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  1. Korean women's breast cancer experience.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Eun Ok; Park, Young Sook

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore cultural meanings of breast cancer among Korean women in South Korea. A descriptive longitudinal study using methodological triangulation was conducted, and only qualitative findings are presented in this article. Ten Korean women who were newly diagnosed with a plan of surgery and subsequent chemotherapy, who did have severe fatigue at the time of recruitment, were recruited through Seoul National University Hospital. Data were collected using in-depth, 2-hour interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. The themes emerged through the analysis process included: (a) "I did wrong," (b) "I cannot ask male physicians." (c) "I don't want to show the operation site to my husband." and (d) "I do household tasks by myself." The overriding theme was marginalization of the women within the context of their patriarchal culture. The findings suggest that culture is an important context circumscribing women's health/illness experience.

  2. Korean women's attitudes toward physical activity.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Choe, Myoung-Ae

    2004-02-01

    In this study attitudes toward physical activity of three groups of Korean women were explored using a feminist qualitative research design. Seventeen healthy Korean women, 11 Korean women at risk of muscular atrophy, and 16 Korean immigrant women were recruited using a purposive sampling method. In-depth interviews using an interview guide were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that the women viewed physical activity holistically, that death was viewed as the opposite of physical activity, that exercise was differentiated from physical activity, that exercise was connected to health, and that the women rarely participated in exercise because of their busy lives. The findings confirm the importance of considering the psychosocial contexts of attitudes toward health behavior.

  3. Attitudes toward Women in Adolescent Korean Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Gahyun

    Since the 1960s Korean society has been influenced by a variety of Western cultures, resulting in considerable changes in the roles assumed by women, especially related to their increasing employment. However, less than 3% of all managers or administrators are women. The Attitudes Toward Women scale and questionnaires concerning other…

  4. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  5. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  6. Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs among Older Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Young; Lee, Eunice E.; Kim, Mi Ja; Fogg, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Korean American women’s breast cancer screening rates are low, and the rates among older Korean American women are even lower. This article describes health beliefs related to older Korean American women’s screening behaviors, comparing them to beliefs of younger Korean American women. The 73 women age 65 and older had significantly different health beliefs than the 114 women between ages 40 and 64. Further, older women’s perceptions of the seriousness of the disease and benefits of and barriers to taking action to prevent the disease predated their screening behaviors. Interventions to change the health beliefs of older Korean American women are suggested. PMID:19715259

  7. Immigration patterns, social support, and adaptation among Korean immigrant women and Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y; Grant, D

    1997-01-01

    There are little empirical data available on the mental health and social functioning of Korean American Women (both native U.S. born and foreign Korean-born U.S. residents, inclusive). State-of-the-art research used to inform social work practice is exploratory descriptive. With the goal of contributing to the social work knowledge base regarding this understudied population, this article uses an emic understanding and approach to examine immigration patterns, social support networks, and issues around adaptation experienced by Korean American women. Issues examined include gender role disruption, limited use of social services, and evidence of depressive symptoms in Korean American women and subsequent risk of substance abuse, suicide, battering, loss of employment, deficits in parenting, and mental health problems. Focus on these areas of functioning suggests the need for development of culturally competent community, family, individual, and organizational-level intervention strategies.

  8. Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.

    PubMed

    Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

    2008-09-01

    American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain.

  9. A feminist critique of breast cancer research among Korean women.

    PubMed

    Im, E O

    2000-08-01

    Studies indicate ethnic differences in incidence, mortality, and survival rate of breast cancer. Despite the low incidence rate of breast cancer among the Korean population, Koreans are reported to be less likely to survive breast cancer. In this article, using a feminist perspective, the reasons why Korean women have been reported to be less likely to survive breast cancer are analyzed through a critical review of research among Korean women. A total of 469 studies (145 unpublished master's theses and doctoral dissertations and 324 articles published in South Korea and in the United States) were reviewed, analyzed, and critiqued in terms of biases present in the research process. Through a feminist critique of the literature, four possible reasons are proposed: androcentric views and assumptions underlying the research, modesty issues imbedded in Korean culture, the victim-blaming tendency of Korean culture, and intense emotions without adequate support.

  10. Korean and Japanese Women: An Analytic Bibliographical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Hesung Chun, Ed.

    This book is a selective bibliography and index of materials on Korean and Japanese women, their history, social and cultural patterns, sex roles, family and kinship patterns, and other characteristics. Designed to assist researchers in the systematic selection of information for descriptive or comparative research on Korean and Japanese women,…

  11. Birth outcomes of Korean women in Hawaii.

    PubMed Central

    Mor, J M; Alexander, G R; Kieffer, E C; Baruffi, G

    1993-01-01

    Since the end of the Korean War, immigration of Koreans to the United States has increased rapidly. In 1990, 11.6 percent of all Asians in the United States were of Korean ethnicity, and it is projected that Koreans will outnumber all other Asian groups, except Filipinos, in the United States by the year 2030. Despite the growing size of this population, very little is known about their health status. This study, using 1979-89 Hawaii vital record data, investigates the relationship between maternal sociodemographic characteristics, prenatal care utilization factors, and birth outcomes among Koreans as compared with Caucasians. The ethnic term "Caucasian" is used in Hawaii's vital records and is synonymous with non-Hispanic whites. Korean mothers were more likely to be older and have lower educational attainment, and less likely to be adolescent, single, or to have received adequate prenatal care than Caucasian mothers. More than 80 percent of the Korean mothers were foreign born. Significantly higher risks for very preterm delivery (less than 33 weeks) and very low birth weight births were observed for Koreans as compared with Caucasians. Nativity had no effect on birth outcome in this population. The results of this study suggest that prevention of preterm birth is an important focus for improving pregnancy outcomes in this growing ethnic group. PMID:8341786

  12. The present situation of Korean women's organizations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y S

    1991-01-01

    This report was translated and excerpted from the original research report on Korean women's organizations by the Korean Women Development Institute (KWDI). There were 2200 women's groups in 1988. Their collective strength has not been felt even though strong opinions on women's issues are expressed. 303 groups from the KWDI directory were selected of which 14 city or provincial councils of women's groups are represented: the cities of Pusan, Taegu, Inchon, Kwangju, Taejon and provinces of Kyungki, Kangwon, North Chungchong, South Chungchong, North Cholla, South Cholla, North Kyongsang, and South Kyongsang. The survey provides a general overview and is not representative of all women's groups. Results are presented in general, by organizational structure and facilities, by purpose of establishment and types of activities, and financial conditions. The results of the survey of 93 national organizations and the 210 local organizations show that 85.5% are registered (260 out of 303) and 14.2% are nonregistered (25 national and 18 local). 192 out of 210 local groups are part of national groups of which 148 are registered. Few groups at the local level are independent. Registration data are provided by Ministry. Organizational growth occurred in the 1980s with the addition of 115 groups. Most nonregistered groups were formed after 1981. New membership is dependent on fulfilling specified qualifications. 32.3% require professional credentials. 11% did not have qualifications. 40% of groups have 500 members, 14.8% with 1-5000 members, and 10.3% with 10,000 members. 43 groups have their own branches, i.e., 43.2% have 10 branches and 34.1% have 10-20 branches or 79.3% have 20 branches. 72.6% employ full-time staff, of which 35.5% are paid. 54.8% have 3 staff and 6.9% have 10 staff. 35.8% rent, 28.5% own, and the others use free space in houses or offices. Social welfare concerns were the most frequent objectives. "Improving women's social status and rights" was a more

  13. Studies of Korean and Japanese Women: An Analytical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Hesung Chun, Comp.; And Others

    This is the first English language, book-length bibliography on Korean and Japanese women. The primary aim of the guide is to facilitate a wide variety of research, either descriptive or comparative, on Asian American women. The guide was designed with on-line interactive data retrieval in mind. Work toward this goal is now underway at the…

  14. Brow archetype preferred by Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Kee; Cha, Seung Hyun; Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Won; Kim, Young Suk

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow archetype is preferred by Korean women. The archetypes were chosen from a literature search, which contain detailed, replicable methods and have diagrams (Westmore, Lamas, Anastasia, Schreiber, and Hwang). A survey was conducted on 300 subjects (group A, 100 female medical students; group B, 100 women who had visited a plastic surgery clinic for periorbital rejuvenation; and group C, 100 women who visited the brow bar). They were asked whether they think there might be a method that yields an ideal brow archetype. In the cases where they said yes, they were asked to choose 1 of the illustrated 5 brow archetypes that they think is ideal. Among the 300 respondents, 232 (77.3%) thought there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype, whereas 68 (22.7%) answered they did not. The preference for the brow archetypes was different among the 5 archetypes (P = 0.0001, χ2). Anastasia was the most preferred (44.8%, brow starts on a perpendicular line drawn from the middle of the nostril, arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil, and ends on a line drawn from the edge of the corresponding nasal ala through the outer edge of the eye). Anastasia was followed by Lamas (22.0%). In group A, Anastasia (55.7%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (26.2%) and Westmore (13.1%). In group B, Anastasia (34.8%) was the most preferred, followed by Lamas (30.3%) and Westmore and Schreiber (both 13.5%). In group C, Anastasia (47.6%) was the most preferred, followed by Hwang (25.5%) and Westmore (11.0%). There was a significant difference (P < 0.001) among the 3 groups. There was a significant correlation between the preference of brow archetype and occupation (P = 0.0033). However, no significant differences were noted for the preference of brow archetype between the age groups of younger than 30 years and older than 30 years (P = 0.1374), level of education (P = 0.3403), marital status (P = 0

  15. Depression in non-Korean women residing in South Korea following marriage to Korean men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the roles of acculturative stress, life satisfaction, and language literacy in depression in non-Korean women residing in South Korea following marriage to Korean men. A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire. A total of 173 women were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method. The relation between acculturation, depression, language literacy, life satisfaction and socio-demographic variables and the predictors of depression among participants were analyzed. The analysis included descriptive statistics and hierarchical multiple regression. Of the participants, 9.2% had depression, which was almost twice the rate of depression found in the general Korean population. In hierarchical multiple regression analysis, acculturative stress (beta=-.325, P<.001) and life satisfaction (beta=-.282, P=.003) were significantly associated with the level of depression. This final model was statistically significant and life satisfaction, acculturative stress, language literacy accounted for 31.0% (adjusted R(2)) of the variance in the depression score (P<.001). Elevated acculturative stress and less life satisfaction were significantly associated with a higher level of depression in migrant wives in Korea. Implications for practice and research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristic features of ageing in Korean women's hair and scalp.

    PubMed

    Kim, S N; Lee, S Y; Choi, M H; Joo, K M; Kim, S H; Koh, J S; Park, W S

    2013-06-01

    The effect of age on hair properties has previously been investigated in white and Japanese women; however, little is known of the age-related characteristic features of hair in Korean women. To determine the ageing features of Korean women's hair by examining physical and biological factors in sufficient numbers of participants. In total, 150 healthy Korean women (aged 23-69 years) living in Seoul were allocated to five age-graded groups. Age-related changes of various features of the scalp and hair shaft were measured, including hair density, diameter, tensile strength and lustre, and grey-hair ratio. The hair-shaft compositions of minerals, amino acids and steroid hormones were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hair-loss parameters (hair density, diameter and tensile strength) and hair lustre decreased significantly with age, beginning in the subjects' 40s. The hair-whiteness value increased significantly with age, beginning in their 60s, due to an increase in the ratio of grey hair. Calcium and magnesium levels greatly exceeded the reference ranges and declined in an age-dependent manner, while potassium and phosphorus levels increased with age. No age-related change of hair-shaft amino acid content was evident. The contents of sterols and their metabolites (cholesterol, desmosterol, lanosterol and pregnenolone) increased significantly with age, but there was no correlation between the examined sex steroids and age. These results show that intrinsic ageing produces diverse changes in the hair and scalp features of Korean women from their 40s, and the ageing features of Korean women's hair could be partially different from that of women in other countries. © 2013 Amorepacific Corp. BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. A Qualitative Investigation of Korean Immigrant Women's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Eunju; Lee, Dal Yob; Koo, Young Ran; Yoo, Sung-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Postimmigration adjustment experiences of 10 Korean immigrant women were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Seven domains emerged: general life conditions; gender role; changes in family dynamics; ethnic/national identity, cultural competency, and belongingness; value changes; racial relationships; and support systems and…

  18. A Qualitative Investigation of Korean Immigrant Women's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Eunju; Lee, Dal Yob; Koo, Young Ran; Yoo, Sung-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Postimmigration adjustment experiences of 10 Korean immigrant women were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Seven domains emerged: general life conditions; gender role; changes in family dynamics; ethnic/national identity, cultural competency, and belongingness; value changes; racial relationships; and support systems and…

  19. Gene expression profiling in melasma in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Chung, Bo Young; Noh, Tai Kyung; Yang, Sang Hwa; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Mi Woo; Yoon, Tae Jin; Chang, Sung Eun

    2014-01-01

    There has been a paucity of data about the difference in gene expression between melasma lesional skin and normal adjacent one. Our aim was to identify novel genes involved in the pathogenesis of melasma. We performed a microarray analysis and confirmed the results on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in Korean women with melasma. There were 334 genes whose degree of expression showed a significant difference between melasma lesional skin and normal adjacent one. Of these, five were confirmed on qRT-PCR. In melasma lesional skin, there were down-regulation of genes involved in the PPAR signaling pathway and up-regulation of genes involved in neuronal component and the functions of stratum corneum barrier. This result suggests that the pathogenesis of melasma might be associated with novel genes involved in the above signaling pathway in Korean women.

  20. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  1. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  2. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women.

  3. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seulki; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women.

  4. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. Methods: We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. Results: A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women. PMID:27255073

  5. Health concept and health promotion process among Korean migrant women.

    PubMed

    Cha, Chiyoung

    2013-01-01

    My purpose in this study was to explore the concepts of health and the health promotion process among Korean women who migrated to North America for their children's education. Interviews and surveys were analyzed using a grounded theory analysis and descriptive statistics. Women in this study established their health concept and health promotion process in accordance to their socially constructed mother role. The women established unique meanings of health and developed an altruistic motivation to be healthy that allowed them to actively pursue health promotion despite their traditional care provider roles.

  6. Assimilation and health service utilization of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Son, Juyeon

    2013-11-01

    In this case study, I present descriptive findings with regard to immigrant incorporation and health service utilization. Using focus groups and survey of Korean immigrant women in Wisconsin, I examine whether the ways in which they adapt to the U.S. society is relevant to their health services utilization and the alternatives they seek when available health services are less than satisfactory. The findings suggest that adherence to Korean identity appears to be associated with health service utilization. This is evident in the immigrants' evaluation of the U.S. health services as compared to those of Korea, and the consideration given by these immigrants to seeking health services in Korea instead of the United States. Such concerns on the part of these immigrants have important implications for health researchers, as they highlight the significance of immigrants' transnational experiences and their sense of personal agency in the use of health care.

  7. Cancer screening behaviors among Korean-American women.

    PubMed

    Juon, H S; Choi, Y; Kim, M T

    2000-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate breast and cervical cancer screening tests and to examine the correlates of cancer screening behaviors. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey of 438 Korean-American women residing in Maryland was conducted. About 50% of women age 18 and older had had a Pap smear and 46.6% of these women age 40 and older had had a mammogram in the past 2 years. In multiple logistic regression analyses, the strongest correlate of screening behaviors was having a regular medical checkup. Age and acculturation were found to be important correlates of cancer screening tests: Women less than 50 years of age were more likely to have cancer screening tests than those 50 years and older. English language proficiency was associated with having a mammogram and the proportion of life spent in the United States was associated with having a Pap smear. Employment interacted with marital status for a Pap smear, with those married and unemployed being less likely to have a Pap smear than women who were both married and employed. For strategies to increase cancer-screening tests among Korean-American women, we need to aim at developing culturally appropriate educational programs about cancer for less acculturated and recent immigrants.

  8. The Curves Exercise Suppresses Endotoxemia in Korean Women with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome is a worldwide pandemic and associated with high cardiovascular risk. Metabolic endotoxemia (ME) is thought to be an underlying molecular mechanism. It triggers toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory adipokines and causes a chronic low grade inflammatory status, which results in cardiovascular risk increase. Exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment to improve prognosis. In this study, we examined the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women and investigated effects of exercise on it. Women over body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2 participated in a resistance training exercise, Curves. At baseline and after 12 weeks exercise, tests including blood samples were taken. In Korean obese women, the fasting endotoxin was 1.45 ± 0.11 EU/mL. Ingestion of a high calorie meal led to a peak level after 2 hours (postprandial 2 hours [PP2]) and a significant rise over the 4 hours (postprandial 4 hours [PP4]) in it (1.78 ± 0.15 and 1.75 ± 0.14 EU/mL for PP2 and PP4, P < 0.05 vs. fasting). After exercise, BMI and hip circumference were reduced significantly. The total cholesterol (TC) at fasting, PP2 and PP4 were decreased significantly. All levels of circulating endotoxin at fasting, PP2 and PP4 showed reduction. But, the peak change was only significant (baseline vs. 12 weeks for PP2; 1.78 ± 0.15 vs. 1.48 ± 0.06 EU/mL, P < 0.05). We report the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women for the first time. Also, we establish that energy intake leads to endotoxemia and exercise suppresses the peak endotoxemia after meal. It suggests an impact for a better prognosis in obese women who follow regular exercise. PMID:28049238

  9. The "Jolly Fat" Effect in Middle-Aged Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Park, Hyun-Young

    2017-09-18

    It has been hypothesized that depression and obesity are bi-directionally associated, and when overweight people appear to show a lower risk of depression, this supports the "Jolly Fat" hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the "Jolly Fat" hypothesis in middle-aged women in Korea, by different perceived stress levels. We performed a cross-sectional study of 44 to 56 aged Korean women (n = 2201) who underwent a health check-up program at the healthcare centers of Kangbuk Samsung Hospital (Seoul and Suwon centers) in Korea. General and abdominal obesity were defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) and waist circumference ≥85 cm, respectively. Depressive symptoms were measured by a Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. The association between obesity and depressive symptoms was investigated by using multiple logistic regression analyses by different levels of perceived stress, with adjustment for potential confounding factors. The prevalence of general and abdominal obesity and depressive symptoms were 23.7%, 21.4%, and 16.5%, respectively. Women with general obesity were less likely to have depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25-1.00; p-value: 0.049) in the low-stress group. We also found that women with abdominal obesity had a 60% decrease in the odds of having depressive symptoms (OR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; p-value: 0.02) in the low-stress group. No significant association was found in the high-stress group. These findings indicate that the relationship between obesity and depressive symptoms in the Korean middle-aged women supports the "Jolly Fat" hypothesis. Further, our results underscore the role of stress as an important potential mediator exerting effects on the association between obesity and depressive symptoms.

  10. The Curves Exercise Suppresses Endotoxemia in Korean Women with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jin, Seon Ah; Kim, Sun Kyeong; Seo, Hee Jung; Kim, Mijoo; Ahn, Kye Taek; Kim, Jun Hyung; Park, Jae Hyeong; Lee, Jae Hwan; Choi, Si Wan; Jeong, Jin Ok

    2017-02-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome is a worldwide pandemic and associated with high cardiovascular risk. Metabolic endotoxemia (ME) is thought to be an underlying molecular mechanism. It triggers toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory adipokines and causes a chronic low grade inflammatory status, which results in cardiovascular risk increase. Exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment to improve prognosis. In this study, we examined the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women and investigated effects of exercise on it. Women over body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m² participated in a resistance training exercise, Curves. At baseline and after 12 weeks exercise, tests including blood samples were taken. In Korean obese women, the fasting endotoxin was 1.45 ± 0.11 EU/mL. Ingestion of a high calorie meal led to a peak level after 2 hours (postprandial 2 hours [PP2]) and a significant rise over the 4 hours (postprandial 4 hours [PP4]) in it (1.78 ± 0.15 and 1.75 ± 0.14 EU/mL for PP2 and PP4, P < 0.05 vs. fasting). After exercise, BMI and hip circumference were reduced significantly. The total cholesterol (TC) at fasting, PP2 and PP4 were decreased significantly. All levels of circulating endotoxin at fasting, PP2 and PP4 showed reduction. But, the peak change was only significant (baseline vs. 12 weeks for PP2; 1.78 ± 0.15 vs. 1.48 ± 0.06 EU/mL, P < 0.05). We report the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women for the first time. Also, we establish that energy intake leads to endotoxemia and exercise suppresses the peak endotoxemia after meal. It suggests an impact for a better prognosis in obese women who follow regular exercise.

  11. Korean Culture and the Reentry Motivations of University-Graduated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Suh Young; Merriam, Sharan

    2004-01-01

    Well-educated Korean women are returning to higher education in unprecedented numbers. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the motivations of these women for returning to higher education. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 Korean full-time housewives aged 25 to 45 who already had a bachelor's degree and who enrolled as…

  12. Correlates of leisure-time physical activity in Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; Wilbur, Joellen; Miller, Arlene; Szalacha, Laura; McAuley, Edward

    2008-08-01

    This study describes the physical activity behavior of Korean immigrant women and examines the relationships among leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) behavior, background, and intrapersonal correlates of behavior in Korean immigrant women in the United States using a cross-sectional survey design. A convenience sample of Midwestern Korean immigrant women completed the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Korean. Among the participants, 78% were physically active, meeting the Healthy People 2010 goal for physical activity when all physical activity behaviors were considered, whereas 23% met the goal when only LTPA was considered. Women who were older, did not have a child younger than 5, used environmental resources for physical activity, had lower depressive symptoms, and had higher confidence for overcoming exercise barriers were spent more time in LTPA. Accommodating those with young children, enhancing environmental resource use, and improving exercise self-efficacy are important considerations for interventions aimed at increasing LTPA in Korean immigrant women.

  13. Korean women's attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Pritham, U A; Sammons, L N

    1993-01-01

    A convenience sample of 40 native-born pregnant Korean women receiving prenatal care at a U.S. military facility in a major metropolitan area in Korea completed a questionnaire about attitudes toward pregnancy and prenatal care. Responses revealed a family life characterized by positive maternal and paternal perceptions of the pregnancy and less preference for a male child than we had anticipated. Traditional beliefs in Tae Mong, a conception dream, and Tae Kyo, rituals for safe childbirth, were followed. Food taboos, including protein sources, were reported. Attitudes toward prenatal care services, care providers, and maternal health habits are described.

  14. Association between Parity and Blood Pressure in Korean Women: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Miae; Choi, Jiho; Kim, Beomseok; Kang, Jayeon; Kim, Yongchae; Cho, Sewook

    2015-01-01

    Background Pregnancy considerably alters cardiovascular dynamics, and thereby affects the transition of blood pressure after delivery in women. We aimed to analyze the association between parity and blood pressure in Korean adult women. Methods We included 8,890 women who participated in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2012. We divided the population according to the menopause status and analyzed the association between parity and blood pressure by using multiple regression analysis, and on hypertension, by using logistic regression analysis. Results Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with parity in premenopausal women (β=-0.091 [P<0.001] and β=-0.069 [P<0.001], respectively). In the analysis that excluded women receiving antihypertensive medication, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of postmenopausal women were significantly associated with parity (β=-0.059 [P=0.022] and β=-0.054 [P=0.044], respectively). Parity was found to prevent hypertension after adjustment for confounders in postmenopausal women (odds ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.310-0.985). Conclusion We found that parity prevented hypertension in Korean women. PMID:26634103

  15. "Thank You, Sorry, Love" (TSL) Therapy with North Korean Refugee Women: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Jae Yop; Kim, Dong Goo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of The "Thank You, Sorry, Love" (TSL) family therapy program in potentially improving the marital relationships and health of North Korean refugee women. Methods: The participants included 12 married North Korean female refugees in their 20s to 40s. Using a blinded…

  16. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  17. "Thank You, Sorry, Love" (TSL) Therapy with North Korean Refugee Women: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Jae Yop; Kim, Dong Goo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of The "Thank You, Sorry, Love" (TSL) family therapy program in potentially improving the marital relationships and health of North Korean refugee women. Methods: The participants included 12 married North Korean female refugees in their 20s to 40s. Using a blinded…

  18. Group Work for Korean Expatriate Women in the United States: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Suhyun; Lee, Myoung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exploratory research with a group of seven Korean expatriate women. The study employed a modified Reality Therapy approach over eight meetings conducted by two professionally qualified leaders who also speak Korean. Qualitative research methods were used to analyze and describe the participants' experiences.…

  19. Teaching about the Korean Comfort Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunduk

    2012-01-01

    During World War II, human rights violations against women took on gargantuan proportions of indescribable horror. The Japanese military engaged in the systematic abduction of women from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and other nations and confined them to military installations in Japanese-occupied territories to serve…

  20. Teaching about the Korean Comfort Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunduk

    2012-01-01

    During World War II, human rights violations against women took on gargantuan proportions of indescribable horror. The Japanese military engaged in the systematic abduction of women from China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, and other nations and confined them to military installations in Japanese-occupied territories to serve…

  1. The affecting factors of breast anthropometry in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sa Jin; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Min-Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Breast anthropometric morphology affects various factors with diverse physiognomy, making accurate measurements very difficult. The aim of this study was to measure the female breast using anthropometry and to use this method on normal subjects to examine breast asymmetry and consider the influence of age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), parity, delivery mode, and breastfeeding in premenopausal Korean women. In total, 17 parameters of breast were measured with participants in a standing position. Breast volume was also assessed. The mean values of the right and left breast volumes were calculated as 386.0±342.5 mL and 393.3±347.2 mL, respectively. With aging, the height of women decreased, but the weight, BMI, upper chest, middle chest, lower chest, waist, and hip widths, nipple-nipple length, and ptosis increased with statistical significance. No asymmetric differences were observed between each breast, except for nipple-inframammary fold length in 20-30-year-old women and upper arm length in 41-50-year-old women. In our study, the breast volume increased with age as a result of weight gain, but the delivery mode and breastfeeding did not affect anthropometric breast measurements. In conclusion, age, weight, and BMI are important factors in determining breast anthropometry in our study. The results of the present study will help in the comparison of the anthropometric breast values of Korean women with those of women in other countries and may also be useful in the understanding of breast physiologic change-related obstetrical factors and epidemiologic factors.

  2. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and depression in Korean women: results from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Eun; Lee, Jung Eun

    2011-12-30

    Depression is the fourth leading factor of disease burden for the global female population, but while increasing evidence has supported a contributing role of depression in cardiovascular disease, little is known about this association within the female population of Korea. We examined the association in a study of 5658 Korean women who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 279 cases of depression were included. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were associated with higher odds of depression: ORs (95% CIs) were 3.99 (2.25-7.05) for current smokers with <5 pack-years vs. never-smokers, 1.97 (1.18-3.30) for ≥28 vs. <20kg/m(2) of body mass index, 1.42 (1.03-1.95) for 100-125 vs. <100mg/dL of fasting serum glucose levels, and 2.10 (1.46-3.03) for a history of hyperlipidemia. Women with a history of two or three comorbid disorders (diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease) had a 1.63-fold higher OR for depression than women without any of these diseases. Korean women with depression had a greater prevalence of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease than women without depression.

  3. The Role of Leisure Engagement for Health Benefits Among Korean Older Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Irwin, Lori; Kim, May; Chin, Seungtae; Kim, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to examine the benefits of leisure to older Korean women. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, in this study we identified three categories of benefits from leisure activities: (a) developing social connections, (b) enhancing psychological well-being, and (c) improving physical health. The findings of this study demonstrate that involvement in leisure activities offers substantial physical, psychological, and social benefits for older Korean women. The results also suggest that these benefits can provide an opportunity for older Korean adults to improve their health and well-being, which, in turn, may help promote successful aging.

  4. Measuring health literacy among immigrants with a phonetic primary language: a case of Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Jiyun; Kim, Miyong T; Kim, Kim B

    2011-04-01

    While the need for understanding the issue of health literacy among ethnic minority groups with limited English skills is rapidly increasing in the US, it is difficult to find valid and useful health literacy tools for certain linguistic minorities. This study was designed to validate the Korean translation of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults-Short form (S-TOFHLA). Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA were administered to 98 Korean American women, together with REALM-English. Participants were first-generation immigrants who were educated in Korea. Both Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA resulted in a negatively-skewed distribution. REALM-English yielded well-distributed groups with significant correlations with Korean REALM and S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.30, P = 0.003 and 0.22, P = 0.03, respectively). Educational level was significantly correlated with REALM-English and Korean S-TOFHLA (Spearman's rho = 0.39, P = 0.000 and 0.25, P = 0.014), but not with REALM-Korean. The translation of REALM and S-TOFHLA into the Korean language did not lead to a valid assessment of health literacy. A more systematic approach is needed to assess health literacy in immigrants with limited English skills, particularly those with a phonetic primary language. Meanwhile, REALM-English could be used as a crude health literacy test for individuals with some English skills.

  5. Alternative view of health behavior: the experience of older Korean women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin Hyang; Yang, Bok Sun

    2011-03-01

    In this study we explored the perspectives of older Korean women on the principles and meanings of health behavior. Participants were 12 women age 65 and older, with no serious illnesses requiring hospitalization, who were living independently. We used an interpretative phenomenological approach for data collection and analysis. Seven themes emerged: (a) eating well in accordance with one's physical requirements; (b) maintaining one's inherited health; (c) controlling one's illness properly; (d) maintaining good relationships with close relatives and friends; (e) being modest and free from greed; (f) staying in harmony with nature; and (g) regaining energy and vitality. These experiences were mainly based on the traditional Korean concept of health promotion, "food is medicine," rather than on Western concepts of health promotion. In providing optimal geriatric nursing care for Korean older women, the results will be significant because they are based on older women's traditional Korean perspectives of health promotion rather than existing perspectives of Western medicine.

  6. Health care seeking behavior of Korean women with lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myoung Ok

    2004-06-01

    The present biocultural study aimed to describe the health care use patterns of women with lymphedema. Data came from interviews and participant observations with eight key informants between February 2000 and February 2002. Analyzing the process of seeking health care, this paper explored how Korean women with lymphedema make use of all the available resources in the three sectors of the health care system: professional, folk and popular health. In these three sectors of the health care system, informants showed different patterns of behavior. In the professional health care sector, they behave based on scientific Western medicine and holistic herbal medical frameworks. Informants want scientific technological treatment from a Westernized doctor and perfect humanistic and holistic treatment from a herbal doctor. In the folk sector, informants' behavior is ruled by a pragmatic and supernatural framework. Informants seek religious healers who have strong spirituality and non-religious healers who have experience and skills. Informants complied with these healer's remedies based on efficacy and empirical healing evidence. In the popular sector of the health care system, informants behave based on their concept of illness and rules of daily life. They believe lymphedema comes from poor blood circulation and they want to be regarded as members of society, not as patients with lymphedema. Therefore, informants practised popular remedies that they believed were good for promoting blood circulation and keeping their social network active. This description about health care seeking behaviors being embedded in Korean socio-medical culture can serve to understand patients with other chronic health problems. With these results, we can put a bridge over the river of cultural conflict between health professionals and patients.

  7. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Korean Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Sil

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia, presarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia in healthy Korean elderly women. Methods We measured the muscle mass and muscle function of 196 ambulatory women over the age of 65 years who visited the University Hospital Menopause Clinic. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Assessment of hand grip strength (HGS) of the dominant hand was performed to measure the muscle strength, and 4-m straight on-way path was used to measure gait speed for physical performance. The values used to define the presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia were based on the cutoff values proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Results The mean age of women was 71.2 years, and the mean SMI in 196 women was 5.94 kg/m2. The average HGS was 20.3 kg, and the mean gait speed was 1.08 m/sec. In 41 out of the 196 women (20.9%), the SMI was reduced to less than 5.4 kg/m2. Fifty-nine women (30.1%) had HGS of less than 18 kg, and gait speed was less than 0.8 m/sec in 12 women (6.1%). Twenty-six women (13.3%) were classified into the presarcopenia stage, and 15 women (7.6%) were classified into the sarcopenia stage. There was no case of severe sarcopenia. Conclusions One out of five relatively healthy women aged more than 65 years showed a decrease in muscle mass, and 7.6% of women showed a decrease in muscle mass and strength. The sarcopenia stage was also intensified with aging. PMID:26713310

  8. Regulation of small dense LDL concentration in Korean and Scottish men and women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hong Keun; Shin, Gilja; Ryu, Sung Kee; Jang, Yangsoo; Day, Stephen P; Stewart, Grace; Packard, Chris J; Shepherd, James; Caslake, Muriel J

    2002-09-01

    Small dense LDL is now emerging as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. The amount of the LDL III has been reported to differ between ethnic groups. To investigate differences in the distribution of LDL subfractions between Korean and Scottish populations, we measured the plasma concentration and percent distribution of three major LDL subfractions in age-and sex-matched, middle aged, healthy 124 Korean and Scottish subjects (32 Korean men vs. 32 Scottish men; 30 Korean women vs. 30 Scottish women). Body mass index and waist circumference did not differ between the two ethnic groups. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations were higher in Scottish men compared with Korean men (P<0.01), while plasma triglyceride concentration was higher in Korean men and women (P<0.01 in men, P<0.05 in women). HDL cholesterol concentrations in both Korean men and women were lower than that of their Scottish counterparts (P<0.05 in men; P<0.001 in women). Korean men had lower concentrations of total LDL (242+/-65 vs. 325+/-122 mg/dl, P<0.01), LDL I (24+/-18 vs. 60+/-36 mg/dl, P<0.001) and LDL II (110+/-56 vs. 196+/-78 mg/dl, P<0.001). In contrast, LDL III concentration was markedly higher in Korean men (108+/-75 vs. 70+/-65 mg/dl, P<0.05). Likewise, the percent of LDL I (10.0+/-7.3 vs. 19.1+/-10.1%, P<0.001) and LDL II (47.2+/-20.7 vs. 60.1+/-10.9%, P<0.01) were lower in Korean men, while that of LDL III was higher (42.8+/-24.9 vs. 20.8+/-15.0%, P<0.001). In the female population, there were no differences in total LDL and LDL I concentrations between Korean and Scottish. LDL II concentration was lower in Korean women (106+/-53 vs. 151+/-57 mg/dl, P<0.01). Korean women showed a higher percent of LDL III (24.8+/-24.7 vs. 14.2+/-5.9%, P<0.05) and a lower LDL II (47.8+/-19.1 vs. 61.0+/-10.0%, P<0.01). Multiple linear regression revealed that plasma triglyceride concentration was the most important determinant of the LDL III subfraction concentration in

  9. Social and cultural construction of urinary incontinence among Korean American elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youngmi; Crogan, Neva L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the social and cultural constructions that influence help-seeking for urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean American elderly women. Many Korean American elder women do not perceive UI as a problem worthy of attention. The reason may lie in its social and cultural construction. The social construction is rooted in the collectivist nature of Korean culture, which makes UI a family, rather than an individual, problem. The cultural construction is related to Confucianism, which directs conceptions about ageism, shame, and fatalism. This article will help the gerontological nurse to better understand Korean American elderly women's sociocultural background related to UI care and could lead to appropriate family centered interventions to manage or treat UI in this population.

  10. The stranded individualizer under compressed modernity: South Korean women in individualization without individualism.

    PubMed

    Kyung-Sup, Chang; Min-Young, Song

    2010-09-01

    South Korean families have functioned as a highly effective receptacle for the country's highly compressed conditions of modernity and late modernity. It is as much due to the success of South Korean families as an engine of compressed modernity as due to their failure that they have become functionally overloaded and socially risk-ridden. Such familial burdens and risks are particularly onerous to South Korean women because of the fundamentally gender-based structure of family relations and duties that has in part been recycled from the Confucian past and in part manufactured under industrial capitalism. Under these complicated conditions, South Korean women have had to dramatically restructure their family relations and duties as well as their individual life choices. Furthermore, under the most recent condition of what Beck calls second modernity, other institutions of modernity, such as the state, industrial economy, firms, unions, schools, and welfare systems, have become increasingly ineffective in helping to alleviate such (gender-based) familial burdens and dilemmas. As a result South Korean women have experienced dramatic changes in marriage patterns, fertility, family relations, etc. South Korean women's individualization has thereby taken place primarily as a matter of practicality rather than ideational change. A brief analysis of the situation in the neighbouring societies of Japan and Taiwan reinforces the conclusion that individualization without individualism, particularly among women, is a region-wide phenomenon in East Asia.

  11. Osteoporosis and milk intake among Korean women in California: relationship with acculturation to U.S. lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Veronica L; Nichols, Jeanne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D; Song, Yoon Ju; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-12-01

    The Korean population in the US increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the US report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity.

  12. Osteoporosis and Milk Intake among Korean Women in California: Relationship with Acculturation to U.S. Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Song, YoonJu; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Korean population in the U.S. increased by a third between 2000 and 2010. Korean women in the U.S. report low calcium intake and relatively high rate of fractures. However, little is known about the prevalence of osteoporosis among Korean American women. This paper examined the relationship between prevalence of osteoporosis and milk consumption, and their relationship with acculturation among a representative sample of immigrant California women of Korean descent. Methods Bilingual telephone surveys were conducted from a probability sample (N = 590) in 2007. Results Lower acculturation significantly related to lower milk consumption for women during the age periods of 12-18 and 19-34 years. Acculturation was related to higher prevalence of osteoporosis among post-menopausal, but not pre-menopausal Korean women in California. Discussion Future research should include larger cohorts, objective measures of osteoporosis, other sources of calcium specific to Korean cuisine, and assessment of bone-loading physical activity. PMID:23338905

  13. Responses to Overdiagnosis in Thyroid Cancer Screening among Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Choi, Eunji; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-07-01

    Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon. Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening afterreceiving information on overdiagnosis,whilewomen with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention. Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening.

  14. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women. The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: “traditional,” “western,” and “prudent.” The “prudent” dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the “prudent” dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36–0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59–0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43–0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42–0.68). However, the “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS. The “prudent” dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  15. Korean immigrant women's lived experience of childbirth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jin Young; Kim, Wooksoo; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    To understand Korean immigrant women's common experiences and practices of utilizing health care services in the United States during childbirth. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design. Recruitment was conducted through advertisement on the MissyUSA.com website, which is the largest online community for married Korean women who live in North America. A purposive sample of 15 Korean immigrant women who experienced childbirth in the United States within the past 5 years was recruited. Data were collected using semistructured telephone interviews and were analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. During childbirth in the United States, participants faced multifaceted barriers in unfamiliar sociocultural contexts yet maintained their own cultural heritages. They navigated the unfamiliar health care system and developed their own strategies to overcome barriers to health care access. Korean immigrant women actively sought health information on the Internet and through social networking during childbirth. Korean immigrant women selectively accepted new cultural beliefs with some modifications from their own cultural contexts and developed their own distinct birth cultures. Understanding a particular culture and respecting women's traditions, beliefs, and practices about their childbirth could help nurses to provide culturally sensitive care. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. Factors influencing the life satisfaction in the older Korean women living alone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2013-04-01

    The population of Korea is aging rapidly. The older population varies in characteristics in accordance with a wide-range of circumstances; therefore, categorizing the overall older population as a homogeneous group, could misrepresent their issues. For that reason, the study of older people should be focused on the diversity of characteristics among the older population. The aims of this study were to examine and identify the factors related to life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone. This study was a cross-sectional survey design. The participants comprised of 243 older women over the age of 65, who met eligibility criteria. Measures were a demographic characteristics form, the Health Self-Rating Scale, the Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Korean Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form, and the Life Satisfaction Instrument. Degrees of the perceived health status, self-esteem, and depression were higher than the median. Life satisfaction was lower than the median. Predictors that determine life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone were depression, perceived health status, self-esteem, and monthly allowance. All these predictors, or factors, had an explanatory power of 48.2% for life satisfaction among older Korean women living alone. Of all these predictor factors, depression had the largest impact. The major factor influencing the life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone was depression. These findings suggest that there is a need to develop nursing strategies aimed at decreasing depression in order to increase life satisfaction in older women living alone.

  17. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Nguyen, Tuong L; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Hopper, John L; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2015-09-01

    We carried out this study to evaluate the association between mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI and early-onset breast cancer in Asian women. We recruited 213 Korean patients with breast cancer (45% diagnosed before the age of 50 years) and 630 controls matched for age, menopausal status, and examination date. The percentage and absolute size of dense areas on digital mammograms were measured using a computer-assisted thresholding technique (Cumulus). We carried out an analysis using the conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for covariates. An increase by 1 SD in age and BMI-adjusted absolute dense area and percentage dense area was associated with a 1.15-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.29) and 1.20-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.37) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively. These associations were stronger for premenopausal disease (P=0.07 and 0.01, respectively) and for disease diagnosed before age 50 (P=0.07 and 0.02, respectively) than for postmenopausal disease (P=0.16 and 0.23, respectively) or later onset disease (P=0.10 and 0.10, respectively). There was no difference in the associations with premenopausal versus postmenopausal and early-onset versus late-onset disease. After adjusting for age and BMI, both a greater absolute dense area and a greater percentage dense area were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly at a young age.

  18. Face consciousness among South Korean women: a culture-specific extension of objectification theory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Yeon; Seo, Young Seok; Baek, Keun Young

    2014-01-01

    This study tested key tenets of objectification theory with South Korean women and explored the roles of sexually objectifying media and culture-specific standards of beauty in body image and eating disorder symptoms. Two pilot studies with South Korean college women (n = 40, n = 30) revealed that facial characteristics such as size and shape represent a discrete variable among culture-specific standards of beauty for South Korean women. Results with a sample of 562 South Korean college women indicated that media exposure had significant positive indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms through the mediating roles of internalization, body surveillance, and face surveillance. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty had significant positive direct relations with body surveillance and face surveillance and had both direct and indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Body and face surveillances had significant positive direct relations with body shame and had indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, body shame mediated the links from internalization and surveillance variables to eating disorder symptoms. The results support the applicability of objectification theory as it relates to South Korean women and point to the significance of culture-specific standards of beauty within that framework. These findings could contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research, with potential implications for therapist practices and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Risk of Breast Cancer in Korean Women: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Kim, Eun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer incidence by age group in Korean women are unique. This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer risk in Korean women. Methods: We searched electronic databases such as KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and RISS4U as well as PubMed for publications on Korean breast cancer patients. We also conducted manual searching based on references and citations in potential papers. All of the analytically epidemiologic studies that obtained individual data on HRT exposure and breast cancer occurrence in Korean women were selected. We restricted the inclusion of case-control studies to those that included age-matched controls. Estimates of summary odds ratio (SOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effect models. Results: One cohort and five case-control studies were finally selected. Based on the heterogeneity that existed among the six studies (I-squared=70.2%), a random effect model was applied. The summary effect size of HRT history from the six articles indicated no statistical significance in breast cancer risk (SOR, 0.983; 95% CI, 0.620 to 1.556). Conclusions: These facts support no significant effect of HRT history in the risk of breast cancer in Korean women. It is necessary to conduct a pooled analysis. PMID:26429288

  20. Vitamin D status and its associations with rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taeck-Hyun; Jin, Woo Sung; Park, Juwon; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Bae, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, vitamin D status and its associations with rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women were investigated. Total 2,162 women’s data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008–2014 ware analyzed by complex sampling design logistic regression analysis and complex sampling design general linear model. Women who over 19 years old were included, and who has osteoporosis or abnormal parathyroid hormone or renal failure or liver cirrhosis or abnormal creatinine were excluded. Age and body mass index were used as covariate. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin D status were not associated with development of rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women as well were not associated with pain and quality of life in Korean women with rheumatoid arthritis. Based on the present study and considering the effects of vitamin D on fracture and osteoporosis, it can be suggested that additional cohort study and cost-effectiveness analysis are needed. PMID:28119885

  1. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Beliefs, practices, and experiences of Korean women in relation to childbirth.

    PubMed

    Park, K J; Peterson, L M

    1991-01-01

    Korean women's health beliefs and childbirth experiences in the United States were examined. A convenience sampling procedure was used, and face-to-face interviews were conducted in Korean. Interviews were audiotaped, typed, and translated from Korean to English. These women had a holistic concept of health. Some practices were influence by ancient Chinese medicine. Childbirth experiences indicated that language is a barrier requiring specific interventions. Recommendations include (a) development of an assessment tool with which health-care professionals can identify individual health beliefs early in pregnancy; (b) development of a bilingual pamphlet about medical terms and the U.S. health-care system; (c) development of a short bilingual dictionary of common foods for use in menu selection during hospitalization; and (d) provision of English practice periods based on anticipatory guidance principles to prepare women to ask for specific assistance.

  3. Associations among Organochlorine Pesticides, Methanobacteriales, and Obesity in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Sook; Lee, Je-Chul; Lee, In-Kyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Background Although Methanobacteriales in the gut has recently been linked to obesity, no study has examined the hypothesis that waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are positively associated with Methanobacteriales in the general population. Since Methanobacteriales increase in a petroleum-contaminated environment to biodegrade petroleum as one way of autopurification, we also hypothesized that high body burden of highly lipophilic petroleum-based chemicals like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is associated with higher levels of Methanobacteriales in the gut. Methodology/Principal Findings Among 83 Korean women who visited a community health service center for a routine health checkup, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on 16S rDNA was used to quantify Methanobacteriales in feces. Nine OCPs were measured in both serum and feces of 16 subjects. Methanobacteriales were detected in 32.5% (27/83 women). Both BMI and waist circumference among women with Methanobacteriales were significantly higher than in women without Methanobacteriales (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively). Also, Methanobacteriales levels in feces were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference (r = +0.23 and P = 0.03 for both). Furthermore, there were significant correlations between feces Methanobacteriales levels and serum concentrations of most OCPs, including with cis-nonachlor (r = +0.53, P<0.05), oxychlordane (r = +0.46, P<0.1), and trans-nonachlor (r = +0.43, P<0.1). Despite high correlations of serum and feces concentrations of most OCPs, feces OCP concentrations were not clearly associated with feces Methanobacteriales levels. Conclusion/Significance In this cross-sectional study, the levels of Methanobacteriales in the human gut were associated with higher body weight and waist circumference. In addition, serum OCP concentrations were positively correlated with levels of Methanobacteriales. There may be a meaningful link among

  4. Early Korean War Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Raymond S. H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the themes of the war front news reported in certain South Korean and United States newspapers during the first 16 days of the Korean War; attempts to determine significant differences in the themes of war front news between the Korean and United States papers. (Author/GT)

  5. Trends in Cancer Screening Rates among Korean Men and Women: Results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), 2004-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Ha; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) is a continuous nationwide survey implemented by the National Cancer Center in Korea since 2004. The purpose of the present study was to report trends in cancer screening rates for the five major cancers (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) in Korean men and women. Materials and Methods The study used KNCSS data collected between 2004 and 2010. The survey was conducted on Korean men aged 40-74 years and Korean women aged 30-74 years with no history of cancer diagnosis. The annual percentage change and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to examine changes in annual screening rates. Results Screening rates with recommendation increased by 4.4% annually for stomach cancer, 1.5% for liver cancer, 2.8% per year for colorectal cancer, 4.5% for breast cancer, and 1.2% for cervix uteri cancer. The increasing trend in cancer screening rates, with the exception of liver cancer, was significant. Conclusion Cancer screening rates have increased consistently from 2004 to 2010 among Korean men and women. Stomach and breast cancer screening rates in particular have increased markedly. PMID:22022290

  6. A randomized controlled trial of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women: preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun S; Sitthisongkram, Somporn; Bernstein, Kunsook; Fang, Hua; Choi, Won S; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Korean women are reluctant to pursue in-person smoking cessation treatment due to stigma attached to women smokers and prefer treatment such as telephone and online smoking cessation programs that they can access secretively at home. However, there is some evidence that face-to-face interaction is the most helpful intervention component for them to quit smoking. Methods This study is a pilot clinical trial that examined the acceptability and feasibility of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women and compared its preliminary efficacy with a telephone-based intervention. Women of Korean ethnicity were recruited nationwide in the United States and randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to either a video arm or a telephone arm. Both arms received eight 30-minute weekly individualized counseling sessions of a deep cultural smoking cessation intervention and nicotine patches for 8 weeks. Participants were followed over 3 months from the quit day. Results The videoconferencing intervention was acceptable and feasible for Korean women aged <50 years, whereas it was not for older women. Self-reported abstinence was high at 67% and 48% for the video and telephone arm at 1 month post-quit, respectively. The rates declined to 33% for the video arm and 28% for the telephone arm at 3 months post-quit when salivary cotinine test was performed. Conclusion Findings support that both videoconferencing and telephone counseling can be effective, and personal preference is likely an important factor in treatment matching. The deep cultural smoking cessation intervention may account for the outcomes of telephone counseling being better than prior studies in the literature for Korean women. PMID:27660494

  7. Cultural and social network predictors of drinking among Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Ayers, John W; Chambers, Christina D; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C; Reyes, Washington D; Kang, Sunny W; Irvin, Veronica L; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2011-02-01

    This study estimated the association of cultural and social mechanisms with Korean American women's drinking behaviors. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with 591 Korean women selected from a random sample of households in California with Korean surnames during 2007. About 62% of eligible respondents completed the interview. Respondents reported any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking volume (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days), level of acculturation, and described their social network by assessing who encouraged or discouraged drinking (drinking support) or drank (drinking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. About 70% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]:, 67, 74) of Korean American women reported any lifetime drinking and current drinkers drank 1.18 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.28) drinks on drinking days. Acculturation was not significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking volume, whereas models and support for drinking were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking more on drinking days. Each additional encourager, or one or fewer discourager, for drinking in women's social networks was associated with a 2% (95%CI: 1, 3) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.25 (95%CI: -0.53, 1.18) more drinks on drinking days. Each additional drinker in women's networks was associated with a 4% (95%CI: 1, 8) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.26 (95%CI: -0.05, 0.60) more drinks on drinking days. Korean American women's drinking appears to be strongly related to their social networks, although how women take on traits of their new environment was not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluations of the Enhanced Logo-autobiography Program for Korean-American Women.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyung Mi; Bernstein, Kunsook

    2017-09-05

    This study extends Bernstein et al.'s (2016) investigation of the effects of the Enhanced Logo-autobiography Program on Korean-American women's depressive symptoms, coping strategies, purpose in life, and posttraumatic growth by analyzing quantitative and qualitative data. This study's participants significantly improved on quantitative measures of depression, coping strategies, purpose in life, and post-traumatic growth at eight weeks post-intervention and follow-up. The qualitative content analysis revealed 17 themes with five essential themes. The program's activity to promote purpose in life through posttraumatic growth facilitated participants' recovery from traumatic experiences. Standardized guidelines are needed to conduct this program in Korean community centers.

  9. Coping with Breast Cancer: Reflections from Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Patricia; Nuñez, Alicia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Lim, Jung-Won; Flores, Katrina; Nápoles, Anna María

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study identified and compared the coping strategies of Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Chinese- (n = 21), Korean- (n = 11), and Mexican-American (n = 9) BCS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated for thematic content analysis of coping experiences and strategies. Results Women reported the use of eight coping strategies (religious/spiritual, benefit finding, fatalism, optimism, fighting spirit, information seeking, denial, and self-distraction). Among Chinese-American BCS, benefit finding was the most referenced coping strategy, whereas religious/spiritual coping was most frequently reported among Korean- and Mexican-American BCS. Denial and self-distraction were the least cited strategies. Conclusions Survivors draw upon new found inner strength to successfully integrate their cancer experience into their lives. Coping models must consider the diversity of cancer survivors and the variability in coping strategies among cultural ethnic minority BCS. PMID:26389720

  10. The Mother-Daughter Relationship as a Resource for Korean Women's Career Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hyunjoo

    2001-01-01

    Examined Korean women's career aspirations, noting interrelationships between external factors (school and peer experiences) and internal factors (maternal influences in the mother-daughter relationship) in the development of self-perception and the significance of sex role behaviors. Surveys of college students indicated that nontraditional sex…

  11. Intravenous immunoglobulin G in women with reproductive failure: The Korean Society for Reproductive Immunology practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Sung, Nayoung; Han, Ae Ra; Park, Chan Woo; Park, Dong Wook; Park, Joon Cheol; Kim, Na Young; Lim, Kyung Sil; Shin, Ji Eun; Joo, Chang Woo; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Jae Won; Lee, Sung Ki

    2017-03-01

    The task force of the Korean Society for Reproductive Immunology recommends intravenous immunoglobulin G treatment in women with reproductive failure, including recurrent pregnancy loss and/or repeated implantation failure, who show cellular immune factors such as abnormal natural killer cell levels, natural killer cell cytotoxicity, and/or type 1 T helper immunity.

  12. Re/membering (to) Shifting Alignments: Korean Women's Transnational Narratives in U.S. Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2006-01-01

    At the location of alter-native researcher in US higher education, the author interweaves two Korean women's transnational narratives that intersect with her autobiographical route. Through this re-narrativization, the paper discusses the material and ideological specificities that place each individual differently in engagements with various…

  13. Do christian denominations exhibit higher rates of alcohol consumption? A study of Korean American women in California.

    PubMed

    Kang Sim, D Eastern; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Ayers, John W; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-03-01

    Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption among Korean American women in California. Polychotomous regression models were used to provide estimates of the associations between religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption. Catholic Korean American women (OR 5.61 P < 0.01) and Independent Christian women (OR 4.87 P < 0.01) showed stronger associations to heavy alcohol consumption when compared to Conservative Christian Korean American women. Path analysis suggested that specific denominations had both direct and indirect effects on the outcome of interest, and that religious commitment and drinking models served as moderators for this phenomenon.

  14. Assessment of the relationships among posture, maxillomandibular denture complex, and soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choi, B; Baek, S H; Yang, W S; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among the posture, the maxillomandibular denture complex, and the soft-tissue profile of aesthetic adult Korean women. From an initial group of 346 women, the authors examined 28 beautiful adult Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. There were no differences in the inclinations of the incisors to the occlusal planes in the maxilla and the mandible in the data for Korean women vs. Arnett's data for white women. However, the overbite and overjet in Korean women were slightly smaller than in white women. AB to maxillary occlusal plane angle (MxOP) represented the anteroposterior denture base discrepancy to the occlusal plane. Angulation of the maxillary occlusal plane to the Frankfurt (FH) plane and the true vertical line at submasale (TVL) (Sn) was a little steeper in Korean women than in white women. The FH plane was almost parallel to the true horizontal line in Korean women who had normal vertical and sagittal skeletal relationships and normal occlusion. With regard to soft-tissue variables, the upper lip length (Sn-Stms), interlabial gap, upper incisor exposure, nasolabial angle, lip and nose tip projection value, and TVL (Sn)-to-upper lip line (UL) angle showed interracial differences. The results of this study can assist in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthognathic surgery.

  15. Factors influencing help-seeking behavior among battered Korean women in intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Yop; Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2011-10-01

    In total, 123 battered Korean women who used domestic violence agencies were asked where they had turned for assistance in response to intimate partner violence. This study examined the factors related to use of formal and informal resources by these women. Formal resources included police, medical, legal, and shelter; informal were family or neighbors. Findings revealed that (a) the women studied used a variety of resources and that (b) income, violence-related injuries, and partner child abuse were related to whether they contacted police. Injury and partner child abuse were related to contacting a medical doctor/medical facility. Income, relationship status, and partner child abuse were related to approaching family or neighbors. The key finding was that partner child abuse increased the likelihood of battered Korean women seeking help from formal service resources and informal networks. This suggests the need for integrative services that link women's and children's protective services in order to meet the needs of both victims and children.

  16. Leisure-time physical activity among midlife Korean immigrant women in the US.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyeongra; Laffrey, Shirley C; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Im, Eun-Ok; May, Kathleen; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the level of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among midlife Korean American women and to determine the relationships of LTPA with individual characteristics and behavior-specific cognition and affects. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 152 middle-aged Korean American women in Central Texas was conducted using a health-promotion model of physical activity adapted from Pender's Health Promotion Model. The results showed that 32% of the participants were not engaged in any form of exercise. The level of acculturation was not significantly related to the amount of physical activity. After age, level of acculturation, education, income, and marital status were controlled, LTPA was significantly associated with perceived benefits and barriers and social support. Physical inactivity, which was common in this group of immigrant women, warrants further rigorous investigation to determine the dynamics of the women's involvement in more physical activity.

  17. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening.

  18. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Medicine Seoul, Korea * S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SUM ARY Urban rats captured in Seoul and four nearby Korean cities were found to have...rattus, urban Korean cities, 1980. . . . 15 Table 2. Isolation of Hantaan virus from antigen-positive wild house rats, Korea , 1980 .... ........... .. 16...Figures Figure 1. Map of Seoul City, South Korea and metropolitan area showing locations of urban Korean hemorrhagic fever cases, andRattu s positive

  19. Prospects from Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    South Korea , China, the United States and, to a lesser extent, Japan and Russia will be examined to determine prospects from Korean reunification...the “tilt” of a unified Korea , and with it, the future Northeast Asian strategic environment. 1 PROSPECTS FROM KOREAN REUNIFCATION Throughout most of...the 20th century, the Korean people have yearned for the establishment of an independent and unified Korea . Before World War II, this was denied to

  20. Cultural and Social Network Predictors of Drinking among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Chambers, Christina D.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Reyes, Washington; Kang, Sunny W.; Irvin, Veronica; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the association of cultural and social mechanisms with Korean American women’s drinking behaviors. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with 591 Korean women selected from a random sample of households in California with Korean surnames during 2007. About 62% of eligible respondents completed the interview. Respondents reported any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking volume (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days), level of acculturation, and described their social network by assessing who encouraged or discouraged drinking (drinking support) or drank (drinking models). Multivariable regressions were used for analyses. About 70% (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 67 to 74) of Korean American women reported any lifetime drinking and current drinkers drank 1.18 (95%CI, 1.07 to 1.28) drinks on drinking days. Acculturation was not significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking volume, while models and support for drinking were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking more on drinking days. Each additional encourager, or one fewer discourager, for drinking in women’s social networks was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 1 to 3) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.25 (95%CI, −0.53 to 1.18) more drinks on drinking days. Each additional drinker in women’s networks was associated with a 4% (95%CI, 1 to 8) higher probability of any lifetime drinking and drinking 0.26 (95%CI, −0.05 to 0.60) more drinks on drinking days. Korean American women’s drinking appears to be strongly related to their social networks, though how women take on traits of their new environment was not. PMID:20843638

  1. Early menarche is associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in premenopausal Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lim, Se Won; Ahn, Ju Hyun; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho; Seo, Ju-Hee; Lim, Jung Sub

    2016-01-01

    In pediatrics, identifying risk factors is important in planning the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an independent association between early menarche (<12 years) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean women. We analyzed data from 4463 premenopausal women from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-IV (2007-2009). MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation for Asians and insulin resistance (IR) was defined as HOMA-IR more than 3.05. The prevalence of MetS and IR was 7.9 and 15.0%. Women (55.6%) with MetS also showed IR. The prevalence of MetS was higher in both women with early menarche and late menarche (≥16 years) compared with the reference group (early, 12.8%; reference, 7.0%; late, 11.0%, both P = 0.002). However, the odds ratio for MetS was 3.54 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.14-5.87) and for IR was 2.98 (95% CI, 1.99-4.47) after adjusting for age and other confounders such as lifestyle variables, reproductive variables and sociodemographic variables only in women with early menarche Early menarche was associated with an increased risk of MetS and IR in premenopausal Korean women. Early menarche is associated with higher risk of CVD-related death and all-cause mortality in Western studies. Early menarche is associated with higher risk of diabetes in Korean premenopausal women. Early menarche (<12 years) is associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in nationally representative Korean premenopausal women. However, late menarche (>16 years) is not associated with metabolic syndrome after controlling for age and other confounders.

  2. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Depressive Symptoms in Korean Women throughout Pregnancy and in Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Hwan; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal depression is a significant predictor for postpartum depression. However, there is a lack of research on risk factors for Korean women related to prenatal depression and the relationship between prenatal depression during the three trimesters and postpartum depression. Therefore, aims of this study were (1) to identify the prevalence of depression during all three trimesters and the postpartum period, (2) to evaluate the relationship between prenatal depression in each trimester and postpartum depression, and (3) to identify the relationship and differences in prenatal depression based on sociodemographic factors in Korean women. One hundred and fifty three Korean women were recruited from three maternity clinics in Korea. Prenatal and postpartum depressions were evaluated in the first, second (24-26 weeks), third (32-34 weeks) trimester and 4 weeks postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Korean. The prevalence of depression in the prenatal and postpartum period ranged from 40.5% to 61.4%. Depression in the second and the third trimester was significantly correlated with depression in the postpartum period. Unemployment and household income were risk factors for prenatal depression in the first and second trimesters. To assist women suffering from postpartum depression and prevent its effects, women should be screened for prenatal depression during all three trimesters. For Korean women with high risk factors for prenatal depression, we suggest that the Korean government establish healthcare policies related to depression screening as routine prenatal care and mental health referral systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Parathyroid hormone, calcium, and sodium bridging between osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Soo; Choi, Soo Beom; Rhee, Yumie; Chung, Jai Won; Choi, Eui-Young; Kim, Deok Won

    2015-05-01

    The coexistence of osteoporosis and hypertension, which are considered distinct diseases, has been widely reported. In addition, daily intake of calcium and sodium, as well as parathyroid hormone levels (PTH), is known to be associated with osteoporosis and hypertension. This study aimed to determine the association of low calcium intake, high sodium intake, and PTH levels with osteoporosis and hypertension in postmenopausal Korean women. Data for postmenopausal Korean women aged 50 years or older were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Osteoporosis was diagnosed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, while hypertension was diagnosed using blood pressure data. The odds ratios for osteoporosis and hypertension were calculated using logistic regression analysis for quartiles of the daily calcium intake, daily sodium intake, and PTH levels. Women with hypertension had a high coexistence of osteoporosis (43.6 vs. 36.5 %; P = 0.022), and vice versa (21.1 vs. 16.6 %; P = 0.022). PTH was significantly associated with osteoporosis and hypertension, and a high intake of calcium was strongly correlated with a low incidence of osteoporosis. This is the first study to report the characteristics of postmenopausal Korean women who have high dietary sodium intake and low dietary calcium intake, in association with the incidence of osteoporosis and hypertension. Osteoporosis and hypertension were strongly associated with each other, and PTH appears to be a key mediator of both diseases, suggesting a possible pathogenic link.

  4. Trends in Cervical Cancer Mortality by Socioeconomic Status in Korean Women between 1998 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Park, Sung-Min; Ko, Gwang Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Background Death from uterine cervical cancer could be preventable by an active participation of women at risk in a screening program such as the Papanicolaou test. In order to examine the presence of socioeconomic disparity in preventable deaths, we evaluated the time trends of cervical cancer mortality by socioeconomic status in Korean women. Methods We selected level of educational attainment and marital status as surrogate indices of socioeconomic status. Using death certificate data and Korean Population and Housing Census data from Korea National Statistical office, we calculated age-standardized yearly mortality rates from cervical cancer between 1998 and 2009 according to the level of education as well as marital status. Results Cervical cancer mortality peaked in 2003 and then decreased gradually over time. Cervical cancer mortality was the highest in the group with the lowest level of educational attainment in all age groups and the gap between the lowest and the highest educational level has increased over time. Cervical cancer mortality was lower in married women than unmarried women in all age groups, and the degree of difference did not change over time. Conclusion In the Korean population, socioeconomic differential in cervical cancer mortality has persisted over time. PMID:23904955

  5. Spoken Korean: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukoff, Fred

    This text is designed for students planning to learn spoken Korean. Ten lessons and two review sections based on cultural experiences commonly shared by Koreans are included in the text. Grouped in series of five lessons, the instructional materials include (1) basic sentences, (2) word study and review of basic sentences, (3) listening…

  6. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  7. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) occurred for the first time in Korea , 1951, although it had previously been known to both the Japanese and Russians...After Korean war, the disease has been fixed in the areas of DMZ as an endemic one, and from 100 to 400 cases have been being reportee every year

  8. Korean Basic Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    These 11 volumes of the Korean Basic Course comprise 112 lesson units designed to train native English language speakers to Level 3 proficiency in comprehension and speaking and Level 2 proficiency in reading and writing Korean. (Level 5 on this scale is native-speaker level.) Intended for classroom use in the Defense Language Institute intensive…

  9. Koreans in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two questions about Koreans in business are left unanswered in this article. First, what will happen to Korean entrepreneurship if monopoly capitalism continues to extend its influence into all branches of the economy. The second question concerns the issue of race relations. (Author/AM)

  10. The prevalence and risk factors for glucose intolerance in young Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyejin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Chung, Hyewon; Cho, Wha Young

    2009-10-01

    Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia play important roles in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, some women with PCOS have been shown to have insulin secretory defects and can be predicted to be at an increased risk for glucose intolerance. We performed the present study to determine the prevalence and risk factors for glucose intolerance in Korean women with PCOS. We consecutively recruited 194 women with PCOS diagnosed by American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ASRM/ESHRE) criteria. Anthropometric measures, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and measurement of insulin sensitivity (insulin mediated glucose uptake; IMGU) using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique were performed. In women with PCOS, the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 17.0% and type 2 diabetes 1.0%, and in lean women with PCOS, the prevalence of IGT and/or IFG was 5.9%. The prevalence of glucose intolerance was 28-fold higher in women with PCOS, and 9.8-fold higher in lean women with PCOS compared to age-matched Korean women. Women with glucose intolerance had higher BMI, waist circumference, free testosterone, fasting insulin, 2-h post-load insulin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride and lower sex hormone binding globulin and IMGU than women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (P < 0.05). IMGU was the most powerful predictor for glucose intolerance after adjustment for age, BMI, waist circumference, and hyperandrogenemia. The 2-h OGTT was the best screening measure for glucose intolerance and diagnosis of diabetes in women with PCOS. Young Korean women with PCOS have high prevalence for glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance is the most important factor associated with glucose intolerance.

  11. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women.

  12. Decision making about Pap test use among Korean immigrant women: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyounghae; Kim, Soohyun; Gallo, Joseph J; Nolan, Marie T; Han, Hae-Ra

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how individuals make decisions about Pap tests concerning their personal values helps health-care providers offer tailored approaches to guide patients' decision making. Yet research has largely ignored decision making about Pap tests among immigrant women who experience increased risk of cervical cancer. To explore decision making about Pap tests among Korean immigrant women. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using 32 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Korean immigrant women residing in a north-eastern metropolitan area. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive coding. Although most women with positive decisions made their own decisions, some women deferred to their providers, and others made decisions in collaboration with their providers and significant others. While women making positive decisions tended to consider both barriers to and facilitators of having Pap tests, women making negative decisions predominantly discussed the barriers to having Pap tests, such as modesty and differences between the South Korean and US health-care systems. The women's reflections on their decisions differed regarding their Pap test decisions. Women's desired roles in the decision-making process and reflection on their decision outcome appeared to vary, although most participants with positive decisions made their own decisions and were satisfied with their decisions. Future research should conduct longitudinal, quantitative studies to test our findings regarding decision-making processes and outcomes about Pap tests. The findings should be incorporated into cervical cancer screening practices to fulfil the unmet needs of immigrant women in patient-provider communication and to facilitate women's decision making about Pap tests. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Common Causes of Postmenopausal Bleeding in Korean Women: 10-Year Outcomes from a Single Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Jung, Yeon Soo; Chon, Seung Joo; Yun, Bo Hyon; Cho, Sihyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2017-05-01

    The common causes of postmenopausal bleeding (PMB), according to the data from the western world, are atrophy, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), endometrial cancer, etc. We conducted a retrospective study to assess whether the causes of PMB in Korean postmenopausal women are similar to those already known. This retrospective study used 10-year medical records (March 2005 to December 2014) of 792 PMB women in the Yonsei University Health System. The data were divided into 2 categories by 5-year intervals to compare the differences between the 2 periods. The most common cause of PMB in Korean women was atrophy (51.1%). Polyps and HRT were the second, followed by anticoagulant medications, cervical cancer, and endometrial cancer. The proportion of patients with cervical cancer significantly decreased during the second half of the decade (8.7% vs. 5.2%; P = 0.048). Although no significant change was noted for HRT, its rank was higher during the latter 5-year period. Only the most common cause of PMB was the same as the conventional data. Interestingly, the proportion of patients with cervical cancer decreased during the latter half of the decade, reflecting the changes in the nation's cancer prevalence rate, while the use of HRT increased. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  14. Factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing in early adulthood: Comparison of Japanese and Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2017-08-23

    In this study, we identified the factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing among Japanese and Korean women in early adulthood. Their behavioral intentions were compared in this cross-sectional descriptive study. In total, 887 women (Japanese = 498, Korean = 389) aged 20-39 years participated in this study. Using a self-report questionnaire, knowledge, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention were surveyed. There were significant differences between Japanese and Korean women's scores on all main variables. For Japanese women, all the variables moderately correlated with behavioral intention. In comparison, for Korean women, all independent variables, except for knowledge, moderately correlated with behavioral intention. Through a multiple regression analysis, age, undergoing Papanicolaou testing, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were identified as significant predictors of behavioral intention among Japanese women. Among Korean women, job status, undergoing a Papanicolaou test, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were demonstrated as significant predictors of behavioral intention. Health professionals should consider these factors to encourage Papanicolaou testing in women in early adulthood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies.

  16. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p<0.02). THb and malignancy index were the two best single predictors of malignancy, with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  17. Nut consumption has favorable effects on lipid profiles of Korean women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Joo; Nam, Ga Eun; Seo, Ji A; Yoon, Taehyung; Seo, Ilwon; Lee, Jin Hee; Im, Donggil; Bahn, Kyeong-Nyeo; Jeong, Si An; Kang, Tae Seok; Ahn, Jae Hee; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Nan Hee

    2014-09-01

    Nut consumption has been studied for its cardioprotective effects. However, the findings of clinical intervention studies are inconsistent; and no intervention studies have been conducted in the Korean population. We hypothesized that nut supplementation may have favorable influence on metabolic markers. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of nut consumption on metabolic parameters and biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome. To this end, we designed a randomized, parallel, controlled dietary intervention study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02023749). Subjects with metabolic syndrome and a body mass index of at least 23 kg/m(2) were randomized to the Control group and the Nut group, which received supplementation with 30 g/d of mixed nuts (walnuts, peanuts, and pine nuts) for 6 weeks. Sixty volunteers were included in the final analysis. Metabolic markers were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the study. Total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels significantly improved in the Nut group compared to those in the Control group (P = .023 and P = .016, respectively) in women. Biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial function did not significantly change from baseline in either group. Thus, supplementing a usual diet with mixed nuts for 6 weeks had favorable effects on several lipid parameters in Korean women with metabolic syndrome. These findings present a possible mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of nut consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Korean speech sound development in children from bilingual Japanese-Korean environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeoung Suk; Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Yoon Mi; Kim, Hyun Gi; Kim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Sun Jun

    2010-09-01

    This study investigates Korean speech sound development, including articulatory error patterns, among the Japanese-Korean children whose mothers are Japanese immigrants to Korea. The subjects were 28 Japanese-Korean children with normal development born to Japanese women immigrants who lived in Jeonbuk province, Korea. They were assessed through Computerized Speech Lab 4500. The control group consisted of 15 Korean children who lived in the same area. The values of the voice onset time of consonants /p(h)/, /t/, /t(h)/, and /k(*)/ among the children were prolonged. The children replaced the lenis sounds with aspirated or fortis sounds rather than replacing the fortis sounds with lenis or aspirated sounds, which are typical among Japanese immigrants. The children showed numerous articulatory errors for /c/ and /l/ sounds (similar to Koreans) rather than errors on /p/ sounds, which are more frequent among Japanese immigrants. The vowel formants of the children showed a significantly prolonged vowel /o/ as compared to that of Korean children (P<0.05). The Japanese immigrants and their children showed a similar substitution /n/ for /ɧ/ [Japanese immigrants (62.5%) vs Japanese-Korean children (14.3%)], which is rarely seen among Koreans. The findings suggest that Korean speech sound development among Japanese-Korean children is influenced not only by the Korean language environment but also by their maternal language. Therefore, appropriate language education programs may be warranted not only or immigrant women but also for their children.

  19. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    AD-A<m 761 KOREA UNIV SEOUL COLL OF MEDICINE KOREAN HEM0RRHA6IC FEVER.(U) MAR 80 H W LEE UNCLASSIFIED ICFI F/6 6/5 DAM017-79-6-9<*55 NL...I» > I,,iu. •Uli ••-. SUMMARY There were 364 hospitalized cases of Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) in 1979 in Korea . Lee et al...STANDARDS-1963-A ?H "LEVEtf® AD <o KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC F EVER A D A 09 47 Final Report HO WANG LEE, M. D. March 1980 i MIL. IIB«I . Mm k iw

  20. Body mass index and weight loss in overweight and obese korean women: the mediating role of body weight perception.

    PubMed

    Boo, Sunjoo

    2013-12-01

    This study were to assess the relationships among BMI, body weight perception, and efforts to lose weight in a public sample of Korean women who are overweight and obese and to examine the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The sample was 1,739 Korean women 20 years old or older with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m(2). Bivariate relationships among variables of interests were assessed. Three separate regressions were used to test the mediating role of body weight perception on the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts. BMI and body weight perception were significant correlates of weight loss efforts. BMI was significantly associated with weight perception, but a large proportion of women underestimated their weight. Weight perception partially mediated the relationship between BMI and weight loss efforts in Korean women. In light of the high prevalence of overweight or obesity and the many health consequences associated with obesity, Korean women should be aware of a healthy body weight and try to achieve that weight. Nursing interventions should consider body weight perception to effectively motivate overweight and obese Korean women to lose weight, as necessary. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.

  2. Development of a sampling strategy and sample size calculation to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Mi Jin; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2012-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is a known risk factor for breast cancer. To conduct a survey to estimate the distribution of mammographic breast density in Korean women, appropriate sampling strategies for representative and efficient sampling design were evaluated through simulation. Using the target population from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP) for breast cancer in 2009, we verified the distribution estimate by repeating the simulation 1,000 times using stratified random sampling to investigate the distribution of breast density of 1,340,362 women. According to the simulation results, using a sampling design stratifying the nation into three groups (metropolitan, urban, and rural), with a total sample size of 4,000, we estimated the distribution of breast density in Korean women at a level of 0.01% tolerance. Based on the results of our study, a nationwide survey for estimating the distribution of mammographic breast density among Korean women can be conducted efficiently.

  3. Mammographic Breast Density Evaluation in Korean Women Using Fully Automated Volumetric Assessment.

    PubMed

    Youn, Inyoung; Choi, SeonHyeong; Kook, Shin Ho; Choi, Yoon Jung

    2016-03-01

    The purpose was to present mean breast density of Korean women according to age using fully automated volumetric assessment. This study included 5,967 screening normal or benign mammograms (mean age, 46.2 ± 9.7; range, 30-89 years), from cancer-screening program. We evaluated mean fibroglandular tissue volume, breast tissue volume, volumetric breast density (VBD), and the results were 53.7 ± 30.8 cm(3), 383.8 ± 205.2 cm(3), and 15.8% ± 7.3%. The frequency of dense breasts and mean VBD by age group were 94.3% and 19.1% ± 6.7% for the 30s (n = 1,484), 91.4% and 17.2% ± 6.8% for the 40s (n = 2,706), 72.2% and 12.4% ± 6.2% for the 50s (n = 1,138), 44.0% and 8.6% ± 4.3% for the 60s (n = 89), 39.1% and 8.0% ± 3.8% for the 70s (n = 138), and 39.1% and 8.0% ± 3.5% for the 80s (n = 12). The frequency of dense breasts was higher in younger women (n = 4,313, 92.3%) than older women (n = 1,654, 59.8%). Mean VBD decreased with aging or menopause, and was about 16% for 46-year-old-Korean women, much higher than in other countries. The proportion of dense breasts sharply decreases in Korean women between 40 and 69 years of age.

  4. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts...Pyongyang Domestic Service, 23 Dec 86) l Commentary on White Paper About Kumgangsan Dam (Cho Tu-ul; Pyongyang Domestic Service, 26 Dec 86) 3 Party...ruin. /8309 CSO: 4110/056 INTER-KOREAN AFFAIRS COMMENTARY ON WHITE PAPER ABOUT KUMGANGSAN DAM SK280105 Pyongyang Domestic Service in Korean 1150

  5. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Korea has fortified all the frontline areas, building underground positions and concealing various weapons. It is even constructing gun positions...also noted that North Korean Frog missiles and self-propelled guns posted just north of the DMZ can hit Seoul directly. North Korean engineer...being major figures in radical student movement. They include U Su- chin , 22, of Songgyung- wan University who is also chairman of the radical student

  6. Increasing Adherence to Follow-up of Breast Abnormalities in Low-Income Korean American Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    abnormalities in low-income Korean American women. Era of Hope Department of Defense Breast Cancer Research Program meeting, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 8...Breast Abnormalities in Low-Income Korean American Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Annette...burden to Department of Defense , Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis

  7. Association between the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and the Level of Coffee Consumption among Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keyhoon; Kim, Kyuwoong; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    As coffee consumption is increasing remarkably over the past decade, the health effects concerning the coffee drinking has gained a wide attention across the nation. However, there is not a true consensus regarding the effects of coffee on metabolic disease. Therefore, this study aims to examine the association between coffee intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean women. We used publicly accessible datasets collected through Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 20,435 individuals from five consecutive years' worth of data from 2007 to 2011, only 15,691 subjects qualified for statistical analysis upon applying the exclusion criteria. We carried out the statistical analysis utilizing SPSS Statistics version 13.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY.) and STATA statistical software release 13.0 (STATA Corp., College Station, TX). We found that the frequency of coffee intake inversely correlates with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women. Upon adjusting for life-style factors, socioeconomic status, and nutritional profile, the subjects from the highest coffee consumption quartile exhibited 40% lower odds of suffering from metabolic syndrome compared to those in the control (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.67-0.84; P for trend < 0.001). Also, we observed that age- and BMI-adjusted HOMA-IR decreased as the coffee consumption increased (P for trend < 0.001). The findings of our study suggest that coffee consumption might be associated with reduction of metabolic syndrome in Korean women. To elucidate this cross-sectional association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome in women, cohort studies are warranted to confirm this relationship.

  8. The prevalence of colorectal adenomas in asymptomatic Korean men and women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Moon Hee; Rampal, Sanjay; Sung, Jidong; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Son, Hee Jung; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Young-Ho; Chang, Dong Kyung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Rhee, Jong Chul; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer incidence is rapidly rising in many Asian countries, with rates approaching those of Western countries. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and trends of colorectal adenomas by age, sex, and risk strata in asymptomatic Koreans. Cross-sectional study of 19,372 consecutive participants aged 20 to 79 years undergoing screening colonoscopy at the Center for Health Promotion of the Samsung Medical Center in Korea from January 2006 to June 2009. Among participants at average risk, those without a history of colorectal polyps or a family history of colorectal cancer, the prevalence of colorectal adenomas and advanced adenomas were 34.5% and 3.1%, respectively, in men and 20.0% and 1.6%, respectively, in women. The prevalence of adenomas increased with age in both men and women, with a more marked increase for advanced adenoma. Participants with a family history of colorectal cancer or with a history of colorectal polyps had significantly higher prevalence of adenomas compared with participants of average risk (36.9% vs. 26.9%; age- and sex-adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.22). The prevalence of adenomas increased annually in both men and women. In this large study of asymptomatic Korean men and women participating in a colonoscopy screening program, the prevalence of colorectal adenomas was comparable and possibly higher than previously reported in Western countries. Cost-effectiveness studies investigating the optimal age for starting colonoscopy screening and etiological studies to identify the reasons for the increasing trend in colorectal adenomas in Koreans are needed. ©2014 AACR.

  9. Association between the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and the Level of Coffee Consumption among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keyhoon; Kim, Kyuwoong; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Background As coffee consumption is increasing remarkably over the past decade, the health effects concerning the coffee drinking has gained a wide attention across the nation. However, there is not a true consensus regarding the effects of coffee on metabolic disease. Therefore, this study aims to examine the association between coffee intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean women Methods We used publicly accessible datasets collected through Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Among 20,435 individuals from five consecutive years’ worth of data from 2007 to 2011, only 15,691 subjects qualified for statistical analysis upon applying the exclusion criteria. We carried out the statistical analysis utilizing SPSS Statistics version 13.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY.) and STATA statistical software release 13.0 (STATA Corp., College Station, TX). Results We found that the frequency of coffee intake inversely correlates with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women. Upon adjusting for life-style factors, socioeconomic status, and nutritional profile, the subjects from the highest coffee consumption quartile exhibited 40% lower odds of suffering from metabolic syndrome compared to those in the control (OR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.67–0.84; P for trend < 0.001). Also, we observed that age- and BMI-adjusted HOMA-IR decreased as the coffee consumption increased (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of our study suggest that coffee consumption might be associated with reduction of metabolic syndrome in Korean women. To elucidate this cross-sectional association between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome in women, cohort studies are warranted to confirm this relationship. PMID:27977716

  10. Polymorphisms in neuropeptide genes and bone mineral density in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chun, Eun Hee; Kim, Hoon; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Jong Hak; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Jung Gu

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in neuropeptide genes and bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean postmenopausal women. Twenty polymorphisms in NMU (neuromedin U; two polymorphisms), NMU2R (NMU receptor 2; six polymorphisms), CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript; three polymorphisms), NPY (neuropeptide Y; four polymorphisms), NPY2R (NPY type 2 receptor; two polymorphisms), NOS1 (neuronal nitric oxide synthase; two polymorphisms), and MC4R (melanocortin 4 receptor; one polymorphism) genes were analyzed in 482 Korean postmenopausal women. BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was also examined. Effects of polymorphisms on BMD were evaluated after adjusting for potential confounding factors using analysis of covariance. Odds ratios and 95% CIs for osteoporosis were estimated using χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Among the polymorphisms measured, the AG genotype of CART rs2239670 had the highest BMD at the lumbar spine. Furthermore, osteoporosis at the lumbar spine was more frequently observed in the GG genotype of NPY rs17149106 polymorphism and in the CC genotype of NPY rs16123 polymorphism and was less frequently observed in the TT-TT genotype identified by a combined polymorphism in the NPY2R gene, compared with the other genotypes. The AA genotype of NOS1 rs1279104 polymorphism was found to have a 3.68-fold higher prevalence of osteoporosis at the femoral neck compared with the GG genotype (95% CI, 1.29-10.50; P = 0.02). Results suggest that CART rs2239670 polymorphism may be one of the genetic factors affecting lumbar spine BMD in Korean postmenopausal women and that NPY rs17149106, NPY rs16123, NOS1 rs1279104, and combined (rs2880415 and rs6857715) polymorphisms in the NPY2R gene may be useful in identifying women at risk for osteoporosis.

  11. Relationship between Cancer Worry and Stages of Adoption for Breast Cancer Screening among Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunji; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Lee, Sangeun; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of developing breast cancer is a concern for all women; however, few studies have examined the relationship between cancer worry and the stages of adoption for breast cancer screening in Korea. Here, we investigated the associations between cancer worry, the stages of adopting breast cancer screening, and socio-demographic factors known to influence screening behaviors. This study was based on the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, an annual cross-sectional survey that utilized nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. Data were analyzed from 1,773 randomly selected women aged 40-74 years. Chi-squared tests and multinomial logistic analyses were conducted to determine the associations between cancer worry and the stages of adoption for breast cancer screening and to outline the factors associated with each stage. Korean women were classified into the following stages of adoption for breast cancer screening: pre-contemplation (24.7%), contemplation (13.0%), action/maintenance (50.8%), relapse risk (8.9%), and relapse (2.6%). Women in the action/maintenance stages reported more moderate to higher levels of worry about getting cancer than those in the pre-contemplation stage. Further, age of 40-49 years and having private cancer insurance were associated with women in the action/maintenance stages. Interventions to address breast cancer worry may play an important role in increasing participation and equity in breast cancer screening.

  12. Koreans in Japan: Their Influence on Korean-Japanese Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    realization that their homeland was a far cry from heaven. More and more people came to see 23 the reality, that food and shelter were not readily available...exclusive or militant but are strongly individualistic and perservering , and they are adaptable and disunited. 84 The Korean disposition is attributed to the...District in China are surprised that they maintain the Korean style of living almost completely, speaking Korean, eating Korean food , living in ondol

  13. Can Religion Help Prevent Obesity?: Religious Messages and the Prevalence of Being Overweight or Obese among Korean Women in California

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Park, Hae-Ryun; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hofstetter, Richard C.; Song, Yoonju; Paik, Hee-Yong

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N=591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI>23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging “excessive eating” or encouraging “exercise” from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders’ messages, the frequency of congregants’ messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms. PMID:20886700

  14. Can religion help prevent obesity? Religious messages and the prevalence of being overweight or obese among Korean women in California.

    PubMed

    Ayers, John W; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Song, Yoonju; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Yong; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N = 591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI > 23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging “excessive eating” or encouraging “exercise” from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders’ messages, the frequency of congregants’ messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms.

  15. Abdominal obesity is associated with stress urinary incontinence in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Han, Myung Ok; Lee, Nan Young; Park, Hye Soon

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between abdominal obesity and stress urinary incontinence in Korean women. Women aged 30 and over, who visited the Department of Family Medicine of Asan Medical Center were recruited to participate in this study. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were taken, and associated factors of stress urinary incontinence was assessed by questionnaire. Stress urinary incontinence was significantly associated with physical work, vaginal delivery, and high waist circumference. In comparison with women in the lowest quartile of waist circumference, the odds ratios (OR) for stress urinary incontinence in women in the second, third, and fourth quartiles were increased significantly (1.79, 95% CI 1.07-2.98; 3.50, 95% CI 2.02-6.07; and 6.07, 95% CI 3.23-11.40, respectively). Our results indicate that high waist circumference may be a risk factor associated with stress urinary incontinence in women.

  16. Obesity and screening compliance for breast and cervical cancer in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Kyun; Park, Hyun Ah; Park, Jin Joo; Cho, Young Gyu

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess whether the weight status is associated with screening rates of breast and cervical cancer in Korean women. Study participants included women aged between 30 and 80 years from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. Body mass index was classified into ~18.4 kg/m2 (underweight), 18.5~22.9 kg/m2 (normal), 23~24.9 kg/m2 (overweight), 25.0~29.9 kg/m2 (moderate obesity) and 30.0 kg/m2~ (severe obesity) according to the Asia Pacific Standards of WHO recommended definition of obesity. Screening rates of breast and cervical cancer were estimated by the recommendation of the National Cancer Screening Program of the National Cancer Center, Korea. The overall screening rates for breast and cervical cancer were 51.3% and 50.1%, respectively. After covariate adjustment, the screening rates for breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.97) and cervical cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.94) were significantly lower in the women with severe obesity. Obesity is associated with lower compliance with breast and cervical cancer screening guidelines in Korean women.

  17. A genome-wide association study of gestational diabetes mellitus in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Soo Heon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Young Min; Go, Min Jin; Cho, Yoon Shin; Choi, Sung Hee; Moon, Min Kyong; Jung, Hye Seung; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kang, Hyun Min; Cho, Nam H; Lee, In Kyu; Kim, Seong Yeon; Han, Bok-Ghee; Jang, Hak C; Park, Kyong Soo

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge regarding the genetic risk loci for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still limited. In this study, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association analysis in Korean women. In the stage 1 genome scan, 468 women with GDM and 1,242 nondiabetic control women were compared using 2.19 million genotyped or imputed markers. We selected 11 loci for further genotyping in stage 2 samples of 931 case and 783 control subjects. The joint effect of stage 1 plus stage 2 studies was analyzed by meta-analysis. We also investigated the effect of known type 2 diabetes variants in GDM. Two loci known to be associated with type 2 diabetes had a genome-wide significant association with GDM in the joint analysis. rs7754840, a variant in CDKAL1, had the strongest association with GDM (odds ratio 1.518; P=6.65×10(-16)). A variant near MTNR1B, rs10830962, was also significantly associated with the risk of GDM (1.454; P=2.49×10(-13)). We found that there is an excess of association between known type 2 diabetes variants and GDM above what is expected under the null hypothesis. In conclusion, we have confirmed that genetic variants in CDKAL1 and near MTNR1B are strongly associated with GDM in Korean women. There seems to be a shared genetic basis between GDM and type 2 diabetes.

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Soo Heon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Cho, Young Min; Go, Min Jin; Cho, Yoon Shin; Choi, Sung Hee; Moon, Min Kyong; Jung, Hye Seung; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kang, Hyun Min; Cho, Nam H.; Lee, In Kyu; Kim, Seong Yeon; Han, Bok-Ghee; Jang, Hak C.; Park, Kyong Soo

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge regarding the genetic risk loci for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still limited. In this study, we performed a two-stage genome-wide association analysis in Korean women. In the stage 1 genome scan, 468 women with GDM and 1,242 nondiabetic control women were compared using 2.19 million genotyped or imputed markers. We selected 11 loci for further genotyping in stage 2 samples of 931 case and 783 control subjects. The joint effect of stage 1 plus stage 2 studies was analyzed by meta-analysis. We also investigated the effect of known type 2 diabetes variants in GDM. Two loci known to be associated with type 2 diabetes had a genome-wide significant association with GDM in the joint analysis. rs7754840, a variant in CDKAL1, had the strongest association with GDM (odds ratio 1.518; P = 6.65 × 10−16). A variant near MTNR1B, rs10830962, was also significantly associated with the risk of GDM (1.454; P = 2.49 × 10−13). We found that there is an excess of association between known type 2 diabetes variants and GDM above what is expected under the null hypothesis. In conclusion, we have confirmed that genetic variants in CDKAL1 and near MTNR1B are strongly associated with GDM in Korean women. There seems to be a shared genetic basis between GDM and type 2 diabetes. PMID:22233651

  19. American Influence on Korean Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-chan

    1982-01-01

    Discusses American influences on Korean education, considering the influence of American Protestant missionaries (1886-1945), relationship between American military government and Korean education, and educational cooperation between Korea and America since 1948. (JN)

  20. Patterns of leisure time and non-leisure time physical activity of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; Wilbur, Joellen; Kim, Mi Ja

    2011-02-01

    Our purpose in this study was to examine the patterns of physical activity and demographic characteristics associated with those patterns in Korean immigrants in the United States. Participants were 197 women, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was utilized. The inactive pattern was the most frequent pattern in all domains of physical activity except household physical activity. There were differences among the patterns of physical activity that were associated with variations in demographic characteristics. Health care providers who serve immigrants should assess physical activity level and demographic characteristics of the immigrants to enhance their physical activity.

  1. Two hypotheses of dense breasts and viral infection for explaining incidence of breast cancer by age group in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer, the second leading type of cancer in Korean women, has shown increasing incidence over the past 10 years. However, the curves of incidence by age group cast doubt on the birth cohort effect hypothesis. To explain the curves, here I suggest two alternative hypotheses of breast density and viral infection based on pre-existing evidences. Evaluating these hypotheses would require important clues to find unknown risk factors of breast cancer and to plan more effective strategies for breast cancer control in Korean women.

  2. Common Causes of Postmenopausal Bleeding in Korean Women: 10-Year Outcomes from a Single Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The common causes of postmenopausal bleeding (PMB), according to the data from the western world, are atrophy, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), endometrial cancer, etc. We conducted a retrospective study to assess whether the causes of PMB in Korean postmenopausal women are similar to those already known. This retrospective study used 10-year medical records (March 2005 to December 2014) of 792 PMB women in the Yonsei University Health System. The data were divided into 2 categories by 5-year intervals to compare the differences between the 2 periods. The most common cause of PMB in Korean women was atrophy (51.1%). Polyps and HRT were the second, followed by anticoagulant medications, cervical cancer, and endometrial cancer. The proportion of patients with cervical cancer significantly decreased during the second half of the decade (8.7% vs. 5.2%; P = 0.048). Although no significant change was noted for HRT, its rank was higher during the latter 5-year period. Only the most common cause of PMB was the same as the conventional data. Interestingly, the proportion of patients with cervical cancer decreased during the latter half of the decade, reflecting the changes in the nation's cancer prevalence rate, while the use of HRT increased. PMID:28378558

  3. Comparisons of the gait parameters of young Korean women carrying a single-strap bag.

    PubMed

    An, Duk-Hyun; Yoon, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Won-Gyu; Kim, Kyeong-Mi

    2010-03-01

    This study compared the gait parameters of young women using various methods to carry a single-strap bag during walking. Twenty-one Korean healthy women walked on a GAITRite-instrumented carpet at a self-paced speed for each of the four following conditions in random order: no bag, carrying a bag over the shoulder, carrying a bag on the forearm, and carrying a bag by the hand on the dominant (right) side. There was a significant reduction in the stride length for the contralateral leg when carrying a bag on the forearm, a significant decrease in the heel-to-heel base of support, and a significant increase in the toe angle on the ipsilateral leg when carrying a bag by hand. The results of our study suggest that, among the asymmetric bag-carrying methods preferred by Korean young women during walking, the "over-the-shoulder" method has the least effect on gait parameters relative to not carrying a bag.

  4. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, obesity, and mammographic density in Korean women: the Healthy Twin study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Stone, Jennifer; Lee, Kayoung; Kim, Sun-Young

    2011-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is reported to be associated with breast cancer risk. To better understand this association, we examined the relationship between HDL-C and mammographic density, a putative intermediate risk factor for breast cancer. The study subjects were 711 Korean women from the Healthy Twin study. Lipid parameters were assayed enzymatically in fresh sera, and percent dense area (PDA) and absolute dense area were measured from digital mammograms using a computer-assisted method. PDA was positively associated with HDL-C in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women in a multivariable-adjusted linear mixed model, but the association did not persist when the model was additionally adjusted for body mass index (BMI). BMI was inversely associated with PDA, and this association did not change after additional adjustment for any lipid parameter. Multivariable-adjusted analysis showed that there were significant additive genetic cross-trait correlations between PDA and both HDL-C (coefficient, 0.175) and triglyceride (coefficient, -0.262). However, those correlations disappeared after additional adjustment for BMI. HDL-C alone is unlikely to increase the risk of breast cancer in Korean women, particularly through changes in breast parenchyma that are apparent in mammographic density. BMI should be included in studies using analytical models where mammographic density is used as an intermediate risk factor for breast cancer.

  5. Association of body size measurements and mammographic density in Korean women: the Healthy Twin study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Stone, Jennifer; Lee, Kayoung; Kim, Sun-Young

    2010-06-01

    Both greater body size and higher mammographic density seem to be associated with a risk of breast cancer. To understand a mechanism through which body size confers a higher risk of breast cancer, associations between mammographic measures and various measures of body size were examined. Study subjects were 730 Korean women selected from the Healthy Twin study. Body size measurements were completed according to standard protocol. Mammographic density was measured from digital mammograms using a computer-assisted method from which the total area and the dense area of the breast were calculated, and nondense area and percent of dense area were straightforwardly derived. Linear mixed models considering familial correlations were used for analyses. Total and nondense areas were positively associated with current body mass index (BMI), BMI at 35 years, total fat percent, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, whereas percent dense area was inversely associated with these characteristics in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Height was not associated with any mammographic measure. Total and nondense areas had strong positive genetic correlations with current BMI, total fat percent, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, whereas percent dense area had strong inverse genetic correlations with these body size measurements. Mammographic density and obesity are inversely associated with each other possibly from common genetic influences that have opposite effects on mammographic density and obesity in Korean women. The association between obesity and breast cancer does not seem to be mediated through mammographic density. Copyright 2010 AACR.

  6. The relationship between bone mineral density and mammographic density in Korean women: the Healthy Twin study.

    PubMed

    Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Stone, Jennifer; Lee, Kayoung

    2011-09-01

    Mammographic density is one of the strong risk factors for breast cancer. A potential mechanism for this association is that cumulative exposure to mammographic density may reflect cumulative exposure to hormones that stimulate cell division in breast stroma and epithelium, which may have corresponding effects on breast cancer development. Bone mineral density (BMD), a marker of lifetime estrogen exposure, has been found to be associated with breast cancer. We examined the association between BMD and mammographic density in a Korean population. Study subjects were 730 Korean women selected from the Healthy Twin study. BMD (g/cm(2)) was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mammographic density was measured from digital mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Linear mixed model considering familial correlations and a wide range of covariates was used for analyses. Quantitative genetic analysis was completed using SOLAR. In premenopausal women, positive associations existed between absolute dense area and BMD at ribs, pelvis, and legs, and between percent dense area and BMD at pelvis and legs. However, in postmenopausal women, there was no association between BMD at any site and mammographic density measures. An evaluation of additive genetic cross-trait correlation showed that absolute dense area had a weak-positive additive genetic cross-trait correlation with BMD at ribs and spines after full adjustment of covariates. This finding suggests that the association between mammographic density and breast cancer could, at least in part, be attributable to an estrogen-related hormonal mechanism.

  7. Development and validation of osteoporosis risk-assessment model for Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun Min; Nam, Byung-Ho; Rhee, Yumie; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Deog Young; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for detecting osteoporosis, but is not recommended for general population screening. Therefore, this study aims to develop an osteoporosis risk-assessment model to identify high-risk individuals among Korean postmenopausal women. Data from 1,209 and 1,046 postmenopausal women who participated in the 2009 and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, respectively, were used for development and validation of an osteoporosis risk-assessment model. Osteoporosis was defined as T score less than or equal to -2.5 at either the femoral neck or lumbar spine. Performance of the candidate models and the Osteoporosis Self assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) were compared with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). To compare the developed Korean Osteoporosis Risk-Assessment Model (KORAM) with OSTA, a net reclassification improvement was further calculated. In the development dataset, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 33.9 %. KORAM, consisting of age, weight, and hormone therapy, had a sensitivity of 91.2 %, a specificity of 50.6 %, and an AUC of 0.709 with a specific cut-off score of -9. Comparable results were shown in the validation dataset: sensitivity 84.8 %, specificity 51.6 %, and AUC 0.682. Additionally, risk categorization with KORAM showed improved reclassification over that of OSTA from 7.4 to 41.7 %. KORAM can be easily used as a pre-screening tool to identify candidates for DXA tests. Further studies investigating cost-effectiveness and replicability in other datasets are required to establish the clinical utility of KORAM.

  8. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms and associated factors across menopause status in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kang, Danbee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Jiin; Choi, Yuni; Cho, Juhee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms experienced by Korean women aged 44 to 56 years and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on 2,201 women aged 44 to 56 years in health checkup centers between November 2012 and March 2013. The 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to assess vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual symptoms related to menopause. The guidelines for the classification of reproductive aging stages proposed at the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of menopause symptoms. Among participants, 42.6% were premenopausal, 36.7% were perimenopausal, and 20.7% were postmenopausal. Although physical symptoms were the most severe menopause symptoms experienced by premenopausal and perimenopausal women, postmenopausal women reported sexual symptoms as the most bothersome. The mean scores for each domain increased from the premenopausal period through the postmenopausal period (P for trend < 0.001). The regression model revealed that age (for vasomotor and sexual symptoms) and obesity (for vasomotor and physical symptoms) were significantly associated with severity of menopause symptoms (P < 0.05). Physically active women had fewer severe physical symptoms related to menopause than inactive women. Postmenopausal women experience the most severe symptoms. Obesity and physical activity are the main modifiable factors associated with symptom severity. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of physical activity promotion and weight control interventions on preventing menopause symptoms in Korean women.

  9. Impact of Childbearing Decisions on Family Size of Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Je; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bang, So-Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Young Mo; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook; Lee, Jisoo

    2016-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women in their reproductive years and has a significant impact on childbearing. We investigated the influence of personal decision on family size among Korean women with SLE and factors that affect the decisions. A case-control study comparing childbearing history and decisions of 112 SLE patients and 135 controls was performed. Women with SLE participating in the Network for Lupus Clinical Research in South Korea and matching controls between ages of 18-45, who are/were married or living with a partner were included. Data regarding socio-demographics, reproductive history, and childbearing decisions were collected through a survey using a standardized questionnaire and medical record review. More women with SLE reported at least one pregnancy (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.009) or at least one live birth (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.003) compared with controls. Mean number of pregnancies was significantly higher (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.001), and mean number of live births was significantly lower in women with SLE (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 1.6 ± 0.8, P < 0.001). Significantly more women with SLE made the decision not to have children compared with controls (54.5% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.031), and health-related concerns were the major cause of the decision. Other socio-demographic factors did not influence the decision to limit childbearing in SLE women. The disease-related concerns had significant impact on family size and childbearing decisions among Korean women with SLE.

  10. Psychological distress and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) in infertile Korean women: The first validation study of Korean FertiQoL

    PubMed Central

    Park, Il-Hae; Sun, Hong-Gil; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Kyeong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate psychological distress and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) in infertile Korean women, and to investigate whether a correlation exists between psychological distress and FertiQoL. Methods Participants in this study were made up of 141 infertile women and 65 fertile women. We conducted a survey on psychological distress (using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales [DASS]-42 questionnaire) and administered a FertiQoL questionnaire. The levels of stress hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] and cortisol) in serum were assessed. Results The scores for depression (13.7±8.4), anxiety (10.7±6.4), and stress (18.0±8.3) among the infertile women were significantly higher than the scores for depression (9.4±7.5), anxiety (6.6±6.0), and stress (12.2±8.3, p<0.001) among the fertile women. There was no difference in the scores for depression (13.5±8.2, 13.8±8.6), anxiety (10.0±6.2, 11.5±6.6) and stress (17.7±8.4, 18.4±8.1) between younger (≤34) and older (≥35) participants. The mind-body (r =–0.495) and emotional (r =–0.590) subscales showed a higher negative correlation with stress compared with other scales of psychological distress. At the same time, the social (r =–0.537) and relational (r =–0.385) subscales showed a higher negative correlation with depression. Levels of cortisol and ACTH in infertile women were 9.1 µg/mL and 11.9 pg/mL, respectively, which are within normal ranges. Conclusion The levels of psychological distress and quality of life in infertile Korean women seem to require psychological intervention. This study provides a baseline measurement of psychological distress and FertiQoL in infertile women in Korea, which will be available for developing psychological interventions for infertile Korean women. PMID:27689041

  11. Psychological distress and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) in infertile Korean women: The first validation study of Korean FertiQoL.

    PubMed

    Chi, Hee-Jun; Park, Il-Hae; Sun, Hong-Gil; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Kyeong-Ho

    2016-09-01

    To investigate psychological distress and fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) in infertile Korean women, and to investigate whether a correlation exists between psychological distress and FertiQoL. Participants in this study were made up of 141 infertile women and 65 fertile women. We conducted a survey on psychological distress (using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales [DASS]-42 questionnaire) and administered a FertiQoL questionnaire. The levels of stress hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH] and cortisol) in serum were assessed. The scores for depression (13.7±8.4), anxiety (10.7±6.4), and stress (18.0±8.3) among the infertile women were significantly higher than the scores for depression (9.4±7.5), anxiety (6.6±6.0), and stress (12.2±8.3, p<0.001) among the fertile women. There was no difference in the scores for depression (13.5±8.2, 13.8±8.6), anxiety (10.0±6.2, 11.5±6.6) and stress (17.7±8.4, 18.4±8.1) between younger (≤34) and older (≥35) participants. The mind-body (r =-0.495) and emotional (r =-0.590) subscales showed a higher negative correlation with stress compared with other scales of psychological distress. At the same time, the social (r =-0.537) and relational (r =-0.385) subscales showed a higher negative correlation with depression. Levels of cortisol and ACTH in infertile women were 9.1 µg/mL and 11.9 pg/mL, respectively, which are within normal ranges. The levels of psychological distress and quality of life in infertile Korean women seem to require psychological intervention. This study provides a baseline measurement of psychological distress and FertiQoL in infertile women in Korea, which will be available for developing psychological interventions for infertile Korean women.

  12. Pre- and postintervention differences in acculturation, knowledge, beliefs, and stages of readiness for mammograms among Korean American women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Menon, Usha

    2009-03-01

    To assess differences in acculturation, knowledge, beliefs, and stages of readiness for mammograms from pre- to postintervention among Korean American women aged 40 years or older. Prospective, repeated measures, quasi-experimental. A Korean American senior center in the midwestern United States. 300 Korean American women aged 40 years or older with no breast cancer diagnoses and who were non-adherent with mammography screening. Following completion of the preintervention questionnaire, the women attended a 45-minute interactive breast cancer early screening education session (GO EARLY) organized according to stages of readiness for mammography use (i.e., not thinking about having one, thinking about having one, and had one in the past). Postintervention data were collected six weeks following the educational session. Acculturation, knowledge, beliefs (perceived risk, pros, cons, fear, self-efficacy, modesty, fatalism), and stages of readiness for mammography use. At preintervention stages of readiness, women thinking about having a mammogram (contemplators) had significantly lower knowledge scores and higher cons to mammography use than women who had mammograms in the past (relapsers). Women not thinking about having a mammogram (precontemplators) had significantly lower self-efficacy for having a mammogram and higher cons than relapsers. The GO EARLY session was most effective in increasing knowledge, decreasing perceived cons, and increasing perceived self-efficacy. No statistically significant intervention effect was noted on upward shift in stage of readiness for mammography use postintervention. The GO EARLY intervention, the first study to assess stages of readiness for mammography use among Korean American women, was feasible and culturally sensitive and can be replicated in various Korean American communities. Culturally appropriate educational programs can serve to change women's perceptions and knowledge, and such changes may lead to changes in health

  13. Depression and Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Bernstein, Kunsook Song

    2008-02-01

    Koreans are a relatively new and fast-growing immigrant group in the United States. Research has shown that immigration experiences are associated with depression, whereas acculturation and social support are moderating factors. Korean culture is informed by Confucianism, which emphasizes family integrity, group conformity, and traditional gender roles, and has influenced how Korean immigrants conceptualize depression, express depressive symptoms, and demonstrate help-seeking behavior. An understanding of Korean patterns of manifesting and expressing depression will be helpful to provide culturally appropriate mental health services to Korean American immigrants.

  14. Distal urethral polypropylene sling surgical management for urodynamic stress incontinence in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hun; Kim, Khae Hawn; Lee, Hyo Won; Kim, Kye Hyun; Choi, Joong Sub; Yoon, Sang Jin; Han, Jong Sul; Lee, Kyo Won

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the objective and subjective efficacy of the distal urethral polypropylene sling (DUPS) for urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) in Korean women. We performed DUPS in 89 consecutive patients with USI. The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) were used to evaluate the surgical outcomes. The mean operative time was 29.4 min (range 25-40). Concomitant procedures were performed including rectocele repair (n = 48), laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (n = 12) and laparoscopic myomectomy (n = 1). There were no intraoperative complications or major postoperative complications. The average follow-up was 15 months (range 12-18). Both mean IIQ-7 and UDI-6 scores decreased significantly after DUPS. In addition, 87% of the patients reported no symptoms of USI under any circumstances and 95% of the patients reported never or rarely being bothered by USI. DUPS is a safe, inexpensive, simple, and effective surgical method for USI. The procedure provides a high cure rate in Korean women. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Correlates of resilience in the face of adversity for Korean women immigrating to the US.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hei-Sung; Brown, Stephen L; Mitchell, Mary M; Schiraldi, Glenn R

    2008-10-01

    To explore the association between resilience and psychosocial variables of theoretical relevance such as self-esteem, optimism, religiousness, cultural interdependency, and belief in higher education in a population of elderly Korean women and their daughters who experienced great adversity. Surveys were conducted with 200 elderly Korean women and 170 of their daughters in several community locations. Both mothers and daughters experienced great adversities in their lives such as psychological and physical losses from war as well as current and past difficulties with relocation. The mothers' bivariate correlations indicate that self-esteem, optimism, religiousness, and cultural interdependency were significantly correlated with resilience. Length of time in the US, age entering the US, physical and psychological war-related adversities, current relocation difficulties, self-esteem, optimism, cultural interdependency, and belief in education were all significantly associated with daughters' resilience. In linear regression, self-esteem and optimism were significant predictors of resilience in both mothers and daughters. Self-esteem and optimism deserve further attention as psychological factors that may increase the likelihood of developing resilience. Implications of these findings for health professionals are discussed.

  16. Pregnancy increases urinary loss of carnitine and reduces plasma carnitine in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Woon; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2005-05-01

    This study compared plasma and urinary carnitine concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant Korean women. The subjects were fifty pregnant women and thirty non-pregnant women aged 24-28 years. During the first trimester, dietary carnitine intakes in the pregnant women were much lower than in non-pregnant women (70.00 (SD 29.22) micromol/d), but over the course of pregnancy carnitine intake increased from 44.64 (SD 24.84) micromol/d during the first trimester to 96.11 (SD 36.56) micromol/d during the third trimester. Pregnant women had a significantly lower plasma carnitine concentration than non-pregnant women. Plasma concentrations of non-esterified carnitine, acid-soluble acylcarnitine and total carnitine were significantly lower during the second and third trimesters than the first. Plasma acid-insoluble acylcarnitine levels, which tended to be higher in the non-pregnant women compared with the pregnant women, increased significantly as gestation proceeded. The urinary excretion of non-esterified carnitine, acid-soluble acylcarnitine and total carnitine was significantly higher in the pregnant women during the first and second trimesters than in non-pregnant women and decreased significantly as gestation proceeded. We found that there was a significant decrease in plasma carnitine level even though dietary carnitine intake increased as gestation proceeded. The low urinary excretion of carnitine in late pregnancy may be caused by an increased demand during pregnancy.

  17. Productive activity and life satisfaction in Korean elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the effect of participation in productive activities on life satisfaction and its implications for social evaluation of productive aging. This study uses data collected from 1,250 elderly women living in urban areas. The regression model was used to examine the influence of elderly women's participation in productive activities on their life satisfaction. Elderly women who participate in volunteer work, learning, and social group activities commonly recognized their activities as meaningful, feeling like worthwhile members of society, and evaluated such activities as very positive. In contrast, elderly women who participated in household chores and family care activities expressed a negative life satisfaction. The difference in life satisfaction regarding productive activities stems not only from the physical and environmental differences but also from the gap between the official social value underpinned by the recognition of surrounding people, their support, and the value of productive activities.

  18. Establishment of Trimester-Specific Reference Intervals for Thyroid Hormones in Korean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee-Won; Chung, Hee-Jung; Park, Chul-Min; Hur, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishment of trimester- and assay-specific reference intervals for every population is recommended. The aim of this study was to establish a trimester- and assay-specific reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in Korean pregnant women. Methods From April 2012 to December 2012, 531 pregnant women receiving prenatal care and 238 age-matched, non-pregnant women were enrolled in this study. After excluding patients with pregnancy-associated complications or thyroid-specific autoantibody, 465 pregnant and 206 non-pregnant women were included. Non-parametric analysis (2.5-97.5th percentile) was performed to determine the reference interval. Levels of TSH and FT4 were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys thyroid tests, Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Results The TSH reference intervals were 0.01-4.10, 0.01-4.26, and 0.15-4.57 mIU/L for the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. From the first trimester to the third trimester, the median TSH levels showed a significantly increasing trend (P<0.0001). The FT4 reference intervals were 0.83-1.65, 0.71-1.22, and 0.65-1.13 ng/dL for the first, second, and third trimester, respectively, showing a significantly decreasing trend (P<0.0001). Conclusions Establishing trimester-specific reference intervals in pregnant women is essential for accurate assessment of thyroid function. Our population-specific and method-specific reference intervals will be useful for screening Korean pregnant women for thyroid disease. PMID:25729721

  19. Age at menarche and its association with dysglycemia in Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Baek, Tae-Hwa; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Joungwon; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Choi, Yuni; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that earlier menarche is associated with increased risks of prediabetes and diabetes in white women; however, the associations have not been fully explored in Asian populations. We investigated the associations between age at menarche and prediabetes and/or diabetes in Korean middle-aged women. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,039 premenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 44 to 56 years who visited the health promotion center for medical checkups. Participants were divided into three groups based on age at menarche: early (<13 y), average (13-16 y), and late (>16 y). The mean (SD) age at menarche was 14.6 (1.6) years. Of 2,039 women, 820 and 85 women had prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or 5.7%-6.4% glycated hemoglobin) and diabetes, respectively. On logistic regression analysis, earlier menarche was significantly associated with prediabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% CI, 1.24-2.61; P = 0.002), diabetes (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.04-5.69; P = 0.04), and dysglycemia (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.28-2.66; P = 0.001), after adjusting for a number of confounding factors, compared with average age at menarche. On linear regression analysis, earlier age at menarche was significantly associated with increased fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, homeostatic model assessment for β-cell function, body mass index, and waist circumference. Age at menarche is inversely associated with various forms of dysglycemia. A history of earlier menarche may be helpful in predicting prediabetes and subsequent diabetes in Korean women.

  20. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF) occurred for the first time in Korea , 1951, although it had previously been known to both the Japanese and Russians...After Korean war, the disease has been fixed in the areas of DMZ as an endemic one, and from 100 to 300 cases have been reported every year. The aims...but in 1971 affected the middle districts and in 1972 invaded the southern parts of South Korea . The number of patients and the areas of KHF in 1972

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young, Middle, and Older Women of Korean Descent in California

    PubMed Central

    Liles, Sandy; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Beeston, Tara; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Data were grouped by age. In each group, psychological aggression was the most common type of IPV in the past year, followed by a moderate form of sexual coercion, while physical assault and injury were infrequent. Immigration stress was associated with psychological aggression in all three groups, and partner alcohol use was associated in none. Other predictors varied by group. Results suggest that psychological abuse is a serious issue, and that women’s life stage is an important consideration in IPV among Korean Americans. Findings, which sometimes diverged from those of prior studies of this population, merit further investigation. PMID:23645971

  2. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population.

  3. Association between Sleep Duration and Measurable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Healthy Korean Women: The Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV and V)

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hyeyeon; Um, Yoo Jin; Jang, Bum Sup; Shin, Doosup; Choi, EunJoo

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. To examine the association between sleep duration and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in healthy Korean women. Design. Cross-sectional study, using the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Methods. Among 8505 women (25–70 years) from KNHANES IV and V, participants were classified into five sleep groups based on self-reported sleep duration. MetS and its components were defined using the criteria set forth in National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. After adjusting for various confounders, shorter sleep duration (≤6 h) was found to have an association with low risk of reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglycerides, whereas very long sleep duration was found to have high risk of increased triglycerides. However, abdominal obesity showed an opposite trend: short sleep duration was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity than long sleep duration. Fasting glucose levels increased as sleep duration increased, but without significance. Moreover, blood pressure was not significantly associated with sleep duration. Consequently, MetS was less prevalent in those with short sleep duration. Conclusions. Sleep duration was positively associated with MetS, especially dyslipidemia and fasting hyperglycemia, but inversely associated with abdominal obesity. PMID:27956898

  4. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  5. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  6. Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

  7. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  8. Evaluation of the osteoporosis health belief scale in korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Young-Sang; Byun, Dong Won; Jang, Seyeon; Jeon, Dong-Su; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2013-05-01

    The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale (OHBS) is a 42-item questionnaire designed to assess susceptibility, seriousness, calcium benefits, calcium barriers, exercise benefits, exercise barriers, and health motivation related to osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate its psychometric properties to enable the provision of educational tips regarding osteoporosis. All women who had visited the department of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) and whose bone mineral density was measured from January 2010 to December 2011 were enrolled by interview using the OHBS. We also evaluated the women's general clinical characteristics. One hundred seventy-seven women were enrolled in the present study. In the present study, the barriers to calcium intake subscale had the lowest mean score (15.03±3.02), and the Benefit of Exercise subscale had the highest (23.02±3.03). The scores for participants in their 20s were significantly higher than scores for those in their 70s on the Benefits of Exercise subscale and Barriers to Exercise subscale (P=0.014 and P=0.022, respectively). Education for health motivation to prevent osteoporosis is important for young women. Additional systematic education programs are needed for the general population.

  9. Is it appropriate for Korean women to adopt the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations for gestational weight gain?

    PubMed

    Wie, Jeong Ha; Park, In Yang; Namkung, Jeong; Seo, Hae Won; Jeong, Min Jin; Kwon, Ji Young

    2017-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain (GWG) are intended for use among women in the United States. Little data are available on whether the 2009 IOM recommendations can be applied to Asian women. This study aimed to evaluate whether the recommendations are related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in Korean pregnant women. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for all singleton-pregnant women at a university hospital in Korea. After classifying the enrolled women into four Korean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories, the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes were analyzed for women who gained inadequate or excessive GWG based on 2009 IOM recommendations. Of 7,843 pregnancies, 64.0% of women had normal pre-pregnancy BMI and 42.7% achieved optimal GWG. Across all BMI categories, adverse pregnancies outcomes such as small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), preterm birth, preeclampsia, and cesarean due to dystocia were significantly associated with GWG (all P ≤ 0.001).Women with normal BMI who gained inadequate weight were more likely to develop SGA and preterm birth and less likely to develop LGA (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.21, 1.33, and 0.54, respectively). Whereas, women with normal BMI who gained excessive weight were more likely to develop LGA, preterm birth, preeclampsia, and cesarean section due to dystocia (aOR 2.10, 1.33, 1.37, and 1.37, respectively) and less likely to develop SGA (aOR 0.60). It is tolerable for Korean women to follow recommended GWG from the 2009 IOM guidelines to decrease adverse pregnancy outcomes. This will be helpful for antenatal care on GWG not only for Korean pregnant women, but also other Asian women who have lower BMI criteria than Caucasian women.

  10. Association of IL-18 genotype with impaired glucose regulation in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Min Ho; Park, Ji Eun; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik; Shim, Sung Han

    2012-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-18, is associated with metabolic syndrome, and elevated serum IL-18 levels are related to obesity and insulin resistance in PCOS patients. However, the role of IL-18 in the PCOS remains unclear. So we examined whether or not two functional polymorphisms in the IL-18 gene, -137G>C and +183A>G, are associated with PCOS itself or glucose intolerance in Korean women with PCOS. The IL-18 genotypes of 126 women with PCOS and 113 controls were determined and their serum levels of lipid and hormone profiles measured. The insulin resistance index was calculated from the glucose and insulin concentrations obtained by oral glucose tolerance tests. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of -137 G>C polymorphisms among the women classified according to presence or absence of PCOS and obesity. However, the -137G/G allele was more frequent in the PCOS+impaired glucose regulation (IGR) group than PCOS+normal glucose tolerance group (X(2)=7.637, p(Bonf)=0.022). The PCOS group with only the -137G allele had a significantly increased risk of IGR compared to the PCOS group with the -137C allele (92 vs. 8%, odds ratio=6.325, 95% confidence interval=1.403-28.519). In the PCOS patients, the mean fasting and 2-h post-prandial plasma glucose level of patients with only the -137G allele was significantly higher than those of the patients with the -137C allele (88.87 ± 9.49 vs. 84.37 ± 6.19, p=0.002 and 120.07 ± 34.53 vs. 107.54 ± 27.13, p=0.038). Only one woman was heterozygous for the +183A>G polymorphism and the other 224 subjects were homozygous for the polymorphism (A/A). The IL-18 -137G allele could play a role in the predisposition to glucose intolerance in Korean women with PCOS, and the +183G allele of IL-18 is not associated with the Korean population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  11. Prevalence of Low Bone Mineral Density and Associated Risk Factors in Korean Puerperal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although pregnancy is a medical condition that contributes to bone loss, little information is available regarding bone mineral density (BMD) in puerperal women. This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and to identify associated risk factors. We surveyed all puerperal women who had BMD measurements taken 4–6 weeks after delivery in a tertiary university hospital, and did not have any bone loss-related comorbidities. Among the 1,561 Korean puerperal women, 566 (36.3%) had low BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and/or trochanter. Multivariate analysis revealed that underweight women had a significantly higher risk of low BMD compared with obese women at pre-pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83–5.63). Also, women with inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) were 1.4 times more likely to have low BMD than women with excessive GWG (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.04–1.94). One-way ANOVA showed that BMDs at the lumbar spine and total hip were significantly different between the 4 BMI groups (both P < 0.001) and also between the 3 GWG groups (both P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study identifies a high prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and thus suggests the need for further evaluation about the change of BMD in pregnancy and postpartum period. PMID:27709858

  12. Prevalence of Low Bone Mineral Density and Associated Risk Factors in Korean Puerperal Women.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dong Gyu; Kwon, Ji Young; Choi, Sae Kyung; Ko, Hyun Sun; Shin, Jong Chul; Park, In Yang

    2016-11-01

    Although pregnancy is a medical condition that contributes to bone loss, little information is available regarding bone mineral density (BMD) in puerperal women. This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and to identify associated risk factors. We surveyed all puerperal women who had BMD measurements taken 4-6 weeks after delivery in a tertiary university hospital, and did not have any bone loss-related comorbidities. Among the 1,561 Korean puerperal women, 566 (36.3%) had low BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and/or trochanter. Multivariate analysis revealed that underweight women had a significantly higher risk of low BMD compared with obese women at pre-pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83-5.63). Also, women with inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) were 1.4 times more likely to have low BMD than women with excessive GWG (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.04-1.94). One-way ANOVA showed that BMDs at the lumbar spine and total hip were significantly different between the 4 BMI groups (both P < 0.001) and also between the 3 GWG groups (both P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study identifies a high prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and thus suggests the need for further evaluation about the change of BMD in pregnancy and postpartum period.

  13. Marital power process of Korean men married to foreign women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miyoung; Park, Gyeong Sook; Windsor, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This study explored how Korean men married to migrant women construct meaning around married life. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 10 men who had had been married to migrant women for ≥ 2 years. Data collection and analysis were performed concurrently using a grounded theory approach. The core category generated was the process of sustaining a family unit. The men came to understand the importance of a distribution of power within the family in sustaining the family unit. Constituting this process were four stages: recognizing an imbalance of power, relinquishing power, empowering, and fine-tuning the balance of power. This study provides important insight into the dynamics of marital power from men's point of view by demonstrating a link between the way people adjust to married life and the process by which married couples adjust through the distribution and redistribution of power.

  14. Effects of aromatherapy massage on blood pressure and lipid profile in korean climacteric women.

    PubMed

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Oh, Heeyoung; Lee, Myeong Soo; Kim, Chan; Choi, Ae-Na; Shin, Gil-Ran

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on the lipid profile and blood pressure in Korean climacteric women. A wait-listed control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The subjects comprised 58 climacteric women: 30 in the experimental group and 28 in the control group. Aromatherapy massage using lavender, rose geranium, rose, and jasmine was given to the experimental group only. Each massage session lasted 30 minutes, and was performed once weekly for two 8-week periods with self abdominal daily massage at home. The intervention produced significant differences in the systolic blood pressure compare to pretreatment and significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressures at posttreatment between the two groups. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage may exert positive effects on blood pressure. However, more objective, clinical measures should be applied in a future study with a randomized placebo-controlled design.

  15. Time spent outdoors and seasonal variation in serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Moon, S J

    2000-11-01

    The vitamin D status of 179 Korean women between the ages of 20 and 75 were measured by the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Related biochemical indices such as iPTH, alkaline, phosphatase, creatinine, albumin, Ca, Mg, and P were also measured. Factors such as demographic characteristics, intake of foods containing vitamin D, and proxy measure of sunlight exposure (time spent outdoors) were assessed to determine their effect on vitamin D status and used in the analysis. The purpose of this study was twofold. The first was to define reference data for the distribution of vitamin D status and to explore the relationship between vitamin D and the variables that affect the vitamin D status in Korean women. The second was to analyze the risk factors of the vitamin D status and the relation between the factors. The results of this study will provide valuable information regarding the role of vitamin D in Korean women. The mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) level was 25.8 ng/ml. Of the total subjects, 16.5% showed vitamin D deficiency (i.e. s-25-OHD < 10 ng/ml). Serum 25-OHD was inversely related to iPTH and alkaline phosphatase. There were significant changes in serum 25-OHD level from the pre- to the post-menopausal women with a positive correlation between vitamin D intake and serum at the 25-OHD level. Significant seasonal variation of serum 25-OHD and PTH were noted in 26 of the subjects and the serum 25-OHD level also correlated with sunlight exposure especially at 12.00 p.m. to 2.00 p.m. as assessed by the time spent outdoors. The relative importance of the two sources of vitamin D such as dietary intake (33.6% explained) and endogenous production of the time spent outdoors (19.7% explained) in serum 25-OHD were also evaluated. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the effects of aging on serum 25-OHD could largely be accounted for. Both the decline in dietary vitamin D intake and the time spent outdoors were closely related to the

  16. Association between blood lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Roh, Seung-Ju; Kim, Han-Na; Shim, Unjin; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Su-Jin; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age  = 24.9±4.6 years (range 17-39)] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between blood lipid levels

  17. Association between Blood Lipid Levels and Personality Traits in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Seung-Ju; Shim, Unjin; Kim, Bo-Hye; Kim, Su-Jin; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal lipid levels are important etiological factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis and with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Lipid levels are also influenced by lifestyle and behavioral factors, which suggests that personality traits might be related to abnormal lipid profiles. Studies on personality traits and lipid levels are relatively scarce in Korea. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between lipid levels and personality traits in young Korean women. A total of 1,701 young Korean women [mean age  = 24.9±4.6 years (range 17–39)] who volunteered for personality trait evaluation were recruited for this study. Lipid levels, including total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride, were measured in all subjects after an overnight fast, and a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was calculated. The study population was divided into abnormal and normal lipid level groups according to the clinical criteria. Personality traits were measured using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the Five-Factor Model of personality. High neuroticism was associated with low HDL cholesterol levels. Low extraversion and openness were associated with high levels of triglyceride. At the facet level, the association between personality and lipid levels were generally consistent. Angry hostility, self-consciousness, vulnerability to stress, activity, and straightforwardness were associated with HDL cholesterol levels. Activity, positive emotion, aesthetics, actions, and deliberation were associated with triglyceride. When applying clinical criteria, conscientiousness was less likely to have abnormal total cholesterol levels. Our results showed that the women with the low HDL cholesterol levels are like to be more neurotic and the hyperglycemic women are prone to lower extraversion and openness in Korea. Understanding the associations between blood lipid

  18. Factors Related to Positive Changes in Perceived Health Status of Married Han Chinese and Korean-Chinese Women After Immigration to Korea.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kana; Ryu, Si Hyun; Chin, Meejung; Yoon, Jihyun

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to compare factors related to changes in perceived health status of Han Chinese (traditional Chinese) and Korean-Chinese (Chinese nationals of Korean descent) women after immigration to Korea. During summer 2013, a survey was conducted with 151 Han and 158 Korean-Chinese women married to Korean men. Most of the respondents reported either no changes (82%) or positive changes (18%) in their perceived health status after immigration. The results of the multiple logistic regression analyses indicated healthy dietary behavior was related to positive changes in the perceived health status of both groups (odds ratio [OR] = 7.4 for Han Chinese; OR = 14.6 for Korean-Chinese). Among Han Chinese women, the length of residence in Korea and the change in perceived health status showed a negative relation (OR = 0.2). In contrast, their level of acculturation and health perception were positive (OR = 7.5). However, these results did not apply to the Korean-Chinese women. In conclusion, factors related to changes in perceived health status differed between the 2 groups although they shared healthy dietary behaviors as a common factor. Therefore, policies and programs aimed at promoting immigrant women's health should consider the differences between Han Chinese and Korean-Chinese. © 2016 APJPH.

  19. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JAPAN Report on 30th Anniversary of Chongnyon (KCNA, 24, 31 May 85) " NODONG SINMUN Report 99 Anniversary Marked Abroad 10° Briefs Taekwondo ...KOREA/KOREANS IN JAPAN BRIEFS TAEKWONDO FEDERATION HEAD LEAVES—Pyongyang, 29 May (KCNA)--Mr Choe Hong-hui, president of the International Taegwondo

  20. Korean Phrase Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This is a brief guide to Korean pronunciation and phrases, prepared for U.S. Navy personnel. Expressions are grouped according to the following headings: (1) emergency expressions; (2) general expressions; (3) personal needs; (4) location and terrain; (5) roads and transportation; (6) communications; (7) letters, numbers, size, time, etc.; (8)…

  1. Finite Control in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kum Young

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores finite control in Korean. An overview of the previous studies of control shows that the mainstream literature on control has consistently argued that referential dependence between an overt matrix argument and an embedded null subject is characteristic of non-finite clauses which contain a PRO subject. Moreover, although some…

  2. ACOUSTIC PHONETICS OF KOREAN,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    utilize the spectrographic data and subsequent analysis in a better description of the phonology of Korean. Although the scope of the present...automatic speech recognition require accurate knowledge of the phonology of the language as a theoretical basis. The present study aims to develop a phonology which will provide such a basis for the advanced studies. (Author)

  3. Macronutrient Composition and Sodium Intake of Diet Are Associated with Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Myoungsook; Kim, Young Ok

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and hypertriglycemia are the most important contributors to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease risk in South Koreans with a relatively lean body mass. These major contributors differ from those identified in Western populations. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the Korean diet associated with increased risk of MetS, whose prevalence has been steadily increasing in South Korea. On the basis of data collected from 5,320 subjects by the 2007–2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 3 dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and their association with the risk of MetS and its components was examined. The balanced Korean diet, a typical Korean diet of rice and kimchi intake supplemented by a variety of foods had a desirable macronutrient composition and was associated with a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.45–0.84) and hypertriglyceridemia (0.69, 0.49–0.88) in men and a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (0.59, 0.41–0.85) and MetS (0.67, 0.47–0.96) in women. The unbalanced Korean diet, characterized by a high intake of carbohydrates and sodium and little variety, was associated with a higher risk of MetS (1.44, 1.03–2.01) and elevated blood pressure (1.41, 1.00–1.98) in women. The semi-western diet, characterized by a relatively high intake of meat, poultry, and alcohol, was associated with a lower risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.70, 0.54–0.89) in women. Thus, macronutrient composition and sodium intake are associated with the risk of MetS and prehypertension in women. Maintaining a desirable macronutrient composition and avoiding excessive consumption of carbohydrates and sodium should be emphasized for prevention of MetS and hypertension in South Korean women. PMID:24205105

  4. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. North Korean Paradoxes. Circumstances, Costs, and Consequences of Korean Unification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    paper) 1. Korean reunification question (1945- ) 2. Korea (North)-Economic policy. 3. Korea (North)--Politics and government. 4. Security, International...order@rand.org Preface This monograph, focusing on North Korea , analyzes some of the economic, political, and security issues associated with Korean ...Northeast Asia. iii iv North Korean Paradoxes This research was performed within the International Security and Defense Policy Center of the RAND National

  6. The impact of perceived childhood victimization and patriarchal gender ideology on intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among Korean immigrant women in the USA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chunrye

    2017-08-01

    Childhood victimization experiences are common among intimate partner violence (IPV) victims. This study examines the link between childhood physical and sexual victimization experiences and adulthood IPV among Korean immigrant women in the USA. As Korean immigrants often use physical punishment to discipline their children, and reporting sexual abuse is discouraged due to stigmatization in this community, cultural factors (e.g. patriarchal values) related to childhood victimization and IPV were also examined. Survey data from Korean immigrant women in the USA were collected. Using a case-control design, we compared 64 Korean immigrant women who have experienced IPV in the past year with 63 Korean immigrant women who have never experienced IPV in their lifetime. The findings of this study reveal that IPV victims, compared with non-victims, experienced higher childhood victimization rates. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that childhood victimization and patriarchal gender ideology strongly predict IPV victimization among Korean immigrants. However, patriarchal values did not moderate the relationship between childhood victimization and IPV. To prevent IPV among Korean immigrant population, we need to make special efforts to prevent childhood abuse and change ingrained cultural attitudes about child physical and sexual abuse among immigrant communities through culturally sensitive programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin D and Urinary Incontinence among Korean Women: a Propensity Score-matched Analysis from the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Serk; Lee, Jun Ho

    2017-04-01

    A recent study investigated the role of vitamin D in urinary incontinence (UI). However, very few data are available on this topic. Therefore, we evaluated these relationships using nationally representative data from Korea. We included 6,451 women over the age of 20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. We conducted a propensity-matched study by identifying women with UI. Women without UI, matched for menopause, number of pregnancies, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, age, stroke, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, were selected as a control group at a 2:1 ratio. The χ² test, t-test and logistic regression analyses were used. Following propensity score matching, 558 UI cases and 1,116 normal controls were included, and confounders (menopause, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, age, obesity, and number of pregnancies) were evenly dispersed and did not differ significantly between the groups. There was no significant difference between the mean vitamin D levels of the UI and normal groups (vitamin D: 18.4 ± 6.6 vs. 18.5 ± 7.0 ng/mL; P = 0.752). Additionally, there was no significant difference in the distribution of vitamin D levels (< 20 ng/mL, 20-30 ng/mL, > 30 ng/mL: 63.8%, 30.5%, and 5.7% in normal controls, 64.0%, 27.8%, and 8.2% in UI cases; P = 0.107). In conclusion, low serum vitamin D is not significantly and independently related to female UI after propensity score matching in representative Korean data. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  8. Lifestyle and Genetic Predictors of Stiffness Index in Community-dwelling Elderly Korean Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Ae; Park, Yeon-Hwan; Suh, Min-Hee; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2015-09-01

    Differing lifestyle, nutritional, and genetic factors may lead to a differing stiffness index (SI) determined by quantitative ultrasound in elderly men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine SI and the gender-specific factors associated with low SI in a Korean elderly cohort. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study identifying the gender-specific factors related to SI in 252 men and women aged 65 years and greater from local senior centers in Seoul, Korea between January and February 2009. The mean SI of elderly men was significantly higher than that of the women's. A multiple regression analysis reveals that age, nutritional status, and physical activity were predictive factors of lower SI in men, whereas age, alcohol consumption, educational level, and genetic polymorphism were predictive factors for elderly women. Low SI was common in both elderly men and women. We found gender differences in factors linked to low SI. In multiple regression analysis, nutritional status and physical activity were more important factors in men, whereas alcohol consumption, educational level, and genetic polymorphism were significant factors predicting low SI in women. Gender-specific modifiable risk factors associated with low SI should be considered when developing osteoporosis prevention programs for the elderly. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Contingent association between the size of the social support network and osteoporosis among Korean elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Da Hea; Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Chang Oh; Youm, Yoosik; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the number of personal ties (or the size of the social support network) and the incidence of osteoporosis among older women in Korea. Methods Data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly Study were used. Bone density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine (L1–L4) and femur neck. T-score, the standardized bone density compared with what is normally expected in a healthy young adult, was measured and the presence of osteoporosis was determined, if the T-score was < -2.5. The social support network size was measured by self-responses (number of confidants and spouse). Results Of the 1,846 participants, 44.9% were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The association between the social support network size and the incidence of osteoporosis was curvilinear in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Having more people in one’s social support network size was associated with lower risk of osteoporosis until it reached around four. Increasing the social support network size beyond four, in contrast, was associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis. This association was contingent on the average intimacy level of the social network. At the highest average intimacy level (“extremely close”), increasing the number of social support network members from one to six was associated with linear decrease in the predicted probability of osteoporosis from 45% to 30%. However, at the lowest average intimacy level (“not very close”), the predicted probability of osteoporosis dramatically increased from 48% to 80% as the size of the social network increased from one to six. Conclusion Our results show that maintaining a large and intimate social support network is associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis among elderly Korean women, while a large but less-intimate social relationship is associated with a higher risk. PMID:28700637

  10. Contingent association between the size of the social support network and osteoporosis among Korean elderly women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwon; Seo, Da Hea; Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Chang Oh; Youm, Yoosik; Rhee, Yumie

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between the number of personal ties (or the size of the social support network) and the incidence of osteoporosis among older women in Korea. Data from the Korean Urban Rural Elderly Study were used. Bone density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femur neck. T-score, the standardized bone density compared with what is normally expected in a healthy young adult, was measured and the presence of osteoporosis was determined, if the T-score was < -2.5. The social support network size was measured by self-responses (number of confidants and spouse). Of the 1,846 participants, 44.9% were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The association between the social support network size and the incidence of osteoporosis was curvilinear in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Having more people in one's social support network size was associated with lower risk of osteoporosis until it reached around four. Increasing the social support network size beyond four, in contrast, was associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis. This association was contingent on the average intimacy level of the social network. At the highest average intimacy level ("extremely close"), increasing the number of social support network members from one to six was associated with linear decrease in the predicted probability of osteoporosis from 45% to 30%. However, at the lowest average intimacy level ("not very close"), the predicted probability of osteoporosis dramatically increased from 48% to 80% as the size of the social network increased from one to six. Our results show that maintaining a large and intimate social support network is associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis among elderly Korean women, while a large but less-intimate social relationship is associated with a higher risk.

  11. Body Fat and Physical Activity Modulate the Association Between Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis in Elderly Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inhwan; Cho, Jinkyung; Jin, Youngyun; Ha, Changduk; Kim, Taehee; Kang, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as body fatness and physical activity, modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. In a cross-sectional design, 269 postmenopausal women, aged 65 years and older, underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans to measure their body fat percentage, total fat mass, total fat-free mass, appendicular lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content. The participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive days to quantify daily physical activity. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and a binary logistic regression. Pearson correlation analyses showed that total neck/femur BMD was positively associated with weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and objectively-measured physical activities. ASM was positively associated with body fatness. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia for osteopenia and/or osteoporosis was substantially attenuated but remained marginally significant when adjusted for age and postmenopausal period (OR = 2.370 and p = 0.050). However, the OR was no longer significant when additionally adjusted for body fatness (OR = 2.218 and p = 0.117) and physical activity (OR = 1.240 and p = 0.448). The findings of the study showed that, in this sample of elderly Korean women, modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as body fatness and physical inactivity played an important role in determining the association between sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Key points Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are major health conditions responsible for an increased risk of bone fractures and reduced functional capacity, respectively, in older adults. We investigated whether lifestyle-related risk factors modulate the association between sarcopenia and osteoporosis in older Korean adults. The current findings of the study suggest that physical activity and

  12. Naval Cooperation After Korean Unification,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    Korean Unification _ ’ - < ~ ■::-■;-■’ "’&■ ■ *>’ -■ ■’■ I Analyses for Defense Analyses Center for Korea ... Korea Institute for Defense Analyses (KIDA) held a workshop in Washington, DC, from December 4 to 6, 1995, to examine the prospects for U.S.- Korean ... Korean Navy, coastal missions are certain to continue. Korea will still require defense of its coastlines; regulatory missions to enforce

  13. Social-cognitive predictors of dietary behaviors in South Korean men and women.

    PubMed

    Renner, Britta; Kwon, Sunkyo; Yang, Byung-Hwan; Paik, Ki-Chung; Kim, Seok Hyeon; Roh, Sungwon; Song, Jaechul; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Eating a diet that is high in vitamins and low in fat is considered to be governed by social-cognitive factors, such as intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancies. A longitudinal field study was designed to examine the interrelationships of these factors with dietary behaviors. In 697 South Korean men and women, objective health-risk status was assessed at Time 1 (cholesterol, blood pressure, and body mass index) in conjunction with self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and intentions. At Time 2, six months later, coping self-efficacy, planning, and dietary behaviors were measured. A two-group structural equation model for men and women was specified to determine the relations of distal and proximal predictors of a healthy diet. Self-efficacy was of equal predictive power in men and women, whereas intentions and planning were relevant only in women. Objective risk status was associated with intentions in women but not in men. Results confirm the predictive power of the Health Action Process Approach and point to the role of gender in the self-regulation of dietary behaviors.

  14. Liberation psychological implications for pastoral care of Korean military wives.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bocheol

    2010-01-01

    Native Korean women frequently suffer poverty, sexual violence, and Confucian gender discrimination. Once in America Korean military wives also experience racial and sexual oppression, intercultural familial conflicts and violence, and identity crisis and lead to feelings of isolation and non-belonging, a sense of anomie. Korean American pastors tend to understate and oversimplify the complexity of psychological and spiritual suffering of Korean military wives and overemphasize individual faith development as a solution. Liberation psychology evolved from an awareness of similar dehumanizing realities. The context-based perspective of liberation psychology offers a model to interpret and assist in the psychological and spiritual healing of Korean military wives. The healing power of conscientization offered in Liberation psychology for oppressed individuals encourages self-awakening suggesting it as an ideal interventional model to help Korean military wives and would be a useful approach for Korean American pastors.

  15. Are Western Knee Designs Dimensionally Correct for Korean Women? A Morphometric Study of Resected Femoral Surfaces during Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Suk-Joo; Kang, Hyung Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the shape of the distal femur of Korean women compared with the prostheses currently available in Korea. Methods Morphometric data (5 parameters) were measured in 356 resected femurs of Korean women undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) utilizing the LCS knee implant (DePuy). The data were then compared with 5 additional contemporary TKA implant systems. Results Implant designs based on Caucasian population data do not ideally match the distal femoral morphology of Korean women. Overhang at the anterior mediolateral width was observed in 84.8% for the LCS while a gender-specific implant resulted in undercoverage of the bone in 86%. Posterior overhang was observed in up to 51.2%. Most implant designs have a narrower intercondylar notch than the morphologic data of Korean women. Conclusions Since there is some difference between the shape of distal femur of Korean women and that of the implants, surgeons should have this in mind when selecting an implant for a patient. These data may also be used as a guideline for future prosthetic design options for Korean women population. PMID:27583107

  16. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-23

    Clique’s Crimes Against Taekwondo Group Exposed (KCNA, 18 Jan. 87) 45 SOUTH KOREA POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT Editorial Denounces Two Kims Control of...meeting. It said, "In order to prevent another war and consolidate peace on the penin- sula, the meeting should be realized as early as possible." Kim...military confrontation and tension prevailing on the Korean peninsula, promote trust and unity between the north and the south, prevent war, ensure peace

  17. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Ship To Investigate Krill Fishing in Antarctic (YONHAP, 24 Nov 86) , 77 INTERNATIONAL COMMENTARY Daily on U.S.-Beijing, Pyongyang-Moscow Relations...maintenance of friendly relations is the "supreme objective," he added. /12913 CSO: 4100/061 76 S. KOREA/FOREIGN RELATIONS SHIP TO INVESTIGATE KRILL ...the Southern Korean port city of Pusan for the Antarctic Ocean to investigate possibilities of fishing for Krill , the fisheries office announced. The

  18. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-25

    enormous political offensive, will carry out parliamentary democracy._ We ought to know clearly that they possibly do not care whether societ^a V^ X ...uphold. Such advocacy is at best an act of abusing parliamentar - ians’ right to immunity from censuring on the Assembly floor. They echo the demands of...wives at Chongwadae, the presidential residence. Chon chatted with the foreign diplomats on the South-North Korean Red Cross talks held in Seoul Tuesday

  19. Korean Affairs Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-13

    socialist state. The Korean people who attend him as their great leader are the happiest and most proud people . 79 Johannese Pilane, chief of the northern...happiness of the people and per- formed immortal feats for the accomplishment of the cause of making the whole world independent in a long period of...Anniversary Banquet Held 70 - d - Briefs Chongnyon Traders Arrive 72 FOREIGN RELATIONS Solidarity With Palestinian People , Struggle Noted (KCNA

  20. Korean Affairs Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    needed in.the production of var- ious guns and tanks to the South Korean puppets and have had Japanese war munition monopolist enterprises directly...emergency measures or from guns and bayonets. The puppet’s oppressive frenzy is the manifestation of his extreme fear and uneasiness. Today, the...the long-term office of the dictatorial regime and those who can survive only by smashing this scheme. A gun -and-bayonet suppressive offense is the

  1. Korean Dermatological Association.

    PubMed

    Ro, B I

    1998-12-01

    The Korean Dermatological Association (KDA) was founded on October 27, 1945. The first annual meeting was held on November 15, 1947, and meetings have been held twice a year since 1975. The KDA 50th Annual Spring Meeting was on April 15-16, 1998. Korean Journal of Dermatology, the official journal of the KDA, was first published in 1960 and has been published bimonthly since 1978. Annals of Dermatology (Seoul), the English journal, was first published in 1989 and has been published quarterly since 1995. The American residency and specialty board system was introduced in 1954. Board specialty examination of dermatology candidates by the KDA requires four years of residency. Three hundred and twenty residents are now in the training course in the fifty-nine resident training approved hospitals this year. KDA has seven regional dermatological societies; Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Honam, Chungchong, Jeonbuk, and Kangwon. KDA has had eleven research subcommittees since 1981. There are two associated societies of the KDA; the Korean Society for Investigative Dermatology was founded in 1991, and the Korean Society for Medical Mycology was founded in 1994. The Korea-Japan Joint Meeting of Dermatology has been held every two years since 1979 and the Korea-China Joint Meeting of Dermatology and Mycology has been held since 1996. About three hundred papers were presented at the 49th Annual Autumn Meeting on October 21-23, 1997. These included special lectures, invited lectures, educational lectures, oral presentations, and posters. About five hundred dermatologists participated in that meeting. KDA joined the International League of Dermatological Societies in 1973 with forty-seven members. There are around 1200 members of the KDA including 320 residents in 1998.

  2. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

  3. Aromatherapy massage affects menopausal symptoms in korean climacteric women: a pilot-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures.

  4. Bone Mineral Density and Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Korean Women with Low-Energy Distal Radius Fractures.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong Jun; Park, Ho Youn; Kim, Jin Sam; Yoon, Jun-O; Jeon, In-Ho

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women with low-energy distal radius fractures and compared with those of aged-matched normal Korean women. Two hundred and six patients with distal radius fractures between March 2006 and March 2010 were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups by age; group 1 (50-59 years), group 2 (60-69 years), and group 3 (70-79 years). Controls were age-matched normal Korean women. The bone mineral density values at all measured sites, except for the spine, were significantly lower in group 1 than those of control. While the bone mineral density values in group 2 and 3 were lower than those of controls, these differences were not statistically significant. All groups had significantly higher prevalence of osteoporosis at the Ward's triangle; however, at the spine, femoral neck and trochanteric area it was not significantly different from those of age-matched controls. Although the prevalence of osteoporosis of the postmenopausal women with low-energy distal radius fractures may not be higher than that of the control, osteoporosis should be evaluated especially in younger postmenopausal patients to prevent other osteoporotic hip and/or spine fractures.

  5. Bone Mineral Density and Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Korean Women with Low-Energy Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women with low-energy distal radius fractures and compared with those of aged-matched normal Korean women. Two hundred and six patients with distal radius fractures between March 2006 and March 2010 were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups by age; group 1 (50-59 years), group 2 (60-69 years), and group 3 (70-79 years). Controls were age-matched normal Korean women. The bone mineral density values at all measured sites, except for the spine, were significantly lower in group 1 than those of control. While the bone mineral density values in group 2 and 3 were lower than those of controls, these differences were not statistically significant. All groups had significantly higher prevalence of osteoporosis at the Ward’s triangle; however, at the spine, femoral neck and trochanteric area it was not significantly different from those of age-matched controls. Although the prevalence of osteoporosis of the postmenopausal women with low-energy distal radius fractures may not be higher than that of the control, osteoporosis should be evaluated especially in younger postmenopausal patients to prevent other osteoporotic hip and/or spine fractures. PMID:27247508

  6. Etiologic characteristics and index pregnancy outcomes of recurrent pregnancy losses in Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gi Su; Rhee, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and clinical outcomes of Korean recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) patients. And also, we investigated the differences between primary and secondary RPL patients, between two and three or more pregnancy losses. Methods One hundred seventy eight women diagnosed as RPL were enrolled. We performed chromosomal analysis, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, blood glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, natural killer cell proportion, anticardiolipin antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies, lupus anticoagulant, anti-β2glycoprotein-1 antibodies, antinuclear antibody, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, homocysteine, MTFHR gene, factor V Leiden mutation, and hysterosalphingography/hysteroscopic evaluation. Results The mean age was 34.03±4.30 years, and mean number of miscarriages was 2.69±1.11 (range, 2 to 11). Anatomical cause (13.5%), chromosomal abnormalities (5.6%), and endocrine disorders (34.3%) were observed in RPL women. Elevated natural killer cell and antiphospholipid antibodies were observed in 43.3% and 7.3% each. Among of 178 women, 77 women were pregnant. After management of those women, live birth rate was 84.4% and mean gestational weeks was 37.63±5.12. Women with three or more RPL compared with women with two RPL had more common anatomical cause such as intrauterine adhesions and lower rates of spontaneous pregnancy. Compare with secondary RPL women, immunological abnormalities were more common in primary RPL. However, miscarriage rates were not different. Conclusion Immunological factor including autoimmune and alloimmune disorders was most common etiology of RPL. Inherited thrombophilia showed different patterns with other ethnic countries. Miscarriage rates were not different between primary and secondary RPL, or between two and three or more miscarriages group. PMID:27668201

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability about influenza vaccination in Korean women of childbearing age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to investigate the women's perspective on influenza infection and vaccination and to evaluate how they influence vaccine acceptability, in Korean women of childbearing age. Methods This was a prospective study by random survey of women of childbearing age (20 to 45 years). They were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes and acceptability of influenza vaccination before and during pregnancy. This study utilized data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2008 and 2012, to analyze the recent influenza vaccination trends. Results According to KNHANES (2008-2012), influenza vaccination rates in women of childbearing age have increased up to 26.4%, after 2009. The questionnaire was completed by 308 women. Vaccination rate during pregnancy or planning a pregnancy was 38.6%. The immunization rate increased significantly with the mean number of correct answers (P<0.001). Women who received influenza vaccination were more likely to be previously informed of the recommendations concerning the influenza vaccination before or during pregnancy, received the influenza vaccination in the past, and of the opinion that influenza vaccination is not dangerous during pregnancy, with odds ratios of 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.44 to 33.33; P<0.0001), 3.6 (95% CI, 1.84 to 6.97; P=0.0002) and 2.7 (95% CI, 1.34 to 5.47; P=0.0057). Conclusion Influenza vaccination rate in women of childbearing age has increased in this study and national data. More information and recommendation by healthcare workers, especially obstetricians, including safety of vaccination, might be critical for improving vaccination rate in women of childbearing age. PMID:25798420

  8. Association between Health Behaviors and a Family History of Cancer among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Youngsun; Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the health-related behaviors related to a family history of cancer (FHCA) among Korean women underwent cancer screening. Materials and Methods A total of 8,956 women who underwent cancer screenings during 2001-2011 at the National Cancer Center, Korea, were analyzed. The association between health-related behaviors and a FHCA were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to smoke (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.65), to be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.65), and less likely to engage in regular exercise (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.41). Combined effects of selected health behaviors for FHCA were significant, although no statistically significant interactions were observed between selected health behaviors. Compared to women with no FHCA, women with FHCA were more likely to simultaneously smoke and be exposed to passive smoking (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.31) and to simultaneously smoke and be physically inactive (aOR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.64). Conclusion The study found that women with a FHCA exhibited unhealthy behaviors compared to women without FHCA. Higher emphasis on lifestyle modifications using a new standardized tool is strongly recommended for those with a FHCA, as well as individuals who are at high risk, together with their family members. PMID:26511810

  9. Decreased Renal Function Is a Risk Factor for Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Cho, Si Hyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Decreased renal function is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Our study was planned to verify the association of decreased renal function and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 251 Korean postmenopausal women who visited the health promotion center for a routine health checkup. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used to show renal function, which was estimated by calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Results Women with reduced eGFR (< 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2) had significantly higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) than women with normal eGFR (≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2). The eGFR was negatively correlated with baPWV (r = -0.352, P < 0.001), significantly. The eGFR was lower in women with coronary atherosclerosis than in normal control women, markedly. Reduced eGFR was significantly associated with the presence of coronary atherosclerosis (odds ratio [OR] = 7.528, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.728-20.772, P < 0.001). Conclusions Decreased eGFR was closely associated with increased arterial stiffness and coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Evaluating subclinical atherosclerosis by screening the renal function in postmenopausal women may be helpful screening high risk group and considering starting menopausal hormone therapy before atherosclerosis development. PMID:28119897

  10. Predictors of mammography uptake in Korean women aged 40 years and over.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Eunjung; Ahn, Okhee; Baek, Sun-Sook; Jeon, Mi-Soon; Han, Seung-Eui; Park, Young-Rye; Ham, Mi-Young

    2008-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study performed to identify the predictors of mammography uptake for Korean women according to the stage of change, as determined by the transtheoretical model. Although breast cancer is the most common female cancer in South Korea, its early detection rate here is low when compared with other developed countries. The transtheoretical model can be used to facilitate health promotion based on individual health behaviour and to devise stage-tailored interventions. The participants were a convenience sample of 920 women aged > or =40 years between December 2005 and February 2006. A cross-sectional design was used in which participants completed a questionnaire that consisted of measures of the transtheoretical model. To provide a standard of measure, the variables were converted from raw scores to standard scores and then to T scores (mean = 50, sd = 10). Logistic regression analysis was then used to estimate predictors of the stage of maintenance of mammography uptake. The most frequent stage of mammography uptake was 'contemplation'. Predictors of mammography uptake included decisional balance, commitment to regular screening and avoiding contact with the healthcare system. Commitment to regular screening and breast self-examination were strongly related to mammography maintenance. The results of this study can be used for the development of theory-based and empirically supported mammography uptake intervention strategies and programmes directed towards women aged > or =40 years.

  11. Food and Nutrient Intakes According to Income in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Inyoung; Jang, Myoung-Jin; Oh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated associations between income and intake of nutrients and food in adults (n = 11,063) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009. Methods To examine relationships between individual dietary intake and anthropometric measures and family income, multiple linear regression models were constructed for each outcome variable. All models were adjusted for age, education, energy intake, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity. Results For men, intakes of protein, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and vitamin C were lower in low-income compared to high-income groups. For women, intakes of protein and niacin were lower in low-income groups. Lowest income group ate less dairy products in men and less fruits and fishes or shellfishes in women. Conclusion Low-income groups had severe food insecurity and low diet quality compared to high-income groups. The study results will provide direction for public health efforts regarding dietary intakes according to economic status among Korean men and women. PMID:24159472

  12. A Prospective Study of Serum Trace Elements in Healthy Korean Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Sun, Jiyu; Yoo, Heejin; Kim, Seonwoo; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-Young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-11-23

    This prospective study sought to investigate serum levels of trace elements (cobalt, copper, zinc, and selenium) and to assess their effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serum levels of trace elements in 245 Korean pregnant women (median gestational age at delivery was 39 + 4 weeks and interquartile range was 38 + 4-40 + 1 weeks) were compared with those of 527 general adults and those of previous studies in other ethnic groups. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, neonatal birth weight, and congenital abnormalities were assessed. The median serum trace element concentrations of all pregnant women were: cobalt: 0.39 μg/L (interquartile range, IQR 0.29-0.53), copper: 165.0 μg/dL (IQR 144.0-187.0), zinc: 57.0 μg/dL (IQR 50.0-64.0), and selenium: 94.0 μg/L (IQR 87.0-101.0). Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were higher in pregnant women than in the general population, whereas zinc and selenium levels were lower (p < 0.01). Concentrations of all four trace elements varied significantly during the three trimesters (p < 0.05), and seasonal variation was found in copper, zinc, and selenium, but was not observed for cobalt. The prevalence of preeclampsia was significantly lower with high copper (p = 0.03). Trace element levels varied by pregnancy trimester and season, and alteration in copper status during pregnancy might influence pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia.

  13. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.

    2013-01-01

    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared,…

  14. Teaching English Pronunciation to Koreans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Barbara

    This guide provides teachers of Korean children and adults with information on the problems Koreans encounter in learning to pronounce English. Principles of contrastive analysis and error analysis are used to give insight into these pronunciation problems. The first section dealing with problem sounds covers the following: (1) an explanation of…

  15. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  16. Korean Advanced Course, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the first of 7 readers for continuation training in Korean after the completion of the "Korean Basic Course" prepared by the Defense Language Institute. Units 1-11 are practical situation dialogues written for the course and center on topics related to sports, social events, police administration, and dialects. Interviews with key…

  17. Korean Advanced Course: Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the fifth in a series of seven readers designed for continuation training in the Defense Language Institute's Basic Course in Korean. Twelve articles, drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970, focus on Korean letters, life, and customs. The reader is to be used for development of…

  18. Korean Advanced Course: Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This is the second of seven readers, prepared by the Defense Language Institute, for continuation training in Korean after the Basic Course. The 20 reading lessons, printed in Korean script, have been drawn from several readers published by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea in 1970. Each unit concludes with a set of questions and…

  19. Correlates of Domestic Violence Victimization Among North Korean Refugee Women in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Um, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2016-01-06

    Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea

  20. Korean Heritage Language Maintenance and Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which language ideology is linked to maintenance of Korean as a heritage language by Koreans in America. The data for this ethnographic study come from three separate sources: 1) a Korean language program at an American university; 2) a community-based ESL program for Korean seniors; and 3) a recently immigrated Korean…

  1. Acculturation of Korean Residents in Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Don Chang

    This report explores the acculturation of Korean residents; both Korean families and Korean American families who reside in an academic community (Athens, Georgia) and an urban community (Atlanta, Georgia). The study is based on the view that Korean residents in the United States are a distinctive subgroup that has not yet been studied in terms of…

  2. Assessment of clinical risk factors to validate the probability of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo Mee; Hyun, Noo-Rie; Shon, Ho-Sang; Kim, Hae-Soon; Park, So-Young; Park, Il-Hyung; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Jung, Hong-Geun; Kim, Do-Hee; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2008-12-01

    This cross-sectional, observational study was designed to identify clinical risk factors of osteoporosis and fractures in Korean women to validate the probability of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. A total of 1541 Korean women were recruited nationally. Fracture history of any site, risk factors of osteoporosis, and fall-related risk factors were surveyed and physical performance tests were conducted. Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure calcaneus bone mineral density (BMD). The number of positive responses on the modified 1-min osteoporosis risk test was related to the risk of osteoporosis. The frequency of osteoporosis was higher in those with a height reduction of >4 cm and a reduced body mass index (BMI). Multivariate analysis showed that older age and lower BMI were related to higher relative risk of osteoporosis. Time required to stand up from a chair and questions related to fall injury were significantly related to clinical fracture history of any site. Multivariate analysis showed that the relative risk of fractures at any site was higher in older subjects with a lower T-score and parental hip fracture history. This study shows that age and BMI are the most significant clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and that age, BMD, and parental history of hip fracture are highly applicable risk factors for validating the probability of osteoporotic fractures in Korean women.

  3. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenghui; Park, Kyung-Shin; McCormick, Joseph B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50-56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 65-70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI). Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P < 0.05). LI significantly reduced BMI, fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P < 0.05). Exercise training had a beneficial effect on reducing BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  4. "I Am a "Kirogi" Mother": Education Exodus and Life Transformation among Korean Transnational Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hakyoon

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the recent social phenomenon of the "kirogi," which means wild goose in Korean. This word also refers to a multinational household in which the mother has moved overseas for the children's education while the father lives alone in Korea to support his family economically. I investigate the narratives of kirogi…

  5. "I Am a "Kirogi" Mother": Education Exodus and Life Transformation among Korean Transnational Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hakyoon

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the recent social phenomenon of the "kirogi," which means wild goose in Korean. This word also refers to a multinational household in which the mother has moved overseas for the children's education while the father lives alone in Korea to support his family economically. I investigate the narratives of kirogi…

  6. The Associations between Immunity-Related Genes and Breast Cancer Prognosis in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaesung; Song, Nan; Han, Sohee; Chung, Seokang; Sung, Hyuna; Lee, Ji-young; Jung, Sunjae; Park, Sue K.; Yoo, Keun-Young; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Jong Won; Noh, Dong-Young; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the role of common genetic variation in immune-related genes on breast cancer disease-free survival (DFS) in Korean women. 107 breast cancer patients of the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS) were selected for this study. A total of 2,432 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 283 immune-related genes were genotyped with the GoldenGate Oligonucleotide pool assay (OPA). A multivariate Cox-proportional hazard model and polygenic risk score model were used to estimate the effects of SNPs on breast cancer prognosis. Harrell’s C index was calculated to estimate the predictive accuracy of polygenic risk score model. Subsequently, an extended gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA-SNP) was conducted to approximate the biological pathway. In addition, to confirm our results with current evidence, previous studies were systematically reviewed. Sixty-two SNPs were statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. The most significant SNPs were rs1952438 in SOCS4 gene (hazard ratio (HR) = 11.99, 95% CI = 3.62–39.72, P = 4.84E-05), rs2289278 in TSLP gene (HR = 4.25, 95% CI = 2.10–8.62, P = 5.99E-05) and rs2074724 in HGF gene (HR = 4.63, 95% CI = 2.18–9.87, P = 7.04E-05). In the polygenic risk score model, the HR of women in the 3rd tertile was 6.78 (95% CI = 1.48–31.06) compared to patients in the 1st tertile of polygenic risk score. Harrell’s C index was 0.813 with total patients and 0.924 in 4-fold cross validation. In the pathway analysis, 18 pathways were significantly associated with breast cancer prognosis (P<0.1). The IL-6R, IL-8, IL-10RB, IL-12A, and IL-12B was associated with the prognosis of cancer in data of both our study and a previous study. Therefore, our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in immune-related genes have relevance to breast cancer prognosis among Korean women. PMID:25075970

  7. Caffeine Intake Is Associated with Urinary Incontinence in Korean Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Min; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Sung Jong; Park, Eun Kyung; Jeung, In Cheul; Kim, Chan Joo; Lee, Yong Seok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) and quality of life (QOL) in Korean postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods We included 4,028 postmenopausal women who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). From the KNHANES questionnaire data, we ascertained the UI status of participants, defined as self-reported or medically diagnosed UI, and calculated their total daily caffeine intake through questions regarding the frequency of food consumption. The EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system was used to evaluate QOL among the study population. Results The mean age of the study population was 63.19±0.25 years. Among the 4,028 women, the prevalence of medically diagnosed UI was 2.6% (n = 151), the prevalence of self-reported UI was 11.9% (n = 483), and the lifetime prevalence of UI was 15.8% (n = 639). In the study population, the presence of UI was not significantly different by age group, but daily caffeine consumption and the percentage of caffeine consumer decreased with age (P<0.001). Higher caffeine intake led to significantly higher prevalence of both medically diagnosed UI (p = 0.012) and self-reported UI (p = 0.040) in the study population. Even after adjusting for factors including age, parity, smoking status, hypertension and diabetes in logistic regression analysis, the positive association between caffeine intake and UI prevalence was observed in both medically diagnosed UI and self-reported UI (P = 0.017) among participants. In a subgroup analysis for EQ-5D (using continuous variables) in which we categorized participants into four groups according to UI presence and caffeine consumption, the EQ-5D scores were lower in the caffeine non-user group with UI than in the caffeine consumer group with or without UI. Conclusion In a sample of Korean postmenopausal women, the prevalence of UI increased with higher

  8. Caffeine Intake Is Associated with Urinary Incontinence in Korean Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong Min; Song, Jae Yen; Lee, Sung Jong; Park, Eun Kyung; Jeung, In Cheul; Kim, Chan Joo; Lee, Yong Seok

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) and quality of life (QOL) in Korean postmenopausal women. We included 4,028 postmenopausal women who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). From the KNHANES questionnaire data, we ascertained the UI status of participants, defined as self-reported or medically diagnosed UI, and calculated their total daily caffeine intake through questions regarding the frequency of food consumption. The EuroQoL-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) descriptive system was used to evaluate QOL among the study population. The mean age of the study population was 63.19±0.25 years. Among the 4,028 women, the prevalence of medically diagnosed UI was 2.6% (n = 151), the prevalence of self-reported UI was 11.9% (n = 483), and the lifetime prevalence of UI was 15.8% (n = 639). In the study population, the presence of UI was not significantly different by age group, but daily caffeine consumption and the percentage of caffeine consumer decreased with age (P<0.001). Higher caffeine intake led to significantly higher prevalence of both medically diagnosed UI (p = 0.012) and self-reported UI (p = 0.040) in the study population. Even after adjusting for factors including age, parity, smoking status, hypertension and diabetes in logistic regression analysis, the positive association between caffeine intake and UI prevalence was observed in both medically diagnosed UI and self-reported UI (P = 0.017) among participants. In a subgroup analysis for EQ-5D (using continuous variables) in which we categorized participants into four groups according to UI presence and caffeine consumption, the EQ-5D scores were lower in the caffeine non-user group with UI than in the caffeine consumer group with or without UI. In a sample of Korean postmenopausal women, the prevalence of UI increased with higher caffeine consumption. Additionally, QOL was lower in

  9. Predictors of mammography participation among rural Korean women age 40 and over.

    PubMed

    Hur, Hea Kung; Kim, Gi Yon; Park, So Mi

    2005-12-01

    The study was conducted to identify predictors of mammography screening for rural Korean women according to 'Stage of Change' from the Transtheoretical Model which, along with the Health Belief Model, formed the theoretical basis for this study. A cross-sectional descriptive design was utilized. Through convenience sampling 432 women were selected from 2 rural areas. Data were collected by survey. Health beliefs constructs were measured with Champion's HBM Scale-Korea version. Mammography participation was measured using the Stage of Mammography Adoption Scale developed by Rakowski, et al. (1992). The most frequent stage of mammography adoption was 'contemplation' (40.5%). Predictors of stage of mammography adoption included 'mammogram recommended by health professional' (beta=0.59, t=16.12, p=.000), 'perceived benefits' (beta=0.09, t=2.21, p=.050), 'perceived susceptibility' (beta=0.09, t=1.98, p=.050), and 'perceived barriers' (beta= 0.07, t= -2.05, p=.041). 'Mammogram recommended by health professional' demonstrated the greatest association with having a mammogram. Health professionals play key roles in improving mammography participation and should recognize the importance of their role in cancer prevention and be more actively involved in education and counseling on prevention of breast cancer.

  10. Anthropometric indices as predictors of hypertension among men and women aged 40-69 years in the Korean population: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Won; Lim, Nam-Kyoo; Baek, Tae-Hwa; Park, Sung-Hee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-02-13

    Obesity is one of the most significant risk factors for hypertension. However, there is controversy regarding which measure is the best predictor of hypertension risk. We compared body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in subjects as predictive indicators for development of hypertension. The data were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), a large population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 4,454 subjects (2,128 men and 2,326 women) aged 40-69 years who did not have hypertension at baseline were included in this study. Incident hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, or anti-hypertensive medication use during the 4-year follow up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare discrimination abilities for anthropometric indices for hypertension. Hazard ratios were calculated by Cox proportional hazard model with adjustment for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, diabetes and family history of hypertension by sexes. In men, the area under the ROC curve (AROC) was 0.62 for WC, WHR, and WHtR and 0.58 for BMI. In women, the AROCs for BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were 0.57, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.68, respectively. After adjustment for risk factors, a 1 standard deviation increase in BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR were significantly related to incident hypertension, respectively (hazard ratio: 1.39, 1.50, 1.40 and 1.49 in men, 1.31, 1.44, 1.35 and 1.48 in women). The central obesity indices WC, WHR, and WHtR were better than BMI for the prediction of hypertension in middle-aged Korean people. WHtR facilitates prediction of incident hypertension because of the single standard regardless of sex, ethnicity, and age group. Therefore, WHtR is recommended as a screening tool for the prediction of hypertension.

  11. The character of eyelashes and the choice of mascara in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Taek-jong; Lee, Sang-min; Cho, Wan-gu

    2002-08-01

    Skin care products based on the skin type and sensitivity have been successfully appealed in cosmetics market, but there has been few researches related with the character of customer in the field of make-up product including mascara. The aim of this study is to analyse and classify the eyelashes of Korean women objectively and to find out the relationship between individual eyelash character and expecting mascara-effect. For 50 Korean women in their twenties to thirties, 12 parameters related to shape of eyelashes were investigated using image analysis system with digital camera. The experimental data were compared with the subjects' perception and questionnaire to determine the tendency of mascara was performed on same panels. Subjects were classified and the relation between the shape of eyelashes and need for mascara was investigated by statistical procedure. Average length of centre section (ALCS), covering ratio (CR) and curl-up angle (CA) were the numerical parameters that can represent the length, thickness and curling of subjects' eyelashes, respectively. Subjects were classified into 6 clusters (I approximately VI) by the similarity of above three parameters using cluster analysis method. Cluster I approximately III were characterized as the short and thin eyelashes with a preference for long-lash effect and complaint about staining of lower-eyelid in the use of mascara. Cluster IV approximately VI had the long and thick eyelashes with preference for volume-up effect of mascara and complaint about cleaving of eyelashes. Subjects had five sorts of preference patterns about mascara-effects and those patterns were highly related with the shape of their eyelashes. Image analysis system and statistical procedure were the useful methods in characterizing the shape of eyelash and finding the objective criteria for classification of eyelashes. Because shape of eyelash turned out to be one of the most important factors that can influence the need and complaint of

  12. [Bone mineral density, biochemical bone turnover markers and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women].

    PubMed

    Park, Young Joo; Lee, Sook Ja; Shin, Nah Mee; Shin, Hyunjeong; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Cho, Yunjung; Jeon, Songi; Cho, Inhae

    2014-10-01

    This study was done to assess the bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical bone turnover markers (BTMs), and factors associated with bone health in young Korean women. Participants were 1,298 women, ages 18-29, recruited in Korea. Measurements were BMD by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound, BTMs for Calcium, Phosphorus, Osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide cross-links (CTX), body composition by physical measurements, nutrients by food frequency questionnaire and psychosocial factors associated with bone health by self-report. The mean BMD (Z-score) was -0.94. 8.7% women had lower BMD (Z-score≤-2) and 14.3% women had higher BMD (Z-score≥0) than women of same age. BTMs were not significantly different between high-BMD (Z-score≥0) and low-BMD (Z-score<0) women. However, Osteocalcin and CTX were higher in women preferring caffeine intake, sedentary lifestyle and alcoholic drinks. Body composition and Calcium intake were significantly higher in high-BMD. Low-BMD women reported significantly higher susceptibility and barriers to exercise in health beliefs, lower bone health self-efficacy and promoting behaviors. Results of this study indicate that bone health of young Korean women is not good. Development of diverse strategies to intervene in factors such as exercise, nutrients, self-efficacy, health beliefs and behaviors, shown to be important, are needed to improve bone health.

  13. Korean atomic bomb victims.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Yukuo

    2009-01-01

    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  14. Prospects from Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-29

    Samuel S. Kim (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan Press, 2004), 1-2. 2 Seung -Ho Joo, “Korean Foreign Relations Toward The Twenty-First Century...Reunification,” Asian Affairs: An American Review (Winter 1999): 195-207. 53 Seung -Ho Joo, American Asian Review, 131 54 Pollack and Lee, 87. 55 Suk- hee ...S. Kim , The Two Koreas And The Great Powers, 98. 74 Snyder, NBR Analysis, 54. 75 Suk- hee Han, 137-139. 76 Victor D. Cha, “Defensive Realism and

  15. Green tea consumption, abdominal obesity as related factors of lacunar infarction in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Ko, S-G; Go, H; Sun, S; Lee, S; Park, W; Choi, Y; Song, Y; Hwang, G; Kim, G; Jeon, C; Park, J; Lee, K; Cha, M; Bang, O; Jung, H; Kim, N; Shin, Y-C

    2011-08-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate interaction of green tea consumption and abdominal obesity as related factors for lacunar infarction in Korean women. A hospital-based, incident case-control study. The Prevention and Managements of Stroke in Women study. Cases (n=233) of first incident lacunar infarction were enrolled and matched by age to stroke-free hospital controls (n=204). The data were collected through face-to-face interviews by well trained research assistants to assess demographic, medical, lifestyle, marital status, religions status, green tea consumptions, family history of stroke, smoking status, alcohol consumption, meat and vegetable intake frequency, and past history of hypertension. Biochemical analysis, fasting blood specimens for lipid, glucose, and cholesterol level were acquired. Compared with the non green tea consumer and obese women group, only the green tea consumption and non obese women group had a protective effect of lacunar infarction when adjusted for age, and age plus diet factors (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.09, 0.59; OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08, 0.56 respectively), but lost their significance after adjustment for age, diet factors, vascular risk factors and full model included atherogenic index factors (OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.01; OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.12, 1.89 respectively). The interaction of green tea consumption and non obesity have reduced risk of lacunar infarction, but not after adjustment for age, diet factors, vascular risk factors and atherogenic index. Also individually green tea consumption and abdominal obesity have failed to find an independent relationship with lacunar infarction after adjustment by all risk factors. Green tea consumption and green tea consumption with non obese group seemed to have a protective effect for lacunar infarction. In the results of our study, these results still remain controversial, and then we need further and larger study to get at the root of real causal effect of both relationships.

  16. Association between intimate partner violence and mental health among Korean married women.

    PubMed

    Park, Gum Ryeong; Park, Eun-Ja; Jun, Jina; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2017-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has only attracted limited attention in Korea despite numerous studies in Western countries that indicate IPV is associated with depressive symptoms. This study examined the association of IPV with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation as moderated by the perceived gender roles of married women in South Korea. We analyzed a data set of 4659 married females from the 8th wave of the Korea Welfare Panel Study. Participants were categorized into three groups of non-IPV, non-physical IPV, and physical IPV. The presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation was then used to predict mental health outcomes. Logistic regression helped to investigate the association of IPV and mental health. Furthermore, an interactive regression of IPV and perceived gender roles was also done. Each type of IPV (non-physical and physical) was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (Odds ratios [ORs]: 1.65 and 4.34; 95% confidence interval [CIs]: 1.28-2.13 and 2.71-7.28, respectively) and suicidal ideation (ORs: 1.40 and 3.84; 95% CIs: 1.06-1.85 and 2.32-6.36, respectively) after adjusting for covariates. In addition, women who experienced IPV and reported having traditional gender roles were also more likely to report depressive symptoms (OR: 4.59; 95% CI: 2.90-7.28) and suicidal ideation (OR: 7.28; 95% CI: 3.56-14.87). Research findings indicate an increasingly marked pattern of work-family conflict in regard to the relationship between traditional gender roles and the effect of IPV on the mental health of women. Policy efforts are needed to reduce IPV as a mental health risk factor and address paternalistic traditions deeply rooted in Korean society that place women in an inferior family status. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic Predisposition of Polymorphisms in HMGB1-Related Genes to Breast Cancer Prognosis in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junsu; Choi, Jaesung; Chung, Seokang; Park, JooYong; Kim, Ji-Eun; Sung, Hyuna; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Jong Won; Park, Sue K.; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Noh, Dong-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein has roles in apoptosis and immune responses by acting as a ligand for receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1. In particular, HMGB1/RAGE is involved in tumor metastasis by inducing matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 expression. We investigated the associations between genetic variations in HMGB1-related genes and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in Korean female breast cancer patients. Methods A total of 2,027 patients in the Seoul Breast Cancer Study were included in the analysis. One hundred sixteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were extracted from eight genes. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) of each SNP. The effects of the SNPs on breast cancer prognosis were assessed at cumulative levels with polygenic risk scores. Results The SNPs significantly associated with DFS were rs243867 (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05–1.50) and rs243842 (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03–1.50); both SNPs were in MMP2. The SNPs significantly associated with OS were rs243842 in MMP2 (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI 1.03–1.71), rs4145277 in HMGB1 (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00–1.66), rs7656411 in TLR2 (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60–0.98), and rs7045953 in TLR4 (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29–0.84). The polygenic risk score results for the DFS and OS patients showed third tertile hazard ratios of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.27–2.34) and 2.75 (95% CI, 1.79–4.23), respectively, over their first tertile references. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that genetic polymorphisms in HMGB1-related genes are related to breast cancer prognosis in Korean women. PMID:28382092

  18. Influence of Panax ginseng on obesity and gut microbiota in obese middle-aged Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mi-Young; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Hojun

    2014-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota is regarded as one of the major factors involved in the control of body weight. The antiobesity effects of ginseng and its main constituents have been demonstrated, but the effects on gut microbiota are still unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of ginseng on gut microbiota, 10 obese middle-aged Korean women took Panax ginseng extracts for 8 wk and assessment of body composition parameters, metabolic biomarkers, and gut microbiota composition was performed using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing at baseline and at 8 wk. Significant changes were observed in body weight and body mass index; however, slight changes were observed in gut microbiota. We divided the participants into two groups, the effective and the ineffective weight loss groups, depending on weight loss effect, in order to determine whether the antiobesity effect was influenced by the composition of gut microbiota, and the composition of gut microbiota was compared between the two groups. Results Prior to ginseng intake, significant differences of gut microbiota were observed between both at phyla and genera and the gut microbiota of the effective and ineffective weight loss groups was segregated on a principal coordinate analysis plot. Conclusion Results of this study indicate that ginseng exerted a weight loss effect and slight effects on gut microbiota in all participants. In addition, its antiobesity effects differed depending on the composition of gut microbiota prior to ginseng intake. PMID:24748834

  19. Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Lee, Hyo-Hyun; Kim, Siyeon; Jang, Young-Joon; Baek, Yoon-Jeong; Kang, Kwon-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155-341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions.

  20. Diving bradycardia of elderly Korean women divers, haenyeo, in cold seawater: a field report

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Joo-Young; LEE, Hyo-Hyun; KIM, Siyeon; JANG, Young-Joon; BAEK, Yoon-Jeong; KANG, Kwon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present field study was to explore diving patterns and heart rate of elderly Korean women divers (haenyeo) while breath-hold diving in cold seawater. We hypothesized that the decreasing rate in heart rate of elderly haenyeos during breath-hold diving was greater and total diving time was shorter than those of young haenyeos from previous studies. Nine haenyeos participated in a field study [68 ± 10 yr in age, ranged from 56 to 83 yr] at a seawater temperature of 10 to 13 °C. Average total diving time including surface swimming time between dives was 253 ± 73 min (155–341 min). Total frequency of dives was 97 ± 28 times and they dived 23 ± 8 times per hour. All haenyeos showed diving bradycardia with a decreased rate of 20 ± 8% at the bottom time (101 ± 20 bpm) when compared to surface swimming time (125 ± 16 bpm) in the sea. Older haenyeos among the nine elderly haenyeos had shorter diving time, less diving frequencies, and lower heart rate at work (p<0.05). These reductions imply that haenyeos voluntarily adjust their workload along with advancing age and diminished cardiovascular functions. PMID:26632118

  1. Decreased bone mineral density and fractures in low-income Korean women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyunghee; McElmurry, Beverly J; Park, Chang G

    2006-03-01

    Low-income Korean community women were assessed for factors relating to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in order to determine appropriate health promotion programs. Factors associated with decreased BMD were menopause (OR=3.30, p<0.01), menarchal age (OR=2.01, p<0.05), thyroxin (T(4); OR=11.32, p<0.05), age (OR=2.19, p<0.1), marital status (OR=0.56, p<.01), oral contraceptive use (OR=2.18, p<.01), and tubal ligation (OR=3.30, p<0.1). The risk factors for fractures were earlier menarchal age (OR=13.15, p<0.05), urban residency (OR=0.75, p<0.05), and T(4) abnormality (OR=64.29, p<0.1). The beneficial factor for decreased incidence of fractures was physical activity (OR=40.94, p<0.05). The strategy recommended for fracture risk reduction programs is focused on the prevention of both decreased BMD and fractures. Continuous physical activity should be encouraged as well as reduction of risk factors including associated risk behaviors.

  2. Correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among Korean-American women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyun; Huh, Bo Yun; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with misperception of breast cancer risk, including unrealistic optimism and unrealistic pessimism, among Korean-American women (KAW). Baseline data were collected between March 2010 and October 2011 from 421 KAW aged 40–65 years who participated in a community-based randomized intervention trial designed to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Multivariate multinomial regression was performed to identify correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW. A total of 210 KAW (49.9%) had breast cancer risk perception consistent with their objective risk, whereas 50.1% of KAW in the study had some form of misperception of risk. Specifically, 167 participants (39.7%) were unrealistically optimistic about their own breast cancer risk; 44 (10.5%) were unrealistically pessimistic. In multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, living with a partner and higher education were significantly associated with higher odds of having unrealistic optimism. High social support was associated with a lower likelihood of having a pessimistic risk perception. Higher worry was associated with a higher likelihood of having unrealistic pessimism. Misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW and related factors must be considered when developing behavioral interventions for this population. PMID:26580449

  3. Korean Affairs Report No. 299

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-11

    certainly win victory. Ladies and gentlemen, the South Korean masses and the Latin American masses are close freinds fighting in the same ranks of the...DAILY ON ’WEAK-KNEED’ ROK DIPLOMACY SK151246 Seoul TONG-A ILBO in Korean 15 Jul 83 p 2 iArticle from the column "Tidbits"] IText] Yi Ki-chu, political...Korean 16 Jul 83 p 2 lEditorial: "The Dignity of the Constitution"] [Text] We are observing the 35th Constitution Day. On 17 July 1948, our

  4. Addressing multilevel barriers to cervical cancer screening in Korean American women: A randomized trial of a community-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Ma, Grace X; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Feng, Ziding; Tan, Yin; Rhee, Joanne; Miller, Suzanne M; Kim, Charles; Koh, Han Seung

    2017-05-15

    Korean American women have among the lowest rates of cervical cancer screening in the United States. The authors evaluated a multicomponent intervention combining community education with navigation services to reduce access barriers and increase screening rates in this underserved population. It was hypothesized that cervical cancer screening rates would be higher among women who received the intervention program compared with those in the control program. Korean American women (N = 705) were recruited from 22 churches. In this matched-pair, group-randomized design, 347 women received the intervention, which consisted of a culturally relevant cancer education program combined with provision of navigation services. The control group (N = 358) received general health education, including information about cervical cancer risk and screening and where to obtain low-cost or no-cost screening. Screening behavior was assessed 12 months after the program. Screening behavior data were obtained from 588 women 12 months after the program. In both site-level and participant-level analyses, the intervention program contributed to significantly higher screening rates compared with the control program (odds ratio [OR], 25.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1-66.1; P < .001). In sensitivity analysis, the treatment effect remained highly significant (OR, 16.7; 95% CI, 8.1-34.4; P < .001). A multicomponent intervention combining community cancer education with navigation services yielded significant increases in cervical cancer screening rates among underscreened Korean American women. Community-accessible programs that incorporate cancer education with the delivery of key navigation services can be highly effective in increasing cervical cancer screening rates in this underserved population. Cancer 2017;123:1018-26. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. A Prospective Study of Serum Trace Elements in Healthy Korean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Sun, Jiyu; Yoo, Heejin; Kim, Seonwoo; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study sought to investigate serum levels of trace elements (cobalt, copper, zinc, and selenium) and to assess their effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serum levels of trace elements in 245 Korean pregnant women (median gestational age at delivery was 39 + 4 weeks and interquartile range was 38 + 4–40 + 1 weeks) were compared with those of 527 general adults and those of previous studies in other ethnic groups. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, neonatal birth weight, and congenital abnormalities were assessed. The median serum trace element concentrations of all pregnant women were: cobalt: 0.39 μg/L (interquartile range, IQR 0.29–0.53), copper: 165.0 μg/dL (IQR 144.0–187.0), zinc: 57.0 μg/dL (IQR 50.0–64.0), and selenium: 94.0 μg/L (IQR 87.0–101.0). Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were higher in pregnant women than in the general population, whereas zinc and selenium levels were lower (p < 0.01). Concentrations of all four trace elements varied significantly during the three trimesters (p < 0.05), and seasonal variation was found in copper, zinc, and selenium, but was not observed for cobalt. The prevalence of preeclampsia was significantly lower with high copper (p = 0.03). Trace element levels varied by pregnancy trimester and season, and alteration in copper status during pregnancy might influence pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia. PMID:27886083

  6. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016), and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030–1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women. PMID:28264442

  7. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2017-02-27

    We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016), and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030-1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  8. Vitamin D and Urinary Incontinence among Korean Women: a Propensity Score-matched Analysis from the 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A recent study investigated the role of vitamin D in urinary incontinence (UI). However, very few data are available on this topic. Therefore, we evaluated these relationships using nationally representative data from Korea. We included 6,451 women over the age of 20 years who had participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV. We conducted a propensity-matched study by identifying women with UI. Women without UI, matched for menopause, number of pregnancies, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, age, stroke, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, were selected as a control group at a 2:1 ratio. The χ2 test, t-test and logistic regression analyses were used. Following propensity score matching, 558 UI cases and 1,116 normal controls were included, and confounders (menopause, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asthma, age, obesity, and number of pregnancies) were evenly dispersed and did not differ significantly between the groups. There was no significant difference between the mean vitamin D levels of the UI and normal groups (vitamin D: 18.4 ± 6.6 vs. 18.5 ± 7.0 ng/mL; P = 0.752). Additionally, there was no significant difference in the distribution of vitamin D levels (< 20 ng/mL, 20–30 ng/mL, > 30 ng/mL: 63.8%, 30.5%, and 5.7% in normal controls, 64.0%, 27.8%, and 8.2% in UI cases; P = 0.107). In conclusion, low serum vitamin D is not significantly and independently related to female UI after propensity score matching in representative Korean data. PMID:28244294

  9. 78 FR 46245 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9000 of July 25, 2013 National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2013 By the... anniversary of the end of the Korean War--a conflict that defined a generation and decided the fate of a... women who showed extraordinary courage through 3 long years of war, fighting far from home to defend...

  10. Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Kwak, Keun-Hae

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence in Korean women has increased radically and is the highest in all cancer types. However, the rate of cancer screening among women is very low. The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer and to develop a predictive model based on these risk factors. The study design comprised a literature review and a case-control study. To construct a predictive model, the participants selected were 260 female outpatients diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland who had undergone thyroid removal surgery. A total of 259 people for the control group were selected by adopting a 5-year age-matching method. From the literature review, 6 categories of risk factors were identified. Nine variables, including occupation, live(d) in coastal region, family history of thyroid cancer, history of benign thyroid tumor, menopause status and weight gain, number of full-term deliveries, abortion, exercise intensity, and stress, remained as statistically significant risk factors in the stepwise regression model. Regarding the predictive power of the model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was .79, accuracy was .77, sensitivity was .89, specificity was .65, positive predictive value was .72, and negative predictive value was .85. The predictive power of the model was relatively good, so it can be used to identify individuals at high risk for thyroid cancer. The predictive model can be used in promoting to participate in early cancer-screening tests. Thus, it will be possible to detect thyroid cancer in its earliest stage, diminish mortality, and improve quality of life.

  11. Effect of body mass index on global DNA methylation in healthy Korean women.

    PubMed

    Na, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Hae Sook; Lee, Duk Hee; Lee, Won Kee; Kim, Dong Sun

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is known to be strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer, the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and develops owing to interactions between genes and the environment. DNA methylation can act as a downstream effector of environmental signals, and analysis of this process therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. Global DNA methylation of peripheral blood cells has recently been proposed as a potential biomarker for disease risk. Repetitive element DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with prominent obesity-related chronic diseases, but little is known about its relationship with weight status. In this study, we quantified the methylation of Alu elements in the peripheral blood DNA of 244 healthy women with a range of body mass indexes (BMIs) using pyrosequencing technology. Among the study participants, certain clinical laboratory parameters, including hemoglobin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were found to be strongly associated with BMI. Moreover, a U-shaped association between BMI and Alu methylation was observed, with the lowest methylation levels occurring at BMIs of between 23 and 30 kg/m(2). However, there was no significant association between Alu methylation and age, smoking status, or alcohol consumption. Overall, we identified a differential influence of BMI on global DNA methylation in healthy Korean women, indicating that BMI-related changes in Alu methylation might play a complex role in the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  12. Korean Affairs Report No. 282

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-17

    realised. The U.S. imperialists and the South Korean puppet clique are making the South Korean economy more dependent and driving the people into the...long people have seen that, with short- sighted political outlooks, you try to make parliamentary politics work only for the relations between the...It is true that a sense of danger generally makes people unite, but, on the other hand, sometimes it implants a sense of defeat among the people

  13. Korean Affairs Report No. 300.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reporter said: 10 The United States has heightened with each passing day the strategic position of the Korean Peninsula, claiming that Korea is "its...people were undergoing all tribulations under the Japanese imperialists’ colonial rule, served the Japanese imperialists as their running dog ...Korea in an attempt to per- petuate the division of Korea and have the South Korean authorities recognized . CSO: 4100/188 25 N. KOREA/POLITICS AND

  14. Standardization of Korean nursing terminology.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyang-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Wha; Kim, Won-Ock; Kim, Ok-Soo; Lee, Young-Whee; Park, Ho-Ran; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Kim, In-Sook; Park, Young-Joo; Park, Young-Im

    2006-01-01

    Korean nursing terminology was standardized to improve sharing and exchange of nursing data and information. English nursing terms were collected from existing nursing terminology, journal articles, nursing records, text books, and nursing/medical dictionaries, translated into Korean and were tested for their validity. More than 9000 terms were standardized and published on a website for further feedback from the users. This study will contribute to communication within the nursing community and with other health care professionals.

  15. Modeling lifetime costs and health outcomes attributable to secondhand smoke exposure at home among Korean adult women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyae; Han, Ah Ram; Choi, Dalwoong; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2017-05-17

    The aim of this research is to estimate lifetime costs and health consequences for Korean adult women who were exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home. A Markov model was developed to project the lifetime healthcare costs and health outcomes of a hypothetical cohort of Korean women who are 40 years old and were married to current smokers. The Korean epidemiological data were used to reflect the natural history of SHS-exposed and non-exposed women. The direct healthcare costs (in 2014 US dollars) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were annually discounted at 5% to reflect time preference. The time horizon of the analysis was lifetime and the cycle length was 1 year. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. In the absence of SHS exposure, Korean women will live 41.32 years or 34.56 QALYs before discount, which corresponded to 17.29 years or 15.35 QALYs after discount. The SHS-exposed women were predicted to live 37.91 years and 31.08 QALYs before discount and 16.76 years and 14.62 QALYs after discount. The estimated lifetime healthcare cost per woman in the SHS non-exposed group was US$11 214 before the discount and US$2465 after discount. The negative impact of SHS exposure on health outcomes and healthcare costs escalated as the time horizon increased, suggesting that the adverse impact of SHS exposure may have higher impact on the later part of the lifetime. The result was consistent across a wide range of assumptions. Life expectancy might underestimate the impact of SHS exposure on health outcomes, especially if the time horizon of the analysis is not long enough. Early intervention on smoking behaviour could substantially reduce direct healthcare costs and improve quality of life attributable to SHS exposure. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  17. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  18. Higher levels of serum triglyceride and dietary carbohydrate intake are associated with smaller LDL particle size in healthy Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Chung, Hye Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influencing factors that characterize low density lipoprotein (LDL) phenotype and the levels of LDL particle size in healthy Korean women. In 57 healthy Korean women (mean age, 57.4 ± 13.1 yrs), anthropometric and biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles and LDL particle size were measured. Dietary intake was estimated by a developed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The study subjects were divided into two groups: LDL phenotype A (mean size: 269.7Å, n = 44) and LDL phenotype B (mean size: 248.2Å, n = 13). Basic characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The phenotype B group had a higher body mass index, higher serum levels of triglyceride, total-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo)B, and apoCIII but lower levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and LDL particle size than those of the phenotype A group. LDL particle size was negatively correlated with serum levels of triglyceride (r = -0.732, P < 0.001), total-cholesterol, apoB, and apoCIII, as well as carbohydrate intake (%En) and positively correlated with serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 and fat intake (%En). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that carbohydrate intake (%En) and serum triglyceride levels were the primary factors influencing LDL particle size (P < 0.001, R2 = 0.577). This result confirmed that LDL particle size was closely correlated with circulating triglycerides and demonstrated that particle size is significantly associated with dietary carbohydrate in Korean women. PMID:22586500

  19. Relationship of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene 4G/5G polymorphisms to hypertension in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-nam; Kim, Kwang-min; Kim, Bom-taeck; Joo, Nam-seok; Cho, Doo-yeoun; Lee, Duck-joo

    2012-04-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a major determinant of various cardiovascular events. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) modulate this risk. A deletion/insertion polymorphism within the PAI-1 loci (4G/4G, 4G/5G, 5G/5G) affects the expression of this gene. The present study investigated the association between PAI-1 loci polymorphisms and HTN in Korean women. Korean women (n = 1312) were enrolled in this study to evaluate the association between PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphisms and HTN as well as other metabolic risk factors. PAI-1 loci polymorphisms were investigated using polymerase chain reaction amplification and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. The three genotype groups differed with respect to systolic blood pressure (P = 0.043), and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.009) but not with respect to age, body mass index, total cholesterol, low or high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or fasting blood glucose. Carriers of the PAI-1 4G allele had more hypertension significantly (PAI-1 4G/5G vs. PAI-1 5G/5G, P = 0.032; PAI-1 4G/4G vs. PAI-1 5G/5G, P = 0.034). When stratified according to PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, there was no significant difference in all metabolic parameters among PAI-1 genotype groups in patients with HTN as well as subjects with normal blood pressure. The estimated odds ratio of the 4G/4G genotype and 4G/5G for HTN was 1.7 (P = 0.005), and 1.6 (P = 0.015), respectively. These findings might indicate that PAI-1 loci polymorphisms independently contribute to HTN and that gene-environmental interaction may be not associated in Korean women.

  20. Rape myth acceptance among Korean college students: the roles of gender, attitudes toward women, and sexual double standard.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current societies, within each society, the specific components of rape myths reflect the cultural values and norms of that particular society. A sample of 327 college students in South Korea completed the Korean Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised, the Attitudes Toward Women Scale, and the Sexual Double Standard Scale. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test hypothesized models. Results revealed that in three of the four models, rape survivor myths, rape perpetrator myths, and myths about the impact of rape, attitudes toward women were a more important predictor of rape myths than gender or sexual double standard. In the rape spontaneity myths model, on the other hand, sexual double standard was a more important predictor than gender or attitudes toward women. This study provides valuable information that can be useful in developing culturally specific rape prevention and victim intervention programs.

  1. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant Korean women: the first trimester and the winter season as risk factors for vitamin D deficiency.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Seonwoo; Yoo, Heejin; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2015-05-11

    We investigated the vitamin D status of Korean women during pregnancy and assessed the effects of vitamin D deficiency on two pregnancy outcomes; preterm births and the births of small for gestational age. We measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 220 pregnant Korean women who were recruited prospectively and compared these levels with those of 500 healthy non-pregnant women. We analyzed vitamin D status according to patient demographics, season, and obstetrical characteristics; moreover, we also assessed pregnancy outcomes. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency(<20 ng/mL) in pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women was 77.3% and 79.2%; respectively; and the prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) was 28.6% and 7.2%; respectively (p < 0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in the winter (100%) than in the summer (45.5%) in pregnant Korean women. A higher risk of vitamin D deficiency was observed in the first trimester than in the third trimester (adjusted OR 4.3; p < 0.05). No significant association was observed between vitamin D deficiency and any of the pregnancy outcomes examined. Further research focusing on the long-term consequences of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy in Korean women is warranted.

  2. The effects of exercise training and type of exercise training on changes in bone mineral denstiy in Korean postmenopausal women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Moon, Hwasil; Jin, Haeng Mi

    2016-09-01

    To systematically review the effects of exercise training and the type of exercise training on changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean postmenopausal women. Korean studies Information Service System (KISS) and PubMed were searched and 17 randomized control trials were selected. Changes in BMD of lumbar spine (LS), femur neck (FN), Ward's triangle (WT), and trochanter (Tro) were chosen as major outcomes. Exercise training increased BMD of LS, FN, WT, and Tro. According to the type of exercise training, combined exercise training (aerobic + resistance) showed improvements in BMD of LS, FN, WT, and Tro. However, aerobic exercise training alone and resistance exercise training alone showed inconsistent results. Exercise training can improve the BMD of LS, FN, WT, and Tro in Korean postmenopausal women. The type of exercise training may be a crucial factor for maintaining or improving bone health of this population.

  3. The effects of exercise training and type of exercise training on changes in bone mineral denstiy in Korean postmenopausal women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; Moon, Hwasil; Jin, Haeng Mi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To systematically review the effects of exercise training and the type of exercise training on changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in Korean postmenopausal women. [Methods] Korean studies Information Service System (KISS) and PubMed were searched and 17 randomized control trials were selected. Changes in BMD of lumbar spine (LS), femur neck (FN), Ward’s triangle (WT), and trochanter (Tro) were chosen as major outcomes. [Results] Exercise training increased BMD of LS, FN, WT, and Tro. According to the type of exercise training, combined exercise training (aerobic + resistance) showed improvements in BMD of LS, FN, WT, and Tro. However, aerobic exercise training alone and resistance exercise training alone showed inconsistent results. [Conclusion] Exercise training can improve the BMD of LS, FN, WT, and Tro in Korean postmenopausal women. The type of exercise training may be a crucial factor for maintaining or improving bone health of this population. PMID:27757382

  4. Efficacy and safety of drospirenone 2 mg/17β-estradiol 1 mg hormone therapy in Korean postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo Ra; Park, Hye Na; Jung, Ji Back; Kim, Jeong Sig; Choi, Gyu Yeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Lee, Im Soon

    2017-01-01

    This regulatory post-marketing surveillance study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drospirenone (DRSP) 2 mg/estradiol (E2) 1 mg tablet in Korean postmenopausal women. A total of 4,149 patients were enrolled and the study was conducted at 207 clinical research centers. The patients' source data was collected between November 2006 and November 2012. More than 85% of patients experienced improvement of menopausal symptoms. The most frequently reported adverse events were vaginal bleeding and breast pain; most of the women suffering from these symptoms fully recovered. The incidence of adverse event was higher in patients of younger age (20 to 39 years), in patients with concomitant diseases, previous hormone replacement therapy in medical history, those treated with DRSP 2 mg/E2 1 mg for shorter duration (3 years or less) and in patients using concomitant medication. In conclusion, the results from this large post-marketing surveillance study confirm the efficacy and safety of DRSP 2 mg/E2 1 mg tablet in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:28344964

  5. Evidence for No Significant Impact of Müllerian Anomalies on Reproductive Outcomes of Twin Pregnancy in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Shim, Sohyun; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Kim, Da Hee; Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Mi-La; Shin, Joong Sik

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to evaluate the impact of congenital Müllerian anomalies (MA) on twin pregnancy after 24 gestational weeks in Korean women. All records of twin pregnancies in a large maternity hospital in Korea between January 2005 and July 2013 were analyzed. Patients with monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) twins, non-Korean patients, patients with twins delivered prior to 24 gestational weeks, and patients with miscarriage of one fetus or intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) before 24 gestational weeks were excluded from data analysis. In total, 1,422 women with twin pregnancy were eligible for data analysis, including 17 (1.2%) who had a known congenital MA (septate uterus, bicornuate uterus, arcuate uterus, and unicornuate uterus). Except for the mode of conception, baseline demographics were similar between women with MA and those without MA. No significant differences were found in pregnancy outcomes of gestational age at delivery (p = .86), birth weight of smaller and larger twins (p = .54 and p = .65), and number of twins with birth weight <5th percentile for gestational age (p = .43).The rates of obstetrical complications such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), placenta previa, cerclage, IUFD, and postpartum hemorrhage were not significantly different between the two groups either. We concluded that the presence of congenital MA may not increase obstetrical risks in outcomes of pregnancy of twins delivered after 24 gestational weeks.

  6. Association between serum gonadotropin level and insulin resistance-related parameters in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between serum gonadotropin level and parameters related to insulin resistance in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods This retrospective study included 138 women aged 18 to 35 years who were newly diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam consensus. Participants were divided into three groups based on the serum luteinizing hormone to follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) ratio in the early follicular phase: group 1 (LH/FSH <1), group 2 (1.0≤ LH/FSH >2.0), and group 3 (LH/FSH ≥2.0). The correlations between the LH/FSH ratio and various metabolic parameters were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients. Results Patients with higher LH/FSH ratios showed higher total antral follicle counts and higher total ovarian volume. In the comparison of anthropometric and biochemical parameters among the three groups, the waist to hip ratio was the only parameter that differed significantly among the groups (P=0.003). Correlation analysis revealed no significant correlations between serum LH/FSH ratios and biochemical parameters related to insulin resistance. However, after adjustments for age and body mass index, a significant correlation between total cholesterol level and serum LH/FSH ratio was observed (r=0.221, P=0.018). Conclusion Most parameters related to insulin resistance, with the exception of total cholesterol level, are unrelated to the inappropriate pattern of serum gonadotropin secretion in Korean women with PCOS. PMID:27896252

  7. Association between leukocyte count and sarcopenia in postmenopausal women: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the association between leukocyte counts and sarcopenia according in postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional study. We examined the relationship between leukocyte counts and sarcopenia in 2152 post-menopausal Korean women who participated in the 2010-2011 Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by weight (%) that was greater than 1SD below the mean of young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across leukocyte count quartiles (Q1:≤4710, Q2:4720-5600, Q3:5610-6600, and Q4:≥6610cells/μL) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia gradually increased in accordance with leukocyte quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of leukocyte counts, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of leukocyte counts for sarcopenia was 2.41 (1.12-5.22) after adjusting for age, waist circumference, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, regular exercise, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol. Leukocyte counts were positively related to a higher risk of sarcopenia in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations between Dietary Intake and Urinary Bisphenol A and Phthalates Levels in Korean Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Ara; Kim, Hyesook; Chung, Hyewon; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates is a growing concern due to their association with harmful effects on human health, including a variety of disorders of the female reproductive system. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food intake and urinary BPA and phthalates in Korean women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 305 reproductive aged (30–49 years) females in Korea. Dietary intake was assessed using 24 h dietary recall, and urinary BPA and particular phthalates were measured using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. After adjusting for covariates, beverage intake was positively associated with urinary BPA, and egg and egg product intake was negatively associated with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) as well as mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP). Odds ratio for high BPA level (≥90th percentile) in women with >100 g of beverage consumption was significantly higher than for those who consumed ≤100 g. These results suggest that, in Korean women of reproductive age, some foods such as beverages and egg may be associated with body burdens of BPA, MnBP, MEHHP and MEOHP. PMID:27399734

  9. Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Literacy Among Korean American Women: A Community Health Worker-Led Intervention.

    PubMed

    Han, Hae-Ra; Song, Youngshin; Kim, Miyong; Hedlin, Haley K; Kim, Kyounghae; Ben Lee, Hochang; Roter, Debra

    2017-01-01

    To test a community health worker (CHW)-led health literacy intervention on mammogram and Papanicolaou test screening among Korean American women. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial at 23 ethnic churches in the Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, DC, metropolitan area between 2010 and 2014. Trained CHWs enrolled 560 women. The intervention group received an individually tailored cancer-screening brochure followed by CHW-led health literacy training and monthly telephone counseling with navigation assistance. Study outcomes included receipt of an age-appropriate cancer screening test, health literacy, cancer knowledge, and perceptions about cancer screening at 6 months. The odds of having received a mammogram were 18.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.2, 37.4) times higher in the intervention than in the control group, adjusting for covariates. The odds of receiving a Papanicolaou test were 13.3 (95% CI = 7.9, 22.3) times higher; the odds of receiving both tests were 17.4 (95% CI = 7.5, 40.3) times higher. Intervention effects also included increases in health literacy and positive perceptions about cancer screening. A health literacy-focused CHW intervention successfully promoted cancer-screening behaviors and related cognitive and attitudinal outcomes in Korean American women.

  10. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  11. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  12. Ethnic Attachment among Second Generation Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joann; Min, Pyong Gap

    1999-01-01

    Describes the levels of second-generation Korean-American adolescents' (n=approximately 237) cultural, social, and psychological dimensions of attachment and examines the major factors highly correlated with two of the dimensions of ethnic attachment: use of the Korean language and Korean friendships. Findings support the view that high levels of…

  13. Processing of the Korean Eojoel Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Nam, Kichun; Gordon, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Korean writing is a syllabary where spaces occur between phrases rather than between words. This characteristic of Korean allows different types of information in Korean sentences to be dissociated in ways that are not possible in the languages that have been the focus of most psycholinguistic research, thereby providing new opportunities to…

  14. Koreans in America. In America Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Wayne; Kim, Hyung-chan

    The immigration of Koreans to the United States is traced from 1903, and the contributions Korean Americans have made to the United States are identified in this book which is part of a series for children. The number of Korean immigrants, small for many years, increased dramatically with the easing of government restrictions in the 1960s, until,…

  15. Select Bibliography of the Korean War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Stanley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses various resources on the history of the Korean War that include, but are not limited to, works from the North Korean perspective, "standard" accounts from a western perspective that identify U.S. and South Korean shortcomings, and works on the secrecy around U.S. special operations. Provides a detailed bibliography. (CMK)

  16. Korean Folk Music in Your Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Barbara G.

    2008-01-01

    Koreans are a growing minority in the United States. Worldwide, it is believed that more than seventy million people speak Korean, approximately as many as who speak Italian. The music of Korea offers a delightful addition to the general music classroom. There are several reasons why Korean music is not readily accessible to most general music…

  17. Korean Geodetic VLBI Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Kim, T.; Han, S.; Kwak, Y.; Oh, H.; Yi, S.; Bae, M.; Kim, K.; Moon, J.; Park, J.

    2009-04-01

    A permanent geodetic VLBI station with a 22-m diameter antenna will be newly constructed in Korea by the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) for the project named Korea VLBI system for Geodesy (KVG) that aims at maintaining the Korean geodetic datum accurately. The KVG has started officially since October, 2008. The construction of all system will be completed by the end of 2011. In Korea, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) has already promoted Korean VLBI Network (KVN) project dedicated to radio astronomy since 2001, and three 21-m diameter antennas have been constructed at Seoul, Ulsan, and Jeju Island. Although their receivers have not yet been fully installed, the antenna is designed to be able to receive 22, 43, 86, and 129 GHz bands simultaneously. In parallel with the KVN project, the National Geographic Information Institute, Korea (NGII) has been planning to construct their own VLBI antenna dedicated to geodetic measurements since 2001 to maintain the Korean Geodetic Datum accurately on the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). It also aims at a fundamental station in East Asia and will contribute to the better determination of the ITRF there. A grand design for KVG project realizing NGII's plan has been proposed by the Ajou University under the collaborations with the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Japan (NICT), National Astronomical Observatory, Japan (NAO), and the Geographical Survey Institute, Japan (GSI). The design of KVG antenna follows the VLBI2010 except for receiving frequencies and the diameter; VLBI2010 is the guideline for next generation's geodetic VLBI system compiled by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). The antenna is designed to be able to receive 2, 8, 22, and 43 GHz bands simultaneously in order to carry out geodetic VLBI observations not only with current geodetic VLBI stations equipped with 2/8 GHz receivers but also

  18. The Association between Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S) and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Gun; Hwang, Sena; Kim, Jong-Suk; Park, Kyung-Chae; Kwon, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    Background The relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. And findings of most studies that have investigated this relationship are restricted to postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum DHEA-S and BMD in both men and women. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated a total of 294 healthy Korean participants through a medical examination program. And a subgroup of 154 participants was subjected to a longitudinal analysis. We measured BMD by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and assayed DHEA-S by a chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results We evaluated the association between serum DHEA-S concentration and BMD at the femur trochanter after adjusting for cofounders such as age, body mass index, lifestyle factors, serum cortisol level, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level, and sex. Through our longitudinal study, we found that the changes in BMD at the total spine, at the femur neck, and at the femur trochanter were all smaller in the ΔDHEA-S <0 group than in the ΔDHEA-S >0 group. Conclusions We found that there was a positive correlation between serum DHEA-S and femur BMD, which suggests that controlling serum DHEA-S levels may retard age-related BMD reduction in Koreans. PMID:28326299

  19. The Association between Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S) and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Gun; Hwang, Sena; Kim, Jong-Suk; Park, Kyung-Chae; Kwon, Yuri; Kim, Kyong-Chol

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and bone mineral density (BMD) is controversial. And findings of most studies that have investigated this relationship are restricted to postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated the relationship between serum DHEA-S and BMD in both men and women. This cross-sectional study evaluated a total of 294 healthy Korean participants through a medical examination program. And a subgroup of 154 participants was subjected to a longitudinal analysis. We measured BMD by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and assayed DHEA-S by a chemiluminescent immunoassay. We evaluated the association between serum DHEA-S concentration and BMD at the femur trochanter after adjusting for cofounders such as age, body mass index, lifestyle factors, serum cortisol level, serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level, and sex. Through our longitudinal study, we found that the changes in BMD at the total spine, at the femur neck, and at the femur trochanter were all smaller in the ΔDHEA-S <0 group than in the ΔDHEA-S >0 group. We found that there was a positive correlation between serum DHEA-S and femur BMD, which suggests that controlling serum DHEA-S levels may retard age-related BMD reduction in Koreans.

  20. Life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived health status among elder Korean women: focus on living arrangements.

    PubMed

    An, Ji-Young; An, Kyungeh; O'Connor, Linda; Wexler, Sharon

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether living arrangements significantly affect life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived health status of elder Korean women. A total of 121 women aged 65 to 89 was interviewed in an urban community senior center in Korea. The convenience sample was obtained by face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived health status were strongly correlated with each other. Living arrangements significantly affected life satisfaction, self-esteem, and perceived health status. Women who live with their married son had the highest life satisfaction and self-esteem and perceived themselves to be healthier in comparison to their counterparts. Therefore, government programs need to be developed to assist children in caring for their parents to improve their overall well-being.

  1. Politics in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    aspect o£ its uniqueness was the open debate between President Truman and General MacArthur con- cernin9 the war’s military and political objectives...NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL WAR COLLEG~ POLITICS IN THE KOREAN WAR Course II Essay LTC Paul N. DunnlClass of 1994 COURSE II SEMINAR...to 00-00-1994 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Politics in the Korean War 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  2. Assess the Effects of Culturally Relevant Intervention on Breast Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, and Mammography Use among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hee; Menon, Usha; Wang, Edward; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    A pre-post test, two-group study was conducted to examine the effects of a culturally competent targeted intervention titled GO EARLY Save Your Life on the breast cancer and early screening-related knowledge and beliefs and mammography use among 180 Korean American (KA) women aged 40 years or older who had not had mammograms within the past 12 months. The intervention group received an interactive education session focused on breast cancer, early screening guidelines, and beliefs (breast cancer-related and Korean cultural beliefs). The control group received no education. There was no statistically significant intervention effect on mammography use between the intervention (34%) and control groups (23%) at 24 weeks post baseline. The rates of mammography use for both groups significantly increased from 16 to 24 weeks post baseline. The education was effective in increasing breast cancer/early screening-related knowledge and modifying beliefs (decreasing barriers, fear, seriousness, and fatalism, and increasing preventive health orientation). PMID:19373555

  3. Korean Interpersonal Patterns: Implications for Korean/American Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Jerrold J.

    A descriptive field study was conducted in Seoul, Korea, to assess Korean interpersonal communication. The data for the study were collected through observations of interpersonal communication patterns among students in university classes, between faculty and students as well as among various faculty members, among business people, and between the…

  4. Characteristics of Body Composition and Muscle Strength of North Korean Refugees during South Korean Stay

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun Wook; Koh, Eun Sil; Kim, Si Eun; Kim, Seok Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of body composition and muscle strength of North Korean refugees (NKRs) according to their duration of stay in South Korea. Methods NKRs who volunteered and were living in South Korea, aged 20 to 75 years were recruited. Body compositions were analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength was measured with the hand grip test. Demographic and migration information was obtained with a questionnaire. Results A total of 158 volunteers were recruited at a mean age of 48.3±11.4 years. The mean time from when they escaped from North Korea and arrived in South Korea was 5.8±4.3 years. Height, weight, and body surface area were significantly smaller in all NKRs compared to South Korean controls, except for women aged over 50 years. In females of younger ages (<50 years), NKRs with more than a 4-year stay in South Korea had a higher weight and fat mass than that of those who had a shorter stay (less than 4 years) in South Korea. All NKRs had a weaker grip strength than that of the age-matched controls from South Korea. Conclusion The NKRs showed relatively smaller physiques and weaker muscle strength than that of the South Korean controls. In younger female NKRs, shorter South Korean stay group showed small body weight and fat mass than that of longer South Korean stay group. Specific health support programs might be needed. PMID:26485471

  5. Efficacy of a Culturally Tailored Therapeutic Intervention Program for Community Dwelling Depressed Korean American Women: A Non-Randomized Quasi-Experimental Design Study.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Kunsook; Park, So-Young; Hahm, Sohee; Lee, Young Na; Seo, Jin Young; Nokes, Kathleen M

    2016-02-01

    Asian American women are more prone to suffer from depression compared to their non-Asian American counterparts and have lower rates of seeking mental healthcare services due to lack of available culturally appropriate therapies. Two prior studies of a culturally tailored therapeutic intervention called LogoAutobiography were helpful in treating depressed Korean American women. The LogoAutobiography program was revised to enhance its efficacy not only for depressive symptoms and purpose in life but also to increase coping strategies. To test the efficacy of the Enhanced LogoAutobiography program on depressive symptoms, purpose in life, and coping strategies of depressed community-dwelling Korean American women. Two-group, non-randomized quasi-experimental design. Local Korean community areas located in New York City and eastern New Jersey of the United States. A total of 54 depressed women with Korean heritage completed either experimental group (n1=25) or control group (n2=29). Sample inclusion criteria were adult women with Korean heritage, depressive symptoms as measured by a CES-D score 16 or higher, fluent Korean language, and able to participate independently. Sample exclusion criteria were those who presented active suicidal ideation and history of episodes of mania or psychosis screened by the psychosocial survey questionnaire. The experimental group received Enhanced Logo-Autobiography program which was guided by a facilitator who used a manualized intervention for 90minute sessions over 8weeks; the control group attended routine weekly community activities. Data were collected during the first session (pretest), the end of 8weeks (posttest), and the 3months follow-up session. Time and group changes in depressive symptoms, purpose in life, and coping strategies were computed using Repeated Measures General Linear Model (RMGLM). Findings suggested that the experimental group showed greater improvement in depressive symptoms (F=6.94 (2, 88), p<0.01), active

  6. Efficacy of a Culturally Tailored Therapeutic Intervention Program for Community Dwelling Depressed Korean American Women: A Non-Randomized Quasi-Experimental Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Kunsook; Park, So-Young; Hahm, Sohee; Lee, Young Na; Seo, Jin Young; Nokes, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian American women are more prone to suffer with depression compared to their non-Asian American counterparts and have lower rates of seeking mental healthcare services due to lack of available culturally appropriate therapies. Two prior studies of a culturally tailored therapeutic intervention called LogoAutobiography were helpful in treating depressed Korean American women. The LogoAutobiography program was revised to enhance its efficacy not only for depressive symptoms and purpose in life but also to increase coping strategies. Objectives To test the efficacy of the Enhanced LogoAutobiography program on depressive symptoms, purpose in life, and coping strategies of depressed community-dwelling Korean American women. Design Two-group, non-randomized quasi-experimental design. Settings Local Korean community areas located in New York City and eastern New Jersey of the United States. Participants A total of 54 depressed women with Korean heritage completed either experimental group (n1= 25) or control group (n2= 29). Sample inclusion criteria were adult women with Korean heritage, depressive symptoms as measured by a CES-D score 16 or higher, fluent Korean language, and able to participate independently. Sample exclusion criteria were those who presented active suicidal ideation and history of episodes of mania or psychosis screened by the psychosocial survey questionnaire. Methods The experimental group received Enhanced Logo-Autobiography program which was guided by a facilitator who used a manualized intervention for 90 minute sessions over 8 weeks; the control group attended routine weekly community activities. Data were collected during the first session (pretest), the end of 8 weeks (posttest), and the 3 months follow-up session. Time and group changes in depressive symptoms, purpose in life, and coping strategies were computed using Repeated Measures General Linear Model (RMGLM). Results Findings suggested that the experimental group showed

  7. The Consumption of Dairy Products Is Associated with Reduced Risks of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women but not in Men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Wookyoun

    2017-06-19

    We aimed to investigate the association between dairy product consumption and the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. Data from 13,692 Korean adults aged ≥19 years from the KNHANES 2010-2013 were used. The study participants were divided into three groups according to the serving size of dairy products they consumed based on a single 24-h recall. About 58% of the Korean adults did not consume any dairy products in one day. In both the sexes, only those who adhered to the recommendation for dairy products (≥1 serving/day) achieved the daily requirement of calcium. Women who consumed ≥1 serving/day of dairy products had lower risks of obesity (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m²) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.89; p for trend < 0.01) and MetS (AOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56-0.80; p for trend < 0.01) than women who did not consume dairy products. However, these significant associations were not observed in men. In conclusion, consuming ≥ 1 serving/day of dairy products could be an easy and efficient strategy for meeting daily calcium requirement as well as lowering risks of obesity and MetS among Korean women.

  8. Relationships among Disability, Quality of Life, and Physical Fitness in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: An Investigation of Elderly Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Saejong; Han, Ho Sung; Kim, Gang-Un; Kang, Sung Shik; Kim, Ho-Joong; Lee, Mihyun; Park, Soo Hyun; Choi, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Sung-Ho; Yeom, Jin S

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional, case-control study. To investigate associations between physical fitness measures and disabilities related to back pain and quality of life (QOL) by the presence of symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) in elderly Korean women. LSS leads to decreased functioning and reduced QOL. However, correlations among physical fitness, disability, and QOL have not been investigated in elderly women with LSS. Participants included women aged 65 years and older (n=192), divided into a study group (n=38) and a control group (n=154) based on the presence/absence of LSS. All participants underwent physical function and fitness tests. Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores and EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) scores were used to assess disability and health-related QOL. The results for the handgrip strength, sit-and-reach, functional reach, and timed up and go (TUG) tests were significantly higher in the control group than the LSS group. ODI scores were significantly higher and EQ-5D-5L scores significantly lower in the LSS group. TUG and functional reach test scores were significantly correlated with ODI scores, and handgrip strength was strongly interrelated with ODI and EQ-5D-5L scores in the LSS group. No other physical fitness measures showed statistically significant relationships with ODI or EQ-5D-5L scores. In elderly Korean women with LSS, back pain-related disability and QOL are significantly associated with some physical fitness parameters such as handgrip strength. Handgrip strength reflects general muscle strength, which is significantly interrelated with the level of disability and QOL. Our results suggest that enhancing generalized muscle strength helps to reduce disability due to back pain and improve QOL in patients with LSS.

  9. Bone mineral density is not associated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ≥50 years.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Lee, In Hyeok; Jung, Ki Jin; Park, Jin Woo; Moon, Sang Young; Park, Moon Seok

    2015-02-01

    Although many studies reported improvement of back pain after osteoporosis treatment, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether osteoporosis is painful. We investigated whether bone mineral density correlated with musculoskeletal pain in postmenopausal Korean women aged ≥50 years. Data for postmenopausal women aged ≥50 years were obtained from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. Demographics, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, and numeric rating scale for pain in the hip and knee joints, presence of back pain, and activity level were analyzed. Only subjects with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans and hip and knee radiographs were included. Those with malignancy, pain medication use, or a history of fragility fractures were excluded. After univariate analysis, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the significant factors correlated with the degree of hip and knee pain. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors significantly associated with the presence of back pain. In total, 387 women were included in the data analysis. Age (p = 0.005) was the only significant factor correlated with the intensity of hip pain, while Kellgren-Lawrence grade (p < 0.001) was the only significant factor correlated with knee pain intensity in multiple regression analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.002) was the only significant factor associated with the presence of back pain. Musculoskeletal pain was not affected by or associated with the bone mineral density (BMD) of the affected body part in postmenopausal Korean women aged ≥50 years after adjusting for the degree of osteoarthritis.

  10. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  11. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  12. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-jung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m2) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (< 1426.3 kcal/day) compared to high BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P < 1 × 10-4). Surveys to estimate energy intake using 24-h recall method for three days and questionnaires for family history, a medical examination, and physical activities were conducted. RESULTS We found that two NRG3 gene SNPs in the 10q23.1 chromosomal region were highly associated with BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10-7, rs1040675; 2.3 × 10-6) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10-5, rs10786764; 6.57 × 10-5). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P <10 × 10-4. Five new loci associated with BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P < 1 × 10-4). In the questionnaire investigation, significant differences were found in the number of starvation periods per week, family history of stomach cancer, coffee intake, and trial of weight control in each group. CONCLUSION We discovered several common BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate. PMID:26865924

  13. National Identity in Korean Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyojeong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of national identity has evolved during the last half century within the Korean social studies curriculum. There have been seven curricular revisions since the first national curriculum was released in 1955. Each time the concept of national identity was changed with the biggest changes to this concept within the last two iterations of…

  14. Korean Basic Course. Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, B. Nam

    Volume Two of the Korean Basic Course contains Units 29 through 47. Most units consist of (1) a basic dialog, (2) notes on the basic dialog, (3) additional vocabulary and phrases, (4) grammar notes, (5) drills, (6) a supplementary dialog for comprehension, (7) a narrative for comprehension and reading, and (8) exercises. Two of the last units…

  15. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  16. Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

    This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

  17. Structural Case Assignment in Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koak, Heeshin

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, I aim to provide a theory on the distribution of structural Case in Korean. I propose the following Structural Case Assignment Hypothesis (SCAH) regarding the assignment of structural Case: "Structural Case is assigned by phase heads (C: nominative; v: accusative) to every argument in the c-command domain of the phase…

  18. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

  19. Asian Pacific Perspectives: Korean Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA.

    These instructional materials on Korean Americans for elementary students were developed through the K.E.Y.S. project (Knowledge of English Yields Success). Information is included about early immigrants, the second generation, student groups, war brides, recent immigrants, and third and fourth generations. A chart of traditional and modified…

  20. A KOREAN-ENGLISH DICTIONARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MARTIN, SAMUEL E.; AND OTHERS

    ALTHOUGH THE PURPOSE OF THIS DICTIONARY IS TO "GIVE A FULL AND ACCURATE PORTRAYAL OF THE BASIC NATIVE KOREAN VOCABULARY," SOME OF THE COMMON AND USEFUL CHINESE AND EUROPEAN LOANWORDS HAVE BEEN INCLUDED AS WELL. THE AUTHORS (SAMUEL E. MARTIN, YANG HA LEE, AND SUNG-UN CHANG) HAVE FOLLOWED THE HANKUL SPELLING CONVENTIONS OF THE…

  1. Korean Basic Course: Area Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    Designed to serve as an introduction to some aspects of Korean culture and civilization, this text consists largely of lectures on various topics prepared by staff members of the Defense Language Institute. The major section on the Republic of South Korea includes information on: (1) the historical setting; (2) the politico-military complex; (3)…

  2. Health Information in Korean (한국어)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Electroencephalogram) - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Lumbar Puncture - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Neuromuscular Disorders EMG and Nerve Conduction Tests - 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  3. Associations Between Reported Dietary Sodium Intake and Osteoporosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women: The 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunmi; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2017-07-01

    Osteoporosis is prevalent among postmenopausal women, and increasing evidence has linked salt intake with this disease. In this article, we explored the association between dietary sodium intake and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. We analyzed data for 3635 postmenopausal women extracted from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We found that 1542 participants (42.4%) have osteoporosis. The adjusted prevalence rates of osteoporosis at the lumbar spine were significantly higher in participants who consumed ≥4001 mg of salt than those who consumed ≤2000 mg. At the femoral neck, rates were significantly higher for those who consumed ≥5001 mg compared with those who consumed ≤4000 mg. Participants with a higher sodium intake showed a significantly higher odds ratio of developing lumbar and femoral neck osteoporosis, compared with those with a lower intake. Our results suggest that excessive daily sodium intake is associated with a higher osteoporosis prevalence in Korean postmenopausal women.

  4. Effects of aromatherapy massage on anxiety and self-esteem in korean elderly women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rho, Kook-Hee; Han, Sun-Hee; Kim, Keum-Soon; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2006-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on the anxiety and self-esteem experienced by Korean elderly women. A quasi-experimental, control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The subjects comprised 36 elderly females: 16 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. Aromatherapy massage using lavender, chamomile, rosemary, and lemon was given to the experimental group only. Each massage session lasted 20 min, and was performed 3 times per week for two 3-week periods with an intervening 1-week break. The intervention produced significant differences in the anxiety and self-esteem and no significant differences in blood pressure or pulse rate between the two groups. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage exerts positive effects on anxiety and self-esteem. However, more objective, clinical measures should be applied in a future study with a randomized placebo-controlled design.

  5. Cultural Factors Associated with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Korean American Women in the US: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shin-Young

    2015-06-01

    This study examined current research theories and methods, cultural factors, and culturally relevant interventions associated with breast and cervical cancer screening in Korean American (KA) women. Based on Ganong's guidelines, the literature on cultural factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening in KA women was searched using MEDLINE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases. Sixty-eight articles on breast cancer screening and 66 articles on cervical cancer screening were retrieved from both databases, and a total of 22 articles were included in the literature review based on the selection criteria. Of the 22 studies reviewed, 14 (63.6%) were descriptive and 8 (36.4%) were interventional. Many studies have used individual focused cognitive theories such as health belief model and different types of operationalization for measures of cultural beliefs. Cultural factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening in KA women that were identified in descriptive quantitative and qualitative studies included family, embarrassment, preventive health orientation, fatalism, and acculturation. Most culturally relevant interventional studies used education programs, and all education was conducted by bilingual and bicultural health educators at sociocultural sites for KA women. Theories focusing on interpersonal relationships and standardized, reliable, and valid instruments to measure cultural concepts are needed to breast and cervical cancer screening research in KA women. Traditional cultural factors associated with cancer screening should be considered for practical implications and future research with KA women. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Initial Experience with Magnetic Resonance-Guided Vacuum-Assisted Biopsy in Korean Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hye Na; Ko, Eun Young; Shin, Jung Hee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to describe our initial experience with magnetic resonance (MR)-guided biopsy and to determine the malignancy rate of additional lesions identified by MR only in Korean women with breast cancer. Methods A retrospective review identified 22 consecutive patients with breast cancer who had undergone MR-guided vacuum-assisted biopsies (VAB) of MR-only identified lesions from May 2009 to October 2011.We evaluated the rate of compliance, the technical success for MR-guided VAB and the MR imaging findings of the target lesions. VAB histology was compared with surgical histology and follow-up imaging findings. Results The biopsy recommendations for MR-only identified lesions were accepted in 46.8% (22/47) of patients. One of 22 procedures failed due to the target's posterior location. Among 21 MR-guided VAB procedures, the target lesions were considered as a mass in 12 cases and a nonmass enhancement in nine cases. VAB histology revealed malignancies in 14% (3/21) of cases, high-risk lesions in 24% (5/21) and benign lesions in 62% (13/21). Eleven cases (52%, 11/21) had a positive surgical correlation, and one of them was upgraded from atypical ductal hyperplasia to invasive ductal carcinoma. In the remaining 10 lesions, follow-up breast ultrasound and mammography were available (range, 15-44 months; mean, 32.1 months) and did not show suspicious lesions. The final malignancy rate was 19% (4/21). Conclusion MR-guided VAB for MR-only identified lesions yielded a 19% malignancy rate in Korean women with breast cancer. MR-guided VAB helps surgeons avoid an unnecessary wide excision or additional excisional biopsy. PMID:25320626

  7. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  8. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  9. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants’ demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players. PMID:24409429

  10. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  11. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  12. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  13. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  14. The Korean Diaspora. Historical and Sociological Studies of Korean Immigration and Assimilation in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-chan, Ed.

    This anthology presents some results of recent research on Korean immigration to and assimilation in America. The essays address three major questions concerned with problems of immigration and assimilation: (1) What caused the immigration of Koreans to the Hawaiian Islands and the United States mainland? (2) How has the Korean experience in…

  15. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  16. Phonological Acquisition of Korean Consonants in Conversational Speech Produced by Young Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minjung; Kim, Soo-Jin; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the phonological acquisition of Korean consonants using conversational speech samples collected from sixty monolingual typically developing Korean children aged two, three, and four years. Phonemic acquisition was examined for syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants. Results showed that Korean children acquired stops…

  17. The Korean Diaspora. Historical and Sociological Studies of Korean Immigration and Assimilation in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyung-chan, Ed.

    This anthology presents some results of recent research on Korean immigration to and assimilation in America. The essays address three major questions concerned with problems of immigration and assimilation: (1) What caused the immigration of Koreans to the Hawaiian Islands and the United States mainland? (2) How has the Korean experience in…

  18. Participation motivation and competition anxiety among Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Irully; Park, Sunghee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in participation motivation and competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean wheelchair tennis players and to identify relations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Sixty-six wheel-chair tennis players who participated in the 2013 Korea Open Wheel-chair Tennis Tournament in Seoul completed the Participation Motivation Survey and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II. Data were analyzed by a frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and independent samples t-test to identify participants' demographic characteristics, differences in participation motivation, competition anxiety between Korean and non-Korean players, and correlations between participation motivation and competition anxiety in each group. Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in purification compared to non-Korean players, whereas non-Korean players reported significantly higher motivation in enjoyment. In addition, non-Korean players demonstrated higher cognitive anxiety and self-confidence compared to Korean players. Moreover, the physical anxiety of Korean players was negatively correlated with learning, health-fitness, and enjoyment motivation. On the other hand, only self-confidence was significantly related to learning motivation and enjoyment motivation in non-Korean players. Thus, the results presented herein provide evidence for the development of specialized counseling programs that consider the psychological characteristics of Korean wheelchair tennis players.

  19. Learning Korean Language in China: Motivations and Strategies of Non-Koreans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    The ethnographic research reported in this article documents how a group of non-Korean families, whose children are participating in a Korean bilingual school in Northeast China, construct their motivations and strategies of learning Korean language. The main motivation of expectancy of further education opportunities and success in future career…

  20. Fruits, vegetables, soy foods and breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal Korean women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Do, Min Hee; Lee, Sang Sun; Kim, Jung Yun; Jung, Pa Jong; Lee, Min Hyuk

    2007-03-01

    We carried out a case-control study to examine the relationship between fruits, vegetables, and soy foods intake with breast cancer risk in Korean women. Incident cases (n = 359) were identified through cancer biopsies and hospital-based controls (n = 708) were selected in the same hospitals. Subjects were asked to indicate usual dietary habits, which were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (98 items). Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for additional confounding factors according to the menopausal status. High grape intake showed an inverse association of breast cancer in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35-0.95; p for trend = 0.05). High tomato intake was associated with reduced breast cancer risk in premenopausal women (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.38-0.89, p for trend = 0.04). In postmenopausal women, green pepper intake showed an inverse association of breast cancer risk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.43-0.96, p for trend = 0.03). High soybean intake showed an inverse association of breast cancer in postmenopausal women (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.34-0.89, p for trend = 0.02). Our study suggests that high intake of some fruits, vegetables, and soybeans may be associated with a reduced breast cancer risk.

  1. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  2. The Economic Implications of Korean Reunification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Korea (ROK) and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). The eventual reunification of the Korean peninsula will offer many challenges for...in the development of two very different governments and economies. The two Koreas are technically still at war; the Korean War ended with the signing...96 Korea actually began to become industrialized during the last fifteen years of Japanese occupation. The number of Koreans employed in heavy

  3. Air Power in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    was simply to expel the North Korean communists from the free country in the south called the Republic of Korea . The U.S. national objective was to... Korea reasoning that the forces could best be used elsewhere. During the three years prior to the Korean War, Truman’s policy toward the ROK was...increasing Chinese Communist interests in North Korea .4 On 10 March 1950, Truman was further warned that the North Koreans would “invade sometime in

  4. Operational Art Requirements in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Rhee, enough for defense but not enough to precipitate South Korean offensive actions to unify Korea .27 Adding to the tension in the region, the...percent of the Korean Peninsula. The United States decided to intervene in the defense of the South and proceeded to press the United Nations (U.N...the Korean War, these works primarily fall into three broad areas of scholarship: the American strategy concerning Korea and the Cold War

  5. Korean Defense Industry: Threat or Ally?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-22

    framework for defense industrial cooperation with Korea . While Senator Dixon eventually dropped his opposition and the Korean Fighter Program is now...US defense firms to transfer technology to Korean firms, the US Government must recognize two realities: first, Korea will develop indigenous...serious Korean competition in the foreseeable future. 8 It does not appear that the Korea defense industry is poised to take away significant market

  6. Understanding employment barriers among older Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Chi, Iris; Yi, Jaehee

    2015-06-01

    This study involved an in-depth exploration of the employment barriers of older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles. This qualitative study used data obtained from 6 focus groups and 5 individual interviews. Participants were 36 older Korean immigrants living in Los Angeles, aged 50 years and older, and either unemployed or employed in part-time or full-time work. A grounded theory analytical approach and constant comparison method were used. Ten major themes emerged as employment barriers for older Korean immigrants and were categorized as stereotype, human capital, and acculturation barriers. Ageism among employers specific to Korean culture, lack of English proficiency, separation from U.S. culture, marginalization from both Korean and U.S. cultures, and lack of social networks were important themes. In addition, older Korean immigrants experienced multiple interconnected barriers. The findings highlight the importance of using a multidimensional approach to explore employment barriers among older Korean immigrants who face multiple obstacles in finding jobs. Implications for local governments and Korean communities and potential services to support employment opportunities for older Korean immigrants are discussed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Combined Operations in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-24

    Research Cfice, 1952. Ministry of National Defense , Republic of Korea . The History of United Nations Forces in the Korean War. Volume VI, Seou 1: 1977. ,-,h...committed to repelling the North Korean and Chinese armies from the Republic of Korea (ROK). The Korean War was not anticipated and neither was the extent...Coaal: tior War Early on 25 June Iz)50 the North Korean People- Army =_NKPA launched an overwhelming invasion into the Repu’Tli,: cf Korea . Pres-.i,ent

  8. The Korean Question--Revisited.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    PAGE D/02Q P REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE I&. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 ...CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete *U.S. 02-0rnf6nt PUtncla s fi 0102-LF-014-6602 Unclass’ife * ’ 3 5 33%1C EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE KOREAN...0. 1 Purpose *............. .........*0*60 3 Approach ....................... .** 3 Scope and Limitations .............. 3 Assumptions

  9. Surprise: The Korean Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-18

    theory through education ; a mre rigid approach toward decision making in foriegn policy; appropriate military doctrine; mobile and flexible forces. 20...TJUR 19 ARSTRAC7 (Contrwe on ,vvere of necesury end iderltIfy by block fnumber) Clearly m.ilitary surorise is arnng the greatest dangers a country ...SURPRISE: THE KOREAN CASE STUDY Clearly military surprise is among the greatest dangers a country can face. Despite a knowledge of this danger, responsible

  10. Dietary patterns and pulmonary function in Korean women: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Seung-Sup; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the association between dietary patterns and pulmonary functions in Korean women older than 40 years. This study analyzed the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV and V (2007-2010). In total, 7615 women were included in the analysis. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a balanced diet pattern (vegetables, fish, meat, seaweed, and mushrooms) and a refined diet (snacks, bread, milk, dairy products, and fast food). The refined diet pattern was positively associated with energy from fat but negatively associated with vitamin A, β-carotene, niacin, and fiber. After adjusting for potential confounders, the refined diet pattern was negatively associated with levels of predicted forced vital capacity (odds ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.70, 0.99) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (OR: 0.79, 95% CIs: 0.66, 0.93). In conclusion, the refined diet pattern was associated with decreased pulmonary function in Korean women. This information may be useful toward the development of nutritional guidelines for improving pulmonary function in Korean women.

  11. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  12. Too Korean to be White and Too White to Be Korean: Ethnic Identity Development among Transracial Korean American Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Joy; Pena, Edlyn Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore how lived experiences affect ethnic identity development of transracial Korean American adoptees raised by White parents with the intent of informing higher education practice. Participants included 12 recently college-graduated transracial Korean American adoptees who were raised in the…

  13. The effects of a walking exercise program on physical function and emotional state of elderly Korean women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y

    1999-04-01

    Exercise is an important strategy for preventing chronic diseases and promoting the health of older adults. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of an outdoor walking exercise program on the cardiorespiratory function, the flexibility, and the emotional state of elderly Korean women. A nonequivalent control group, pretest-posttest design was used to measure the effects of the exercise program. The subjects were 27 females between the ages of 60 to 75 years. The intensity of the walking program was 40-60% of the target heart-rate with a duration of 50-60 min, 3 times per week at an outdoor track for 8 weeks. The effects of the program were assessed by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), resting pulse rate, blood pressure Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume per 1 second (FEV1) for cardiorespiratory function, the "sit and reach test" for flexibility, and by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) for emotional state. The physical function and the emotional state of the experimental group improved significantly more than that of the control group except FEV1 and the anger factor of POMS. The VO2max and the flexibility of elderly women in the experimental group progressively improved as the duration of the exercise period continued. The results of this study suggest a practical and easy method of exercise to enhance the health of older women.

  14. Economic Evaluation of a Community Health Worker-Led Health Literacy Intervention to Promote Cancer Screening Among Korean American Women

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Anne L.R.; Frick, Kevin D.; Huh, Bo-Yun; Kim, Kim B.; Kim, Miyong; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study’s objectives were to calculate the costs and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of implementing a health literacy-focused intervention to promote breast and cervical cancer screenings among Korean American women overdue for these tests Methods Researchers estimated the costs of a cluster-randomized controlled trial that evaluated this intervention. Effectiveness was measured as the number of breast or cervical cancer screenings received by women in either the intervention and control arms of the study. Cost-effectiveness was calculated as the incremental cost of each additional screening received by the intervention group. Results Comparing the intervention and control group, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be US$236 per screening, without program development costs. Conclusion These findings suggest this program, when compared with others, offered a more cost-effective approach for promoting cancer screening. Local health officials could use this information to guide decisions about reducing cancer disparities among recent immigrant women. PMID:25913341

  15. Metabolic syndrome and incidence of breast cancer in middle-aged Korean women: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ah; Yoo, Jung Eun; Park, Hye Soon

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the risk of breast cancer in middle-aged women with metabolic syndrome using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). We analyzed 23,820 women aged 50-64 years who participated in the NHIS-NCS in 2008 and 2009. We excluded subjects with any previous history of cancer or with inadequate information regarding metabolic syndrome. Participated subjects underwent anthropometric measurements and provided fasting blood samples for the assessment of glucose and lipid profiles, and answered a lifestyle questionnaire. Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. During the 5-year follow-up, 131 subjects were newly diagnosed with breast cancer (incidence, 10.86 per 10,000 person years). After adjusting for age and body mass index, the RR for incident breast cancer in participants with metabolic syndrome versus those without it was 1.47 (95% CI 1.01-2.13). For those individuals of metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia was most primarily related with the incidence of breast cancer (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02-2.04). Among the study individuals who were middle-aged Korean women, metabolic syndrome is highly related with the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, it needs to be managed or prevented to reduce the incidence of breast cancer.

  16. The relationship between Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappaB Ligand (RANKL) gene polymorphism and aortic calcification in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Yun, Eun-Joo; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Woo; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Moo Il

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between RANKL gene polymorphisms and aortic calcification in Korean women. In 237 healthy Korean women, aortic calcification in thoracic and abdominal aorta was examined in simple radiologic method and lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were examined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum OPG levels, bone turnover markers, such as ALP levels and urine deoxypyridinoline levels, and urine calcium excretion were measured. Genotyping of two RANKL gene polymorphisms, rs2277438 and rs9594782, was performed by allelic discrimination using the 5' nuclease polymerase chain reaction assay. The subjects with CT/CC genotypes of the rs9594782 polymorphism had a 3.9 times higher risk of aortic calcification compared with TT genotype. This significance was significant even after adjustment for age, BMI, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, serum high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Mean levels of urine deoxypyridinoline were significantly higher in the subjects with AG/GG genotypes of the rs2277438 polymorphism compared with AA genotype, and this significance was persistent even after adjustment for age and BMI. There were no associations of mean values for age, BMI, serum OPG and ALP levels, urine calcium excretion, and BMD with RANKL gene polymorphisms. The RANKL gene rs9594782 polymorphism was associated with aortic calcification in Korean women. Rs2277438 polymorphism showed significant association with urine deoxypyridinoline levels, a bone resorption marker. These results suggest its role on vascular calcification and bone metabolism in humans.

  17. The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

  18. Group Psychodrama for Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Kim, Soo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Psychodrama was first introduced in the Korean literature in 1972, but its generalization to college students did not occur until the 1990s. Despite findings from psychodrama studies with Korean college students supporting psychodrama as effective for developing and maintaining good interpersonal relationships, as well as decreasing anxiety and…

  19. College Psychotherapy at a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Choi, Mi Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In the online interview presented in this article, two Korean counselors offer comments to questions regarding issues faced at a Korean University. They reflected on their roles and some of the many topics faced that included: (1) student misunderstanding about counseling needs, and how counseling questionnaires and the counselor helps them; (2)…

  20. Russian Nonproliferation Policy and the Korean Peninsula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    the Committee for Foreign Relation of the Korean Association of Slavic Studies . Dr. Shin received his Ph.D. in political science from the Moscow...President Vladimir Putin and Its Significance for the Republic of Korea), Korean Slavic Studies , Vol. 19, No. 2, 2004, pp. 675-710. 28. Daehan

  1. Group Psychodrama for Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Kim, Soo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Psychodrama was first introduced in the Korean literature in 1972, but its generalization to college students did not occur until the 1990s. Despite findings from psychodrama studies with Korean college students supporting psychodrama as effective for developing and maintaining good interpersonal relationships, as well as decreasing anxiety and…

  2. Rock Music and Korean Adolescent's Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Inkyung; Kwak, Keumjoo; Chang, Geunyoung; Yang, Jinyoung

    The relationship between rock music preference and antisocial behavior among Korean adolescents was examined. The Korean versions of the Sensation Seeking Scale and the Antisocial Behavior Checklist were used to measure sensation seeking motivation and delinquency. Adolescents (N=1,079) were categorized as "rock/metal,""dance,"…

  3. Development of the Korean Career Indecision Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2003-01-01

    Five analyses using Korean college students (n=283, 700, 844, 306, 315) were conducted to develop the Korean Career Indecision Inventory. Five factors emerged consistently and were confirmed by factor analysis: lack of career information, lack of necessity recognition, lack of self-identity, indecisiveness, and external barriers. Reliability and…

  4. Culture and the Korean Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ki Sook

    This paper examines the relationship between Korean culture and the historical development of its kindergarten (preschool) curriculum. After reviewing the values that were emphasized in traditional Korean society, focusing on ethics, loyalty and filial piety, propriety, and gender roles, the paper provides examples of how these values influences…

  5. Korean Education: Focusing on the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Richard A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Recounts a group of western educators' three-week tour of Korea, sponsored by the Korean Studies Workshop. The educators interviewed administrators, attended lectures, and visited elementary and secondary schools. Provides an excellent overview of the state of Korean K-12 education, including proposed curricular reforms. (MJP)

  6. Korean Education and Foreign Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Central Education Research Inst., Seoul.

    Since the problems facing Korean education arise from very complicated factors, it was felt that the objective views of foreign observers would undoubtedly be of great help in efforts to solve them. In this connection, the Central Education Research Institute held a Seminar on Korean Education with the participation of foreign agencies in Korea…

  7. College Psychotherapy at a Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Soo Eun; Choi, Mi Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In the online interview presented in this article, two Korean counselors offer comments to questions regarding issues faced at a Korean University. They reflected on their roles and some of the many topics faced that included: (1) student misunderstanding about counseling needs, and how counseling questionnaires and the counselor helps them; (2)…

  8. Korean Intermediate Course. Selected Newspaper Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this material is to provide reading matter for the last phase of the Defense Language Institute's extended and intermediate courses in Korean. (See ED 024 943 for the Korean Basic Course, Lesson Units 1-112.) The content of this volume is current, introduces important vocabulary not encountered elsewhere in the courses, and calls…

  9. Small Business Among Koreans in Los Angeles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonacich, Edna; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the character of small business among Koreans in Los Angeles, to examine the means by which Koreans are able to enter small business in an economy which clearly is moving in the opposite direction, and to consider why it is that immigrant small business should flourish within monopoly capitalism. Korean…

  10. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  11. Children Negotiating Korean American Ethnic Identity through Their Heritage Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Byeong-keun

    2005-01-01

    This preliminary study provides an interpretive reading of focus group interviews of four Korean American children in the Phoenix metropolitan area. It examines how these Korean American children are negotiating their ethnic identity as Korean Americans while learning Korean as a heritage language. It shows that maintaining heritage language is…

  12. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  13. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  14. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  15. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. Results After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Conclusions Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:26816211

  16. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunjoo; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association.

  17. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century.

  18. Fast-track services for all? The preferences of Chinese-, Korean-, and Thai-speaking women attending a sexual health service.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lynne; Knight, Vickie; Read, Phillip J; McNulty, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Sydney Sexual Health Centre (SSHC) Xpress clinic has significantly reduced the length of stay and waiting time for clients at SSHC but is currently only available to clients who can read and understand a high level of English. This reduces access for culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) clients. This study sought to determine the acceptability of 4 proposed components of an express clinic model among CALD clients: computer-assisted self-interview (CASI), self-collection of swabs/urine specimens, not having a physical examination, and consultation with a health promotion officer rather than with a clinician. Differences in acceptability based on language group, new or return client status, sex worker status, clinic visited status, and age were analyzed. A cross-sectional, anonymous questionnaire was offered to all female Chinese, Thai, and Korean clients attending SSHC between March and November 2012. Multivariate regression and Pearson χ statistical analyses were conducted using STATA 12 software. A total of 366 questionnaires were returned from 149 Thai, 145 Chinese, and 72 Korean participants. After multivariate analysis, the only predictor of willingness to use an express model of service provision was language group: overall, 67% Thai (odds ratio, 3.74: confidence interval [CI], 2.03-6.89; P < 0.01) and 64% Korean (odds ratio, 3.58; CI, 1.77-7.25, P < 0.01) said that they would use it compared with 35% Chinese. Age, history of sex work, new or returning clients, and general or language clinic attendance did not impact on choices. Within the preference for individual components of the model, more Thai women were happy with using a health promotion officer (43.2%) than Chinese (14.1%) or Korean (8.5%) (P < 0.001); no groups were happy with forfeiting a physical examination; Thai (48.6%) and Korean (40.9%) were happier with self-swabbing than Chinese women (23.9%, P < 0.001); and more Thai were happy to use a CASI (44.2%) than Chinese (12%) or Korean (11

  19. Low handgrip strength is associated with low bone mineral density and fragility fractures in postmenopausal healthy Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Hyang Ah; Cho, Eun-Hee

    2012-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a widely recognized health problem in postmenopausal women. Osteoporotic fractures reduce independency, limit daily living activities, and increase the mortality rate. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that low handgrip strength is a risk factor for functional limitations and disabilities, and all-cause mortality. We investigated the relationship between handgrip strength and bone mineral density (BMD) of the spine, femur neck, and total hip, as well the relationship between handgrip strength and previous fragility fractures in 337 healthy postmenopausal Korean women (mean age of 59.5 ± 6.8 yr) who were free of diseases or medications affecting bone metabolism. Age and handgrip strength were associated with BMD of the spine, femur neck, and total hip in multiple regression models. Low handgrip strength (odds ratio [OR], 0.925; range, 0.877 to 0.975; P = 0.004) and low femur neck BMD (OR, 0.019; range, 0.001 to 0.354; P = 0.008) were independent predictors of previous fragility fractures in a multiple regression model. Our results demonstrate that low handgrip strength is associated with low BMD of the spine, femur neck, and total hip, and with increased risk of previous fragility fractures.

  20. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women.

  1. Comparative Study of Serum Leptin and Insulin Resistance Levels Between Korean Postmenopausal Vegetarian and Non-vegetarian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare serum leptin and insulin resistance levels between Korean postmenopausal long-term semi-vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Subjects of this study belonged to either a group of postmenopausal vegetarian women (n = 54), who maintained a semi-vegetarian diet for over 20 years or a group of non-vegetarian controls. Anthropometric characteristics, serum leptin, serum glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance), and nutrient intake were compared between the two groups. The vegetarians showed significantly lower body weight (p < 0.01), body mass index (p < 0.001), percentage (%) of body fat (p < 0.001), and serum levels of leptin (p < 0.05), glucose (p < 0.001), and insulin (p < 0.01), than the non-vegetarians. The HOMA-IR of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the non-vegetarians (p < 0.01) after adjustment for the % of body fat. A long-term vegetarian diet might be related to lower insulin resistance independent of the % of body fat in postmenopausal women. PMID:26251836

  2. Genome-wide association study of the five-factor model of personality in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Roh, Seung-Ju; Sung, Yeon Ah; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Jong-Young; Cho, Juhee; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2013-10-01

    Personality is a determinant of behavior and lifestyle associated with health and human diseases. Although personality is known to be a heritable trait, its polygenic nature has made the identification of genetic variants elusive. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1089 Korean women aged 18-40 years whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the five-factor model of personality. To reduce environmental factors that may influence personality traits, this study was restricted to young adult women. In the discovery phase, we identified variants of PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D) that associated this gene with the Openness domain. Other genes that were previously reported to be associated with neurological phenotypes were also associated with personality traits. In particular, DRD1 and OR1A2 were linked to Neuroticism, NKAIN2 with Extraversion, HTR5A with Openness and DRD3 with Agreeableness. Data from our replication study of 2090 subjects confirmed the association between OR1A2 and Neuroticism. We first identified and confirmed a novel region on OR1A2 associated with Neuroticism [corrected]. Candidate genes for psychiatric disorders were also enriched. These findings contribute to our understanding of the genetic architecture of personality traits and provide critical clues to the neurobiological mechanisms that influence them.

  3. Exercise improves adiponectin concentrations irrespective of the adiponectin gene polymorphisms SNP45 and the SNP276 in obese Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Young; Kang, Hyun-Sik; Shin, Yun-A

    2013-03-10

    The effects of exercise on adiponectin levels have been reported to be variable and may be attributable to an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 45 (T>G) and SNP276 (G>T) of the adiponectin gene are associated with metabolic risk factors including adiponectin levels. We examined whether SNP45 and SNP276 would differentially influence the effect of exercise training in middle-aged women with uncomplicated obesity. We conducted a prospective study in the general community that included 90 Korean women (age 47.0±5.1 years) with uncomplicated obesity. The intervention was aerobic exercise training for 3 months. Body composition, adiponectin levels, and other metabolic risk factors were measured. Prior to exercise training, only body weight differed among the SNP276 genotypes. Exercise training improved body composition, systolic blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and leptin levels. In addition, exercise improved adiponectin levels irrespective of weight gain or loss. However, after adjustments for age, BMI, body fat (%), and waist circumference, no differences were found in obesity-related characteristics (e.g., adiponectin) following exercise training among the SNP45 and the 276 genotypes. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise affects adiponectin levels regardless of weight loss and this effect would not be influenced by SNP45 and SNP276 in the adiponectin gene.

  4. Sleep duration and dietary macronutrient consumption can modify the cardiovascular disease for Korean women but not for men.

    PubMed

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2016-01-27

    Although the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and sleep duration is generally recognized, the results are inconsistent, and investigations examining the effects of seep duration and diet on CVD are rare. The gender-difference in the effect of the sleep duration on Framingham risk score (FRS)-related factors, 10-year predicted CVD risk, and dietary consumption was analyzed in 14,111 subjects (Men n = 5,727; Women n = 8,384) aged ≥ 20 from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The gender difference in the CVD risk factors according to sleep duration was observed. Only women with short sleep durations (<7 h/day) exhibited elevated FRS factors, such as systolic blood pressures (SBP) (P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressures (DBP) (P = 0.008), and the proportion of hypertension (HTN) treatments (P < 0.001), but not for men. Moreover, the 10-year predicted CVD risk, as evaluated with the FRS, was higher in women with short sleep durations (P < 0.001). Women with short sleep durations consumed significantly more dietary carbohydrates (CHO) than those with normal sleep durations (P < 0.001). Additionally, the ORs for intermediate and high 10-year predicted CVD risks and CVD-related factors, such as high age, elevated SBP, and HTN treatment, significantly increased with short sleep durations among women [OR (95 % CI) = 1.709 (1.359-2.149) for CVD risk, 1.976 (1.756-2.224) for high age, 1.535 (1.291-1.826) for elevated SBP, and 1.515 (1.320-1.739) for HTN treatment]. Short sleep duration influenced dietary carbohydrate consumption and elevated FRS-related factors as well as 10-year predicted CVD risk. Our findings demonstrated that the CVD risk has been potentially modified by short sleep durations and greater CHO consumptions.

  5. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  6. A Situated Perspective on Bilingual Development: Preschool Korean-English Bilinguals' Utilization of Two Languages and Korean Honorifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Jung

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the increasing Korean population, there is still a paucity of studies examining emergent Korean bilingual children's dual-language development within their social contexts. In particular, no existing study has paid attention to the honorific system of Korean, which is one of the most important features in learning the Korean language.…

  7. A Situated Perspective on Bilingual Development: Preschool Korean-English Bilinguals' Utilization of Two Languages and Korean Honorifics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Jung

    2017-01-01

    In spite of the increasing Korean population, there is still a paucity of studies examining emergent Korean bilingual children's dual-language development within their social contexts. In particular, no existing study has paid attention to the honorific system of Korean, which is one of the most important features in learning the Korean language.…

  8. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  9. Association between Awareness of Nutrition Labels and Menstrual Cycle Irregularity in Korean Women: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010~2012).

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hae Young; Ryu, Eunjung; Kim, Ji Su; Han, Kyung do

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between awareness of nutrition labeling and menstrual cycle irregularity in women from a nationally representative sample of the Korean population. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. A total of 4,324 women aged 19~54 years from the 2010~2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participated in the study. The participants were classified into three groups based on self-report responses to a questionnaire about their awareness of nutrition labels: Reading, Not-Reading, and Not-Knowing Groups. The Reading, Not-Reading, and Not-Knowing Groups comprised 46.4%, 44.9%, and 8.7% of the participants, respectively, and 53.6% of the participants had never used nutrition labels. In the Not-Knowing Group, irregular menstrual cycles for more than 3 months were significantly more common than women with irregular menstrual cycles for up to 3 months and women with regular menstrual cycles. Women in the Not-Knowing Group were more likely to exhibit menstrual cycle irregularity (adjusted odds ratio: 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.10~2.41) compared to women in the Reading Group after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, exercise regularity, stress, depression, suicidal ideation, metabolic syndrome, age at menarche, parity, and use of oral contraceptives. No awareness of nutrition labeling appears to be associated with a higher prevalence of menstrual cycle irregularity in a nationally representative group of Korean women.

  10. Korean Affairs Report, No. 315.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-24

    infection and parasitic insects dropped to 49.7 people out of 1,000 from the 128 figure in the 1960’s. Tuberculosis, however, took 34.2 out of 1,000 lives...accidents and infections caused the most deaths among children two to five. People in their thirties dies most frequently of accidents, tuberculosis and...Korean companies in oil exploration projects in East Madura and in a coal development project in Pasir area, an Energy-Resources Ministry spokesman

  11. Korean Affairs Report. No. 297

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Korean to South Korea 0300 GMT 4 Jul 83 [Roundtable talk among Madam Yun, announcer Kim Chol-min and moderator Min Hye-kyong, from "Today’s Feature...questions of two disturbs our country’s reunification and of who on earth opposes and wants division? Will you talk about these questions first, Madam Yun... Madam Yun] To note a conclusion first, it is the United States that opposes our country’s reunification and seeks the perpetuation of division. As

  12. Perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang

    2011-03-01

    Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with insulin receptor substrate 2 methylation in adipose tissues of Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Hun; Lee, Yoon Soon; Lee, Duk Hee; Kim, Dong Sun

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly lipid soluble and are an increasing concern for general populations given their various adverse health effects, including obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. DNA methylation can act as a downstream effector for the biological effects of environmental exposures, but whether PAHs influence DNA methylation is unclear. To test for possible adverse effects of PAHs on adipose tissue (AT), we determined the promoter methylation status of 12 genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism (CS, GLUT4, IR, IRS1, IRS2, LIPIN1, MCAD, PCK1, PCK2, PPARGC1Β, SDHA, and SREBP1) in visceral AT of Korean women by using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). IRS2 methylation alone was significantly associated with concentrations of individual PAH chemicals. When the PAH summary measure was used, the odds ratios of IRS2 hypermethylation across quartile of the PAH summary measure were 1, 1.7, 2.0, and 11.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.5-84.0) after adjusting for age and BMI (P trend=0.02). The strength of association between PAH summary measure and IRS2 hypermethylation was as similar as that of BMI. Collectively, these results suggested that lipophilic PAHs might be contributing factors to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance through methylation-mediated suppression of the IRS2 gene. However, further studies with large sample size are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Ju; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Dae Hyung; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Nah, Jeung Weon; Kim, Soon Ki

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥ 10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA.

  15. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  16. Characteristics of Korean phonology: review, tutorial, and case studies of Korean children speaking English.

    PubMed

    Ha, Seunghee; Johnson, Cynthia J; Kuehn, David P

    2009-01-01

    A significant number of bilinguals in English-speaking countries speak Korean as their first language. One such country is the United States (U.S.). As the U.S. becomes increasingly diverse, providing more effective services for culturally and linguistically diverse children is a critical issue and growing challenge for speech-language pathologists. The U.S. Census Bureau reports that the number of Korean immigrants in the U.S. has steadily increased over the past decade. As a result, a greater number of children who speak Korean as a first or second language may need speech, language, and hearing services. This paper provides a review of the literature on (1) phonological characteristics of the Korean language and (2) speech sound acquisition and developmental patterns for phonological processes in Korean children. We illustrate how language knowledge of Korean might impact the learning of English based on case studies of three Korean children speaking English in the U.S. We describe considerations for more appropriate evaluation and treatment of speech sound disorders in Korean-English-speaking children. Readers will be able to: (1) understand phonological characteristics of the Korean language and speech sound acquisition and developmental patterns for phonological process in Korean children, (2) describe characteristics of English speech sound acquisition in successive bilingual English-Korean learners and interference patterns that result from the influence of two independent phonological and phonetic systems, and (3) describe considerations and clinical implications for the more appropriate evaluation and treatment of speech sound disorders in Korean-English speaking children.

  17. Multifractal analysis of the Korean agricultural market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hongseok; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2011-11-01

    We have studied the long-term memory effects of the Korean agricultural market using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. In general, the return time series of various financial data, including stock indices, foreign exchange rates, and commodity prices, are uncorrelated in time, while the volatility time series are strongly correlated. However, we found that the return time series of Korean agricultural commodity prices are anti-correlated in time, while the volatility time series are correlated. The n-point correlations of time series were also examined, and it was found that a multifractal structure exists in Korean agricultural market prices.

  18. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Dyslipidemia in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jee-Sun

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Koreans 30 years old and over was 19.5% in 2015 according to the Korean Nutrition and Health Examination Survey, which means that one-fifth of adults had hypercholesterolemia. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in adults 30 years of age and older was 16.8% in 2015, and men had a 2-fold higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia than women (23.9% vs. 10.4%). The awareness of hypercholesterolemia in Koreans was higher in women than among men (62.4% vs. 51.4%). It increased with age; the level of awareness in participants 30 to 49 years of age (32.1% in men and 32.6% in women) was less than half of that observed among respondents ≥65 years old (77.5% in men and 78.0% in women). Regular check-ups for dyslipidemia and the active management thereof are urgent in Korean men aged 30 to 49. In women, the perimenopausal period is crucial for the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome, including dyslipidemia. Overall, improvements in awareness and treatment in the age group of 30 to 49 years in both men and women remain necessary. PMID:28345314

  19. Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Healthy Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Kab; Cho, Byung Joo; Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Chan Yun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine the normal reference range of pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) values in healthy Korean subjects and to find out the factors that may affect them. Methods A total of 280 eyes of 280 normal subjects were included in this study. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length, POBF, systemic blood pressure, and pulse rate were measured. The mean, standard deviation, range, and the 5th and 95th percentiles of POBF were calculated, and the influences of various parameters to POBF were determined by multiple regression analyses. Results The mean POBF value was 766.0±221.6 µl/min in men and 1021.1±249.5 µl/min in women. The 5th and 95th percentiles for POBF values were 486.0 µl/min and 1140.0 µl/min in men and 672.0 µl/min and 1458.0 µl/min in women. The POBF values were significantly influenced by gender, mean blood pressure, pulse rate, and axial length. Conclusions Even though the POBF values were influenced by gender, BP, and axial length, we could define the normal reference range of POBF in healthy Koreans. PMID:18323699

  20. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  1. Dominant Language Influence in Acquisition and Attrition of Binding: Interpretation of the Korean Reflexive "Caki"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the dominant language of Korean heritage speakers (English) influences Korean (minority language) in the domain of binding interpretations by comparing the performance of Korean immigrants in English dominant context with that of incomplete learners of Korean and L2 learners of Korean. Four groups (10 Korean immigrants,…

  2. Radiation dose affected by mammographic composition and breast size: first application of a radiation dose management system for full-field digital mammography in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Eun; Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Lee, Hyun Sil

    2017-02-02

    Relative to Western women, Korean women show several differences in breast-related characteristics, including higher rates of dense breasts and small breasts. We investigated how mammographic composition and breast size affect the glandular dose during full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in Korean women using a radiation dose management system. From June 1 to June 30, 2015, 2120 FFDM images from 560 patients were acquired and mammographic breast composition and breast size were assessed. We analyzed the correlations of patient age, peak kilovoltage (kVp), current (mAs), compressed breast thickness, compression force, mammographic breast composition, and mammographic breast size with the mean glandular dose (MGD) of the breast using a radiation dose management system. The causes of increased radiation were investigated, among patients with radiation doses above the diagnostic reference level (4th quartile, ≥75%). The MGD per view of 2120 images was 1.81 ± 0.70 mGy. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age was negatively associated with MGD (p < 0.05). The mAs, kVp, compressed breast thickness, and mammographic breast size were positively associated with MGD (p < 0.05). The "dense" group had a significantly higher MGD than the "non-dense" group (p < 0.05). Patients with radiation dose values above the diagnostic reference value had large breasts of dense composition. Among Korean women, patients with large and dense breasts should be more carefully managed to ensure that a constant radiation dose is maintained.

  3. Assessment of Denosumab in Korean Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial with Open-Label Extension

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Jung-Min; Chung, Dong Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kang, Moo-Il; Kim, In-Ju; Min, Yong-Ki; Oh, Han-Jin; Park, Il Hyung; Lee, Yil-Seob; Waterhouse, Brian; Nino, Antonio; Fitzpatrick, Lorraine A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The efficacy and safety of denosumab was compared with placebo in Korean postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in this phase III study. Materials and Methods Women aged 60 to 90 years with a T-score of <-2.5 and ≥-4.0 at the lumbar spine or total hip were randomized to a single 60 mg subcutaneous dose of denosumab or placebo for the 6-month double-blind phase. Eligible subjects entered the 6-month open-label extension phase and received a single dose of denosumab 60 mg. Results Baseline demographics were similar in the 62 denosumab- and 64 placebo-treated subjects who completed the double-blind phase. Treatment favored denosumab over placebo for the primary endpoint {mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) at Month 6 [3.2% (95% confidence interval 2.1%, 4.4%; p<0.0001)]}; and secondary endpoints (mean percent change from baseline in lumbar spine BMD at Month 1, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter BMD at Months 1 and 6, and median percent change from baseline in bone turnover markers at Months 1, 3, and 6). Endpoint improvements were sustained over 12 months in the open-label extension (n=119). There were no new or unexpected safety signals. Conclusion Denosumab was well tolerated and effective in increasing BMD and decreasing bone turnover markers over a 12-month period in Korean postmenopausal women. The findings of this study demonstrate that denosumab has beneficial effects on the measures of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. PMID:27189284

  4. Do cultural factors predict mammography behavior among Korean immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hanju; Kim, Jiyun; Han, Hae-Ra

    2009-01-01

    Aim This paper is a report of a study of the correlates of mammogram use among Korean American women. Background Despite the increasing incidence of and mortality from breast cancer, Asian women in the United States of America report consistently low rates of mammography screening. A number of health beliefs and sociodemographic characteristics have been associated with mammogram participation among these women; however, studies systematically investigating cultural factors in relation to mammogram experience have been scarce. Methods We measured screening-related health beliefs, modesty and use of Eastern medicine in 100 Korean American women in 2006. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to examine the unique contribution of the study variables, after accounting for sociodemographic characteristics. Findings Only 51% reported past mammogram use. Korean American women who had previously had mammograms were statistically significantly older and had higher perceived benefit scores than those who had not. Perceived benefits (odds ratio=6.3, 95% confidence interval=2.12, 18.76) and breast cancer susceptibility (odds ratio=3.18, 95% confidence interval=1.06, 9.59) were statistically significant correlates of mammography experience, whereas cultural factors did not correlate. Post hoc analysis showed that for women with some or good English skills, cultural factors statistically significantly correlated with health beliefs and breast cancer knowledge (p < 0.05). Conclusion Nurses should consider the inclusion in culturally-tailored interventions of more targeted outreach and healthcare system navigation assistance for promoting mammography screening in Korean American women. Further research is needed to unravel the interplay between acculturation, cultural factors, and health beliefs related to cancer screening behaviors of Korean American women. PMID:19941544

  5. Current Developments in Sino-Korean Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1977-01-01

    This article examines and evaluates studies in the field of Sino-Korean linguistics appearing primarily since 1955. Discussions focus on how studies were developed, the current state, and what problems exise. A bibliography is included. (CHK)

  6. The immigration experience among elderly Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y-M

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this preliminary, qualitative study was to describe elderly Korean immigrants' perception of stressors they experienced through immigration and the acculturation process. The methodology used was naturalistic inquiry, a descriptive approach used to elicit the elderly immigrants' own perception of their immigration and acculturation experiences. The six elderly Korean immigrants were interviewed via a semi-structured, open-ended interview guide. The main stressors identified by the subjects as a result of adjusting to life in the United States were language barriers, isolation and loneliness, fear of dependence upon their children, fear of being a burden, financial problems, transportation problems, discrimination, and fear of death. These Korean elders also perceived changes in the traditional family values of respect for elders and support for the aged. The results of this research help to provide an understanding of the immigration and acculturation experiences of elderly Korean immigrants.

  7. The Colloquial Korean Interactive Videodisc Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Wha-Chun Mary

    1987-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted interactive video system designed to improve listening comprehension skills. The courseware makes use of a wide selection HELP OPTIONS as feedback to aid the learner's mastery of authentic natural Korean. (LMO)

  8. Teaching Korean RN-BSN students.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Eleanor T

    2009-01-01

    The author describes the challenges and issues related to teaching small cohorts of foreign-educated Korean registered nurses in the United States. Teaching-learning strategies for educating this ethnic group and other culturally different student cohorts are discussed.

  9. Transformation of Child Socialization in Korean Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Soon Hyung

    1993-01-01

    Examines agents of socialization, socialization skills, the influence of Confucian principles, gender socialization, and the differentiation of parental roles in traditional Korean families; and the value of children, the purpose of education, and family orientation in the modern family. (BC)

  10. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  11. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  12. How Will External Powers Affect Korean Reunification?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    34 36. 145 Seung Ham Yang, Woosang Kim , and Yongho Kim , "Russo-North Korean Relations in the 2000s," Asian Survey 44, no. 6 (2004): 796. 146... Seung Ham, Woosang Kim , and Yongho Kim . "Russo-North Korean Relations in the 2000s." Asian Survey 44, no. 6 (2004): 794. Zhao, Quansheng. "China...Russia, China, Japan, Sunshine Policy, Six party talks, Beijing talks, war, collapse, diplomatic reunification, Kim Jong-il 16. PRICE CODE 17

  13. Operational Lessons Learned in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    South Korea - and the Marines - From Extinction (NY, NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2009), 28-9. 49 Michael Hickey, The Korean War (Woodstock & New...Untold Story of the Most Daring Covert Mission of the Korean War. NY, NY: Putnam Books, 2003. Malcom, Ben S. White Tigers : My Secret War in Korea...and the Marines - From Extinction . NY, NY: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2009. Spurr, Russell. Enter the Dragon: China’s Undeclared War Against the

  14. Operational Artillery in the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Gettysburg , the Confederates delivered an intense artillery barrage on the Union defenses to facilitate Major General George E. Pickett’s charge. This...OPERATIONAL ARTILLERY IN THE KOREAN WAR A Monograph by MAJ G. Kirk Alexander U.S. Army School of Advanced Military...TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2012 – May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Operational Artillery in the Korean War 5a

  15. Unlocking Russian Interests on the Korean Peninsula

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    and chemical contract, an arrangement that would significantly re- duce South Korean dependence upon natural gas from the Middle East. To minimize...years, the United States has invested vast resources to help keep the North Korean military machine at bay. If American policy is firmly committed to...TransportReview, December 1997, http:// www.jrtr.net/jrtr14/pdf/f30_xu.pdf. 23. Boris Dynkin, “Comments on the Regional Railroad Network and Electric Grid

  16. Disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations for Chronic Conditions Among Korean Americans, Hawaii, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hyun-Hee; Sentell, Tetine L; Li, Dongmei; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Miyamura, Jill; Braun, Kathryn

    2015-09-17

    Korean Americans are a growing but understudied population group in the United States. High rates of potentially preventable hospitalizations suggest that primary care is underutilized. We compared preventable hospitalizations for chronic conditions in aggregate and for congestive heart failure (CHF) for Korean Americans and whites in Hawaii. Discharge data from 2010 to 2012 for all hospitalizations of adults in Hawaii for preventable hospitalizations in aggregate and for CHF included 4,345 among Korean Americans and 81,570 among whites. Preventable hospitalization rates for chronic conditions and CHF were calculated for Korean Americans and whites by sex and age group (18-64 y vs ≥65 y). Unadjusted rate ratios for Korean Americans were calculated relative to whites. Multivariate models, controlling for insurance type and comorbidity, provided adjusted rate ratios (aRRs). Korean American women and men aged 65 or older were at greater risk of preventable hospitalization overall than white women (aRR, 2.48; P = .003) and white men (aRR, 1.82; P = .049). Korean American men aged 65 or older also were at greater risk of hospitalization for CHF relative to white men (aRR, 1.87; P = .04) and for older Korean American women (aRR, 1.75; P = .07). Younger age groups did not differ significantly. Older Korean American patients may have significant disparities in preventable hospitalizations, which suggests poor access to or poor quality of primary health care. Improving primary care for Korean Americans may prevent unnecessary hospitalizations, improve quality of life for Korean Americans with chronic illness, and reduce health care costs.

  17. Disparities in Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations for Chronic Conditions Among Korean Americans, Hawaii, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Sentell, Tetine L.; Li, Dongmei; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Miyamura, Jill; Braun, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Korean Americans are a growing but understudied population group in the United States. High rates of potentially preventable hospitalizations suggest that primary care is underutilized. We compared preventable hospitalizations for chronic conditions in aggregate and for congestive heart failure (CHF) for Korean Americans and whites in Hawaii. Methods Discharge data from 2010 to 2012 for all hospitalizations of adults in Hawaii for preventable hospitalizations in aggregate and for CHF included 4,345 among Korean Americans and 81,570 among whites. Preventable hospitalization rates for chronic conditions and CHF were calculated for Korean Americans and whites by sex and age group (18–64 y vs ≥65 y). Unadjusted rate ratios for Korean Americans were calculated relative to whites. Multivariate models, controlling for insurance type and comorbidity, provided adjusted rate ratios (aRRs). Results Korean American women and men aged 65 or older were at greater risk of preventable hospitalization overall than white women (aRR, 2.48; P = .003) and white men (aRR, 1.82; P = .049). Korean American men aged 65 or older also were at greater risk of hospitalization for CHF relative to white men (aRR, 1.87; P = .04) and for older Korean American women (aRR, 1.75; P = .07). Younger age groups did not differ significantly. Conclusion Older Korean American patients may have significant disparities in preventable hospitalizations, which suggests poor access to or poor quality of primary health care. Improving primary care for Korean Americans may prevent unnecessary hospitalizations, improve quality of life for Korean Americans with chronic illness, and reduce health care costs. PMID:26378898

  18. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women.

    PubMed

    Pasman, Wilrike J; Heimerikx, Jos; Rubingh, Carina M; van den Berg, Robin; O'Shea, Marianne; Gambelli, Luisa; Hendriks, Henk F J; Einerhand, Alexandra W C; Scott, Corey; Keizer, Hiskias G; Mennen, Louise I

    2008-03-20

    Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (CCK-8) secretion vs. several other dietary fatty acids from Italian stone pine nut fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and capric acid used as a control. At 50 muM concentration, Korean pine nut FFA produced the greatest amount of CCK-8 release (493 pg/ml) relative to the other fatty acids and control (46 pg/ml). A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial including 18 overweight post-menopausal women was performed. Subjects received capsules with 3 g Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) nut FFA, 3 g pine nut TG or 3 g placebo (olive oil) in combination with a light breakfast. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes the gut hormones cholecystokinin (CCK-8), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin, and appetite sensations were measured. A wash-out period of one week separated each intervention day.CCK-8 was higher 30 min after pine nut FFA and 60 min after pine nut TG when compared to placebo (p < 0.01). GLP-1 was higher 60 min after pine nut FFA compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Over a period of 4 hours the total amount of plasma CCK-8 was 60% higher after pine nut FFA and 22% higher after pine nut TG than after placebo (p < 0.01). For GLP-1 this difference was 25% after pine nut FFA (P < 0.05). Ghrelin and PYY levels were not different between groups. The appetite sensation "prospective food intake" was 36% lower after pine nut FFA relative to placebo (P < 0.05). This study suggests that Korean pine nut may work as an appetite suppressant through an increasing effect on satiety hormones and a reduced prospective food intake.

  19. Association between polymorphisms in sclerostin, dickkopfs and secreted frizzled-related protein genes and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Ock; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung-Yup; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sclerostin (SOST), dickkopf (DKK), secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP) genes and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Korean women. The SOST, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1), sFRP1,sFRP2,sFRP3, sFRP4, sFRP5, DKK1, DKK2 and DKK3 polymorphisms were analyzed in 399 postmenopausal Korean women. Serum levels of bone turnover markers were measured, and BMDs at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were also examined. No significant differences in adjusted BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were noted according to any single and combined polymorphisms measured in SOST, DKKs and sFRPs. However, osteoporosis at the femoral neck was 2.35 times more frequently observed in the AA genotype of the sFRP4 c.958C>A polymorphism compared to the non-AA genotype (95% CI 1.09-5.08, p = 0.03). Also, the CC genotype of the sFRP3 c.970C>G polymorphism had a higher rate of osteoporosis at the femoral neck compared to the GC genotype (OR 8.47, 95% CI 1.37-52.63, p = 0.049). Our results suggest that the sFRP3 c.970C>G and sFRP4 c.958C>A polymorphisms may be genetic factors associated with the prevalence of osteoporosis at the femoral neck in postmenopausal Korean women. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The relationship between circulating neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and early alteration of metabolic parameters is associated with dietary saturated fat intake in non-diabetic Korean women.

    PubMed

    Na, Ga Yoon; Yoon, So Ra; An, Juhyun; Yeo, Rimkyo; Song, Juhyun; Jo, Mi-Na; Han, Seongho; Kim, Oh Yoen

    2016-12-30

    Circulating neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is associated with obesity-related metabolic disorders. This study investigated the relationship between serum NGAL and early alteration of metabolic parameters in non-diabetic Korean women, particularly with respect to saturated fat (SFA) intake. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glycemic status, and levels of lipids, oxidative stress/inflammatory markers, and NGAL were measured in 82 non-diabetic Korean women [Super-healthy group (n=57) with 0 metabolic syndrome risk factor (MetS RF) and MetS-risk group (n=25) with MetS RF≥1]. Age, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1C, triglyceride, LDL and total-cholesterol, and NGAL levels were higher, and HDL-cholesterol was lower in the MetS-risk group than in the Super-healthy group. Age-adjusted serum NGAL levels were higher in the MetS-risk group than in the Super-healthy group. NGAL increased proportionally with increase in MetS RFs (p=0.038) and correlated positively with BMI, triglycerides, LDL- and total-cholesterol, interleukin-6, white blood cell count, and neutrophil%, and negatively with HDL-cholesterol and superoxide dismutase activity. Serum NGAL levels positively correlated with SFA intake before and after adjustment (age and BMI). Serum NGAL levels were higher in high-SFA consumers [≥7g/day, ≥7% of total calorie intake (TCI)] than in low-SFA consumers (<7g/day, <7% of TCI). Serum NGAL levels were highest in the MetS-risk group consuming higher SFA and lowest in the Super-healthy group consuming lower SFA. However, serum NGAL did not significantly differ between the low-SFA consuming MetS-risk and Super-healthy groups. The relationship between circulating NGAL and early alteration of metabolic parameters is associated with dietary SFA intake in non-diabetic Korean women.

  1. Smoking trajectories among Koreans in Seoul and California: exemplifying a common error in age parameterization.

    PubMed

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Unger, Jennifer B; Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-01-01

    Immigration to a nation with a stronger anti-smoking environment has been hypothesized to make smoking less common. However, little is known about how environments influence risk of smoking across the lifecourse. Research suggested a linear decline in smoking over the lifecourse but these associations, in fact, might not be linear. This study assessed the possible nonlinear associations between age and smoking and examined how these associations differed by environment through comparing Koreans in Seoul, South Korea and Korean Americans in California, United States. Data were drawn from population based telephone surveys of Korean adults in Seoul (N=500) and California (N=2,830) from 2001-2002. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (lowess) was used to approximate the association between age and smoking with multivariable spline logistic regressions, including adjustment for confounds used to draw population inferences. Smoking differed across the lifecourse between Korean and Korean American men. The association between age and smoking peaked around 35 years among Korean and Korean American men. From 18 to 35 the probability of smoking was 57% higher (95%CI, 40 to 71) among Korean men versus 8% (95%CI, 3 to 19) higher among Korean American men. A similar difference in age after 35, from 40 to 57 years of age, was associated with a 2% (95%CI, 0 to 10) and 20% (95%CI, 16 to 25) lower probability of smoking among Korean and Korean American men. A nonlinear pattern was also observed among Korean American women. Social role transitions provide plausible explanations for the decline in smoking after 35. Investigators should be mindful of nonlinearities in age when attempting to understand tobacco use.

  2. Electronic cigarette use among Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Ah; Kim, Sun Hee; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in a representative sample of Korean adults. This cross-sectional study used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2013. We analyzed 5338 subjects (≥19 years old) who provided data on e-cigarette use, sex, age, socioeconomic status, and health risk behaviors. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression. Using weighted samples, the prevalence of ever and current e-cigarette use were 6.6 and 1.1 %, respectively (11.2 and 2.0 % in men and 2.0 and 0.4 % in women). In multivariate analysis, the probability of ever e-cigarette use was highest in current smokers (OR 29.3, 95 % CI 15.5-55.3), former smokers (OR 6.1, 95 % CI 3.3-11.2), and daily heavy drinkers (OR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Current e-cigarette use was associated with current smoking (OR 16.2, 95 % CI 4.7-55.4) and weekly heavy drinking (OR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.1-6.7). E-cigarette use was strongly associated with conventional cigarette use and with frequent heavy drinking. Dual use e-cigarettes and conventional cigarette use as well as the association between heavy alcohol use and e-cigarettes need further exploration.

  3. The Korean American woman's nose: an in-depth nasal photogrammatic analysis.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kyle S; Yalamanchili, Haresh R; Litner, Jason A; Sclafani, Anthony P; Quatela, Vito C

    2006-01-01

    To assess the differences in nasal anthropometric measurements between Korean American women and North American white women and to perform an in-depth nasal index calculation. This anthropometric survey included a volunteer sample of Korean American women (n = 72) aged 18 to 35 years with Korean parents and no previous nasal surgery or trauma to the nose. Standardized and referenced frontal, lateral, and basal photographs of the nose were taken of the subjects and 22 standard anthropometric measurements of the nose were determined. Results were compared with published standards for North American white women. In addition, 18 nasal indices were calculated and compared with the published standards for North American white women. The Korean American woman's nose did not fit the neoclassic facial canons. Compared with North American white women, 20 of 22 nasal measurements in Korean American women were found to be significantly different. Nasal indices also revealed significant differences in 16 of the 18 that were calculated. The Korean American woman's nose exhibits less rotation, has a flatter dorsum, and is more flared at the alae, with less definition of the nasal tip. The average Korean American and North American white female nasal anthropometric measurements are very different. As cosmetic surgery becomes more popular among Asian Americans, our findings bolster the need for a broader view of facial analysis and transcultural aesthetics.

  4. Korean Year 3 Children's Environmental Literacy: A Prerequisite for a Korean Environmental Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Lee, Eun Ah; Ko, Hee Ryung; Shin, Dong Hee; Lee, Moon Nam; Min, Byeong Mee; Kang, Kyung Hee

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Korean children's environmental literacy levels and the variables that affect their environmental literacy. An instrument, the Environment Literacy Instrument for Korean Children (ELIKC), was developed that measures four different dimensions (knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and skills) using 69 items…

  5. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  6. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  7. Clear Speech Production and Perception of Korean Stops and the Sound Change in Korean Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2009-01-01

    The current dissertation investigated clear speech production of Korean stops to examine the proposal that the phonetic targets of phonological categories are more closely approximated in hyperarticulated speech. The investigation also considered a sound change currently underway in Korean stops: younger speakers of the Seoul dialect produce the…

  8. Historic Factors Influencing Korean Higher Education. Korean Studies Series, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong-kyu, Lee

    This book examines the religious and philosophical factors historically affecting Korean higher education, and the characteristics of contemporary Korean higher education in relation to organizational structure, leadership, and organizational culture. The book is organized into 4 parts, with 11 chapters. Part One focuses on identifying the problem…

  9. Development of a scale to assess Hwa-Byung, a Korean culture-bound syndrome, using the Korean MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Miguel E; Han, Kyunghee; Weed, Nathan C

    2006-09-01

    This study documents the development of an MMPI-2 scale designed to assess features of the Korean culture-bound syndrome, Hwa-Byung (HB). An American research team and psychiatric practitioners in Korea created an 18-item HB scale via rational item selection and psycho-metric refinement. Principal components analysis of scale items revealed four components, reflecting content domains of general health, gastrointestinal symptoms, hopelessness, and anger. This four-component solution applied well to both Korean men and women, but not to an American sample. Although some findings were encouraging, future studies employing clinical samples are needed to provide further validation of this scale.

  10. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JiEun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life. PMID:27482520

  11. Differences of Socio-psychology, Eating Behavior, Diet Quality and Quality of Life in South Korean Women according to Their Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Kim, JiEun; Choue, Ryowon; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-07-01

    We aimed at assessing psychological variables and eating behaviors on quality of diet and life in South Korean women according to their weight status. Socio-psychology, eating behavior, quality of diet and quality of life data were assessed in 114 women (mean age: 34.5 ± 8.09 years). NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-RS) and coping styles questionnaire were used to assess socio-psychology variables, and eating behavior was assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and General Food Craving Questionnaire Test (G-FCQ-T). Quality of diet was analyzed by Diet Quality Index-international (DQI-I), and obesity-related quality of life was evaluated using the Korean Obesity-related Quality of life Scale (KOQOL). Significant differences were in the psychological variables and eating behaviors in the obese group than the normal and overweight groups (p < 0.05). The overall score of DQI-I was significantly lower in the obese group than that of their counterparts (p < 0.05). BMI was positively correlated with neuroticism, emotional eating, and obesity-related quality of life, and negatively correlated with diet quality. Neuroticism was positively correlated with emotional eating and food craving. Emotional eating was positively correlated with obesity-related quality of life. In conclusion, women with a higher BMI had significantly more problematic eating behaviors, poor diet quality and quality of life.

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TGF-β1 gene are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome susceptibility and characteristics: a study in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Roh, Eun Youn; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Song, Eun Young; Kim, Jin Ju; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Seo, Soo Hyun; Shin, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Although many hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been generated, genetic studies have not identified specific genes that play a role in PCOS etiopathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between TGF-β1 gene polymorphism and PCOS in Koreans. A total of 51 Korean women with PCOS and 69 healthy women were enrolled. We analyzed 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TGF-β1 gene (rs11466313, rs1800469, rs2317130, and rs4803457). We also analyzed laboratory measurements, such as free testosterone, glucose, and cholesterol. The frequencies of rs1800469T allele negativity, rs4803457T allele negativity, the rs1800469CC genotype, and the rs4803457CC genotype showed positive associations with PCOS (P = 0.003, P = 0.027, P = 0.009, and P=0.031, respectively), whereas the haplotypes rs1800469C-rs4803457T and rs1800469T-rs4803457T showed negative associations with PCOS. A strong protective effect of the "rs1800469CT-rs4803457TT" combination (OR = 0.09) and a strong risk effect of "rs1800469CC-rs4803457CC" (OR = 6.23) for PCOS were observed. The rs1800469C/T and rs2317130C/T SNPs exhibited associations with several laboratory measurements with various levels of significance. The results demonstrated an association of TGF-β1 gene polymorphisms with the development and/or characteristics of PCOS in the Korean population.

  13. 76 FR 45395 - National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ..., 1950, the Korean peninsula erupted in conflict, becoming the front line of an intensifying Cold War... than ever. We remember our common values and shared suffering during the Korean War, and we continue to...

  14. Relationship between breast-feeding and bone mineral density among Korean women in the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Ui Hyang; Choi, Chang Jin; Choi, Whan Seok; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Breast-feeding has the deleterious effect of hypoestrogenemia coupled with loss of calcium in the maternal bone mass. It is not clear whether changes in bone metabolism in lactating women lead to changes in maternal bone mineral density (BMD) over a longer period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the duration of breast-feeding and BMD in healthy South Korean women. We analyzed data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of Korean citizens. A total of 1342 women older than 19 years were selected for analysis. In postmenopausal women, the duration of breast-feeding per child was associated with low lumbar spine BMD after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, and daily intake of calcium and calories (P < 0.05, P trend < 0.005). Prolonged breast-feeding for more than 1 year per child was associated with a deleterious effect on lumbar spine BMD compared with never breast-feeding or a shorter duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.05). These effects were not shown in premenopausal women or in femur BMD. In conclusion, the duration of breast-feeding per child is negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. Although the cause of the different results between postmenopausal and premenopausal women is not clear, our findings suggest that proper protective strategies should be recommended during prolonged breast-feeding to maintain bone health later in life.

  15. Community Response to Terrorism: The South Korean Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    KOREA Ever since the division of the Korean peninsula at the conclusion of the Second World War, South Koreans have lived with real and imagined...threats from communist North Korea (the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea , or DPRK). The authorities have been unable to prevent all North Korean ...on three lines of defense . First, an authoritarian government kept firm control over Korean society. Second, the police and the ROK army were visibly

  16. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-30

    53 INTRODUCTION During the Korean War more than 3,200 United Nations troops in Korea devel6ped a rare hemorrhagic fever which attracted...patients in the Republic of Korea . Year Korean Korean US Total civilian soldiers soldiers 1951 ...... 627 827 1952 .... 833 833 1953 ... ... 455 455...0 RI m HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME ( KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC FEVER) ANNUAL SUMMARY REPORT HO WANG LEE, M.D. June 30, 1988 Door., Supported by U.S

  17. U.S. Security Policy in Asia after Korean Unification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Korean War and the signing of the mutual defense treaty, the United States has maintained forward-deployed forces in Korea . Today the United States has...30 American forward-deployed forces have become less important to the defense of Korea as the capabilities of the South Korean military have...Environment for a United Korea ", The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis Vol. VIII No. 1 (Summer 1996): 81- 82. 81 Amy Woo, "East Asia: China Treads Korean

  18. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Korean Hemorrhagic Fever).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-23

    13 Table 5. Monthly incidence of HFRS among Korean in the Republic of Korea , 1966-1985 . . . . . . . 14 A Table 6. Incidence of HFRS by...GRANT SUPPORT .. ........ 57.... 5 INTRODUCTION During the Korean War more than 3,000 United Nations .00 troops in Korea developed a rare hemorrhagic...8217;.-.* * S.’ . " 10 ... Table 1. Hospitalized cases of Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome patients in the Republic of Korea Year US Korean Korean

  19. Attitudes, Intentions, and Barriers Toward Influenza Vaccination Among Pregnant Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Sun; De Gagne, Jennie C; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2015-09-01

    Following our study of attitudes, barriers, and intentions concerning the influenza vaccination among pregnant women in South Korea, we discovered that women displaying a more positive attitude toward the influenza vaccination were more likely to receive it during their pregnancy. We also found that attitudes toward vaccination were more positive among vaccinated pregnant women than among those who were unvaccinated. Furthermore, women showed a greater intention to get vaccinated if a clinician, rather than friends, recommended it. The major perceived barriers to receiving an influenza vaccination were being pregnant, fearing harm to the baby, feeling healthy, and thinking it is unnecessary.

  20. Soft drink consumption is positively associated with metabolic syndrome risk factors only in Korean women: Data from the 2007-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sangwon; Ha, Kyungho; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-Il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2015-11-01

    To examine the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and metabolic syndrome risk factors in Korean adults. We used data from 13,972 participants (5432 men and 8540 women) aged ≥30 years, from the 2007-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The subjects were divided into six groups based on their soft drink consumption levels from a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary sugar intake was compared among groups using 24-hour dietary recall data. The highest soft drink consumption frequency category was ≥4 times per week, observed in 4.6% of men and 1.7% of women. The percentage of energy from total sugar and sugar in processed foods increased with increased soft drink consumption in both men and women. In the highest consumption group, the percentage of energy from sugar in processed foods was 8.9% in men and 11.0% in women. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, greater consumption of soft drinks was positively associated with all of the components of metabolic syndrome, except the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, in women only. Women who consumed soft drinks ≥4 times per week had a 74% higher risk of metabolic syndrome compared to those who consumed soft drinks infrequently (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.00-3.03; P for trend <0.0001). High levels of soft drink consumption might constitute an important determinant of metabolic syndrome and its components only in Korean adult women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lexical Use in Interlanguage of Korean EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Mi Yang

    2009-01-01

    Lexical use seems to represent one of the major problems Korean learners face in learning English. One of the factors attributable to the learners' lexical problems may be in large part due to the use of the Korean language as a medium of instruction in teaching English. Fifty native Korean students took part in this research. They were of 20 male…

  2. Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

  3. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  4. Structure of Vocational Interests for Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine the vocational structure for Korean college students based on Holland's hexagon theory. The secondary purpose of this research was to provide validity data for using the Korean Strong Interest Inventory in Korea. With a sample of 829 Korean college students, using the Strong Interest Inventory…

  5. Korean American males' interracial contact experiences during serious leisure activity

    Treesearch

    KangJae Jerry Lee; David. Scott

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated serious leisure among Korean Americans and examined the ways in which Koreans' marginalized status impact their pursuit of serious leisure and participation patterns in the context of recreational sports. Face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 Korean basketball players and 4 soccer players.

  6. Pedagogical Significance of Morphological Awareness in Korean and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Young Ok; Jung, Chae Kwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether Korean children understand the internal structure of compound words in Korean and English and whether there is a relationship between their performance in tasks that measure their understanding of the morphological structure of compounds in Korean and English. This study also examined the effects of gender, grade,…

  7. Gender, Acculturation, Food Patterns, and Overweight in Korean Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasti, Sunitha; Lee, Chang Hyun; Doak, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe acculturation, food patterns, overweight, and gender differences among Korean immigrants in the United States. Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory survey assessed acculturation, food frequencies, and weight status of 195 Korean immigrants. Results: Acculturated Korean immigrants (score greater than or equal to] 2.5) were…

  8. Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

  9. Structure of Vocational Interests for Korean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Jinkook

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine the vocational structure for Korean college students based on Holland's hexagon theory. The secondary purpose of this research was to provide validity data for using the Korean Strong Interest Inventory in Korea. With a sample of 829 Korean college students, using the Strong Interest Inventory…

  10. Syllable and Letter Knowledge in Early Korean Hangul Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the development of Korean consonant-vowel (CV) syllable identification, consonant and vowel letter knowledge, and their relationships to phonological awareness and the reading of regular Hangul words among Korean kindergartners as a 6-month longitudinal study. Results showed that Korean children identified CV syllables better…

  11. Shifting Human Resources in South Korean Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyaeweol

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the changing status of South Korea in the world economy has affected the movement of Korean human resources in science and technology. Examines trends in overseas study by Korean graduate students, the migration of highly educated personnel, and the recent repatriation of Korean scientists and engineers. (SV)

  12. Association of adherence to the seventh report of the Joint National Committee guidelines with hypertension in Korean men and women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye In; Song, Yoonju; Kim, Woo-Young; Lee, Jung Eun

    2013-10-01

    Whether the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-7) guidelines can be applied to the Asian population remains unclear. We aim to test the hypothesis that adherence to the JNC-7 guidelines is associated with hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean population in the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants completed a non-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour diet recall through interviews. Blood pressure, height, and weight were directly measured, and questions about physical activity and other lifestyle factors were administered. A total of 500 hypertensive and 4567 normotensive participants were identified. We estimated the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals using a multivariate logistic regression. The following components of the JNC-7 guidelines were considered: dietary approaches to stop a hypertension style diet, moderate consumption of alcohol, adequate physical activity, and a normal body mass index. Those individuals who fell in the low-risk category for all 4 lifestyle components had an odds ratio of 0.48 (95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.78) compared with the remainder of the participants. In conclusion, we found an inverse association between adherence to the JNC-7 guidelines and hypertension prevalence among Korean adults, suggesting the importance of lifestyle modification for the prevention and management of hypertension. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a Korean Diet Score (KDS) and its application assessing adherence to Korean healthy diet based on the Korean Food Guide Wheels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myoungsook; Chae, Soo Wan; Cha, Youn-Soo; Cho, Mi Sook; Oh, Hea Young

    2013-01-01

    The most critical point in the assessment of adherence to dietary guidelines is the development of a practical definition for adherence, such as a dietary pattern score. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean Diet Score (KDS) based on the Korean Food Balance Wheel and to examine the association of KDS with various lifestyle characteristics and biochemical factors. The dietary data of 5,320 subjects from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were used for the final analysis. The food guide was composed of six food group categories; 'grain dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fruits', 'milk' and 'oils and sugars'. Based on the recommended serving numbers for each group, the scores measuring adherence to this food guide were calculated from the dietary information from the 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire, and then its correlation with various characteristics was assessed. KDS was significantly associated with several clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors as well as diagnosed disease history. The higher quintile group of KDS showed a significantly lower level in fasting blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, current smoking and drinking as well as higher leisure time activity, house income and education. Furthermore, the KDS quintile group of women was inversely associated with hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes. A higher KDS quintile was characterized with a higher intake of several critical nutrients, such as Ca, Fe and vitamins as well as a desirable nutrition balance such as the ratio of macronutrients. Our results demonstrate that KDS is a beneficial tool in assessing the adherence to a healthy diet based on the Korean dietary guidelines. We suggest that KDS could be a useful indicator for evaluating the dietary balance of the Korean population. PMID:23424060

  14. Acupuncture for the treatment of hot flashes in patients with breast cancer receiving antiestrogen therapy: a pilot study in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young Ju; Park, Young Sun; Kwon, Hyo Jung; Shin, Im Hee; Bong, Jin Gu; Park, Sung Hwan

    2013-08-01

    Antiestrogen therapy can cause vasomotor symptoms similar to those occurring during menopause, including hot flashes. Recent studies suggest that acupuncture is effective in reducing vasomotor symptoms in patients with breast cancer receiving tamoxifen. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of acupuncture for treatment of hot flashes in Korean patients with breast cancer receiving antiestrogen therapy. This was a prospective single-arm observational study using before and after measurements. The study was located at the East-West Medical Center at Daegu Catholic University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea. The subjects were 10 patients with breast cancer who were undergoing antiestrogen therapy with tamoxifen or anastrozole and who were suffering from hot flashes. Acupuncture was administered 3 times a week for 4 consecutive weeks, for 20±5 minutes at each session. The outcome measure was severity of hot flashes assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) and total hot flash score. During treatment, severity of hot flashes was reduced by 70%-95% in all patients. Acupuncture significantly alleviated severity of hot flashes assessed by a visual analogue scale (F=30.261; p<0.001) as well as the total hot flash score (F=21.698; p=0.006). Four (4) weeks after the final treatment, symptoms were not aggravated. Acupuncture appeared to provide effective relief from hot flashes among Korean women receiving antiestrogen therapy after surgery for breast cancer, and the effects lasted for at least 1 month after termination of treatment. A randomized controlled prospective study with a larger sample size is required to clarify the role of acupuncture in the management of hot flashes in Korean patients with breast cancer.

  15. Acupuncture for the Treatment of Hot Flashes in Patients with Breast Cancer Receiving Antiestrogen Therapy: A Pilot Study in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Young Ju; Park, Young Sun; Kwon, Hyo Jung; Shin, Im Hee; Bong, Jin Gu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Antiestrogen therapy can cause vasomotor symptoms similar to those occurring during menopause, including hot flashes. Recent studies suggest that acupuncture is effective in reducing vasomotor symptoms in patients with breast cancer receiving tamoxifen. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of acupuncture for treatment of hot flashes in Korean patients with breast cancer receiving antiestrogen therapy. Design This was a prospective single-arm observational study using before and after measurements. Settings/location The study was located at the East–West Medical Center at Daegu Catholic University Medical Center, Daegu, Korea. Subjects The subjects were 10 patients with breast cancer who were undergoing antiestrogen therapy with tamoxifen or anastrozole and who were suffering from hot flashes. Interventions Acupuncture was administered 3 times a week for 4 consecutive weeks, for 20±5 minutes at each session. Outcome measures The outcome measure was severity of hot flashes assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) and total hot flash score. Results During treatment, severity of hot flashes was reduced by 70%–95% in all patients. Acupuncture significantly alleviated severity of hot flashes assessed by a visual analogue scale (F=30.261; p<0.001) as well as the total hot flash score (F=21.698; p=0.006). Four (4) weeks after the final treatment, symptoms were not aggravated. Conclusions Acupuncture appeared to provide effective relief from hot flashes among Korean women receiving antiestrogen therapy after surgery for breast cancer, and the effects lasted for at least 1 month after termination of treatment. A randomized controlled prospective study with a larger sample size is required to clarify the role of acupuncture in the management of hot flashes in Korean patients with breast cancer. PMID:23383974

  16. Factors Associated with Hemorrhoids in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hyo-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common anal diseases among Koreans, risk factors for hemorrhoids have not been well identified. Methods We analyzed the data from the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2007 and 2009. Study subjects were 17,228 participants of KNHANES who were aged 19 years or older. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between hemorrhoids and probable risk factors. Results Overall prevalence of hemorrhoids among study subjects was 14.4%, being more prevalent among women (15.7%) than among men (13.0%). Obesity and abdominal obesity were associated with a higher risk of hemorrhoids with odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals, 95% CI) of 1.13 (1.01 to 1.26) and 1.16 (1.04 to 1.30), respectively. Both self-reported depression (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.08) and physician diagnosed depression (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.17) were associated with significantly higher risk of hemorrhoids. No regular walking (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.23) and experience of pregnancy (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.17 to 2.25) for women were also associated with higher risk of hemorrhoids. However, educational level, alcohol consumption, physical activities, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, fiber, fat intake, and energy intake were not associated with a risk of hemorrhoids. Low quality of life assessed with EuroQol-5 Dimension and EuroQol-Visual Analogue Scale was significantly associated with hemorrhoids. Conclusion This nationwide cross-sectional study of Korean adults suggests that obesity, abdominal obesity, depression, and past pregnancy may be risk factors for hemorrhoids and hemorrhoids affect quality of life negatively. PMID:25309703

  17. Recognizing the Two Faces of Gambling: The Lived Experiences of Korean Women Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjae; Kim, Wooksoo; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of women problem gamblers, focusing on the meaning of gambling to them, how and why these women continue to gamble or stop gambling, and their needs and concerns. In order to effectively help women problem gamblers, practical in-depth knowledge is necessary to develop intervention programs for prevention, treatment, and recovery among women problem gamblers. The hermeneutic phenomenology approach was used to guide in-depth interviews and team interpretation of data. Sixteen women gamblers who chose to live in the casino area were recruited through snowball sampling with help from a counseling center. Participants were individually interviewed from February to April 2013 and asked to tell their stories of gambling. Transcribed interviews provided data for interpretive analysis. In the study analysis one constitutive pattern was identified: moving beyond addiction by recognizing the two faces of gambling in their life. Four related themes emerged in the analysis-gambling as alluring; gambling as 'ugly'; living in contradictions; and moving beyond. Loneliness and isolation play a critical role in gambling experiences of women gamblers in Korea. In other words, they are motivated to gamble in order to escape from loneliness, to stop gambling for fear of being lonely as they get older, and to stay in the casnio area so as not to be alone. The need for acceptance is one fo the important factors that should be considered in developing intervention program for women.

  18. Korean Survivors of the Japanese "Comfort Women" System: Understanding the Lifelong Consequences of Early Life Trauma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Hand, Michelle D; Anderson, Keith A; Schleitwiler, Tess E

    2016-01-01

    Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed comfort women, these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and people know little of the impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the comfort women system participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the trauma that these women suffered and how it impacted their lives. Results revealed the depths of the abuse these women suffered, including repeated rapes, physical beatings, humiliation, forced surgery and sterilization, and social exclusion. These early traumatic experiences appeared to reverberate throughout their lives in their family relations, their inability to marry and to conceive children, and their emotional and physical well-being throughout the life course and into later life. The experiences of these survivors illustrate the lasting impact of early-life trauma and can guide interventions with current survivors of sexual abuse or trafficking.

  19. Cross-national comparisons of increasing suicidal mortality rates for Koreans in the Republic of Korea and Korean Americans in the USA, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    Kung, A; Hastings, K G; Kapphahn, K I; Wang, E J; Cullen, M R; Ivey, S L; Palaniappan, L P; Chung, S

    2016-11-10

    Korea has the highest suicide rate of developed countries, two times higher than the USA. Suicide trends among Koreans Americans living in the USA during the same period have not yet been described. We report suicide mortality rates and trends for four groups: (1) Korean Americans, (2) non-Hispanic White (NHW) Americans, (3) selected Asian American subgroups and (4) Koreans living in the Republic of Korea. We used US national (n = 18 113 585) and World Health Organization (WHO) (n = 232 919 253) mortality records for Korea from 2003 to 2012 to calculate suicide rates, all expressed per 100 000 persons. We assessed temporal trends and differences in age, gender and race/ethnicity using binomial regression. Suicide rates are highest in Koreans living in the Republic of Korea (32.4 for men and 14.8 for women). Suicide rates in Korean Americans (13.9 for men and 6.5 for women) have nearly doubled from 2003 to 2012 and exceed rates for all other Asian American subgroups (5.4-10.7 for men and 1.6-4.2 for women). Suicide rates among NHWs (21.0 for men and 5.6 for women) remain high. Among elders, suicide in Korean Americans (32.9 for men and 15.4 for women) is the highest of all examined racial/ethnic groups in the USA. Suicide in Korean Americans is higher than for other Asian Americans and follows temporal patterns more similar to Korea than the USA. Interventions to prevent suicide in Korean American populations, particularly among the elderly, are needed.

  20. Human papillomavirus 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine: immunogenicity and safety in 15-25 years old healthy Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Cheol; Song, Yong Sang; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Young Tak; Ryu, Ki-Sung; Gunapalaiah, Bhavyashree; Bi, Dan; Bock, Hans L; Park, Jong-Sup

    2011-06-30

    The study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine in healthy Korean women aged 15-25 years. Phase IIIB, double-blind, randomised (2:1), multi-centre trial was conducted in Korea from June 2007 to March 2008. The study enrolled 225 women in the HPV (N=149) and placebo (N=76) groups who received three doses of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or placebo (aluminium hydroxide) administered intramuscularly at 0, 1, and 6 months and were followed until one month post-dose 3. Serum samples were collected pre-vaccination and one month post-dose 3. Safety and reactogenicity data were collected throughout. In this trial, 208 women completed the study (141 in HPV group; 67 in placebo group). At month 7, all initially seronegative women had seroconverted for HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibodies with anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 geometric mean titres of 9,351.4 El.U/mL (95% CI, 8,145.5 to 10,735.8) and 4204.1 El.U/mL (95% CI, 3,626.5 to 4,873.6), respectively. Initially seropositive women showed similar increase in geometric mean titre levels. Compliance to the three dose vaccination course was 95.3% in HPV and 89.5% in placebo group. Solicited local (pain) and general (fatigue, myalgia or headache) symptoms were commonly reported in both groups. Three serious adverse events were reported (two in HPV group; one in placebo group), all unrelated to vaccination by the investigator; all recovered. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was highly immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile in Korean women. This study was in line with previous global studies in Europe, North America, and Brazil. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT 00485732.).

  1. Errors in Inflectional Morphemes as an Index of Linguistic Competence of Korean Heritage Language Learners and American Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic competence in Korean of Korean heritage language learners (HLLs), compared to English-speaking non-heritage language learners (NHLLs) of Korean. It is unclear and controversial as to whether heritage languages learners are exposed to early but are interrupted manifest as L1 competence or share more…

  2. The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

  3. Errors in Inflectional Morphemes as an Index of Linguistic Competence of Korean Heritage Language Learners and American Learners of Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic competence in Korean of Korean heritage language learners (HLLs), compared to English-speaking non-heritage language learners (NHLLs) of Korean. It is unclear and controversial as to whether heritage languages learners are exposed to early but are interrupted manifest as L1 competence or share more…

  4. The Formation of the South Korean Identity through National Curriculum in the South Korean Historical Context: Conflicts and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Kyunghee; Kim, Jungyun; Lee, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how the South Korean identity has been formed and transformed by examining the Korean national curriculum in its historical context. The study first examines how the Korean identity, previously formed by traditional ethnic values, has been transformed during the period of national modernization. It then describes the efforts to…

  5. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in Korean women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    An, Yeong; Kim, Sung; Kang, Bong; Lee, Jae

    2013-08-16

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy is the technique of choice for lesions that are visible only with breast MRI. The purpose of this study was to report our clinical experience with MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy in Korean women. A total of 13 patients with 15 lesions for MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy were prospectively entered into this study between September 2009 and November 2011. Biopsy samples were obtained in a 3-T magnet using a 9-guage MRI-compatible vacuum-assisted biopsy device. We evaluated clinical indications for biopsy, lesion characteristics on prebiopsy MRI, pathologic results, and postbiopsy complication status. The clinical indications for MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy were as follows: abnormalities in patients with interstitial mammoplasty on screening MRI (n = 10); preoperative evaluation of patients with a recently diagnosed cancer (n = 3); and suspicious recurrence on follow-up MRI after cancer surgery (n = 1) or chemotherapy (n = 1). All lesions have morphologic features suspicious or highly suggestive of malignancy by the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category of MRI (C4a = 12, C4b = 2, C5 = 1). In two of the 15 lesions (13.3%, <6 mm), MRI-guided 9-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy was deferred due to nonvisualization of the MRI findings that led to biopsy and the lesions were stable or disappeared on follow up so were considered benign. Of 13 biopsied lesions, pathology revealed four malignancies (4/13, 30.8%; mean size 15.5 mm) and nine benign lesions (9/13, 69.2%; size 14.2 mm). Immediate postprocedural hematoma (mean size 23.5 mm) was observed in eight out of 13 patients (61.5%) and was controlled conservatively. Our initial experience of MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy showed a success rate of 86.7% and a cancer diagnosis rate of 30.8%, which was quite satisfactory. MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a safe and effective tool for the workup of

  6. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in Korean women: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy is the technique of choice for lesions that are visible only with breast MRI. The purpose of this study was to report our clinical experience with MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy in Korean women. Methods A total of 13 patients with 15 lesions for MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy were prospectively entered into this study between September 2009 and November 2011. Biopsy samples were obtained in a 3-T magnet using a 9-guage MRI-compatible vacuum-assisted biopsy device. We evaluated clinical indications for biopsy, lesion characteristics on prebiopsy MRI, pathologic results, and postbiopsy complication status. Results The clinical indications for MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy were as follows: abnormalities in patients with interstitial mammoplasty on screening MRI (n = 10); preoperative evaluation of patients with a recently diagnosed cancer (n = 3); and suspicious recurrence on follow-up MRI after cancer surgery (n = 1) or chemotherapy (n = 1). All lesions have morphologic features suspicious or highly suggestive of malignancy by the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System category of MRI (C4a = 12, C4b = 2, C5 = 1). In two of the 15 lesions (13.3%, <6 mm), MRI-guided 9-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy was deferred due to nonvisualization of the MRI findings that led to biopsy and the lesions were stable or disappeared on follow up so were considered benign. Of 13 biopsied lesions, pathology revealed four malignancies (4/13, 30.8%; mean size 15.5 mm) and nine benign lesions (9/13, 69.2%; size 14.2 mm). Immediate postprocedural hematoma (mean size 23.5 mm) was observed in eight out of 13 patients (61.5%) and was controlled conservatively. Conclusions Our initial experience of MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy showed a success rate of 86.7% and a cancer diagnosis rate of 30.8%, which was quite satisfactory. MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy is a

  7. "I Listened to Korean Society. I Always Heard that Women Should Be This Way ...": The Negotiation and Construction of Gendered Identities in Claiming a Dominant Language and Race in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Based on a year-long, qualitative study of five East Asian women, pre-service teachers enrolled in U.S. Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) teacher education programs, this article examines one Korean woman's journey as she navigates through her multiple identities as a daughter, spouse, mother, and language teacher inside and…

  8. Z-score discordance and contributing factors in healthy premenopausal women with low bone mineral density: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-9.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyeong Hye; Lim, Jung Soo; Kim, Kyoung Min; Rhee, Yumie; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2016-11-01

    The premenopausal period is important for bone health and prevention of future fractures, but measuring bone mineral density (BMD) at only one site may not be sufficient to determine therapeutic strategies for low BMD in premenopausal women due to the presence of Z-score discordance. In this study, we investigated Z-score discordance in addition to contributing factors of idiopathic low BMD in healthy premenopausal Korean women. We studied 3003 premenopausal women aged 18-50 years, without secondary causes for low BMD and history of fragility fracture, who had participated in the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2009). Low body mass index (BMI), low vitamin D level, and low body muscle mass were associated with low BMD even in premenopausal women. Risk factors differed depending on the anatomic site. Low BMI and low vitamin D level were risk factors for low femoral neck BMD (FN-BMD), but not for low lumbar spine BMD (LS-BMD). Only total muscle mass had a slight effect on low LS-BMD. Z-score discordance was much higher than expected, in 75 and 73.8 % of the low LS-BMD and low FN-BMD groups, respectively. Our findings suggest the need to consider BMD discordance in premenopausal women and also to provide information on correctable factors affecting low BMD in younger populations. Long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate the possible effect of Z-score discordance on the prognosis of osteoporosis and subsequent fracture risk.

  9. The importance of morphometric radiographic vertebral assessment for the detection of patients who need pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis among postmenopausal diabetic Korean women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y J; Yang, S-O; Shin, C S; Chung, Y-S

    2012-08-01

    Many diabetic patients with vertebral fractures remain undiagnosed and untreated. We found that more than two-thirds of osteoporotic diabetic women could not be identified for pharmacological treatment according to the NOF guidelines if without radiographic vertebral assessment. This study shows the importance of radiographic vertebral assessment for identifying patients who need treatment for osteoporosis in diabetic women. Diagnosis of vertebral fracture (VF) is important for identifying patients who need pharmacologic therapy for osteoporosis. However, many patients with vertebral fractures remain undiagnosed and untreated. This study evaluated the number of patients with VFs who would be unrecognized as candidates for osteoporosis treatments according to the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) Clinician’s Guidelines to the Treatment of Osteoporosis, among postmenopausal diabetic Korean women without spinal imaging. A total of 873 postmenopausal diabetic women were enrolled. Lateral plain radiographs of the thoracolumbar spine and total hip BMD were obtained. The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) probability was computed using the algorithm available online at http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX (South Korea version). The subjects with and without VFs were classified into candidates for osteoporosis treatment [Tx+by NOF] and not candidates for osteoporosis treatment [Tx−by NOF] according to the NOF pharmacologic treatment guidelines, regardless of the presence of VFs. Forty-six percent of postmenopausal diabetic womenhad morphometric VFs. Among the subjects with morphometric VFs, only 2% of the patients had previously diagnosed VFs by medical doctors. In addition, 73.6% of the patients with VFs were not included in the [Tx+by NOF] group, given the assumption of no radiographic diagnosis of VFs. With regard to increased risk of VFs in postmenopausal Korean women with type 2 diabetes mellitus, radiographic vertebral assessment would be useful for the clinical

  10. Lessons of the North Korean crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarr, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The crisis involving North Korea`s suspected nuclear weapon program is over, at least for now. Pyongyang has agreed to suspend its decision to withdraw from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and to assume its obligations allowing continued International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections of its nuclear facilities, although it has yet to accept IAEA {open_quotes}special{close_quotes} inspections of suspect nuclear sites. In exchange, North Korea obtained a few specific commitments from the United States - nuclear non-aggression, for example - as well as hints of longer-term benefits such as high-level US-North Korean talks extending to other topics, the cancellation of the US-South Korean {open_quotes}Team Spirit{close_quotes} military exercise, the right to reciprocal inspections in South Korea and an influx of South Korean and Japanese investment, provided North Korea meets its obligations under the NPT.

  11. Factors associated with the treatment of osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young-Jee; Kim, Ji Wan; Park, Joo-Sung

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study was designed to investigate the treatment rate of osteopenia and osteoporosis after diagnosis and determine factors related to osteoporosis treatment in Korea. This analysis included postmenopausal women who had visited the health promotion center from March 2010 to May 2011 (n = 375) and been diagnosed with osteoporosis (19.5%) or osteopenia (45.9%). Telephone surveys were performed one year after diagnosis. We employed multiple logistic regression to determine factors associated with treatment using clinical risk factors as covariates in a FRAX model. Receipt of osteoporosis treatment (nutrition, exercise, and medications) to prevent osteoporotic fracture was reported by 108 of 172 (63.4%) women with osteopenia and 66 of 73 (90.4%) with osteoporosis. Only consultation with a doctor for osteopenia or osteoporosis was significantly related to receiving osteoporosis treatment for osteopenia (odds ratio [OR], 5.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-12.00) and osteoporosis (OR, 4.91; 95% CI, 1.16-20.75). In the osteopenic group, increased age, being a current smoker, having a history of parental fracture or previous fracture, and secondary osteoporosis were related to consultation with a doctor. Of women with osteopenia 36.6% and 64.4% with osteoporosis received consultation with a doctor. Consultation with a doctor for osteopenia or osteoporosis after being diagnosed could be an effective strategy to increase osteoporosis treatment.

  12. Knowledge and Acceptability about Adult Pertussis Immunization in Korean Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyun Sun; Jo, Yun Seong; Kim, Yeun Hee; Park, Yong-Gyu; Wie, Jeong Ha; Cheon, Juyoung; Moon, Hee Bong; Lee, Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The adult tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been introduced in order to provide individual protection and reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis to infants. We assessed the knowledge and acceptability of the Tdap vaccine around pregnancy. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey of women of childbearing age (20-45 years) who visited obstetrics and gynecologic units of primary, secondary, or tertiary hospitals. They were asked to fill in a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and acceptability of Tdap. Results The questionnaire was completed by 308 women; 293 (95.1%) had not received information from doctors about Tdap, and 250 (81.2%) did not know about the need for vaccination. A significantly important factor related to subjects' intention to be vaccinated, identified by stepwise multiple logistic regression, was the knowledge (OR 13.5, CI 3.92-46.33) that adult Tdap is effective in preventing pertussis for infants aged 0-6 months. Additionally, 276 (89.6%) considered the recommendation of obstetric doctors as the most influencing factor about Tdap vaccination. Conclusion In Korea, most women of childbearing age seem to be neither recommended nor adequately informed about the vaccination, although our population was not a nationwide representative sample. Information given by healthcare workers may be critical for improving awareness and preventing pertussis. PMID:26069132

  13. The amelioration of plasma lipids by Korean traditional confectionery in middle-aged women: A cross-over study with western cookie

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Noh, Jeong Sook; Lee, JaeHwan; Chung, Lana

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to examine whether plasma lipid profiles are affected differently by snack kinds with equal calorific values. SUBJECTS/METHODS We compared a Korean traditional confectionery (dasik) with Western confectionery (cookie) in this regard. Controlled cross-over study consisted of two 3-week snack intake phases and for separating, a 2-week washout period (3–2–3) was carried out with 30 healthy women aged between 40-59 years old. Brown rice based Korean traditional confectionery and wheat flour based Western confectionery were used. The participants consumed either dasik or cookie every day for 3 weeks, providing 93 kcal a day. RESULTS The total cholesterol (TC) in the dasik group had decreased significantly after 3 weeks (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the dasik group, reduction in TC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were greater than those in the cookie group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Prioritizing functional snacks like dasik improves plasma lipid profiles; this may be useful information for individuals who cannot refrain from snacking. PMID:27909556

  14. The amelioration of plasma lipids by Korean traditional confectionery in middle-aged women: A cross-over study with western cookie.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Noh, Jeong Sook; Lee, JaeHwan; Chung, Lana; Song, Yeong Ok

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether plasma lipid profiles are affected differently by snack kinds with equal calorific values. We compared a Korean traditional confectionery (dasik) with Western confectionery (cookie) in this regard. Controlled cross-over study consisted of two 3-week snack intake phases and for separating, a 2-week washout period (3-2-3) was carried out with 30 healthy women aged between 40-59 years old. Brown rice based Korean traditional confectionery and wheat flour based Western confectionery were used. The participants consumed either dasik or cookie every day for 3 weeks, providing 93 kcal a day. The total cholesterol (TC) in the dasik group had decreased significantly after 3 weeks (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the dasik group, reduction in TC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were greater than those in the cookie group (P < 0.05). Prioritizing functional snacks like dasik improves plasma lipid profiles; this may be useful information for individuals who cannot refrain from snacking.

  15. Clinical and Biochemical Profiles according to Homeostasis Model Assessment-insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da Eun; Park, Soo Yeon; Park, So Yun; Lee, Sa Ra; Chung, Hye Won

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and biochemical profiles according to homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. Methods In 458 PCOS patients diagnosed by the Rotterdam European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) criteria, measurements of somatometry, blood test of hormones, glucose metabolic and lipid profiles, and transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonogram were carried out. HOMA-IR was then calculated and compared with the clinical and biochemical profiles related to PCOS. The patients were divided into 4 groups by quartiles of HOMA-IR. Results The mean level of HOMA-IR was 2.18 ± 1.73. Among the four groups separated according to HOMA-IR, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, lipid accumulation product (LAP) index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), Apoprotein B, free testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were found to be significantly different. TG, LAP index, glucose metabolic profiles, and hs-CRP were positively correlated with HOMA-IR after adjustment for BMI. Conclusion Our results suggest that the clinical and biochemical profiles which are applicable as cardiovascular risk factors are highly correlated with HOMA-IR in Korean women with PCOS. PMID:25580421

  16. The Effect of Onion Peel Extract on Inflammatory Mediators in Korean Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have antioxidant and anti-obesity effects and improves endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on the inflammatory mediators in overweight and obese women. This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy overweight and obese women were randomly assigned to two groups, and one group was given a soft capsuled OPE (100 mg quercetin/day, n = 18) and the other group a same capsuled placebo (n = 19) for 12 weeks. Fat mass was measured by bioimpendance method at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured with colorimetric assay kits. The concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-4 in plasma were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between placebo and OPE groups. Compared with baseline value, both placebo and OPE supplementation significantly decreased the percent of body fat mass and induced plasma adiponectin levels while ALT and AST activities as well as leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, and IL-4 levels in plasma were not significantly different between two groups after 12 weeks of the supplementation. These findings suggest that 12-week supplementation of OPE do not affect modulators of systemic inflammation in overweight and obese women. PMID:27812515

  17. Association between Obesity and Cervical Microflora Dominated by Lactobacillus iners in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kong, Ji-Sook; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus spp. are associated with the maintenance of reproductive health, but obesity reduces fertility and is a risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. We assessed the association between obesity and the cervical Lactobacillus composition, which has not been examined previously. Pyrosequencing was performed using cervical swabs collected from 76 normal participants with negative results for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 57 participants with CIN, based on histological examinations. Cluster analysis of nine Lactobacillus spp. was performed, and five cluster types were identified. The association between obesity and the Lactobacillus community was assessed by logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors. The proportion of Lactobacillus iners increased and that of Lactobacillus crispatus decreased according to body mass index (BMI) categories, i.e., underweight (BMI of <18.5 kg m(-2)), normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 22.9 kg m(-2)), overweight (BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg m(-2)), and obese (BMI of ≥25 kg m(-2)). The L. iners-dominant type had a significant association with obesity (odds ratio [OR], 7.55 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 48.2]), compared to the L. crispatus-dominant type. The group with high values for the ratio obtained by dividing the relative abundance of L. iners by that of L. crispatus had a significant association with obesity (OR, 6.54 [95% CI, 1.22 to 35.1]), compared to the low-ratio group. Associations between obesity and the L. iners/L. crispatus ratio were observed among young women (OR, 6.26 [95% CI, 1.15 to 33.9]) but not older women and in the normal group (OR, 6.97 [95% CI, 1.20 to 70.4]) but not the CIN group. Obesity was associated with cervical microflora dominated by L. iners in reproductive-age women without dysplasia.

  18. Association between extraversion personality and abnormal glucose regulation in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Shim, Unjin; Oh, Jee-Young; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Kim, Han-Na; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2014-01-01

    Depression and psychological distress are known to be associated with diabetes development as well as the disease progression including glycemic control and chronic complication, but relationship of personality with diabetes is controversial. We examined whether personality trait and the presence of abnormal glucose regulation (AGR; diabetes and pre-diabetes) are associated in young women. A total of 1,617 young women aged 19-39 years without previously diagnosed diabetes were participated voluntarily. Personality trait was assessed by self-reported questionnaire using the five-factor model (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness) consisting of five-point scale ranging from 'strongly disagreeable' to 'strongly agreeable.' Glucose tolerance status was assessed by standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. One hundred and eleven women were newly diagnosed with AGR (6.9 %). Among five factors, only extraversion trait was significantly associated with AGR. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant negative association between extraversion trait and 2-h post-load glucose after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and family history of diabetes (β = -0.16, P = 0.026). Multiple logistic regression showed extraversion trait having a significant association with the presence of AGR after adjustment for the same covariates (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.95-0.99, P = 0.011). The frequency of AGR was significantly increased according to the decrease in extraversion score (P for trend with exact test = 0.047). In conclusion, extraversion may be an important personality trait having a beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of AGR.

  19. Association between Obesity and Cervical Microflora Dominated by Lactobacillus iners in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kong, Ji-Sook; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus spp. are associated with the maintenance of reproductive health, but obesity reduces fertility and is a risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. We assessed the association between obesity and the cervical Lactobacillus composition, which has not been examined previously. Pyrosequencing was performed using cervical swabs collected from 76 normal participants with negative results for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 57 participants with CIN, based on histological examinations. Cluster analysis of nine Lactobacillus spp. was performed, and five cluster types were identified. The association between obesity and the Lactobacillus community was assessed by logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors. The proportion of Lactobacillus iners increased and that of Lactobacillus crispatus decreased according to body mass index (BMI) categories, i.e., underweight (BMI of <18.5 kg m−2), normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 22.9 kg m−2), overweight (BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg m−2), and obese (BMI of ≥25 kg m−2). The L. iners-dominant type had a significant association with obesity (odds ratio [OR], 7.55 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 48.2]), compared to the L. crispatus-dominant type. The group with high values for the ratio obtained by dividing the relative abundance of L. iners by that of L. crispatus had a significant association with obesity (OR, 6.54 [95% CI, 1.22 to 35.1]), compared to the low-ratio group. Associations between obesity and the L. iners/L. crispatus ratio were observed among young women (OR, 6.26 [95% CI, 1.15 to 33.9]) but not older women and in the normal group (OR, 6.97 [95% CI, 1.20 to 70.4]) but not the CIN group. Obesity was associated with cervical microflora dominated by L. iners in reproductive-age women without dysplasia. PMID:26269625

  20. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    PubMed

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals.

  1. Dense Deposit Disease in Korean Children: A Multicenter Clinicopathologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Jin; Kim, Yong-Jin; Ha, Tae-Sun; Lim, Beom Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Joo; Park, Yong Hoon; Lee, Dae Yeol; Kim, Pyung Kil; Kim, Kyo Sun; Chung, Woo Yeong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic characteristics of dense deposit disease (DDD) in Korean children and to determine whether these characteristics differ between Korean and American children with DDD. In 2010, we sent a structured protocol about DDD to pediatric nephrologists throughout Korea. The data collected were compared with previously published data on 14 American children with DDD. Korean children had lower 24-hr urine protein excretion and higher serum albumin levels than American children. The light microscopic findings revealed that a higher percentage of Korean children had membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis patterns (Korean, 77.8%; American, 28.6%, P = 0.036), whereas a higher percentage of American children had crescents (Korean, 0%; American, 78.6%, P < 0.001). The findings from the electron microscopy revealed that Korean children were more likely to have segmental electron dense deposits in the lamina densa of the glomerular basement membrane (Korean, 100%; American, 28.6%, P = 0.002); mesangial deposit was more frequent in American children (Korean, 66.7%; American, 100%, P = 0.047). The histological findings revealed that Korean children with DDD were more likely to show membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis patterns than American children. The degree of proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia was milder in Korean children than American children. PMID:23091320

  2. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  3. Effects of Meridian Acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong on the Physical Health State, Depression, and Life Satisfaction of Korean Older Adult Women Living Alone.

    PubMed

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong (one of 12 Meridian systems) on the physical health state, depression, and life satisfaction of Korean older adult women living alone. A quasi-experimental, pretest–posttest control group design was used. Participants included 76 (experimental: n = 38, control: n = 38) women 65 and older living alone in Seoul and Gyeonggido, South Korea. Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong was applied for 15 minutes twice per week, for a total of 8 weeks in the experimental group. Data showed there were significant differences in physical health state (t = −15.062, p < 0.001), depression (t = 3.241, p < 0.001), and life satisfaction (t = −17.141, p < 0.001) between the two groups. Health professionals must consider an array of methods, including Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong, for older adults.

  4. Long work hours and obesity in Korean adult workers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae-Won; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as <40, 40-48 (reference), 49-60, and >60 hours per week. In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.

  5. A study of early korean rockets (1377-1600)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Yeon Seok

    The first Korean rocket was fired between 1377 and 1389 and began the Korean development of rockets as a tactical weapon. Although, Korea had successfully demonstrated the use of rockets as firearms in the fifteenth century, there had been no effort to present the historical development of the early Korean rockets in a paper which will be useful to both historians and scientists. The book entitled Kuk Cho Ore Sorye (1474) in the Korean language provided extensive rocket system description, however it required considerable research to interpret them. This paper is the first study of early Korean rockets and launchers. The major effort in this study is directed toward the development of design concepts and details of early Korean rockets. Also, to substantiate support of the historical data presented, some versions of the early Korean rockets were made according to their specifications and fired successfully by the author in 1981.

  6. Development of a Korean family attitude scale: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Schepp, Karen G; Jung, Young-Mi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop and pilot test a Korean version of the Family Attitude Scale (FAS). We developed the Korean FAS using the translation/back-translation method. Two English monolinguals assessed its translation validity by comparing the original with a back-translated English version. Translation equivalence of the FAS and the refined Korean FAS was evaluated in a convenience sample of 56 bilingual Korean college students. The internal consistency of the Korean FAS and the FAS was 0.96 and 0.76, respectively. Mean scores on the two versions did not differ (t = -0.14, p = 0.89). The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.37 (p < .001). Although the Korean FAS needs further refinement and psychometric testing, it was translated to reflect the original version and was a reliable instrument for the Korean population.

  7. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI≥6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141

  8. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI ≥ 6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women.

  9. Smile arcs of Caucasian and Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Keun; Rashid, Robert G; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to measure and compare the smile arcs (tooth and lip arcs) of young Caucasian and Korean subjects. Two hundred subjects (100 male and 100 female) were selected from Caucasian and Korean students. Class photographs taken with a digital camera showing the subjects with a posed smile were used for this study. Curves were rendered as semitransparent overlays, which were manipulated over the images using Adobe Photoshop to determine the best fit for tooth and lip arcs. There were statistically significant differences due to ethnicity and gender. Mean lip arcs had greater curvature than mean tooth arcs.

  10. [A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].

    PubMed

    Park, J S

    1992-01-01

    Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151

  11. Perceptions of depression in korean american immigrants.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Jordan, Pamela; Park, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence, depression is often unrecognized and untreated in minority immigrants. Culture and environment influence perceptions of depression. The purpose of this study was to understand perceptions of depression (knowledge and coping mechanisms) in Korean American immigrants using focus group discussions. A convenience sample (n = 28) was recruited from Korean communities in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Participants lacked an understanding of depression. Difficulties from immigration-related environmental changes were the main sources of stress. Immigration-related environmental changes resulted in changes in coping resources. Culture-friendly education and coping resources might benefit this minority group.

  12. Korean American adolescent depression and parenting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C

    2008-05-01

    Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents' depressive symptoms in 56 families. Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents' perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts.

  13. Korean War Logistics Eighth United States Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-09

    from defensive to offensive, as CINCUNC directed it to attack north to Pyongyang, capital city of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (OPRK), North...weapons to kill the tanks. General Eberle, G-4, FEC, described the urgent need for Bazookas in Korea . ... the Russians provided the North Koreans with T...8217,- ’S~ I6 0 iI. RONIOJ3A2DS PO.;S KOREA APR t gN -I S * ~z T- -:*J *1* Porto3~, r -. r 4< ,Ž . BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Appleman, Roy E. US Army in the Korean War

  14. Association between alcohol consumption and bone strength in Korean adults: the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li Hua; Chang, Sei Jin; Koh, Sang Baek; Kim, Ki Soon; Lee, Tae Yong; Ryu, So Yeon; Song, Jae Seok; Park, Jong Ku

    2011-03-01

    Previous studies have reported an inconsistent relationship between alcohol consumption and bone health. A growing body of research has shown that chronic alcoholism leads to osteopenia and increased incidence of skeletal fractures, but some studies have concluded that alcohol consumption may be associated with higher bone mineral density in elderly populations. However, most studies showing a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and bone status have been in Western countries; and subjects have usually been postmenopausal women. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of alcohol consumption with bone strength in Korean adults. Data were from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study, which is an ongoing population-based study of adults aged 40 to 70 years from 5 regions. A total of 7713 participants (3368 men, 4345 women) were surveyed about their annual consumption of alcohol such as soju, beer, makkolli, wine, and whisky. Bone strength was measured by stiffness index using the calcaneal quantitative ultrasound method. Overall, the annual age-specific decrease rate in the stiffness index of women was 2.7 times higher than that of men (0.463% for women, 0.169% for men).After adjustment for eligible covariates, the association between alcohol consumption and risk of reduced bone strength showed a J-shaped curve for both men and women. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk of reduced bone strength was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.83) in men who drank 4 to 5 cups of soju for an amount of 29.626 to 49.375 g of alcohol per day and 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.86) in men who drank 6 to 7 cups of soju for an amount of 49.376 to 69.125 g of alcohol per day. We found no significant relationship between alcohol consumption and bone strength in any other group of men. For women, results suggested that the risk of reduced bone strength was lower in the moderate-consumption group; but no significant relationship

  15. Comparing the Ethnic Identity and Well-Being of Adopted Korean Americans with Immigrant/U.S.-Born Korean Americans and Korean International Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Richard M.; Yun, Andrea Bora; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Nelson, Kim Park

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the ethnic identity and well-being of Korean Americans who were adopted internationally with immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans and Korean international students, as well as the relationship between ethnic identity and well-being for each group. One-hundred and seven college students completed measures of ethnic identity and subjective well-being. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans had higher ethnic identity scores than the other two groups. Immigrant/U.S.-born Korean Americans also had higher positive affect scores than international students. Ethnic identity was positively correlated with positive affect for all three groups (r’s = .27 – .34), but was negatively correlated with negative affect for international students (r = −.44). Overall, the results suggest that ethnic identity, although slightly lower than non-adopted peers, is relevant to the well-being of adopted Korean American college students. PMID:20694190

  16. Age at First Delivery and Osteoporosis Risk in Korean Postmenopausal Women: The 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Choi, Yun Rak; Choi, Young Sik; Cho, SiHyun; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported in several studies that there may be a significant correlation between reproductive history and the risk of osteoporosis due to the effect of estrogen. Under this hypothesis, however, it is unclear whether the age at first delivery has any major influences on the risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the age at first delivery and the risk of osteoporosis in Korean menopausal women. This study was performed using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 2,530 Korean postmenopausal women. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was made using the World Health Organization T-score criteria (T-score ≤ -2.5, at the femoral neck or lumbar spine). Participants were categorized into 3 groups according to age at first delivery: ≤ 23, 24-29, and ≥ 30 years. Older age, lower body mass index, lower calcium intake, later menarche, and earlier menopause increased the risk of osteoporosis, whereas hormone therapy and oral contraceptive use were associated with a decreased risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women whose first delivery occurred at age 24-29 years were shown to have a significantly increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio, 2.124; 95% confidence interval, 1.096-4.113; P = 0.026) compared to those who first gave birth after the age of 30 years. These findings suggest that postmenopausal women whose first delivery occurred in their mid to late 20s, a period during which bone mass slowly accumulates to the peak, are at an increased risk of osteoporosis.

  17. Hypertension and age at onset of natural menopause in Korean postmenopausal women: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2013).

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Jun-Mo; Lee, Bo-Ra

    2016-08-01

    Menopause is a natural phenomenon of aging, although the timing and management of menopause can significantly affect a woman's quality of life. It is therefore important to identify measures to ensure a healthy menopause. We set out to investigate the association between hypertension and early menopause in Korean women. This cross-sectional study was based on 2008-2013 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Of the 53,829 participants surveyed, 13,584 women were selected. We analyzed the contents of the health interview, health examination, and nutrition survey. The main outcome was defined based on hazard ratios (HR) to identify the effects of hypertension on age at onset of menopause. Among postmenopausal women (n=6650), the mean age at onset of menopause was 50.4 years. Premenopausal hypertension was statistically significantly associated with age at menopause, oral contraceptive usage, household income, education level, occupation, marital status and smoking and drinking habits. With lower age at diagnosis of hypertension, HRs for menopause tended to be higher, and hypertension diagnosed before age 40 years conferred a statistically significantly higher HR (Model 1, HR=2.32, 95% CI=1.87-2.88; Model 2, HR=2.31, 95% CI=1.86-2.86; Model 3, HR=2.23, 95% CI=1.80-2.77; Model 4, HR=2.00, 95% CI=1.52-2.63). Premature menopause is strongly associated with lifestyle factors, in combination with incomplete management of chronic diseases. Our findings support the hypothesis that younger age at diagnosis of hypertension is associated with younger age at onset of menopause in Korean women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in relation to suicide mortality in Asia: prospective cohort study of over one million Korean men and women

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Sun Ha; Kivimaki, Mika; Kang, Hee-Cheol; Park, Il Su; Samet, Jonathan M.; Batty, G. David

    2011-01-01

    Aims A potential role for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the aetiology of suicide has not been comprehensively examined. In addition to being small in scale and poorly characterized, existing studies very rarely sample Asian populations in whom risk factor–suicide relationships may plausibly differ to Caucasian groups. We examined the association between a series of CVD risk factors and future mortality from suicide. Methods and results The Korean Cancer Prevention Study is a prospective cohort study comprising 1 234 927 individuals (445 022 women) aged 30–95 years with extensive measurement of established CVD risk factors at baseline and subsequent mortality surveillance. Fourteen years of follow-up gave rise to 472 deaths (389 in men and 83 in women) from suicide. After adjustment for a range of covariates, in men, smoking hazard ratio; 95% CI: (current vs. never: 1.69; 1.27, 2.24), alcohol intake (1–24 g/day vs. none: 1.29; 1.00, 1.66), blood cholesterol (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dL: 0.54; 0.36, 0.80), body mass index (underweight vs. normal weight: 2.08; 1.26, 3.45), stature [quartile 1(lowest) vs. 4: 1.68; 1.23, 2.30], socioeconomic status [quartile 1(lowest) vs. 4: 1.65; 1.21, 2.24], and martial status (unmarried vs. other: 1.60; 0.83, 3.06) were related to suicide mortality risk. These associations were generally apparent in women, although of lower magnitude. Exercise and blood pressure were not associated with completed suicide. Conclusion In this cohort of Korean men and women, a series of CVD risk factors were associated with an elevated risk of future suicide mortality. PMID:21911340

  19. Age at First Delivery and Osteoporosis Risk in Korean Postmenopausal Women: The 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Choi, Yun Rak; Choi, Young Sik; Cho, SiHyun; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported in several studies that there may be a significant correlation between reproductive history and the risk of osteoporosis due to the effect of estrogen. Under this hypothesis, however, it is unclear whether the age at first delivery has any major influences on the risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the age at first delivery and the risk of osteoporosis in Korean menopausal women. This study was performed using data from the 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 2,530 Korean postmenopausal women. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was made using the World Health Organization T-score criteria (T-score ≤ -2.5, at the femoral neck or lumbar spine). Participants were categorized into 3 groups according to age at first delivery: ≤23, 24–29, and ≥30 years. Older age, lower body mass index, lower calcium intake, later menarche, and earlier menopause increased the risk of osteoporosis, whereas hormone therapy and oral contraceptive use were associated with a decreased risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women whose first delivery occurred at age 24–29 years were shown to have a significantly increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio, 2.124; 95% confidence interval, 1.096–4.113; P = 0.026) compared to those who first gave birth after the age of 30 years. These findings suggest that postmenopausal women whose first delivery occurred in their mid to late 20s, a period during which bone mass slowly accumulates to the peak, are at an increased risk of osteoporosis. PMID:25946162

  20. Cervical cytopathological findings in Korean women with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuri; Roh, Jaesook

    2014-01-01

    This is to investigate the cervical cytological abnormalities associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections on routine screen. A total of 714 subjects who had undergone cervical Pap smears and concomitant analyses for cervical infections were included by a retrospective search. The frequencies of reactive cellular change (RCC) and squamous epithelial abnormalities were significantly higher in Chlamydia positive subjects than in uninfected subjects (P<0.001). Of the 124 subjects tested for M. hominis, M. genitalium, and U. urealyticum, 14 (11%) were positive for M. hominis and 29 (23%) were positive for U. urealyticum. Squamous abnormalities were more frequent in subjects with Ureaplasma infections than in uninfected subjects (24% versus 8%). Taking together these findings, C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum may have a causal role in the development of cervical epithelial changes, including RCC. Thus, extra awareness is warranted in cervical screening of women with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma infections.

  1. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  2. The job analysis of Korean nurses as a strategy to improve the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed at characterizing Korean nurses’ occupational responsibilities to apply the results for improvement of the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination. Methods: First, the contents of nursing job were defined based on a focus group interview of 15 nurses. Developing a Curriculum (DACOM) method was used to examine those results and produce the questionnaire by 13 experts. After that, the questionnaire survey to 5,065 hospital nurses was done. Results: The occupational responsibilities of nurses were characterized as involving 8 duties, 49 tasks, and 303 task elements. Those 8 duties are nursing management and professional development, safety and infection control, the management of potential risk factors, basic nursing and caring, the maintenance of physiological integrity, medication and parenteral treatments, socio-psychological integrity, and the maintenance and improvement of health. Conclusion: The content of Korean Nursing Licensing Examination should be improved based on 8 duties and 49 tasks of the occupational responsibilities of Korean nurses. PMID:27270987

  3. Vowel production in Korean, Korean-accented English, and American English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jimin; Weismer, Gary

    2005-09-01

    The current study compares vowel formant frequencies and durations produced by ten native speakers of Korean, those same speakers producing American English vowels, and ten native speakers of American English. The Korean speakers were chosen carefully to have a minimum of 2 years, and maximum of 5 years residence in the United States; all speakers were between the ages of 22 and 27. In addition, the native speakers of Korean were chosen, by means of a small-scale dialect-severity experiment, from a larger pool of speakers to achieve some homogeneity in their mastery of English phonetics. The full vowel systems of both languages were explored, and a rate condition was included (conversational versus fast) to test the hypothesis that the English vowel space is modified by rate differently for native speakers of Korean who produce English, versus native speakers of English. Results will be discussed in terms of language- and rate-induced adjustments of the vowel systems under study.

  4. The job analysis of Korean nurses as a strategy to improve the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination.

    PubMed

    Park, In Sook; Suh, Yeon Ok; Park, Hae Sook; Ahn, Soo Yeon; Kang, So Young; Ko, Il Sun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing Korean nurses' occupational responsibilities to apply the results for improvement of the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination. First, the contents of nursing job were defined based on a focus group interview of 15 nurses. Developing a Curriculum (DACOM) method was used to examine those results and produce the questionnaire by 13 experts. After that, the questionnaire survey to 5,065 hospital nurses was done. The occupational responsibilities of nurses were characterized as involving 8 duties, 49 tasks, and 303 task elements. Those 8 duties are nursing management and professional development, safety and infection control, the management of potential risk factors, basic nursing and caring, the maintenance of physiological integrity, medication and parenteral treatments, socio-psychological integrity, and the maintenance and improvement of health. The content of Korean Nursing Licensing Examination should be improved based on 8 duties and 49 tasks of the occupational responsibilities of Korean nurses.

  5. Development of a breast self-examination program for the Internet: health information for Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Kim, E; Kim, J W

    2001-04-01

    Internet-based health information will enable us to interact with many people despite distance and time constraints. Informational media by computer is expected to become an important factor that affects health behavior. This study was done to develop an accessible multimedia program about breast self-examination on the Internet. This study was designed by using the two steps of need assessment and program development. For the need assessment step, a survey was carried out. The sample consisted of the 82 women of Yonsei University selected by convenient random sampling. At the program development step, screen design took into account perspectives of computer engineering. A storyboard for every screen was made via screen design and then ported to computer using the Netscape Navigator program. A breast self-examination program was developed using Netscape 4.0 on the Windows 98 platform. The multimedia program, including text, graphics, animation, and sound, was constructed with HTML language using Memo Sheet in Netscape Navigator. The contents of health information posted on the Internet included general information about breast cancer, the importance of breast self-examination, self-risk appraisal of breast cancer, the diverse methods about breast self-examination, the monthly check list graph, and social network for consultation. It is possible to interact with clients through the Question and Answer function on screen. This Internet-based health information program provides enough information, which can be accessed using search systems on the Internet.

  6. Factors influencing sexual function of middle-aged married Korean women

    PubMed Central

    Jee, YoungJu; Kim, YoungHae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the status of women’s sexual function and relevant factors given the fact that women’s health is crucial to the national health, and in particular that women’s sexual health has a significant impact on their overall health. [Subjects and Methods] This study surveyed 353 women living in South Korea’s P and K metropolitan regions from July 2012 to August 10, 2013. The Female Sexual Functional Index (FSFI), the Sexual Attitude Scale (SAS), sexual knowledge and questionnaires were used. [Results] Two groups based on FSFI scores above and below a cutoff value of 25 were compared with each other, and significant differences were found in age, male friends, menstrual status, sex status, and frequency of sex, experience of forced sex, personal health, husband’s health and sexual knowledge. Male friends, sex status, experience of forced sex, husband’s healths and sexual knowledge explained women’s sexual function. [Conclusion] The finding that women’s sexual function is associated with multiple factors suggests an intervention program for improving women’s sexual function should be developed to reflect the factors influencing the target groups’ sexual function. PMID:25931738

  7. [Dentistry in Korean during the Japanese occupation].

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Eu

    2004-12-01

    The Japanese introduction of dentistry into Korea was for treating the Japanese residing in Korea Noda-Oji was the first Japanese dentist for Japanese people in Korea in 1893, and Narajaki doyoyo, an invited dentist was posted in the Korean headquarter of Japanese army in September, 1905. The imperialist Japan licensed the dental technicians (yipchisa) without limit and controlled them generously so they could practice dentistry freely. This measure was contrary to that in Japan. (In Japan no new dental technician was licensed.) Komori, a dental technician opened his laboratory at Chungmuro in 1902. The dental technician had outnumbered by 1920. In 1907, the first Korean dental technician Sung-Ryong Choi practiced dentistry in Jongno. The imperialist Japan made the regulations for dental technicians to set a limit to the advertisement and medical practice of dental technicians. The first Korean dentists Suk-Tae Ham was register No. 1 in the dentist license. The Kyungsung dental school was established by Nagira Dasoni for the purpose of educating some Korean people that contributed to Japanese colonization. It made progress with the help of Japan, it was was given the approval of the establishment of the professional school in January the 25th, 1929. It was intended to produce Korean dentists in the first place but became the school for Japanese students later on. The association of Chosun dentist, which had been founded by Narajaki doyoyo, was managed by Japanese dentists in favor of the colonial ruling. The Hansung Association of Dentists established in 1925 was the organization made by the necessity of the association for Koreans only. The Japanese forcefully annexed the Association of Hansung Dentists (Koreans only) to the Association of Kyungsung Dentists to avoid collective actions of Korean dentists in the name of 'Naesunilche' -- 'Japan and Korea and one'. Their invading intention was shown in the event of 'decayed tooth preventive day'. Japanese controlled

  8. Korean Version of Inventory of Complicated Grief Scale: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (P<0.001). Concurrent validity was assessed using a correlation between the ICG total scores and the CDI total scores (r=0.75, P<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on the comparison of ICG total scores between adolescents without complicated grief (1.2±3.7) and adolescent with complicated grief (3.2±6.6) groups was relatively high (t=5.71, P<0.001). The data acquired from the 1,138 students was acceptable for a factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ2=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. PMID:26770046

  9. Korean Version of Inventory of Complicated Grief Scale: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Jung Jae; Moon, Duk-Soo; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Min A; Min, Seonyeong; Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun Jeong; Yoo, Seo Koo; Chung, Un-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (P<0.001). Concurrent validity was assessed using a correlation between the ICG total scores and the CDI total scores (r=0.75, P<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on the comparison of ICG total scores between adolescents without complicated grief (1.2 ± 3.7) and adolescent with complicated grief (3.2 ± 6.6) groups was relatively high (t=5.71, P<0.001). The data acquired from the 1,138 students was acceptable for a factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ(2)=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents.

  10. Increased methylation of interleukin 6 gene is associated with obesity in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Na, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Hae Sook; Lee, Won Kee; Kim, Young Hun; Kim, Dong Sun

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is the fifth leading risk for death globally, and a significant challenge to global health. It is a common, complex, non-malignant disease and develops due to interactions between the genes and the environment. DNA methylation can act as a downstream effector of environmental signals; analysis of this process therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. To assess the effects of excessive weight and obesity on gene-specific methylation levels of promoter regions, we determined the methylation status of four genes involved in inflammation and oxidative stress [interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and glucose transport 4 (GLUT4)] in blood cell-derived DNA from healthy women volunteers with a range of body mass indices (BMIs) by methylation-specific PCR. Interestingly, the samples from obese individuals (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) showed significantly increased hypermethylation for IL6 gene compared to normal weight (BMI < 23 kg/m(2)) and overweight samples (23 kg/m(2) ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m(2)) (P = 0.034 and P = 0.026). However, there was no statistically significant difference in promoter methylation of the other 3 genes between each group. These findings suggest that aberrant DNA methylation of IL6 gene promoter may play an important role in the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity and IL6 methylation could be used as molecular biomarker for obesity risk assessment. Further studies are required to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying this relationship.

  11. Gender differences in hypertension control among older korean adults: Korean social life, health, and aging project.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sang Hui; Baek, Ji Won; Kim, Eun Sook; Stefani, Katherine M; Lee, Won Joon; Park, Yeong-Ran; Youm, Yoosik; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2015-01-01

    Controlling blood pressure is a key step in reducing cardiovascular mortality in older adults. Gender differences in patients' attitudes after disease diagnosis and their management of the disease have been identified. However, it is unclear whether gender differences exist in hypertension management among older adults. We hypothesized that gender differences would exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control among community-dwelling, older adults. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from 653 Koreans aged ≥60 years who participated in the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare several variables between undiagnosed and diagnosed hypertension, and between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension. Diabetes was more prevalent in men and women who had uncontrolled hypertension than those with controlled hypertension or undiagnosed hypertension. High body mass index was significantly associated with uncontrolled hypertension only in men. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that in women, awareness of one's blood pressure level (odds ratio [OR], 2.86; p=0.003) and the number of blood pressure checkups over the previous year (OR, 1.06; p=0.011) might influence the likelihood of being diagnosed with hypertension. More highly educated women were more likely to have controlled hypertension than non-educated women (OR, 5.23; p=0.013). This study suggests that gender differences exist among factors associated with hypertension diagnosis and control in the study population of community-dwelling, older adults. Education-based health promotion strategies for hypertension control might be more effective in elderly women than in elderly men. Gender-specific approaches may be required to effectively control hypertension among older adults.

  12. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers.

    PubMed

    Cote, Linda R; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-10-01

    A three-culture comparison - native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers - of two types of parenting cognitions - attributions and self-perceptions - was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children's development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seventy-nine mothers of 20-month-old children participated: 73 South Korean, 50 Korean immigrant, and 56 European American. Korean mothers differed from European American mothers on four of the five types of attributions studied and on all four self-perceptions of parenting, and these differences were largely consistent with the distinct cultural values of South Korea and the United States. Generally, Korean immigrant mothers' attributions for parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in the United States, whereas their self-perceptions of parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in South Korea. This study provides insight into similarities and differences in cultural models of parenting, and information about the acculturation of parenting cognitions among immigrants from South Korea.

  13. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Linda R.; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L.; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    A three-culture comparison – native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers – of two types of parenting cognitions – attributions and self-perceptions – was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children’s development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seventy-nine mothers of 20-month-old children participated: 73 South Korean, 50 Korean immigrant, and 56 European American. Korean mothers differed from European American mothers on four of the five types of attributions studied and on all four self-perceptions of parenting, and these differences were largely consistent with the distinct cultural values of South Korea and the United States. Generally, Korean immigrant mothers’ attributions for parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in the United States, whereas their self-perceptions of parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in South Korea. This study provides insight into similarities and differences in cultural models of parenting, and information about the acculturation of parenting cognitions among immigrants from South Korea. PMID:26912926

  14. Effect of high dietary sodium on bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass.

    PubMed

    Park, S M; Joung, J Y; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Kim, J H; Kim, S W; Chung, J H; Lee, M K; Min, Y-K

    2015-03-01

    High salt intake is a well-recognized risk factor of osteoporosis for its modulating effect on calcium metabolism. To understand the effect of dietary sodium on bone turnover, we evaluated the association between urinary sodium excretion and bone turnover markers in Korean postmenopausal women with low bone mass. A retrospective review of medical records at a single institution identified 537 postmenopausal women who were first diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis between 2008 and 2013. Subjects were stratified by low (<2 g/day, n=77), moderate (2-4.4 g/day, n=354) and high (⩾4.4 g/day, n=106) sodium excretion. A 24-h urine was collected to estimate sodium, calcium and creatinine. Bone turnover markers and calciotropic hormones were measured in serum. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sodium intake was positively associated with urinary sodium excretion (P=0.006, r=0.29). Bone turnover markers were significantly higher in the moderate-to-high urinary sodium excretion group (⩾2 g/day) than in the low urinary sodium excretion group (<2 g/day); CTX-I (C-telopeptides of type I collagen) was 21.3% higher (P=0.001) and osteocalcin (OC) was 15.7% higher (P=0.004). Calciotropic hormones and BMD were not significantly different across the sodium excretion groups. High urinary sodium excretion (⩾2 g/day) increased bone turnover markers in Korean postmenopausal women, suggesting that excessive sodium intake might accelerate bone turnover.

  15. Dietary Patterns and Their Associations with the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Moon-Kyung; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dietary pattern, nutritional intake, and diet quality of Korean pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Between October 2008 and May 2012, 166 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM completed a questionnaire and dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations were measured and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed. Two major dietary patterns ("carbohydrate and vegetable" and "western" patterns) were identified through factor analysis. Dietary pattern scores for each dietary pattern were categorized into tertiles. The dietary quality index-international (DQI-I) was used to measure overall diet quality. Subjects with higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores reported less physical activity (p < 0.05) and have higher diastolic blood pressure levels (p = 0.05). After adjusting for age and energy intake, higher carbohydrate and vegetable pattern scores were associated with higher sodium intakes (p = 0.02), but lower intakes of fat (p = 0.002) and other micronutrients. On the other hand, higher western pattern scores were associated with higher fat intake (p = 0.0001), but lower intakes of sodium (p = 0.01) and other micronutrients. Higher scores for both dietary patterns were associated with lower scores in the moderation category of the DQI-I (p < 0.0001). HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly lower among participants with high DQI-I than those with low DQI-I (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest that many Korean women with GDM do not consume nutritionally adequate or balanced diets, regardless of dietary pattern. PMID:26566516

  16. Influence of parity-related factors adjusted for abortion on knee osteoarthritis in Korean women aged 50 or older: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jung, You Hwa; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Choi, Areum; Shin, Dongjin; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-10-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is pervasive in aged populations, and induces considerable socioeconomic expense. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between OA prevalence and pregnancy and parity in Koreans, considering for the potential effect of abortion. A total 5449 women aged ≥50 years with radiological knee examination results of 24,173 participants of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Association between OA prevalence (Kellgren/Lawrence grade) and pregnancy and parity as odds ratios (ORs) by logistic regression. Knee OA results were normal in 1996 participants (36.1%), suspected in 1012 (18.6%), mild in 781 (14.3%), moderate in 1073 (19.7%), and severe in 617 (11.3%). Increase in number of pregnancies adjusted for abortion was significantly associated with increased OA prevalence (OR 1.081; 95% CI 1.015, 1.152). OA prevalence increased with parity (continuous variable) in ever-abortion (OR 1.092; 95% CI 1.009, 1.181) and with parity (categorical variable) with reference value set at 1-2 (P for trend; p=0.0195). In analyses adjusted for abortion, ever-abortion negatively influenced OA prevalence. Parity was not associated with OA in number of pregnancies unadjusted for abortion or in never-abortion women. This study shows that maternity-related factors such as pregnancy and parity were related with knee OA prevalence in this population-based sample of older women, and that relationships with abortion were stronger. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social activities are associated with cognitive decline in older Koreans.

    PubMed

    Kim, DaeHyun; Arai, Hidenori; Kim, SungHi

    2017-08-01

    Social activity seems to be important for the prevention of cognitive impairment and frailty. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether social activities are associated with the development of cognitive impairment in Korean older people. We analyzed data from the Korean National Longitudinal Study on Aging. A total of 2495 Korean community-dwelling older adults (1163 men and 1332 women) aged between 65 and 79 years at the first wave of the Korean National Longitudinal Study on Aging were used for analysis. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination in 2006 and 2012. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out by adjusting covariates, such as age, sex, education, employment, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression and instrumental activities of daily living scores, and weight loss. Among the participants, 951 participants (38.1%) showed cognitive decline. Compared with those who participated in a large number of group social activities, multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of cognitive decline in those who participated in a moderate and small number of group activities were 1.18 (95% CI 0.93-1.48) and 1.80 (95% CI 1.16-1.90), respectively. Among six types of group social activities, two types (social club/café and alumni) showed a significant correlation with less cognitive decline; adjusted odds ratios of the group with a small number of activities were 1.31 (95% CI 1.09-1.56) and 1.46 (95% CI 1.10-1.93), respectively, compared with the group with a large number of activities. Personal social activities and the other four types of activities (religious, political, leisure and volunteer) did not affect the outcome. Two social group activities (social club/café and alumni) were significantly associated with less cognitive decline in older Koreans. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1191-1196. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Korean-American Entrepreneurs. CELCEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung

    For many Korean Americans, the American dream of building a better future in the United States for their families is realized through a focus on entrepreneurship. Their formula for entrepreneurial success is simple and effective: (1) identifying a business opportunity; and (2) working hard to turn the opportunity into a business success. Korean…

  19. Cardiovascular health perceptions in multigenerational Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Lee, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is prevalent in the Korean immigrants. Success of any health interventions depends heavily on our understanding of how health issues are perceived by the recipients. This study describes cardiovascular health perceptions using Photovoice, a qualitative methodology utilizing photography to initiate discussion, in multigenerational Korean immigrants (older adults, teenagers, children). Twenty Korean Americans (7 adults aged >or=50 years, 6 teenagers aged 13 to 19 years, 7 children aged 9 to 12 years) were recruited from the Korean communities in Seattle, Washington. Each subject was given a camera and asked to take 24 pictures of objects, scenes, and environments that represented their perceptions of cardiovascular health and related risk factors. Subjects were asked to pick 2 photos and present their thoughts about them in a tape-recorded group meeting. Key concepts were identified from the discussions. Themes identified promoting cardiovascular health included good diet, exercise, a clean environment, and spirituality. The themes identified as the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases included bad diet, smoking, pollution, and stress. Expression of the risk factors differed by the age group. The shared cultural background also influenced the perception of the risk factors. These observations support the findings that the culture and age-specific interventions may augment intervention effectiveness.

  20. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese…

  1. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  2. Japanese/Korean Linguistics, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, David J., Ed.

    A collection of research in Japanese and Korean linguistics includes: "Repetition, Reformulation, and Definitions: Prosodic Indexes of Elaboration in Japanese" (Mieko Banno); "Projection of Talk Using Language, Intonation, Deictic and Iconic Gestures and Other Body Movements" (Keiko Emmett); "Turn-taking in Japanese…

  3. Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hesung Chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

  4. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  5. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  6. Understanding Immigrated Korean Children's Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    2003-01-01

    Korean children's school experiences as new immigrants to the United States are often emotionally turbulent because of environmental and psychological stresses that result when moving from one culture to another. With some basic knowledge and some suggested approaches, teachers can assist these children, whose numbers are increasing, to have a…

  7. American Colleges See Potential in Korean Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    For colleges in the United States seeking a foothold in South Korea's formerly insular higher-education sector, the lure seems to be part location, part alumni lobbying, and part desire to be part of the country's rapid transformation. The South Korean government's newfound openness to overseas universities is helping persuade American college…

  8. Temporal Phenomena in the Korean Conjunctive Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the temporal phenomena in the Korean conjunctive constructions. These constructions consist of three components: a verbal stem, a clause medial temporal suffix, and a clause terminal suffix. This study focuses on both the temporality of the terminal connective suffixes and the grammatical meanings of the…

  9. Syllable Transposition Effects in Korean Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang H.; Kwon, Youan; Kim, Kyungil; Rastle, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impact of letter transpositions in visual word recognition has yielded important clues about the nature of orthographic representations. This study investigated the impact of syllable transpositions on the recognition of Korean multisyllabic words. Results showed that rejection latencies in visual lexical decision for…

  10. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  11. Temporal Phenomena in the Korean Conjunctive Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize the temporal phenomena in the Korean conjunctive constructions. These constructions consist of three components: a verbal stem, a clause medial temporal suffix, and a clause terminal suffix. This study focuses on both the temporality of the terminal connective suffixes and the grammatical meanings of the…

  12. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  13. Toward Understanding Korean and African American Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward Taehan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that examines the economic, cultural, and ideological factors that influence Korean and African American relations. Discusses how the two groups perceive each other and situates the role of race and class in this relationship. Includes informational handouts and discussion questions. (MJP)

  14. American Colleges See Potential in Korean Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    For colleges in the United States seeking a foothold in South Korea's formerly insular higher-education sector, the lure seems to be part location, part alumni lobbying, and part desire to be part of the country's rapid transformation. The South Korean government's newfound openness to overseas universities is helping persuade American college…

  15. Population pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Sungmin; Ryu, Sung-Mun; Lee, Yun-Mi; Schentag, Jerome J; Kim, Yang-Wook; Kim, Hyeon-Kuk; Jang, Hang-Jae; Joo, Yong-Don; Jin, Kyubok; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ghim, Jong-Lyul

    2016-08-01

    Levofloxacin (LVFX) has different effects depending on the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio. While AUC can be expressed as dose/clearance (CL), we measured serial concentrations of LVFX in Koreans and tried to set a Korean-specific equation, estimating the CL of the antibiotic. In total, 38 patients, aged 18-87 years, received once daily intravenous LVFX doses of 500 mg or 250 mg, depending on their renal function. Four plasma samples were obtained according to a D optimal sampling design. The population pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of LVFX were estimated using non-linear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM, ver. 7.2). The CL of LVFX was dependent on creatinine clearance (CLCR) as a covariate. The mean population PK parameters of LVFX in Koreans were as follows: CL (l/hour) = 6.19 ×  (CLCR/75)(1.32). The CL of LVFX in Koreans is expected to be lower than that in Western people.

  16. Proper Human Relationships: Korean Principals' Leadership Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Miles; Son, Jong Ho

    In an attempt to better understand the values that Korean educational administrators associate with leadership, researchers surveyed a random sample of 292 subjects in South Korea in the spring of 2000. Using several well-tested instruments, the researchers were able to report findings of relevance to scholars interested in cultural influences on…

  17. Korean. London Oriental and African Language Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Suk-Jin

    The grammar of the Korean language presented here is descriptive and structural, and does not align with any particular theory. An introductory chapter gives some background information about the language and related research. Subsequent chapters treat: writing and sound systems, including some sound rules and suprasegmental features; morphology…

  18. Korean: A Guide to the Spoken Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This language guide, written for United States Armed Forces personnel, serves as an introduction to the Korean language and presents important words and phrases for use in normal conversation. Linguistic expressions are classified under the following categories: (1) greetings and general phrases, (2) location, (3) directions, (4) numbers, (5)…

  19. Association of the I264T Variant in the Sulfide Quinone Reductase-Like (SQRDL) Gene with Osteoporosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunkuk; Kim, Bo-Young; Choi, Vit-Na; Yoo, Young-Hyun; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Jeong, Seon-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To identify novel susceptibility variants for osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women, we performed a genome-wide association analysis of 1180 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in 405 individuals with osteoporosis and 722 normal controls of the Korean Association Resource cohort. A logistic regression analysis revealed 72 nsSNPs that showed a significant association with osteoporosis (p<0.05). The top 10 nsSNPs showing the lowest p-values (p = 5.2×10-4–8.5×10-3) were further studied to investigate their effects at the protein level. Based on the results of an in silico prediction of the protein’s functional effect based on amino acid alterations and a sequence conservation evaluation of the amino acid residues at the positions of the nsSNPs among orthologues, we selected one nsSNP in the SQRDL gene (rs1044032, SQRDL I264T) as a meaningful genetic variant associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. To assess whether the SQRDL I264T variant played a functional role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, we examined the in vitro effect of the nsSNP on bone remodeling. Overexpression of the SQRDL I264T variant in the preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and the mRNA expression of osteoblastogenesis markers, Runx2, Sp7, and Bglap genes, whereas the SQRDL wild type had no effect or a negative effect on osteoblast differentiation. Overexpression of the SQRDL I264T variant did not affect osteoclast differentiation of the primary-cultured monocytes. The known effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on bone remodeling may explain the findings of the current study, which demonstrated the functional role of the H2S-catalyzing enzyme SQRDL I264T variant in osteoblast differentiation. In conclusion, the results of the statistical and experimental analyses indicate that the SQRDL I264T nsSNP may be a significant susceptibility variant for osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women that is

  20. The association of Pro12Ala polymorphism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene with serum osteoprotegerin levels in healthy Korean women.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Ki-Won; Yun, Eun-Joo; Jung, Chan-Hee; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Eun-Sook; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Moo-Il; Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Sun-Woo

    2007-12-31

    Recent evidences suggest that the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, which is an important transcriptional factor in adipocyte differentiation, also plays an important role in the bone microenvironment. The objective of the study was to clarify whether Pro12Ala polymorphism was related to the serum OPG levels and bone mineral metabolism in healthy Korean women. In 239 Korean women (mean age 51 years), who participated in medical check-up program in a health promotion center, anthropometric measurements, lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers, such as serum total alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, urine deoxypyridinoline levels, and 24-h urine calcium excretion were measured. Serum levels of OPG were measured with ELISA method. DNAs were extracted from the samples and the genotyping of the Pro12Ala polymorphism (rs1801282) in the PPAR-gamma gene was performed via an allelic discrimination assay using a TaqMan probe. In addition, we examined the haplotype analysis between two polymorphisms of PPAR-gamma gene, Pro12Ala in exon B and C161T in exon 6 (rs3856806). Allelic frequencies were 0.950 for Pro allele and 0.050 for Ala allele, which was in compliance with Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium, and there was no Ala12Ala genotype among the genotyped subjects. Mean serum OPG level was significantly lower (P=0.035), and serum total ALP was significantly higher (P=0.014) in the Pro12Ala genotype group compared with the Pro12Pro genotype group, which were consistently significant even after adjustment for weight, height, and serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In multiple regression analysis with serum OPG as the dependent variable and age, weight, ALP, femoral neck BMD and Pro12Ala genotype included in the model, only Pro12Ala genotype was significant determinant of serum OPG level (b=??0.136, P=0.035). The haplotype analysis with C161T polymorphism revealed that subjects with Ala and T alleles