010 were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups by age; group 1 (50-59 years), group 2 (60-69 years), and group 3 (70-79 years). Controls were age-matched normal Korean women. The bone mineral density values at all measured sites, except for the spine, were significantly lower in group 1 than those of control. While the bone mineral density values in group 2 and 3 were lower than those of controls, these differences were not statistically significant. All groups had significantly higher prevalence of osteoporosis at the Ward's triangle; however, at the spine, femoral neck and trochanteric area it was not significantly different from those of age-matched controls. Although the prevalence of osteoporosis of the postmenopausal women with low-energy distal radius fractures may not be higher than that of the control, osteoporosis should be evaluated especially in younger postmenopausal patients to prevent other osteoporotic hip and/or spine fractures.

  18. Bone Mineral Density and Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Korean Women with Low-Energy Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women with low-energy distal radius fractures and compared with those of aged-matched normal Korean women. Two hundred and six patients with distal radius fractures between March 2006 and March 2010 were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups by age; group 1 (50-59 years), group 2 (60-69 years), and group 3 (70-79 years). Controls were age-matched normal Korean women. The bone mineral density values at all measured sites, except for the spine, were significantly lower in group 1 than those of control. While the bone mineral density values in group 2 and 3 were lower than those of controls, these differences were not statistically significant. All groups had significantly higher prevalence of osteoporosis at the Ward’s triangle; however, at the spine, femoral neck and trochanteric area it was not significantly different from those of age-matched controls. Although the prevalence of osteoporosis of the postmenopausal women with low-energy distal radius fractures may not be higher than that of the control, osteoporosis should be evaluated especially in younger postmenopausal patients to prevent other osteoporotic hip and/or spine fractures. PMID:27247508

  19. Correlates of Domestic Violence Victimization Among North Korean Refugee Women in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Um, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2016-01-06

    Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea.

  20. Food and Nutrient Intakes According to Income in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Inyoung; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Oh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated associations between income and intake of nutrients and food in adults (n = 11,063) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009. Methods To examine relationships between individual dietary intake and anthropometric measures and family income, multiple linear regression models were constructed for each outcome variable. All models were adjusted for age, education, energy intake, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. Results For men, intakes of protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and vitamin C were lower in low-income compared to high-income groups. For women, intakes of protein and niacin were lower in low-income groups. Lowest income group ate less dairy products in men and less fruits and fishes or shellfishes in women. Conclusion Low-income groups had severe food insecurity and low diet quality compared to high-income groups. The study results will provide direction for public health efforts regarding dietary intakes according to economic status among Korean men and women. PMID:24159472

  1. A Prospective Study of Serum Trace Elements in Healthy Korean Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Sun, Jiyu; Yoo, Heejin; Kim, Seonwoo; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-Young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-11-23

    This prospective study sought to investigate serum levels of trace elements (cobalt, copper, zinc, and selenium) and to assess their effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serum levels of trace elements in 245 Korean pregnant women (median gestational age at delivery was 39 + 4 weeks and interquartile range was 38 + 4-40 + 1 weeks) were compared with those of 527 general adults and those of previous studies in other ethnic groups. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, neonatal birth weight, and congenital abnormalities were assessed. The median serum trace element concentrations of all pregnant women were: cobalt: 0.39 μg/L (interquartile range, IQR 0.29-0.53), copper: 165.0 μg/dL (IQR 144.0-187.0), zinc: 57.0 μg/dL (IQR 50.0-64.0), and selenium: 94.0 μg/L (IQR 87.0-101.0). Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were higher in pregnant women than in the general population, whereas zinc and selenium levels were lower (p < 0.01). Concentrations of all four trace elements varied significantly during the three trimesters (p < 0.05), and seasonal variation was found in copper, zinc, and selenium, but was not observed for cobalt. The prevalence of preeclampsia was significantly lower with high copper (p = 0.03). Trace element levels varied by pregnancy trimester and season, and alteration in copper status during pregnancy might influence pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia.

  2. Korean Dermatological Association.

    PubMed

    Ro, B I

    1998-12-01

    The Korean Dermatological Association (KDA) was founded on October 27, 1945. The first annual meeting was held on November 15, 1947, and meetings have been held twice a year since 1975. The KDA 50th Annual Spring Meeting was on April 15-16, 1998. Korean Journal of Dermatology, the official journal of the KDA, was first published in 1960 and has been published bimonthly since 1978. Annals of Dermatology (Seoul), the English journal, was first published in 1989 and has been published quarterly since 1995. The American residency and specialty board system was introduced in 1954. Board specialty examination of dermatology candidates by the KDA requires four years of residency. Three hundred and twenty residents are now in the training course in the fifty-nine resident training approved hospitals this year. KDA has seven regional dermatological societies; Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Honam, Chungchong, Jeonbuk, and Kangwon. KDA has had eleven research subcommittees since 1981. There are two associated societies of the KDA; the Korean Society for Investigative Dermatology was founded in 1991, and the Korean Society for Medical Mycology was founded in 1994. The Korea-Japan Joint Meeting of Dermatology has been held every two years since 1979 and the Korea-China Joint Meeting of Dermatology and Mycology has been held since 1996. About three hundred papers were presented at the 49th Annual Autumn Meeting on October 21-23, 1997. These included special lectures, invited lectures, educational lectures, oral presentations, and posters. About five hundred dermatologists participated in that meeting. KDA joined the International League of Dermatological Societies in 1973 with forty-seven members. There are around 1200 members of the KDA including 320 residents in 1998.

  3. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    needed in.the production of var- ious guns and tanks to the South Korean puppets and have had Japanese war munition monopolist enterprises directly...emergency measures or from guns and bayonets. The puppet’s oppressive frenzy is the manifestation of his extreme fear and uneasiness. Today, the...the long-term office of the dictatorial regime and those who can survive only by smashing this scheme. A gun -and-bayonet suppressive offense is the

  4. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    County but also in Kimhwa and Hoeyang Counties. What on earth is the need to build a power station to produce just a few hun - dred thousand kwh at...patriotic act for the country and the nation. A congratulatory speech was made by Kim Tae- chin , an officer of the Korean people’s army, who had been an...resistant, and durable. Therefore, it is very useful in aircraft, rocket parts, special explosive carriers, gun barrels, etc. The fiber is also

  5. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Ship To Investigate Krill Fishing in Antarctic (YONHAP, 24 Nov 86) , 77 INTERNATIONAL COMMENTARY Daily on U.S.-Beijing, Pyongyang-Moscow Relations...maintenance of friendly relations is the "supreme objective," he added. /12913 CSO: 4100/061 76 S. KOREA/FOREIGN RELATIONS SHIP TO INVESTIGATE KRILL ...the Southern Korean port city of Pusan for the Antarctic Ocean to investigate possibilities of fishing for Krill , the fisheries office announced. The

  6. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the leadxng role of the party. In order to strengthen and develop our party forever into a chuche-type re- volutionary party, we should abide by...organized by inheriting the Down-With-Imperialism Union, played an important role in the struggle to found a revolutionary party. While vigorously...the role of these party organizations, we extensively organized party organizations in Korean residential areas in the northern border area of our

  7. Assessment of clinical risk factors to validate the probability of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo Mee; Hyun, Noo-Rie; Shon, Ho-Sang; Kim, Hae-Soon; Park, So-Young; Park, Il-Hyung; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Jung, Hong-Geun; Kim, Do-Hee; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2008-12-01

    This cross-sectional, observational study was designed to identify clinical risk factors of osteoporosis and fractures in Korean women to validate the probability of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. A total of 1541 Korean women were recruited nationally. Fracture history of any site, risk factors of osteoporosis, and fall-related risk factors were surveyed and physical performance tests were conducted. Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure calcaneus bone mineral density (BMD). The number of positive responses on the modified 1-min osteoporosis risk test was related to the risk of osteoporosis. The frequency of osteoporosis was higher in those with a height reduction of >4 cm and a reduced body mass index (BMI). Multivariate analysis showed that older age and lower BMI were related to higher relative risk of osteoporosis. Time required to stand up from a chair and questions related to fall injury were significantly related to clinical fracture history of any site. Multivariate analysis showed that the relative risk of fractures at any site was higher in older subjects with a lower T-score and parental hip fracture history. This study shows that age and BMI are the most significant clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and that age, BMD, and parental history of hip fracture are highly applicable risk factors for validating the probability of osteoporotic fractures in Korean women.

  8. The Associations between Immunity-Related Genes and Breast Cancer Prognosis in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaesung; Song, Nan; Han, Sohee; Chung, Seokang; Sung, Hyuna; Lee, Ji-young; Jung, Sunjae; Park, Sue K.; Yoo, Keun-Young; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Jong Won; Noh, Dong-Young; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the role of common genetic variation in immune-related genes on breast cancer disease-free survival (DFS) in Korean women. 107 breast cancer patients of the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS) were selected for this study. A total of 2,432 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 283 immune-related genes were genotyped with the GoldenGate Oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA). A multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model and polygenic risk score model were used to estimate the effects of SNPs on breast cancer prognosis. Harrell’s C index was calculated to estimate the predictive accuracy of polygenic risk score model. Subsequently, an extended gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA-SNP) was conducted to approximate the biological pathway. In addition, to confirm our results with current evidence, previous studies were systematically reviewed. Sixty-two SNPs were statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. The most significant SNPs were rs1952438 in SOCS4 gene (hazard ratio (HR) = 11.99, 95% CI = 3.62–39.72, P = 4.84E-05), rs2289278 in TSLP gene (HR = 4.25, 95% CI = 2.10–8.62, P = 5.99E-05) and rs2074724 in HGF gene (HR = 4.63, 95% CI = 2.18–9.87, P = 7.04E-05). In the polygenic risk score model, the HR of women in the 3rd tertile was 6.78 (95% CI = 1.48–31.06) compared to patients in the 1st tertile of polygenic risk score. Harrell’s C index was 0.813 with total patients and 0.924 in 4-fold cross validation. In the pathway analysis, 18 pathways were significantly associated with breast cancer prognosis (P<0.1). The IL-6R, IL-8, IL-10RB, IL-12A, and IL-12B was associated with the prognosis of cancer in data of both our study and a previous study. Therefore, our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in immune-related genes have relevance to breast cancer prognosis among Korean women. PMID:25075970

  9. "I Am a "Kirogi" Mother": Education Exodus and Life Transformation among Korean Transnational Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hakyoon

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the recent social phenomenon of the "kirogi," which means wild goose in Korean. This word also refers to a multinational household in which the mother has moved overseas for the children's education while the father lives alone in Korea to support his family economically. I investigate the narratives of kirogi…

  10. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  11. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared,…

  12. Korean Advanced Course: Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the fifth in a series of seven readers designed for continuation training in the Defense Language Institute's Basic Course in Korean. Twelve articles, drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970, focus on Korean letters, life, and customs. The reader is to be used for development of…

  13. Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

  14. Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

  15. Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

  16. Genetic Predisposition of Polymorphisms in HMGB1-Related Genes to Breast Cancer Prognosis in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junsu; Choi, Jaesung; Chung, Seokang; Park, JooYong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Sung, Hyuna; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Jong Won; Park, Sue K.; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Noh, Dong-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has roles in apoptosis and immune responses by acting as a ligand for receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1. In particular, HMGB1/RAGE is involved in tumor metastasis by inducing matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 expression. We investigated the associations between genetic variations in HMGB1-related genes and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in Korean female breast cancer patients. Methods A total of 2,027 patients in the Seoul Breast Cancer Study were included in the analysis. One hundred sixteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were extracted from eight genes. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) of each SNP. The effects of the SNPs on breast cancer prognosis were assessed at cumulative levels with polygenic risk scores. Results The SNPs significantly associated with DFS were rs243867 (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05–1.50) and rs243842 (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03–1.50); both SNPs were in MMP2. The SNPs significantly associated with OS were rs243842 in MMP2 (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI 1.03–1.71), rs4145277 in HMGB1 (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00–1.66), rs7656411 in TLR2 (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60–0.98), and rs7045953 in TLR4 (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29–0.84). The polygenic risk score results for the DFS and OS patients showed third tertile hazard ratios of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.27–2.34) and 2.75 (95% CI, 1.79–4.23), respectively, over their first tertile references. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that genetic polymorphisms in HMGB1-related genes are related to breast cancer prognosis in Korean women. PMID:28382092

  17. Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; LEE, Hyo-Hyun; KIM, Siyeon; JANG, Young-Joon; BAEK, Yoon-Jeong; KANG, Kwon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155–341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions. PMID:26632118

  18. Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Lee, Hyo-Hyun; Kim, Siyeon; Jang, Young-Joon; Baek, Yoon-Jeong; Kang, Kwon-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155-341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions.

  19. A Prospective Study of Serum Trace Elements in Healthy Korean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Sun, Jiyu; Yoo, Heejin; Kim, Seonwoo; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study sought to investigate serum levels of trace elements (cobalt, copper, zinc, and selenium) and to assess their effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serum levels of trace elements in 245 Korean pregnant women (median gestational age at delivery was 39 + 4 weeks and interquartile range was 38 + 4–40 + 1 weeks) were compared with those of 527 general adults and those of previous studies in other ethnic groups. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, neonatal birth weight, and congenital abnormalities were assessed. The median serum trace element concentrations of all pregnant women were: cobalt: 0.39 μg/L (interquartile range, IQR 0.29–0.53), copper: 165.0 μg/dL (IQR 144.0–187.0), zinc: 57.0 μg/dL (IQR 50.0–64.0), and selenium: 94.0 μg/L (IQR 87.0–101.0). Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were higher in pregnant women than in the general population, whereas zinc and selenium levels were lower (p < 0.01). Concentrations of all four trace elements varied significantly during the three trimesters (p < 0.05), and seasonal variation was found in copper, zinc, and selenium, but was not observed for cobalt. The prevalence of preeclampsia was significantly lower with high copper (p = 0.03). Trace element levels varied by pregnancy trimester and season, and alteration in copper status during pregnancy might influence pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia. PMID:27886083

  20. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    maniac unheard of in the world and the South Korean military fascist "regime" is a violent sanguinary "regime". The Chon Tu-hwan group brands the...revision" in its favour. The puppets branded the memorial service as "violence revolution" and "up- rising". This is a premeditated scheme to expand...It is funded by Colorado-based beer tycoon Joseph Coors (he runs the Coors Beer Company). Former National Security advisor to President Reagan

  1. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  2. Prospects from Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-29

    Samuel S. Kim (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan Press, 2004), 1-2. 2 Seung -Ho Joo, “Korean Foreign Relations Toward The Twenty-First Century...Reunification,” Asian Affairs: An American Review (Winter 1999): 195-207. 53 Seung -Ho Joo, American Asian Review, 131 54 Pollack and Lee, 87. 55 Suk- hee ...S. Kim , The Two Koreas And The Great Powers, 98. 74 Snyder, NBR Analysis, 54. 75 Suk- hee Han, 137-139. 76 Victor D. Cha, “Defensive Realism and

  3. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016), and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030–1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women. PMID:28264442

  4. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2017-02-27

    We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016), and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030-1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  5. Vitamin D and Urinary Incontinence among Korean Women: a Propensity Score-matched Analysis from the 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A recent study investigated the role of vitamin D in urinary incontinence (UI). However, very few data are available on this topic. Therefore, we evaluated these relationships using nationally representative data from Korea. We included 6,451 women over the age of 20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. We conducted a propensity-matched study by identifying women with UI. Women without UI, matched for menopause, number of pregnancies, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, age, stroke, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, were selected as a control group at a 2:1 ratio. The χ2 test, t-test and logistic regression analyses were used. Following propensity score matching, 558 UI cases and 1,116 normal controls were included, and confounders (menopause, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, age, obesity, and number of pregnancies) were evenly dispersed and did not differ significantly between the groups. There was no significant difference between the mean vitamin D levels of the UI and normal groups (vitamin D: 18.4 ± 6.6 vs. 18.5 ± 7.0 ng/mL; P = 0.752). Additionally, there was no significant difference in the distribution of vitamin D levels (< 20 ng/mL, 20–30 ng/mL, > 30 ng/mL: 63.8%, 30.5%, and 5.7% in normal controls, 64.0%, 27.8%, and 8.2% in UI cases; P = 0.107). In conclusion, low serum vitamin D is not significantly and independently related to female UI after propensity score matching in representative Korean data. PMID:28244294

  6. 78 FR 46245 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9000 of July 25, 2013 National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2013 By the... anniversary of the end of the Korean War--a conflict that defined a generation and decided the fate of a... women who showed extraordinary courage through 3 long years of war, fighting far from home to defend...

  7. Rape myth acceptance among Korean college students: the roles of gender, attitudes toward women, and sexual double standard.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current societies, within each society, the specific components of rape myths reflect the cultural values and norms of that particular society. A sample of 327 college students in South Korea completed the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised, the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, and the Sexual Double Standard Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test hypothesized models. Results revealed that in three of the four models, rape survivor myths, rape perpetrator myths, and myths about the impact of rape, attitudes toward women were a more important predictor of rape myths than gender or sexual double standard. In the rape spontaneity myths model, on the other hand, sexual double standard was a more important predictor than gender or attitudes toward women. This study provides valuable information that can be useful in developing culturally specific rape prevention and victim intervention programs.

  8. Korean Affairs Report No. 300.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reporter said: 10 The United States has heightened with each passing day the strategic position of the Korean Peninsula, claiming that Korea is "its...people were undergoing all tribulations under the Japanese imperialists’ colonial rule, served the Japanese imperialists as their running dog ...Korea in an attempt to per- petuate the division of Korea and have the South Korean authorities recognized . CSO: 4100/188 25 N. KOREA/POLITICS AND

  9. Standardization of Korean nursing terminology.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyang-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Wha; Kim, Won-Ock; Kim, Ok-Soo; Lee, Young-Whee; Park, Ho-Ran; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, In-Sook; Park, Young-Joo; Park, Young-Im

    2006-01-01

    Korean nursing terminology was standardized to improve sharing and exchange of nursing data and information. English nursing terms were collected from existing nursing terminology, journal articles, nursing records, text books, and nursing/medical dictionaries, translated into Korean and were tested for their validity. More than 9000 terms were standardized and published on a website for further feedback from the users. This study will contribute to communication within the nursing community and with other health care professionals.

  10. Efficacy and safety of drospirenone 2 mg/17β-estradiol 1 mg hormone therapy in Korean postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo Ra; Park, Hye Na; Jung, Ji Back; Kim, Jeong Sig; Choi, Gyu Yeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Lee, Im Soon

    2017-01-01

    This regulatory post-marketing surveillance study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drospirenone (DRSP) 2 mg/estradiol (E2) 1 mg tablet in Korean postmenopausal women. A total of 4,149 patients were enrolled and the study was conducted at 207 clinical research centers. The patients' source data was collected between November 2006 and November 2012. More than 85% of patients experienced improvement of menopausal symptoms. The most frequently reported adverse events were vaginal bleeding and breast pain; most of the women suffering from these symptoms fully recovered. The incidence of adverse event was higher in patients of younger age (20 to 39 years), in patients with concomitant diseases, previous hormone replacement therapy in medical history, those treated with DRSP 2 mg/E2 1 mg for shorter duration (3 years or less) and in patients using concomitant medication. In conclusion, the results from this large post-marketing surveillance study confirm the efficacy and safety of DRSP 2 mg/E2 1 mg tablet in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:28344964

  11. Association between serum gonadotropin level and insulin resistance-related parameters in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between serum gonadotropin level and parameters related to insulin resistance in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods This retrospective study included 138 women aged 18 to 35 years who were newly diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam consensus. Participants were divided into three groups based on the serum luteinizing hormone to follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio in the early follicular phase: group 1 (LH/FSH <1), group 2 (1.0≤ LH/FSH >2.0), and group 3 (LH/FSH ≥2.0). The correlations between the LH/FSH ratio and various metabolic parameters were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. Results Patients with higher LH/FSH ratios showed higher total antral follicle counts and higher total ovarian volume. In the comparison of anthropometric and biochemical parameters among the three groups, the waist to hip ratio was the only parameter that differed significantly among the groups (P=0.003). Correlation analysis revealed no significant correlations between serum LH/FSH ratios and biochemical parameters related to insulin resistance. However, after adjustments for age and body mass index, a significant correlation between total cholesterol level and serum LH/FSH ratio was observed (r=0.221, P=0.018). Conclusion Most parameters related to insulin resistance, with the exception of total cholesterol level, are unrelated to the inappropriate pattern of serum gonadotropin secretion in Korean women with PCOS. PMID:27896252

  12. Evidence for No Significant Impact of Müllerian Anomalies on Reproductive Outcomes of Twin Pregnancy in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sohyun; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Da Hee; Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi-La; Shin, Joong Sik

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to evaluate the impact of congenital Müllerian anomalies (MA) on twin pregnancy after 24 gestational weeks in Korean women. All records of twin pregnancies in a large maternity hospital in Korea between January 2005 and July 2013 were analyzed. Patients with monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twins, non-Korean patients, patients with twins delivered prior to 24 gestational weeks, and patients with miscarriage of one fetus or intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) before 24 gestational weeks were excluded from data analysis. In total, 1,422 women with twin pregnancy were eligible for data analysis, including 17 (1.2%) who had a known congenital MA (septate uterus, bicornuate uterus, arcuate uterus, and unicornuate uterus). Except for the mode of conception, baseline demographics were similar between women with MA and those without MA. No significant differences were found in pregnancy outcomes of gestational age at delivery (p = .86), birth weight of smaller and larger twins (p = .54 and p = .65), and number of twins with birth weight <5th percentile for gestational age (p = .43).The rates of obstetrical complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), placenta previa, cerclage, IUFD, and postpartum hemorrhage were not significantly different between the two groups either. We concluded that the presence of congenital MA may not increase obstetrical risks in outcomes of pregnancy of twins delivered after 24 gestational weeks.

  13. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  14. The effects of exercise training and type of exercise training on changes in bone mineral denstiy in Korean postmenopausal women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Moon, Hwasil; Jin, Haeng Mi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To systematically review the effects of exercise training and the type of exercise training on changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean postmenopausal women. [Methods] Korean studies Information Service System (KISS) and PubMed were searched and 17 randomized control trials were selected. Changes in BMD of lumbar spine (LS), femur neck (FN), Ward’s triangle (WT), and trochanter (Tro) were chosen as major outcomes. [Results] Exercise training increased BMD of LS, FN, WT, and Tro. According to the type of exercise training, combined exercise training (aerobic + resistance) showed improvements in BMD of LS, FN, WT, and Tro. However, aerobic exercise training alone and resistance exercise training alone showed inconsistent results. [Conclusion] Exercise training can improve the BMD of LS, FN, WT, and Tro in Korean postmenopausal women. The type of exercise training may be a crucial factor for maintaining or improving bone health of this population. PMID:27757382

  15. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  16. The Association between Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S) and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Gun; Hwang, Sena; Kim, Jong-Suk; Park, Kyung-Chae; Kwon, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Background The relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. And findings of most studies that have investigated this relationship are restricted to postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum DHEA-S and BMD in both men and women. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated a total of 294 healthy Korean participants through a medical examination program. And a subgroup of 154 participants was subjected to a longitudinal analysis. We measured BMD by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and assayed DHEA-S by a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results We evaluated the association between serum DHEA-S concentration and BMD at the femur trochanter after adjusting for cofounders such as age, body mass index, lifestyle factors, serum cortisol level, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level, and sex. Through our longitudinal study, we found that the changes in BMD at the total spine, at the femur neck, and at the femur trochanter were all smaller in the ΔDHEA-S <0 group than in the ΔDHEA-S >0 group. Conclusions We found that there was a positive correlation between serum DHEA-S and femur BMD, which suggests that controlling serum DHEA-S levels may retard age-related BMD reduction in Koreans. PMID:28326299

  17. Uncertainties in the North Korean Nuclear Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    providing objective analysis and effective solutions that address the challenges facing the public and private sectors around the world . RAND’s...stigmatize Korean goods, further complicating problems for the Korean economy. And economic disruption can ripple through an economy in devastating ways...the outside world . 1 “N. Korean Poster Seems to Confi rm Succession,” 2009. 4 Uncertainties in the North Korean Nuclear Threat NK Nuclear

  18. Processing of the Korean Eojoel Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Nam, Kichun; Gordon, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Korean writing is a syllabary where spaces occur between phrases rather than between words. This characteristic of Korean allows different types of information in Korean sentences to be dissociated in ways that are not possible in the languages that have been the focus of most psycholinguistic research, thereby providing new opportunities to…

  19. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  20. Ethnic Attachment among Second Generation Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joann; Min, Pyong Gap

    1999-01-01

    Describes the levels of second-generation Korean-American adolescents' (n=approximately 237) cultural, social, and psychological dimensions of attachment and examines the major factors highly correlated with two of the dimensions of ethnic attachment: use of the Korean language and Korean friendships. Findings support the view that high levels of…

  1. Assess the Effects of Culturally Relevant Intervention on Breast Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, and Mammography Use among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hee; Menon, Usha; Wang, Edward; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    A pre-post test, two-group study was conducted to examine the effects of a culturally competent targeted intervention titled GO EARLY Save Your Life on the breast cancer and early screening-related knowledge and beliefs and mammography use among 180 Korean American (KA) women aged 40 years or older who had not had mammograms within the past 12 months. The intervention group received an interactive education session focused on breast cancer, early screening guidelines, and beliefs (breast cancer-related and Korean cultural beliefs). The control group received no education. There was no statistically significant intervention effect on mammography use between the intervention (34%) and control groups (23%) at 24 weeks post baseline. The rates of mammography use for both groups significantly increased from 16 to 24 weeks post baseline. The education was effective in increasing breast cancer/early screening-related knowledge and modifying beliefs (decreasing barriers, fear, seriousness, and fatalism, and increasing preventive health orientation). PMID:19373555

  2. Efficacy of a Culturally Tailored Therapeutic Intervention Program for Community Dwelling Depressed Korean American Women: A Non-Randomized Quasi-Experimental Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Kunsook; Park, So-Young; Hahm, Sohee; Lee, Young Na; Seo, Jin Young; Nokes, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian American women are more prone to suffer with depression compared to their non-Asian American counterparts and have lower rates of seeking mental healthcare services due to lack of available culturally appropriate therapies. Two prior studies of a culturally tailored therapeutic intervention called LogoAutobiography were helpful in treating depressed Korean American women. The LogoAutobiography program was revised to enhance its efficacy not only for depressive symptoms and purpose in life but also to increase coping strategies. Objectives To test the efficacy of the Enhanced LogoAutobiography program on depressive symptoms, purpose in life, and coping strategies of depressed community-dwelling Korean American women. Design Two-group, non-randomized quasi-experimental design. Settings Local Korean community areas located in New York City and eastern New Jersey of the United States. Participants A total of 54 depressed women with Korean heritage completed either experimental group (n1= 25) or control group (n2= 29). Sample inclusion criteria were adult women with Korean heritage, depressive symptoms as measured by a CES-D score 16 or higher, fluent Korean language, and able to participate independently. Sample exclusion criteria were those who presented active suicidal ideation and history of episodes of mania or psychosis screened by the psychosocial survey questionnaire. Methods The experimental group received Enhanced Logo-Autobiography program which was guided by a facilitator who used a manualized intervention for 90 minute sessions over 8 weeks; the control group attended routine weekly community activities. Data were collected during the first session (pretest), the end of 8 weeks (posttest), and the 3 months follow-up session. Time and group changes in depressive symptoms, purpose in life, and coping strategies were computed using Repeated Measures General Linear Model (RMGLM). Results Findings suggested that the experimental group showed

  3. Bone mineral density is not associated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ≥50 years.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lee, In Hyeok; Jung, Ki Jin; Park, Jin Woo; Moon, Sang Young; Park, Moon Seok

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies reported improvement of back pain after osteoporosis treatment, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether osteoporosis is painful. We investigated whether bone mineral density correlated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ≥50 years. Data for postmenopausal women aged ≥50 years were obtained from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Demographics, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, and numeric rating scale for pain in the hip and knee joints, presence of back pain, and activity level were analyzed. Only subjects with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and hip and knee radiographs were included. Those with malignancy, pain medication use, or a history of fragility fractures were excluded. After univariate analysis, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the significant factors correlated with the degree of hip and knee pain. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors significantly associated with the presence of back pain. In total, 387 women were included in the data analysis. Age (p = 0.005) was the only significant factor correlated with the intensity of hip pain, while Kellgren-Lawrence grade (p < 0.001) was the only significant factor correlated with knee pain intensity in multiple regression analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.002) was the only significant factor associated with the presence of back pain. Musculoskeletal pain was not affected by or associated with the bone mineral density (BMD) of the affected body part in postmenopausal Korean women aged ≥50 years after adjusting for the degree of osteoarthritis.

  4. Politics in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    aspect o£ its uniqueness was the open debate between President Truman and General MacArthur con- cernin9 the war’s military and political objectives...NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEG~ POLITICS IN THE KOREAN WAR Course II Essay LTC Paul N. DunnlClass of 1994 COURSE II SEMINAR...to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Politics in the Korean War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  5. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-jung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m2) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (< 1426.3 kcal/day) compared to high BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P < 1 × 10-4). Surveys to estimate energy intake using 24-h recall method for three days and questionnaires for family history, a medical examination, and physical activities were conducted. RESULTS We found that two NRG3 gene SNPs in the 10q23.1 chromosomal region were highly associated with BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10-7, rs1040675; 2.3 × 10-6) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10-5, rs10786764; 6.57 × 10-5). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P <10 × 10-4. Five new loci associated with BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P < 1 × 10-4). In the questionnaire investigation, significant differences were found in the number of starvation periods per week, family history of stomach cancer, coffee intake, and trial of weight control in each group. CONCLUSION We discovered several common BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate. PMID:26865924

  6. Characteristics of Body Composition and Muscle Strength of North Korean Refugees during South Korean Stay

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun Wook; Koh, Eun Sil; Kim, Si Eun; Kim, Seok Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of body composition and muscle strength of North Korean refugees (NKRs) according to their duration of stay in South Korea. Methods NKRs who volunteered and were living in South Korea, aged 20 to 75 years were recruited. Body compositions were analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength was measured with the hand grip test. Demographic and migration information was obtained with a questionnaire. Results A total of 158 volunteers were recruited at a mean age of 48.3±11.4 years. The mean time from when they escaped from North Korea and arrived in South Korea was 5.8±4.3 years. Height, weight, and body surface area were significantly smaller in all NKRs compared to South Korean controls, except for women aged over 50 years. In females of younger ages (<50 years), NKRs with more than a 4-year stay in South Korea had a higher weight and fat mass than that of those who had a shorter stay (less than 4 years) in South Korea. All NKRs had a weaker grip strength than that of the age-matched controls from South Korea. Conclusion The NKRs showed relatively smaller physiques and weaker muscle strength than that of the South Korean controls. In younger female NKRs, shorter South Korean stay group showed small body weight and fat mass than that of longer South Korean stay group. Specific health support programs might be needed. PMID:26485471

  7. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  8. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  9. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  10. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  11. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

  12. Korean Basic Course: Area Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

  13. Initial Experience with Magnetic Resonance-Guided Vacuum-Assisted Biopsy in Korean Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hye Na; Ko, Eun Young; Shin, Jung Hee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to describe our initial experience with magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy and to determine the malignancy rate of additional lesions identified by MR only in Korean women with breast cancer. Methods A retrospective review identified 22 consecutive patients with breast cancer who had undergone MR-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (VAB) of MR-only identified lesions from May 2009 to October 2011.We evaluated the rate of compliance, the technical success for MR-guided VAB and the MR imaging findings of the target lesions. VAB histology was compared with surgical histology and follow-up imaging findings. Results The biopsy recommendations for MR-only identified lesions were accepted in 46.8% (22/47) of patients. One of 22 procedures failed due to the target's posterior location. Among 21 MR-guided VAB procedures, the target lesions were considered as a mass in 12 cases and a nonmass enhancement in nine cases. VAB histology revealed malignancies in 14% (3/21) of cases, high-risk lesions in 24% (5/21) and benign lesions in 62% (13/21). Eleven cases (52%, 11/21) had a positive surgical correlation, and one of them was upgraded from atypical ductal hyperplasia to invasive ductal carcinoma. In the remaining 10 lesions, follow-up breast ultrasound and mammography were available (range, 15-44 months; mean, 32.1 months) and did not show suspicious lesions. The final malignancy rate was 19% (4/21). Conclusion MR-guided VAB for MR-only identified lesions yielded a 19% malignancy rate in Korean women with breast cancer. MR-guided VAB helps surgeons avoid an unnecessary wide excision or additional excisional biopsy. PMID:25320626

  14. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants' demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players.

  15. The Korean Diaspora. Historical and Sociological Studies of Korean Immigration and Assimilation in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-chan, Ed.

    This anthology presents some results of recent research on Korean immigration to and assimilation in America. The essays address three major questions concerned with problems of immigration and assimilation: (1) What caused the immigration of Koreans to the Hawaiian Islands and the United States mainland? (2) How has the Korean experience in…

  16. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  17. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  18. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  19. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  20. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  1. Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, β-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women.

  2. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  3. The Economic Implications of Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The eventual reunification of the Korean peninsula will offer many challenges for...in the development of two very different governments and economies. The two Koreas are technically still at war; the Korean War ended with the signing...96 Korea actually began to become industrialized during the last fifteen years of Japanese occupation. The number of Koreans employed in heavy

  4. Air Power in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    was simply to expel the North Korean communists from the free country in the south called the Republic of Korea . The U.S. national objective was to... Korea reasoning that the forces could best be used elsewhere. During the three years prior to the Korean War, Truman’s policy toward the ROK was...increasing Chinese Communist interests in North Korea .4 On 10 March 1950, Truman was further warned that the North Koreans would “invade sometime in

  5. Operational Art Requirements in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Rhee, enough for defense but not enough to precipitate South Korean offensive actions to unify Korea .27 Adding to the tension in the region, the...percent of the Korean Peninsula. The United States decided to intervene in the defense of the South and proceeded to press the United Nations (U.N...the Korean War, these works primarily fall into three broad areas of scholarship: the American strategy concerning Korea and the Cold War

  6. Korean Defense Industry: Threat or Ally?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-22

    framework for defense industrial cooperation with Korea . While Senator Dixon eventually dropped his opposition and the Korean Fighter Program is now...US defense firms to transfer technology to Korean firms, the US Government must recognize two realities: first, Korea will develop indigenous...serious Korean competition in the foreseeable future. 8 It does not appear that the Korea defense industry is poised to take away significant market

  7. Combined Operations in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-24

    Research Cfice, 1952. Ministry of National Defense , Republic of Korea . The History of United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Volume VI, Seou 1: 1977. ,-,h...committed to repelling the North Korean and Chinese armies from the Republic of Korea (ROK). The Korean War was not anticipated and neither was the extent...Coaal: tior War Early on 25 June Iz)50 the North Korean People- Army =_NKPA launched an overwhelming invasion into the Repu’Tli,: cf Korea . Pres-.i,ent

  8. Economic Evaluation of a Community Health Worker-Led Health Literacy Intervention to Promote Cancer Screening Among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Anne L.R.; Frick, Kevin D.; Huh, Bo-Yun; Kim, Kim B.; Kim, Miyong; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study’s objectives were to calculate the costs and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of implementing a health literacy-focused intervention to promote breast and cervical cancer screenings among Korean American women overdue for these tests Methods Researchers estimated the costs of a cluster-randomized controlled trial that evaluated this intervention. Effectiveness was measured as the number of breast or cervical cancer screenings received by women in either the intervention and control arms of the study. Cost-effectiveness was calculated as the incremental cost of each additional screening received by the intervention group. Results Comparing the intervention and control group, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be US$236 per screening, without program development costs. Conclusion These findings suggest this program, when compared with others, offered a more cost-effective approach for promoting cancer screening. Local health officials could use this information to guide decisions about reducing cancer disparities among recent immigrant women. PMID:25913341

  9. Korean Unification: The Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    manufacturing plants with an abundance of local labor. Allowing a state that was once part of a unified Korea inside the borders of the DPRK can be the...power station, thermal power plants and a large nuclear power facility.84 While this seven-year plan resulted in a low average GDP growth of 2.88...ranks low in the other variables of the matrix. The financial cost associated with unifying the Korean peninsula will dwarf that of Germany. Prior to

  10. The Korean Question--Revisited.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    PAGE D/02Q P REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE I&. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 ...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete *U.S. 02-0rnf6nt PUtncla s fi 0102-LF-014-6602 Unclass’ife * ’ 3 5 33%1C EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE KOREAN...0. 1 Purpose *............. .........*0*60 3 Approach ....................... .** 3 Scope and Limitations .............. 3 Assumptions

  11. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  12. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. Results After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Conclusions Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:26816211

  13. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women.

  14. Genome-wide association study of the five-factor model of personality in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Roh, Seung-Ju; Sung, Yeon Ah; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Jong-Young; Cho, Juhee; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2013-10-01

    Personality is a determinant of behavior and lifestyle associated with health and human diseases. Although personality is known to be a heritable trait, its polygenic nature has made the identification of genetic variants elusive. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1089 Korean women aged 18-40 years whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the five-factor model of personality. To reduce environmental factors that may influence personality traits, this study was restricted to young adult women. In the discovery phase, we identified variants of PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D) that associated this gene with the Openness domain. Other genes that were previously reported to be associated with neurological phenotypes were also associated with personality traits. In particular, DRD1 and OR1A2 were linked to Neuroticism, NKAIN2 with Extraversion, HTR5A with Openness and DRD3 with Agreeableness. Data from our replication study of 2090 subjects confirmed the association between OR1A2 and Neuroticism. We first identified and confirmed a novel region on OR1A2 associated with Neuroticism [corrected]. Candidate genes for psychiatric disorders were also enriched. These findings contribute to our understanding of the genetic architecture of personality traits and provide critical clues to the neurobiological mechanisms that influence them.

  15. Low handgrip strength is associated with low bone mineral density and fragility fractures in postmenopausal healthy Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Hyang Ah; Cho, Eun-Hee

    2012-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a widely recognized health problem in postmenopausal women. Osteoporotic fractures reduce independency, limit daily living activities, and increase the mortality rate. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that low handgrip strength is a risk factor for functional limitations and disabilities, and all-cause mortality. We investigated the relationship between handgrip strength and bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine, femur neck, and total hip, as well the relationship between handgrip strength and previous fragility fractures in 337 healthy postmenopausal Korean women (mean age of 59.5 ± 6.8 yr) who were free of diseases or medications affecting bone metabolism. Age and handgrip strength were associated with BMD of the spine, femur neck, and total hip in multiple regression models. Low handgrip strength (odds ratio [OR], 0.925; range, 0.877 to 0.975; P = 0.004) and low femur neck BMD (OR, 0.019; range, 0.001 to 0.354; P = 0.008) were independent predictors of previous fragility fractures in a multiple regression model. Our results demonstrate that low handgrip strength is associated with low BMD of the spine, femur neck, and total hip, and with increased risk of previous fragility fractures.

  16. Exercise improves adiponectin concentrations irrespective of the adiponectin gene polymorphisms SNP45 and the SNP276 in obese Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Young; Kang, Hyun-Sik; Shin, Yun-A

    2013-03-10

    The effects of exercise on adiponectin levels have been reported to be variable and may be attributable to an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 45 (T>G) and SNP276 (G>T) of the adiponectin gene are associated with metabolic risk factors including adiponectin levels. We examined whether SNP45 and SNP276 would differentially influence the effect of exercise training in middle-aged women with uncomplicated obesity. We conducted a prospective study in the general community that included 90 Korean women (age 47.0±5.1 years) with uncomplicated obesity. The intervention was aerobic exercise training for 3 months. Body composition, adiponectin levels, and other metabolic risk factors were measured. Prior to exercise training, only body weight differed among the SNP276 genotypes. Exercise training improved body composition, systolic blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and leptin levels. In addition, exercise improved adiponectin levels irrespective of weight gain or loss. However, after adjustments for age, BMI, body fat (%), and waist circumference, no differences were found in obesity-related characteristics (e.g., adiponectin) following exercise training among the SNP45 and the 276 genotypes. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise affects adiponectin levels regardless of weight loss and this effect would not be influenced by SNP45 and SNP276 in the adiponectin gene.

  17. Russian Nonproliferation Policy and the Korean Peninsula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    the Committee for Foreign Relation of the Korean Association of Slavic Studies . Dr. Shin received his Ph.D. in political science from the Moscow...President Vladimir Putin and Its Significance for the Republic of Korea), Korean Slavic Studies , Vol. 19, No. 2, 2004, pp. 675-710. 28. Daehan

  18. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance,"…

  19. Group Psychodrama for Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Kim, Soo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Psychodrama was first introduced in the Korean literature in 1972, but its generalization to college students did not occur until the 1990s. Despite findings from psychodrama studies with Korean college students supporting psychodrama as effective for developing and maintaining good interpersonal relationships, as well as decreasing anxiety and…

  20. College Psychotherapy at a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Choi, Mi Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In the online interview presented in this article, two Korean counselors offer comments to questions regarding issues faced at a Korean University. They reflected on their roles and some of the many topics faced that included: (1) student misunderstanding about counseling needs, and how counseling questionnaires and the counselor helps them; (2)…

  1. Development of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2003-01-01

    Five analyses using Korean college students (n=283, 700, 844, 306, 315) were conducted to develop the Korean Career Indecision Inventory. Five factors emerged consistently and were confirmed by factor analysis: lack of career information, lack of necessity recognition, lack of self-identity, indecisiveness, and external barriers. Reliability and…

  2. The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

  3. Korean Intermediate Course. Selected Newspaper Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this material is to provide reading matter for the last phase of the Defense Language Institute's extended and intermediate courses in Korean. (See ED 024 943 for the Korean Basic Course, Lesson Units 1-112.) The content of this volume is current, introduces important vocabulary not encountered elsewhere in the courses, and calls…

  4. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  5. Children Negotiating Korean American Ethnic Identity through Their Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary study provides an interpretive reading of focus group interviews of four Korean American children in the Phoenix metropolitan area. It examines how these Korean American children are negotiating their ethnic identity as Korean Americans while learning Korean as a heritage language. It shows that maintaining heritage language is…

  6. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  7. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  8. A Situated Perspective on Bilingual Development: Preschool Korean-English Bilinguals' Utilization of Two Languages and Korean Honorifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Jung

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the increasing Korean population, there is still a paucity of studies examining emergent Korean bilingual children's dual-language development within their social contexts. In particular, no existing study has paid attention to the honorific system of Korean, which is one of the most important features in learning the Korean language.…

  9. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Ju; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Dae Hyung; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Nah, Jeung Weon; Kim, Soon Ki

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥ 10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA.

  10. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  11. Korean Affairs Report. No. 297

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Korean to South Korea 0300 GMT 4 Jul 83 [Roundtable talk among Madam Yun, announcer Kim Chol-min and moderator Min Hye-kyong, from "Today’s Feature...questions of two disturbs our country’s reunification and of who on earth opposes and wants division? Will you talk about these questions first, Madam Yun... Madam Yun] To note a conclusion first, it is the United States that opposes our country’s reunification and seeks the perpetuation of division. As

  12. Perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang

    2011-03-01

    Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.

  13. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Dyslipidemia in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jee-Sun

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Koreans 30 years old and over was 19.5% in 2015 according to the Korean Nutrition and Health Examination Survey, which means that one-fifth of adults had hypercholesterolemia. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in adults 30 years of age and older was 16.8% in 2015, and men had a 2-fold higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia than women (23.9% vs. 10.4%). The awareness of hypercholesterolemia in Koreans was higher in women than among men (62.4% vs. 51.4%). It increased with age; the level of awareness in participants 30 to 49 years of age (32.1% in men and 32.6% in women) was less than half of that observed among respondents ≥65 years old (77.5% in men and 78.0% in women). Regular check-ups for dyslipidemia and the active management thereof are urgent in Korean men aged 30 to 49. In women, the perimenopausal period is crucial for the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome, including dyslipidemia. Overall, improvements in awareness and treatment in the age group of 30 to 49 years in both men and women remain necessary. PMID:28345314

  14. Assessment of Denosumab in Korean Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Open-Label Extension

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jung-Min; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kang, Moo-Il; Kim, In-Ju; Min, Yong-Ki; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Il Hyung; Lee, Yil-Seob; Waterhouse, Brian; Nino, Antonio; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy and safety of denosumab was compared with placebo in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in this phase III study. Materials and Methods Women aged 60 to 90 years with a T-score of <-2.5 and ≥-4.0 at the lumbar spine or total hip were randomized to a single 60 mg subcutaneous dose of denosumab or placebo for the 6-month double-blind phase. Eligible subjects entered the 6-month open-label extension phase and received a single dose of denosumab 60 mg. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the 62 denosumab- and 64 placebo-treated subjects who completed the double-blind phase. Treatment favored denosumab over placebo for the primary endpoint {mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) at Month 6 [3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.1%, 4.4%; p<0.0001)]}; and secondary endpoints (mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at Month 1, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD at Months 1 and 6, and median percent change from baseline in bone turnover markers at Months 1, 3, and 6). Endpoint improvements were sustained over 12 months in the open-label extension (n=119). There were no new or unexpected safety signals. Conclusion Denosumab was well tolerated and effective in increasing BMD and decreasing bone turnover markers over a 12-month period in Korean postmenopausal women. The findings of this study demonstrate that denosumab has beneficial effects on the measures of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:27189284

  15. The relationship between circulating neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and early alteration of metabolic parameters is associated with dietary saturated fat intake in non-diabetic Korean women.

    PubMed

    Na, Ga Yoon; Yoon, So Ra; An, Juhyun; Yeo, Rimkyo; Song, Juhyun; Jo, Mi-Na; Han, Seongho; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2016-12-30

    Circulating neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is associated with obesity-related metabolic disorders. This study investigated the relationship between serum NGAL and early alteration of metabolic parameters in non-diabetic Korean women, particularly with respect to saturated fat (SFA) intake. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glycemic status, and levels of lipids, oxidative stress/inflammatory markers, and NGAL were measured in 82 non-diabetic Korean women [Super-healthy group (n=57) with 0 metabolic syndrome risk factor (MetS RF) and MetS-risk group (n=25) with MetS RF≥1]. Age, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1C, triglyceride, LDL and total-cholesterol, and NGAL levels were higher, and HDL-cholesterol was lower in the MetS-risk group than in the Super-healthy group. Age-adjusted serum NGAL levels were higher in the MetS-risk group than in the Super-healthy group. NGAL increased proportionally with increase in MetS RFs (p=0.038) and correlated positively with BMI, triglycerides, LDL- and total-cholesterol, interleukin-6, white blood cell count, and neutrophil%, and negatively with HDL-cholesterol and superoxide dismutase activity. Serum NGAL levels positively correlated with SFA intake before and after adjustment (age and BMI). Serum NGAL levels were higher in high-SFA consumers [≥7g/day, ≥7% of total calorie intake (TCI)] than in low-SFA consumers (<7g/day, <7% of TCI). Serum NGAL levels were highest in the MetS-risk group consuming higher SFA and lowest in the Super-healthy group consuming lower SFA. However, serum NGAL did not significantly differ between the low-SFA consuming MetS-risk and Super-healthy groups. The relationship between circulating NGAL and early alteration of metabolic parameters is associated with dietary SFA intake in non-diabetic Korean women.

  16. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  17. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  18. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women.

    PubMed

    Pasman, Wilrike J; Heimerikx, Jos; Rubingh, Carina M; van den Berg, Robin; O'Shea, Marianne; Gambelli, Luisa; Hendriks, Henk F J; Einerhand, Alexandra W C; Scott, Corey; Keizer, Hiskias G; Mennen, Louise I

    2008-03-20

    Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (CCK-8) secretion vs. several other dietary fatty acids from Italian stone pine nut fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and capric acid used as a control. At 50 muM concentration, Korean pine nut FFA produced the greatest amount of CCK-8 release (493 pg/ml) relative to the other fatty acids and control (46 pg/ml). A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial including 18 overweight post-menopausal women was performed. Subjects received capsules with 3 g Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) nut FFA, 3 g pine nut TG or 3 g placebo (olive oil) in combination with a light breakfast. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes the gut hormones cholecystokinin (CCK-8), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin, and appetite sensations were measured. A wash-out period of one week separated each intervention day.CCK-8 was higher 30 min after pine nut FFA and 60 min after pine nut TG when compared to placebo (p < 0.01). GLP-1 was higher 60 min after pine nut FFA compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Over a period of 4 hours the total amount of plasma CCK-8 was 60% higher after pine nut FFA and 22% higher after pine nut TG than after placebo (p < 0.01). For GLP-1 this difference was 25% after pine nut FFA (P < 0.05). Ghrelin and PYY levels were not different between groups. The appetite sensation "prospective food intake" was 36% lower after pine nut FFA relative to placebo (P < 0.05). This study suggests that Korean pine nut may work as an appetite suppressant through an increasing effect on satiety hormones and a reduced prospective food intake.

  19. Teaching Korean RN-BSN students.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Eleanor T

    2009-01-01

    The author describes the challenges and issues related to teaching small cohorts of foreign-educated Korean registered nurses in the United States. Teaching-learning strategies for educating this ethnic group and other culturally different student cohorts are discussed.

  20. The immigration experience among elderly Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y-M

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this preliminary, qualitative study was to describe elderly Korean immigrants' perception of stressors they experienced through immigration and the acculturation process. The methodology used was naturalistic inquiry, a descriptive approach used to elicit the elderly immigrants' own perception of their immigration and acculturation experiences. The six elderly Korean immigrants were interviewed via a semi-structured, open-ended interview guide. The main stressors identified by the subjects as a result of adjusting to life in the United States were language barriers, isolation and loneliness, fear of dependence upon their children, fear of being a burden, financial problems, transportation problems, discrimination, and fear of death. These Korean elders also perceived changes in the traditional family values of respect for elders and support for the aged. The results of this research help to provide an understanding of the immigration and acculturation experiences of elderly Korean immigrants.

  1. Transformation of Child Socialization in Korean Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Soon Hyung

    1993-01-01

    Examines agents of socialization, socialization skills, the influence of Confucian principles, gender socialization, and the differentiation of parental roles in traditional Korean families; and the value of children, the purpose of education, and family orientation in the modern family. (BC)

  2. Smoking trajectories among Koreans in Seoul and California: exemplifying a common error in age parameterization.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-01-01

    Immigration to a nation with a stronger anti-smoking environment has been hypothesized to make smoking less common. However, little is known about how environments influence risk of smoking across the lifecourse. Research suggested a linear decline in smoking over the lifecourse but these associations, in fact, might not be linear. This study assessed the possible nonlinear associations between age and smoking and examined how these associations differed by environment through comparing Koreans in Seoul, South Korea and Korean Americans in California, United States. Data were drawn from population based telephone surveys of Korean adults in Seoul (N=500) and California (N=2,830) from 2001-2002. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (lowess) was used to approximate the association between age and smoking with multivariable spline logistic regressions, including adjustment for confounds used to draw population inferences. Smoking differed across the lifecourse between Korean and Korean American men. The association between age and smoking peaked around 35 years among Korean and Korean American men. From 18 to 35 the probability of smoking was 57% higher (95%CI, 40 to 71) among Korean men versus 8% (95%CI, 3 to 19) higher among Korean American men. A similar difference in age after 35, from 40 to 57 years of age, was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 0 to 10) and 20% (95%CI, 16 to 25) lower probability of smoking among Korean and Korean American men. A nonlinear pattern was also observed among Korean American women. Social role transitions provide plausible explanations for the decline in smoking after 35. Investigators should be mindful of nonlinearities in age when attempting to understand tobacco use.

  3. Unlocking Russian Interests on the Korean Peninsula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    and chemical contract, an arrangement that would significantly re- duce South Korean dependence upon natural gas from the Middle East. To minimize...years, the United States has invested vast resources to help keep the North Korean military machine at bay. If American policy is firmly committed to...TransportReview, December 1997, http:// www.jrtr.net/jrtr14/pdf/f30_xu.pdf. 23. Boris Dynkin, “Comments on the Regional Railroad Network and Electric Grid

  4. How Will External Powers Affect Korean Reunification?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    34 36. 145 Seung Ham Yang, Woosang Kim , and Yongho Kim , "Russo-North Korean Relations in the 2000s," Asian Survey 44, no. 6 (2004): 796. 146... Seung Ham, Woosang Kim , and Yongho Kim . "Russo-North Korean Relations in the 2000s." Asian Survey 44, no. 6 (2004): 794. Zhao, Quansheng. "China...Russia, China, Japan, Sunshine Policy, Six party talks, Beijing talks, war, collapse, diplomatic reunification, Kim Jong-il 16. PRICE CODE 17

  5. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JiEun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life. PMID:27482520

  6. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-07-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life.

  7. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.

  8. Development of a scale to assess Hwa-Byung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome, using the Korean MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Miguel E; Han, Kyunghee; Weed, Nathan C

    2006-09-01

    This study documents the development of an MMPI-2 scale designed to assess features of the Korean culture-bound syndrome, Hwa-Byung (HB). An American research team and psychiatric practitioners in Korea created an 18-item HB scale via rational item selection and psycho-metric refinement. Principal components analysis of scale items revealed four components, reflecting content domains of general health, gastrointestinal symptoms, hopelessness, and anger. This four-component solution applied well to both Korean men and women, but not to an American sample. Although some findings were encouraging, future studies employing clinical samples are needed to provide further validation of this scale.

  9. Clear Speech Production and Perception of Korean Stops and the Sound Change in Korean Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The current dissertation investigated clear speech production of Korean stops to examine the proposal that the phonetic targets of phonological categories are more closely approximated in hyperarticulated speech. The investigation also considered a sound change currently underway in Korean stops: younger speakers of the Seoul dialect produce the…

  10. Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education. Korean Studies Series, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong-kyu, Lee

    This book examines the religious and philosophical factors historically affecting Korean higher education, and the characteristics of contemporary Korean higher education in relation to organizational structure, leadership, and organizational culture. The book is organized into 4 parts, with 11 chapters. Part One focuses on identifying the problem…

  11. Korean Year 3 Children's Environmental Literacy: A Prerequisite for a Korean Environmental Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Lee, Eun Ah; Ko, Hee Ryung; Shin, Dong Hee; Lee, Moon Nam; Min, Byeong Mee; Kang, Kyung Hee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean children's environmental literacy levels and the variables that affect their environmental literacy. An instrument, the Environment Literacy Instrument for Korean Children (ELIKC), was developed that measures four different dimensions (knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and skills) using 69 items…

  12. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  13. Attitudes, Intentions, and Barriers Toward Influenza Vaccination Among Pregnant Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Sun; De Gagne, Jennie C; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2015-09-01

    Following our study of attitudes, barriers, and intentions concerning the influenza vaccination among pregnant women in South Korea, we discovered that women displaying a more positive attitude toward the influenza vaccination were more likely to receive it during their pregnancy. We also found that attitudes toward vaccination were more positive among vaccinated pregnant women than among those who were unvaccinated. Furthermore, women showed a greater intention to get vaccinated if a clinician, rather than friends, recommended it. The major perceived barriers to receiving an influenza vaccination were being pregnant, fearing harm to the baby, feeling healthy, and thinking it is unnecessary.

  14. 76 FR 45395 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ..., 1950, the Korean peninsula erupted in conflict, becoming the front line of an intensifying Cold War... than ever. We remember our common values and shared suffering during the Korean War, and we continue...

  15. Korean Survivors of the Japanese "Comfort Women" System: Understanding the Lifelong Consequences of Early Life Trauma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Hand, Michelle D; Anderson, Keith A; Schleitwiler, Tess E

    2016-01-01

    Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed comfort women, these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and people know little of the impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the comfort women system participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the trauma that these women suffered and how it impacted their lives. Results revealed the depths of the abuse these women suffered, including repeated rapes, physical beatings, humiliation, forced surgery and sterilization, and social exclusion. These early traumatic experiences appeared to reverberate throughout their lives in their family relations, their inability to marry and to conceive children, and their emotional and physical well-being throughout the life course and into later life. The experiences of these survivors illustrate the lasting impact of early-life trauma and can guide interventions with current survivors of sexual abuse or trafficking.

  16. Community Response to Terrorism: The South Korean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    KOREA Ever since the division of the Korean peninsula at the conclusion of the Second World War, South Koreans have lived with real and imagined...threats from communist North Korea (the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , or DPRK). The authorities have been unable to prevent all North Korean ...on three lines of defense . First, an authoritarian government kept firm control over Korean society. Second, the police and the ROK army were visibly

  17. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    53 INTRODUCTION During the Korean War more than 3,200 United Nations troops in Korea devel6ped a rare hemorrhagic fever which attracted...patients in the Republic of Korea . Year Korean Korean US Total civilian soldiers soldiers 1951 ...... 627 827 1952 .... 833 833 1953 ... ... 455 455...0 RI m HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME ( KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER) ANNUAL SUMMARY REPORT HO WANG LEE, M.D. June 30, 1988 Door., Supported by U.S

  18. U.S. Security Policy in Asia after Korean Unification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Korean War and the signing of the mutual defense treaty, the United States has maintained forward-deployed forces in Korea . Today the United States has...30 American forward-deployed forces have become less important to the defense of Korea as the capabilities of the South Korean military have...Environment for a United Korea ", The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis Vol. VIII No. 1 (Summer 1996): 81- 82. 81 Amy Woo, "East Asia: China Treads Korean

  19. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-23

    13 Table 5. Monthly incidence of HFRS among Korean in the Republic of Korea , 1966-1985 . . . . . . . 14 A Table 6. Incidence of HFRS by...GRANT SUPPORT .. ........ 57.... 5 INTRODUCTION During the Korean War more than 3,000 United Nations .00 troops in Korea developed a rare hemorrhagic...8217;.-.* * S.’ . " 10 ... Table 1. Hospitalized cases of Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome patients in the Republic of Korea Year US Korean Korean

  20. "I Listened to Korean Society. I Always Heard that Women Should Be This Way ...": The Negotiation and Construction of Gendered Identities in Claiming a Dominant Language and Race in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Based on a year-long, qualitative study of five East Asian women, pre-service teachers enrolled in U.S. Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) teacher education programs, this article examines one Korean woman's journey as she navigates through her multiple identities as a daughter, spouse, mother, and language teacher inside and…

  1. Association of Combined Tobacco Smoking and Oral Contraceptive Use With Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 2 or 3 in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung; Seo, Sang-Soo; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking and oral contraceptive (OC) use have been associated with cervical neoplasia, and the combination of smoking and OC use could influence cervical carcinogenesis. We aimed to assess the joint effect of smoking and OC use on the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Methods From a cohort of human papillomavirus-positive subjects recruited from 6 hospitals in Korea from March 2006 to November 2012, a total of 678 subjects (411 control, 133 CIN 1, and 134 CIN 2 or 3 cases) were selected for this study (mean age, 43 years). The risk of CIN associated with smoking and OC use on additive and multiplicative scales was estimated via multinomial logistic regression after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the synergy index (S) were used to evaluate the additive interaction. Results OC users (odds ratio [OR] 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–3.69) and long-term OC use (≥20 months; OR 2.71; 95% CI, 1.11–6.59) had a higher risk of CIN 2/3, but had no association with CIN 1, compared to non-OC users. Smokers and heavy smoking (≥8 cigarettes/day) were not associated with any CIN grade. Combined smoking and OC use (OR 4.91; 95% CI, 1.68–14.4; RERI/S, 3.77/27.4; P for multiplicative interaction = 0.003) and combined heavy smoking and long-term OC use (OR 11.5; 95% CI, 1.88–70.4; RERI/S, 9.93/18.8; P for multiplicative interaction = 0.009) had a higher risk of CIN 2/3 but had no association with CIN 1 compared to combined non-smoking and non-OC use. Conclusions OC use and smoking acted synergistically to increase the risk of CIN 2 or 3 in Korean women. PMID:26441210

  2. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in Korean women: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy is the technique of choice for lesions that are visible only with breast MRI. The purpose of this study was to report our clinical experience with MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy in Korean women. Methods A total of 13 patients with 15 lesions for MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy were prospectively entered into this study between September 2009 and November 2011. Biopsy samples were obtained in a 3-T magnet using a 9-guage MRI-compatible vacuum-assisted biopsy device. We evaluated clinical indications for biopsy, lesion characteristics on prebiopsy MRI, pathologic results, and postbiopsy complication status. Results The clinical indications for MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy were as follows: abnormalities in patients with interstitial mammoplasty on screening MRI (n = 10); preoperative evaluation of patients with a recently diagnosed cancer (n = 3); and suspicious recurrence on follow-up MRI after cancer surgery (n = 1) or chemotherapy (n = 1). All lesions have morphologic features suspicious or highly suggestive of malignancy by the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category of MRI (C4a = 12, C4b = 2, C5 = 1). In two of the 15 lesions (13.3%, <6 mm), MRI-guided 9-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy was deferred due to nonvisualization of the MRI findings that led to biopsy and the lesions were stable or disappeared on follow up so were considered benign. Of 13 biopsied lesions, pathology revealed four malignancies (4/13, 30.8%; mean size 15.5 mm) and nine benign lesions (9/13, 69.2%; size 14.2 mm). Immediate postprocedural hematoma (mean size 23.5 mm) was observed in eight out of 13 patients (61.5%) and was controlled conservatively. Conclusions Our initial experience of MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy showed a success rate of 86.7% and a cancer diagnosis rate of 30.8%, which was quite satisfactory. MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a

  3. Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

  4. Structure of Vocational Interests for Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine the vocational structure for Korean college students based on Holland's hexagon theory. The secondary purpose of this research was to provide validity data for using the Korean Strong Interest Inventory in Korea. With a sample of 829 Korean college students, using the Strong Interest Inventory…

  5. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  6. Lexical Use in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Mi Yang

    2009-01-01

    Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20 male…

  7. Pedagogical Significance of Morphological Awareness in Korean and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Young Ok; Jung, Chae Kwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean children understand the internal structure of compound words in Korean and English and whether there is a relationship between their performance in tasks that measure their understanding of the morphological structure of compounds in Korean and English. This study also examined the effects of gender, grade,…

  8. Z-score discordance and contributing factors in healthy premenopausal women with low bone mineral density: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyeong Hye; Lim, Jung Soo; Kim, Kyoung Min; Rhee, Yumie; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2016-11-01

    The premenopausal period is important for bone health and prevention of future fractures, but measuring bone mineral density (BMD) at only one site may not be sufficient to determine therapeutic strategies for low BMD in premenopausal women due to the presence of Z-score discordance. In this study, we investigated Z-score discordance in addition to contributing factors of idiopathic low BMD in healthy premenopausal Korean women. We studied 3003 premenopausal women aged 18-50 years, without secondary causes for low BMD and history of fragility fracture, who had participated in the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2009). Low body mass index (BMI), low vitamin D level, and low body muscle mass were associated with low BMD even in premenopausal women. Risk factors differed depending on the anatomic site. Low BMI and low vitamin D level were risk factors for low femoral neck BMD (FN-BMD), but not for low lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD). Only total muscle mass had a slight effect on low LS-BMD. Z-score discordance was much higher than expected, in 75 and 73.8 % of the low LS-BMD and low FN-BMD groups, respectively. Our findings suggest the need to consider BMD discordance in premenopausal women and also to provide information on correctable factors affecting low BMD in younger populations. Long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate the possible effect of Z-score discordance on the prognosis of osteoporosis and subsequent fracture risk.

  9. Knowledge and Acceptability about Adult Pertussis Immunization in Korean Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Wie, Jeong Ha; Cheon, Juyoung; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The adult tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been introduced in order to provide individual protection and reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis to infants. We assessed the knowledge and acceptability of the Tdap vaccine around pregnancy. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women of childbearing age (20-45 years) who visited obstetrics and gynecologic units of primary, secondary, or tertiary hospitals. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of Tdap. Results The questionnaire was completed by 308 women; 293 (95.1%) had not received information from doctors about Tdap, and 250 (81.2%) did not know about the need for vaccination. A significantly important factor related to subjects' intention to be vaccinated, identified by stepwise multiple logistic regression, was the knowledge (OR 13.5, CI 3.92-46.33) that adult Tdap is effective in preventing pertussis for infants aged 0-6 months. Additionally, 276 (89.6%) considered the recommendation of obstetric doctors as the most influencing factor about Tdap vaccination. Conclusion In Korea, most women of childbearing age seem to be neither recommended nor adequately informed about the vaccination, although our population was not a nationwide representative sample. Information given by healthcare workers may be critical for improving awareness and preventing pertussis. PMID:26069132

  10. Factors associated with the treatment of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young-Jee; Kim, Ji Wan; Park, Joo-Sung

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to investigate the treatment rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis after diagnosis and determine factors related to osteoporosis treatment in Korea. This analysis included postmenopausal women who had visited the health promotion center from March 2010 to May 2011 (n = 375) and been diagnosed with osteoporosis (19.5%) or osteopenia (45.9%). Telephone surveys were performed one year after diagnosis. We employed multiple logistic regression to determine factors associated with treatment using clinical risk factors as covariates in a FRAX model. Receipt of osteoporosis treatment (nutrition, exercise, and medications) to prevent osteoporotic fracture was reported by 108 of 172 (63.4%) women with osteopenia and 66 of 73 (90.4%) with osteoporosis. Only consultation with a doctor for osteopenia or osteoporosis was significantly related to receiving osteoporosis treatment for osteopenia (odds ratio [OR], 5.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-12.00) and osteoporosis (OR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.16-20.75). In the osteopenic group, increased age, being a current smoker, having a history of parental fracture or previous fracture, and secondary osteoporosis were related to consultation with a doctor. Of women with osteopenia 36.6% and 64.4% with osteoporosis received consultation with a doctor. Consultation with a doctor for osteopenia or osteoporosis after being diagnosed could be an effective strategy to increase osteoporosis treatment.

  11. Effects of Meridian Acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong on the Physical Health State, Depression, and Life Satisfaction of Korean Older Adult Women Living Alone.

    PubMed

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong (one of 12 Meridian systems) on the physical health state, depression, and life satisfaction of Korean older adult women living alone. A quasi-experimental, pretest–posttest control group design was used. Participants included 76 (experimental: n = 38, control: n = 38) women 65 and older living alone in Seoul and Gyeonggido, South Korea. Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong was applied for 15 minutes twice per week, for a total of 8 weeks in the experimental group. Data showed there were significant differences in physical health state (t = −15.062, p < 0.001), depression (t = 3.241, p < 0.001), and life satisfaction (t = −17.141, p < 0.001) between the two groups. Health professionals must consider an array of methods, including Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong, for older adults.

  12. Clinical and Biochemical Profiles according to Homeostasis Model Assessment-insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da Eun; Park, Soo Yeon; Park, So Yun; Lee, Sa Ra; Chung, Hye Won

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and biochemical profiles according to homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Methods In 458 PCOS patients diagnosed by the Rotterdam European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) criteria, measurements of somatometry, blood test of hormones, glucose metabolic and lipid profiles, and transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonogram were carried out. HOMA-IR was then calculated and compared with the clinical and biochemical profiles related to PCOS. The patients were divided into 4 groups by quartiles of HOMA-IR. Results The mean level of HOMA-IR was 2.18 ± 1.73. Among the four groups separated according to HOMA-IR, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, lipid accumulation product (LAP) index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Apoprotein B, free testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were found to be significantly different. TG, LAP index, glucose metabolic profiles, and hs-CRP were positively correlated with HOMA-IR after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion Our results suggest that the clinical and biochemical profiles which are applicable as cardiovascular risk factors are highly correlated with HOMA-IR in Korean women with PCOS. PMID:25580421

  13. The amelioration of plasma lipids by Korean traditional confectionery in middle-aged women: A cross-over study with western cookie

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Noh, Jeong Sook; Lee, JaeHwan; Chung, Lana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to examine whether plasma lipid profiles are affected differently by snack kinds with equal calorific values. SUBJECTS/METHODS We compared a Korean traditional confectionery (dasik) with Western confectionery (cookie) in this regard. Controlled cross-over study consisted of two 3-week snack intake phases and for separating, a 2-week washout period (3–2–3) was carried out with 30 healthy women aged between 40-59 years old. Brown rice based Korean traditional confectionery and wheat flour based Western confectionery were used. The participants consumed either dasik or cookie every day for 3 weeks, providing 93 kcal a day. RESULTS The total cholesterol (TC) in the dasik group had decreased significantly after 3 weeks (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the dasik group, reduction in TC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were greater than those in the cookie group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Prioritizing functional snacks like dasik improves plasma lipid profiles; this may be useful information for individuals who cannot refrain from snacking. PMID:27909556

  14. Association between extraversion personality and abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Shim, Unjin; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Han-Na; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Depression and psychological distress are known to be associated with diabetes development as well as the disease progression including glycemic control and chronic complication, but relationship of personality with diabetes is controversial. We examined whether personality trait and the presence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR; diabetes and pre-diabetes) are associated in young women. A total of 1,617 young women aged 19-39 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were participated voluntarily. Personality trait was assessed by self-reported questionnaire using the five-factor model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness) consisting of five-point scale ranging from 'strongly disagreeable' to 'strongly agreeable.' Glucose tolerance status was assessed by standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. One hundred and eleven women were newly diagnosed with AGR (6.9 %). Among five factors, only extraversion trait was significantly associated with AGR. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant negative association between extraversion trait and 2-h post-load glucose after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and family history of diabetes (β = -0.16, P = 0.026). Multiple logistic regression showed extraversion trait having a significant association with the presence of AGR after adjustment for the same covariates (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.95-0.99, P = 0.011). The frequency of AGR was significantly increased according to the decrease in extraversion score (P for trend with exact test = 0.047). In conclusion, extraversion may be an important personality trait having a beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of AGR.

  15. The Effect of Onion Peel Extract on Inflammatory Mediators in Korean Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have antioxidant and anti-obesity effects and improves endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on the inflammatory mediators in overweight and obese women. This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy overweight and obese women were randomly assigned to two groups, and one group was given a soft capsuled OPE (100 mg quercetin/day, n = 18) and the other group a same capsuled placebo (n = 19) for 12 weeks. Fat mass was measured by bioimpendance method at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured with colorimetric assay kits. The concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-4 in plasma were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between placebo and OPE groups. Compared with baseline value, both placebo and OPE supplementation significantly decreased the percent of body fat mass and induced plasma adiponectin levels while ALT and AST activities as well as leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, and IL-4 levels in plasma were not significantly different between two groups after 12 weeks of the supplementation. These findings suggest that 12-week supplementation of OPE do not affect modulators of systemic inflammation in overweight and obese women. PMID:27812515

  16. Association between Obesity and Cervical Microflora Dominated by Lactobacillus iners in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kong, Ji-Sook; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus spp. are associated with the maintenance of reproductive health, but obesity reduces fertility and is a risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. We assessed the association between obesity and the cervical Lactobacillus composition, which has not been examined previously. Pyrosequencing was performed using cervical swabs collected from 76 normal participants with negative results for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 57 participants with CIN, based on histological examinations. Cluster analysis of nine Lactobacillus spp. was performed, and five cluster types were identified. The association between obesity and the Lactobacillus community was assessed by logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors. The proportion of Lactobacillus iners increased and that of Lactobacillus crispatus decreased according to body mass index (BMI) categories, i.e., underweight (BMI of <18.5 kg m(-2)), normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 22.9 kg m(-2)), overweight (BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg m(-2)), and obese (BMI of ≥25 kg m(-2)). The L. iners-dominant type had a significant association with obesity (odds ratio [OR], 7.55 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 48.2]), compared to the L. crispatus-dominant type. The group with high values for the ratio obtained by dividing the relative abundance of L. iners by that of L. crispatus had a significant association with obesity (OR, 6.54 [95% CI, 1.22 to 35.1]), compared to the low-ratio group. Associations between obesity and the L. iners/L. crispatus ratio were observed among young women (OR, 6.26 [95% CI, 1.15 to 33.9]) but not older women and in the normal group (OR, 6.97 [95% CI, 1.20 to 70.4]) but not the CIN group. Obesity was associated with cervical microflora dominated by L. iners in reproductive-age women without dysplasia.

  17. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals.

  18. Errors in Inflectional Morphemes as an Index of Linguistic Competence of Korean Heritage Language Learners and American Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic competence in Korean of Korean heritage language learners (HLLs), compared to English-speaking non-heritage language learners (NHLLs) of Korean. It is unclear and controversial as to whether heritage languages learners are exposed to early but are interrupted manifest as L1 competence or share more…

  19. The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

  20. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI ≥ 6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women.

  1. Age at First Delivery and Osteoporosis Risk in Korean Postmenopausal Women: The 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Choi, Yun Rak; Choi, Young Sik; Cho, SiHyun; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported in several studies that there may be a significant correlation between reproductive history and the risk of osteoporosis due to the effect of estrogen. Under this hypothesis, however, it is unclear whether the age at first delivery has any major influences on the risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the age at first delivery and the risk of osteoporosis in Korean menopausal women. This study was performed using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 2,530 Korean postmenopausal women. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was made using the World Health Organization T-score criteria (T-score ≤ -2.5, at the femoral neck or lumbar spine). Participants were categorized into 3 groups according to age at first delivery: ≤ 23, 24-29, and ≥ 30 years. Older age, lower body mass index, lower calcium intake, later menarche, and earlier menopause increased the risk of osteoporosis, whereas hormone therapy and oral contraceptive use were associated with a decreased risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women whose first delivery occurred at age 24-29 years were shown to have a significantly increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio, 2.124; 95% confidence interval, 1.096-4.113; P = 0.026) compared to those who first gave birth after the age of 30 years. These findings suggest that postmenopausal women whose first delivery occurred in their mid to late 20s, a period during which bone mass slowly accumulates to the peak, are at an increased risk of osteoporosis.

  2. Development of a breast self-examination program for the Internet: health information for Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Kim, E; Kim, J W

    2001-04-01

    Internet-based health information will enable us to interact with many people despite distance and time constraints. Informational media by computer is expected to become an important factor that affects health behavior. This study was done to develop an accessible multimedia program about breast self-examination on the Internet. This study was designed by using the two steps of need assessment and program development. For the need assessment step, a survey was carried out. The sample consisted of the 82 women of Yonsei University selected by convenient random sampling. At the program development step, screen design took into account perspectives of computer engineering. A storyboard for every screen was made via screen design and then ported to computer using the Netscape Navigator program. A breast self-examination program was developed using Netscape 4.0 on the Windows 98 platform. The multimedia program, including text, graphics, animation, and sound, was constructed with HTML language using Memo Sheet in Netscape Navigator. The contents of health information posted on the Internet included general information about breast cancer, the importance of breast self-examination, self-risk appraisal of breast cancer, the diverse methods about breast self-examination, the monthly check list graph, and social network for consultation. It is possible to interact with clients through the Question and Answer function on screen. This Internet-based health information program provides enough information, which can be accessed using search systems on the Internet.

  3. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women’s sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women’s health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women’s sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea’s P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband’s health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband’s healths and sexual knowledge explained women’s sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women’s sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women’s sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups’ sexual function. PMID:25931738

  4. Lessons of the North Korean crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarr, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The crisis involving North Korea`s suspected nuclear weapon program is over, at least for now. Pyongyang has agreed to suspend its decision to withdraw from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and to assume its obligations allowing continued International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections of its nuclear facilities, although it has yet to accept IAEA {open_quotes}special{close_quotes} inspections of suspect nuclear sites. In exchange, North Korea obtained a few specific commitments from the United States - nuclear non-aggression, for example - as well as hints of longer-term benefits such as high-level US-North Korean talks extending to other topics, the cancellation of the US-South Korean {open_quotes}Team Spirit{close_quotes} military exercise, the right to reciprocal inspections in South Korea and an influx of South Korean and Japanese investment, provided North Korea meets its obligations under the NPT.

  5. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  6. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern. PMID:26566516

  7. A study of early korean rockets (1377-1600)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Yeon Seok

    The first Korean rocket was fired between 1377 and 1389 and began the Korean development of rockets as a tactical weapon. Although, Korea had successfully demonstrated the use of rockets as firearms in the fifteenth century, there had been no effort to present the historical development of the early Korean rockets in a paper which will be useful to both historians and scientists. The book entitled Kuk Cho Ore Sorye (1474) in the Korean language provided extensive rocket system description, however it required considerable research to interpret them. This paper is the first study of early Korean rockets and launchers. The major effort in this study is directed toward the development of design concepts and details of early Korean rockets. Also, to substantiate support of the historical data presented, some versions of the early Korean rockets were made according to their specifications and fired successfully by the author in 1981.

  8. [A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].

    PubMed

    Park, J S

    1992-01-01

    Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151

  9. Korean War Logistics Eighth United States Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-09

    from defensive to offensive, as CINCUNC directed it to attack north to Pyongyang, capital city of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (OPRK), North...weapons to kill the tanks. General Eberle, G-4, FEC, described the urgent need for Bazookas in Korea . ... the Russians provided the North Koreans with T...8217,- ’S~ I6 0 iI. RONIOJ3A2DS PO.;S KOREA APR t gN -I S * ~z T- -:*J *1* Porto3~, r -. r 4< ,Ž . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Appleman, Roy E. US Army in the Korean War

  10. Comparing the Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of Adopted Korean Americans with Immigrant/U.S.-Born Korean Americans and Korean International Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.; Yun, Andrea Bora; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Nelson, Kim Park

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the ethnic identity and well-being of Korean Americans who were adopted internationally with immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans and Korean international students, as well as the relationship between ethnic identity and well-being for each group. One-hundred and seven college students completed measures of ethnic identity and subjective well-being. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans had higher ethnic identity scores than the other two groups. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans also had higher positive affect scores than international students. Ethnic identity was positively correlated with positive affect for all three groups (r’s = .27 – .34), but was negatively correlated with negative affect for international students (r = −.44). Overall, the results suggest that ethnic identity, although slightly lower than non-adopted peers, is relevant to the well-being of adopted Korean American college students. PMID:20694190

  11. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  12. Vowel production in Korean, Korean-accented English, and American English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jimin; Weismer, Gary

    2005-09-01

    The current study compares vowel formant frequencies and durations produced by ten native speakers of Korean, those same speakers producing American English vowels, and ten native speakers of American English. The Korean speakers were chosen carefully to have a minimum of 2 years, and maximum of 5 years residence in the United States; all speakers were between the ages of 22 and 27. In addition, the native speakers of Korean were chosen, by means of a small-scale dialect-severity experiment, from a larger pool of speakers to achieve some homogeneity in their mastery of English phonetics. The full vowel systems of both languages were explored, and a rate condition was included (conversational versus fast) to test the hypothesis that the English vowel space is modified by rate differently for native speakers of Korean who produce English, versus native speakers of English. Results will be discussed in terms of language- and rate-induced adjustments of the vowel systems under study.

  13. The job analysis of Korean nurses as a strategy to improve the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed at characterizing Korean nurses’ occupational responsibilities to apply the results for improvement of the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination. Methods: First, the contents of nursing job were defined based on a focus group interview of 15 nurses. Developing a Curriculum (DACOM) method was used to examine those results and produce the questionnaire by 13 experts. After that, the questionnaire survey to 5,065 hospital nurses was done. Results: The occupational responsibilities of nurses were characterized as involving 8 duties, 49 tasks, and 303 task elements. Those 8 duties are nursing management and professional development, safety and infection control, the management of potential risk factors, basic nursing and caring, the maintenance of physiological integrity, medication and parenteral treatments, socio-psychological integrity, and the maintenance and improvement of health. Conclusion: The content of Korean Nursing Licensing Examination should be improved based on 8 duties and 49 tasks of the occupational responsibilities of Korean nurses. PMID:27270987

  14. [Dentistry in Korean during the Japanese occupation].

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Eu

    2004-12-01

    The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893, and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in September, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians (yipchisa) without limit and controlled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed.) Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulations for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentists Suk-Tae Ham was register No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some Korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan, it was was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. It was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. The Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only) to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche' -- 'Japan and Korea and one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese controlled

  15. Association of the I264T variant in the sulfide quinone reductase-like (SQRDL) gene with osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Jeonghyun; Park, Sangwook; Park, Eunkuk; Kim, Bo-Young; Choi, Vit-Na; Yoo, Young-Hyun; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Jeong, Seon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To identify novel susceptibility variants for osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women, we performed a genome-wide association analysis of 1180 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in 405 individuals with osteoporosis and 722 normal controls of the Korean Association Resource cohort. A logistic regression analysis revealed 72 nsSNPs that showed a significant association with osteoporosis (p<0.05). The top 10 nsSNPs showing the lowest p-values (p = 5.2×10-4-8.5×10-3) were further studied to investigate their effects at the protein level. Based on the results of an in silico prediction of the protein's functional effect based on amino acid alterations and a sequence conservation evaluation of the amino acid residues at the positions of the nsSNPs among orthologues, we selected one nsSNP in the SQRDL gene (rs1044032, SQRDL I264T) as a meaningful genetic variant associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. To assess whether the SQRDL I264T variant played a functional role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, we examined the in vitro effect of the nsSNP on bone remodeling. Overexpression of the SQRDL I264T variant in the preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and the mRNA expression of osteoblastogenesis markers, Runx2, Sp7, and Bglap genes, whereas the SQRDL wild type had no effect or a negative effect on osteoblast differentiation. Overexpression of the SQRDL I264T variant did not affect osteoclast differentiation of the primary-cultured monocytes. The known effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on bone remodeling may explain the findings of the current study, which demonstrated the functional role of the H2S-catalyzing enzyme SQRDL I264T variant in osteoblast differentiation. In conclusion, the results of the statistical and experimental analyses indicate that the SQRDL I264T nsSNP may be a significant susceptibility variant for osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women that is involved

  16. Association of the I264T Variant in the Sulfide Quinone Reductase-Like (SQRDL) Gene with Osteoporosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunkuk; Kim, Bo-Young; Choi, Vit-Na; Yoo, Young-Hyun; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Jeong, Seon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To identify novel susceptibility variants for osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women, we performed a genome-wide association analysis of 1180 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in 405 individuals with osteoporosis and 722 normal controls of the Korean Association Resource cohort. A logistic regression analysis revealed 72 nsSNPs that showed a significant association with osteoporosis (p<0.05). The top 10 nsSNPs showing the lowest p-values (p = 5.2×10-4–8.5×10-3) were further studied to investigate their effects at the protein level. Based on the results of an in silico prediction of the protein’s functional effect based on amino acid alterations and a sequence conservation evaluation of the amino acid residues at the positions of the nsSNPs among orthologues, we selected one nsSNP in the SQRDL gene (rs1044032, SQRDL I264T) as a meaningful genetic variant associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. To assess whether the SQRDL I264T variant played a functional role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, we examined the in vitro effect of the nsSNP on bone remodeling. Overexpression of the SQRDL I264T variant in the preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and the mRNA expression of osteoblastogenesis markers, Runx2, Sp7, and Bglap genes, whereas the SQRDL wild type had no effect or a negative effect on osteoblast differentiation. Overexpression of the SQRDL I264T variant did not affect osteoclast differentiation of the primary-cultured monocytes. The known effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on bone remodeling may explain the findings of the current study, which demonstrated the functional role of the H2S-catalyzing enzyme SQRDL I264T variant in osteoblast differentiation. In conclusion, the results of the statistical and experimental analyses indicate that the SQRDL I264T nsSNP may be a significant susceptibility variant for osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women that is

  17. Korean Version of Inventory of Complicated Grief Scale: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (P<0.001). Concurrent validity was assessed using a correlation between the ICG total scores and the CDI total scores (r=0.75, P<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on the comparison of ICG total scores between adolescents without complicated grief (1.2±3.7) and adolescent with complicated grief (3.2±6.6) groups was relatively high (t=5.71, P<0.001). The data acquired from the 1,138 students was acceptable for a factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ2=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. PMID:26770046

  18. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Linda R.; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L.; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    A three-culture comparison – native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers – of two types of parenting cognitions – attributions and self-perceptions – was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children’s development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seventy-nine mothers of 20-month-old children participated: 73 South Korean, 50 Korean immigrant, and 56 European American. Korean mothers differed from European American mothers on four of the five types of attributions studied and on all four self-perceptions of parenting, and these differences were largely consistent with the distinct cultural values of South Korea and the United States. Generally, Korean immigrant mothers’ attributions for parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in the United States, whereas their self-perceptions of parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in South Korea. This study provides insight into similarities and differences in cultural models of parenting, and information about the acculturation of parenting cognitions among immigrants from South Korea. PMID:26912926

  19. CYP1B1, CYP1A1, MPO, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in never-smoking Korean women.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyong-Ah; Kim, Jin Hee; Gil, Hyea-Jin; Hwang, Hyukkee; Hwangbo, Bin; Lee, Jin Soo

    2008-04-01

    Polymorphisms in metabolic genes encoding phase I and phase II enzymes are thought to modulate the risk of lung cancer via changes in enzymatic activity. Recently, the effect of these metabolic enzymes and their interaction with environmental factors has been studied in both smokers and also never-smokers, since never-smokers are a good model in which to study genetic susceptibility at low-dose carcinogen exposure. Here, we investigated the association of CYP1A1 Ile462Val, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, GSTP1 Ile105Val, MPO G-463A polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in never-smoking Korean women. In this case-control study of 213 lung cancer patients and 213 age-matched healthy controls, we found that carrying one variant allele of the CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased risk of lung adenocarcinoma (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.41-0.99). Furthermore, the combination of risk genotypes of CYP1B1 Leu432Val with CYP1A1 Ile462Val was associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma (adjusted OR=2.16; 95% CI, 1.02-4.57) as well as overall lung cancer (adjusted OR=2.23; 95% CI 1.01-4.89). The polymorphisms of GSTP1 Ile105Val and MPO G-463A showed no significant association with lung cancer. Theses results suggest that the CYP1A1 Ile462Val polymorphism is associated with a reduced risk of lung adenocarcinoma in never-smoking Korean women, whereas specific combinations of variant genotypes for metabolic enzymes increase lung cancer risk considerably.

  20. Weight change and its impact on prognosis after adjuvant TAC (docetaxel-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy in Korean women with node-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ye Won; Lim, Seung Taek; Choi, Hyun Joo; Suh, Young Jin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize weight changes and analyze their effect on prognosis after three-drug combination chemotherapy using docetaxel, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (TAC) chemotherapy in Korean women with breast cancer. We analyzed weight changes and the effect of these changes on relapse-free survival (RFS) in 108 patients who received adjuvant TAC chemotherapy at the Department of Surgery of St. Vincent's Hospital at the Catholic University of Korea between January 2005 and March 2010. Following chemotherapy, 59 (54.6%) patients experienced weight gain, with their weight significantly increasing compared to their weight at diagnosis (p<0.0001). However, weight gain after chemotherapy was not associated with RFS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-3.0; p=0.8955]. No significant weight (at 12 months, p=0.522; at 24 months, p=0.632) and body mass index (BMI) (at 12 months, p=0.381; at 24 months, p=0.288) changes were observed compared to the weight and BMI at diagnosis, and weight change at 12 months (HR 1.9; 95% CI 0.6-6.1; p=0.2786) and 24 months (HR 2.7; 95% CI 0.9-8.4; p=0.0776) was not associated with RFS. The present study suggests that weight gain after adjuvant TAC chemotherapy is common in Korean women with breast cancer. In contrast to previous Western studies, weight gain did not appear to be sustained, and there was no relationship between weight gain and poor RFS.

  1. The Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on Sexual Function in Premenopausal Women: Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ho Seok; Hwang, Insang; Oh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Mi Na; Park, Kwangsung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean red ginseng (KRG) extracts could improve sexual function in premenopausal women. Forty-one premenopausal women participated in this placebo-controlled, double-blind, and crossover clinical study with administration of either three ginseng capsules (1 g per capsule) or placebo daily. After 8 weeks of medication of KRG or placebo, medication was changed for the subjects to placebo or KRG after 2 weeks of washout period. The efficacy of KRG extracts was measured by using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results. Twenty-three women completed the study. Total FSFI scores increased after KRG treatment (from 20.13 ± 2.87 to 23.98 ± 4.10, p = 0.015) and placebo treatment (from 20.06 ± 2.64 to 23.78 ± 3.28, p = 0.003). However, this change was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.702). KRG treatment significantly improved sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction domains; however, there was no treatment effect compared with placebo. There was a case of gastric discomfort after taking KRG extracts. Oral administration of KRG extracts improved sexual function in premenopausal women; however, there were no statistical significant changes compared to placebo. It implies that KRG extracts have a substantial placebo effect in premenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. PMID:26798402

  2. Toward Understanding Korean and African American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward Taehan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines the economic, cultural, and ideological factors that influence Korean and African American relations. Discusses how the two groups perceive each other and situates the role of race and class in this relationship. Includes informational handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)

  3. Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hesung Chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

  4. American Colleges See Potential in Korean Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    For colleges in the United States seeking a foothold in South Korea's formerly insular higher-education sector, the lure seems to be part location, part alumni lobbying, and part desire to be part of the country's rapid transformation. The South Korean government's newfound openness to overseas universities is helping persuade American college…

  5. Temporal Phenomena in the Korean Conjunctive Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the temporal phenomena in the Korean conjunctive constructions. These constructions consist of three components: a verbal stem, a clause medial temporal suffix, and a clause terminal suffix. This study focuses on both the temporality of the terminal connective suffixes and the grammatical meanings of the…

  6. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  7. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  8. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  9. Understanding Immigrated Korean Children's Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    2003-01-01

    Korean children's school experiences as new immigrants to the United States are often emotionally turbulent because of environmental and psychological stresses that result when moving from one culture to another. With some basic knowledge and some suggested approaches, teachers can assist these children, whose numbers are increasing, to have a…

  10. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese…

  11. Korean-American Entrepreneurs. CELCEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung

    For many Korean Americans, the American dream of building a better future in the United States for their families is realized through a focus on entrepreneurship. Their formula for entrepreneurial success is simple and effective: (1) identifying a business opportunity; and (2) working hard to turn the opportunity into a business success. Korean…

  12. Korean. London Oriental and African Language Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Suk-Jin

    The grammar of the Korean language presented here is descriptive and structural, and does not align with any particular theory. An introductory chapter gives some background information about the language and related research. Subsequent chapters treat: writing and sound systems, including some sound rules and suprasegmental features; morphology…

  13. Korean: A Guide to the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This language guide, written for United States Armed Forces personnel, serves as an introduction to the Korean language and presents important words and phrases for use in normal conversation. Linguistic expressions are classified under the following categories: (1) greetings and general phrases, (2) location, (3) directions, (4) numbers, (5)…

  14. Population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Sungmin; Ryu, Sung-Mun; Lee, Yun-Mi; Schentag, Jerome J; Kim, Yang-Wook; Kim, Hyeon-Kuk; Jang, Hang-Jae; Joo, Yong-Don; Jin, Kyubok; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ghim, Jong-Lyul

    2016-08-01

    Levofloxacin (LVFX) has different effects depending on the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio. While AUC can be expressed as dose/clearance (CL), we measured serial concentrations of LVFX in Koreans and tried to set a Korean-specific equation, estimating the CL of the antibiotic. In total, 38 patients, aged 18-87 years, received once daily intravenous LVFX doses of 500 mg or 250 mg, depending on their renal function. Four plasma samples were obtained according to a D optimal sampling design. The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of LVFX were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM, ver. 7.2). The CL of LVFX was dependent on creatinine clearance (CLCR) as a covariate. The mean population PK parameters of LVFX in Koreans were as follows: CL (l/hour) = 6.19 ×  (CLCR/75)(1.32). The CL of LVFX in Koreans is expected to be lower than that in Western people.

  15. Examining the health information-seeking behaviors of Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Kreps, Gary L; Jun, Jungmi; Chong, Elizabeth; Ramsey, Lolita

    2012-08-01

    Many Korean Americans suffer from high levels of cancer incidence and have low cancer screening rates. A significant number of Korean Americans lack adequate information about cancer screening tests. However, little is known about their health behaviors. This article examines exposure to mass media and health information-seeking behaviors for Korean Americans, and their associations with demographic characteristics influencing variations in exposure to the different health information and trust in health information sources. The authors gathered data for this study using a cross-sectional, community-based survey conducted in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during 2006 and 2007. It was administered to 254 Korean Americans who were 40 years of age or older. This study is part of the first health-related program of research to study exposure to mass media, health and cancer information sources, and seeking preferences and experiences of Korean Americans. Results indicated that Korean ethnic media sources and Internet are important sources used regularly. Age, years of education completed, and English proficiency levels for Korean Americans significantly predicted the likelihood of their Internet use. Low-income Korean Americans with less education were more likely to seek health information in Korean ethnic magazines and newspapers, whereas Korean Americans with higher education and English proficiency were more likely to seek information online. The most trusted source of health information among respondents was from a doctor or other health care professional. Future research should be conducted to determine whether physicians are actually used as a primary source for health information.

  16. Job Information Deprivation in the United States: A Case Study of Korean Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the methods of job information acquisition used by recent Korean immigrants. Indicates the Koreans most frequently use personal contact with other Koreans. Reviews findings from the perspective of labor market segmentation. (Author/MK)

  17. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension.

  18. Women Who Sleep More Have Reduced Risk of Peptic Ulcer Disease; Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Baeg, Myong Ki; Ko, Seung Yeon; Han, Kyung-Do

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is integral to life and sleep duration is important in sleep quality, physical, and psychological health. Disturbances in sleep duration have been associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders, hypertension, and overall mortality. Sleep disturbance has also been linked with various gastrointestinal disorders. However, the association between sleep and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has not been evaluated. We investigated the association between sleep duration and PUD. Subjects were included from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2008–2009. Individuals with PUD were defined as those with a physician diagnosis of PUD. Daily sleep duration was established by asking participants the amount of time that they slept per day. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of PUD and sleep duration. This study included 14,290 participants (8,209 women). The prevalence of PUD was 5.7% and was higher in men (6.8%) than in women (4.9%). Women who slept ≥9 hours were significantly less likely to have PUD compared to women who slept 7 hours. In men, longer sleep duration (≥9 hours) had a tendency toward PUD prevention. Our results suggest that longer sleep duration may play a protective role for PUD development. PMID:27830741

  19. Women Who Sleep More Have Reduced Risk of Peptic Ulcer Disease; Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2009).

    PubMed

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Baeg, Myong Ki; Ko, Seung Yeon; Han, Kyung-Do

    2016-11-10

    Sleep is integral to life and sleep duration is important in sleep quality, physical, and psychological health. Disturbances in sleep duration have been associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders, hypertension, and overall mortality. Sleep disturbance has also been linked with various gastrointestinal disorders. However, the association between sleep and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has not been evaluated. We investigated the association between sleep duration and PUD. Subjects were included from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2008-2009. Individuals with PUD were defined as those with a physician diagnosis of PUD. Daily sleep duration was established by asking participants the amount of time that they slept per day. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of PUD and sleep duration. This study included 14,290 participants (8,209 women). The prevalence of PUD was 5.7% and was higher in men (6.8%) than in women (4.9%). Women who slept ≥9 hours were significantly less likely to have PUD compared to women who slept 7 hours. In men, longer sleep duration (≥9 hours) had a tendency toward PUD prevention. Our results suggest that longer sleep duration may play a protective role for PUD development.

  20. Sorting out the competing effects of acculturation, immigrant stress, and social support on depression: a report on Korean women in California.

    PubMed

    Ayers, John W; Hofstetter, C Richard; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2009-10-01

    This research identifies stressors that correlate with depression, focusing on acculturation, among female Korean immigrants in California. Telephone interviews were conducted with female adults of Korean descent (N = 592) from a probability sample from 2006 to 2007. Sixty-five percent of attempted interviews were completed, of which over 90% were conducted in Korean. Analyses include descriptive reports, bivariate correlations, and structural equation modeling. Findings suggest that acculturation did not have a direct impact on depression and was not associated with social support. However, acculturation was associated with reduced immigrant stress which, in turn, was related to decreased levels of depression. Immigrant stress and social support were the principal direct influences on depression, mediating the effect for most other predictors. Stressful experiences associated with immigration may induce depressive feelings. Interventions should facilitate acculturation thereby reducing immigrant stress and expand peer networks to increase social support to assuage depression.

  1. Korean Physical Society's Physics Camp for High School Girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngah; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2005-10-01

    The Women's Committee of the Korean Physical Society organized physics camps during the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2004 for high school girls. The camps give the girls an opportunity to meet and interact with working physicists and enhance smart-girl networking. About 40 students in 10 teams visited excellent laboratories in universities and research institutes located in diverse areas of the country. The girls explored the work going on in each laboratory for a few days and participated in some basic experiments when possible. Afterward they gathered at the on-site camp for oral and poster presentations about what they learned and what they did in the laboratories they visited. Their presentations were evaluated and prizes awarded for outstanding teams. These camps were successful in terms of attracting many enthusiastic girl students and enhancing their interest in physics. The camps also showed the Korean physics community the importance of this kind of activity. To attract many girl students from various regions of the country, the Korean Physical Society co-organized the physics camp with the WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) Center, which has a network system for girl students interested in science and mathematics. The 2004 KPS-ASML-WISE Physics camp was supported by the ASML Foundation in the Netherlands.

  2. The Soviet Response to Korean Air Lines Flight 007.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-07

    34 Defense & Foreign 22 . .. .*..- Affairs, November 1983, pp. 3 5-3 8 . 17 Steven J. Cimbala, "Why Did the Soviets Attack the Korean Airliner...135 returning to Alaska while the Korean flight continued on towards Petropavlovsk. Ogarkov commented, "It was natural that the Soviet Air Defense ...unable to do so.S4 When Western newspapers began reporting the Korean Air Lines disaster, several interviews were made with US dignitaries and defense

  3. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-31

    36 DISTRIBUTION LIST. .................... 40 INTRODUCTION During the Korean War more than 3,200 United Nations troops in Korea developed a rare...hemorrhagic fever, a situa- tion that attracted worldwide attention (1). Since then it has been known as Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) in Korea . This...Kyunggido and Kangwondo, northern parts of South Korea . All of the 97 HFRS patients among Korean soldiers occurred in Kyunggido, Kangwondo and Seoul

  4. Chinese Communist Intervention in the Korean War: Miscalculation or Provocation?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    Committee. The History of the United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Vol1. 2. Seoul, Korea : Republic of- Korea -Ministry of National Defense , 1973...Douglas MacArthur’s United Nations Coinnd (UNC) reversed the tide In the Korean War. An Impending disaster# the loss of the Republic of Korea # turned into a...80K) - South Korea . Th’e UNC objectives were to capture the Notth Korean capital of Pyongyang# couplete the destruction of the NXPA, and secure a

  5. Korea: Nutrition and Feeding of Korean Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-03-01

    03-1959 1 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Korea : Nutrition and Feeding of Korean Armed Force 5b. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Support and Korean officers and officials concerned with nutrition and feeding, Mr. Kim Chung Yul, Minister for National Defense , made a formal...2. Annex 1, prepared by the Acting UNC Economic Coordinator, sets forth the effect of the above shift on Korean Economy and the ROK defense effort

  6. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-29

    DISTRIBUTION LIST .............. .................... 47 5 INTRODUCTION During the Korean War more than 3,200 United Nations troops in Korea developed a...rare hemorrhagic fever, a situa- tion that attracted worldwide attention (1). Since then it has been known as Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) in Korea ...Chungchoongnsmdo, and Kangwendo, norLhern parts of South Korea . Almost all HFRS patients among Korean soldiers occurred in Kyunggido aind Ksngwmndo where

  7. Korea: U.S.-Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-16

    wounded in the Korean War (1950-53). The United States agreed to defend South Korea from external aggression in the 1954 Mutual Defense Treaty. The... Korean Relations — Issues for Congress Updated June 16, 2005 Larry A. Niksch Foreign Affairs, Defense , and Trade Division Report Documentation Page...A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Korea : U.S.- Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-12

    Korean diplomats.15 Counterfeiting of foreign currency is apparently a phenomenon that is not new to the government of North Korea . Seoul’s War...Adventurism: North Korea’s Military-Diplomatic Campaigns,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. XVI, No.2, Fall 2004. Note that the term “Soprano State... Korean National Intelligence Service (NIS) Report to the effect that North Korea forges and circulates U.S. $100 banknotes worth $15 million a year

  9. Joint Vision for the Korean Peninsula -- Can We Get There?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-11

    for the Alliance of the United States and the Republic of Korea . The joint statement laid out a shared vision for the Korean Peninsula and the...setting the stage for peaceful reunification, elimination of North Korean nuclear weapons programs and promoting human rights in North Korea . North...Korea’s unpredictability not only poses a threat on the Korean Peninsula but to the entire Northeast Asia region. North Korea is a multifaceted

  10. Logistics of Aircraft Maintenance During the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    reader with the impression there were no major logistics problems during the Korean War. Yet, people who served in Korea during the war testify to the...in the Korean War the Fifth Air Force wing commanders in Korea were vigorously compelled to decide between accomplishing maintenance following the...inter-island air transport. At the start of the war the MATS supported cargo operations in the Korea and Japan area. Three months after the Korean

  11. Post-Unified Korean Foreign Policy Options: Regional Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Korean War, the U.S. security policy toward Korea has been instrumental in promoting peace and stability on the peninsula. The strong defense alliance...request the removal of United States troops from the Korean peninsula and the nullification of the United States-South Korea Mutual Defense Treaty...security alliance. However, after the elimination of the North Korean threat, a unified Korea will be able to redefine its foreign policy options

  12. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology. PMID:25469139

  13. 2014 Korean Guidelines for Appropriate Utilization of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Joint Report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeonyee E.; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Jeong A; Na, Jin Oh; Yang, Dong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is now widely used in several fields of cardiovascular disease assessment due to recent technical developments. CMR can give physicians information that cannot be found with other imaging modalities. However, there is no guideline which is suitable for Korean people for the use of CMR. Therefore, we have prepared a Korean guideline for the appropriate utilization of CMR to guide Korean physicians, imaging specialists, medical associates and patients to improve the overall medical system performances. By addressing CMR usage and creating these guidelines we hope to contribute towards the promotion of public health. This guideline is a joint report of the Korean Society of Cardiology and the Korean Society of Radiology. PMID:25469078

  14. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. Conclusion North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation. PMID:27757125

  15. Korean Affairs Report, Kulloja, No. 10, October 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-04

    air forces in South Korea . The "Mutual Defense Treaty" signed by the South Korean puppet clique.and the U.S. imperialists right after the Korean War...debt" of foreign banks operating in South Korea or the amount of foreign currency loans owed to banks in overseas locations where South Korean ...that South Korea is currently the "debt king" of the world. The major lender of this enormous debt piled up by the South Korean puppets is the

  16. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever (Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AD-Ai55 228 KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL in. SYNDROME (HFRS))(U) KOREA UNIV SEOUL DEPT OF MICROBIOLOGY H W LEE JUL 84...INTRODUCTION During the Korean War, more than 2,400 United Nations troops stationed in the 38th Parallel in Korea developed a rare disease which had not... Korean hemorrhagic fever patients in urban areas of Seoul. Korean J. Virol. 10: 1-6, 1980. 8. Lee, H. W. New epidemiological findings of HFRS in Korea . J

  17. Assessing the role of culture in Korean goose mothers' lives.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chiyoung; Kim, Eunjung

    2013-01-01

    Korean women who migrate to a foreign country with their children for the latter's education while their husbands stay in Korea as breadwinners are referred to as "goose mothers." The cultural beliefs that have contributed to the formation of this family form and the experiences of these women need to be explored within their cultural context. To understand this population, Confucianism as a cultural background and its influence on goose mothers' value systems, family systems, and view of self were explored. Based on the learning, their potential health issues are described and implications for culturally competent care are suggested.

  18. ISIS Electronics Flying on Korean LEO Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, S.; Mosset, E.; Park, Sungwoo

    2014-08-01

    Saft (Defense & Space, France), ASP (Advanced Space Power, Germany) and KARI (Korean Aerospace Research Institute, South Korea) developed an autonomous battery management system to carry out cell packages balancing, by-pass system activation and cell package discharge after failure detection. This high reliability electronics called ISIS (Intelligent Surveillance Integrated System) has been designed, tested and qualified in the frame of the Kompsat-3, Kompsat-5 and Kompsat-3A large LEO Korean KARI Satellites. Kompsat-3 and 3A (4.8 kWh battery) and Kompsat-5 (5.2 kWh battery equipped with a demanding imaging radar system) are powered during daily sun eclipses with respectively one 4P12S or 4P13S VES100 li-ion batteries managed by ISIS system.

  19. Economic Performance and North Korean Regime Legitimacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    PERFORMANCE AND NORTH KOREAN REGIME LEGITIMACY by Patrick J. Moore June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Naazneen Barma Second Reader: Robert Weiner THIS...Advisor Dr. Robert Weiner Second Reader Dr. Mohammed Hafez Chair, Department of National Security Affairs iv THIS PAGE...offers a view of success, the country outside the capital is a much different situation. Victor Cha writes that even in Kaesong, the second -largest city

  20. Korean Conflict, 1950-1953, A Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-12

    the War in Korea. Journal of the Royal United Service J7 Institution 95:601-611 Nov󈧶. 95:601 Chronological list of incidents of the Korean...27 Observations on the performance of our infantry weapons in Korea. UH1 Spaight, J. M. Korea and the Atom Bomb. Journal of the Royal ...against the Chinese Communist forces, the first offensive and the second defensive. Drysdale, LTC D. B. Royal Marines kl Commando. Marine Corps

  1. Operational Lessons Learned in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    entire peninsula, however, suffers from cold in the winter, Yellow Dust from the Gobi Desert choking the air in the spring, monsoons in midsummer...Republic of Korea in an effort to deter further North Korean aggression. The purpose of this monograph is capture operational lessons learned during the...considers North Korea as a buffer protecting its region of Manchuria. Encroachment of this border by foreign forces is a threat to Chinese sovereignty

  2. Low trihalomethane formation in Korean drinking water.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeyong; Choi, Youshik; Cho, Soonhang; Lee, Dongsoo

    2003-01-20

    Organics in water have the potential to generate harmful disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as trihalomethanes (THMs) during the chlorination process. To clarify the regulatory implications of Korean THMs levels which appear to be significantly lower than those in the US where the Stage 1 and 2 D/DBPs rule has been promulgated, the characteristics of THMs formation were investigated on five major river waters in Korea. Water samples were taken from 12 water treatment plants on five major rivers that serve as drinking water sources for more than 90% of the Korean population. Trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), total organic halide formation potential (TOXFP) and ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)) were determined and compared with those from US data. A survey of existing data [J Korean Soc Water Qual; 16(4) 2000b 431-443] provided evidence that THMs levels in treated drinking water in Korea were one-third of those reported in the US. The lower THMs levels were mainly attributable to the differences in the level and THMFP of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The DOC levels and the THMFP normalized to DOC were approximately 60% of those in the US. Results which combined could quantitatively account for the lower THMs levels (i.e. 0.6 x 0.6 approximately 1/3) in Korea. The observed Korean THMs levels were over-predicted by the THMs model () developed in the US. The level of THMFP was found to be similar if normalized for aromaticity as measured by UV(254). These findings suggest that: (i) the case for more stringent THMs control is not likely to be a high priority among issues of drinking water quality in Korea; and (ii) significant variation of THMFP level may exist over different geographic regions; hence (iii) independent THMs models should be developed to make accurate predictions for different regions.

  3. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK) doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE). Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ) items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK) medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%). NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also. PMID:27907983

  4. The Economic Implications of Korean Unification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    the two sides agreed to push for a joint Imjin River flood 80 Byung Chul Koh, ed. Korea: Dynamics...background_notes. 82 Byung Chul Koh, Korea: Dynamics of Diplomacy and Unification, 86. 27 control project at an early date. And they were able to...publications/factbook. 85 Byung Chul Koh, Korea: Dynamics of Diplomacy and Unification, 34. 28 idea as the Korean economy slowly recovers from the Asian

  5. Intake and major sources of dietary flavonoid in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Jin; Park, Min Young; Chang, Namsoo; Kwon, Oran

    2015-01-01

    With an effort to investigate possible relationship between flavonoids and health, an accurate estimation of flavonoid intake is valuable. We estimated dietary flavonoid intake and identified the major food sources. Subjects were healthy adults aged >=19 y (n=11,474) who completed the 24-h dietary recall of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012). The US Department of Agriculture and newly estimated or published values for typical Korean foods were combined into a Korean-targeted flavonoid database. The mean intake of total flavonoid was 107±1.47 mg/d, with a higher intake in women than in men after energy-adjustment. Quercetin, cyanidin, genistein, daidzein, epigallocatechin 3-gallate, epicatechin, hesperetin, and luteolin were identified as major flavonoid compounds. Across the age range studied, flavonols and flavones showed a reversed U-shape curve; flavan-3-ol and flavanones showed a decreasing pattern; and anthocyanidins and isoflavones showed an increasing pattern. Forty-five food items were identified as contributing >2% of at least one flavonoid compound's intake. Kimchi was the major food source of total flavonoids, followed by green tea, persimmons, and soybeans. Single food items accounting for more than 50% of the intake of a specific flavonoid included persimmons (cyanidin), green tea (epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate), black tea (thearubigin), tangerines (hesperetin and naringenin), and onions (isorhamnetin). This study provides information on Korean flavonoid intake to enable international comparisons, along with insight into how the sources and intake of various flavonoids vary according to age and gender. This work should facilitate future investigations of the association between flavonoid intake and health.

  6. Chinese and Korean characters engage the same visual word form area in proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jian'e; Shi, Jinfu; Jiang, Yi; He, Sheng; Weng, Xuchu

    2011-01-01

    A number of recent studies consistently show an area, known as the visual word form area (VWFA), in the left fusiform gyrus that is selectively responsive for visual words in alphabetic scripts as well as in logographic scripts, such as Chinese characters. However, given the large difference between Chinese characters and alphabetic scripts in terms of their orthographic rules, it is not clear at a fine spatial scale, whether Chinese characters engage the same VWFA in the occipito-temporal cortex as alphabetic scripts. We specifically compared Chinese with Korean script, with Korean script serving as a good example of alphabetic writing system, but matched to Chinese in the overall square shape. Sixteen proficient early Chinese-Korean bilinguals took part in the fMRI experiment. Four types of stimuli (Chinese characters, Korean characters, line drawings and unfamiliar Chinese faces) were presented in a block-design paradigm. By contrasting characters (Chinese or Korean) to faces, presumed VWFAs could be identified for both Chinese and Korean characters in the left occipito-temporal sulcus in each subject. The location of peak response point in these two VWFAs were essentially the same. Further analysis revealed a substantial overlap between the VWFA identified for Chinese and that for Korean. At the group level, there was no significant difference in amplitude of response to Chinese and Korean characters. Spatial patterns of response to Chinese and Korean are similar. In addition to confirming that there is an area in the left occipito-temporal cortex that selectively responds to scripts in both Korean and Chinese in early Chinese-Korean bilinguals, our results show that these two scripts engage essentially the same VWFA, even at the level of fine spatial patterns of activation across voxels. These results suggest that similar populations of neurons are engaged in processing the different scripts within the same VWFA in early bilinguals.

  7. Binding Interpretations of Anaphors by Korean Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the potential incomplete acquisition of binding interpretations in Korean-English bilinguals by asking whether and how the majority language of these bilinguals (English) influences their family or heritage language (Korean), especially when exposure to and use of English starts very early. The experiment tested the…

  8. The Syntax of Inaudible Noun Phrases in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ock-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the interpretation of NP-ellipsis (henceforth, NPE) in Korean. Some unexpected interpretive and grammatical contrasts arise in Korean between pro-forms such as "caki" "self" and "ku" "'3.S.M" (~"he") in object position and their null counterparts in NPE…

  9. Contrastive Rhetorical Study on Korean and English Research Paper Introductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sun

    2000-01-01

    Investigates differences in the rhetorical organization of research article introductions between Korean academic writing and English academic writing based on Swales' Create a Research Space model (1990). Twelve published articles written by Korean national scholars and American scholars are compared, and eight term papers by Korean…

  10. Written Corrective Feedback: The Perception of Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Bohyon

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of Korean EFL learners toward feedback types on their written errors. The survey was administered using an adopted questionnaire from previous studies (Ishii 2011; Leki, 1991). This further allows a comparison of Korean EFL learners' attitudes with the responses to an identical questionnaire by Japanese EFL…

  11. Korean Non Resident Language Refresher Course: 210 Hour Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The materials presented in this intermediate-advanced refresher course in Korean are intended for those who have already had considerable intensive training in spoken and written Korean. Lessons 1-70 (the first seven weeks of the course) aim to "maintain and develop habitual responses in the use of words and sentences dealing with high…

  12. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  13. Evidentials and Interrogatives: A Case Study from Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Dong Sik

    2010-01-01

    My aims in this thesis are to establish how evidentiality is grammatically encoded in Korean, and to investigate the semantic nature of evidential morphemes in Korean, which helps us to explain the semantic and pragmatic behavior of evidential markers in non-declarative sentences, such as interrogatives. By doing so, this thesis also shows the…

  14. Validity of DIBELS Early Literacy Measures with Korean English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderwood, Michael L.; Nam, Jeanie E.; Sun, Jennifer W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of two Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) early literacy measures with first-grade Korean speaking English Learners (ELs). A total of 30 first-grade Korean ELs were screened three times during the year using early literacy measures from DIBELS. A sample of students was…

  15. Multicultural Teaching Competence of Korean Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungok R.

    2016-01-01

    Discourse among early childhood education researchers increasingly emphasizes the need for teachers to better understand and support diversity in their classrooms. As part of a larger mixed-method study, this qualitative research illuminates Korean early childhood educators' multicultural teaching competence. While Korean classrooms are in…

  16. Issues of Validity of SAT Subject Test: Korean with Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Saekyun H.; Han, Hyunjoo

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated some issues regarding the validity of the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) Subject Test: Korean with Listening. The SAT Korean has been administered just once a year since its inception in 1997. As of March 2006, it had been administered nine times. However, SAT foreign language tests are not as rigorously researched as…

  17. Conceptualization of the Constructs in Korean Primary Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow-Maienza, Janice; Beal, Susan; Randolph, Tamara

    This report describes a classroom observation study in Korean primary mathematics classrooms. What was discovered in Korean classrooms was children, through higher level questioning, were being led to conceptualize the constructs and operations. The textbook was focused on the concepts in a concise, coherent and systematic manner similar to what…

  18. Cultural Validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Korean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyojung; Puig, Ana; Lee, Jayoung; Lee, Ji Hee; Lee, Sang Min

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the MBI-SS in Korean students. Specifically, we investigated whether the original three-factor structure of the MBI-SS was appropriate for use with Korean students. In addition, by running multi-group structural equation model analyses with factorial invariance tests simultaneously…

  19. Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

    The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

  20. Favourable Teaching Approaches in the South Korean Secondary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Zoltan Paul

    2009-01-01

    Korean education certainly has its strong points as its fifteen year olds produce outstanding results in the area of mathematics and are the world's most literate bunch. However, South Korean high schools are insufficiently preparing students for an often learner centered and creative system of education that often necessitates students to be…

  1. A Study of Korean EFL Learners' WTC and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yachao; Park, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Willingness to Communicate (WTC), motivation and English proficiency within a population of Korean college students learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Based on previous studies, questionnaires were used to collect data. Two hundred one Korean college students of…

  2. The Experience of Korean Immigrant Grandmothers with Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Soohong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the following research question: "What is the experience of Korean immigrant grandmothers in their relationships with their adolescent, U.S. born grandchildren?" In the United States, the situation of Korean immigrant grandparents is complicated because they live in two cultures. Immigrant…

  3. Virtues and Well-Being of Korean Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…

  4. Korean and American Teachers' Praising Styles and Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jungsub

    2016-01-01

    Praising is a crucial part of teaching performance that greatly impacts student performance and self-esteem. South Korean teachers are traditionally known to possess authoritarian attributes, whereas U.S. teachers have contradictory beliefs in terms of why and how to use praise. We used Q methodology among 16 American and 22 Korean teachers to…

  5. Identifying Balanced Action Learning: Cases of South Korean Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Yonjoo; Bong, Hyeon-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Despite considerable commitment to the application of action learning as leadership and organization development by a large number of Korean organizations, few identified empirical studies of action learning practices have been reported. The purpose of this study was to conduct case studies of South Korean action learning practices to examine…

  6. Bilingual Language Acquisition by Korean Schoolchildren in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sarah J.; Milroy, Lesley

    1999-01-01

    Examines bilingual language development of young Korean-American children with respect to acquisition of English grammatical morphemes and different plural marking systems of Korean and English. Addresses whether first and second language (L1, L2) learners acquire grammatical features of a given language in the same sequence and whether L2…

  7. Korean Percussion Ensemble ("Samulnori") in the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sangmi; Yoo, Hyesoo

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces "samulnori" (Korean percussion ensemble), its cultural background, and instructional methods as parts of a classroom approach to teaching upper-level general music. We introduce five of eight sections from "youngnam nong-ak" (a style of samulnori) as a repertoire for teaching Korean percussion music to…

  8. Korean Higher Education Reforms and Changes since the 1990s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Yun Suk

    2011-01-01

    Korean higher education has experienced significant changes since the 1990s. Terms like quality, excellence, competition, efficiency, restructuring, and accountability have become dominant in higher education discourse. These changes are integral parts of higher education reforms implemented by the South Korean government and higher educational…

  9. Korean Elementary School Students' Perceptions of Relationship with Marine Organisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jong-Mun; Anderson, David; Scott, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the perceptions of, and relationship with, marine organisms of 81 urban sixth grade Korean students using a specifically designed survey questionnaire. The study outcomes revealed that these Korean students have limited experience with and different levels of connectedness to marine organisms. Viewed through…

  10. Korean Language Maintenance in Los Angeles. Professional Papers K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kenneth Kong-On; And Others

    Characteristics of the Korean population in Los Angeles, intergenerational cultural problems, and efforts to promote language maintenance are described. The majority of Koreans in Los Angeles have been in the United States less than 10 years. A high percentage are from middle class and professional backgrounds. The traditional hierarchical family…

  11. Age-Related Differences in Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…

  12. Multivocal Post-Diasporic Selves: Entangled in Korean Dramas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Julie

    2012-01-01

    I interrogate my personal diaries documenting my life in New York, Beijing, Tokyo, and Sydney over a 20-year period. Taking bearings from Bakhtinian thoughts, I explore the emergence of my post-diasporic identity as a second generation Korean American through watching South Korean dramas. By conversing with journals kept over a 20-year period, I…

  13. General Intelligence, Visuospatial and Verbal Abilities in Korean Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Song, Myung Ja

    1994-01-01

    Nine-year olds completed measures of general intelligence, visuospatial ability, and verbal fluency. Subjects were 107 Korean children and 115 British children. Found that Korean children scored higher on general intelligence and visuospatial ability and lower on verbal fluency than British children. (BC)

  14. Development and Validation of the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Euna; Neville, Helen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a culturally relevant rape myth acceptance scale for Koreans. Three studies on the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (KRMAS) with approximately 1,000 observations provide initial validity and reliability. Specifically, results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support four subscales:…

  15. Language Ideologies and Bilingual Education: A Korean-American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an ethnographic record of an ongoing journey during which I have tried to understand the kinds of language ideologies that my students and I have constructed about the Korean language. My students are mainly Korean-American university students who have never successfully achieved native fluency in their heritage language, although…

  16. "My Heart Beats in Two Places": Immigration Stories in Korean-American Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Joanne H.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the impact of immigration on Korean children through a content and literary analysis of 14 children's picture books. A majority of published children's literature dealing with the subject of Korean Americans or Korean immigration contains culturally specific themes common to the Korean immigration experience. These…

  17. Teaching Korean Rhythms in Music Class through Improvisation, Composition, and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyesoo; Kang, Sangmi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the characteristics of Korean rhythmic patterns and provide effective ways to teach Korean rhythms based on the theoretical and pedagogical approaches derived from 5,000 years of Korean musical tradition. First, we have provided the fundamental principles of Korean rhythms that represent the culture from…

  18. Korean-English Dual Language Immersion: Perspectives of Students, Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Sook; Jeong, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of Korean-American students, parents and teachers in a newly instituted 50/50 Korean-English dual language immersion programme, where the majority of the students are of Korean descent. Based on home and school observations, as well as interviews with six Korean-American students and their parents…

  19. Participation Patterns of Korean Adolescents in School-Based Career Exploration Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Hill, Roger B.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in the school-based career exploration activities of Korean high school students were examined. Data represented 5,227 Korean adolescents in Grade 11 contained in the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005, a nationally representative longitudinal database administered by the Korean Educational Development Institute. Latent class…

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Weekly Alendronate Plus Vitamin D3 5600 IU versus Weekly Alendronate Alone in Korean Osteoporotic Women: 16-Week Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Joon; Min, Yong-Ki; Koh, Jung-Min; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kyoung Min; Byun, Dong-Won; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Mikyung; Kim, Sung-Soo; Min, Kyung Wan; Han, Ki Ok; Park, Hyoung Moo; Shin, Chan Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Jong Suk; Chung, Dong Jin; Mok, Ji Oh; Baek, Hong Sun; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Yong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D (vit-D) is essential for bone health, although many osteoporosis patients have low levels of 25-hydroxy-vit-D [25(OH)D]. This randomized, open-label study compared the effects of once weekly alendronate 70 mg containing 5600 IU vit-D3 (ALN/D5600) to alendronate 70 mg without additional vit-D (ALN) on the percent of patients with vit-D insufficiency [25(OH)D <15 ng/mL, primary endpoint] and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH, secondary endpoint) levels in postmenopausal, osteoporotic Korean women. Neuromuscular function was also measured. A total of 268 subjects were randomized. Overall, 35% of patients had vit-D insufficiency at baseline. After 16-weeks, there were fewer patients with vit-D insufficiency in the ALN/D5600 group (1.47%) than in the ALN group (41.67%) (p<0.001). Patients receiving ALN/D5600 compared with ALN were at a significantly decreased risk of vit-D insufficiency [odds ratio=0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-0.08]. In the ALN/D5600 group, significant increases in serum 25(OH)D were observed at weeks 8 (9.60 ng/mL) and 16 (11.41 ng/mL), where as a significant decrease was recorded in the ALN group at week 16 (-1.61 ng/mL). By multiple regression analysis, major determinants of increases in serum 25(OH)D were ALN/D5600 administration, seasonal variation, and baseline 25(OH)D. The least squares mean percent change from baseline in serum PTH in the ALN/D5600 group (8.17%) was lower than that in the ALN group (29.98%) (p=0.0091). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in neuromuscular function. Overall safety was similar between groups. In conclusion, the administration of 5600 IU vit-D in the ALN/D5600 group improved vit-D status and reduced the magnitude of PTH increase without significant side-effects after 16 weeks in Korean osteoporotic patients. PMID:24719139

  1. Gene-set based genome-wide association analysis for the speed of sound in two skeletal sites of Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Kim, Sangsoo

    2014-01-01

    The speed of sound (SOS) value is an indicator of bone mineral density (BMD). Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified a number of genes, whose variations may affect BMD levels. However, their biological implications have been elusive. We re-analyzed the GWA study dataset for the SOS values in skeletal sites of 4,659 Korean women, using a gene-set analysis software, GSA-SNP. We identified 10 common representative GO terms, and 17 candidate genes between these two traits (PGS < 0.05). Implication of these GO terms and genes in the bone mechanism is well supported by the literature survey. Interestingly, the significance levels of some member genes were inversely related, in several gene-sets that were shared between two skeletal sites. This implies that biological process, rather than SNP or gene, is the substantial unit of genetic association for SOS in bone. In conclusion, our findings may provide new insights into the biological mechanisms for BMD. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(6): 348-353] PMID:24286325

  2. Practical Issues in Developing a Culturally Tailored Physical Activity Promotion Program for Chinese and Korean American Midlife Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Wonshik; Kim, Sangmi; Chu, Tsung-Lan; Ji, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jingwen; Chee, Eunice; Im, Eun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Background With advances in computer technologies, Web-based interventions are widely accepted and welcomed by health care providers and researchers. Although the benefits of Web-based interventions on physical activity promotion have been documented, the programs have rarely targeted Asian Americans, including Asian American midlife women. Subsequently, culturally competent Web-based physical activity programs for Asian Americans may be necessary. Objective The purpose of our study was to explore practical issues in developing and implementing a culturally competent Web-based physical activity promotion program for 2 groups of Asian American women—Chinese American and Korean American midlife women—and to provide implications for future research. Methods While conducting the study, the research team members wrote individual memos on issues and their inferences on plausible reasons for the issues. The team had group discussions each week and kept the minutes of the discussions. Then, the memos and minutes were analyzed using a content analysis method. Results We identified practical issues in 4 major idea categories: (1) bilingual translators’ language orientations, (2) cultural sensitivity requirement, (3) low response rate, interest, and retention, and (4) issues in implementation logistics. Conclusions Based on the issues, we make several suggestions for the use of bilingual translators, motivational strategies, and implementation logistics. PMID:27872035

  3. Being a Korean Studying Koreans in an American School: Reflections on Culture, Power, and Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Minjung

    2012-01-01

    Recent debates on situated knowledge highlight the issue of the researcher's position in the research process, challenging the traditional assumption of the insider/outsider dichotomy. Drawing on my fieldwork among Korean immigrant parents in an American school, I describe my shifting positions in negotiation and scrutinize the ways my reflexivity…

  4. The Influences of Immigration on Health Information Seeking Behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors.…

  5. Exploring Korean Heritage Language Learners' Anxiety: "We Are Not Afraid of Korean!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated Korean heritage language (KHL) learners' foreign language classroom anxiety, reading anxiety and writing anxiety using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz, Horwitz and Cope, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS) by Saito, Garza and Horwitz and the Writing Apprehension Test (WAT) by…

  6. "No One Speaks Korean at School!": Ideological Discourses on Languages in a Korean Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Kwangok

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how a Korean family with temporary immigrant status in the United States employed ideological discourses on languages to make sense of their experiences. The parents initially accepted but later rejected ideologies on children's learning of English. English-as-a-legitimate-language ideology in the United States and…

  7. Characteristics of Korean Phonology: Review, Tutorial, and Case Studies of Korean Children Speaking English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J.; Kuehn, David P.

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language…

  8. How Does Power Influence on Learning in Korean Organizations? How to Facilitate Learning in Korean Organizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Saing

    2006-01-01

    The subject into which this study inquired was the relationship between learning and power in Korean context. This study presents two case studies in two different organizations in Korea. Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews, observation and document analysis. Power semantics, rhetorical visions and informal learning model…

  9. Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

  10. A Critical Content Analysis of Korean-to-English and English-to-Korean Translated Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mi-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    This study explores cultural representations and cultural adaptations made by translators in translated children's picture books. This study has two focuses. In the first part of this study, which is a critical content analysis, I examine the cultural representations depicted in Korean-to-English and English-to-Korean translated picture books,…

  11. Korean Students' Stories from an Aotearoa New Zealand High School: Perceived Affordances of English and Korean Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This article is informed by van Lier's ecological approach to linguistics in considering the affordances Korean-born students perceived in using Korean or English language in an Aotearoa New Zealand high school setting. Here, I regard affordances as the students' perceptions of their languages as linguistic resources enabling them to act, or…

  12. Sub-Syllabic Processing in Young Korean-English Bilinguals: Semivowel Placement Differences between Korean and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Seunghyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the sub-syllabic awareness of two groups of 86 Korean kindergarteners learning English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). In addition, it explored the cross-language transfer of sub-syllabic units between Korean and English by taking into account their lexical abilities with respect to the…

  13. Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hee Jung; Moon, Do Sik; Kang, Da Yeong; Lee, Jung In; Kim, Da Young; Kim, Jin Hwa; Bae, Hak Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in postmenopausal women without diabetes. Methods This study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis. Results The mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR), 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively) compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding covariates. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD. PMID:27834079

  14. Lee Acculturation Dream Scale for Korean-American college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2005-04-01

    This study examined acculturation as represented in dream narratives of 165 Korean immigrant college students living in the USA. A total of 165 dreams were collected and evaluated using the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale, for which locations of dream contents were coded. 39% of the dreams took place in South Korea, while 38% were in the USA. Also, 16% of the dreams included both locations, whereas 7% had no specific dream location. The dreams contained overlapping dream messages, images, scenes, and interactions in both South Korea and the USA. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale indicated no significant difference between men and women.

  15. Why are Korean American Physicians Reluctant to Recommend Colorectal Cancer Screening to Korean American Patients? Exploratory Interview Findings

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Annette E.; Rick, Albert J.; Cha, Jennifer; Bastani, Roshan

    2009-01-01

    Background Korean Americans have one of the lowest screening rates for colorectal cancer. Although physician recommendation is one of the most important predictors of cancer screening across populations, only few Korean American patients receive such a recommendation. Methods We interviewed 14 Korean American physicians in Los Angeles area who primarily serve Korean Americans to explore why they are reluctant to recommend colorectal cancer screening to their Korean patients. Results Physicians identified barriers attributable to themselves (i.e., lack of knowledge, fear of medicolegal liability), their patients (i.e., patient’s unfamiliarity with the concept of screening), and the health care system (i.e., lack of referral network, poor reimbursement). Discussion Our results suggest the need for multi-faceted interventions directed at the physicians, their patients, and the health care system. Further research is needed to validate our results and to assess the extent to which they apply to physicians from other racial/ethnic groups. PMID:18607728

  16. The influences of immigration on health information seeking behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping Pearl; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-04-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, this study examines the influence of immigration status on KAs' trust in health information sources and health information seeking behaviors. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area as well as in the Gwangju metropolitan city in South Korea during 2006-2007. Two hundred and fifty-four KAs and 208 native Koreans who were 40 years of age or older completed the surveys. When comparing native Koreans to KAs, we found KAs were 3 times more likely to trust health information from newspapers or magazines (odds ratio [OR] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-6.54) and 11 times more likely to read the health sections of newspapers or magazines (OR = 11.35; 95% CI = 3.92-32.91) in multivariate adjusted models. However, they were less likely to look for health information from TV (OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) than native Koreans. Our results indicate that immigration status has profound influences on KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Increasing the availability of reliable and valid health information from printed Korean language magazines or newspapers could have a positive influence on increasing awareness and promoting screening behaviors among KAs.

  17. The middleman minority characteristics of Korean immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Min, P; Kolodny, A

    1994-12-01

    "This paper examines the middleman minority characteristics of Korean immigrants in the United States. Like middleman groups in other societies, Korean immigrants in the United States are heavily concentrated in small business. A large proportion of Korean-owned businesses distribute merchandise to minority customers on behalf of large corporations. Korean merchants, like other middleman groups, maintain strong ethnic cohesion, which facilitates their commercial activities.... We conclude that Korean immigrants in the United States exhibit middleman minority characteristics."

  18. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits.

  19. Language Ideology and Identity in Transnational Space: Globalization, Migration, and Bilingualism among Korean Families in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Juyoung

    2010-01-01

    A growing transnational migration trend among (South) Korean families brings heterogeneity to the Korean-American communities in the US in terms of educational practices and identity. Based on interviews with Korean mothers, this study discusses how two groups of Koreans, Korean immigrants and early study abroad sojourners, enacted and adopted…

  20. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Korean adults using the new International Diabetes Federation definition and the new abdominal obesity criteria for the Korean people.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Man; Kim, Dae Jung; Jung, In Hyun; Park, Chanwang; Park, Jong

    2007-07-01

    This study was performed to compare the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) definitions, and abdominal obesity criteria of WHO and the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO) in Korean adults. A total of 4452 adults aged > or =20 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001 were analyzed. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome estimated by NCEP definition with WHO criteria, NCEP with KSSO, IDF with WHO, and IDF with KSSO were 26.7%, 23.7%, 23.8% and 17.5%, respectively. The agreement percent among the four definitions ranged from 88.7% to 100% in men, and from 85.6% to 94.9% in women. The NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome was more strongly associated with hypertension and diabetes than the IDF-defined metabolic syndrome (age-adjusted odds ratio: 5.1 versus 3.6 for hypertension and 6.4 versus 3.2 for diabetes in men, respectively; 5.4 versus 3.4-4.3 for hypertension and 11.1 versus 3.8-4.2 for diabetes in women, respectively). Both definitions of the metabolic syndrome were associated with coronary heart disease or stroke only in women. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the predictive ability of the new definition of the metabolic syndrome and the new criteria of abdominal obesity for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Korean adults.

  1. Placental glucose dehydrogenase polymorphism in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y J; Paik, S G; Park, H Y

    1994-12-01

    The genetic polymorphism of placental glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was investigated in 300 Korean placentae using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The allele frequencies for GDH1, GDH2 and GDH3 were 0.537, 0.440 and 0.005, respectively, which were similar to those in Japanese. We also observed an anodal allele which was similar to the GDH4 originally reported in Chinese populations at a low frequency of 0.015. An additional new cathodal allele (named GDH6) was observed in the present study with a very low frequency of 0.003.

  2. Lemon detox diet reduced body fat, insulin resistance, and serum hs-CRP level without hematological changes in overweight Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Joung; Hwang, Jung Hyun; Ko, Hyun Ji; Na, Hye Bock; Kim, Jung Hee

    2015-05-01

    The lemon detox program is a very low-calorie diet which consists of a mixture of organic maple and palm syrups, and lemon juice for abstinence period of 7 days. We hypothesized that the lemon detox program would reduce body weight, body fat mass, thus lowering insulin resistance and known risk factors of cardiovascular disease. We investigated anthropometric indices, insulin sensitivity, levels of serum adipokines, and inflammatory markers in overweight Korean women before and after clinical intervention trial. Eighty-four premenopausal women were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group without diet restriction (Normal-C), a pair-fed placebo diet group (Positive-C), and a lemon detox diet group (Lemon-D). The intervention period was 11 days total: 7 days with the lemon detox juice or the placebo juice, and then 4 days with transitioning food. Changes in body weight, body mass index, percentage body fat, and waist-hip ratio were significantly greater in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups compared to the Normal-C group. Serum insulin level, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance scores, leptin, and adiponectin levels decreased in the Lemon-D and Positive-C groups. Serum high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also reduced only in the Lemon-D group. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels remained stable in the Lemon-D group while they decreased in the Positive-C and Normal-C groups. Therefore, we suppose that the lemon detox program reduces body fat and insulin resistance through caloric restriction and might have a potential beneficial effect on risk factors for cardiovascular disease related to circulating hs-CRP reduction without hematological changes.

  3. A study on multi-cultural family wives adapting to Korean cuisine and dietary patterns

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngil; Jeong, Hee Sun

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in multi-cultural families, Korea is seeing a rapid increase in immigrated housewives, who are closely related to food culture. However, studies for the diet of multi-cultural families, which is most closely related to our lives have not been sufficiently researched. With this background, this study conducted research for immigrated women nationwide about food cultures to provide the possibility which Korean food culture would be developed harmoniously with various foreign food cultures. In this study, the immigrated women seemed to have adapted to Korean food culture quickly, but they showed differences according to some conditions like countries they are from and the time they have been in Korea. To achieve this, we need to conduct consistent and in depth studies for food cultures in multi-cultural families so that we can make healthy development in food culture, harmonious with traditional Korean culture. PMID:21103087

  4. Development of Safe Food Handling Guidelines for Korean Consumers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Lee, Min-Woo; Hwang, In-Kyeong; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for Korean consumers with regard to safe food handling practices at home by identifying current food handling issues. Korean consumers' behaviors regarding their safe food handling were identified via survey questionnaires that included items on individual hygiene practices, prepreparation steps when cooking, the cooking process, and the storage of leftover foods. The subjects were 417 Korean parents with elementary school children living in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province in the central area of Korea. The survey results revealed gaps between the knowledge or practices of Korean consumers and scientific evidence pertaining to safe food handling practices. Based on these findings, a leaflet on safe food handling guidelines was developed in accordance with Korean food culture. These guidelines suggest personal hygiene practices as well as fundamental principles and procedures for safe food handling from the stage of food purchase to that of keeping leftover dishes. A pilot application study with 50 consumers revealed that the guidelines effectively improved Korean consumers' safe food handling practices, suggesting that they can serve as practical educational material suitable for Korean consumers.

  5. Remembered branches: towards a future of Korean homosexual film.

    PubMed

    Lee, J

    2000-01-01

    Korean cinema has long labored under an imported Confucian homophobia which, through its effects if not its causes, seems to mirror the Western conception of the closet. Recent cinematic developments in Korea, including a queer film festival in Seoul, are slowly but surely beginning to change that. Using as primary texts the recent Korean gay film Broken Branches and the long-forgotten lesbian film Ascetic: Woman and Woman, my essay hopes to serve as a set of introductory remarks on a queer Korean cinema culture whose surface has only just been broached.

  6. Causal attributions of dementia among Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang E; Diwan, Sadhna; Yeo, Gwen

    2010-11-01

    To better understand conceptualizations of dementia, this study explored causal attributions of dementia among 209 Korean Americans, using a self-administered questionnaire in Korean. Findings show that Korean Americans endorsed various causal attributions. Factor analysis yielded 3 dimensions of their attributions including psychological, physical/environmental, and cognitive/social. Bivariate analyses showed that younger age and higher education were related to more physical/environmental attributions, and younger age was related to more cognitive/social attributions. The study provides an understanding of causal attributions of dementia that practitioners need to understand to provide culturally competent practice and highlights a need to customize public education messages by specific ethnic groups.

  7. Isolation and characterization of orf viruses from Korean black goats.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Jung, Byeong-Yeal; Hyun, Bang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    Five cases of orf virus infection in Korean black goats were diagnosed in our laboratory between 2010 and 2011. One orf virus (ORF/2011) was isolated from an ovine testis cell line (OA3.Ts) for use as a vaccine candidate. Sequences of the major envelope protein and orf virus interferon resistance genes were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that orf viruses from Korean black goats were most closely related to an isolate (ORF/09/Korea) from dairy goats in Korea. This result indicates that the orf viruses might have been introduced from dairy goats into the Korean black goat population.

  8. Air Sanctuaries in Limited War: A Korean War Case Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    these restrictions, however, FEAF managed to maintain air superiority throughout Korea for the duration of the war. It routinely bombed North Korean air...and National Policy. Vol III, The Korean War, part 2. Washington, Mar 1979. 555p. PERIODICALS Foot, Rosemary. The Sino American Conflict in Korea : The...A07 844 AlR SANCTUARIES IN LIMITED WAR. A KOREAN WAR CASE STWJY i/I (UJ) AIR WAR COLL MAXMd LL AFB AL C M HINKLE MAR 8 AUJ-AWC-86-898

  9. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever (Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    RD-RI55 255 KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL 11 SYNDROME (HFRS))(U) KOREA UNIV SEOUL DEPT OF MICROBIOLOGY H U LEE RUG 83 DRMDi...the first time in Korea (4,13). WHO has recently adapted to call Korean hemorrhagic fever and clinically similar diseases with a different name, HFRS...AD_______ I •. KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER • (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME (HFRS)) I Final Report 0 In HO WANG LEE, M.D. August 1983 Supported by U.S

  10. What North Korea wants. [North Korean nuclear policy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, P. )

    1993-12-01

    In this article the author draws upon his experiences from his four trips to North Korea, during which he discussed nuclear issues with North Korean leaders, to help explain part of the North Korean reasoning behind its threats to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its gyrating nuclear policies. In essence, the author believes that North Korean nuclear policy is a result of Kim Jong Il's attempt to maintain the loyalty and obeisance of the elite. The article describes the political and economic factors which lead to North Korea's confrontation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and then discusses North Korea's immediate nuclear strategy.

  11. The Korean Neonatal Network: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in the Republic of Korea, despite the very-low-birth rate, the birth rate and number of preterm infants are markedly increasing. Neonatal deaths and major complications mostly occur in premature infants, especially very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs). VLBWIs weigh less than 1,500 g at birth and require intensive treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The operation of the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) officially started on April 15, 2013, by the Korean Society of Neonatology with support from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The KNN is a national multicenter neonatal network based on a prospective web-based registry for VLBWIs. About 2,000 VLBWIs from 60 participating hospital NICUs are registered annually in the KNN. The KNN has built unique systems such as a web-based real-time data display on the web site and a site-visit monitoring system for data quality surveillance. The KNN should be maintained and developed further in order to generate appropriate, population-based, data-driven, health-care policies; facilitate active multicenter neonatal research, including quality improvement of neonatal care; and ultimately lead to improvement in the prognosis of high-risk newborns and subsequent reduction in health-care costs through the development of evidence-based neonatal medicine in Korea. PMID:26566355

  12. Contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Yoo, J M; Cho, B K; Kim, H O

    2001-07-01

    The high risk of occupational contact dermatitis in dental personnel are well accepted throughout the world. There are few reports concerning occupational skin disease in dental personnel in Korea. The purposes of this study were to investigate the frequency, characteristics and causative factors of contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians. Recording of personal history, physical examination and patch tests with the Korean standard series and dental screening series were performed in 49 dental technicians. Most of the subjects were exposed to a variety of compounds, including acrylics, metals, plaster, alginate, etc. 22 (44.9%) subjects had contact dermatitis, present or past, and the site involved was the hand in all 22. The most common clinical feature of hand dermatitis was itching (77.3%); scaling, fissuring and erythema were other common clinical features. Metals, including potassium dichromate (24.5%), nickel sulfate (18.4%), mercury ammonium chloride (16.3%), cobalt chloride (12.2%) and palladium chloride (10.2%), showed high positive rates in patch test results of 49 dental technicians. 7 positive reactions to the various acrylics were found in 3 subjects. In our study, the frequency and clinical features of the contact dermatitis showed a similarity to other reports, though the patch test results were somewhat different; a higher patch-positive reaction to metals and a relatively lower patch-positive reaction to acrylics than the patch test results reported in Europe.

  13. Korean Unification. Alternative Economics Strategies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    necessities are heavily subsidized.24 For example, some relatively low 1992 prices include:25 Subway ride $.045 Cabbage $.15 per pound Plastic ballpoint ... pen $.36 Canvas shoes $1.55 Some relatively high prices-considering that a good wage is $62.50 per month- include: Women’s shoes $ 10.00 Leather

  14. Secondhand smoke exposure and mental health problems in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) and mental health problems among Korean adults. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. From the total of 229,226 participants aged 19 years or above, we excluded 48,679 current smokers, 36,612 former smokers, 3,036 participants with a history of stroke, 2,264 participants with a history of myocardial infarction, 14,115 participants who experienced at least one day in bed per month due to disability, and 855 participants for whom information regarding SHSE or mental health problems was not available. The final analysis was performed with 22,818 men and 100,847 women. Participants were classified into four groups according to the duration of SHSE: none, <1 hr/d, 1-<3 hr/d, and ≥3 hr/d. The presence of depressive symptoms, diagnosed depression, and high stress were measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjusting for demographic factors, lifestyle, and chronic disease, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of depressive symptoms with 1-<3 hr/d and ≥3 hr/d SHSE were 1.44 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.74), respectively. However, SHSE ≥3 hr/d had a higher OR of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.58) for diagnosed depression. SHSE was also associated with high stress (1-<3 hr/d: OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.38 to 1.76; ≥3 hr/d: OR, 1.33 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.40). However, the association between SHSE and symptoms of depression and stress did not differ significantly by region. CONCLUSIONS: SHSE may be associated with mental health problems such as depression and stress in Korean adults. PMID:26988086

  15. Baseline Characteristics of the Korean Registry of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wook-Jin; Park, Yong Bum; Jeon, Chan Hong; Jung, Jo Won; Ko, Kwang-Phil; Choi, Sung Jae; Seo, Hye Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Jung, Hae Ok

    2015-10-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding of the pathobiology and targeted treatments of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), epidemiologic data from large populations have been limited to western countries. The aim of the Korean Registry of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (KORPAH) was to examine the epidemiology and prognosis of Korean patients with PAH. KORPAH was designed as a nationwide, multicenter, prospective data collection using an internet webserver from September 2008 to December 2011. A total of 625 patients were enrolled. The patients' mean age was 47.6 ± 15.7 yr, and 503 (80.5%) were women. The diagnostic methods included right heart catheterization (n = 249, 39.8%) and Doppler echocardiography (n = 376, 60.2%). The etiologies, in order of frequency, were connective tissue disease (CTD), congenital heart disease, and idiopathic PAH (IPAH) (49.8%, 25.4%, and 23.2%, respectively). Patients with WHO functional class III or IV at diagnosis were 43.4%. In total, 380 (60.8%) patients received a single PAH-specific treatment at the time of enrollment, but only 72 (18.9%) patients received combination therapy. Incident cases during the registry represented 297 patients; therefore, the incidence rate of PAH was 1.9 patients/yr/million people. The 1st-, 2nd-, and 3rd-yr estimated survival rates were 90.8%, 87.8%, and 84.4%, respectively. Although Korean PAH patients exhibited similar age, gender, and survival rate compared with western registries, they showed relatively more CTD-PAH in the etiology and also systemic lupus erythematosus among CTD-PAH. The data suggest that earlier diagnosis and more specialized therapies should be needed to improve the survival of PAH patients.

  16. Comparison of the prescribing pattern of bisphosphonate and raloxifene in Korean women with osteoporosis: from a national health insurance claims database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmee; Shin, Ju-Young; Lee, Joongyub; Song, Hong-Ji; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the differences of prescribing pattern between bisphosphonate and raloxifene users among Korean women with osteoporosis, focusing on the underlying conditions, concurrent medications, nature of healthcare utilization, and regional disparity. We used the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service National Patients Sample database of the year 2010. Study subjects were defined as female osteoporosis patients aged over 50 years with both the diagnosis of osteoporosis and prescriptions of bisphosphonate or raloxifene. The frequency and the proportion of bisphosphonate and raloxifene were compared using chi-square test and the trend of the proportion using the Cochran-Armitage test. Medications were quantified as defined daily doses per 1,000 patients per day. The prescription pattern was visualized by using the Quantum Geographic Information Systems program. Of the 1,367,367 people who utilized medical services in 2010, the final number of study subjects was 26,881--26,032 (96.8%) bisphosphonate and 849 (3.2%) raloxifene recipients. Raloxifene users were younger than bisphosphonate users and were more frequently patients with a lipid disorder (16.0% vs. 22.1%, p-value < 0.0001), rheumatic disease (4.0% vs. 6.1%, p-value = 0.0024), hot flash (1.8% vs. 6.1%, p <0.0001), and coronary artery disease (1.2% vs. 2.8%, p< 0.0001). The proportion of raloxifene users was higher in tertiary care institutions (21.6% vs. 44.7%, p-value < 0.0001). A regional distribution showed that raloxifene use was higher in the Seoul metropolitan area. These differences in demographic and clinical profiles of each recipient may influence prescription decisions.

  17. A Validation Study of the Korean-Ruminative Response Scale in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyoung Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Korean version of Ruminative Response Scale (K-RRS) for Korean adolescents. Methods A community sample of 1220 adolescents was recruited from middle schools and high schools. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, and additional analyses were performed to assess the reliability and validity of the K-RRS. Results An exploratory factor analysis of a sample of adolescents (n=550) yielded a three factor structure: 'depressive rumination', 'reflective pondering', and 'brooding'. Confirmatory factor analyses of another sample of adolescents (n=530) supported the three-factor model for the K-RRS. The K-RRS was found to have good internal consistency and construct validity. Conclusion Our results suggest that K-RRS is a valid measurement to assess rumination in adolescents, as well as in adults. PMID:26508962

  18. Obesity and Hyperglycemia in Korean Men with Klinefelter Syndrome: The Korean Endocrine Society Registry

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Wonjin; Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Yong-ho; Nam, Ji Sun; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Bu Kyung; Lee, Jihyun; Chung, Jin Ook; Kim, Min-Hee; Sohn, Tae-Seo; Choi, Han Seok; Hong, Seong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity in Korean men with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and the associated risk factors for obesity and hyperglycemia. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from medical records from 11 university hospitals in Korea between 1994 and 2014. Subjects aged ≥18 years with newly diagnosed KS were enrolled. The following parameters were recorded at baseline before treatment: chief complaint, height, weight, fasting glucose level, lipid panel, blood pressure, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, karyotyping patterns, and history of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Results Data were analyzed from 376 of 544 initially enrolled patients. The rate of the 47 XXY chromosomal pattern was 94.1%. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) in Korean men with KS was 42.6%. The testosterone level was an independent risk factor for obesity and hyperglycemia. Conclusion Obesity is common in Korean men with KS. Hypogonadism in patients with KS was associated with obesity and hyperglycemia. PMID:28029029

  19. Management of Sport Injuries with Korean Medicine: A Survey of Korean National Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eui-Hyoung; Kwon, Ojin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM) treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%), low back (13.3%), elbow, and ankle (8.4%) injuries were most common. Joint (41.6%) and muscle (30.7%) were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%), chuna manual therapy (16.0%), physical therapy (15.2%), taping (9.0%), and cupping (7.8%) to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%). This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine. PMID:27651819

  20. Korean version of child perceptions questionnaire and dental caries among Korean children.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Han, Dong-Hun; Shin, Myung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2015-01-01

    Although dental caries has been a major oral health problem for children, the association between dental caries and oral health related quality of life has been still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between the Korean version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (K-CPQ) and dental caries among Korean children. Eight hundred one school children aged 8 to 14 years participated in this study. After the K-CPQ was validated we performed an association study. The K-CPQ was self-reported. Dental caries were evaluated by dentists using the World Health Organization Index. Correlation analyses (intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient [r]) and linear regression models (partial r) including age, gender and type of school were applied. Untreated deciduous dental caries was associated with the K-CPQ(8-10) overall score (partial r = 0.15, P <0.05). The link was highlighted in the domains of functional limitation and emotional well-being. Filled teeth due to caries (FT) was associated with the K-CPQ11-14 overall domain (partial r = 0.14, P = 0.002) as well as with the oral symptoms domain (partial r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This association was highlighted among public school children. Our data indicate that K-CPQ was independently associated with dental caries. The K-CPQ could be a practical tool to evaluate the subjective oral health among Korean children aged 8 to 14.

  1. Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in an elderly urban Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Ryul; Kim, Young-Jin; Cho, Han-Ik; Eun Kim, Jung; Woong Kim, Ki; Jung Kim, Yu; Lee, Keun-Wook; Hyun Kim, Jee; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2011-09-01

    Research on the epidemiology of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is limited in Korea. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MGUS in an elderly urban Korean population. A random sample of 1118 Korean elders was selected from residents aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea 1 year from August 2005. We obtained plasma samples remaining after scheduled tests for the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. The mean age of the study population was 72 years (range, 65-97 years). To screen for MGUS, immunofixation and free light-chain (FLC) assays were performed. Age-adjusted and gender-adjusted MGUS prevalence rates in 680 responders were estimated as 3.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.6%], and the estimated age-adjusted prevalence of MGUS was 4.3% in men (95% CI = 1.9-6.6%) and 2.6% in women (95% CI = 1.0-4.2%). Abnormal FLC ratios were detected in 10% of MGUS cases. Multivariate analysis of 945 participants revealed that significant risk factors for MGUS included advanced age, male sex, hyperproteinemia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and abnormal FLC ratio. MGUS is less prevalent among elderly Koreans (3.3%) than other races. This is the first study to estimate the prevalence of MGUS in the Korean elderly population. Our findings should be confirmed with additional studies analyzing follow-up samples from 2010.

  2. Theories and Messages in South Korean Antismoking Advertising.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jin Hong; Aikat, Debashis Deb; Jung, Eun Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated antismoking advertisements in South Korean television by drawing upon a Health Communication article by Cohen, Shumate, and Gold (2007) and on Gold, Cohen, and Shumate's (2008) typology. This study examined the theories and messages in South Korean antismoking advertisements. First, South Korean antismoking advertisements primarily targeted adults. In addition, the advertisements for adults normally used statistical evidence, whereas those for adolescents often used testimonial evidence. In terms of the type of performance, narration was often used in advertisements for both adults and adolescents. Second, the most prevalent persuasive health message used social norms, whereas the most prevalent affective appeal used fear appeals. Third, antismoking advertisements in South Korea mentioned more benefits of not smoking than barriers to not smoking. This study also identified the message difference in the U.S. and South Korean antismoking advertisements.

  3. An overview of Korean astronaut’s space experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Kang, S. W.; Choi, G. H.; Sim, E. S.

    2010-10-01

    The paper presents an overview of the scientific space experiments in the Korean Astronaut Program (KAP) that were conducted on the International Space Station (ISS), beginning with launch of the Soyuz TMA-12 spacecraft with the first Korean astronaut and two Russian astronauts on April 8, 2008 and returning to Earth on April 19, 2008. During the 10 days aboard the ISS, the Korean astronaut successfully completed thirteen scientific experiments in biology, life science, material science, earth science, and system engineering, five educational space experiments, and three kinds of international collaboration experiments. These experiments were the first Korean manned space experiments and these missions were the first steps toward the manned space exploration by Korea. In this paper, we briefly discuss the descriptions, conduct, and results of the space experiments and discuss future plans. In addition, the lessons learned with respect to the performing of these manned space experiments on the ISS are presented.

  4. Segmental properties of input to infants: a study of Korean.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soyoung; Davis, Barbara L; Macneilage, Peter F

    2008-08-01

    Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more use of mid and low central vowels in IDS as well as more use of language-specific Korean phonemes. Mothers produced significantly more fortis and geminate and less lenis consonant phonemes in IDS than in ADS. Findings suggest that Korean mothers speaking to infants in the IDS speech style use sounds that more closely match infant production propensities as well as highlighting perceptually salient properties. IDS may serve to facilitate infant learning of ambient language phonological regularities.

  5. 77 FR 45477 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... defining moments of the Cold War. Today, on the 59th anniversary of the Military Armistice Agreement signed at Panmunjom, we honor all who served in the Korean War, and we pay lasting tribute to the brave men...

  6. Developing Korean-specific equations of stature estimation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yangseung; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to develop Korean-specific equations for stature estimation and compare their performance to existing techniques. Due to a lack of appropriate reference samples in Korea, equations were generated using a hybrid method on 113 Korean unknown skeletons. In this approach, estimates using the anatomical method [1] were regarded as actual stature. Results revealed that new equations produced more accurate and precise estimates than previous techniques. In addition, due to consistent body proportions of Korean populations through time and space, new equations are applicable to Korean skeletons regardless of their temporal and geographic origins. For obtaining statures at death, particularly in a forensic context, an age correction factor, 0.0426 cm/year, should be applied.

  7. Pre- and Post-Marital Chaplain Ministry to Military Personnel and Korean Nationals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    Limitations 11-10 Ill. FINDINGS AND ANLALYSIS OF INTERVIEWS CONDUCTED 111-1 1WITH KOREAN -AMERICAN COUPLES 1. Korean Wives- Korea 1- 2. Korean Wives-United...States 111-20 3. PAerican Husbands- Korea 111-28 4. Amierican Husbands-United States 111-37 5. Summary 111-43 IV. EXISTING PROGRAMS FOR KOREAN -AMERICAN...Samples 111-2 Figure 111-4 Religion of Korean Wives 111-2 Figure 111-5 Age Distribution of Korean Wives in Korea and the United States 111-20 Fiqure

  8. Marginal Children of War: An Exploratory Study of American-Korean Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurh, Won Moo

    The nature and extent of the problems involved in the socialization of mixed-race children of American servicemen and Korean women is discussed. Observations and interviews find these factors significant in constituting the social marginality of such children: (a) the stigma of illegitimacy, (b) the mothers' undesirable occupational status…

  9. Adherence to Asian Cultural Values and Cultural Fit in Korean American Undergraduates' Help-Seeking Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Park, Yong Sue; Kim, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Differences in and relationships of Asian cultural values, cultural congruity, perception of the university environment, and help-seeking attitudes for 1st- and 2nd-generation Korean American undergraduates (N = 228) were examined. Women reported significantly higher cultural congruity and more positive help-seeking attitudes than did men. Asian…

  10. A Case Study: How Twenty-One Koreans Perceive America. World Education Monograph Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Byungchai Cora

    Twenty-one Koreans were interviewed concerning their perceptions of America. In the spring of 1977, 9 men and 12 women between the ages of 20 and 50 from the greater Hartford and Storrs area in Connecticut participated in this case study. The males interviewed included five graduate students, three undergraduates, and one government scientist.…

  11. A Review of the Korean Cultural Syndrome Hwa-Byung: Suggestions for Theory and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Wachholtz, Amy; Choi, Keum-Hyeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review Hwa-Byung, a cultural syndrome specific to Koreans and Korean immigrants. Hwa-Byung is a unique diagnosis and differs from other DSM disorders. However, Hwa-Byung has frequent comorbidity with other DSM disorders such as anger disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder. There are several risk factors for Hwa-Byung including psychosocial stress caused by marital conflicts and conflicts with their in-laws. Previous interventions of the Hwa-Byung syndrome were based primarily on the medical model. Therefore, based on previous research, we present a new ecological model of Hwa-Byung. We also recommend some areas of future research as well as present some limitations of our ecological model. Finally, we discuss some treatment issues, particularly for Korean women in the United States. PMID:25408922

  12. Modernizing the North Korean System: Objectives, Method, and Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    The Aquariums of Pyongyang: Ten Years in the North Korean Gulag, 2001; Andrew Natsios, The Great North Korean Famine, 2002; James Clay Moltz and...complete and correct declaration of all its nuclear programs, and reaffirm its commitment not to transfer nuclear materials , technol- ogy, or know-how...warrants skepticism about whether these signs of progress will materialize . Nevertheless, the recent environment pro- vides some encouragement for

  13. Politics of North Korean Refugees and Regional Security Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    crimes of his grandfather. Kang Chol-Hwan, The Aquariums of Pyongyang: Ten Years in the North Korean Gulag (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 40...others who work for various NGOs, run a sort of underground railroad for North Korean refugees, providing safe houses where they can hide from the...instead by its international treaty obligations and allowing refugees safe passage to South Korea this would instead be a means to subtly pressure

  14. Body Dissatisfaction and Mental Health Outcomes Among Korean College Students.

    PubMed

    You, Sukkyung; Shin, Kyulee

    2016-06-01

    For many years, body dissatisfaction and mental health were thought of as Western phenomena and were studied mostly in Caucasian women. Recent studies, however, suggest that these issues are also present in men and in other ethnic groups. This study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and mental health outcomes, with personality traits and neuroticism playing possible predictive roles, using a Korean sample. A total of 545 college students, from five private universities in South Korea, completed assessment measures for depression, self-esteem, neuroticism, and body esteem scales. After controlling for covariates including body mass index and exercise time, body dissatisfaction was seen to play a mediating role between neuroticism and mental health outcomes. Differences between the sexes were also found in this relationship. For men, body dissatisfaction acted as a mediator between neuroticism and depression. For women, body dissatisfaction acted as a mediator between neuroticism and both depression and self-esteem.

  15. First Generation Korean American Parents’ Perceptions of Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Hong, Seunghye

    2007-01-01

    Nurses not only need to be familiar with the professional guidelines of discipline and but also be aware of variances in styles of acceptable discipline across cultural groups. The goal of this study was to explore cultural influences in relation to (1) first generation Korean American parents’ perceptions of common discipline strategies in the United States and (2) discipline strategies commonly used among first generation Korean American parents. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze interview data from seven first generation Korean American parents. Derived themes indicated that parents considered spanking/hitting and less hugging/kissing as Korean style and time out, using a sticker chart, hugging/kissing, removing/adding privileges, and giving chores as American style. Recent immigrant parents were not familiar with common positive discipline strategies in the United States. As they adapted to the mainstream society, they discontinued what they perceived to be negative aspects of Korean style and adopted positive aspects of American style. They were sensitive to children’s views on discipline and they experienced communication difficulties with children. These findings indicated that Korean American parents’ perceptions on discipline strategies were shaped by living in two cultures and were different from the western viewpoints. PMID:17292135

  16. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  17. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  18. Filaggrin Mutation in Korean Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    On, Hye Rang; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Song-Ee; Hong, Won Jin; Kim, Hyun Jung; Nomura, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Shotaro; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing eczematous inflammatory skin disease. Mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are major predisposing factors for AD. Ethnic differences exist between Asian and European populations in the frequency and spectrum of FLG mutations. Moreover, a distinct set of FLG mutations has been reported in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of FLG mutations in Koreans with AD. We also investigated the association of FLG mutations and clinical features of AD and compared the Korean FLG landscape with that of other East Asian countries. Materials and Methods Seventy Korean patients with AD were enrolled in this study. Fourteen FLG mutations previously detected in Korean, Japanese, and Chinese patients were screened by genotyping. Results Four FLG null mutations (3321delA, K4022X, S3296X, and S2889X) were identified in eleven patients (15.7%). The most commonly detected mutations in Korean patients with AD were 3321delA (n=6, 9.1%) and K4022X (n=3, 4.5%). FLG mutations were significantly associated with elevated IgE (≥200 KIU/L and/or MAST-CLA >3+, p=0.005), palmar hyperlinearity (p<0.001), and a family history of allergic disease (p=0.021). Conclusion This study expanded our understanding of the landscape of FLG mutations in Koreans and revealed an association between FLG mutations and AD phenotype. PMID:28120571

  19. New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including β-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

  20. The Austrialian National Chinese Japanese Korean Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Providing access to Asian-language materials has always been a problem for libraries. There are particular difficulties in acquiring Asian materials, in cataloguing them and providing access, and in incorporating them in library systems. There is, however, an urgent and growing need for access to Asian materials. Part of the response of the Australian library community to the difficulties and to the increasing need has been the Australian National CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) Project. The CJK Project is a co-operative project involving seven Australian universities and the National Library of Australia. Membership is expected to grow to include other Australian research libraries, some public research libraries and some overseas libraries.

  1. Sustainability of Korean National Health Insurance.

    PubMed

    Kang, Myoung Sheen; Jang, Hoo Sun; Lee, Minjee; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2012-05-01

    Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) was established during only 12 yr from its inception (1977-1989), providing universal medical coverage to the entire nation and making a huge contribution to medical security. However, the program now faces many challenges in terms of sustainability. The low birth rates, aging population, low economic growth, and escalating demands for welfare, as well as unification issues, all add pressure to the sustainability of NHI. The old paradigm of low contribution--low benefits coverage--low NHI's fee schedule needs to be replaced by a new paradigm of proper contribution--adequate benefit coverage--fair NHI's fee schedule. This new paradigm will require reform of NHI's operating system, funding, and spending.

  2. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008). PMID:27630594

  3. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  4. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  5. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008).

  6. The effects of polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) on the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Tong, Seo-Yun; Lee, Jong-Min; Song, Eun-Seop; Lee, Kwang-Beom; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Yun, Young Mi; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Son, Sung-Kyong; Lee, Jung-Pil; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Hur, Soo-Young; Kwon, Yong-Il

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between cervical cancer risk and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three one-carbon metabolism genes, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) in Korean women. Twelve SNPs were identified in MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR in the 927 case-control samples, which included 165 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1), 167 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3 (CIN2/3), 155 cervical cancer patients, and 440 normal controls. The frequencies of the genotypes and haplotypes were assessed in the controls, CINs, and cervical cancers. Individual carriers of the variant allele C of MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131) had a 0.64-fold [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42-0.98] decreased risk for CIN2/3 compared with common homozygotes. However, no significant association was found between most other variants and cervical cancer risk. The results also identified an increased CIN1 risk in carriers with at least one copy of haplotype 3 in the MTHFR gene (odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI: 1.03-3.42). In conclusion, there was no significant association between most SNPs in MTHFR, MTR, or MTRR and the risk of CIN and cervical cancer in Korean women. In addition, there was no significant association of MTHFR haplotypes with risk of CIN2/3 and cervical cancer.

  7. The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.

  8. Virulence characteristics and phylogenetic background of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli in the urine samples from Korean women with acute uncomplicated cystitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul Sung; Kim, Min Eui; Cho, Yong-Hyun; Cho, In Rae; Lee, Gilho

    2010-04-01

    To clarify the characteristics of the virulence factors (VFs) of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli (CFRE) with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC), we determined the VFs and the phylogenetic background of all 54 CFRE strains and the 55 randomly selected ciprofloxacin sensitive E. coli strains (CFSE) from patients with AUC in 22 Korean hospitals. The prevalence of the VFs was as follows: fimA, papEF, papGIII, sfaI, dafaBC, cnf1, and hlyA were presented in 96%, 54%, 68%, 91%, 49%, 72%, and 29% of the samples, respectively. The expressions of papEF, cnf1, and hlyA were significantly more prevalent in the CFSE. Moreover, the expressions of cnf, and papEF significantly reduced the risk of ciprofloxacin resistance. The CFSE was also marginally associated with the group B2 (P=0.05). Although the presence of pyuria and a previous cystitis history were not related with the phylotyping and the expressions of VFs, group B2, and fimA and papEF were more expressed in the younger age patients (P<0.05). In conclusion, the CFRE exhibits a selective loss of VFs and the non-B2 phylotype in Korean AUC patients. The group B2 and the presence of fimA and papEF are associated with a younger age of AUC patients.

  9. Socioeconomic Costs of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Heon; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988

  10. 76 FR 12786 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Poetry in Clay: Korean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Poetry in Clay: Korean Buncheong... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Poetry in Clay: Korean Buncheong Ceramics from the...

  11. [Jeong Jongmyung, a Korean feminist and midwife of Japanese colonial period].

    PubMed

    Yi, Ggodme

    2012-12-01

    Jeong Jongmyung (1896-?) was born in Seoul and could have 4 years of formal education in a missionary girls' school. She learned Chinese writing, English, Korean, Japanese, History, Geography, and Science there, which was very rare and high education for Korean girls. But she had to quit it for poverty, and married when she was 17. Her marriage was unhappy and her husband died after 3 years. Jeong entered Severance Hospital Training School for Nurses in 1917 to have economic independence. During her training for 3 years, she studied western science and medicine and learned how to cooperate with other working girls. In 1919, Korean launched Samil Independence Movement. Jeong helped other independence activists as a nursing student and her mother had to be in prison for 3 years. After graduation, she entered the Midwifery School of General Hospital of Government General of Korea to have better position than nurse. As soon as she got midwifery license, she opened her own clinic which gave her social respect income, because there were only 25 Korean midwives in Korea. In 1922 Jeong established and became the leader of the Support Group for Working Girl Students. She continuously established and leaded social movement organizations, in 1924, the Korean Association of Nurses and the Women Comrades Society, in 1926 Jeongwoohoe, in 1927 Geunwoohoe and Shinganghoi. From 1923 Jeong got more fame by public speeches. The main contents of them were the women's problem in Korea. As the first Korean woman communist, she analyzed the Korean society and women's problem as a communist and insisted that the women's liberation movement should be gained in class struggle in cooperation with the proletariat. She was very active and aggressive in public lecture, and in everyday lives, Jeong was so warm hearted and eager to help other activists with her energy and income, so others called her their "sister, housemaid, lover, and mother". The Japanese rulers oppressed her by stopping or

  12. Aquatic exercise in older Korean women with arthritis: identifying barriers to and facilitators of long-term adherence.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Sook; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Kim, Mi Ja; Kim, Jong Im; Lee, Eun-Ok

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing long-term adherence to aquatic exercise in older women with arthritis. Participants (n = 72) completed an educational program on aquatic exercise and underwent follow up for 6 months. At follow-up, women who continued aquatic exercise (adherence group, n = 25) had significantly higher scores than women in the nonadherence group (n = 47) in exercise self-efficacy (p < 0.0001) and group cohesion based on social aspects (p = 0.009). Both groups reported experiencing similar barriers to exercise (rho = 0.78). The findings provide insights for the development of strategies to promote long-term adherence to this type of aquatic exercise. Specifically, the findings encourage the fostering of exercise self-efficacy and social group cohesion during participation in educational programs to increase long-term exercise adherence.

  13. Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of isoflavones after ingestion of soy products with different aglycone/glucoside ratios in South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Youngeun; Choue, Ryowon

    2013-10-01

    Asian populations are thought to receive significant health benefits from traditional diets rich in soybeans due to high isoflavone contents. However, available epidemiologic data only weakly support this hypothesis. The present study was carried out to assess the pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in South Korean women after ingestion of soy-based foods. Twenty-six healthy female volunteers (20-30 y old) consumed three different soy products (i.e., isogen, soymilk, and fermented soybeans) with different aglycone/glucoside ratios. Plasma and urine isoflavone concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after ingestion of one of the soy products. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using the WinNonlin program. The area under the curve (AUC) for plasma daidzein levels of the soymilk group (2,101 ± 352 ng · h/mL) was significantly smaller than those of the isogen (2,628 ± 573 ng · h/mL) and fermented soybean (2,593 ± 465 ng · h/mL) groups. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of daidzein for the soymilk group (231 ± 44 ng/mL) was significantly higher than those of the isogen (160 ± 32 ng/mL) and fermented soybean (195 ± 35 ng/mL) groups. The half-lives of daidzein and genistein in the soymilk group (5.9 and 5.6 h, respectively) were significantly shorter than those in the individuals given isogen (9.6 and 8.5 h, respectively) or fermented soybean (9.5 and 8.2 h, respectively). The urinary recovery rates of daidzein and genistein were 42% and 17% for the isogen group, 46% and 23% for the fermented soybean group, and 33% and 22% for the soymilk group. In conclusion, our data indicated that soy products containing high levels of isoflavone aglycone are more effective for maintaining plasma isoflavone concentrations. Additional dose-response, durational, and interventional studies are required to evaluate the ability of soy-based foods to increase the bioavailability of isoflavones that positively affect human health.

  14. Major sequence variants in E7 gene of human papillomavirus type 16 from cervical cancerous and noncancerous lesions of Korean women.

    PubMed

    Song, Y S; Kee, S H; Kim, J W; Park, N H; Kang, S B; Chang, W H; Lee, H P

    1997-08-01

    Geographic specificity of nucleotide sequence variations in the coding and noncoding regions of HPV 16 genome has been reported. Little has been known, however, regarding whether these naturally occurring sequence variations of HPV 16 may result in marked differences in biological properties, such as oncogenic potential. This study was performed to identify sequence variants in the HPV 16 E7 gene derived from Korean women with cervical cancerous and noncancerous lesions, and to assess the association between the sequence variant and the cervical cancer. We examined E7 variants of HPV 16 in a total of 157 patients with no cervical disease (NCD, n = 87) or cervical neoplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3, n = 21; cervical carcinoma, n = 49), using the nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR-directed sequencing methods with outer consensus and inner type-specific primers. Forty-two (NCD, n = 9; CIN 3, n = 6; cervical carcinoma, n = 27) of 157 cervical samples contained HPV 16 E7 DNA, but only 8 had prototype sequences. Four variants of the HPV 16 E7 gene were identified. The variant with a single nucleotide change at position 647 (A --> G, Asn --> Ser) was found in about 60% of DNA samples with HPV 16. The second most common variant, found in 16.7% of cases, had three silent mutations at positions 732 (T --> C), 789 (T --> C), and 795 (T --> G). Two other variants were detected, one in a patient with cervical cancer and the other in a patient with no cervical disease. One had a single nucleotide change at position 666 (G --> A) and the other had one silent mutation at position 796 (T --> C). The most common variant in Korea has a change of nucleotide affecting the predicted amino acid related with high antigenicity and binding to retinoblastoma protein. There was a statistically significant trend for this variant to be more frequently detected in cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix than in noncancerous lesions. These data suggest that naturally

  15. The Major Asian Powers and the Korean Reunification Process: Catalysts or Deterrents?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    RD-Ai65 128 THE MAJOR ASIAN POWERS AND THE KOREAN REUNIFICATION 1/2 PROCESS- CATALYSTS OR DETERRENTS?(U) DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE COLL WASHINGTON DC J J...the Korean cultural heritage. This was followed by a review of current economic, political, social, and military systems in North and South Korea ... Korean question. This material supplemented details from current news media on North-South Korean rapprochement and major power actions vis-a-vis Korea

  16. Seasonal variation in carcass characteristics of korean cattle steers.

    PubMed

    Piao, M Y; Baik, M

    2015-03-01

    Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of -4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of -6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r≥0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r≤-0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions.

  17. Seasonal Variation in Carcass Characteristics of Korean Cattle Steers

    PubMed Central

    Piao, M. Y.; Baik, M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate temperature affects animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate whether climatic conditions affect beef carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers. The monthly carcass characteristics of Korean cattle steers (n = 2,182,415) for 8 yr (2006 through 2013) were collected from the Korean Institute for Animal Products Quality Evaluation. Daily climate temperature (CT) and relative humidity (RH) data were collected from the Korean Meteorological Administration. Weather conditions in South Korea during summer were hot and humid, with a maximum temperature of 28.4°C and a maximum RH of 91.4%. The temperature-humidity index (THI), calculated based on CT and RH, ranges from 73 to 80 during summer. Winter in South Korea was cold, with a minimum temperature of −4.0°C and a wind-chill temperature of −6.2°C. Both marbling score (MS) and quality grade (QG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses were generally best (p<0.05) in autumn and worst in spring. A correlation analysis showed that MS and QG frequencies were not associated (p>0.05) with CT. Yield grade (YG) of Korean cattle steer carcasses was lowest (p<0.05) in winter (November to January) and highest in spring and summer (May to September). A correlation analysis revealed that YG frequency was strongly correlated (r≥0.71; p<0.01) with CT and THI values. The rib eye area, a positive YG parameter, was not associated with CT. Backfat thickness (BT), a negative YG factor, was highest in winter (November and December). The BT was strongly negatively correlated (r≤−0.74; p<0.01) with CTs. Therefore, the poor YG during winter is likely due in part to the high BT. In conclusion, YG in Korean cattle steer carcasses was worst in winter. QGs were not associated with winter or summer climatic conditions. PMID:25656196

  18. Korean Asthma Guideline 2014: Summary of Major Updates to the Korean Asthma Guideline 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Jung, Ki-Suck; Yoo, Ji Hong

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a prevalent and serious health problem in Korea. Recently, the Korean Asthma Guideline has been updated by The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) in an effort to improve the clinical management of asthma. This guideline focuses on adult patients with asthma and aims to deliver up to date scientific evidence and recommendations to general physicians for the management of asthma. For this purpose, this guideline was updated following systematic review and meta-analysis of recent studies and adapting some points of international guidelines (Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA] report 2014, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program [NAEPP] 2007, British Thoracic Society [BTS/SIGN] asthma guideline 2012, and Canadian asthma guideline 2012). Updated issues include recommendations derived using the population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) model, which produced 20 clinical questions on the management of asthma. It also covers a new definition of asthma, the importance of confirming various airflow limitations with spirometry, the epidemiology and the diagnostic flow of asthma in Korea, the importance and evidence for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and ICS/formoterol as a single maintenance and acute therapy in the stepwise management of asthma, assessment of severity of asthma and management of exacerbation, and an action plan to cope with exacerbation. This guideline includes clinical assessments, and treatment of asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, management of asthma in specific conditions including severe asthma, elderly asthma, cough variant asthma, exercise-induced bronchial contraction, etc. The revised Korean Asthma Guideline is expected to be a useful resource in the management of asthma. PMID:27433170

  19. Korean Version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire and Dental Caries among Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Han, Dong-Hun; Shin, Myung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2015-01-01

    Although dental caries has been a major oral health problem for children, the association between dental caries and oral health related quality of life has been still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between the Korean version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (K-CPQ) and dental caries among Korean children. Eight hundred one school children aged 8 to 14 years participated in this study. After the K-CPQ was validated we performed an association study. The K-CPQ was self-reported. Dental caries were evaluated by dentists using the World Health Organization Index. Correlation analyses (intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson’s correlation coefficient [r]) and linear regression models (partial r) including age, gender and type of school were applied. Untreated deciduous dental caries was associated with the K-CPQ8-10 overall score (partial r = 0.15, P <0.05). The link was highlighted in the domains of functional limitation and emotional well-being. Filled teeth due to caries (FT) was associated with the K-CPQ11-14 overall domain (partial r = 0.14, P = 0.002) as well as with the oral symptoms domain (partial r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This association was highlighted among public school children. Our data indicate that K-CPQ was independently associated with dental caries. The K-CPQ could be a practical tool to evaluate the subjective oral health among Korean children aged 8 to 14. PMID:25675410

  20. For love or money? The saga of Korean women who provided eggs for embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005, Woo-Suk Hwang achieved international stardom with publications in Science reporting on successful research involving the creation of stem cells from cloned human embryos. The wonder and success all began to unravel, however, when serious ethical concerns were raised about the source of the eggs for this research. When the egg scandal had completely unfolded, it turned out that many of the women who provided eggs for stem cell research had not provided valid consents and that nearly 75% of the women egg providers had received cash or in-kind payments. Among those who did not receive direct benefits, some cited patriotism as their reason for participating in embryonic stem cell research, hence the question "for love or money?"--namely, patriotism versus payment. This paper summarizes the Hwang debacle with particular attention to the egg scandal and ends with some preliminary thoughts on patriotism as a motive for research participation.

  1. [Lee Jungsook, a Korean independence activist and a nurse during the Japanese colonial period].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook Young

    2015-04-01

    This article examines the life of Lee Jungsook, a Korean nurse, as a independence activist during the Japanese colonial period. Lee Jungsook(1896-1950) was born in Bukchung in Hamnam province. She studied at Chungshin girl's high school and worked at Severance hospital. The characteristics and culture of her educational background and work place were very important factors which influenced greatly the life of Lee Jungsook. She learned independent spirit and nationalism from Chungshin girls' high school and worked as nurse at the Severance hospital which were full of intense aspiration for Korea's independence. Many of doctors, professors and medical students were participated in the 3.1 Independence Movement. Lee Jungsook was a founding member of Hyulsungdan who tried to help the independence activists in prison and their families and worked as a main member of Korean Women's Association for Korean Independece and Kyungsung branch of the Korean Red Cross. She was sent to jail by the Japanese government for her independence activism. After being released after serving two years confinement, she worked for the Union for Women's Liberation as a founding member. Lee Joungsook was a great independence activist who had a nursing care spirit as a nurse.

  2. Osteoporotic Fracture Risk Assessment Using Bone Mineral Density in Korean: A Community-based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Young-Kyun; Choi, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Fracture-risk assessment tool (FRAX) using just clinical risk factors of osteoporosis has been developed to estimate individual risk of osteoporotic fractures. We developed prediction model of fracture risk using bone mineral density (BMD) as well as clinical risk factors in Korean, and assessed the validity of the final model. Methods To develop and validate an osteoporotic FRAX, a total of 768 Korean men and women aged 50 to 90 years were followed for 7 years in a community-based cohort study. BMD as well as clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture including age, sex, body mass index, history of fragility fracture, family history of fracture, smoking status, alcohol intake, use of oral glucocorticoid, rheumatoid arthritis, and other causes of secondary osteoporosis were assessed biannually. Results During the follow-up period, 86 osteoporotic fractures identified (36 in men and 50 in women). The developed prediction models showed high discriminatory power and had goodness of fit. Conclusions The developed a Korean specific prediction model for osteoporotic fractures can be easily used as a screening tool to identify individual with high risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further studies for validation are required to confirm the clinical feasibility in general Korean population. PMID:26981519

  3. Is there an Asian idiom of distress? Somatic Symptoms in Female Japanese and Korean Students

    PubMed Central

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Kim, Oksoo

    2007-01-01

    The term “idiom of distress” is used to describe culturally-specific experiences of suffering. Most of these studies have been conducted with small groups, making comparison of symptom profiles difficult. Female undergraduate and graduate students in Japan (N=50) and Korea (N=61) completed Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and seven-day dairy reports of their experiences of 46 somatic symptoms. Between-culture comparisons revealed that BDI scores did not differ; however, Korean women had significantly higher somatic distress means than the Japanese women. Despite the higher Korean distress mean, regression analysis showed that somatic distress explained 30% of the variance of BDI score for the Japanese, but only 22% of the variance for the Koreans. Within-culture comparisons showed that both the High BDI Japanese and Koreans had 19 somatic distress symptoms with significantly higher means than their Low BDI counterparts; eleven somatic symptoms were shared by the two groups. Multidimensional Scaling matrices were used to compare symptom proximities and revealed cultural differences. The problems with using broad racial categories in clinical research, the clinical significance of these findings, and implications for psychiatric nursing assessment and practice are discussed. PMID:18207054

  4. Knowledge of HPV and Surgery among Women Who Underwent Cervical Conization: A Korean Multi-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Jun, So Yeun; Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Jung-Yun; Lee, San Hui; Song, Yong Jung; Chun, Kyoung-Chul; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a well-known cause of cervical cancer, which, along with its precursors, can be diagnosed and treated with cervical conization (CC). This study aimed to assess HPV- and procedure-related knowledge among women who had undergone CC. Materials and Methods Between February and May 2014, consecutive women who had undergone CC at five different educational hospitals were recruited. All patients had undergone a loop electrosurgical excision procedure as the method of CC. A survey was conducted with a self-developed, 29-item questionnaire, measuring knowledge related to HPV and CC. We analyzed the responses of 160 patients who completed the questionnaire. Results Mean total knowledge scores (±standard deviation) for HPV and CC were 5.2±3.0 of a possible 13.0 and 8.3±4.2 of a possible 16.0, respectively. While 73% of the patients knew that HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer, only 44% knew that HPV is sexually transmitted. The purpose of CC was correctly identified by 71% of the patients. However, 35% failed to indicate the anatomical area resected at the time of CC in the schematic diagram. Women who were younger (p<0.001), had higher education level (p<0.001), and higher family income (p=0.008) had higher knowledge scores. In contrast, neither interval from CC to survey nor disease severity were associated with total knowledge score. Conclusion The level of knowledge related to HPV and CC was unexpectedly low in women who had undergone CC. Intuitive educational resources may improve this knowledge, and further cohort studies are warranted. PMID:27401655

  5. Biracial Identity Development: A Case of Black-Korean Biracial Individuals in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyein Amber

    2016-01-01

    This study examines two cases of Black-Korean biracial individuals and 4 Black-Korean biracial public figures who were playing influential roles in South Korea (Yoon Mi-Rae, Hines Ward, Insooni, and Moon Taejong). The purpose of this study was to understand how Black-Korean biracial individuals construct their identities, how they navigate various…

  6. The Korean American Family: Assimilation and Its Toll on the First and Second Generation Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joann J.; Hong, Steve

    Over the last 15 years researchers have taken an increased interest in studying the large pool of recent Korean immigrants. This analysis concentrates on finding how first generation Korean Americans relate and interact with their second generation counterparts. Using studies on the adjustment of first generation Korean immigrants and the levels…

  7. Visible or Invisible? Korean High School Students' Current Schooling Experiences in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Bogum; Haag, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the current schooling experiences of eight Korean high school students in the United States. By comparing and contrasting recent immigrant adolescents and 1.5/2nd generation students, the purpose of this study was to explore how their identities as Koreans or Korean Americans were formed and shifted while they…

  8. Language Learning as a Site for Belonging: A Narrative Analysis of Korean Adoptee-Returnees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Christina; Stoker, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Through analyzing narratives of Korean heritage language (HL) users, this article explores whether and to what degree these language users experience social inclusion and a sense of belonging in Korean society. We expand the field of HL research by investigating the experiences of four Korean-born, US-raised adoptee-returnees who currently reside…

  9. Negotiating Conflict within the Constraints of Social Hierarchies in Korean American Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Agnes M.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an interactional account of conflict negotiation strategies in Korean American discourse. With specific attention to the sociolinguistic phenomenon of codeswitching among Korean Americans, argues that speaking Korean at particular moments evokes ideologies of social hierarchy that serve to mitigate potential conflicts. (Author/VWL)

  10. Ethnicity, Achievement and Friendship: Korean Chinese Students' Construction of Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    This research reported in this article ethnographically examines ethnicity and achievement in the formation of Korean Chinese students' peer networks. With the significance of children's peer networks in their interaction and school experience in mind, this article demonstrates how a group of ethnic Korean students at one Korean bilingual school…

  11. Cross-language perceptual category mapping: Korean perception of English obstruents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hanyong; de Jong, Kenneth; Silbert, Noah

    2004-05-01

    Models, such as SLM and PAM, predict that performance on second language sounds is determined by the perceptual relationship of the sounds to the original language categories. To measure this relationship, Schmidt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 3201-3211] had native Korean speakers classify English consonant productions into Korean orthographic categories, and assess the similarity of the consonants to the chosen categories. The current experiment further examines how Korean labeling relates to accuracy in using English orthographic categories. Results show Koreans poorly identify sounds rated as dissimilar from Korean categories. Similarly, sounds that are inconsistently labeled with Korean labels are less accurately identified. These results suggest that accuracy varies with the nearness of the English and a Korean category, and thus English categories are developed from original Korean categories. However, other results indicate that sounds straddling Korean categories can be very accurately labeled, suggesting a complete suppression of native contrasts. In addition, identification accuracy for subjectively odd sounds can be very high, suggesting the development of a new category. Similarly, cases in which both Korean and English labeling is inconsistent show no relationship between the Korean and the English labels, indicating that the English categories are constructed apart from the existing Korean categories.

  12. Evidence of Diachronic Sound Change: A Comparative Acoustic Study of Seoul and Kyungsang Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjung

    2013-01-01

    The phonetics and phonology of the Kyungsang dialect of Korean is distinct from those of the standard Seoul dialect with regard to segments and lexical pitch. However, whether the distinctive phonetics and phonology of Kyungsang Korean are maintained by younger speakers is questionable due to the increased exposure to Seoul Korean and the…

  13. The Problem of Authority: What Can Korean Education Learn from Dewey?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    While the ideas of Western democracy and individualism are increasingly popular and influential in Korean society, the traditional Korean understanding of authority has been challenged, especially in Korean schools. In this essay, the author first tries to analyze some important educational problems in contemporary Korea as it relates to the…

  14. Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Literacy Development in Korean and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-one Korean children were tested once a year across Grades 4, 5, and 6 on Korean phonological and morphological awareness, speeded-naming, Hangul word recognition, Hangul spelling, and English word reading. With age, gender, and Korean vocabulary knowledge statistically controlled, both phonological awareness and speeded-naming were uniquely…

  15. 31 CFR 500.582 - Importation of North Korean-origin magnesite and magnesia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation of North Korean-origin... North Korean-origin magnesite and magnesia. Specific licenses may be issued authorizing the importation into the United States of North Korean-origin magnesite or magnesia....

  16. Voices of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents: The Case of Korean-American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Myung-Sook; Shin, Sunwoo; Reeves, Kay C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate attitudes and perspectives of Korean immigrant parents in rearing and educating their children in the United States. One hundred nineteen Korean parents from three cities in the United States were surveyed using the Korean Parent Questionnaire. The responses of the questionnaire were analyzed using…

  17. Establishing a Korean Language Programme in a European Higher Education Context: Rationale, Curriculum and Assessment Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Lorna; Do, Eunjee

    2013-01-01

    A growth in interest in Korean contemporary culture in Europe has benefitted Korean language studies in Higher Education. This article describes an innovative Korean language programme in the School of Linguistic, Speech and Communication Sciences at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Since its establishment as a pilot project in 2010, the Korean…

  18. A Study on the Textbook Designed to Teach Korean as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sun-Min

    2012-01-01

    It is the reality of Korean language education that the development of teaching materials for Korean language for academic purposes are not so brisk, compared to that of the materials for general purpose, as the education of Korean language as a foreign language has just begun to proceed. The focuses of this study are to survey the brief history…

  19. Language and Power: Korean-Chinese Students' Language Attitude and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, F.

    2009-01-01

    Language is not only a method of communication, but also a mechanism of power. The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of Korean students, who are participating in a bilingual Korean school in Northeast China, construct their language attitude and practice. Research findings indicate that the Korean students value…

  20. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  1. Between Sundays: A Case Study of a Korean Immigrant Adult Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jun, Byoungchul Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a Korean immigrant adult learning program, the Reading Facilitator Training program, at a Korean immigrant church in Los Angeles, CA, in 2008. The purpose of this research was to discover how Korean immigrant adults learn in a way that has meaning and brings about change and how the local church can function as a safe learning…

  2. Some Characteristics of Korean Immigrants in the Los Angeles Area: Initial Perceptions and Mass Media Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Jung S.

    A total of 109 Korean immigrants completed either an English or Korean version of a nine-page questionnaire in a study of the characteristics, assimilation processes, and media usage of Korean immigrants to the Los Angeles, California area. The findings revealed that ambivalent attitudes prevailed among the immigrants. Most were not satisfied with…

  3. Korean-Americans in Los Angeles: Their Concerns and Language Maintenance. Technical Report 01-81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kenneth Kong-On; And Others

    A preliminary study was conducted by the National Center for Bilingual Education on the Korean community living in the United States. The study focused on Korean Americans residing within the Los Angeles Long Beach area of southern California, one of the largest Korean communities in the United States. This report includes: (1) a history of the…

  4. Special Theory of Relativity in South Korean High School Textbooks and New Teaching Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gim, Jinyeong

    2016-01-01

    South Korean high school students are being taught Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. In this article, I examine the portrayal of this theory in South Korean high school physics textbooks and discuss an alternative method used to solve the analyzed problems. This examination of how these South Korean textbooks present this theory has…

  5. Korean Americans' Perceptions and Attitudes toward People with Disabilities: Determination of Inclusion Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferko, Doreen J. K.; Jung, Woo; Kim, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Korean Americans' perceptions of disabilities. Participants were 147 Korean Americans, male and female, between the ages of 18 and 70. Participants were recruited from Korean churches and educational organizations such as schools and local universities in California. Results showed conflicting perceptions…

  6. Model Minority, Self-Perception and Schooling: Multiple Voices of Korean Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2009-01-01

    Koreans have been successful in nesting their educational achievement in places like China, where they have earned the title of the "model minority", due primarily to their educational success. Drawing on data from ethnographic research on fourth-grade Korean students in a bilingual Korean school, this article examines the relationship…

  7. KOREAN FOLKLORE READER, TEXTS WITH PRESYNTACTIC ANALYSIS. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OLMSTED, D.L.; AND OTHERS

    THE 19 KOREAN FOLK TALES PRESENTED IN KOREAN ORTHOGRAPHY IN THIS READER ARE DESIGNED AS READING MATERIAL FOR ELEMENTARY- AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS OF KOREAN. EACH SELECTION IS PREFACED BY AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND FOLLOWED BY A PHONEMIC TRANSLITERATION WITH INTERLINEAR GLOSSES IN ENGLISH. THE ORTHOGRAPHY USED HERE FOLLOWS SAMUEL MARTIN'S…

  8. 31 CFR 500.586 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interest in the property of North Korea or a North Korean national arises on or after June 19, 2000. (b)(1... concerning certain North Korean property. 500.586 Section 500.586 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property. (a) Subject to the limitations...

  9. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts of North Korean, North... § 500.554 Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. (a) Except as... importation of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin goods sent as gifts...

  10. Analysis of Pulmonary Function Test in Korean Patients With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Comparison of Foreign and Korean Reference Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the abnormal pulmonary function value in Korean Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, we performed a comparative analysis of the patients' pulmonary function value expressed as % of the overseas reference data and Korean healthy children and adolescent reference data. Methods We performed pulmonary function test (PFT) in a total of 27 DMD patients. We compared the patients' FVC% and FEV1% of the overseas reference data with those of the Korean children and adolescent reference data. Also, we compared the patients' MIP% and MEP% of the prediction equation data with those of the Korean children and adolescent reference data. Results Age of the subjects ranged from 8 to 16 years (12.03±2.27 years). The mean maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and peak cough flow (PCF) were 36.93±9.5 cmH2O, 45.79±17.46 cmH2O, 1.4±0.43 L, 1.45±0.45 L, 1.40±0.41 L, and 206.25±61.21 L/min, respectively. The MIP%, MEP%, and FVC% of the Korean children and adolescent reference data showed statistically significant higher values than those of the prediction equation data. Conclusion We observed a clear numeric difference between Korean DMD patients' pulmonary function value expressed as % of the overseas data and inland data. To perform a precise assessment of respiratory function and to determine appropriate respiratory therapy, pulmonary function values of Korean DMD patients should be interpreted taking into account the inland normal pulmonary function test data. PMID:27847715

  11. Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

  12. A descriptive statistical approach to the Korean pharmacopuncture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdae; Kang, Dae-In

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews trends in research related to Korean pharmacopuncture therapy. Specifically, basic and clinical research in pharmacopuncture within the last decade is summarized by introducing categorical variables for classification. These variables are also analyzed for association. This literature review is based on articles published from February 1997 to December 2008 in a Korean journal, the Journal of the Korean Institute of Herbal Acupuncture, which was renamed the Journal of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute in 2007. Among the total of 379 papers published in the journal during this period, 164 papers were selected for their direct relevance to pharmacopuncture research and were categorized according to three variables: medicinal materials, acupuncture points and disease. The most frequently studied medicinal materials were bee-venom pharmacopuncture (42%), followed by meridian-field pharmacopuncture (24%), single-compound pharmacopuncture (24%), and eight-principle pharmacopuncture (10%). The frequency distributions of the acupuncture points and meridians for the injection of medicinal materials are presented. The most frequently used meridian and acupuncture point was the Bladder meridian and ST36, respectively. Contingency tables are also displayed to analyze the relationship between the categorized variables. Chi-squared analysis showed a significant association between the type of pharmacopuncture and disease. The trend in research reports on Korean pharmacopuncture therapy was reviewed and analyzed using a descriptive statistical approach to evaluate the therapeutic value of this technique for future research.

  13. Molecular evidence for the taxonomic identity of Korean Adonis (Ranunculaceae).

    PubMed

    Suh, Youngbae; Lee, Joongku; Lee, Sangtae; Lee, Chunghee; Yeau, Sung-Hee; Lee, Nam Sook

    2002-06-01

    Although Korean Adonis has been traditionally recognized as Adonis amurensis Regel and Radde with various infraspecific taxa described, its taxonomic identity is still in dispute. We investigated the genetic variation in 60 individuals from 12 populations in Korea to elucidate the taxonomic identity of the Korean Adonis complex. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis revealed that Korean Adonis comprises three species: A. amurensis, A. pseudoamurensis, and A. multiflora. Adonis amurensis is distributed in northern central inland regions of Korea and A. pseudoamurensis is found in southern parts of the Korean peninsula. Adonis multiflora grows only on Cheju Island, which is the southernmost part of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences partially supported the presence of three Adonis taxa in Korea as detected by RAPD analysis. The Adonis population on Jangbong Island located in the West Sea, which was referred to as A. pseudoamurensison the basis of morphological examination, was separated from the other populations of A. pseudoamurensis. Otherwise, the molecular evidence is well congruent with the recent morphological study that proposes that Korean Adonis consists of these three species.

  14. Low prevalence of classical galactosemia in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Beom Hee; Cheon, Chong Kun; Kim, Jae-Min; Kang, Minji; Kim, Joo Hyun; Yang, Song Hyun; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Choi, Jin-Ho; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2011-01-01

    This study described the clinical and molecular genetic features of classical galactosemia in Korean population to contribute to the insight in the spectrum of galactosemia in the world, as little is known about the spectrum and incidence of galactosemia in Asia. During the 11-year study period, only three Korean children were identified as having classical galactosemia on the basis of the enzymatic and molecular genetic analysis. Asians have been reported to have mutations distinct from those of Caucasians and African Americans, indicating that galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase mutations are ethnically diverse. Our three patients had a total of three mutations (c.252+1G > A, p.Q169H and p.E363K), two of which were novel (p.E363K and c.252+1G > A) mutations. Interestingly, c.252+1G > A, which leads to skipping of exon 2, was observed in all three patients (three of six alleles), indicating that this mutation may be common in Koreans with classical galactosemia. Screening for classical galactosemia in 158,126 Korean newborns identified no patient with classical galactosemia. In conclusion, our findings provide further evidence for the ethnic diversity of classical galactosemia, which may be as rare in Koreans as in other Asian populations.

  15. Multilingual Practices and Ideologies of Refugees in the Neoliberal Era: The Case of North Korean Refugee Students in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mun Woo; Han, Moon-sub; Hyun, Eun Ryung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the multilingual practices and ideologies of North Korean refugee students in neoliberal South Korean society. Language tracking forms were completed over a seven-day period and individual interviews about participants' perceptions of English, Chinese, South Korean, and North Korean were conducted. The findings show that…

  16. Who Is Responsible for Understanding in a Conversation? A Contrastive Pragmatic Analysis of Utterances in Japanese and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sumi

    2012-01-01

    Korean learners of the Japanese language and Japanese learners of the Korean language not only feel that it is easier to learn the respective foreign language, but also acquire Japanese and Korean faster than learners from other countries because of the grammatical similarity between Japanese and Korean. However, the similarity of grammatical…

  17. The Effectiveness of the U.S. Missile Defense Capabilities as a Deterrent to the North Korean Missile Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    THE U.S. MISSILE DEFENSE CAPABILITIES AS A DETERRENT TO THE NORTH KOREAN MISSILE THREAT by Issac G. Gipson December 2007 Thesis Advisor...SUBJECT TERMS Missile Deterrence, Missile Defense , North Korean Missile Threat, North Korean Missile Systems, U.S. Missile Defense Capabilities, 16...19 III. CURRENT MISSILE DEFENSE ANALYSIS AGAINST NORTH KOREAN MISSILE THREAT

  18. Serum Preadipocyte Factor 1 Levels Are Not Associated with Bone Mineral Density among Healthy Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon Sung; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Background Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes or osteoblasts through closely regulated lineage-control processes. However, adipocyte precursor cells release preadipocyte factor 1 (Pref-1), which inhibits the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into mature adipocytes and osteoblasts. Previous studies have also reported an inverse association between Pref-1 levels and bone mineral density (BMD) among patients with anorexia nervosa. Methods In this retrospective study, we examined the correlations between Pref-1 levels and BMD among 124 healthy postmenopausal women (>50 years old). The patients had provided information regarding their clinical characteristics, and underwent blood testing and serum Pref-1 testing. Results The subjects' mean age was 59.9±7.1 years and the median time since menopause onset was 9.1 years. A history of osteoporotic fracture was identified in 23 subjects (19%). Serum Pref-1 levels were not significantly correlated with BMD values at the lumbar spine (R2=0.038, P=0.109), femur neck (R2=0.017, P=0.869), and total hip (R2=0.041, P=0.09), and multivariate analyses with adjustment for age and body mass index also did not detect any significant correlations. Subgroup analyses according to a history of fracture also did not detect significant associations between Pref-1 levels and BMD values. Conclusion In our study population, it does not appear that serum Pref-1 levels are significantly associated with BMD values and osteoporosis. PMID:28256115

  19. A Korean Family with the Muenke Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae Eun; Park, Dong Ha

    2010-01-01

    The Muenke syndrome (MS) is characterized by unicoronal or bicoronal craniosynostosis, midfacial hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, and a variety of minor abnormalities associated with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. The birth prevalence is approximately one in 10,000 live births, accounting for 8-10% of patients with coronal synostosis. Although MS is a relatively common diagnosis in patients with craniosynostosis syndromes, with autosomal dominant inheritance, there has been no report of MS, in an affected Korean family with typical cephalo-facial morphology that has been confirmed by molecular studies. Here, we report a familial case of MS in a female patient with a Pro250Arg mutation in exon 7 (IgII-IGIII linker domain) of the FGFR3 gene. This patient had mild midfacial hypoplasia, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, a beak shaped nose, plagio-brachycephaly, and mild neurodevelopmental delay. The same mutation was confirmed in the patient's mother, two of the mother's sisters and the maternal grandfather. The severity of the cephalo-facial anomalies was variable among these family members. PMID:20592905

  20. A Korean family with the Muenke syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae Eun; Park, Dong Ha; Yoon, Soo Han

    2010-07-01

    The Muenke syndrome (MS) is characterized by unicoronal or bicoronal craniosynostosis, midfacial hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, and a variety of minor abnormalities associated with a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. The birth prevalence is approximately one in 10,000 live births, accounting for 8-10% of patients with coronal synostosis. Although MS is a relatively common diagnosis in patients with craniosynostosis syndromes, with autosomal dominant inheritance, there has been no report of MS, in an affected Korean family with typical cephalo-facial morphology that has been confirmed by molecular studies. Here, we report a familial case of MS in a female patient with a Pro250Arg mutation in exon 7 (IgII-IGIII linker domain) of the FGFR3 gene. This patient had mild midfacial hypoplasia, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, a beak shaped nose, plagio-brachycephaly, and mild neurodevelopmental delay. The same mutation was confirmed in the patient's mother, two of the mother's sisters and the maternal grandfather. The severity of the cephalo-facial anomalies was variable among these family members.

  1. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones. They had been highly prevalent in Korea but are mostly disappearing at present through systematic and sustainable control activity. The successful experience of STH control enables Korean experts to develop many programs of NTD control in developing countries. Several programs of both official development aid and non-governmental organizations are now targeting NTDs. Most NTDs are low in health priority compared to their health threats because they are chronic, insidious, and of low mortality. No one, including the victims, raised priority of NTD control with a loud voice in the endemic field of the diseases. After the millennium development goals declared disease control over the world, NTDs are becoming less neglected globally. Even with limited resources, beginning a sustainable national program is the key for the control and elimination of NTDs. No more neglect, especially no more self-neglect, can eliminate diseases and upgrade quality of life of the neglected people.

  2. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage.

  3. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones. They had been highly prevalent in Korea but are mostly disappearing at present through systematic and sustainable control activity. The successful experience of STH control enables Korean experts to develop many programs of NTD control in developing countries. Several programs of both official development aid and non-governmental organizations are now targeting NTDs. Most NTDs are low in health priority compared to their health threats because they are chronic, insidious, and of low mortality. No one, including the victims, raised priority of NTD control with a loud voice in the endemic field of the diseases. After the millennium development goals declared disease control over the world, NTDs are becoming less neglected globally. Even with limited resources, beginning a sustainable national program is the key for the control and elimination of NTDs. No more neglect, especially no more self-neglect, can eliminate diseases and upgrade quality of life of the neglected people. PMID:26617444

  4. Death Attitudes Among Middle-Aged Koreans.

    PubMed

    Hong, Michin; Hong, Seunghye; Adamek, Margaret E; Kim, Mee Hye

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting death attitudes among middle-aged Koreans. In addition, the study explored the interaction effect between knowledge about end-of-life care planning and the experience of death of family or friends on death attitudes. The sample was obtained from a national survey with middle-aged adults in South Korea ( n = 2,026). Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant main effects and an interaction effect between knowledge about end-of-life care planning and the experience of death on death attitudes. Greater knowledge of end-of-life care planning was associated with more positive attitudes toward death; however, the effect was stronger for those who had not experienced the death of family or friends. Being older and having greater life satisfaction were also associated with more positive attitudes toward death. This study suggests that end-of-life education can help middle-aged adults embrace the final stage of life and prepare for their own death.

  5. Korean American parents’ reconstruction of immigrant parenting in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Im, Haesang; Nahm, Eunyoung; Hong, Seunghye

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore 28 Korean American parents’ perceptions of parenting. Interview data were audio taped, transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Themes that emerged were: Korean parenting constructed in Korea, European American parenting observed in the United States, and resulting reconstruction of Korean American parenting. The findings indicate that Korean American parents’ perceptions of parenting are deeply rooted in the social contexts of where parents were brought up and where parents raise their children. These findings could be used to develop a culturally and linguistically competent parenting program for Korean American parents. PMID:23362693

  6. Whole genome sequencing of 35 individuals provides insights into the genetic architecture of Korean population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to a significant decline in the costs associated with next-generation sequencing, it has become possible to decipher the genetic architecture of a population by sequencing a large number of individuals to a deep coverage. The Korean Personal Genomes Project (KPGP) recently sequenced 35 Korean genomes at high coverage using the Illumina Hiseq platform and made the deep sequencing data publicly available, providing the scientific community opportunities to decipher the genetic architecture of the Korean population. Methods In this study, we used two single nucleotide variant (SNV) calling pipelines: mapping the raw reads obtained from whole genome sequencing of 35 Korean individuals in KPGP using BWA and SOAP2 followed by SNV calling using SAMtools and SOAPsnp, respectively. The consensus SNVs obtained from the two SNV pipelines were used to represent the SNVs of the Korean population. We compared these SNVs to those from 17 other populations provided by the HapMap consortium and the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) and identified SNVs that were only present in the Korean population. We studied the mutation spectrum and analyzed the genes of non-synonymous SNVs only detected in the Korean population. Results We detected a total of 8,555,726 SNVs in the 35 Korean individuals and identified 1,213,613 SNVs detected in at least one Korean individual (SNV-1) and 12,640 in all of 35 Korean individuals (SNV-35) but not in 17 other populations. In contrast with the SNVs common to other populations in HapMap and 1KGP, the Korean only SNVs had high percentages of non-silent variants, emphasizing the unique roles of these Korean only SNVs in the Korean population. Specifically, we identified 8,361 non-synonymous Korean only SNVs, of which 58 SNVs existed in all 35 Korean individuals. The 5,754 genes of non-synonymous Korean only SNVs were highly enriched in some metabolic pathways. We found adhesion is the top disease term associated with SNV-1 and Nelson syndrome is

  7. Disambiguation and Integration in Korean Relative Clause Processing.

    PubMed

    Mansbridge, Michael; Park, Sunju; Tamaoka, Katsuo

    2016-12-10

    Previous studies on Korean relative clauses (RC) show that, with respect to processing, object-extracted relative clauses (ORC) are more difficult to process at the head noun than subject-extracted relative clauses within temporarily ambiguous contexts. ORCs, however, are predicted by experience-based processing models to incur a greater processing cost during early processing stages at the RC verb, since it is a likely locus of disambiguation for RCs in Korean, and because ORCs are a less frequent structure. Consequently, the current study investigates whether processing difficulty for ORCs manifests itself at the RC verb using eye-tracking methods, a simple sentence structure and a sentential-decision task. The results revealed significantly increased go-past reading times for ORCs at the RC verb. We believe this is a result of a less frequent structure being more difficult to parse during disambiguation. Accordingly, experience-based models of processing can accurately predict difficulty for ORCs in Korean.

  8. Construct and concurrent validity of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory.

    PubMed

    Tak, Jinkook

    2006-04-01

    Construct and concurrent validity of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory were examined. Data were collected from 238 South Korean college students. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the original five-factor model. As hypothesized, scores were significantly correlated with various variables such as scores on the Korean versions of the Career Decision Scale (r =.49), the Vocational Identity Scale in My Vocational Situation (r=-.63), the Career Decision-making Self-efficacy Scale (r=-.47), and Negative Affectivity (r=.37). These results support construct validity inventory. Students who indicated they were undecided about their careers had significantly higher scores than those who indicated they had decided on a career, supporting concurrent validity. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  9. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M.

  10. Characteristics of Type D personality in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Lim, Hong Euy; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Yang, Jaewon; Kim, Jeong Jin; Lee, Jae Eun; Cha, Jae Yeon; Lee, Hongjae

    2012-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of the Type D construct using the Korean version of the Type D Personality-14 (DS14) on the Korean youth population and to identify relationships between the Type D construct and other mental health measures. Adolescent participants aged 13-18 years were recruited from 12 schools (7 middle schools and 5 high schools) in Ansan city, located in the southwest area of Gyeonggi-do province, Korea. A total of 4,899 students were assessed with the Korean version of the DS14, Beck depression inventory (BDI), Korean Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (K-ESI), Adolescent Mental health Problem behavior Questionnaire (AMPQ), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Korean version (AUDIT-K). We found significant differences in all the measured scales and subscale scores between two groups, those with Type D personality and those without (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). When comparing the distributions of the high risk participants identified by the results of BDI, K-ESI, AMPQ, and AUDIT-K between participants with either Type D or non-Type D personality, a significantly higher proportion of high risk participants were in the Type D personality group according to all measures (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). In conclusions, Type D adolescents experience various and more severe mental health problems. Type D personality was more related with internalizing symptoms in Korean adolescents. DS14 can be useful in a community mental health program designed for adolescents.

  11. KREAM: Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model for Aviation Route Dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.; Dokgo, K.; Choi, E. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, H. P.; Cho, K. S. F.

    2014-12-01

    Since Korean Air has begun to use the polar route from Seoul/ICN airport to New York/JFK airport on August 2006, there are explosive needs for the estimation and prediction against cosmic radiation exposure for Korean aircrew and passengers in South Korea from public. To keep pace with those needs of public, Korean government made the law on safety standards and managements of cosmic radiation for the flight attendants and the pilots in 2013. And we have begun to develop our own Korean Radiation Exposure Assessment Model (KREAM) for aviation route dose since last year funded by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). GEANT4 model and NRLMSIS 00 model are used for calculation of the energetic particles' transport in the atmosphere and for obtaining the background atmospheric neutral densities depending on altitude. For prediction the radiation exposure in many routes depending on the various space weather effects, we constructed a database from pre-arranged simulations using all possible combinations of R, S, and G, which are the space weather effect scales provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To get the solar energetic particles' spectrum at the 100 km altitude which we set as a top of the atmospheric layers in the KREAM, we use ACE and GOES satellites' proton flux observations. We compare the results between KREAM and the other cosmic radiation estimation programs such as CARI-6M which is provided by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA). We also validate KREAM's results by comparison with the measurement from Liulin-6K LET spectrometer onboard Korean commercial flights and Korean Air Force reconnaissance flights.

  12. Measurement of aesthetic proportions in the profile view of Koreans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jong Hwan; Jang, Yong Ju; Park, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Bong-Jae

    2009-02-01

    We have evaluated the usefulness of direct soft tissue measurements in profile photographs for determining the nasal proportions and angles of young Korean individuals and those of rhinoplasty patients, and we compared these findings with existing norms of Caucasian populations. We retrospectively compared preoperative profile measurements of nasal length, nasal tip projection, dorsal height, radix height, nasolabial angle, and nasofrontal angle in 123 patients who underwent rhinoplasty, with measurements in 21 young Korean adults. Rhinoplasty patients were grouped by preoperative diagnosis as deviated nose without saddle or hump, saddle nose, hump nose, and low radix. The young Koreans had a nasal length to nasal tip projection to dorsal height to radix height ratio of 2:0.97:0.61:0.28. Dorsal height differed significantly among groups of rhinoplasty patients. Those with low radix had the lowest dorsal and radix height, whereas those with saddle nose had the smallest nasal tip projection. The average nasolabial and nasofrontal angles were 78.5 degrees and 82.7 degrees, respectively, in young male Koreans and 126.0 degrees and 133.6 degrees, respectively, in young female Koreans. In the deviated nose group, all parameters except for nasofrontal angle were significantly changed after rhinoplasty. In the saddle nose group, nasal tip projection and dorsal height were significantly increased, whereas, in the hump nose group, nasal tip projection and nasolabial angle were significantly altered. Direct soft tissue measurement on profile photographs is useful for assessing nasal characteristics and postrhinoplasty outcomes. Compared with Caucasians, young Koreans had relatively lower dorsum and radix and more acute nasolabial angle, but similar nasofrontal angle.

  13. Development of a Korean Fracture Risk Score (KFRS) for Predicting Osteoporotic Fracture Risk: Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Jin; Park, ByeongJu; Kim, Tae-Young; Shin, Soon-Ae

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian-specific prediction models for estimating individual risk of osteoporotic fractures are rare. We developed a Korean fracture risk prediction model using clinical risk factors and assessed validity of the final model. Methods A total of 718,306 Korean men and women aged 50–90 years were followed for 7 years in a national system-based cohort study. In total, 50% of the subjects were assigned randomly to the development dataset and 50% were assigned to the validation dataset. Clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture were assessed at the biennial health check. Data on osteoporotic fractures during the follow-up period were identified by ICD-10 codes and the nationwide database of the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). Results During the follow-up period, 19,840 osteoporotic fractures were reported (4,889 in men and 14,951 in women) in the development dataset. The assessment tool called the Korean Fracture Risk Score (KFRS) is comprised of a set of nine variables, including age, body mass index, recent fragility fracture, current smoking, high alcohol intake, lack of regular exercise, recent use of oral glucocorticoid, rheumatoid arthritis, and other causes of secondary osteoporosis. The KFRS predicted osteoporotic fractures over the 7 years. This score was validated using an independent dataset. A close relationship with overall fracture rate was observed when we compared the mean predicted scores after applying the KFRS with the observed risks after 7 years within each 10th of predicted risk. Conclusion We developed a Korean specific prediction model for osteoporotic fractures. The KFRS was able to predict risk of fracture in the primary population without bone mineral density testing and is therefore suitable for use in both clinical setting and self-assessment. The website is available at http://www.nhis.or.kr. PMID:27399597

  14. Global health care trends and innovation in Korean hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jun, Lee Wang

    2013-01-01

    Health care is one of the most significant global issues. The Korean health care systems, which has both good and bad features, is grabbing international attention because of its cost effectiveness. However, it is also facing a lot of challenges such as a rapidly ageing population, increases in expenditure and too many competing acute hospitals. Therefore, many Korean hospitals have been trying to find innovative ways to survive. This article introduces some possible answers such as expansion and consolidation strategies, quality assureance, converging ICT and health care, attracting foreign patients, research-driven hospitals, public-private partnerships and a focus on service design and patient experience.

  15. Anger, anger expression, and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Han, Kuem Sun; Kwon, Jung Hye; Kim, Han Kyeom; Kang, Hyun Cheol; Yoon, Ji-Won; Cheon, Suk-Hee; Shin, Hyunjeong

    2010-06-01

    This study described the levels of anger, anger expression, and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents. Data from 18,752 adolescents were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Anger, anger expression, and suicidal ideation exhibited significant differences according to school level and gender. The group with higher anger and anger expression showed a higher average suicidal ideation score than that of the group with lower anger and anger expression, suggesting that school-based programs which alleviate anger may be needed to decrease suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents.

  16. Bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) infections in Korean native cattle.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Lee, Eun-Yong; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Hyun, Bang-Hun

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of a disease with parapox-like symptoms was reported in South Korea in April 2012. Three of 45 Korean native cattle, age 20-24 months, were affected. Parapoxviruses were detected and identified by electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To determine the genetic characteristics of the Korean strains, the sequence of the major envelope protein (B2L) was determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the parapoxvirus strains were closely related to not only isolates from Japan, but also isolates from Germany, Sudan and the United states. This is the first report on an outbreak and the molecular characterization of BPSV in Korea.

  17. Analysis of Selection Process for Management Education: Korean Military Case.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    OF SELECTION PROCESS FOR MANAGE.Y"FNT EDUCATION: KOREAN MILITARY CASE I ~~by 4 . m 3 Durk Kwan, Park * June 1984 * L.D Thesis Advisor: T. r.Swenson A...Anlyisof selection ?2-ocess for "aster’s Thcsis Vianajertent Eclucat ’on Korean M itiaryJue14 Cas 6 PERFORM-NO R RIEPCRT N-uMBER *7 A.~OR(., 8 CONTRACT...predicted [Ref. E]. 14 Chaptiz IV iresents the ierscnal characteristics tc takce into acccunt :or miana ~einent education and the identificatioz imethcd

  18. Psychometric assessment of the Emotional Reactions Instrument-Korean (ERI-K) to measure Korean children's emotional reaction to hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Sun; Park, Jeong-Hwan; Foster, Roxie L; Cheng, Sufen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test psychometric properties of the Emotional Reactions Instrument-Korean (ERI-K). A convenience sample of 170 hospitalized Korean children was recruited. Each child was asked to describe how she or he felt during hospitalization, through the ERI-K and the Facial Affective Scale. Surprisingly, children reported lower levels of negative emotions and physical discomfort and a moderate level of positive emotion (Happy, Good). Internal consistency reliability of .88 for the 14-item scale provides strong support for reliability. Construct validity was supported by item-to-total correlations ranging between .42 and .65. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors that explained 54% of the variance. Further testing of the ERI-K is recommended to provide additional evidence of psychometric adequacy across Korean populations.

  19. [From influence to confluence : positioning the history of pre-modern Korean medicine in East Asia].

    PubMed

    Suh, Soyoung

    2010-12-31

    This article surveys studies focusing on pre-modern Korean medicine, which are both written in English and analyzed primary sources up to 1876. Overall, the history of pre-modern Korean medicine is an unknown filed in Anglophone academia. Yung Sik Kim's, James Palais's, and Carter Ecart's problematization of the nationalist framework of Korean scholarship partially explains the marginality of the field. Addressing these criticisms, this review argues that pre-modern Korean medicine's uneasy task lies in both elaborating Korea's own experience of medicine, while simultaneously avoiding making the "Korean" category itself essential. Korean narratives of premodern medicine need to go beyond the mere territorilalization of Korean medicine against its Chinese, Japanese, or Western counterparts, thereby to tackle the field's own boundary of research objects. The existing scholarship in English responds to this challenge by primarily examining the way in which Korea has shared textual tradition with China. Sirhak scholars' innovation in medicine, visual representation of Tongŭi bogam, Korean management of epidemics in the eleventh century, and Korean indexing of local botanicals, engages not only native achievements, but also the process of modifying medicine across geographical and political boundaries. More to the point, the emerging native narratives, although written in Korean, are implicitly resonant with those currently present in Anglophone academia. Taking "tension," "intertextuality," and "local traits" as a lens, this article assesses a series of current research in Korea. Aiming to go beyond appeals for a "distinctively" Korean experience of medicine, the future study of Korean pre-modern medicine will further elucidate confluences of different flows, such as "Chinese and Korean," "universal and local," "center and periphery," and "native and foreign," which will eventually articulate a range of Korean techniques of creating a bricolage in medicine.

  20. Gender equity and equality on Korean student scientists: A life history narrative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Changsoo

    Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators

  1. Limb length and dementia in an older Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J; Stewart, R; Shin, I; Yoon, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: There has been little research into risk factors for dementia outside Western settings, in particular the importance of early life nutrition as estimated by adult body size. This study investigated the associations of arm and leg length with cognitive impairment and dementia in a community sample of older Korean people. Methods: 746 community residents aged 65 or over were clinically assessed for dementia and cognitive impairment. The following were also measured: arm length (demispan), leg length (iliac crest height), and sitting height (standing height minus iliac crest height). Reproductive history was also ascertained in women. Results: Shorter demispan and leg length were associated with increased age and lower education. They were also associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease after adjustment for these factors. These associations were only significant in women but were not explained substantially by timing of the menarche or menopause. The association between lower education and dementia was also stronger in women, but was not explained substantially by limb length. Conclusions: Shorter limb length was associated with lower childhood socioeconomic status, as estimated by the presence/duration of formal education. It was also independently associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Sex differences in this association might be explained by gender disadvantage in early life for this cohort or by different associations with health states (for example, cardiovascular disease) later in life. PMID:12640055

  2. The Korean Solar Radio Burst Locator (KSRBL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Yujiang; Gary, Dale E.; Liu, Zhiwei; Nita, Gelu M.; Bong, Su-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Park, Young-Deuk; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of the Korean Solar Radio Burst Locator (KSRBL). The KSRBL is a radio spectrometer designed to observe solar decimeter and microwave bursts over a wide band (0.245–18 GHz) as well as to detect the burst locations without interferometry or mechanical sweeping. As a prototype, it is temporarily observing at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), California, USA, and after commissioning will be operated at the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, Republic of Korea. The control system can agilely choose four 500 MHz intermediate frequency (IF) bands (2 GHz instantaneous bandwidth) from the entire 0.245–18 GHz band, with a standard time resolution of 100 ms, although higher time resolution is possible subject to data-rate constraints. To cover the entire band requires 10 tunings, which are therefore completed in 1 s. Each 500 MHz band is sampled at a 1 GS s-1 (gigasample per second) rate, and 4096 time samples are Fast Fourier transformed (FFT) to 2048 subchannels for a frequency resolution of 0.24 MHz. To cover the entire range also requires two different feeds, a dual-frequency Yagi centered at 245 and 410 MHz, and a broadband spiral feed covering 0.5–18 GHz. The dynamic range is 35 dB over the 0.5–18 GHz band, and 55 dB in the 245 and 410 MHz bands, set by using switchable attenuators in steps of 5 dB. Each 500 MHz IF has a further 63 dB of settable analog attenuation. The characteristics of the spiral feed provide the ability to locate flaring sources on the Sun to typically 2‧. The KSRBL will provide a broadband view of solar bursts for the purposes of studying solar activity for basic research, and for monitoring solar activity as the source of Space Weather and solar-terrestrial effects.

  3. Low D4Z4 copy number and gender difference in Korean patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Jun; Hong, Ji-Man; Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Seok; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Min; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Young-Chul

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and genetic features of Korean patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD), and assessed the impact of molecular defects on phenotypic expression. We enrolled 104 FSHD patients from 87 unrelated Korean families with D4Z4 repeat array of less than 11 copies on 4q35. Sixty-one men and forty-three women were enrolled. Median D4Z4 copy number was 4 units and 99 (95%) Korean patients with FSHD carried 1-6 units. The median age at symptom onset was 13 [interquartile range: 8-17] years old. In 100 symptomatic patients, muscle weakness began in facial muscles in 58 patients, shoulder-girdle muscles in 37, and pelvic-girdle muscles in 5. Disease severity was significantly correlated with D4Z4 copy number. In addition, women were more severely affected than men even though there were no differences in age at examination or in D4Z4 copy number between the two genders. This gender difference among Korean patients was the opposite of analysis on individuals of European ancestry. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the new diagnostic threshold for FSHD in Koreans based on the D4Z4 repeat array size distribution from 1 to 6 units and expanded the clinical spectrum.

  4. Understanding Cultural Issues in Diabetes Self-Management Behaviors of Korean Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eun Seok; Yang, Kyeongra; Lee, Jia; Min, Jiwon; Kim, Kevin H.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore potential factors affecting self-management behaviors in Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (KIT2Ds). Methods A qualitative descriptive design guided this study. Semi-structured interviews lasting 45-60 minutes were conducted with 20 KIT2Ds in the participant’s preferred language; in all cases this was Korean. Each interview was audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Data analysis was performed in two steps. The data written in Korean were initially analyzed by three bilingual researchers. A qualitative researcher then participated in the analysis to refine the findings for presentation to an English speaking audience while staying true to the data and preserving the nuanced Korean meanings. Results The mean age of the sample was 64. 5 ± 11.6 years (9 men and 11 women). The mean years of staying in the U. S. and age at diabetes mellitus diagnosis were 23.6 ± 9.7 years and 52.5 ± 12.3 years, respectively. Three major ideas were identified: (a) issues on treatment regimen related to both medications and diet, (b) resources that helped or hindered their ability to manage diabetes, and (c) the physician/patient relationship. Conclusions There were important cultural nuances that need to be addressed to better prepare KIT2Ds to manage their diabetes more effectively. A culture specific program should extend beyond a diabetes self-management education delivered in Korean language. Rather, content and education methods need to consider acculturation effects on diabetes management behaviors. PMID:23019236

  5. Anemia and activities of daily living in the Korean urban elderly population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Lim, Soo; Kim, Jee Hyun; Park, Young Joo; Chin, Ho Jun; Kim, Ki Woong; Jang, Hak-Chul; Lee, Jong Seok

    2013-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of anemia and its impact on health-related quality of life and activities of daily living (ADL) in elderly Koreans. Of the 1,118 randomly sampled elderly Koreans aged 65 years or older living in Seongnam, Korea, on Aug. 1, 2005, we estimated the prevalence of anemia from 695 responders. We investigated the risk factors of anemia using a merged sample of this random sample and 270 volunteers enrolled from Seongnam residents aged 85 years or older. We diagnosed anemia according to the World Health Organization criteria. The estimated age- and gender-standardized prevalence of anemia was 8.33 % for the overall random sample (95 % confidence intervals (CI) 6.28-10.39), 10.58 % in men (95 % CI 7.09-14.07), and 6.85 % in women (95 % CI 4.37-9.34). The identified risk factors were age ≥80 years, male, iron deficiency, history of stroke, renal dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Anemia was associated with impairment in physical functioning (p = 0.031) and instrumental ADL (p < 0.001). This is the first report about anemia's prevalence in community-dwelling Korean elders, adjusted and standardized according to the city's and nation's population. Timely diagnosis of anemia and correction of its treatable cause may improve QOL and ADL in elderly individuals.

  6. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  7. Intergenerational Comparisons of Paternal Korean Child Rearing Practices and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Kwanghee; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Explored possible antecedents of paternal child rearing in middle-class, two-parent, Korean families. Found that fathers reported disciplinary practices similar to those of their own fathers. Fathers reported more nurturance and acceptance/flexibility than grandfathers. Paternal job satisfaction, relationship with own mother, and educational…

  8. The North Korean Economy: Leverage and Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-26

    rapid growth and trade liberalization to China, Thailand, Malaysia and other Asian nations. The “Stalinist” North Korean economy can be...0 Preparations of Cereal, Flour , starch or Milk; Bakers Wares 2,459 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Misc. Grain, Seed, Fruit 1,573 0 0 0 0 0 Dairy Products and Birds

  9. Using Facebook to Promote Korean EFL Learners' Intercultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Seunghee

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language learners often have limited opportunity to interact with people from the target culture and develop their intercultural competence (IC) through those interactions both inside and outside of the classroom. To identify a new opportunity to engage Korean EFL learners in innovative ways to maximize target language interactions and…

  10. Science Laboratory Classroom Environments in Korean High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Barry J.; Lee, Sunny S. U.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the learning environment of senior high school science laboratory classrooms in Korea, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was translated into Korean and administered to 439 students (99 science-independent stream students, 195 science-oriented stream students and 145 humanities stream students). Data…

  11. Weight Perception and Dieting Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gyuyoung; Ha, Yeongmi; Vann, Julie Jacobson; Choi, Eunsook

    2009-01-01

    This study examines relationships among weight status, weight perceptions, and dieting behaviors in South Korean adolescents. As perceptions of an ideal body for teens in Korea have changed over time, it is important for school nurses to understand these relationships to help students achieve health. A cross-sectional survey of 3,191 8th and 2,252…

  12. Unpacking Parent Involvement: Korean American Parents' Collective Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Minjung

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which a group of Korean American parents perceived and responded to institutional inequalities in a family-school partnership. In their school, which had a growing Asian population, the dominant group's middle-class perspective on parent involvement became normal and operated as an overarching structure. Drawing…

  13. The perceptual assimilation of Korean obstruents by native Mandarin listeners.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    The current study reports the results of a perception experiment in which 20 naive native Mandarin listeners classified and rated the goodness of Korean stops /p, t, k, p(h), t(h), k(h), p*, t*, k*/, affricates /tɕ, tɕ*, tɕ(h)/, and fricatives /s(h), s*/ in terms of Mandarin segmental categories. It was found that listeners were sensitive to the voice onset time dimension of Korean stops and the presence of aspiration in Korean affricates, but Korean lenis and aspirated obstruents were generally assimilated to a single Mandarin category because the f0 cue differentiating them is not relevant to any Mandarin segmental contrast. The affricates were perceived as alveolopalatal and postalveolar more often than alveolar. The perception of fricatives was strongly influenced by vowel context, as the two fricatives were often perceived as different categories before /a/, but as the same category more often before /i/ and /u/. The results for the affricates and fricatives may be partly explained by Mandarin phonotactic constraints that prohibit alveolar and postalveolar consonants before /i/ and alveolopalatal consonants before /a/ or /u/.

  14. South Korean Higher Education Internationalization Policies: Perceptions and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, John D.; Cho, Young Ha

    2012-01-01

    Our study investigates how Korean universities are designing and implementing internationalization policies to meet the demands of globalization. Relying upon globalization theory we reveal how power is embedded within these internationalization efforts. Indeed, we accept the notion that the United States is the world's superpower and therefore…

  15. The Role of Antibody in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kim, Kyungil

    2010-01-01

    A subsyllabic phonological unit, the antibody, has received little attention as a potential fundamental processing unit in word recognition. The psychological reality of the antibody in Korean recognition was investigated by looking at the performance of subjects presented with nonwords and words in the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, the…

  16. Screening for ASD with the Korean CBCL/1½-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Kim, Young Ah; Oh, Kyung Ja

    2015-01-01

    To test the Child Behavior Checklist's (CBCL/1½-5) ability to screen for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we studied Korean preschoolers: 46 with ASD, 111 with developmental delay (DD), 71 with other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 228 non-referred (NR). The ASD group scored significantly higher than the other groups on the Withdrawn and…

  17. Korean clinical practice guideline for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Choi, Hun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Heon; Yang, Seong Ok; Oh, Chul Young; Cho, Young Sam; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the Korean Urological Association organized the Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Guideline Developing Committee composed of experts in the field of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the participation of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine and the Korean Continence Society to develop a Korean clinical practice guideline for BPH. The purpose of this clinical practice guideline is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of BPH. The committee developed the guideline mainly by adapting existing guidelines and partially by using the de novo method. A comprehensive literature review was carried out primarily from 2009 to 2013 by using medical search engines including data from Korea. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence of the recommendations was determined by using methods adapted from the 2011 Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Meta-analysis was done for one key question and four recommendations. A draft guideline was reviewed by expert peer reviewers and discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. This evidence-based guideline for BPH provides recommendations to primary practitioners and urologists for the diagnosis and treatment of BPH in men older than 40 years. PMID:26966724

  18. Estimating radiation risk induced by CT screening for Korean population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Won Seok; Yang, Hye Jeong; Min, Byung In

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to estimate the radiation risks induced by chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) screening for healthcare and to determine the cancer risk level of the Korean population compared to other populations. We used an ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator to compute the organ effective dose induced by CT screening (chest, low-dose chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis CT). A risk model was applied using principles based on the BEIR VII Report in order to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) using the Korean Life Table 2010. In addition, several countries including Hong Kong, the United States (U.S.), and the United Kingdom, were selected for comparison. Herein, each population exposed radiation dose of 100 mSv was classified according to country, gender and age. For each CT screening the total organ effective dose calculated by ImPACT was 6.2, 1.5, 5.2 and 11.4 mSv, respectively. In the case of Korean female LAR, it was similar to Hong Kong female but lower than those of U.S. and U.K. females, except for those in their twenties. The LAR of Korean males was the highest for all types of CT screening. However, the difference of the risk level was negligible because of the quite low value.

  19. Situational Meanings and Functions of Korean Speech Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sangseok

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to provide a perspective which allows honorifics to be seen beyond the frame of politeness and/or formality in social structures. Korean school grammar explains honorifics as linguistic forms that reflect relative social positional difference (e.g., K-H. Lee, 2010), and has assumed that social structure and language use have a…

  20. The Role of Religion in Korean Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the role of religion in Korean elite and higher education during the premodern and modern periods with descriptive analysis. The study focuses on the contribution of Buddhism and Confucianism to premodern elite education in Korea, particularly the interaction between Confucianism and Christianity with modern higher education in…