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Sample records for korean young adult

  1. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  2. Dietary sodium intake in young Korean adults and its relationship with eating frequency and taste preference.

    PubMed

    Shim, Eugene; Ryu, Ha-Jung; Hwang, Jinah; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Eun-Jung

    2013-06-01

    Dietary sodium intake is considered one of the major causal factors for hypertension. Thus, to control the increase of blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension-related clinical complications, a reduction in sodium intake is recommended. The present study aimed at determining the association of dietary sodium intake with meal and snack frequency, snacking time, and taste preference in Korean young adults aged 20-26 years, using a 125-item dish-frequency questionnaire. The mean dietary sodium intakes of men and women were 270.6 mmol/day and 213.1 mmol/day, which were approximately 310% and 245% of the daily sodium intake goal for Korean men and women, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in the total group, and BMI in the total and men-only groups. In the total and men-only groups, those who consumed meals more times per day consumed more dietary sodium, but the number of times they consumed snacks was negatively correlated with dietary sodium intake in the total, men-only, and women-only groups. In addition, those who consumed snacks in the evening consumed more sodium than those who did so in the morning in the men-only group. The sodium intake was also positively associated with preference for salty and sweet taste in the total and women-only groups. Such a high intake of sodium in these young subjects shows that a reduction in sodium intake is important for the prevention of hypertension and related diseases in the future.

  3. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  4. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study.

  5. Evaluation of the relationship between upper incisor exposure and cephalometric variables in Korean young adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Chang, Na-Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to classify Korean young adults into 3 groups on the basis of upper incisor exposure rates (UIERs) and to compare the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue variables. Methods Samples were obtained from 127 students at the College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University in South Korea. Facial photographs of frontal posed smiles and lateral cephalograms of the subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of UIERs and 20 measurements were compared among the 3 groups. The correlations between the variables were determined. Results Male and female subjects showed significant differences in the group distribution. Male subjects showed higher frequencies of low smiles, and female subjects showed higher frequencies of high smiles. The vertical height of the anterior alveolar process of the maxilla directly correlated with the UIER. However, the UIER showed no significant correlation with the vertical height of the anterior basal bone or the inclination of the upper incisor axis. In female subjects, the upper central incisor clinical crown length showed an inverse correlation with the UIER. However, this variable showed no significant correlation with the UIER in male subjects. Conclusions The UIER was directly correlated with the levator muscle activity of the upper lip and inversely correlated with the upper lip thickness, yet there was no correlation between the UIER and upper lip length at rest. PMID:24228237

  6. Seropositivity among Korean Young Adults Approximately 2 Years after a Single-Dose Vaccination against Hepatitis A Virus.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong-Jun; Lim, Jiseun; Park, Woong-Sub; Sohn, Haesook; Lee, Moo-Sik; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Hwasung; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    We previously observed 80.7% seropositivity and a significant interaction between gender and hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine type (Havrix vs. Epaxal) on the seropositivity approximately 11 months after single-dose HAV vaccinations in Korean young adults. Our objective was to evaluate seropositivity approximately 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination and the influence of demographic characteristics on seropositivity, including the interaction between gender and vaccine type. Seronegative medical school students were randomly vaccinated with Havrix or Epaxal. Based on a total serum anti-HAV antibody titer cutoff of 20 IU/mL, 338 participants (76.0%) of the 445 vaccinees were seropositive 20-25 months after a single-dose HAV vaccination. The seropositive rates were similar after vaccination with Havrix (77.0%) and Epaxal (74.9%). Univariate analysis indicated that female (p = 0.052) and less obese (p < 0.001) participants had a higher seropositive rate, whereas other characteristics such as age, alcohol use, smoking history, vaccine type, and follow-up duration were not associated with seropositivity. Multivariate analysis indicated that women (p = 0.026) and participants with moderate alcohol use (p < 0.001) showed significantly higher seropositive rates than men and participants with no or low alcohol use, respectively. The seropositive rates after vaccination with Havrix and Epaxal were 70.9% and 67.5% in men and 87.7% and 91.3% in women, respectively (p for interaction = 0.304). Compared with the seropositive rate approximately 11 months after vaccination, the seropositive rate decreased substantially only in men in the Havrix group (11.0% points), and consequently, the interaction between gender and vaccine type disappeared while seropositivity remained high (87.7% and 91.3% in Havrix and Epaxal groups, respectively) among women approximately 2 years after vaccination. Further studies are needed to assess whether the seropositive rate would be maintained in

  7. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  8. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480

  9. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Yoo, Hye Jin; Yoo, Roh Eul; Lim, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Seob; Yoo, Seong Ho

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs.

  10. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Yoo, Hye Jin; Yoo, Roh Eul; Lim, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Seob; Yoo, Seong Ho

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480

  11. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  12. Young Adult Services Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boegen, Anne, Ed.

    Designed to offer guidelines, ideas and help to those who provide library service to young adults, this manual includes information about the provision of young adult (YA) services in six sections. The first section, which addresses planning and administration, includes a definition of a young adult and a checklist for determining community needs…

  13. "You Don't Need to Be Mean. We're Friends, Right?": Young Korean-American Children's Conflicts and References to Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhee

    2014-01-01

    In the eyes of adults, conflicts between children are often treated as problematic social interactions that should be prevented. This study describes how young Korean-American children's conflict negotiation was a central part of their peer culture at a Korean heritage language school in the United States. Eleven young Korean-American…

  14. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  15. What Makes Koreans Happy?: Exploration on the Structure of Happy Life among Korean Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myoung So; Kim, Hye Won; Cha, Kyeong Ho; Lim, Jeeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the perceptions of Korean people about what can make them happy and constructed a comprehensive measurement of happiness of Korean. A total of 61 Korean adults participated in Focused Group Interview (FGI), where they were asked three questions (e.g., What makes you happy? What could make you happier than now? In…

  16. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  17. Hypertension in young adults.

    PubMed

    De Venecia, Toni; Lu, Marvin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension remains a major societal problem affecting 76 million, or approximately one third, of US adults. While more prevalent in the older population, an increasing incidence in the younger population, including athletes, is being observed. Active individuals, like the young and athletes, are viewed as free of diseases such as hypertension. However, the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors in the young, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease, increase the risk of developing hypertension in younger adults. Psychosocial factors may also be contributing factors to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the younger population. Increased left ventricular wall thickness and mass are increasingly found in young adults on routine echocardiograms and predict future cardiovascular events. This increasing incidence of hypertension in the young calls for early surveillance and prompt treatment to prevent future cardiac events. In this review we present the current epidemiological data, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment of hypertension in young patients and athletes.

  18. Factors influencing BMI classifications of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ae Kyung; Choi, Jin Yi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify factors influencing the BMI classifications of 3,583 Korean adults using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [Subjects and Methods] Measures included lifestyle factors, physiologic factors, perceived health state, stress, subjective body recognition, health-related quality of life, and weight control behavior. [Results] Body perception scores were lower with underweight and higher with overweight and obesity than with a healthy weight. There was a lower proportion of underweight men and a higher proportion of overweight or obese men than women. Instances of Alcohol Use Identification Scores (AUDIT) ≥ 9 were proportionately lower with underweight and more with overweight or obesity relative to an AUDIT score < 9 with healthy weight. Hemoglobin A1c and systolic blood pressure were higher with obesity than with healthy weight. The total cholesterol level was greater with overweight and obesity than with healthy weight. [Conclusion] These results suggest that obesity intervention for adults should be based on age and sex and should include drinking habits and physical activity.

  19. A Study of the Life and Culture of Young Korean Students Studying in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Doo Hyoo

    2010-01-01

    The number of young Korean students studying abroad--many moving to English-speaking countries--has increased. This article describes the lives of young Korean students studying in the United States. For data collection, unstructured interviews were conducted with young Korean students studying in the Northwestern states of the United States.…

  20. The Ability of Young Korean Children to Use Spatial Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert; Kim, Jaeyil

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council emphasizes using tools of representation as an essential element of spatial thinking. However, it is debatable at what age the use of spatial representation for spatial thinking skills should begin. This study investigated whether young Korean children possess the potential to understand map-like representation using…

  1. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  2. Sexting among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018

  3. Coffee consumption patterns in Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2011).

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Jeong, Seonghyun; Park, Taeyoung

    2014-01-01

    We examined coffee consumption patterns over the past decade among Korean adults. This study was based on seven different cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2001 and 2011 (17,367 men and 23,591 women aged 19-103 y, mean 48.1 y). Information on frequency and type of coffee consumption was derived from frequency questionnaires or 24-hour recalls. For the study period, the prevalence of daily coffee consumption increased by 20.3% (from 54.6 to 65.7%; p<0.001). For those who consumed 2 or more cups of coffee daily, it dramatically increased by 48.8% (from 29.1 to 43.3%; p<0.001). The instant coffee mix was consumed the most frequently by Korean adults, and it was on the increasing trend among people who were middle aged or older (>=40 y), while it was on the slowdown in young men or on the declining trend in young women. Brewed coffee consumption had an increasing trend by all age groups in recent years. Especially, there was a rapid increase in brewed coffee consumption among young women (strongly) and young men. The instant coffee mix that contains non-dairy creamer and/or sugar still takes up a significant portion of coffee consumption in Korea, which may result in weight gain and insulin resistance, and potential benefits of coffee may be offset. Given high prevalence of coffee consumption in Korea, nutrition education should be conducted to help people (especially the elderly) to make healthy coffee drinking habits. PMID:25516328

  4. Study on the Korean adult cranial capacity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Y I; Lee, K H; Choi, B Y; Lee, K S; Lee, H Y; Sir, W S; Kim, H J; Koh, K S; Han, S H; Chung, M S

    1995-08-01

    Cranial capacity was measured in Korean adult skulls. The cavity was filled with rice seeds and the volume of the seeds were measured in a graduated cylinder. The results were 1470 +/- 107 (mean +/- standard deviation) in male and 1317 +/- 117 cc in female skulls. These values were in good accordance with those previously reported. In addition, regression formulae were obtained with the product of the length, breadth, and height of the skull as an independent parameter and the measured capacity as a dependent one. With known external measurements, the expected cranial capacity was as follows: when using baso-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 307.5 + 333 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) female: capacity = -12.0 + 435 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.baso-bregmatic height) and, when using auriculo-bregmatic height, male: capacity = 214.6 + 429 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height) female: capacity = 131.6 + 461 x 10(-6) x (length.breadth.auriculo-bregmatic height). PMID:8593202

  5. Focus on Young Adult Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Union, Bunni; Williams, Sheila

    1996-01-01

    Presents three library youth service programs which focus on "Pizza and Politicians," a public library pizza party which gave high school students and college-aged young adults a chance to meet and question politicians; a young adult "Reading to Seniors" program; "Making Books," a public library journal-making project for middle school students.…

  6. Body composition and bone density reference data for Korean children, adolescents, and young adults according to age and sex: results of the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Jae; Hong, Hyun Sook; Chung, Seung Joon; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2016-07-01

    We established the timing of peak bone mass acquisition and body composition maturation and provide an age- and sex-specific body composition and bone density reference database using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in Korean subjects 10-25 years of age. Reference percentiles and curves were developed for bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, the lumbar spine, and the femoral neck, and for fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) of 1969 healthy participants (982 males) who participated in the 2009-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Additionally, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD), FM index, and LM index were calculated to adjust for body size. BMC and BMD at all skeletal sites as well as LM increased with age, reaching plateaus at 17-20 years of age in females and 20-23 years of age in males. The femoral neck was the first to reach a bone mass plateau, followed by the lumbar spine and then the whole body. Spine BMAD increased with age in both sexes, but femoral and whole-body BMAD remained the same over time. Females displayed a dramatic increase in FM during puberty, but the FM of males decreased until mid-puberty. These findings indicate that bone health and body composition should be monitored using a normal reference database until the late second to early third decade of life, when statural growth and somatic maturation are completed. PMID:26056024

  7. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire in Adults Aged 20–39 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hie; Kim, Seong Jae; Lee, Se Yong; Jang, Kwang Ho; Kim, In Soo; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Morningness-Eveningness (ME) can be defined by the difference in individual diurnal preference observed from general behavioral patterns including sleep habits. The Horne & Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) has been used for classifying ME types. We examined the reliability of a Korean version of the MEQ (Korean MEQ) and verified its validity by comparing responses on the Korean MEQ to objectively-recorded sleep-wake rhythms. After translating and back translating the MEQ from English into Korean, we examined the internal consistency of 19 items of the Korean MEQ in 91 subjects, and the test–retest reliability in 21 subjects who took the Korean MEQ twice, four weeks apart. The Korean MEQ was then administered to 1,022 young adult subjects. A subset of 46 morning, neither, and evening type subjects took part in a validation study in which their rest-activity timing was collected by actigraphy for 7 days. Cosinor analyses on these data were done to obtain the acrophase and amplitude of the sleep-wake rhythm. Cronbach's alpha of the total scores from the Korean MEQ was 0.77, and the test-retest reliability intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.90 (p<0.0001). There was a significant negative correlation between Korean MEQ score and reported sleep-wake timing among the entire cohort (p<0.0001). There was a significant difference in bedtime and wake time (on both work and free days), and in the mean sleep-wake rhythm acrophase, between ME types (p<0.01). In this study, the validity of the Korean MEQ was verified by illustrating the difference in acrophases of the sleep-wake rhythm between the ME types in young adults PMID:24467306

  9. Pertussis Prevalence in Korean Adolescents and Adults with Persistent Cough.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Han, Seung Beom; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Ju Sang

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of pertussis in Korean adolescents and adults with persistent cough. Study population was adolescents (aged 11-20 yr) and adults (≥ 21 yr old) who showed persistent cough of 1-8 weeks' duration. Pertussis was diagnosed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. A total of 310 subjects participated in this study, and 76 cases (24.5%) met the criteria for laboratory-confirmed pertussis. The majority of the pertussis cases (66/76) were confirmed by serology, while 3 cases (1.0%) were diagnosed with culture, and 10 cases (3.2%) were detected with PCR. Of the 76 subjects diagnosed with pertussis, 20/86 cases were adolescents and 56/224 cases were adults. Neither adolescents nor adults received adolescent-adult booster against pertussis within the previous 5 yr. Pertussis can be a primary cause of persistent cough in Korean adolescents and adults.

  10. Gender difference in the affricate productions of young Seoul Korean speakers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Eun Jong; Kang, Soyoung; Seo, Misun

    2014-10-01

    This study explored gender-related differences in affricates' place of articulation of young Seoul Korean speakers. Word-initial and medial affricates before /a/ and /i/ collected from 42 adult Seoul speakers were compared with alveolar and palatalized fricatives in the same vowel conditions by examining spectral peak frequencies of the frication part of the consonants. Results showed evidence of gender differences in the acoustic realization of word-medial affricates, which implies a more anterior articulation in females' productions before /a/. Possibilities for sound change in affricates led by females or the use of anterior affricates as a socially indexed gender marker are discussed. PMID:25324118

  11. Responding to Young Adult Literature. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R.

    This book focuses on how readers respond to the power of young adult literature--negating the assumption that because such literature appeals to adolescents it cannot possibly be worthy of a place in the language arts curriculum. The book serves two purposes: it describes and discusses the oral and written response of adolescents and adults to…

  12. Implications of Transnational Adoption Status for Adult Korean Adoptees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Yoon, Eunju; Hacker, Jason; Caudill, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore the implications of transnational adoption in the lives of 12 adult Korean adoptees. From the analysis, 6 domains emerged: (a) adoption history and preadoptive memories, (b) meaning of adoption, (c) adoptive family dynamics, (d) racism, (e) identity formation, and (f) counseling…

  13. Older Korean-American Adults' Attitudes toward the Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Hyuckhoon

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…

  14. Between Sundays: A Case Study of a Korean Immigrant Adult Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jun, Byoungchul Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a Korean immigrant adult learning program, the Reading Facilitator Training program, at a Korean immigrant church in Los Angeles, CA, in 2008. The purpose of this research was to discover how Korean immigrant adults learn in a way that has meaning and brings about change and how the local church can function as a safe learning…

  15. Disease burdens from environmental tobacco smoke in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the disease burdens attributable to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in Korean adults in 2010 and analyzed the trend of that from 2005 to 2010. We obtained information on the study population from the 2010 Cause of Death Statistic and estimated the ETS-attributable fraction using data from the Korean Community Health Survey and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The numbers of ETS-attributable deaths in female and male non-smokers were estimated to be 4.1 and 69.6% of the numbers of deaths attributable to current smoke, respectively. The deaths attributable to ETS were larger in female than in male non-smokers (710 vs. 420). The ETS-attributable deaths increased slightly in 2005-2008 but decreased in 2009-2010. The number of potential years of life lost from ETS was 9077.24 years in 2010. If there were no exposure to ETS in adult non-smokers, we would expect to see 1130 fewer deaths (9.9% of the deaths from current smoke). The results suggest that ETS poses considerable disease burdens for non-smokers, especially women, in Korea.

  16. Raising "Hot Topics" through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill

    2010-01-01

    While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…

  17. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension.

  18. Association between fried food consumption and hypertension in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjin; Kim, Jihye

    2016-01-14

    The present study explored the relationships between fried food consumption and metabolic risk factors and hypertension in Korean adults. The study was based on the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2011. A total of 9221 Korean adults aged ≥19 years were studied. Fried food consumption was assessed using a validated FFQ. Metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), TAG, HDL-cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were measured. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Adjusted OR for elevated blood pressure significantly increased in men (OR 1·62; 95% CI 1·11, 2·37; P(trend)=0·0447) and women (OR 2·20; 95% CI 1·21, 4·00; P(trend)=0·0403) with a greater than twice a week consumption of fried food compared with those who rarely consumed fried food. However, fried food consumption was not associated with other metabolic risk factors (abdominal obesity, high FPG, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, low HDL-cholesterol and the metabolic syndrome). The adjusted OR for hypertension increased by 2·4-fold in women (OR 2·37; 95% CI 1·19, 4·72; P(trend)=0·0272) with a greater than twice a week fried food consumption compared with those who rarely consumed it. No significant association was found between fried food consumption and hypertension in men. This study suggests that frequent fried food consumption is associated with hypertension in Korean women. Further studies are needed to investigate the effect of different types of fried foods on hypertension. PMID:26449129

  19. Myocardial infarction in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Egred, M; Viswanathan, G; Davis, G

    2005-01-01

    Although myocardial infarction (MI) mainly occurs in patients older than 45, young men or women can suffer MI. Fortunately, its incidence is not common in patients younger than 45 years. However, the disease carries a significant morbidity, psychological effects, and financial constraints for the person and the family when it occurs at a young age. The causes of MI among patients aged less than 45 can be divided into four groups: (1) atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) non-atheromatous coronary artery disease; (2) hyper-coagulable states; (4) MI related to substance misuse. There is a considerable overlap between all the groups. This article reviews the literature and highlights the practical issues involved in the management of young adults with MI. PMID:16344295

  20. Just How Adult Is This Young Adult Book: Young Adult Books for the Junior High Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Charlotte

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young adult novels and presents a bibliography to acquaint librarians with titles and authors that are suitable for emerging young adult readers in grades five through nine. Subject categories include realistic fiction, in the news, historical fiction, short stories, legendary characters, mysteries, science fiction/fantasy/horror, and…

  1. An Autophotography of the Young Adult Children of Bereaved Families in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study, using autophotography, shows how Korean young adult children experienced the death of a parent and how they created a new life following parental death. The results suggest that the loss of a parent is a continuing process. The parental loss started in the period of struggle in which one parent was dying and the other family…

  2. Processing of Compound Words by Adult Korean-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to investigate how Korean-English bilinguals process compound words in both English and Korean. The major research question is: when Korean-English bilinguals process Korean or English compound words, what information is used to segment compound words into their constituents and, in particular, does…

  3. Phonological Development of Word-Initial Korean Obstruents in Young Korean Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of word-initial Korean obstruents (i.e. stops, affricates and fricatives). Korean obstruents are characterized by a three-way contrast among stops and affricates (i.e. fortis, aspirated and lenis) and a two-way fricative contrast (i.e. fortis and lenis). All these obstruents are voiceless word-initially.…

  4. Personality Profiles of Physically Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Lynn C.; Harper, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Young adults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)

  5. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  6. Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in the Classroom. Second Edition. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.; Salvner, Gary M., Ed.

    This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the young adult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of young adult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern young adult novel. Another…

  7. Assets and Life Satisfaction Patterns among Korean Older Adults: Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Chang-Keun; Hong, Song-Iee

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the association of assets with life satisfaction patterns among Korean older adults aged 50 and above. This study used the first two panel data sets (2005 and 2007) from the Korean Retirement and Income Study, which collected information from a nationally representative sample. Key independent variables include financial…

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Korean Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 in Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Young Hee; Rim, Hyo Deog; Won, Seung Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) is a self-report measure of early maladaptive schemas and is currently in its third revision; it is available in both long (YSQ-L3) and short (YSQ-S3) forms. The goal of this study was to develop a Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and establish its psychometric properties in a Korean sample. Methods A total of 542 graduate medical students completed the Korean version of the YSQ-S3 and several other psychological scales. A subsample of 308 subjects completed the Korean YSQ-S3 both before and after a 2-year test-retest interval. Correlation, regression, and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on the data. Results The internal consistency of the 90-item Korean YSQ-S3 was 0.97 and that of each schema was acceptable, with Cronbach's alphas ranging from 0.59 to 0.90. The test-retest reliability ranged from 0.46 to 0.65. Every schema showed robust positive correlations with most psychological measures. The confirmatory factor analysis for the 18-factor structure originally proposed by Young, Klosko, and Weishaar (2003) showed that most goodness-of-fit statistics were indicative of a satisfactory fit. Conclusion These findings support the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the YSQ-S3. PMID:26207121

  9. Socioeconomic Costs of Overweight and Obesity in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jae Heon; Cho, Young Gyu; Song, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Kyung A

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in a sample of Korean adults aged 20 yr and older in 2005. The socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity include direct costs (inpatient care, outpatient care and medication) and indirect costs (loss of productivity due to premature deaths and inpatient care, time costs, traffic costs and nursing fees). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, ischemic heart disease, stroke, colon cancer and osteoarthritis were selected as obesity-related diseases. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of obesity was calculated from national representative data of Korea such as the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) cohort data and the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. Direct costs of overweight and obesity were estimated at approximately U$1,081 million equivalent (men: U$497 million, women: U$584 million) and indirect costs were estimated at approximately U$706 million (men: U$527 million, women: U$178 million). The estimated total socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity were approximately U$1,787 million (men: U$1,081 million, women: U$706 million). These total costs represented about 0.22% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 3.7% of the national health care expenditures in 2005. We found the socioeconomic costs of overweight and obesity in Korean adults aged 20 yr and older are substantial. In order to control the socioeconomic burden attributable to overweight and obesity, effective national strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be established and implemented. PMID:22147988

  10. Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    In the selection of multicultural literature for children and young adults, educators and researchers focus on two main controversial issues--authority and authenticity--that the authors portray in their writing. What type of author can accurately portray realistic pictures of minority cultures in multicultural literature for young adults? Must it…

  11. Developing Public Library Services for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jim

    From November 1992 through May 1993, a series of staff development and training workshops were presented as part of the project, "Developing Library Services for Young Adults." The workshops included: "Redirecting Young Adult Behavior" (Glenna O. Auxier & Bob Perchalski); "The Youth Services Librarian and the Law" (Gary Becker & Julie Law); and…

  12. The Relevance of Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stallworth, B. Joyce

    2006-01-01

    Although young adult literature is often recommended as a reading bridge to the classics, Stallworth insists that the genre deserves a prominent place in the middle school canon in its own right. She describes several examples from middle school classrooms of how young adult novels can enhance tweens' "life literacy" by both helping them develop…

  13. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Reflecting the rapid changes that have occurred in young adult literature, this second edition provides teachers with the history and background needed to stay current with what adolescents are reading and how such literature can be taught. The book is organized much as a literature course is taught: first, an introduction to young adults and…

  14. Marriage and mental health among young adults.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2012-03-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.

  15. Young and Older Adults' Reading of Distracters.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

    2008-06-01

    We used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. One-, 2- and 4-word distracters that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length, suggesting that they were attempting to integrate the distracters with the sentence and had more and more difficulty doing so as the distracters increased in length. Young adults did have better comprehension of the sentences than older adults and also better recognition memory for target words and distracters.

  16. Identities of Young Korean English Language Learners at School: Imposed or Achieved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ro, Jennifer Moon

    2010-01-01

    Gee's (2000-2001) analytical framework was used to describe the constructed identities of two young Korean ELLs (English language learners) within the school context and were considered to gain insight into their academic success. The author argues that the "model minority" stereotype was influential in shaping the imposed identities created by…

  17. Young adult palliative care: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jennifer K; Fasciano, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Young adulthood is a time of immense growth and possibilities. As a result, it is also a time when serious illness can have profound effects. This review examines the current data pertinent to young adult palliative care and discusses the challenges and opportunities where palliative medicine can enhance the care provided to this growing and vulnerable population. From the data, 2 primary themes emerged (1) ongoing young adult development not only generates unique biologic disease burdens and clinical treatment options but also requires frequent assessment and promotion and (2) binary health care systems often leave young adults without access to developmentally appropriate health care. Given its interdisciplinary approach, palliative care is uniquely poised to address the challenges known to caring for the seriously ill young adult. PMID:24198063

  18. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Smajlović, Dževdet

    2015-01-01

    Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more precise epidemiologic data. Given the increasing incidence of stroke in the young, there is an objective need for more research in order to reduce this burden. PMID:25750539

  19. Young & ACE: Young Unemployed People and Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    Pilot projects designed to increase the access of young unemployed Australians to adult and community education (ACE) were undertaken in one rural and one metropolitan adult, community and further education region with significant rates of unemployment among individuals aged 15-24 years. Two consortia were selected to conduct the pilot programs,…

  20. Helping Peers Seek Professional Treatment for Depression among Young South Koreans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sun Hae; Choi, Jung Ah; Park, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to understand factors that influence whether young South Koreans help peers with depression to seek professional counseling services. The structural equation modeling on the survey data collected from 191 South Korean students suggests that subjective norms and behavioral…

  1. Blood cadmium concentration and lipid profile in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-15

    Although animal experiments have shown that cadmium exposure induces alterations in lipid profiles, no epidemiological study of this relationship has been performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between blood cadmium concentration and blood lipid levels in Korean adults. A cross-sectional study comprising participants (n=3903) aged 20 years or older from the 2005, 2008, and 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted. Demographic characteristics and dietary intake were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and cadmium and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, blood concentration of cadmium was positively associated with the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in a dose-dependent manner (p for trend <0.001). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) of a high triglyceride to HDL-C ratio was significantly increased in the high blood cadmium groups [OR=1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.79 for fourth quintile and OR=1.41; 95% CI, 1.07-1.86 for fifth quintile] compared with the lowest quintile group. However, high blood cadmium was not associated with a risk of high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or high triglycerides. These data suggest that an increased cadmium body burden increases the risk of dyslipidemia, mainly due to the increased risk of low HDL-C and the high ratio of triglycerides to HDL-C.

  2. Increasing Employment Opportunities for Disadvantaged Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…

  3. Meeting the needs of young adults.

    PubMed

    McCauley, A P; Salter, C; Kiragu, K; Senderowitz, J

    1995-10-01

    As they mature and become sexually active, more young people face serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility, and too little access to health care. Meeting young adults' diverse needs challenges parents, communities, health care providers, and educators. Despite urgent needs, program efforts have been slight and slowed by controversy.

  4. Literature for Today's Young Adults. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Donelson, Kenneth L.

    Designed to help teachers open young minds to literature, this book presents criteria for evaluating books in all genres and their suggested classroom uses, an examination of hotly debated topics, and an overview of the significance of young adult literature. The fourth edition of the book features 30 boxed inserts containing essays by some of the…

  5. Meeting the needs of young adults.

    PubMed

    McCauley, A P; Salter, C; Kiragu, K; Senderowitz, J

    1995-10-01

    As they mature and become sexually active, more young people face serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility, and too little access to health care. Meeting young adults' diverse needs challenges parents, communities, health care providers, and educators. Despite urgent needs, program efforts have been slight and slowed by controversy. PMID:8654883

  6. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19–40, 41–60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05–1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04–1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99–1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  7. From Insider to Outsider: The Evolution of Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cart, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses changes in the field of young adult literature since the 1980s. Examines how the definition of "young adult" has evolved. Offers a brief overview of the history of young adult literature from the 1940s. Considers the rise of awards for merit in young adult publishing, noting three in particular. Concludes this is a golden age of young…

  8. Context Utilization in Young and Old Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Thomas M.; Higgins, James N.

    1983-01-01

    Examined adult age differences in use of context to study and retrieve information. Young and old adults were presented with a series of homographs (targets). Recognition memory for targets was tested. Recognition decreased in both groups as the retrieval context became more dissimilar to the study context. (Author/JAC)

  9. Situated Learning and Identity Development in a Korean Older Adults' Computer Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Sek; Merriam, Sharan B.

    2010-01-01

    Situated learning theory understands learning to be a sociocultural activity, and individuals experience identity development as they participate in communities of practice. The purpose of this study was to understand how Korean older adults' computer learning in a classroom is a situated activity and how this learning influences older adults'…

  10. Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature. Scarecrow Studies in Young Adult Literature #32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Nancy Thalia

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-heritage people are one of the fastest-growing groups in the United States, yet culturally they have been largely invisible, especially in young adult literature. "Mixed Heritage in Young Adult Literature" is a critical exploration of how mixed-heritage characters (those of mixed race, ethnicity, religion, and/or adoption) and real-life…

  11. Quantification of biological aging in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Cohen, Harvey J.; Corcoran, David L.; Danese, Andrea; Harrington, HonaLee; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Schaefer, Jonathan D.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Ben; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Antiaging therapies show promise in model organism research. Translation to humans is needed to address the challenges of an aging global population. Interventions to slow human aging will need to be applied to still-young individuals. However, most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease. As a result, little is known about aging in young humans. We studied aging in 954 young humans, the Dunedin Study birth cohort, tracking multiple biomarkers across three time points spanning their third and fourth decades of life. We developed and validated two methods by which aging can be measured in young adults, one cross-sectional and one longitudinal. Our longitudinal measure allows quantification of the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (e.g., pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, and immune function). We applied these methods to assess biological aging in young humans who had not yet developed age-related diseases. Young individuals of the same chronological age varied in their “biological aging” (declining integrity of multiple organ systems). Already, before midlife, individuals who were aging more rapidly were less physically able, showed cognitive decline and brain aging, self-reported worse health, and looked older. Measured biological aging in young adults can be used to identify causes of aging and evaluate rejuvenation therapies. PMID:26150497

  12. Association Between Hearing Impairment and Albuminuria in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the associations between albuminuria and renal and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and hypertension, have been extensively studied, few studies have investigated the association between albuminuria and hearing impairment. In this study, we assessed the relationship between albuminuria and hearing impairment in 9786 adult Korean subjects, using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) performed in 2011–2012. The range of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was divided into 4 grades: grade 1 (first tertile of low-grade albuminuria [LGA]), 0.00 to 1.99 mg/g Cr; grade 2 (second tertile of LGA), 2.00 to 5.49 mg/g Cr; grade 3 (third tertile of LGA), 5.50 to 29.99 mg/g Cr; grade 4 (albuminuria), ≥30.00 mg/g Cr. The age- and sex-adjusted weighted UACR was higher in subjects with hearing impairment compared with those without hearing impairment (26.2 ± 4.7 mg/g Cr vs 14.1 ± 1.5 mg/g Cr, P = 0.020). The age- and sex-adjusted weighted prevalence of albuminuria was also higher in subjects with hearing impairment compared with subjects without hearing impairment. (8.3 ± 0.9% vs 5.8 ± 0.4%, P = 0.013) The age- and sex-adjusted weighted percentage of hearing impairment increased as UACR increased (18.0% ± 0.6%, 20.0% ± 0.8%, 22.2% ± 0.9%, 25.3% ± 2.0%, respectively; P < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses were performed for hearing impairment by albuminuria, with age, sex, tobacco use, heavy alcohol use, educational background, occupational noise exposure, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, total serum cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 as covariates. Using grade 1 of UACR as the control, grade 3 (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.53, P = 0.005) and grade 4 (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.04–1.90, P = 0.026) of UACR were correlated with hearing impairment, respectively

  13. Evaluation of magnesium intake and its relation with bone quality in healthy young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Yeon, Jee-Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have reported magnesium's role in nutrition as a vital factor involved in bone health. However, not enough studies have evaluated magnesium (Mg) intakes in young women. In this study, we evaluated Mg intake in healthy adults and its relation with bone quality. A total of 484 healthy young women in their early 20s were enrolled into the study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake survey using 3-day dietary records, and the bone quality of the calcaneus using quantitative ultrasounds were obtained and analyzed. Average age, height, and weight of the subjects were respectively 20.20 years, 161.37 cm, and 54.09 kg, respectively. Also, the average broadband ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound (SOS), stiffness index (SI), and calcaneus T scores were 114.32 dB/MHz, 1,568.45 m/s, 95.23, and 0.36 g/cm(2), respectively. The subject's average intake of energy was 1,543.19 kcal, and the average Mg intake was 185.87 mg/day. Mg intake per 1,000 kcal of consumed energy in our subjects was 119.85 mg. Subjects consumed 63.11% of the recommended intake for Mg. Food groups consumed with high Mg content in our subjects included cereals (38.62 mg), vegetables (36.97 mg), milk (16.82 mg), legumes (16.72 mg), and fish (16.50 mg). The level of Mg intake per 1,000 kcal showed significant correlation to the SOS in the calcaneus (r = 0.110, p < 0.05) after adjustment for age, BMI, and percent body fat. In addition, the intakes of Mg from potatoes (p < 0.001), legumes (p < 0.05), and fungi and mushrooms (p < 0.05) positively correlated with the SOS of the calcaneus. In conclusion, the magnesium intake status of young Korean women aged 19-25 years is unsatisfactory. Improving dietary intake of Mg may positively impact bone quality in this population.

  14. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  15. Aplastic Anemia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Guinan, Eva C.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent and young adult patient presentations of aplastic anemia require a particular perspective on both diagnosis and treatment. This unique age group necessitates a thorough diagnostic evaluation to ensure the etiology, acquired or inherited, is sufficiently determined. The treatment options include human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy, and both require attention to the specific medical and social needs of these adolescents and young adults. Longitudinal surveillance throughout life for the development of late complications of the disease and treatment is mandatory. PMID:25228559

  16. Young adults as users of adult healthcare: experiences of young adults with complex or life-limiting conditions.

    PubMed

    Beresford, B; Stuttard, L

    2014-08-01

    Awareness is growing that young adults may have distinctive experiences of adult healthcare and that their needs may differ from those of other adult users. In addition, the role of adult health teams in supporting positive transitions from paediatrics is increasingly under discussion. This paper contributes to these debates. It reports a qualitative study of the experiences of young adults - all with complex chronic health conditions - as users of adult health services. Key findings from the study are reported, including an exploration of factors that help to explain interviewees' experiences. Study findings are discussed in the context of existing evidence from young adults in adult healthcare settings and theories of 'young adulthood'. Implications for training and practice are considered, and priorities for future research are identified.

  17. Intake and major sources of dietary flavonoid in Korean adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Kim, You Jin; Park, Min Young; Chang, Namsoo; Kwon, Oran

    2015-01-01

    With an effort to investigate possible relationship between flavonoids and health, an accurate estimation of flavonoid intake is valuable. We estimated dietary flavonoid intake and identified the major food sources. Subjects were healthy adults aged >=19 y (n=11,474) who completed the 24-h dietary recall of the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010-2012). The US Department of Agriculture and newly estimated or published values for typical Korean foods were combined into a Korean-targeted flavonoid database. The mean intake of total flavonoid was 107±1.47 mg/d, with a higher intake in women than in men after energy-adjustment. Quercetin, cyanidin, genistein, daidzein, epigallocatechin 3-gallate, epicatechin, hesperetin, and luteolin were identified as major flavonoid compounds. Across the age range studied, flavonols and flavones showed a reversed U-shape curve; flavan-3-ol and flavanones showed a decreasing pattern; and anthocyanidins and isoflavones showed an increasing pattern. Forty-five food items were identified as contributing >2% of at least one flavonoid compound's intake. Kimchi was the major food source of total flavonoids, followed by green tea, persimmons, and soybeans. Single food items accounting for more than 50% of the intake of a specific flavonoid included persimmons (cyanidin), green tea (epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate), black tea (thearubigin), tangerines (hesperetin and naringenin), and onions (isorhamnetin). This study provides information on Korean flavonoid intake to enable international comparisons, along with insight into how the sources and intake of various flavonoids vary according to age and gender. This work should facilitate future investigations of the association between flavonoid intake and health. PMID:26420187

  18. Associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Chun, In-Ae; Park, Jong; Ro, Hee-Kyung; Han, Mi-Ah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Food insecurity has been suggested as being negatively associated with healthy behaviors and health status. This study was performed to identify the associations between food insecurity and healthy behaviors among Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS The data used were the 2011 Community Health Survey, cross-sectional representative samples of 253 communities in Korea. Food insecurity was defined as when participants reported that their family sometimes or often did not get enough food to eat in the past year. Healthy behaviors were considered as non-smoking, non-high risk drinking, participation in physical activities, eating a regular breakfast, and maintaining a normal weight. Multiple logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify the association between food insecurity and healthy behaviors. RESULTS The prevalence of food insecurity was 4.4% (men 3.9%, women 4.9%). Men with food insecurity had lower odds ratios (ORs) for non-smoking, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.68-0.82), participation in physical activities, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.90), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.59-0.74), whereas they had a higher OR for maintaining a normal weight, 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.30), than men with food security. Women with food insecurity had lower ORs for non-smoking, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.66-0.89), and eating a regular breakfast, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72-0.88). For men, ORs for obesity were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70-0.87) for overweight and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.39-0.82) for mild obesity. For women, the OR for moderate obesity was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.14-3.63) as compared with normal weight. CONCLUSIONS Food insecurity has a different impact on healthy behaviors. Provision of coping strategies for food insecurity might be critical to improve healthy behaviors among the population. PMID:26244083

  19. Psychometric Properties of a Translated Korean Adult Attachment Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Sherry, Alissa R.; Lee, Young-Sun; Kim, Chang-Dai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, psychometric properties of a Korean-adapted version of the Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised scale were investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in conjunction with item response theory. In CFA, neither the supposed two-factor model of Anxiety and Avoidance nor two single-factor models for each factor showed a…

  20. Young Adult Literature: From Romance to Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cart, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Today's young adult (YA) literature is every bit as complex as the audience it's written for, unflinchingly addressing such topics as homosexuality, mental illness, AIDS and drug abuse. In this much expanded revision of his 1996 book, veteran author Michael Cart shows how the best of contemporary YA lit has evolved to tackle such daunting subjects…

  1. The Prevalence of Lisping in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Van Rentergem, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Leen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a pilot study that investigated the prevalence of lisping in a cohort of young adults. The motivation for the study was the observation that a substantial number of incoming students in speech language pathology at the Ghent University (Belgium), still presented with frontal lisping of the /s/, /z/ and sometimes…

  2. Young Adult Literature 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Buffy

    2009-01-01

    Web 2.0 tools enable today's writers to connect with their audience in unprecedented ways. The advent of social networking and other Web 2.0 tools have changed the rules for how authors and book publishers market and communicate with their audience. Through tools like blogs, Twitter, MySpace, and Facebook, Young Adult (YA) lit authors can choose…

  3. Lesson Plans for Teaching Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Intended for teachers, this book is a collection of lesson plans created by 28 teachers in North Carolina to provide opportunities that support integrated learning. Using recommended young adult literature, the book presents activities which promote the integration of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing. The book provides two or…

  4. Physical Education Waivers and Young Adult Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity of young adults who were granted waivers from high school physical education versus those who completed courses in states requiring physical education teacher certification, with curriculum standards and credit requirements for graduation. University students from three…

  5. Cultural Orientation. Young Adult Curriculum: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    The cultural orientation curriculum for young adults in the International Catholic Migration Commission's Philippine Refugee Processing Center is discussed and outlined. The program's goals for emotional and character development (self-awareness and self-esteem, cultural awareness, pro-activity, personal responsibility), knowledge of cultural…

  6. Literary Maps for Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Mary Ellen

    The activities presented in this handbook are designed to help students envision the locations and landmarks of sites along journeys described in popular young adult literature (e.g., "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,""Born Free,""The Call of the Wild,""Catcher in the Rye,""I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings,""The Island of the Blue…

  7. Suggested Interventions for Young Adults' Relationship Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Martin, H. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and young adults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical…

  8. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis in a young adult].

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Marcelo; D'Giano, Carlos; Goicoechea, María Teresa; Morello, Fernando; Salsamendi, Paz; Mora, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections have extrapulmonary complications that involve the nervous system. The neurologic manifestations are diverse. Although the prognosis is usually favorable, the patients can undergo severe permanent sequelae. We present a young female adult with acute meningoencephalitis as a complication of a lower respiratory infection, which followed a benign course without neurologic sequelae.

  9. Young Adult Literature and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…

  10. Challenging Perspectives on Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    As proponents of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) publish lists of "Exemplar Texts" that are said to represent the degree of textual complexity appropriate for the different grade levels, and that are overwhelmingly canonical, those who value young adult literature and recognize a place for it in the high school literature…

  11. Making Education Meaningful for Disadvantaged Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lansing J.

    Educational and training programs have been successful in recruiting disadvantaged young adults because they also provide other services (e.g., food, money, and shelter); yet, client participation in the programs is often minimal. Client lack of utilization of academic and vocational training programs can be categorized in three areas. These are…

  12. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  13. Iron Deficiency in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risser, William L.; Risser, Jan M. H.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the prevalence, natural history, causes, impact on performance, diagnosis, and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescent and young adult athletes. All athletes should be screened and treated. The best diagnosis involves determining serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels. Treatment requires therapeutic doses of oral ferrous iron for several…

  14. Predicting Condom Use among Young Lithuanian Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagumny, Matthew J.; Dolzycki, Jadwiga; Bedkowska-Heine, Viola; Hammonds, Paul; Salyer, Elizabeth L.

    Until recently, the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union appeared to have escaped the worst of the AIDS epidemic. In 1994 there were 30,000 reported HIV infections, but by the end of 1997 the number had climbed to 190,000. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explanatory utility among young adults and their use of condoms…

  15. Selecting Really Excellent Software for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polly, Jean Armour

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses criteria of a good computer software package to aid the public librarian in the building, weeding, and maintenance of a software collection for young adults. Highlights include manuals or documentation; bells, whistles, and color; and the true test of time. (EJS)

  16. Young Adult Outcome of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

    2008-01-01

    To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…

  17. Spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Baksi, Aditya; Gupta, Shahana; Ray, Udipta; Ghosh, Shibajyoti

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a primary adrenal cortical malignancy presenting with spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage in a young adult. To the best of our knowledge, this is the thirteenth such case to be reported in the English literature. PMID:24658522

  18. Technical and Physical Activities of Small-Sided Games in Young Korean Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Joo, Chang H; Hwang-Bo, Kwan; Jee, Haemi

    2016-08-01

    Joo, CH, Hwang-Bo, K, and Jee, H. Technical and physical activities of small-sided games in young Korean soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2164-2173, 2016-The aim of this study was to examine the technical aspects and physical demands during small-sided games (SSGs) with different sized pitches in young Korean soccer players. Participants were randomly selected during a nationally held youth competition. Three different game formats were used: SSG8 (8 vs. 8 played on a small-sized field [68 × 47 m]), RSG8 (8 vs. 8 played on a regular-sized field [75 × 47 m]), and RSG11 (11 vs. 11 played on a regular-sized field). Eleven technical (ball touches, passes, and shots) and 6 physical demand variables (exercise frequency by intensity) were observed and analyzed. Same variables were also analyzed for the goalkeepers. As a result, SSG8 and RSG8 showed significantly greater numbers of technical plays in 5 and 4 variables in comparison to RSG11, respectively. In addition, although the exercise intensities increased slightly in both SSG formats, the amount was within the similar range as previous reports. In conclusion, the SSGs with reduced number of players may be referred in young players to effectively train them in technical aspects of the game by allowing greater ball exposure time without excessive physical demands. Various confounding factors such as pitch dimension should be carefully considered for training specific technical and physical variables in young Korean players.

  19. Dietary Patterns Derived by Cluster Analysis are Associated with Cognitive Function among Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihye; Yu, Areum; Choi, Bo Youl; Nam, Jung Hyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate major dietary patterns among older Korean adults through cluster analysis and to determine an association between dietary patterns and cognitive function. This is a cross-sectional study. The data from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study was used. Participants included 765 participants aged 60 years and over. A quantitative food frequency questionnaire with 106 items was used to investigate dietary intake. The Korean version of the MMSE-KC (Mini-Mental Status Examination–Korean version) was used to assess cognitive function. Two major dietary patterns were identified using K-means cluster analysis. The “MFDF” dietary pattern indicated high consumption of Multigrain rice, Fish, Dairy products, Fruits and fruit juices, while the “WNC” dietary pattern referred to higher intakes of White rice, Noodles, and Coffee. Means of the total MMSE-KC and orientation score of the participants in the MFDF dietary pattern were higher than those of the WNC dietary pattern. Compared with the WNC dietary pattern, the MFDF dietary pattern showed a lower risk of cognitive impairment after adjusting for covariates (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.44–0.94). The MFDF dietary pattern, with high consumption of multigrain rice, fish, dairy products, and fruits may be related to better cognition among Korean older adults. PMID:26035243

  20. Anthropometry of Malaysian young adults.

    PubMed

    Karmegam; Karuppiah; Salit, Mohd Sapuan; Ismail, Mohd Yusof; Ismail, Napsiah; Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri Mohd; Gobalakrishnan, Krishnan; Palanimuthu, Seetha; Palaniandy, Thiyagu

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric data collected from polytechnic students in Malaysia. A total of 1032 (595 males and 437 females) students participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 24 years. A total of 34 anthropometric dimensions were measured. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean, coefficient of variation, minimum, maximum and percentile for each parameter were estimated. In addition, the comparison between Malaysia anthropometric data and Thailand (South) anthropometric data were also presented. The results show that there is a total of 12 and 11 (of dimensions parameters) significant differences (p < 0.05) between the male and female adults respectively.

  1. Exploring relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior among diverse groups of young adults.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric R; Hsu, Sharon Hsin; Neighbors, Clayton; Paves, Andrew P; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-10-01

    Theory and empirical evidence suggest that North American-based measures of self-esteem, which measure individualistic positive self-regard, may be less applicable to Eastern cultures. In the present exploratory study, we examined how different conceptualizations of self-esteem, as measured by the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem (CSE) Scale, predicted drinking behavior among three groups of American college students (N=326) with varying ethnicities: White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese. Hierarchical negative binomial regression was employed to evaluate these relations. Ethnic identity was controlled for in all analyses. Findings indicated that while global self-esteem was positively associated with drinking for the whole sample, ethnicity moderated this relationship such that global self-esteem was related to drinking for White participants but not for their Chinese/Taiwanese counterparts. In addition, while CSE did not associate with drinking for the whole sample, effects emerged for specific ethnicities. Specifically, private CSE was associated with less drinking for Korean and Chinese/Taiwanese participants. Depending on specific Asian ethnicity, public CSE served as a risk (Korean participants) or a protective factor (Chinese/Taiwanese participants) for drinking. Findings suggest that above and beyond ethnic identity, differential relationships between facets of self-esteem and drinking behavior may exist among White, Korean, and Chinese/Taiwanese young adults. Intervention and prevention programs should develop strategies to help Chinese/Taiwanese and Korean American young adults cultivate protective factors within domains of CSE.

  2. The WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hae; Lee, Eun-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objective A self-report scale of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) was developed and demonstrated good psychometric properties. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the ASRS in Korean samples. Methods The ASRS includes 18 questions regarding the frequency of recent DSM-IV Criterion A symptoms of adult ADHD. We examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the ASRS in Korean samples. Results The ASRS demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Correlations between the ASRS and other adult ADHD measures were high, providing evidence of convergent validity. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis indicated that a two-factor solution provided the best fit. Conclusion It is expected that this scale would be helpful in clinical settings and research in Korea. PMID:23482673

  3. Validation of western Helicobacter pylori IgG antibody assays in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee-Won; Hur, Mina; Yun, Yeo-Min

    2015-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is endemic in Korea, and serology testing is widely performed. The aim of this study was to validate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of Korean and Western serological assays for H. pylori detection in Korean adults. The 114 Korean adults who visited our centre over a 6-month period for the evaluation of H. pylori infection using the urea breath test (UBT) were enrolled in this prospective study. Anti-H. pylori IgG was measured using three commercially available immunoassays: Genedia H. pylori ELISA (Green Cross Medical Science), Chorus helicobacter IgG (DIESSE Diagnostica Senese) and Vidas H. pylori IgG (bioMérieux). Positive UBT findings were obtained in 40.6% of included subjects. The sensitivities and the specificities of Vidas, Chorus and Genedia were 89.7%, 100% and 100% and 85.5%, 75.4% and 80.7%, respectively. We found no differences in sensitivity between the Vidas and Chorus (P=0.125), Chorus and Genedia (P=0.125) and Vidas and Genedia (P=1.000) assays. There were also no differences in specificity between the Vidas and Chorus (P=0.070), Chorus and Genedia (P=0.508) and Vidas and Genedia (P=0.549) assays. In Korean adults, the Genedia H. pylori ELISA, Chorus helicobacter IgG and Vidas H. pylori IgG assays exhibited a high concurrence rate with similar diagnostic accuracy. Thus, both the Korean and Western non-invasive assays are reliable for serodiagnosis of H. pylori in Korean individuals.

  4. Stressors, social support, religious practice, and general well-being among Korean adult immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Woo, Hyeyoung

    2013-10-01

    Through this cross-sectional study the authors explore how stressors, social support, and religious practice are associated with the general well-being of 147 Korean adult immigrants through interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis reveals that low English proficiency and financial hardship are significantly related to low general well-being. However, high social support and religious practice are significantly associated with high general well-being. Social service and health care providers need to carefully assess stressors, social support systems, and spiritual issues for providing appropriate services/programs for English, culture, or social activities as well as spiritual intervention to maximize the strengths of Korean immigrants coping with health issues.

  5. Preparing young adults with disability for employment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brian J; McGilloway, Sinéad; Donnelly, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Young people with disabilities are often excluded from the labour market. The present paper describes an evaluation of an innovative 2-year pilot initiative called Vocational Opportunities in Training for Employment (VOTE) implemented in Northern Ireland to provide employment training and support for vulnerable young adults with a wide range of disabilities. The principal aims of the study were to assess the impact of the new service in the extent to which: (1) it had created and developed training and employment opportunities for young people; and (2) promoted inclusive working partnerships. Documentary analysis was used as a basis for describing and assessing the project objectives in combination with face-to-face interviews with a small number of key stakeholders. A total of 122 young people participated in the initiative in the pilot period, during which time 160 qualifications were obtained. Key stakeholders expressed positive views about the initiative, and in particular, its therapeutic benefits and the extent of interagency working and shared learning. The VOTE initiative achieved considerable success in enabling a significant proportion of young adults to engage in society by developing social and employment skills, and by improving their employment opportunities and prospects. Factors critical to the continued success of this and similar initiatives include: the close involvement of parents; addressing the concerns of local employers; the sympathetic treatment of workplace issues; and effective partnership working.

  6. 2009 YALSA Fabulous Films & Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…

  7. 2010 YALSA Fabulous Films and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Journal, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…

  8. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  9. Young Adults Deserve the Best: YALSA's Competencies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…

  10. Value Preferences Predicting Narcissistic Personality Traits in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Ibrahim Halil; Eksi, Halil; Aricak, Osman Tolga

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at showing how the value preferences of young adults could predict the narcissistic characteristics of young adults according to structural equation modeling. 133 female (59.6%) and 90 male (40.4%), total 223 young adults participated the study (average age: 25.66, ranging from 20 to 38). Ratio group sampling method was used while…

  11. Financial Literacy of Young Adults: The Importance of Parental Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti

    2010-01-01

    This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…

  12. Research in Young Adult Literature: Four Recent Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John Noell; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a study of young adult literature in light of contemporary literary theories; family relationships in selected young adult novels by Cynthia Vogt and Sue Ellen Bridgers; teaching young adult literature, moral inquiry, and the personal journey toward meaning; and using recorded books in a high school classroom. (RS)

  13. Defining Success in Young Adults with Emotional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrescia, Susanne G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a definition of success by constructing a portrait of successful young adults with emotional disabilities. Nine young adults with emotional disabilities were interviewed individually after graduating from high school. The research questions that guided the study centered on the young adults'…

  14. Correlation between Transformative Learning and Cultural Context: A Case Study of Adult Participants in a Korean American Immigrant Congregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Brian Byung Joo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the nature, process, and facilitating factors of transformative learning experiences of Korean-American adults in a Korean American immigrant congregation (KAIC). The focus was on discovering how and to what extent, if any, the congregational culture of the KAIC as the learning situation played a role in…

  15. Developmental Counseling: The Young Adult Period. Critical Issues in Young Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaty, Lee A.

    In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…

  16. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults. PMID:27606272

  17. Longitudinal Trends in Fall Accidents in Community Dwelling Korean Adults: The 2008–2013 Korean Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the longitudinal characteristics of unintentional fall accidents using a representative population-based sample of Korean adults. Methods We examined data from the Korean Community Health Survey from 2008 to 2013. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify the characteristics of fall accidents in adults. Results Between 2008 and 2013, the incidence rate of fall accidents requiring medical treatment increased from 1,248 to 3,423 per 100,000 people (p<0.001), while the proportion of indoor fall accidents decreased from 38.12% to 23.16% (p<0.001). Females had more annual fall accidents than males (p<0.001). The major reason for fall accidents was slippery floors (33.7% in 2011 and 36.3% in 2013). Between 2008 and 2010, variables associated with higher fall accident risk included specific months (August and September), old age, female gender, current drinker, current smoker, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and depression. A high level of education and living with a partner were negatively associated with fall accident risk. In 2013, people experiencing more than 1 fall accident felt more fear of falling than those having no fall accidents (odds ratio [OR] for 1 fall, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–2.12; OR for more than 2 falls, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.83–3.10). Conclusion The occurrence of fall accidents has consistently increased in Korea from 2008 to 2013. Future intervention studies are needed to reduce the increasing incidence rates of fall accidents in community dwelling adults.

  18. Anomalous dominance in Down syndrome young adults.

    PubMed

    Giencke, S; Lewandowski, L

    1989-03-01

    The ear advantages of groups of Down Syndrome and developmentally retarded (NonDown) young adults, and normal youngsters matched for mental age were compared on dichotic listening performance. The paradigm employed strings of single, double, and triple digits presented to each ear under both free and cued recall conditions. The developmentally retarded and normal groups demonstrated the typical right ear advantage (REA), whereas the Down Syndrome group produced a significant left ear advantage (LEA) in four of the six experimental conditions. In addition, for the cued as compared to free recall conditions, all three groups demonstrated relatively better right ear performance. These results indicate anomalous dominance in Down Syndrome young adults which is consistent across varying memory load and attentional demands. Furthermore, these results are not likely due to a maturational lag phenomenon, but more likely related to genetic, biologic, and neurologic, factors as suggested by Geschwind and Galaburda (1985). PMID:2523281

  19. Sub-Syllabic Processing in Young Korean-English Bilinguals: Semivowel Placement Differences between Korean and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Seunghyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the sub-syllabic awareness of two groups of 86 Korean kindergarteners learning English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). In addition, it explored the cross-language transfer of sub-syllabic units between Korean and English by taking into account their lexical abilities with respect to the…

  20. Informal Mentoring and Young Adult Employment

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the role of informal mentoring (i.e., developing an important relationship with a non-parental adult) in the transition to full time employment among young adults (age 23-28). Multivariate analysis of the Add Health data reveals that mentoring is positively related to the likelihood of full time employment, and the relationship involves both selection and causation processes. Entrance into the world of work facilitates the development of mentoring relationships, especially among youth who identify work-related mentors after adolescence. These relationships have the potential for promoting attachment to the labor force. Mentoring relationships that develop outside of work settings and during adolescence have a positive impact on the odds of full time employment. The receipt of guidance and advice from mentors, as well as access to weak-tied mentoring relationships, teacher mentors, and friend mentors all contribute to the increased odds of employment in young adulthood. However, adolescent mentoring may be less effective among young women than it is among young men. PMID:19050736

  1. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed. PMID:22845631

  2. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  3. The Change of South Korean Adult Education in Globalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sung-Jung

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of adult education in South Korea from postwar modernization to the current globalized environment. Notes that adult higher education is increasingly formalized and institutionalized, with expanded credentialism, inequality, and government intervention and a weakening connection between adult education and social…

  4. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  5. New reference data on bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged 50 years or older: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Shik; Bae, Su-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Lee, Jungun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ≥20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ≥50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ≥50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population.

  6. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20 years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  7. Chronic cough in Korean adults: a literature review on common comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Gun-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cough is a significant medical condition with high prevalence and a strong negative impact on the quality of life. Cough hypersensitivity is thought to underlie chronic cough, with several environmental and host factors interacting to cause neuronal sensitization and chronicity. Comorbid conditions affecting cough reflex pathways, such as upper airway diseases, asthma, and gastroesophageal reflux, play important roles in chronic cough. However, their prevalence may vary in patients living in different geographical regions or with different ethnicities. We conducted a literature review to examine common comorbidities in Korean adult patients with chronic cough, their clinical implications, and the issues that still need to be addressed in the development of clinical evidence of chronic cough in Korean adult patients. PMID:27803879

  8. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  9. Demographic Demise: The Declining Young Adult Population in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Young adult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, young adults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…

  10. Young American Immigrant Children's Interpretations of Popular Culture: A Case Study of Korean Girls' Perspectives on Royalty in Disney Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    This article explores how young Korean immigrant girls (age five to eight) living in the United States interpreted American popular culture by discussing their interpretations of Disney animated films. In particular, it scrutinizes these girls' understanding of the idea of monarchy--in this case, the process of and the qualification for a…

  11. Reading Newspapers: The Practices of America's Young Adults. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; And Others

    Using the data base provided by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) through its literacy assessment of young adults, researchers probed the newspaper reading practices of 21-25 year olds. The 1985 survey used home interviews of 3,600 young adults in the 48 contiguous states, representative of the 21 million adults in this age…

  12. Young Adult Reactions to Death in Literature and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMinco, Sandrea

    1995-01-01

    Seeks to understand young adult reactions to death by looking at their literature. Examines typical behaviors, such as resistance to authority, withdrawal, and hiding feelings, as represented in young adult fiction and nonfiction. Suggests healing responses and argues that adults can use books to make bereavement a therapeutic exercise. (RJM)

  13. Young Adult Patent Ductus Arteriosus Treated with Endovascular Stent Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pin-Hung; Kang, Pei-Leun; Lin, Yu-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular stent-grafting is an alternative treatment for adult patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), especially in elderly patients. Regarding young adults, endovascular therapy is a reasonable choice if the landing zone is sufficient. In this study, we report on a young adult with PDA successfully treated with endovascular stent-grafting.

  14. Secondary Level Re-Entry of Young Canadian Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Cassandra; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper illuminates and details some of the traits, pressures and semi-autonomy of the young adult between the ages of 18 and 24 who must confront the barriers and challenges upon returning to secondary school within the high school and the adult education centre context. Focusing on these young adults is fundamentally important to begin to…

  15. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  16. Sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Morales, Mercedes; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2007-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed.

  17. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tapscott, Brian E.; Schepis, Ty S.

    2016-01-01

    Nonmedical use of prescription medications (NUPM) is an area of increasing public health concern, particularly in young adults. Young adults aged 18 to 25 have the highest annual and monthly rates of NUPM of any age group in the US, with notable consequences from using opioid, stimulant, tranquilizer and sedative medication. This article will review the literature on young adult NUPM, focusing first on the characteristics of those young adults engaged in NUPM. Then, we will examine the most common motives for NUPM, the sources young adults use to engage in nonmedical use and the related process of medication diversion. Finally, we will outline treatment and make specific recommendations of ways clinicians can help prevent the spread of NUPM in young adults, completing the work by covering future directions for research. PMID:24654550

  18. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  19. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Identify Common Smoking Situations Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Shin, Hee-Sung; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    The present study provides detailed contextual information about smoking habits among young Korean American smokers with the goal of characterizing situations where they are most at risk for smoking. Relevant situational factors included location, social context, concurrent activities, time of day, affective states, and food and beverage consumption. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over 7 days, participants (N = 78) were instructed to respond to smoking prompts (n = 2614) and non-smoking prompts (n = 2136) randomly scheduled throughout the day. At each prompt, participants completed a short survey about immediate contextual factors. We used multilevel models to evaluate the association between contextual factors and smoking and further explored the distribution of smoking locations and concurrent activities across each social context and reason for smoking. Compared to non-smoking events, smoking events were associated with being outside, the presence of Korean friends, socializing, consuming alcohol, and experiencing more stress relative to one's average stress level (all ps < .01). Further analyses involving only smoking events showed that when participants smoked alone, they were most commonly at home (50 %) and most often studying/working (28 %). When smoking with Korean friends, participants were most often outside (38 %) and socializing (54 %). When smoking to reduce craving, participants were most often at home (39 %) and studying/working (25 %). To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide detailed descriptions of real-time smoking contexts among young Korean American smokers. Information with this level of granularity is needed to develop effective just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) for smoking cessation. PMID:27476588

  20. Modernizing the Study of History Using Young Adult Literature (Young Adult Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaywell, Joan F.; Oropallo, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Presents brief annotations of 61 books of young adult historical fiction and nonfiction that address other time periods (biblical time period, the 1700s, the 1800s, the 20th century, political unrest overseas, and chronicles) that could be used in the classroom as part of a unit of study. Describes possible activities using five of the books. (SR)

  1. Merchandising Library Materials to Young Adults. Libraries Unlimited Professional Guides for Young Adult Librarians Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Mary Anne

    By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…

  2. Arsenic exposure and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Woo, Jeong-taek; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population.

  3. Arsenic exposure and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Woo, Jeong-taek; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-06-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

  4. Arsenic Exposure and Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Sang Youl; Hwang, You-Cheol; Chin, Sang Ouk; Chon, Suk; Kim, Young Seol

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between environmental, low-level arsenic exposure and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM), but little research has been conducted. Here, the glucose tolerance status and urinary creatinine adjusted total arsenic concentrations were analyzed in 3,602 subjects ≥ 20 yr of age who were registered for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2009. Various demographic parameters were associated with urinary arsenic concentrations. After adjusting for these variables, urinary arsenic concentrations in subjects with DM were significantly higher than those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with impaired fasting glucose (P < 0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile ( < 70.7 µg/g creatinine), the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for DM were 1.11 (0.73-1.68), 1.42 (0.94-2.13), and 1.56 (1.03-2.36) for urinary arsenic concentrations of 70.7 to < 117.7, 117.7 to < 193.4, and ≥ 193.4 µg/g creatinine, respectively, following multivariate adjustment. Furthermore, the urinary total arsenic concentration was inversely associated with the insulin secretion index, HOMA2 %B (β = -0.033, P = 0.032). These findings suggest that arsenic exposure, possibly involving beta cell dysfunction, is associated with an increased risk of DM in the Korean population. PMID:23772150

  5. Nursing assistants' communication styles in Korean American older adults with dementia: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haesook; Woods, Dianna Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Ruiz, Maria Elena; Salem, Benissa; Jeffers-Skrine, Kia; Salem, Nancy

    2015-03-01

    As ethnic diversity increases in the United States with the anticipated increase in dementia, it is critical to understand the implications of dementia and culturally appropriate communication for ethnic minority older adults with dementia. Utilizing the Ethno-Cultural Gerontological Nursing model and the Progressively Lowered Stress Threshold model, this article describes the relationship between nursing assistants' communication style and behavioral symptoms of dementia, focused on Korean American older adults with dementia residing in nursing homes. The discussion includes reviewing currently available studies, nursing implications, and suggestions for future studies.

  6. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  7. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  8. Olfactory Dysfunction Is Associated with the Intake of Macronutrients in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Olfactory function can impact food selection. However, few large population-based studies have investigated this effect across different age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the association between subjective olfactory dysfunction (anosmia or hyposmia) and macronutrient intake. Methods A total of 24,990 participants aged 20 to 98 years were evaluated based on data collected through the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 through 2012. Olfactory dysfunction was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire, and the nutritional status was assessed through a validated 24-hour recall method. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses with complex sampling were performed to evaluate the relationships between olfactory dysfunction and protein intake (daily protein intake/recommended protein intake [%]), carbohydrate intake (daily carbohydrate intake/total calories [%]), and fat intake (daily fat intake/total calories [%]) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, income, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and stress level. Results Olfactory dysfunction was reported by 5.4% of Korean adults and was found to be associated with decreased fat consumption (estimated value [EV] of fat intake [%] = -0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.13 to -0.13, P = 0.045). A subgroup analysis according to age and sex revealed that among young females, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat consumption (EV = -2.30, 95% CI = -4.16 to -0.43, P = 0.016) and increased carbohydrate intake (EV = 2.80, 95% CI = 0.55 to 5.05, P = 0.015), and that among middle-aged females, olfactory dysfunction was also associated with reduced fat intake (EV = -1.26, 95% CI = -2.37 to -0.16, P = 0.025). In contrast, among young males, olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced protein intake (EV = -26.41 95% CI = -45.14 to -7.69, P = 0.006). Conclusion Olfactory dysfunction was associated with reduced fat intake. Moreover

  9. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  10. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-07-21

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms.

  11. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  12. Emotion Regulation and Impulsivity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within young adults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 young adults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behaviors (such as alcohol and substance use and gambling) and cognitive impulsivity. We hypothesized that those with high levels of emotion dysregulation would score higher on self-reported and cognitive impulsivity, and report more impulsive behaviors. Analysis indicated that compared to low, the high emotion dysregulation group scored significantly higher on two self-report measures of impulsivity, harm avoidance, and cognitive reasoning. No significant differences were found between groups in impulsive behaviors and cognitive impulsivity. Overall, this study highlights the relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, suggesting that emotion regulation may be an important factor to consider when assessing individuals at a higher risk for developing an addiction. PMID:22385661

  13. Spousal support in diabetes self-management among Korean immigrant older adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Lee, Jennifer J; Park, Jenny J; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The authors of the current article investigated domains of spousal support among diabetic Korean older adults and their spouses. Two focus groups were conducted with diabetic participants from the greater Los Angeles Korean community, and three were conducted with their spouses. In the focus groups, participants were asked to describe the spousal support given or received for diabetes self-management. Each group comprised four to nine participants. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and translated; two independent coders identified domains of spousal support. Content analysis identified six domains: diet, exercise, emotional support, medical regimen, communication with clinicians, and information. Diet was the most frequently described domain across all groups. Gender differences were noted in domains of information, communication, and medical regimen among diabetic participants. Both diabetic and spouse participants identified individualizing spousal support and recognizing diabetes management as teamwork as important elements of successful spousal support. Spousal support education for Korean older adults may have the greatest impact by incorporating these six domains, addressing gender differences, providing tips on individualizing support, and cultivating teamwork. PMID:25420183

  14. Genome-wide association study of the five-factor model of personality in young Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Roh, Seung-Ju; Sung, Yeon Ah; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Jong-Young; Cho, Juhee; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2013-10-01

    Personality is a determinant of behavior and lifestyle associated with health and human diseases. Although personality is known to be a heritable trait, its polygenic nature has made the identification of genetic variants elusive. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1089 Korean women aged 18-40 years whose personality traits were measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory for the five-factor model of personality. To reduce environmental factors that may influence personality traits, this study was restricted to young adult women. In the discovery phase, we identified variants of PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D) that associated this gene with the Openness domain. Other genes that were previously reported to be associated with neurological phenotypes were also associated with personality traits. In particular, DRD1 and OR1A2 were linked to Neuroticism, NKAIN2 with Extraversion, HTR5A with Openness and DRD3 with Agreeableness. Data from our replication study of 2090 subjects confirmed the association between OR1A2 and Neuroticism. We first identified and confirmed a novel region on OR1A2 associated with Neuroticism [corrected]. Candidate genes for psychiatric disorders were also enriched. These findings contribute to our understanding of the genetic architecture of personality traits and provide critical clues to the neurobiological mechanisms that influence them.

  15. Associations between Lifestyle Factors and Iron Overload in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that iron overload, which indicates the accumulation of iron, generates cellular reactive oxygens and causes peroxide damages to the body. Such oxidative stresses, in a broader context, are also caused by lifestyles such as alcohol consumption and smoking. However, there are limited data on the association between these lifestyle factors and internal iron overload. In present study, we evaluated associations between lifestyle factors, such as smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity, and serum markers of iron overload. In a population-based cross-sectional study including 2,347 Korean men and women aged 49–79 years, we assessed serum transferrin saturation (TSAT) levels and defined iron overload as TSAT levels > 50% for men and > 45% for women. After excluding persons with chronic diseases and iron deficiency, multivariate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated to evaluate associations between lifestyle factors and iron overload in 1,973 participants. In all participants, we examined a significantly positive association between heavy alcohol consumption (> 30 g/day) and iron overload; heavy drinkers showed 1.6-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.11–2.36) than non-drinkers. Stratified analysis by sex showed that this association was significant only among men. In addition, we observed a potential association between heavy smoking > 10 cigarettes/day and iron overload (p = 0.07). In stratified analysis by sex, we examined a significant association between smoking and iron overload only among women; former or current smokers had 1.9-fold higher OR (95% CI, 1.01–3.63) than never-smoker. Our findings suggest that heavy alcohol consumption and smoking may worsen iron accumulation in the body. PMID:27812516

  16. Top 10 Dietary Supplements of Korean Adults from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence, types, and trends of dietary supplement (DS) use. We analyzed the Dietary Supplement Questionnaire data of Korean aged 19 years old or older from the Nutrition Survey of the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. Each reported DS was coded based on ingredients according to the 2010 Korean Food and Drug Administration Notification. The prevalence (standard error) of current DS use was 20.6% (0.7) for men, 32.2% (0.7) for women. Those with DS use for longer than two weeks during previous one year were 27.2% (0.7), and 40.2% (0.8), for men and women respectively. Vitamin mineral supplement (221.6/103 persons) was the most frequently consumed DS in Korean adults. The trend for DS use in Korean adults is changing as well as increasing. PMID:22745863

  17. Anaphylaxis in the young adult population.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi S

    2014-01-01

    It is critical that clinicians treating young adults understand the presentation and management of anaphylaxis. The most common trigger for anaphylaxis in this population is food. The prevalence of food allergy is growing, with 8% of US children and adolescents affected. All patients at risk for anaphylaxis should be prescribed epinephrine autoinjectors, as epinephrine is the only life-saving medication for a severe anaphylactic reaction. The presentation of anaphylaxis can involve multiple organ systems (eg, mucocutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal) and, as such, patient education is needed to assist in prompt recognition. Appropriate training of patients and caregivers about how to identify anaphylaxis and what to do in an emergency is critical. Training of school and college staff also is essential, as 1 in 4 first-time reactions occurs outside the home. Additional counseling for adolescents at risk for anaphylactic reactions should address increased risk-taking behavior, decreased adult supervision, dating, and the transition of disease management from an adult to the patient.

  18. Estimation of dietary flavonoid intake and major food sources of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Jun, Shinyoung; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2016-02-14

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that flavonoids exhibit preventive effects on degenerative diseases. However, lack of sufficient data on flavonoid intake has limited evaluating the proposed effects in populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the total and individual flavonoid intakes among Korean adults and determine the major dietary sources of these flavonoids. We constructed a flavonoid database of common Korean foods, based on the food list reported in the 24-h recall of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2012, using data from the Korea Functional Food Composition Table, US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database, Phenol-Explorer database and other analytical studies. This database, which covers 49 % of food items and 76 % of food intake, was linked with the 24-h recall data of 33 581 subjects aged ≥19 years in the KNHANES 2007-2012. The mean daily intake of total flavonoids in Korean adults was 318·0 mg/d, from proanthocyanidins (22·3%), flavonols (20·3%), isoflavones (18·1%), flavan-3-ols (16·2%), anthocyanidins (11·6%), flavanones (11·3%) and flavones (0·3%). The major contributing food groups to the flavonoid intake were fruits (54·4%), vegetables (20·5%), legumes and legume products (16·2%) and beverages and alcohols (3·1%), and the major contributing food items were apples (21·9%), mandarins (12·5%), tofu (11·5%), onions (9·6%) and grapes (9·0%). In the regression analysis, the consumption of legumes and legume products, vegetables and fruits predicted total flavonoid intake the most. The findings of this study could facilitate further investigation on the health benefits of flavonoids and provide the basic information for establishing recommended flavonoid intakes for Koreans.

  19. Association between dental pain and depression in Korean adults using the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, S E; Park, Y G; Han, K; Min, J A; Kim, S Y

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between the prevalence of depression and dental pain using a well characterised, nationally representative, population-based study. This study analysed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 4886). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Depression was defined as the participant having been diagnosed as depression during the previous year. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for a range of covariates. Results demonstrated that participants included in 'root canal treatment is necessary' showed higher prevalence of self-reported dental pain; in particular, participants with depression presented more dental pain than those without depression. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-reported dental pain increased in participants with depression. The AOR (95% CI) for having self-reported dental pain was 1·58 (1·08-2·33) in dentists' diagnosis of no dental pain/depression group, 1·62 (1·32-1·98) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/no depression group and 2·84 (1·10-7·37) in dentists' diagnosis of dental pain/depression group. It was concluded that depression was associated with dental pain after adjustment for potential confounders in Korean adults. Thus, dentists should consider the possible presence of psychopathology when treating patients with dental pain. PMID:26337763

  20. Excess Medical Care Costs Associated with Physical Inactivity among Korean Adults: Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and premature death. The increased health risks associated with physical inactivity may also generate a heavier economic burden to society. We estimated the direct medical costs attributable to physical inactivity among adults using data from the 2002-2010 Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 68,556 adults whose reported physical activity status did not change during the study period was included for this study. Propensity scores for inactive adults were used to match 23,645 inactive groups with 23,645 active groups who had similar propensity scores. We compared medical expenditures between the two groups using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and a log link. Direct medical costs were based on the reimbursement records of all medical facilities from 2005 to 2010. The average total medical costs for inactive individuals were $1110.5, which was estimated to be 11.7% higher than the costs for physically active individuals. With respect to specific diseases, the medical costs of inactive people were significantly higher than those of active people, accounting for approximately 8.7% to 25.3% of the excess burden. Physical inactivity is associated with considerable medical care expenditures per capita among Korean adults. PMID:26797622

  1. Sub-syllabic processing in young Korean-English bilinguals: semivowel placement differences between Korean and English.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seunghyun

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the sub-syllabic awareness of two groups of 86 Korean kindergarteners learning English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). In addition, it explored the cross-language transfer of sub-syllabic units between Korean and English by taking into account their lexical abilities with respect to the two languages. The participants were assessed in Korean and English based on their sound oddity and similarity judgments with respect to sub-syllabic units in spoken pseudo-syllables containing semivowels (e.g., /j/ and /w/) as well as on a lexical ability test. The results indicate that EFL and ESL children preferred body structure and rime structure, respectively, regardless of the language. These results provide support for the bilingual interactive activation model; that is, bilingual lexicon may be represented in language non-selective access. Further, the differences in semivowel placement between Korean and English may be a possible resource for language-specific sub-syllabic awareness. PMID:23999940

  2. Sub-syllabic processing in young Korean-English bilinguals: semivowel placement differences between Korean and English.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seunghyun

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the sub-syllabic awareness of two groups of 86 Korean kindergarteners learning English as a foreign language (EFL) or English as a second language (ESL). In addition, it explored the cross-language transfer of sub-syllabic units between Korean and English by taking into account their lexical abilities with respect to the two languages. The participants were assessed in Korean and English based on their sound oddity and similarity judgments with respect to sub-syllabic units in spoken pseudo-syllables containing semivowels (e.g., /j/ and /w/) as well as on a lexical ability test. The results indicate that EFL and ESL children preferred body structure and rime structure, respectively, regardless of the language. These results provide support for the bilingual interactive activation model; that is, bilingual lexicon may be represented in language non-selective access. Further, the differences in semivowel placement between Korean and English may be a possible resource for language-specific sub-syllabic awareness.

  3. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

  4. Development of the two Korean adult tomographic computational phantoms for organ dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jai-Ki

    2006-02-15

    Following the previously developed Korean tomographic phantom, KORMAN, two additional whole-body tomographic phantoms of Korean adult males were developed from magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, respectively. Two healthy male volunteers, whose body dimensions were fairly representative of the average Korean adult male, were recruited and scanned for phantom development. Contiguous whole body MR images were obtained from one subject exclusive of the arms, while whole-body CT images were acquired from the second individual. A total of 29 organs and tissues and 19 skeletal sites were segmented via image manipulation techniques such as gray-level thresholding, region growing, and manual drawing, in which each of segmented image slice was subsequently reviewed by an experienced radiologist for anatomical accuracy. The resulting phantoms, the MR-based KTMAN-1 (Korean Typical MAN-1) and the CT-based KTMAN-2 (Korean Typical MAN-2), consist of 300x150x344 voxels with a voxel resolution of 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} for both phantoms. Masses of segmented organs and tissues were calculated as the product of a nominal reference density, the prevoxel volume, and the cumulative number of voxels defining each organs or tissue. These organs masses were then compared with those of both the Asian and the ICRP reference adult male. Organ masses within both KTMAN-1 and KTMAN-2 showed differences within 40% of Asian and ICRP reference values, with the exception of the skin, gall bladder, and pancreas which displayed larger differences. The resulting three-dimensional binary file was ported to the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2.4 to calculate organ doses following external irradiation for illustrative purposes. Colon, lung, liver, and stomach absorbed doses, as well as the effective dose, for idealized photon irradiation geometries (anterior-posterior and right lateral) were determined, and then compared with data from two other tomographic phantoms (Asian and Caucasian), and

  5. Lymphoma in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brugières, Laurence; Brice, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Lymphomas are one of the commonest malignancies in adolescents and young adults (AYA) accounting respectively for 22% of all cancers in patients aged 15-24 years (16% for Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 6% for non-HL (NHL)). The distribution of NHL subtypes in this age group differs strikingly from the distribution in children and in older adults with 4 main subtypes accounting for the majority of the cases: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastic lymphoma or anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Age-related differences in tumor biology have been demonstrated mainly in DLBCL but there is still a need for biological studies to better understand age-related differences in this age group. AYA patients currently diagnosed with HL and NHL have 5-year survival expectations exceeding 90 and 75%, respectively. Different therapeutic strategies are often used in children and adult lymphoma and the dispersion of lymphoma care between adult and pediatric hematologist-oncologists results in heterogeneous strategies for each subgroup according to age. The impact of these different strategies on outcomes is not easy to evaluate given the paucity of population-based data focused on this age group, taking into account tumor biology and the lack of a uniform staging system. Given the excellent results obtained with current therapies, the challenge now is to develop strategies aimed at reducing acute and long-term toxicity in most patients while maintaining high cure rates and to identify patients at high risk of failure requiring new strategies including more selective targeted therapies. PMID:27595360

  6. Family therapy with single, young adults.

    PubMed

    Haber, J

    1981-01-01

    Family therapy with the single, young adult can be successfully carried out using the Bowen family systems theory when the process is staged over time. The therapist who has gone back into his or her own family of origin can be of greatest help as a "coach" to the client in this ongoing process. The therapist assists the client in a process of orderly differentiation that enables the client to develop a more solid sense of self. Reactive distance and emotional cut-offs are modified as solutions to anxiety. More personal, flexible family, peer, and work relationships are promoted. The client's initial presenting problems diminish as he/she comes to terms with his/her ultimate aloneness and self-responsibility, and begins to accept family members as they are and relationships with them for what they can be. PMID:6917974

  7. Family therapy with single, young adults.

    PubMed

    Haber, J

    1981-01-01

    Family therapy with the single, young adult can be successfully carried out using the Bowen family systems theory when the process is staged over time. The therapist who has gone back into his or her own family of origin can be of greatest help as a "coach" to the client in this ongoing process. The therapist assists the client in a process of orderly differentiation that enables the client to develop a more solid sense of self. Reactive distance and emotional cut-offs are modified as solutions to anxiety. More personal, flexible family, peer, and work relationships are promoted. The client's initial presenting problems diminish as he/she comes to terms with his/her ultimate aloneness and self-responsibility, and begins to accept family members as they are and relationships with them for what they can be.

  8. Trust and trustworthiness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Slessor, Gillian; Rieger, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Ruffman, Ted

    2015-12-01

    In a series of 1-shot economic trust games in which participants could make real monetary profits, but also risked losing money, 2 studies compared young and older adults' trust (amount invested with trustees) and trustworthiness (amount returned to investors by trustees). In Study 1, young (n = 35) and older (n = 32) participants acted as investors, and the age of simulated trustees (young, older) was manipulated. In Study 2, young (n = 61) and older (n = 67) participants acted in real life as both investors and trustees. They completed 2 face-to-face trust games with same- and other-age partners, and 3 anonymous trust games with same-, other-, and unknown-age partners. Study 1 found that young and older participants rate older trustees as appearing more trustworthy than young trustees, but neither group invest more with older than young trustees. Rather, older participants were more likely than young participants to invest money averaged across trustee age. In Study 2, there were no age-related differences in trust, but older adults were more trustworthy than young adults in anonymous games with same- and unknown-age partners. It was also found that young adults demonstrate greater reputational concerns than older adults by reciprocating more trust when face-to-face than anonymous. We discuss the complex influences of age on trust game investing and reciprocation, as well as the implications for older adults' wellbeing and financial security.

  9. Young adult stroke: neuropsychological dysfunction and recovery.

    PubMed

    Ferro, J M; Crespo, M

    1988-08-01

    Etiology, neuropsychological deficits, aphasia type, and recovery were retrospectively studied in 254 young adults with stroke. Cardiac embolism was the most common cause of stroke in patients younger than 40, while atherosclerosis was the most frequent etiology among those aged 41-50 years. In 166 aphasic patients, Broca's aphasia was the most common while Wernicke's and transcortical aphasias were rare. Compared with an older aphasic population, young patients had significantly more nonfluent aphasias and fewer comprehension deficits. These differences were related to stroke localization: the majority of infarcts localized by computed tomography in 37 patients involved either the entire middle cerebral artery territory or its superior or deep branches, explaining the preponderance of nonfluent aphasia. Prognosis of aphasia in our patients was better than has been reported for non-age-selected aphasia populations. Roughly one third of our patients recovered completely, one third improved, and one third had an unresolved language deficit. Complete recovery and significant improvement were observed even greater than 6 months after stroke. In some patients, recovery was much better than might have been predicted from lesion site and size depicted on computed tomograms. PMID:2456633

  10. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  11. Reading Interests of Young Adults in Medina County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fronius, Sandra K.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reading interests of the young adult participants in the summer reading program at Medina County District Library (Ohio). Findings were compared to research done in other locations and to current bibliographies of recommended reading for young adults. The study looked at a systematic sample of reader…

  12. Transitions and Loss: Illuminating Parameters of Young Adults' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowling, Louise; Weber, Zita; Scanlon, Lesley

    2005-01-01

    Different disciplinary groups are increasingly questioning current conceptualisations of young adults' educational, social and personal lives after compulsory schooling. New perspectives are being advanced on the life trajectories of choice and complexity now experienced by school leavers. A consistent theme is the changed nature of young adults'…

  13. Excellence in Library Services to Young Adults. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chelton, Mary K., Ed.

    For every librarian who seeks to better serve the new and unique young adult market, this completely revised edition presents 30 library programs as examples of this service. By studying the examples set by award-winning initiatives around the country, librarians should be able to answer these questions for their young adult programs: What is the…

  14. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  15. Family Relationships in Realistic Young Adult Fiction, 1987 to 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Cathie

    The purpose of this study was to determine how parents and family relationships are characterized in realistic young adult fiction. A random sample of 20 realistic young adult novels was selected from the American Library Association's Best Lists for the years 1987-1991. A content analysis of the novels focused on the following: (1) whether…

  16. Serving Adolescents' Reading Interests through Young Adult Literature. Fastback 258.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are Young Adult Books Literature?";…

  17. List Memory in Young Adults with Language Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T.; McGregor, Karla K.; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Method: Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list…

  18. Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis in an immunocompromised young adult.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jessie; Kent, Paul; Lennon, Joshua M; Logan, Latania K

    2015-01-01

    Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis is an acute onset disease characterised by ulceration, necrosis, pain and bleeding in gingival surfaces. It is predominantly seen in severely malnourished children and young adults with advanced HIV infection. We present a unique presentation in a young adult with high-grade osteogenic sarcoma.

  19. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  20. Economic Socialization, Saving and Assets in European Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…

  1. Identifying Correlates of Young Adults' Weight Behavior: Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…

  2. Social Cognitive Correlates of Young Adult Sport Competitors' Sunscreen Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Nadine C.; O'Riordan, David L.; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis…

  3. Language Use in Multiethnic Literature For Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christianson, Darcy

    This study analyzed ethnic authenticity with regard to language use in 16 books for children and young adults used in Central Michigan University's English 582 course, "Cultural Pluralism in Children and Young Adult Literature." Four ethnic groups were included: Native American, African American, Asian American, and Hispanic American. To evaluate…

  4. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic…

  5. Young Adult Literature in the Malaysian Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…

  6. Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

  7. Deficits in Working Memory in Young Adults with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which reading disabilities (RD) in young adults are related to deficits in specific aspects of temporary storage of verbal information, namely, memory span and the central executive (CE) component of working memory. Thirty-two native Hebrew-speaking young adults with and without RD were…

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Among Young, Middle, and Older Women of Korean Descent in California

    PubMed Central

    Liles, Sandy; Usita, Paula; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Beeston, Tara; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among younger, middle-aged, and older Korean American women. Data were drawn from telephone interviews of a population-based, representative probability sample (N = 592) of female adults of Korean descent residing in California, with a completion rate of 70%. Data were grouped by age. In each group, psychological aggression was the most common type of IPV in the past year, followed by a moderate form of sexual coercion, while physical assault and injury were infrequent. Immigration stress was associated with psychological aggression in all three groups, and partner alcohol use was associated in none. Other predictors varied by group. Results suggest that psychological abuse is a serious issue, and that women’s life stage is an important consideration in IPV among Korean Americans. Findings, which sometimes diverged from those of prior studies of this population, merit further investigation. PMID:23645971

  9. The Band-Importance Function for the Korean Standard Sentence Lists for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jin, In-Ki; Lee, Kyoungwon; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Dongwook; Sohn, Junil; Lee, Kyung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The band-importance function (BIF) refers to a value characterizing the relative importance of different frequencies to speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to derive the BIF for the Korean standard sentence lists for adults (KS-SL-A). Subjects and Methods In this study, sentences from the KS-SL-A were used as the speech material. Twenty-six normal-hearing Korean listeners participated and intelligibility scores in 8 filters with 3 signal-to-noise ratio conditions were obtained. Based on the intelligibility score percentages, the BIF for the KS-SL-A was derived by using an established protocol. Results Band-importance weights varied across frequency bands. The most important frequency region was around 316 Hz (20.0%), and the importance of the frequency bands below the center frequency (CF) of 1,778 Hz was 59.6%. Therefore, low frequencies below the CF of 1,778 Hz were more important than high frequencies above the CF of 1,778 Hz. Conclusions The BIF for KS-SL-A could be applied towards developing a hearing aid fitting formulae for Korean listeners.

  10. Comparison of treated and untreated major depressive disorder in a nationwide sample of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Bae, Jae Nam; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Son, Jung-Woo; Kim, Shin Gyeom; Bae, Ahn; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2012-06-01

    We examined factors associated with lifetime treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. Of the 6,510 subjects aged 18-64 years who participated in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 362 (5.6%) with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD were analyzed. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered by lay interviewers. Of the 362 respondents with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD, 117 (32.3%) had been treated for psychiatric problems. Treated individuals with MDD were more likely to have chronic episode(s), more symptoms of depression, insomnia, and suicidal ideation, and were less likely to have feelings of guilt. In addition, treated individuals were more likely to have comorbid anxiety disorders, especially obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Treatment-seeking by individuals with MDD is affected by socio-cultural factors such as misconception and stigma of mental illness, as well as severity of depression and comorbid conditions.

  11. The Band-Importance Function for the Korean Standard Sentence Lists for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jin, In-Ki; Lee, Kyoungwon; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Dongwook; Sohn, Junil; Lee, Kyung-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The band-importance function (BIF) refers to a value characterizing the relative importance of different frequencies to speech intelligibility. The purpose of this study was to derive the BIF for the Korean standard sentence lists for adults (KS-SL-A). Subjects and Methods In this study, sentences from the KS-SL-A were used as the speech material. Twenty-six normal-hearing Korean listeners participated and intelligibility scores in 8 filters with 3 signal-to-noise ratio conditions were obtained. Based on the intelligibility score percentages, the BIF for the KS-SL-A was derived by using an established protocol. Results Band-importance weights varied across frequency bands. The most important frequency region was around 316 Hz (20.0%), and the importance of the frequency bands below the center frequency (CF) of 1,778 Hz was 59.6%. Therefore, low frequencies below the CF of 1,778 Hz were more important than high frequencies above the CF of 1,778 Hz. Conclusions The BIF for KS-SL-A could be applied towards developing a hearing aid fitting formulae for Korean listeners. PMID:27626080

  12. The Association Between Urinary Benzophenone Concentrations and Personal Care Product Use in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ahra; Kang, Hui-Seung; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Moon, Gui Im; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Benzophenone (BP) derivatives are widely used in personal care products (PCPs) for protection from ultraviolet radiation. Because of their broad applications, BP derivatives have been found in various human bodily fluids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives and PCP use in Korean adults. A urinary BP biomonitoring survey was conducted in Korea by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2014. BP derivatives (BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP) were measured in urine samples from 168 Korean adults (mean age, 43.2 ± 15.4 years) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Information about the use of PCPs in the past 7 days was obtained by direct interviews. The mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were 0.87, 5.87, and 0.13 ng/g creatinine, respectively. The geometric mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were significantly higher in female than those in male. The medians of the urinary concentration of BP derivatives were significantly higher among users of the following PCPs than those in non-users; the PCPs included sunscreen, skin care products, functional cosmetics, makeup base, makeup, lip cosmetics, eye cosmetics, color cosmetics, perfume products, and nail products. A regression analysis revealed a significant linear association between urinary BP-3 concentrations and the number of additional cosmetic products used. These findings provide evidence of a positive association between exposure to PCPs and urinary BP derivative concentrations in Korean adults.

  13. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongwon; Kim, Hong Geum; Song, Daeheon; Yoon, Jung Yoon; Chung, Myung Eun

    2016-09-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  14. Ultrasound Dimensions of the Rotator Cuff and Other Associated Structures in Korean Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating patients complaining of shoulder pain, ultrasonography is an emerging imaging tool due to convenience, low cost, high sensitivity and specificity. However, normative values of ultrasound dimensions of the shoulder to be compared with pathologic findings in Korean adults are not provided yet. We evaluated the ultrasound dimensions of the rotator cuff, long head of biceps tendon, deltoid muscle and acromioclavicular joint in Korean healthy adults. Shoulder ultrasonography was performed on 200 shoulders from 100 healthy adults. The dimensions of the thickness of rotator cuff (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis tendon), deltoid muscle, long head of biceps tendon, subacromial subdeltoid bursa, and acromioclavicular joint interval were measured in a standardized manner. Differences in measurements among sex, age, and dominant arms were compared. The thickness of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis) and deltoid muscle were significantly different between men and women. The thickness of subacromial subdeltoid bursa was significantly different between men and women for non-dominant side. In rotator cuff tendon measurements, the differences between dominant and non-dominant shoulders were not significant, which means the asymptomatic contralateral shoulder can be used to estimate the normal reference values. When stratified by age divided by 10 years, the measurements of supraspinatus, subscapularis and deltoid thickness showed tendency of increase with the age. The acromioclavicular joint interval, on the other hand, revealed decreasing tendency. This report suggests normative values of ultrasound dimensions of healthy Korean population with varying age, and can be useful as reference values in evaluating shoulder pathology, especially in rotator cuff tendon pathology. PMID:27510393

  15. The Association Between Urinary Benzophenone Concentrations and Personal Care Product Use in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ahra; Kang, Hui-Seung; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Ji-Eun; Moon, Gui Im; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Hwang, In Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Benzophenone (BP) derivatives are widely used in personal care products (PCPs) for protection from ultraviolet radiation. Because of their broad applications, BP derivatives have been found in various human bodily fluids. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between urinary concentrations of BP derivatives and PCP use in Korean adults. A urinary BP biomonitoring survey was conducted in Korea by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2014. BP derivatives (BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP) were measured in urine samples from 168 Korean adults (mean age, 43.2 ± 15.4 years) by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Information about the use of PCPs in the past 7 days was obtained by direct interviews. The mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were 0.87, 5.87, and 0.13 ng/g creatinine, respectively. The geometric mean levels of BP-1, BP-3, and 4-OH-BP were significantly higher in female than those in male. The medians of the urinary concentration of BP derivatives were significantly higher among users of the following PCPs than those in non-users; the PCPs included sunscreen, skin care products, functional cosmetics, makeup base, makeup, lip cosmetics, eye cosmetics, color cosmetics, perfume products, and nail products. A regression analysis revealed a significant linear association between urinary BP-3 concentrations and the number of additional cosmetic products used. These findings provide evidence of a positive association between exposure to PCPs and urinary BP derivative concentrations in Korean adults. PMID:26626599

  16. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  17. Functional literacy of Young Guyanese Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Zellyne

    2000-05-01

    Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.

  18. Using Young Adult Realistic Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers: Something New, Tried and True, and Recommended Nonfiction (Young Adult Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaywell, Joan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a seven-step process that uses young adult literature to help teenagers understand and deal with their troubles. Offers brief annotations of five young adult titles in each of nine areas: alienation and identity; divorce; dropouts, delinquency, and gangs; poverty; teenage pregnancy; abused children; alcohol and drugs; homosexuality; and…

  19. Ideal or Young-Looking Brow Height and Arch Shape Preferred by Koreans.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Hun; Hwang, Kun; Kim, Seong Kee; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow height and arch shape is preferred as ideal or young-looking by Koreans. A survey was conducted between June and Dec 2014 on 186 women who visited the brow bar ("Benefit" of Incheon city). They were asked to choose which they believed ideal and youngest amongst the 3 brow archetypes according to their height and 4 types of modification of Anastasia (rotation of medial and lateral arms), which was illustrated. Approximately half (52.5%) of the respondents answered that their brow matches them very well or well. Most (81.2%) believed there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype and almost all (97.3%) would change the brow shape if the expert advised. The most preferred ideal brow height was of a middle height (63.2%, the distance from the lateral canthus to the lateral end of eyebrow, which was 2/3 of the eye width). The most preferred ideal brow arch shape was the arched type (57.6% arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil). The most preferred young-looking brow height was of an upper height (46.2%, the distance from the lateral canthus to the lateral end of eyebrow was 3/4 of the eye width) followed by a middle height (39.7%). The most preferred young-looking brow arch shape was the head-up position (53.3%, medial arm of the brow was rotated upward to the horizontal plane). The result of this study might be useful in facial rejuvenation surgeries as well as in brow esthetics or tattooing of the eyebrows.

  20. Ideal or Young-Looking Brow Height and Arch Shape Preferred by Koreans.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Se Jin; Kim, Hun; Hwang, Kun; Kim, Seong Kee; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to see which brow height and arch shape is preferred as ideal or young-looking by Koreans. A survey was conducted between June and Dec 2014 on 186 women who visited the brow bar ("Benefit" of Incheon city). They were asked to choose which they believed ideal and youngest amongst the 3 brow archetypes according to their height and 4 types of modification of Anastasia (rotation of medial and lateral arms), which was illustrated. Approximately half (52.5%) of the respondents answered that their brow matches them very well or well. Most (81.2%) believed there might be a method to yield an ideal brow archetype and almost all (97.3%) would change the brow shape if the expert advised. The most preferred ideal brow height was of a middle height (63.2%, the distance from the lateral canthus to the lateral end of eyebrow, which was 2/3 of the eye width). The most preferred ideal brow arch shape was the arched type (57.6% arches on a line drawn from the center of the nose through the center of the pupil). The most preferred young-looking brow height was of an upper height (46.2%, the distance from the lateral canthus to the lateral end of eyebrow was 3/4 of the eye width) followed by a middle height (39.7%). The most preferred young-looking brow arch shape was the head-up position (53.3%, medial arm of the brow was rotated upward to the horizontal plane). The result of this study might be useful in facial rejuvenation surgeries as well as in brow esthetics or tattooing of the eyebrows. PMID:26167996

  1. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (≥19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],≥65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ≥65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ∼ 24% of Korean adults and ∼ 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults. PMID:24718421

  2. Acoustic characteristics of Korean stops in Korean child-directed speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjung; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2005-04-01

    A variety of cross-linguistic studies have documented that the acoustic properties of speech addressed to young children include exaggeration of pitch contours and acoustically salient features of phonetic units. It has been suggested that phonetic modifications of child-directed speech facilitate young children's speech perception by providing detailed phonetic information about the target word. While there are several studies reporting vowel modifications in speech to infants (i.e., hyper-articulated vowels), there has been relatively little research about consonant modifications in speech to young children (except for VOT). The present study examines acoustic properties of Korean stops in Korean mothers' speech to their children aged 29 to 38 months (N=6). Korean tense, lax, and aspirated stops are all voiceless in word-initial position, and are perceptually differentiated by several acoustic parameters including VOT, f0 of the following vowel, and the amplitude difference of the first and second harmonics at the voice onset of the following vowel. This study compares values of these parameters in Korean motherese to those in speech to adult Koreans from same speakers. Results focus on the acoustic properties of Korean stops in child-directed speech and how they are modified to help Korean young children learn the three-way phonetic contrast.

  3. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m2 and 23.3 kg/m2 for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults. PMID:26770039

  4. Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Status and Metabolic Risk Factors among Korean Adults with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Han Na; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Serum vitamin D status has been associated with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence for the increased risk of metabolic disorders in individuals with prediabetes and a low vitamin D status is limited and uncertain. Furthermore, it has not been confirmed whether this possible relationship occurs in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and metabolic risk factors in Korean adults with prediabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 subjects aged 20–65 years. Participants had fasting glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dl. A questionnaire was used to assess vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure and a dietary intake examined using 3-days dietary records. Clinical and biochemical data were also collected. The 2009 harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used. Serum vitamin D levels were classified according to criteria from the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. The majority of subjects (75%) had a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/ml, and among them, 31.1% were vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml). The proportion (42.9%) of subjects having low HDL-cholesterol was the highest among vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml) group (12 to < 20 ng/ml: 16.1%, ≥ 20 ng/ml: 6.7%). We observed an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and TG, AI (β = -6.355, SE = 2.463; β = -0.020, SE = 0.008) after adjusted confounders. Korean adults with prediabetes were more likely to have low serum 25(OH)D levels. A sufficient 25(OH)D level may have possible beneficial effects on lipid profiles. PMID:27783655

  5. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Chang Won; Kim, Byung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m(2) and 23.3 kg/m(2) for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults.

  6. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon.

  7. The health status of young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Park, M Jane; Paul Mulye, Tina; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E

    2006-09-01

    The health issues of young adulthood have received relatively little attention compared with those of adolescence, although the critical issues in young adulthood parallel those of adolescence. Young adults often fare worse than adolescents on health indicators, with many measures of negative outcomes--including rates of injury, homicide, and substance use--peaking during the young adult years. The contextual factors shaping health status and access to care in young adulthood differ significantly from the context of adolescence. This article synthesizes national data to present a health profile of young adults, reviewing social indicators that describe the context of young adulthood and presenting measures of health status. We examine mortality, morbidity, risky behaviors, and health care access and utilization, identifying the most significant gender and racial/ethnic disparities. The article also identifies limitations of existing data and offers suggestions for future research and health monitoring in this area. We conclude with a discussion of current efforts to address the health and well-being of young adults and argue for creating a national health agenda for young adults that includes research, programs and policies to address health issues during this period of the lifespan.

  8. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  9. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  10. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  11. The vitamin status of young British adults.

    PubMed

    Benton, D; Haller, J; Fordy, J

    1997-01-01

    Using biochemical indices thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxine, ascorbic acid, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, folic acid, cyanocobalanin, carotene and biotin status were assessed in a sample of 243 young British adults. Using conventional definitions the number of individuals whose vitamin status can be described as adequate, marginal or deficient was determined. Vitamin status was related to alcohol intake and smoking. The status of ascorbic acid, cyanocobalamin, alpha-tocopherol, folic acid and in males retinol, was adequate in the majority of cases. In the cases of riboflavin and pyridoxine the status of a substantial minority was either borderline or deficient. The thiamin and biotin status of a minority of both sexes, and retinol in the females, was marginal. In males alcohol was associated with better retinol, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and pyridoxine status and lower levels of biotin. Lower carotene values were associated with drinking alcohol. In both sexes those who smoked had lower ascorbic acid, folic acid and carotene values. In males smoking was additionally associated with lower riboflavin and biotin; in females cyanocobalamin and alpha-tocopherol were lower. As all the subjects were students volunteers, care should be taken in generalizing the data to other groups. PMID:9119611

  12. Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Seibel, Nita L.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Stedman, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent and young adults (AYAs) face challenges in having their cancers recognized, diagnosed, treated, and monitored. Monitoring AYA cancer survival is of interest because of the lack of improvement in outcome previously documented for these patients as compared with younger and older patient outcomes. AYA patients 15–39 years old, diagnosed during 2000–2008 with malignant cancers were selected from the SEER 17 registries data. Selected cancers were analyzed for incidence and five-year relative survival by histology, stage, and receptor subtypes. Hazard ratios were estimated for cancer death risk among younger and older ages relative to the AYA group. AYA survival was worse for female breast cancer (regardless of estrogen receptor status), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AYA survival for AML was lowest for a subtype associated with a mutation of the nucleophosmin 1 gene (NPM1). AYA survival for breast cancer and leukemia remain poor as compared with younger and older survivors. Research is needed to address disparities and improve survival in this age group. PMID:25417236

  13. Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhwi; Park, Young-Kyung; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Hong

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean score of the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R in 10-yr age increments significantly decreased as age increased (K-DTVP-2, F= 41.120, P< 0.001; VMI-3R, F= 16.583, P< 0.001). The mean score of the VMI-3R and K-DTVP-2 were significantly decreased in participants in their 50s compared to those in their 20s (P< 0.05). Age (t= -9.130, P< 0.001), gender (t= 3.029, P= 0.003), and the presence of diseases (t= -2.504, P= 0.013) were the significant factors affecting K-DTVP-2 score. On the other hand, age (t= -6.300, P< 0.001) was the only significant factor affecting VMI-3R score. K-DTVP-2 score (Standardized β= -0.611) decreased more sensitively with aging than VMI-3R (Standardized β= -0.467). The two measurements had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.855, P< 0.001). In conclusion, it can be suggested that VP and VMI should be regularly checked from an individual's 50s, which is a critical period for detecting cognitive decline by aging. Both the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R could be used for determining the level of cognitive deficit by aging. PMID:25210701

  14. Young Adult Utilization of a Smoking Cessation Website: An Observational Study Comparing Young and Older Adult Patterns of Use

    PubMed Central

    Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Graham, Amanda L; Richardson, Amanda; Xiao, Haijun; Mermelstein, Robin J; Curry, Susan J; Sporer, Amy K; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little research on how young adults or young adult subgroups utilize and engage with Web-based cessation interventions when trying to quit smoking. Addressing this knowledge gap is important to identify opportunities to optimize the effectiveness of online cessation programs across diverse young adult users. Objective This study examines utilization of the BecomeAnEX.org smoking cessation website among young adults and young adult subgroups compared with older adults to identify patterns of use by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Methods Study participants were 5983 new registered users on a free smoking cessation website who were aged 18 to 70 years. Website utilization was tracked for 6 months; metrics of use included website visits, pages per visit, length of visit, and interaction with specific website features. Differences in website use by age were examined via bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Interactions were examined to determine differences by gender and race/ethnicity within young (18- to 24-year-olds and 25- to 34-year-olds) and older (35 years and older) adult segments. Results A greater percentage of young adults aged 18 to 34 years visited the site only once compared with older adults aged 35 years and older (72.05% vs 56.59%, respectively; P<.001). Young adults also spent less time on the site and viewed fewer pages than older adults. In adjusted analyses, young adults were significantly less likely than older adults to visit the site more than once (18-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.49-0.68, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.50-0.64, P<.001), spend more than 3 minutes on the site (18-24 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.57-0.79, P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.64, P<.001), view 12 or more pages (18-24 years: AOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61-0.83; P<.001; 25-34 years: AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.76, P<.001), utilize the BecomeAnEX.org community

  15. Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-05-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer young adults with ID (45%) visited a dentist at least once per year, compared with those without ID (58%). ID severity and the presence of co-occurring developmental disabilities predicted dental care use. Sociodemographics, daily functioning, societal participation, dental services, and dental health factors were examined as predictors of dental care frequency. Our findings can help focus efforts toward improving the frequency of dental care visits among young adults with ID.

  16. Marry the Prince or Stay with Family--That Is the Question: A Perspective of Young Korean Immigrant Girls on Disney Marriages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have examined popular culture, the perspectives of young children from various cultures still have not been discussed at length in such studies. In order to listen to these children's voices, this paper focuses on young immigrant Korean girls in the United States. It particularly examines their interpretations of marriage…

  17. Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

  18. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  19. Estimation of Total and Inorganic Arsenic Intake from the Diet in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Seo, Mi-Na; Lee, Seul-Gi; Eom, Sang-Yong; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Se-Young; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Heon; Choi, Byung-Sun; Yu, Il-Je; Park, Jung-Duck

    2016-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is a major environmental pollutant and a known human carcinogen that is widely distributed in the air, soil, and water. General population is mainly exposed to As through drinking water and food from the contaminated water and soil. Arsenic in drinking water is generally well controlled now. This study was performed to estimate total and inorganic As intake and to determine the major contributing source in the Korean adult diet. The study subjects were 2117 healthy adults (922 males and 1195 females) who had not been occupationally exposed to As. Total dietary intake was studied using the 24-h recall method, which included 138 specific food items. The estimates of total As and inorganic As intake were based on total and inorganic As contents in each food item consumed during the last 24 h. Daily dietary intake was estimated to be 1373.6 g. Total As intake was estimated to be 145.4 µg As/day. Total dietary As intake was correlated with consumption of fish/shellfish, seaweeds, and grains. Approximately 87% of total dietary As intake was attributed to seafood, such as 105.5 µg As/day from fish/shellfish and 20.5 µg As/day from seaweeds. Inorganic As intake was estimated to be 10.4 µg As per day. Inorganic As intake was mainly provided by grains (6.4 µg As/day), followed by seaweeds and fish/shellfish. Our results indicate that seafood and grains are the main As dietary sources in Korean adults and that dietary As exposure may be associated with individual dietary habits and environmental As contamination among countries. PMID:26706926

  20. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  1. Five Invaluable Resources for Young Adult Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winings, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    More than a decade ago, the popular topic of discussion in higher education and in pop culture concerned the character traits of what was then called "Generation X" or "GenX" for short. One lasting impact of this focus has been a renewed effort on the part of higher education to define young adulthood and to reassess young adult education. In the…

  2. Multiple Voices, Multiple Genres: Fiction for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    2002-01-01

    Notes that with so many multivoice novels accessible to teens, there is a great opportunity to expand students' reading repertoire. Proposes that young adult novels are an excellent transition to classic literature that may seem remote or difficult. Offers advice on teaching multivoice novels. Concludes that multivoice novels show young readers…

  3. Growing up with Dyslexia: Interviews with Teenagers and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingesson, S. Gunnel

    2007-01-01

    Interviews with 75 teenagers and young adults were performed to investigate how young people with dyslexia experienced school in terms of well-being, educational achievement, self-esteem, peer relations and belief in their future. Results from earlier studies suggest that secondary emotional problems are common. The first six grades in school were…

  4. Program of Vocational Rehabilitation for Young Adult Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Correctional Inst., Camp Hill.

    Full development of the educational, occupational, and attitudinal abilities of young delinquents admitted to the Camp Hill State Correctional Institute was the object of this Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I Program. Young adults 15-21 years committed to Camp Hill average 6.1 on the standard educational battery test and their…

  5. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

  6. Weight-Related Dietary Behaviors in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Partridge, Stephanie R; Roy, Rajshri

    2016-03-01

    The origins of the obesogenic environment date back to the early 1980s. This means that young adults i.e., those aged 18 to 35 years, have only ever experienced a food milieu that promotes obesity. Indeed, younger generations are becoming heavier sooner than their parents in developed countries, such as the USA. Young adults demonstrate food consumption patterns and dietary behaviors implicated in an excessive gain of body fat. They are the highest consumers of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages among adult age groups and the lowest consumers of fruit and vegetables. Younger adults are meal skippers but may consume more energy from snacks than older adults. So that the gains made in stemming obesity in childhood are not undone during young adulthood, prevention programs are needed. This review highlights areas for consideration in planning such programs. PMID:26811006

  7. Environmental sustainability: Understanding young adults' learning, thinking, and actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kola-Olusanya, Anthony O.

    This thesis explores the ways in which young-adults' environmental learning and experiences influence their decision to live sustainably. In particular, this thesis focuses on young adults' environmental and sustainability learning. It elaborates on young peoples' views about environmental and sustainability issues, such as climate change, the sources for their learning about these issues, and how young adults' learning encounters, in turn, affect their actions toward environmental protection and decision-making. Through a series of in-depth individual interviews with 18 young adults from three universities in southeastern Ontario, this qualitative study provides in-depth insight into young adults' understanding, learning experiences, and actions in relation to environmental and sustainability issues. Employing a Contextual Model of Learning framework the narratives of the young adults in this study are analyzed and discussed within three overlapping environmental learning contexts: personal, sociocultural, and physical settings. This framework allows for an examination of the complex interactions and relationships that shape how and where environmental learning occurs. The findings in this study suggest that the three overlapping learning contexts, that is the personal, sociocultural, and physical play an important role in shaping young adults' learning about environmental and sustainability issues. The data reveal that despite the unavailability or near-absence of environmental studies and education within the formal school curriculum (particularly at the elementary and high school levels), the young adults rely on other locations for learning, such as the internet, environmental non-governmental organisations (ENGOs), television, and family. In light of this, the research participants suggest the re-introduction of environmental programs and content in the school curriculum. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate the centrality of knowledge and

  8. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  9. Young, uninsured, and seeking change: health coverage of young adults and their views on health reform. Findings from the Commonwealth fund Survey of Young Adults (2009).

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jennifer L; Collins, Sara R

    2009-12-01

    Young adults are one of the largest uninsured segments of the population. This analysis of new survey data from The Commonwealth Fund finds almost half are without insurance at some time during the year. As they hit milestones like high school or college graduation, they face loss of coverage as they are dropped from parents' plans or public insurance programs. In the current economic climate, young adults are less likely to find jobs, and when they do, are frequently offered positions that come without benefits. Provisions in the health reform bills could help young adults by expanding Medicaid eligibility, creating a health insurance exchange with premium subsidies, and requiring insurers and employers to allow young adults to remain on parents' plans up to age 26 or 27. These provisions could help young adults obtain and keep affordable, comprehensive coverage through transitions from school to work and from job to job. PMID:20183947

  10. Life Course Status and Exchanges of Support between Young Adults and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; van Wel, Frits; Knijn, Trudie

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated intergenerational support exchanges in relation to young adults' life course status. In a sample of 2,022 young adults (ages 18-34 years) in The Netherlands, single young adults reported receiving more advice from parents than married young adults, and those with children of their own received more practical support.…

  11. Mature Young Adult Books Are Given a Bad Reputation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)

  12. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  13. Magnetic resonance image-based cerebellar volumetry in healthy Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, I J; Cho, T H; Lee, N J; Uhm, C S; Kim, H; Suh, Y S

    1999-08-01

    The effects of age and gender on cerebellar size have not been established yet. To understand these effects, the area of cerebellar vermis and the volume of cerebellum were measured using serial magnetic resonance images of 124 Korean adults free of neurologic symptoms and signs. Cerebellar volume of male was significantly larger than that of female, although the size of vermis did not show significant gender difference. Correlation analysis revealed that cerebellar volume was not affected by aging. Regressional analysis demonstrated that female vermis had a tendency to shrink after age of 50, whereas male vermis and total cerebellar volume in both sexes were not altered with aging. The different response of vermis with aging and maintenance of cerebellum volume need to be more explored. PMID:10462116

  14. Model minority at risk: expressed needs of mental health by Asian American young adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon; Martinez, Genevieve; Hsu, Chiehwen E; Robinson, E Stephanie; Bawa, Julie; Ma, Grace X

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain and discuss in-depth information on mental health problems, including the status, barriers, and potential solutions in 1.5 and 2nd generation Asian American young adults. As a part of the Health Needs Assessment project, the researchers conducted two focus groups with 17 young adults (mainly 1.5 or 2nd generation) from eight Asian American communities (Asian Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Indonesian, Korean, Taiwanese, Thai, and Vietnamese) in Montgomery County, Maryland. We developed a moderator's guide with open-ended questions and used it to collect qualitative data. Using a software, we organized and identified emergent themes by major categories. Participants reported a several common sources of stress that affect the mental health of Asian American young adults including: pressure to meet parental expectations of high academic achievement and live up to the "model minority" stereotype; difficulty of balancing two different cultures and communicating with parents; family obligations based on the strong family values; and discrimination or isolation due to racial or cultural background. Young Asian Americans tend not to seek professional help for their mental health problems; instead they use personal support networks-close friends, significant others, and religious community. Participants suggested that Asian cultural norms that do not consider mental problems important, and associated stigma of seeking professional care might undermine their mental health help seeking behavior. Our findings support a need for delivering culturally appropriate programs to raise awareness of mental health and cultural training for health providers to deliver culturally appropriate care. PMID:18931893

  15. Distraction by competing speech in young and older adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Tun, Patricia A; O'Kane, Gail; Wingfield, Arthur

    2002-09-01

    In 2 experiments, young and older adults heard target speech presented in quiet or with a competing speaker in the background. The distractor consisted either of meaningful speech or nonmeaningful speech composed of randomly ordered word strings (Experiment 1) or speech in an unfamiliar language (Experiment 2). Tests of recall for the target speech showed that older adults, but not younger adults, were impaired more by meaningful distractors than by nonmeaningful distracters. However, on a surprise recognition test, young adults were more likely than older adults to recognize meaningful distractor items. These results suggest that reduced efficiency in attentional control is an important factor in older adults' difficulty in recalling target speech in the presence of a background of competing speech.

  16. Distraction by competing speech in young and older adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Tun, Patricia A; O'Kane, Gail; Wingfield, Arthur

    2002-09-01

    In 2 experiments, young and older adults heard target speech presented in quiet or with a competing speaker in the background. The distractor consisted either of meaningful speech or nonmeaningful speech composed of randomly ordered word strings (Experiment 1) or speech in an unfamiliar language (Experiment 2). Tests of recall for the target speech showed that older adults, but not younger adults, were impaired more by meaningful distractors than by nonmeaningful distracters. However, on a surprise recognition test, young adults were more likely than older adults to recognize meaningful distractor items. These results suggest that reduced efficiency in attentional control is an important factor in older adults' difficulty in recalling target speech in the presence of a background of competing speech. PMID:12243387

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  18. Poor-quality sleep is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junyong; Choi, Youn Seon; Jeong, Young Jin; Lee, Juneyoung; Kim, Jung Hyun; Kim, Su Hyun; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jeon, Tae Hee

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorder and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are important health-related problems. Recently, sleep duration has decreased among Korean adults. In this study, we examined whether sleep quality is associated with MetS by analyzing 301 subjects, aged 20 years or over, without acute and severe illness who visited three primary care clinics. Sleep duration, sleep quality and the risk of sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) were assessed with a standardized sleeping-estimating instrument. MetS was defined according to the modified diagnostic criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel-III using the Korean abdominal obesity definition. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, compared with the 7-hour sleep group, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of the ≤ 5- and ≥ 9-hour sleep groups for MetS were 4.89 and 5.98, respectively. Compared with the good-sleep quality and low-SRBD risk groups, the adjusted ORs of the poor-quality sleep and high-SRBD risk groups were 3.83 and 1.92, respectively (p < 0.05). In the ≤ 5- and ≥ 9-hour sleep groups, the prevalence of elevated triglyceride and high HOMA-IR was higher (p = 0.069). In the poor-quality sleep group, the prevalence of abdominal obesity, elevated triglyceride, low HDL cholesterol, high fasting insulin and high HOMA-IR were higher. In the high-SRBD risk group, the prevalence of abdominal obesity, obesity and elevated triglyceride were higher (p < 0.05). Overall, the ≤ 5- or ≥ 9-hour sleep duration, poor-quality sleep and high-SRBD risk are related with the high prevalence of MetS, perhaps through elevated insulin-resistance resulting from adiposity.

  19. Does the maxillary anterior ratio in Korean adults follow the Golden Proportion?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of changes in the horizontal plane angle on the mesiodistal width ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth during the acquisition of frontal view photographs, derive these ratios for Korean adults on the basis of the data obtained, and analyze them using the Golden Proportion as a reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS In experiment I, 30 plaster casts were mounted on an articulator and positioned on the angle-measuring device with a center setting of 0°. The device was rotated to 10° in 1° increments in a counterclockwise direction. At each angle, photographs were obtained and analyzed. Experiment II was based on 60 patients who visited the Department of Prosthodontics at Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital from February 2012 to February 2015. The patients were divided into three groups [Male (M), Female (F), Total (M + F)]. Frontal views were obtained for all groups and analyzed. RESULTS From 1° to 10°, the relative mesiodistal width ratios for the maxillary anterior teeth showed no significant differences from those at 0°. In all three groups, the relative width ratio of the maxillary central incisor was smaller than that specified in the Golden Proportion; the opposite was true for the canine. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that the mesiodistal width ratios of the maxillary anterior teeth do not follow the Golden Proportion in Korean adults, and that a change in the horizontal plane angle from 1° to 10° during frontal photography does not affect these ratios. PMID:27141256

  20. Differences in correlates of condom use between young adults and adults attending sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Amanda R; Blood, Emily A; Crosby, Richard A; Shrier, Lydia A

    2015-07-01

    Despite developmental differences between young adults and adults, studies of condom use have not typically considered young adults as a distinct age group. This study sought to examine how condom use and its correlates differed between high-risk young adults and adults. Sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic patients (n = 763) reported STI history, contraception, negative condom attitudes, fear of partner reaction to condom use and risky behaviours. Past 3-month condom use was examined as unprotected vaginal sex (UVS) acts, proportional condom use and consistent condom use. Regression models tested associations of age group and potential correlates with each condom use outcome. Interaction models tested whether associations differed by age group. Proportional condom use was greater in young adults than adults (mean 0.55 vs. 0.47); UVS and consistent condom use were similar between age groups. Young adults with a recent STI reported less condom use, whereas for older adults, a distant STI was associated with less condom use, compared to others in their age groups. Negative condom attitudes were more strongly linked to UVS acts for younger versus older adults. STI prevention efforts for younger adults may be improved by intensifying counselling about condom use immediately following STI diagnosis and targeting negative condom attitudes.

  1. Combined effects of body mass index and cardio/respiratory fitness on serum vaspin concentrations in Korean young men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Kyung; Han, Tae-Kyung; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available regarding how body fatness and cardio/respiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with serum vaspin. The purpose of the study was to investigate the combined effect of body mass index (BMI) and CRF on serum vaspin in Korean young men. In a cross-sectional study, we examined 490 Korean young men (mean age 23.8 +/- 2.5 years) who were voluntarily recruited. Body fatness and fasting levels of serum insulin, adiponectin, and vaspin were measured. CRF was quantified as the minute volume of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) measured during a graded treadmill test. We assigned individuals to either low or middle or high third CRF tertiles based on age-adjusted VO(2max). We also assigned individuals to either a lean weight (LN) or obese (OB) group based on body fatness levels, in which a BMI value >/=25 kg/m(2) was used as an indicator of Pacific-Asian obesity. Group analyses showed significant interaction effects between fatness and CRF on fasting insulin and serum vaspin such that the OB group with low CRF levels had significantly higher insulin and vaspin concentrations than the OB counterparts with moderate to high CRF levels, and no such CRF-based sub-group differences in insulin and vaspin were found in the LN groups. Regression analyses show that BMI, waist circumference, VO(2), and fasting insulin explain approximately 18% of the individual variations in serum vaspin concentration in this study population. This is the first study to show that high body fatness along with low CRF might contribute to increased vaspin concentrations in Korean young men.

  2. Suicidal ideation and its determinants in Korean adults: The role of physical activity and functional limitations.

    PubMed

    Park, S M

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of suicide as a major public health problem has suggested the need to identify risk factors that have implications for preventive intervention. In the suicidal process, suicidal ideation is a key stage in the pathway leading to eventual suicide. This study investigated the influence of physical activity and functional limitations on suicidal ideation among young and middle-aged adults in a high suicidal society. Data for the current study were obtained from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009 (KNHANES), a cross-sectional study conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The survey conducted face-to-face interviews with young adults (n = 2326) and middle-aged adults (n = 3396). Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the relationship of physical activity and functional limitations with suicidal ideation in young and middle-aged adults was assessed. A notable outcome was that the absence of a regular walking was correlated with increased suicidal ideation in middle-aged women. The other major finding was that young women and middle-aged adults with functional limitations had a high rate of suicidal thoughts. Multiple intervention approaches, including informational, social and behavioural approaches, are needed to promote regular walking in middle-aged women. For instance, mass media campaigns, community walking groups and individually adapted health behaviour modification may provide opportunities for positive intervention. Additionally, another important public health implication from these findings is the need for a suicide-intervention support system that includes screening for suicide risk in healthcare settings, especially among young women with physical limitations. PMID:25434531

  3. Repetition blindness and homophone blindness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Caitlin J; James, Lori E; Noble, Paula M

    2016-11-01

    We tested age effects on repetition blindness (RB), defined as the reduced probability of reporting a target word following presentation of the same word in a rapidly presented list. We also tested age effects on homophone blindness (HB), in which the first word is a homophone of the target word rather than a repeated word. Thirty young and 28 older adults viewed rapidly presented lists of words containing repeated, homophone, or unrepeated word pairs and reported all of the words immediately after each list. Older adults exhibited a greater degree of RB and HB than young adults using a conditional scoring method that provides certainty that blindness has occurred. The existence of RB and HB for both age groups, and increased blindness for older compared to young adults, supports predictions of a binding theory that has successfully accounted for a wide range of phenomena in cognitive aging.

  4. Treating young adults with type 2 diabetes or monogenic diabetes.

    PubMed

    Owen, Katharine R

    2016-06-01

    It is increasingly recognised that diabetes in young adults has a wide differential diagnosis. There are many monogenic causes, including monogenic beta-cell dysfunction, mitochondrial diabetes and severe insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes in the young is becoming more prevalent, particularly after adolescence. It's important to understand the clinical features and diagnostic tools available to classify the different forms of young adult diabetes. Classic type 1 diabetes is characterised by positive β-cell antibodies and absence of endogenous insulin secretion. Young type 2 diabetes is accompanied by metabolic syndrome with obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Monogenic β-cell dysfunction is characterised by non-autoimmune, C-peptide positive diabetes with a strong family history, while mitochondrial diabetes features deafness and other neurological involvement. Severe insulin resistance involves a young-onset metabolic syndrome often with a disproportionately low BMI. A suspected diagnosis of monogenic diabetes is confirmed with genetic testing, which is widely available in specialist centres across the world. Treatment of young adult diabetes is similarly diverse. Mutations in the transcription factors HNF1A and HNF4A and in the β-cell potassium ATP channel components cause diabetes which responds to low dose and high dose sulfonylurea agents, respectively, while glucokinase mutations require no treatment. Monogenic insulin resistance and young-onset type 2 diabetes are both challenging to treat, but first line management involves insulin sensitisers and aggressive management of cardiovascular risk. Outcomes are poor in young-onset type 2 diabetes compared to both older onset type 2 and type 1 diabetes diagnosed at a similar age. The evidence base for treatments in monogenic and young-onset type 2 diabetes relies on studies of moderate quality at best and largely on extrapolation from work conducted in older type 2 diabetes subjects. Better quality

  5. Infected urachal cyst in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Muśko, Natalia; Dobruch, Jakub; Piotrowicz, Sebastian; Szostek, Przemysław; Borówka, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The urachus is the remnant of the cloaca, which in adults attaches the bladder dome to the umbilicus. After birth it obliterates and presents as the midline umbilical ligament. Patent urachal anomalies are usually detected in childhood. In adults they occur very rarely and the presentation and diagnosis may be occasionally challenging. We present and discuss the case of an infected urachal cyst found in a 30-year-old adult. PMID:25140240

  6. Older Adults Expend More Listening Effort than Young Adults Recognizing Speech in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Penny Anderson; Gagne, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with young adults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…

  7. Exploring Heavy Drinking Patterns Among Black and White Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Klima, Tali; Skinner, Martie L; Haggerty, Kevin P; Crutchfield, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This investigation examined patterns of heavy drinking among Black and White young adults from a person-centered perspective and linked family and individual factors in adolescence to young adult drinking patterns. Method: The analysis focuses on 331 10th-grade students (168 Whites, 163 Blacks; 51% males) who were followed into young adulthood (ages 20 and 22). Cluster analyses using heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness, and alcohol problems in young adulthood resulted in groups of drinkers with different patterns. Groups were examined across and within race. Associations between young adult drinking groups and adolescent family and individual factors were tested. Results: Groups followed well-established race differences, with Whites clustering into frequent drinking groups more than Blacks, and Blacks clustering into non–heavy drinking groups more than Whites. Further, Black heavy drinkers reported fewer alcohol problems than White counterparts. Parental monitoring, consistent discipline, ethnic identity, and delinquency were associated with adult heavy episodic drinking groups for both races. Monitoring and delinquency, along with parental norms, were associated with drunkenness groups for both races. However, race differences were observed for drunkenness clusters such that attachment was predictive for White clusters, and parental guidelines and discipline were predictive for Black clusters. Conclusions: Large race differences in heavy drinking at young adulthood were confirmed. Family dynamics in 10th grade were identified as important for the development of different drinking patterns in the early 20s, when many individuals have left home, which suggests a key target for substance use prevention programs. PMID:25208202

  8. Nutrition Promotion to Prevent Obesity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Allman-Farinelli, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a vulnerable period for weight gain and the health consequences of becoming obese during this life-stage of serious concern. Some unhealthy dietary habits are typical of young adults in many developed nations encountering the obesity epidemic. These include high sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, lower vegetable intake and greater consumption of foods prepared outside the home including fast foods. Each of these dietary behaviours may place young adults at increased risk for overweight and obesity. Evidence suggests many young adults with unhealthy nutrition behaviours are not considering nor preparing to make changes. To improve their nutrition and health as they progress through the lifecycle requires approaches specifically targeted to this age group. Strategies and programs should include both individual level and population approaches. The evidence base for prevention of weight gain and halting overweight and obesity in young adulthood is currently small with few studies of high quality. Studies modifying food environments in colleges and universities are also of limited quality, but sufficiently promising to conduct further research employing better, more sophisticated, study designs and additionally to include health outcome measures. More research into programs tailored to the needs of young adults is warranted with several studies already underway. PMID:27417798

  9. Cigarillo use among high-risk urban young adults.

    PubMed

    Milam, Adam J; Bone, Lee R; Byron, M Justin; Hoke, Kathleen; Williams, Carla D; Furr-Holden, C Debra; Stillman, Frances A

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S., cigar use doubled from 5.0 to 10.6 billion cigars consumed annually between 1997 and 2007, driven in large part by increased sales of cigarette-sized "little cigars" and narrow, mid-sized "cigarillos." The present study examined prevalence of cigarillo use as well as attitudes, knowledge and behaviors related to cigarillo use among a sample of predominantly urban African American young adults 18-24 not in school and not employed. Survey data were collected from 131 young adults attending education and job training centers in Baltimore, Maryland and from 78 young adults attending education, job training, or recreational programs in Washington, D.C. In Baltimore, 22% of young adults had smoked a cigarillo in the past 30 days, compared with nearly 63% in D.C. Both populations were heavily exposed to cigarillo advertising and marketing. Cigarillo use in this urban young adult population is a growing public health problem and undermines the progress made in decreasing cigarette use.

  10. Item and relational processing in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fisher, L M; McDowd, J M

    1993-03-01

    The item and relational information framework of memory provided a methodology for an analytical approach to age differences in encoding and retrieval processes. Subjects were given related or unrelated words to sort or rate for pleasantness. Young adults performed better than older adults in free recall, but older adults were able to use both item and relational information as well as young adults. In a second experiment, subjects also sorted or rated a list composed of different numbers of category items. The pattern of free recall and cued recall scores indicated that item and relational information affected the memory performance of both age groups in a similar fashion. By examining memory in terms of item and relational information, it appears that older adults do not have difficulty combining two types of target information during encoding and that the information assists in recall of target items. PMID:8473699

  11. Instantiation of general terms in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Light, L L; Valencia-Laver, D; Zavis, D

    1991-09-01

    Instantiation of general terms in discourse requires inference from general world knowledge and use of linguistic context to particularize meaning. According to the semantic deficit hypothesis, older adults should be less likely than young adults to generate or to store such inferences. In Experiments 1 and 2 an indirect measure, relatedness judgment, was used to assess immediate comprehension and memory for inferences. In Experiment 3 a direct measure, cued recall, was used to tap memory for inferences. No age differences in immediate or delayed memory were observed in Experiments 1 or 2. In Experiment 3 older adults recalled fewer sentences, but there was no evidence for a specific decrement in storage of inferential material. Older adults are not impaired in ability to draw inferences based on general world knowledge, nor are they more likely than young adults to encode linguistic information in a general, stereotypic fashion.

  12. Characterizing upper limb muscle volume and strength in older adults: a comparison with young adults.

    PubMed

    Vidt, Meghan E; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E; Davis, Cralen C; Marsh, Anthony P; Saul, Katherine R

    2012-01-10

    Aging is associated with the loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for older adults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional declines of the upper limb that older adults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy older adults (age ≥ 65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for young adults (28.6±4.5 years). On average older adults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to young adults. Additionally, older adult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Older adult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (p<0.0001), adductors (p=0.01), and wrist flexors (p<0.0001). Young adults were strongest at the shoulder, which was not the case for older adults. In older adults, 40.6% of the variation in IJM was accounted for by MV changes (p≤0.027), compared to 81.0% in young adults. We conclude that for older adults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that older adult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from young adults.

  13. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Éthier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as “facial trustworthiness.”In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755

  14. [Health among teenagers and young adults].

    PubMed

    Hernán, Mariano; Fernández, Alberto; Ramos, María

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse different behaviours and opinions about health and health determinants of Spanish young people by age, sex, and place of residence. They have a broad concept of their health, tending to identify health as physical activity and healthy eating behaviours. Most of them (91%) declared enjoying good or very good health. Depending upon the age, sex, and place of residence 10 to 20% could have mental health problems. Young people consider illegal drugs as their main health problem. Boys have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls. However, girls reported more often than boys that they perceived themselves as obese. Practice of sporting activities is influenced by family and friends. The proportion of young people that practice sport declines after the age of 15, both in boys and girls. Young people perceive cannabis consumption as normal, but remain ambivalent towards other illegal drugs and asked for more information about drugs. We found a high proportion of young people declaring that they not would try illegal drugs. In the urban settings, smoking is more common among girls than among boys, but the contrary happens in rural areas. Most of them know that smoking is harmful for health, and among those who are smokers, 20 to 40% declared that they want to stop smoking. They consider that health care services are useless for preventing health problems. It is necessary to improve behaviours involving safety, such as use of seat belts and helmets, mainly in rural areas. Young people associated traffic accidents with driving conditions rather than with identification of risk.

  15. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into three groups by T-score: normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Assessment of adherence level was based on 5 components of osteoporosis guidelines, considering intake of sodium, calcium and protein, smoking and regular exercise. Results The sex, body mass index, income and educational level did not significantly differ between three groups. Deficient intake of calcium was significantly associated with a threefold greater odds in osteoporosis group (OR 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-5.22). Excessive protein intake was significantly increased the risk only in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.62). Smoking increased the risk in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.75-4.76), osteoporosis group compared to the osteopenia group (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.61-4.55). Conclusions Nutritional factor (intake of calcium and protein) and lifestyle-related factor (smoking and exercise) must be accompanied the management for bone health. An adherence of guidelines is considered very important for the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:27622178

  16. The Association between Vitamin D and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Baek, Jin Kyung; Cho, Ho Jin; Kim, Ye Seul

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life, and explored other related factors in the general Korean population. Methods We used data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on 14,104 adults, aged 20–49 years, who had consented to serum vitamin D measurement and answered health-related quality of life questions. EuroQol-5 was used for measurement. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at intervals of 0–9.99, 10–19.99, 20–29.99, and ≥30 ng/mL. Results Participants with higher serum vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels were significantly less likely to report problems with depression and anxiety. After adjustment for age, gender, income level, education level, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and the existence of depressive disorders, the odds ratio for reporting a problem with depression and anxiety was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.91). The odds ratio for the prevalence of any problem was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53–0.89) before adjustment, but was not statistically significant after adjustment. No significant associations were observed for problems with mobility, self-care, usual activity, or pain and discomfort. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the associations between vitamin D and health-related quality of life for the general Korean population. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with the dimensions of EuroQol-5 except for depression and anxiety problems. PMID:27468340

  17. Comparison in Adherence to Osteoporosis Guidelines according to Bone Health Status in Korean Adult

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Soon-Kyung; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Byun, Dong Won; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis one of the most serious disease to decrease the quality of life and cause economic loss. Thus, prevention of osteoporosis has become an important health concern. The study examined in adherence to osteoporosis guidelines and compared the levels of adherence to osteoporosis guidelines between bone health status in Korean adult. Methods This study used data from a nationally represented sample of Koreans (n=3,419) from 2008 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We were divided into three groups by T-score: normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis. Assessment of adherence level was based on 5 components of osteoporosis guidelines, considering intake of sodium, calcium and protein, smoking and regular exercise. Results The sex, body mass index, income and educational level did not significantly differ between three groups. Deficient intake of calcium was significantly associated with a threefold greater odds in osteoporosis group (OR 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.52-5.22). Excessive protein intake was significantly increased the risk only in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.15-2.62). Smoking increased the risk in osteoporosis group compared to the normal group (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.75-4.76), osteoporosis group compared to the osteopenia group (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.61-4.55). Conclusions Nutritional factor (intake of calcium and protein) and lifestyle-related factor (smoking and exercise) must be accompanied the management for bone health. An adherence of guidelines is considered very important for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  18. The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Periodontitis According to Fasting Plasma Glucose in the Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jae Won; Noh, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and periodontitis is well established, the association between periodontitis and prediabetes has been investigated less extensively. Furthermore, there has been little research on the prevalence of periodontitis among individuals with prediabetes and diabetes as well as in the overall population using nationally representative data. Among 12,406 adults (≥19 years’ old) who participated in the 2012–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 9977 subjects completed oral and laboratory examinations and were included in this analysis. Periodontitis was defined as a community periodontal index score of ≥3 according to the World Health Organization criteria. The fasting plasma glucose level was categorized into the following 5 groups: normal fasting glucose (NFG) 1 (<90 mg/dL), NFG 2 (90–99 mg/dL), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) 1 (100–110 mg/dL), IFG 2 (111–125 mg/dL), and diabetes (≥126 mg/dL). Overall, the weighted prevalence of periodontitis among the Korean adult population was 24.8% (23.3–26.4%) (weight n = 8,455,952/34,086,014). The unadjusted weighted prevalences of periodontitis were 16.7%, 22.8%, 29.6%, 40.7%, and 46.7% in the NFG 1, NFG 2, IFG 1, IFG 2, and diabetes groups, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, heavy alcohol drinking, college graduation, household income, waist circumference, serum triglyceride level, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and the presence of hypertension, the adjusted weighted prevalence of periodontitis increased to 29.7% in the IFG 2 group (P = 0.045) and 32.5% in the diabetes group (P < 0.001), compared with the NFG 1 group (24%). The odds ratios for periodontitis with the above-mentioned variables as covariates were 1.42 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.77, P = 0.002) in the diabetes group and 1.33 (95% CI 1.01–1.75, P = 0.044) in the IFG

  19. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Liu, Yihang; Leake, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent homelessness has received increasing attention due to its fast growth throughout the United States and the poor mental outcomes experienced by homeless young people. This cross-sectional study (N = 156) identified correlates of depressive symptomatology among homeless young adults and investigated how depressive symptoms are influenced by the coping strategies these young adults employ. The findings are based on analysis of baseline data collected for a hepatitis vaccination intervention pilot study conducted in partnership with a young adult’s drop-in center in Santa Monica, California. Standardized tools assessed drug use history, coping ability, and psychiatric symptomatology. Linear regression modeling was used to identify correlates of depressive symptom severity. Poor perceived physical health, recent crack cocaine use and recent use of tranquilizers were significantly associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. Self-destructive escape, non-disclosure/avoidance, passive problem-solving and thoughts of harming self were also associated with increased severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:21131507

  20. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea.

  1. Developmental Antecedents of Young Adult Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.

    2007-01-01

    Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were…

  2. Spiritual Quest in Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radley, Gail

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how religion and fiction can be a troublesome blend in literature for young people. Notes that many writers have found it simpler to avoid spiritual issues altogether, to stay with the safe and secular. Describes that one solution a number of writers have grasped is to portray protagonists as learning to seek the answers within…

  3. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana C; Mestrinho, Heliana D; Stevens, Sophie; van Wijk, Arjen J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young adults, the oral health conditions would have no impact on their quality of life. The participants were 611 new patients aged 16-32 years seeking consultation at the Saint-Luc University Hospital in Brussels in 2010-2011. The patients (56.0% female) were examined for their oral health conditions and answered a validated questionnaire about sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants in addition to questions about their OHRQoL. The abridged Oral Health Impact Profile-14 was used to assess the OHRQoL. Interexaminer reliability for caries was 0.86 (95% CI 0.84-0.89, nonweighted κ). The outcome was a high score on the OHRQoL (median split). Hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that young adults with clinical absolute D1MFS scores between 9 and 16 (OR = 2.14, p = 0.031) and between 17 and 24 (OR = 3.10, p = 0.003) were significantly more likely to report a high impact on their quality of life than those with lower scores. Also, periodontal conditions compromised significantly (OR = 1.79, p = 0.011) the quality of life of young adults. In conclusion, this study identified oral health conditions with a significant adverse effect on the OHRQoL of young adults. However, the prevalence of young adults reporting impacts on at least 1 performance affected fairly often or very often was limited to 18.7% of the sample. PMID:25832802

  4. Transitioning adolescents and young adults with a chronic health condition to adult healthcare - an exemplar program.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann Rauen, Karen; Sawin, Kathleen J; Bartelt, Tera; Waring, William P; Orr, Merle; Corey O'Connor, R

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric specialists have successfully improved the longevity and quality of life of many children with chronic health conditions. As these children reach adolescence and young adulthood, the scope of their concomitant medical problems often include those typically seen in older patients. As a result, these individuals need continuing quality health care in focused adult healthcare facilities. This article describes the effective partnership between pediatric and adult healthcare providers to create and implement an exemplar Spina Bifida Transition Program. The processes, strategies and tools discussed are likely to be useful to other healthcare professionals interested in developing pediatric to adult transition programs for adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions.

  5. Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children.

    PubMed

    Hack, Maureen

    2006-04-01

    Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.

  6. Acute myocardial infarction in young adults: causes and management

    PubMed Central

    Osula, S; Bell, G; Hornung, R

    2002-01-01

    The case report in this review illustrates an acute myocardial infarction in a young adult probably due to arterial thrombosis that can be attributed to a hypercoagulable state resulting from the nephrotic syndrome. Although rare, acute myocardial infarction should be considered in young adults presenting with chest pain. A detailed clinical history may help to identify the aetiology, and guide subsequent management, but diagnostic coronary angiography is essential. Careful risk factor modification and treatment of the underlying cause should reduce the incidence of recurrent cardiac events. PMID:11796868

  7. The distinctive biology of cancer in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Archie; Barr, Ronald; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Thomas, David; Ellis, Chad; Anderson, Barry

    2008-04-01

    One explanation for the relative lack of progress in treating cancer in adolescents and young adults is that the biology of malignant diseases in this age group is different than in younger and older persons, not only in the spectrum of cancers but also within individual cancer types and within the patient (host). Molecular, epidemiological and therapeutic outcome comparisons offer clues to this distinctiveness in most of the common cancers of adolescents and young adults. Translational and clinical research should not assume that the biology of cancers and patients is the same as in other age groups, and treatment strategies should be tailored to the differences.

  8. Dimensions of Problem Drinking among Young Adult Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.; Ames, Genevieve M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Nationwide surveys identify food service workers as heavy alcohol users. Objectives This article analyzes dimensions and correlates of problem drinking among young adult food service workers. Methods A telephone survey of national restaurant chain employees yielded 1294 completed surveys. Results Hazardous alcohol consumption patterns were seen in 80% of men and 64% of women. Multivariate analysis showed that different dimensions of problem drinking measured by the AUDIT were associated with workers' demographic characteristics, smoking behavior and job category. Conclusions & Scientific Significance These findings offer evidence of extremely high rates of alcohol misuse among young adult restaurant workers. PMID:20180660

  9. Age-period-cohort analysis of smoking prevalence among young adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Smoking prevalence among Korean men in their thirties is substantially high (approximately 50%). An in-depth analysis of smoking trends among young adults in their twenties is necessary to devise antismoking policies for the next 10 years. This study aimed to identify the contributions of age, period, and birth cohort effects on smoking prevalence in young adults. METHODS: Subjects comprised 181,136 adults (83,947 men: 46.3%; 97,189 women: 53.7%) aged 19 to 30 years from the 2008-2013 Korea Community Health Survey. Smoking prevalence adjusted with reference to the 2008 population was applied to the age-period-cohort (APC) model to identify the independent effects of each factor. RESULTS: For men, smoking prevalence rapidly escalated among subjects aged 19 to 22 years and slowed down among those aged 23 to 30 years, declined during 2008 to 2010 but stabilized during 2011 to 2013, and declined in birth cohorts prior to 1988 but stabilized in subjects born after 1988. However, in APC models, smoking prevalence increased with age in the 1988 to 1991 birth cohort. In this birth cohort, smoking prevalence at age 19 to 20 years was approximately 24% but increased to 40% when the subjects turned 23 to 24 years. For women, smoking prevalence was too low to generate consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: Over the past six years and in recent birth cohorts, smoking prevalence in adults aged 19 to 30 years has declined and is stable. Smoking prevalence should be more closely followed as it remains susceptible to an increase depending on antismoking policies or social conditions. PMID:27197740

  10. Clueless: Adult Mysteries with Young Adult Appeal 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John; Morrison, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes adult mysteries that appeal to teen readers under the categories of Sherlock Holmes; reference sources; private investigators; amateur sleuths; historical sleuths; suspense and thrillers; police procedurals; mystery blends; and anthologies. (LRW)

  11. College Selectivity and Young Adult Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Large literatures have shown important links between the quantity of completed education and health outcomes on one hand and the quality or selectivity of schooling on a host of adult outcomes, such as wages, on the other hand. However, little research attempts to produce evidence of the link between school quality and health. The paper presents…

  12. Korean Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Importance and Implementation of Strategies to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Kay H.; Cheatham, Gregory A.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Noh, Jina

    2014-01-01

    In South Korea, there has been a rapid increase in challenging behaviors and other social-emotional difficulties at the early childhood level. Korean early childhood educators' perspectives and strategies to address young children's social-emotional competencies and challenging behaviors were investigated. Overall, results suggest that…

  13. Sarcopenia Is Not Associated with Depression in Korean Adults: Results from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Chae-Hwa; Kang, Kee-Young; Kang, Se-Hun; Kim, Han-Kyul

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is associated with metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease, and mortality; however, its association with depression in the general population remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated this association in Korea. Methods This study included 8,958 and 8,518 subjects from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-1, 2. The study was restricted to participants ≥20 years of age who had completed the survey, including whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. After exclusion, 7,364 subjects were included in our final analysis. Age was categorized into three groups (20–39, 40–59, and ≥60 years), and subjects were categorized according to their sarcopenic and obesity status. Depression was categorized into three groups (not depressed, depressed, and depression). Results The sarcopenia group did not have a higher prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms compared to the nonsarcopenia group; the same was true even when obesity was considered. All age groups showed non-significant associations between sarcopenia and depression. In multivariate logistic regression models, no significant associations were observed between sarcopenia and prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in men and women. Conclusion We found no associations between sarcopenia and the prevalence of depression or depressed symptoms in Korean adults. Future large prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to further assess this relationship. PMID:26885321

  14. Proximal and Distal Predictors of Reading Comprehension: Evidence from Young Korean Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated proximal and distal predictors of reading comprehension by including latent factors such as alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, semantic knowledge, word reading, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension. The sample consisted of 79 five-year-old Korean-monolingual children who were assessed at the end…

  15. Korean Culture as Portrayed in Young Children's Picture Books: The Pursuit of Cultural Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Su-Jeong; Park, Soyeon; Choi, Joung Sun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate how contemporary Korea and its culture are portrayed in children's picture books published in the United States. Our analysis of the representation of Korean culture in text and illustrations was based on a sample of 33 picture books written in English and published in the US between 1990 and…

  16. Exposure to Interparental Conflict and Psychological Disorder among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…

  17. Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

  18. Weight regulation practices of young adults. Predictors of restrictive eating.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Young adults frequently use restrictive eating (i.e., going for long periods [≥ 8h] without eating to influence their shape or weight) to control their weight. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of restrictive eating in young adults, compare eating behaviors of restrictive and non-restrictive eaters, and predict restrictive eaters. A diverse (56% white, 63% female) sample of young adults (n=2449) completed an online survey that included eating behavior scales (Restraint, Eating, Shape, and Weight Concerns, and Inappropriate Compensatory Behaviors from the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Emotional and Disinhibited Eating from the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and Night Eating from the Night Eating Questionnaire) and demographics. A quarter of women and 20% of men were classified as restrictive eaters. Independent t-tests revealed restrictive eaters had significantly (p<0.001) higher BMIs than non-restrictive eaters. Restrictive eaters also had significantly higher scores on all eating behavior scales than non-restrictive eaters even after controlling for potential confounding factors (BMI, race). Stepwise binary logistic regression revealed that increased eating, shape, and weight concerns, higher BMI, endorsement of inappropriate compensatory behaviors and night eating, being female, and white increased the odds of participants being restrictive eaters. This study can help healthcare professionals become more aware of weight control practices of young adults and create appropriate interventions.

  19. Investigating the News Seeking Behavior of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayyum, M. Asim; Williamson, Kirsty; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Hider, Philip

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the news-seeking and browsing behaviours of young adults, partly in the context of everyday life information seeking (ELIS), in order to explore their perceptions of and attitudes towards print and online news media. The study is significant because traditional print newspapers face a steady decline in their readership with…

  20. Employment Information Needs of Chinese Young Adults in Sheffield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Sheila; Zhu, Wen

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigate the question of how Chinese young adults (18-26 years old) in Sheffield seek employment information, and what sources and channels they use. Data collection was via a semi-structured questionnaire (78 responses) and via nine follow-up interviews with respondents to the questionnaire. Fifty-five percent felt that they had…

  1. Vocational Outcomes for Young Adults with Multiple Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harth, Robert; Burns, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the vocational outcomes for a group of young adults with multiple learning disabilities who attended a two-year post-secondary program. One hundred graduates of the program representing the first 15 years of the program participated in the study. Results indicated that large numbers of graduates were employed in both full…

  2. Using Young Adult Literature To End Discrimination against Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathy

    In an effort to inform junior and senior high school students about mental illness, this document provides educators with an annotated bibliography of young adult fiction and a set of supporting activities. Included in the bibliography are nearly 100 current fiction titles, grouped according to the following topics: anorexia, drugs and alcohol,…

  3. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  4. Parentification, Parental Alcoholism, and Academic Status among Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Nancy D.; Wells, Marolyn C.; Deming, Mary P.

    1998-01-01

    Examines young adults (N=360) in terms of their perceptions of having assumed a parentified role in their family of origin as a function of academic status and classification as children of alcoholics or nonalcoholics. Low academic status participants reported having greater caretaking responsibilities and worries in their families. Children of…

  5. Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

  6. Playing with Fire. Creative Conflict Resolution for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Fiona; Fine, Nic

    A training program is presented for helping teenagers and young adults deal creatively with interpersonal conflict and violence. It explores the dynamics of anger, hurt, conflict, communication, cooperation, and assertiveness as it teaches listening, mediation, and conflict-defusing skills. The manual consists of 10 sections, 8 of which form the…

  7. Predictors of Heterosexual Casual Sex Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy; Giordano, Peggy; Longmore, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Casual sex is often associated with the young adult stage in the life course. Most recent research on the prevalence, motives, and consequences of heterosexual casual sex has relied on samples of college students, yet students are only a small and advantaged subset of the young adult population. The current study drew on the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, which was collected in 2006–2007 and included young adults (ages 18–24 years) whose trajectories reflected a wider spectrum of educational experiences (N = 1,023). We moved beyond prior work by examining both frequency and type of heterosexual casual sex: lifetime vaginal, lifetime oral, and recent vaginal sex. We found that young adults enrolled or who graduated from 4-year educational institutions reported fewer casual sex partners on all three measures compared to participants with-out a high school degree and those with some college experience. Sexual attitudes were key factors mediating the association between educational status and casual sex behavior. These results indicate that programs aimed at encouraging healthy sexual behavior should target individuals who are at risk of not graduating high school because they are at greatest risk of frequent casual sex partners. PMID:23297151

  8. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  9. Monstrous Acts: Problematizing Violence in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzak, Judith; Noll, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Despite a growing body of work that draws attention to the presence of violence in the mass media and its effects on youth, little critical attention has been paid to the role of violence in young adult literature. The authors believe that by bringing violence to the foreground in the study of texts, they can enrich and deepen what these stories…

  10. Young Adult Literature Research in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayn, Judith A.; Kaplan, Jeffrey S.; Nolen, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The study of young adult literature (YAL) as both an art form and teaching tool is in its infancy. Barely 50 years old, this emerging genre began to establish a presence in the canon of both classical and popular literature. As a developing field of inquiry, however, YAL struggles for legitimacy and prestige. The purpose of this article is to…

  11. Hit List: Frequently Challenged Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, Merri M.; Pistolis, Donna Reidy

    This book presents descriptions of 26 young adult titles that have been frequent targets of censorship attempts. Each entry provides an annotation for the book in question; examples of recent challenges; citations to reviews of the book and background articles; a list of awards garnered by the book or its author; references about the author;…

  12. External and Internal Sport Motivations of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical fitness and…

  13. Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adult (13 to 21)

    MedlinePlus

    ... What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 ... is a young-adult education program in your school or community. This program focuses on teaching life skills, such as cooking, ...

  14. Parental Status Characteristics and Self-Placement of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, William H.; Hammer, Gail

    1983-01-01

    Examines status self-placement literature. Tests Talcott Parsons's inferences that, in predicting young adults' self-placement, (1) father's occupation is more important than other status variables of the father, (2) mother's employment makes the process of self-placement less predictable, and (3) "emancipation" from family of orientation brings…

  15. Initial College Attendance of Low-Income Young Adults. Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    More than 2.3 million low-income young adults began postsecondary education in 2008. Where these students initially enroll is of greater consequence than it is to their economically better-off peers because the likelihood of completing college for students from low-income backgrounds depends strongly on where they start their studies. This brief…

  16. 100 More Popular Young Adult Authors: Biographical Sketches and Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Bernard A.

    Intended as a ready reference for teenagers looking for information about their favorite writers, this book features 100 biographical sketches and biographies of popular young adult authors. The book includes many authors who are prize winners, many who have shown strength and consistency in writing, and some who have pioneered new directions or…

  17. Supplemental Reading for Ninth Graders: Classic or Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katherine Jane Roney

    2012-01-01

    The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce…

  18. Adolescent/Young Adult Literature Titles/Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Darolyn Lyn

    This paper presents descriptions of the 10 best young adult novels (and teaching suggestions) appropriate for studying the Holocaust in the middle school. Each description begins with a summary and "hook" that can be used with students, and then ends with discussion for the teacher about reading abilities and applications in the classroom. Several…

  19. Young Adult Occupational Achievement. Early Expectations versus Behavioral Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Cooksey, Elizabeth C.; Sutterlin, Rebecca L.

    1999-01-01

    Comparison of young adults' occupational aspirations during the first seven years after high school with occupations held at age 30 showed that, no matter when expectations were measured, fewer than half achieved their aspirations. Among those who do not, men tend to move to higher occupations/positions, whereas women move down or leave the labor…

  20. Life Satisfaction among Young Adults from Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Peterson, Gary W.

    1988-01-01

    Examined possible predictors of life satisfaction among 322 low-income young adults from rural Appalachia. Both objective and subjective conditions of life were predictors of life satisfaction: financial resources, self-esteem, and proximity to childhood home were positive predictors; frustrations about limited job opportunities and community size…

  1. The Awareness of Morphemic Knowledge for Young Adults' Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…

  2. Young Adult Moral Exemplars: The Making of Self Through Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuba, M. Kyle; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to explore the differences between young adult moral exemplars and comparison individuals by studying their life stories. Moral exemplars were nominated for their extraordinary moral commitment to the social organizations where they volunteered or worked. Forty moral exemplars, along with 40 matched comparison…

  3. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  4. Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

  5. Moving Out and Marriage: What Do Young Adults Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldscheider, Calvin; Goldscheider, Frances K.

    Living independently before marriage is part of a broader pattern of family and demographic change characterizing modern societies since World War II. This study examined expectations about premarital residential independence among young adults. Data were obtained from 28,240 high school seniors who participated in the High School and Beyond study…

  6. Living with Cystic Fibrosis: A Guide for the Young Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.

    Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…

  7. Negotiating Understanding through the Young Adult Literature of Muslim Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Allison L.; Glasgow, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that young adult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…

  8. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  9. Suicide Prevention in Young Adults (Age 18-30).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Presents some explanations for the doubling of the young adult suicide rate since 1950. Analyzes the diagnoses and population groups that contribute the most to this increase. Groups that can be readily affected by suicide reduction measures are discussed, and methods for reducing suicide are proposed. (JPS)

  10. The Black Experience: Recent Resources for Children and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell-Powell, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    Recent titles for children and young adults that focus on the black experience are annotated. Included are four picture books; three books of poetry; five reference books (Heritage Library of African Peoples series); two books on music; five biographies; and one history book. (SLD)

  11. Not so Fast: Reassessing Gender Essentialism in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidson, R. Cole; Coley, John D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined young adults' essentialist reasoning about gender categories. Previous developmental results suggest that until age 9 or 10, children show marked essentialist reasoning about gender, but this disappears by early adulthood. In contrast, results from social cognition suggest that essentialist thinking about social categories…

  12. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913

  13. Perceived Effectiveness of Tobacco Countermarketing Advertisements among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…

  14. Engagement with Young Adult Literature: Outcomes and Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay; Johnston, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of the outcomes and processes of engaged reading in classrooms prioritizing engagement through self-selected, self-paced reading of compelling young adult literature. The primary data were 71 end-of-year student interviews, supported by end-of-year teacher interviews, biweekly observational data,…

  15. Critical Conversations on Whiteness with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieble, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…

  16. Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. A Qualitative Survey Examining the Moral Identities of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…

  18. Tsunami Summer! 2003 Young Adult Summer Library Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Public Library Service, Montgomery.

    This manual is designed to assist public libraries in Alabama with setting up "Tsunami Summer!," a summer program for young adults, i.e., students in grades 6 through 12. The manual contains the following sections: (1) Publicity and Promotion; (2) Working with Schools; (3) Involving the Students, including teen volunteers, teen advisory councils,…

  19. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method: Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language…

  20. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913

  1. America's Young Adults: Special Issue, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Traci; Kappeler, Evelyn; Ellis, Renee; Kominski, Robert; Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica; Donoghue, Brecht; Whitestone, Yuko; Snyder, Tom; Aud, Susan; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Steve; Steffen, Barry; Madans, Jennifer; Lukacs, Susan; Pastor, Patricia; Goldstrom, Ingrid; Han, Beth; Bures, Regina; Chamberlain, Seth; Despain, Jason; Chadwick, Laura; Park, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The well-being of young adults in the United States today remains an area of key interest to the public and policy-makers alike. This age group faces the well-known challenges of achieving financial and social independence while forming their own households at a time of greater economic uncertainty than in the past. Better understanding of the…

  2. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  3. Young Adults Do Not Think World Knowledge Is Vital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    A new survey has found that most young adults in the United States have difficulty identifying Iraq on an unlabeled map of the Middle East, or are unaware that the population of China is more than four times that of the United States. This lack of geographic literacy goes beyond simple gaps in knowledge and skills for most of these people do not…

  4. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  5. Young Adult Capacity Initiative Cross-Site Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…

  6. Aesthetic Learning Theory and the Faith Formation of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Katherine M.

    2013-01-01

    Participation in the arts is a form of practical reason and as such has the potential to form and transform the faith of individuals. The findings from Katherine M. Douglass's 2011 study on the role of the arts in the faith lives of young adults provides examples of the transformative potential of the arts as they foster expression,…

  7. Cover Art, Consumerism, and YA [Young Adult] Reading Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kies, Cosette

    Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at young adults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…

  8. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  9. Strategic Selection of Children's and Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Laura M.; McIlhagga, Kristen K. A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss strategic selection of literature for children and young adults based on the characteristics of written text and images as teachers and parents choose books for classroom and home settings. The topic is approached from two stances/lenses: (1) the cognitive processes used while reading and the ways different genres, topics, and…

  10. Implicit and Explicit Learning in Young Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Julie A.; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.

    2003-01-01

    Young adults with (n=34) and without (n=41) mental retardation completed a sequence-learning and identification task. For some, sequences were constructed following an artificial grammar. Explicit learning was determined by ability to learn and identify random sequences, implicit learning by the tendency to identify incorrectly new grammatical…

  11. The Meaning of Suicide Attempts by Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everall, Robin D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes study identifying themes that characterize experiences of young adults who made one suicide attempt between the ages of 20 and 24. Six major themes identified include: family experiences, adolescent interactions, emotional experiences, self-destructive behaviors, depression, and perception of control. Views suicide attempts as a…

  12. Transglossic Language Practices of Young Adults in Bangladesh and Mongolia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender; Pennycook, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The paper explores the use of varied semiotic resources in the linguistic, social and cultural practices of young adults in the context of Bangladesh and Mongolia. Based on a translinguistic analysis (including pre-textual history, contextual relations, sub-textual meaning, intertextual echoes and post-textual interpretation) of these practices,…

  13. The Nazi Public Library and the Young Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieg, Margaret

    1986-01-01

    Service to young adults in German public libraries expanded under the Nazis because of their idealization of youth. The elaborate structure created to propagate Nazi views determined the types of books and services available. Progress resulted from the accommodation to a totalitarian creed that was essentially evil. (EM)

  14. Mapping Images to Objects by Young Adults with Cognitive Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmien, Stefan; Wohldman, Erica

    2008-01-01

    How the type of representation (icons, photos of objects in context, photos of objects in isolation) displayed on a hand-held computer affected recognition performance in young adults with cognitive disabilities was examined. Participants were required to match an object displayed on the computer to one of three pictures projected onto a screen.…

  15. ERIC/RCS: Booklists on Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorney, Jacqueline M.

    1987-01-01

    Annotates booklists of literature for young adults that were selected on the basis of their quality and interest. Topics include: (1) contemporary nonfiction; (2) fantasy, science fiction, and the supernatural; (3) titles for reluctant readers; (4) death and war; (5) love and teen sexuality; (6) science; (7) American and world culture; (8) Black…

  16. Ways to Join the Living Conversation about Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Rarely do students and teachers see themselves as people who have the authority to talk back to the gatekeepers; instead, they are on the receiving end of a conversation begun by others. But the conversation about young adult (YA) books--like the authors who write them--is a living thing. Students and teachers can help to shape it. In this…

  17. The Urban Experience in Recent Young Adult Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Guild, Sandy L.

    2002-01-01

    Uses 14 novels to illustrate 9 characteristics that exemplify the best young adult novels written about urban youth. Notes that the novels were chosen because in their characters, their settings, and the problems that drive their plots, they respond honestly and with understanding to the needs of urban teens to read about people "just like" them.…

  18. Muscle dissatisfaction in young adult men

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Backround Appearance concerns are of increasing importance in young men's lives. We investigated whether muscle dissatisfaction is associated with psychological symptoms, dietary supplement or anabolic steroid use, or physical activity in young men. Methods As a part of a questionnaire assessment of health-related behaviors in the population-based FinnTwin16 study, we assessed factors associated with muscle dissatisfaction in 1245 men aged 22–27 using logistic regression models. Results Of men, 30% experienced high muscle dissatisfaction, while 12% used supplements/steroids. Of highly muscle-dissatisfied men, 21.5% used supplements/steroids. Mean body mass index, waist circumference, or leisure aerobic activity index did not differ between individuals with high/low muscle dissatisfaction. Muscle dissatisfaction was significantly associated with a psychological and psychosomatic problems, alcohol and drug use, lower height satisfaction, sedentary lifestyle, poor subjective physical fitness, and lower life satisfaction. Conclusion Muscle dissatisfaction and supplement/steroid use are relatively common, and are associated with psychological distress and markers of sedentary lifestyle. PMID:16594989

  19. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.

  20. Recruiting Young Adult Cancer Survivors for Behavioral Research

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2012-01-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  1. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  2. Recognition and management of stroke in young adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297

  3. Reference Intervals for Plasma Amyloid β in Korean Adults Without Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Young; Kim, Kyu Nam; Cho, Hye Min; Lee, Duck Joo; Cho, Doo Yeoun

    2016-11-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are important components of plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies suggest that a low plasma ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 may precede the development of the sporadic form of AD. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for plasma Aβ in Korean adults. A total of 370 apparently healthy individuals (181 males and 189 females aged 40-69 yr) without cognitive impairment were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were measured by using a human amyloid β assay kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories, Japan). Reference intervals were established according to the "CLSI guidelines for defining, establishing, and verifying reference intervals in the clinical laboratory". There was no need to partition the data with respect to gender or age group. The 95th percentile reference intervals for Aβ40 and Aβ42 were 127-331 pg/mL and 2.31-19.84 pg/mL, respectively. The reference interval for the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was 0.011-0.092. Plasma Aβ concentrations obtained in this study could be used as reference intervals for clinical purposes. PMID:27578514

  4. Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction and Associated Factors in Korean Older Adults With Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Son, Youn-Jung; Jang, Miyoun; Jun, Eun-Young

    2016-10-01

    The current study aimed to identify the prevalence and associated factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) among 161 Korean adults 60 and older with coronary artery disease (CAD). ED was diagnosed in 72.2% of patients-the prevalence of which was significantly associated with age, education, employment, monthly income, frequency of sexual intercourse, body mass index, and low-density lipoprotein. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was lower in patients with ED than in those without ED (p < 0.001). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that ED significantly influenced HRQoL in patients with CAD after adjusting for sociodemographic and disease-related characteristic variables (p < 0.001). Interventions and training courses for health care providers should focus on improving caregivers' knowledge and communication skills with patients and spouses regarding sexual health. Furthermore, guidelines to improve HRQoL in patients with CAD should consider incorporating sexual counseling. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(10), 32-41.]. PMID:27379456

  5. Reference Intervals for Plasma Amyloid β in Korean Adults Without Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Young; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Cho, Hye-Min; Lee, Duck-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are important components of plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies suggest that a low plasma ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 may precede the development of the sporadic form of AD. The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for plasma Aβ in Korean adults. A total of 370 apparently healthy individuals (181 males and 189 females aged 40-69 yr) without cognitive impairment were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were measured by using a human amyloid β assay kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories, Japan). Reference intervals were established according to the "CLSI guidelines for defining, establishing, and verifying reference intervals in the clinical laboratory". There was no need to partition the data with respect to gender or age group. The 95th percentile reference intervals for Aβ40 and Aβ42 were 127-331 pg/mL and 2.31-19.84 pg/mL, respectively. The reference interval for the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio was 0.011-0.092. Plasma Aβ concentrations obtained in this study could be used as reference intervals for clinical purposes. PMID:27578514

  6. Biomarker-based prognostic stratification of young adult glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Qi; Shi, Zhifeng; Chen, Hong; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yin, Zi; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wu, Jinsong; Zhou, Liangfu; Chan, Aden Ka-Yin; Mao, Ying; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-26

    While the predominant elderly and the pediatric glioblastomas have been extensively investigated, young adult glioblastomas were understudied. In this study, we sought to stratify young adult glioblastomas by BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations and examine the clinical relevance of the biomarkers. In 107 glioblastomas aged from 17 to 35 years, mutually exclusive BRAF-V600E (15%), H3F3A-K27M (15.9%), H3F3A-G34R/V (2.8%) and IDH1-R132H (16.8%) mutations were identified in over half of the cases. EGFR amplification and TERTp mutation were only detected in 3.7% and 8.4% in young adult glioblastomas, respectively. BRAF-V600E identified a clinically favorable subset of glioblastomas with younger age, frequent CDKN2A homozygous deletion, and was more amendable to surgical resection. H3F3A-K27M mutated glioblastomas were tightly associated with midline locations and showed dismal prognosis. IDH1-R132H was associated with older age and favorable outcome. Interestingly, tumors with positive PDGFRA immunohistochemical expression exhibited poorer prognosis and identified an aggressive subset of tumors among K27M mutated glioblastomas. Combining BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations allowed stratification of young adult glioblastomas into four prognostic subgroups. In summary, our study demonstrates the clinical values of stratifying young adult glioblastomas with BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations, which has important implications in refining prognostic classification of glioblastomas. PMID:26452024

  7. Biomarker-based prognostic stratification of young adult glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Chung, Nellie Yuk-Fei; Yin, Zi; Li, Kay Ka-Wai; Chan, Danny Tat-Ming; Poon, Wai Sang; Wu, Jinsong; Zhou, Liangfu; Chan, Aden Ka-yin; Mao, Ying; Ng, Ho-Keung

    2016-01-01

    While the predominant elderly and the pediatric glioblastomas have been extensively investigated, young adult glioblastomas were understudied. In this study, we sought to stratify young adult glioblastomas by BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations and examine the clinical relevance of the biomarkers. In 107 glioblastomas aged from 17 to 35 years, mutually exclusive BRAF-V600E (15%), H3F3A-K27M (15.9%), H3F3A-G34R/V (2.8%) and IDH1-R132H (16.8%) mutations were identified in over half of the cases. EGFR amplification and TERTp mutation were only detected in 3.7% and 8.4% in young adult glioblastomas, respectively. BRAF-V600E identified a clinically favorable subset of glioblastomas with younger age, frequent CDKN2A homozygous deletion, and was more amendable to surgical resection. H3F3A-K27M mutated glioblastomas were tightly associated with midline locations and showed dismal prognosis. IDH1-R132H was associated with older age and favorable outcome. Interestingly, tumors with positive PDGFRA immunohistochemical expression exhibited poorer prognosis and identified an aggressive subset of tumors among K27M mutated glioblastomas. Combining BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations allowed stratification of young adult glioblastomas into four prognostic subgroups. In summary, our study demonstrates the clinical values of stratifying young adult glioblastomas with BRAF, H3F3A and IDH1 mutations, which has important implications in refining prognostic classification of glioblastomas. PMID:26452024

  8. Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes.

  9. Osteoporosis, vitamin C intake, and physical activity in Korean adults aged 50 years and over.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Hee; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] To investigate associations between vitamin C intake, physical activity, and osteoporosis among Korean adults aged 50 and over. [Subjects and Methods] This study was based on bone mineral density measurement data from the 2008 to 2011 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. The study sample comprised 3,047 subjects. The normal group was defined as T-score ≥ -1.0, and the osteoporosis group as T-score ≤ -2.5. The odds ratios for osteoporosis were assessed by logistic regression of each vitamin C intake quartile. [Results] Compared to the lowest quartile of vitamin C intake, the other quartiles showed a lower likelihood of osteoporosis after adjusting for age and gender. In the multi-variate model, the odds ratio for the likelihood of developing osteoporosis in the non-physical activity group significantly decreased to 0.66, 0.57, and 0.46 (p for trend = 0.0046). However, there was no significant decrease (0.98, 1.00, and 0.97) in the physical activity group. [Conclusion] Higher vitamin C intake levels were associated with a lower risk of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged over 50 with low levels of physical activity. However, no association was seen between vitamin C intake and osteoporosis risk in those with high physical activity levels.

  10. Clinical features and outcomes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis pathologic variants in Korean adult patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that clinical characteristics and outcomes differ depending on pathologic variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). However, these are not well defined in Asian populations. Methods This retrospective study evaluated clinical features and outcomes of pathologic FSGS variants in 111 adult patients between January 2004 and December 2012. Primary outcome was the composite of doubling of baseline serum creatinine concentrations (D-SCr) or onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Secondary outcome included complete (CR) or partial remission (PR). Results There were 70 (63.1%), 20 (18.0%), 17 (15.3%), 3 (2.7%), and 1 (0.9%) patients with not-otherwise specified (NOS), tip, perihilar, cellular, and collapsing variants, respectively. At presentation, nephrotic-range proteinuria occurred more commonly in tip lesion than in other variants. The overall 5-year renal survival rate was 76.8%. During a median follow-up of 34.5 months, only 1 (5.0%) patient with a tip lesion reached the composite end point compared to 2 (11.8%) and 12 (17.1%) patients in perihilar and NOS variants, but this difference was not statistically significant in an adjusted Cox model. However, tip lesion was associated with a significantly increased probability of achieving CR (P = 0.044). Conclusion Similar to other populations, Korean adult patients with FSGS have distinct clinical features with the exception of a rare frequency of cellular and collapsing variants. Although pathologic variants were not associated with overall outcome, the tip variant exhibited favorable outcome in terms of achieving remission. Further studies are required to delineate long-term outcome and response to treatment of the pathologic variants. PMID:24666814

  11. Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, β-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake. PMID:21103089

  12. 1 in 13 Young Adults in U.S. Considered Suicide in Past Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159412.html 1 in 13 Young Adults in U.S. Considered Suicide ... 2016 THURSDAY, June 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- About one in 13 young adults in the United States ...

  13. Combinations of Types of Mental Health Services Received in the Past Year Among Young Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... 08, 2015* Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults Combinations of types of mental health services received in the past year among young adults ...

  14. Text comprehension products and processes in young, young-old, and old-old adults.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Debra

    2009-03-01

    Aging may be associated with an increase in generalized text processing, particularly in adults older than 75 years. The current study examined text comprehension in young, young-old, and old-old adults. Experiment 1 included a comprehension measure (product) and Experiment 2 examined inferences generated during reading (process). Comprehension scores were lowest in old-old adults. Generalized and elaborative inference scores were highest in old-old adults. Participants over 65 years with the lowest scores on cognitive integrity variables also had significantly lower comprehension scores, but there was no effect of cognitive integrity on inference scores. This dissociation suggests that inferential processes may be maintained even when cognitive integrity and comprehension declines are present. Relevance to cognitive aging theories addressing text processing and self-regulatory processes is addressed.

  15. Semantic satiation in healthy young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Balota, D A; Black, S

    1997-03-01

    In four experiments, semantic satiation was investigated in young and old adults. In the first two experiments, subjects were repeatedly presented a word (e.g., DOG) and then were presented a pair of words (e.g., DOG-CAT or DOG-CHAIR) for a relatedness decision. The results of both experiments indicated that for the young adults, the relatedness effect (the difference between response latency on related and unrelated trials) decreased as a function of the number of times the satiated word was repeated, whereas for the older adults, there was no evidence of a decrease in the relatedness effect across repetitions of the satiated word. In the third experiment, we investigated whether phonological codes are also susceptible to satiation. This experiment was similar to the first two experiments with the exception that subjects made rhyme decisions (SAME-CLAIM VS. SAME-DIME) instead of semantic relatedness decisions. The results of this experiment did not yield any evidence of satiation for either the young adults or the older adults. The final experiment eliminated a simple decrease in attentional alertness or fatigue account of the semantic satiation effects found in the first two experiments. In this experiment, the repeated word was always unrelated to the pair of words presented for the relatedness decision. The results of this experiment did not yield any evidence of semantic satiation for either the young or the older adults. The discussion focuses on the mechanisms underlying semantic satiation and the implications of age-related changes in these mechanisms.

  16. Association Between Obesity and Falls Among Korean Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Sim, Songyong; Park, Bumjung; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between falls and obesity using Asian body mass index (BMI) classifications. Using the data from the Korean community health survey in 2011, a total of 229,226 participants ranging from 19 to 106 years old were included in this study. The BMI groups were classified as underweight (<18.5), healthy (18.5 ≤ BMI < 23), overweight (23 ≤ BMI <25), and obese (≥25) using Asian BMI classifications. The associations between BMI groups and falls (≥1 time or ≥2 times per year) were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. A subgroup analysis was conducted according to age (19-40, 41-60, and ≥61 years) and the location of the fall (indoor and outdoor). Physical activity, household income, education level, alcohol consumption, smoking, stress level, and medical comorbidities were adjusted as confounders. In total, 16.8% and 6.1% of the participants experienced falls ≥1 time and ≥2 times per year, respectively. Compared to the healthy weight group, the other BMI groups showed a significant U-shaped relationship with falls ≥1 time (AOR underweight = 1.12, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.05-1.19; AOR obese = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02-1.10, P < 0.001) and ≥2 times (AOR underweight = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.26; AOR obese = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99-1.10, P < 0.001). Obese status was significantly associated with falls (≥1 fall per year) in all age groups, whereas being underweight was significantly associated with falls in the 19 to 40 year age group only. In conclusion, both underweight and obese statuses were significantly associated with falls in this adult Korean population. However, the relationship between BMI group and falls varied according to age and the location of the falls. PMID:27015190

  17. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  18. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  19. A comparison of food and nutrient intake between instant noodle consumers and non-instant noodle consumers in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang

    2011-01-01

    Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682

  20. Social Activities, Socioeconomic Factors, and Overweight Status Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Christine; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between social activities and overweight among middle-aged and older adults. This study used data from the 2008 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging which included a total of 8157 adults. We divided body mass index into 2 groups: normal weight and overweight. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between social activities and overweight. For males, frequency of meetings with neighbors (1-3 times a week) was associated with being less overweight. Middle-aged adults who met with neighbors 1 to 3 times a week were less likely being overweight than those with once a year meeting frequency. On the contrary, social activity participation is related with high risk of overweight especially in the female and older adults. Our results suggest that social activity participation and social support needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with being overweight.

  1. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p<0.05) and the welfare system (p<0.01) and had lower earnings (p<0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  2. Long-Term Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Varona, Jose F.

    2011-01-01

    There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The present paper reviews the most relevant published information concerning long-term prognosis and predictors of unfavorable outcomes of ischemic stroke affecting young adults. As a summary, we can conclude that, in the long term, stroke in the young adult increases slightly the risk of mortality, implies higher risk of future cardiovascular events, and determines functional limitations in a significant percentage of patients. Nevertheless, in every individual case the prognosis has to be considered depending on several factors (stroke subtype, initial severity, cardiovascular risk factors) that determine the long-term outcomes. PMID:21197408

  3. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Altszuler, Amy R; Page, Timothy F; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-08-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p < 0.05) and the welfare system (p < 0.01) and had lower earnings (p < 0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000-$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  4. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use.

  5. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from Manufacturing and Automotive Career Pathway Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…

  6. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  7. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  8. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Hands-On Multidisciplinary Career Exploration and Mentorships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…

  9. A Comparison of Support for Two Groups of Young Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…

  10. "I will guide you" The indirect link between overparenting and young adults' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Sofie; Scharf, Miri

    2015-08-30

    This study addresses knowledge gaps regarding family dynamics, and identifies young adults at-risk for psychopathological symptoms. In particular, we examined overparenting and its associations with young adults' adjustment (distress and interpersonal sensitivity). Both direct and indirect relations were assessed, the latter through young adults' relational characteristics (attachment, psychological control perception, and boundaries diffusion perception). Also, the contribution of gender of parents and young adults was addressed. Questionnaires were collected from 89 Jewish-Israeli intact families. Mothers reported significantly more use of overparenting than fathers. More overparenting of fathers had a direct relation with less adjustment in young adults. This direct relation was partially mediated by higher levels of young adults' attachment anxiety (for the dependent variables distress and interpersonal sensitivity) and young adults' perceptions of parental psychological control (for the dependent variable distress). More overparenting of mothers was related to less interpersonal sensitivity for male young adults and for young adults who reported less parental psychological control. This study showed that parenting qualities and their interplay with young adults' relational characteristics continue to play an important role in the lives of young adult offspring. Therefore, clinicians dealing with young adults at risk for, or suffering from, psychopathology, should be attentive to overparenting and its possible implications.

  11. Direct Effects of Assets and Savings on the College Progress of Black Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William; Nam, Ilsung

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive data indicate that 62% of White young adults between the ages of 17 and 23 years were on course (i.e., either in college or have graduated from college) in 2007, compared with only 37% of Black young adults. Given this, finding novel and promising ways to promote college progress among Black young adults, in particular, is a growing…

  12. 76 FR 23479 - Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Interim final rule with... Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult... age of 26 of uniformed services sponsors. The TRICARE Young ] Adult program is a premium-based...

  13. 78 FR 58290 - TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Register (FR) on May 29, 2013 (78 FR 32116-32121) sets forth rules to implement the TRICARE Young Adult... of the Secretary TRICARE; Calendar Year 2014 TRICARE Young Adult Program Premium Update AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Defense, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Updated TRICARE Young Adult Premiums...

  14. Promising Practices in Young Adult Employment: Lessons Learned from EMT Career Pathway Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Loh-Sze

    2015-01-01

    The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study will focus on challenges and…

  15. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  16. The Association between Coffee Consumption and Bone Status in Young Adult Males according to Calcium Intake Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between coffee consumption and bone status (bone mineral density and bone metabolism-related markers) according to calcium intake level in Korean young adult males. Healthy and nonsmoking males (19-26 years, n = 330) participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, and nutrient intakes were surveyed. Bone status of the calcaneus was measured by using quantitative ultrasound (QUS). Bone metabolism-related markers including serum total alkaline phosphatase activity (TALP), N-mid osteocalcin (OC), and type 1 collagen C-terminal telopeptide (1CTP) were analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on daily calcium intake level: a calcium-sufficient group (calcium intake ≥ 75% RI, n = 171) and a calcium-deficient group (calcium intake < 75% RI, n = 159). Each group was then further divided into three subgroups based on daily average coffee consumption: no-coffee, less than one serving of coffee per day, and one or more servings of coffee per day. There were no significant differences in height, body weight, body mass index, energy intake, or calcium intake among the three coffee consumption subgroups. QUS parameters and serum 1CTP, TALP, and OC were not significantly different among either the two calcium-intake groups or the three coffee consumption subgroups. Our results may show that current coffee consumption level in Korean young men is not significantly associated with their bone status and metabolism according to the calcium intake level. PMID:27482522

  17. Visual statistical learning in children and young adults: how implicit?

    PubMed Central

    Bertels, Julie; Boursain, Emeline; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Gaillard, Vinciane

    2015-01-01

    Visual statistical learning (VSL) is the ability to extract the joint and conditional probabilities of shapes co-occurring during passive viewing of complex visual configurations. Evidence indicates that even infants are sensitive to these regularities (e.g., Kirkham et al., 2002). However, there is continuing debate as to whether VSL is accompanied by conscious awareness of the statistical regularities between sequence elements. Bertels et al. (2012) addressed this question in young adults. Here, we adapted their paradigm to investigate VSL and conscious awareness in children. Using the same version of the paradigm, we also tested young adults so as to directly compare results from both age groups. Fifth graders and undergraduates were exposed to a stream of visual shapes arranged in triplets. Learning of these sequences was then assessed using both direct and indirect measures. In order to assess the extent to which learning occurred explicitly, we also measured confidence through subjective measures in the direct task (i.e., binary confidence judgments). Results revealed that both children and young adults learned the statistical regularities between shapes. In both age groups, participants who performed above chance in the completion task had conscious access to their knowledge. Nevertheless, although adults performed above chance even when they claimed to guess, there was no evidence of implicit knowledge in children. These results suggest that the role of implicit and explicit influences in VSL may follow a developmental trajectory. PMID:25620943

  18. Understanding Gender through Disney's Marriages: A Study of Young Korean Immigrant Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lena

    2008-01-01

    Much American popular culture has often been criticized for its negative portrayals of females and its potentially harmful influence on young children. However, there are insufficient studies about American young girls' actual understanding of these female representations. Specifically, the perspectives of young immigrant girls have hardly been…

  19. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child’s age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child’s age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child’s age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child’s age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed. PMID:20657803

  20. Communication approaches to parent-child conflict: young adolescence to young adult.

    PubMed

    Riesch, Susan K; Jackson, Norma M; Chanchong, Weena

    2003-08-01

    As trusted and accessible health care providers, pediatric nurses are asked frequently for advice on the rearing of children and adolescents, particularly during developmental transitions. The parent-adolescent relationship has been characterized as a continuing renegotiation of relational qualities. Aspects of communication, such as conflicts and approaches to them, expose the re-negotiation process. The purpose of this study was to examine how communication approaches and topics of conflict in a parent child relationship evolved over 10 years. Thirty-three families with young adults as children between the ages of 22 and 26 years old responded to a survey about conflict and conflict resolution. Parents and young adults, as respondents, were asked to describe two incidents of conflict. The first incident was a conflict from the past, when the young adult was 11 to 14, and the second incident was a conflict they recently experienced. Inductive analyses were used to substantiate themes from the data. Regarding past topics of conflict, parents and young adults had no difficulty recalling incidents. The approaches to solving the past conflicts were seldom effective. Both parent and teenager were reactive, negative, confrontational, or avoidant. Occasionally, incidents that reflected thinking, planning ahead, and caring were reported. Descriptions of more recent experiences indicated less conflict and more direct and healthy communication approaches; although manipulative, negative, and intimidating tactics were present. PMID:12923735

  1. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  2. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual's knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli.

  3. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual's knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  4. Associations of Low Environmental Exposure to Multiple Metals with Renal Tubular Impairment in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungryul; Lim, Ji-ae; Choi, Jong Hyuk; Kwon, Ho-jang; Ha, Mina; Kim, Heon; Park, Jung-duck

    2016-01-01

    Recently several studies reported that the renal toxicity of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) may exist in even a low level exposure. In terms of the deterioration of tubular function, it affects the loss of divalent metals and leads to other complications, so renal tubular effect of heavy metals should be well managed. Considering the exposure to heavy metals in reality, it is hard to find the case that human is exposed to only one heavy metal. We designed a cross-sectional study using Korean Research Project on the Integrated Exposure Assessment (KRIEFS) data to investigate the renal effects of multiple metal exposure in general population. We used blood Pb and urinary Cd as exposure measures, and urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) as renal tubular impairment outcome. We conducted linear regression to identify the association between each heavy metal and urinary NAG and β2-MG. And then, we conducted linear regression including the interaction term. Of 1953 adults in KRIEFS (2010~2011), the geometric mean of blood Pb and urinary Cd concentration was 2.21 μg/dL (geometric SD = 1.49 μg/dL) and 1.08 μg/g cr (geometric SD = 1.98 μg/g cr), respectively. In urinary Cd, the strength of the association was also high after adjusting (urinary NAG: β = 0.44, p < 0.001; urinary β2-MG: β = 0.13, p = 0.002). Finally, we identified the positive interactions for the two renal biomarkers. The interaction effect of the two heavy metals of β2-MG was greater than that of NAG. It is very important in public health perspective if the low level exposure to multiple heavy metals has an interaction effect on kidney. More epidemiological studies for the interaction and toxicological studies on the mechanism are needed. PMID:26977259

  5. Association between urinary levels of bisphenol-A and estrogen metabolism in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jee; Lee, Dongho; Chung, Bong Chul; Pyo, Heesoo; Lee, Jeongae

    2014-02-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) possesses estrogenic properties both in vitro and in vivo as an endocrine disrupting chemical. Humans experience a long-term and cumulative exposure to BPA. BPA was detectable in 97.3% of 1904 urine specimens from Korean adults. We investigated urinary estrogen concentrations in subjects with low and high BPA concentrations and its possible association with estrogen metabolism. Urine samples were collected from a high BPA concentration group (BPA-H; n=100, 11.05 ± 20.47 μg/g creatinine) and a low BPA concentration group (BPA-L; n=100, 0.70 ± 0.22 μg/g creatinine) from Korea Biomonitoring Program of Hazardous Materials Survey 2009-2010. Urinary estrogens were enzymatically hydrolyzed, extracted, and then derivatized for quantitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Estrogen levels were higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group. Concentrations of estrone, 17β-estradiol, and their hydroxylated metabolites in both men and women were significantly higher in the BPA-H group than in the BPA-L group (p<0.04). Furthermore, in the BPA-H group, estrogen metabolism to 4-hydroxy-estrone and 4-hydroxy-17β-estradiol was more active than that to 2-hydroxy-estrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol. Although single measurement and/or single spot urine samples limit the measurement of long-term exposure to BPA, we found significant differences of estrogen metabolism in the BPA-H and the BPA-L groups. The increase of hydroxyestrogens, especially 4-hydroxyestrogens, can be an important factor resulting negative effects of prolonged exposure to BPA. PMID:23954212

  6. The Association between Midnight Salivary Cortisol and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Mi; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Dong Lim; Kim, Suk Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    Background The common characteristics of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Cushing's syndrome suggest that excess cortisol may be involved in the pathogenesis of MetS. Salivary cortisol measurements are simple and can be surrogates for plasma free cortisol, which is the most biologically active form. We evaluated the association between levels of midnight salivary cortisol and MetS in Korean adults. Methods A total of 46 subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, who visited the Health Care Center at Konkuk University Hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 were enrolled. We compared the levels of midnight salivary cortisol in subjects with MetS with those in subjects without MetS. We analyzed the associations between midnight salivary cortisol levels and components of MetS. Results Midnight salivary cortisol levels were higher in the MetS group (70±42.4 ng/dL, n=12) than that in the group without MetS (48.1±36.8 ng/dL, n=34) (P=0.001). Positive correlations were observed between midnight salivary cortisol levels and waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. The risk for MetS was significantly higher in subjects with midnight salivary cortisol levels ≥100 ng/dL than in those with levels <50 ng/dL (odds ratio, 5.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.35 to 36.4). Conclusion The results showed a positive correlation between midnight salivary cortisol levels and MetS, suggesting that hypercortisolism may be related to MetS. PMID:22737665

  7. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers.

  8. Dietary quality differs by consumption of meals prepared at home vs. outside in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Won; Song, Won O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Eating out has been reported to have negative effects on nutritional status. However, eating out can include meals prepared at home and eaten outside. Conversely, meals eaten at home can be brought from outside, as take-out and home deliveries have become common in Korea. Thus, we tested whether or not meal preparation location influences daily diet quality. SUBJECTS/METHODS From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2007-2009, 4,915 Korean adults (20-64 years) were classified into two groups: home-made meal group (HMG), who ate ≥ 2 meals per day prepared at home (n = 4,146), and non-home-made meal group (NHMG), who ate ≥ 2 meals per day prepared outside home (n = 769). Daily diet quality was determined by energy intake, nutrient intake, Dietary Variety Score (DVS), and Diet Diversity Score (DDS). RESULTS Compared to the HMG, the NHMG was more likely to consist of men, single, employed, educated and of a higher economic status (all, P < 0.01). The NHMG showed higher energy intakes (1,776 vs. 2,116 kcal/day) with higher percentages of energy from protein (15 vs. 23%) and fat (14 vs. 16%) and lower intakes of dietary fiber, phosphorus, potassium, niacin, and vitamin C (all, P < 0.01) than the HMG, with some variations among age groups. The NHMG tended to consume foods prepared by frying and grilling and had more one-dish meals such as bibimbap, noodles, and dumplings but also showed higher dietary diversity. CONCLUSIONS It should be noted that home-made meals do not necessarily guarantee a healthy diet, and the effects of meal preparation location on nutritional status might vary depending on socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:27247726

  9. Daily activities and sleep quality in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Pichler-Mowry, Rene

    2011-04-01

    Daily activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in young adult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the Young Adult Daily Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical daily activities and three blank items for students to include their daily activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking daily activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753

  10. Reinforcement Learning in Young Adults with Developmental Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank et al., 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank’s model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI. PMID:22921956

  11. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood.

  12. Dissociative Symptoms and Mother's Marital Status in Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years’ old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather’ presence in the family. PMID:25590849

  13. Adolescent and young adult cancer: principles of care

    PubMed Central

    Ramphal, R.; Aubin, S.; Czaykowski, P.; De Pauw, S.; Johnson, A.; McKillop, S.; Szwajcer, D.; Wilkins, K.; Rogers, P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (ayas) with cancer in active treatment face a number of barriers to optimal care. In the present article, we focus on the 3 critical domains of care for ayas—medical, psychosocial, and research—and how changes to the system could overcome barriers. We summarize the current literature, outline recommended principles of care, raise awareness of barriers to optimal care, and suggest specific changes to the system to overcome those barriers in the Canadian context. Many of the recommendations can nevertheless be applied universally. These recommendations are endorsed by the Canadian Task Force on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer and build on outcomes from two international workshops held by that group. PMID:27330350

  14. Reinforcement learning in young adults with developmental language impairment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joanna C; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine reinforcement learning (RL) in young adults with developmental language impairment (DLI) within the context of a neurocomputational model of the basal ganglia-dopamine system (Frank, Seeberger, & O'Reilly, 2004). Two groups of young adults, one with DLI and the other without, were recruited. A probabilistic selection task was used to assess how participants implicitly extracted reinforcement history from the environment based on probabilistic positive/negative feedback. The findings showed impaired RL in individuals with DLI, indicating an altered gating function of the striatum in testing. However, they exploited similar learning strategies as comparison participants at the beginning of training, reflecting relatively intact functions of the prefrontal cortex to rapidly update reinforcement information. Within the context of Frank's model, these results can be interpreted as evidence for alterations in the basal ganglia of individuals with DLI.

  15. Contextual profiles of young adult Ecstasy users: a multisite study

    PubMed Central

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B

    2010-01-01

    These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 young adult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among young adults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use. PMID:21094585

  16. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  17. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  18. Genetic and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol Use in Asian American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; Lau, Anna S.; Lee, Steve S.; Ray, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Among Asian American young adults, variations in alcohol-metabolizing genes (i.e., aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH2] and alcohol dehydrogenase [ADH1B]) are protective, whereas Korean ethnicity, family history of alcohol problems (FH), and acculturation represent risk factors for alcohol misuse. This study aims to integrate these genetic and environmental factors in a sample of Asian Americans expressing a wide range of alcohol use behaviors and problems. Method: Participants were 97 Asian American young adults (42% female) recruited as heavy and light drinkers (n = 49 and 48, respectively). Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Timeline Followback, Vancouver Acculturation Index, and Family Tree Questionnaire. All participants provided buccal cell samples for DNA analysis. Results: Family history–positive (FH+) subjects reported greater alcohol use than family history–negative (FH–) subjects. A FH × ALDH2 interaction was observed such that FH– subjects demonstrated no ALDH2 effect, yet in FH+ subjects, the ALDH2*2 genotype was associated with increased alcohol use. A significant main effect of acculturation was also moderated by FH such that the positive association between acculturation and alcohol use was greater among FH+ subjects and, in particular, among FH+ men. Conclusions: Although preliminary, these results suggest that the potential protective effects conferred by ALDH2 and ADH1B are moderated by FH, such that a positive FH appeared to abolish the protective effect of these genes. Further, acculturation was associated with greater alcohol use in FH+ subjects only. If replicated in larger samples, these data suggest that alcohol-metabolism genes may not be protective in the context of high environmental risk. PMID:26402349

  19. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate according to the Pulmonary Function of Korean Adults Aged 40 Years and Over: Analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Influenza vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality, particularly for those who have decreased lung functions. This study was to identify the factors that affect vaccination coverage according to the results of pulmonary function tests depending on the age. In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 3,224 adults over the age of 40 who participated in the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and underwent pulmonary function testing in 2012. To identify the factors that affect vaccination rate, logistic regression analysis was conducted after dividing the subjects into two groups based on the age of 65. Influenza vaccination coverage of the entire subjects was 45.2%, and 76.8% for those aged 65 and over. The group with abnormal pulmonary function had a higher vaccination rate than the normal group, but any pulmonary dysfunction or history of COPD did not affect the vaccination coverage in the multivariate analysis. The subjects who were 40-64 years-old had higher vaccination coverage when they were less educated or with restricted activity level, received health screenings, and had chronic diseases. Those aged 65 and over had significantly higher vaccination coverage only when they received regular health screenings. Any pulmonary dysfunction or having COPD showed no significant correlation with the vaccination coverage in the Korean adult population. PMID:27134491

  20. Effects of blood lead levels on airflow limitations in Korean adults: Findings from the 5th KNHNES 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hye Kyung; Chang, Yoon Soo; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to examine whether blood levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury and cadmium, are related with pulmonary function in Korean adults. This investigation included 870 Korean adults (≥40 years) who received pulmonary function testing in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-2, 2011. Data of blood levels of heavy metals, pulmonary function tests and anthropometric measurements were acquired. Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio before (r=−0.276, p<0.001) and after adjustment of multiple compounding factors (r=−0.115, p=0.001). A logistic multiple regression analysis revealed that blood lead levels were a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio (β=−0.017, p=0.001, adjusted R{sup 2}=0.267). The odds ratios (ORs) for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the highest tertile group of the blood lead levels than in the lowest tertile group in Model 1 (OR=0.007, 95% CI=0.000−0.329) and Model 2 (OR=0.006, 95% CI=0.000−0.286). These findings imply that environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor that may cause airflow limitations in Korean adults. - Highlights: • Blood lead levels showed inverse correlations with the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • Blood lead level was a significant influencing factor for the FEV{sub 1}/FVC ratio. • ORs for FEV{sub 1}/FVC were lower in the highest blood lead group than in the lowest group. • Environmental exposure to lead might be an important factor for airflow limitations.

  1. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  2. Working memory training using EEG neurofeedback in normal young adults.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shi; Cheng, Chen; Wu, Xia; Guo, Xiaojuan; Yao, Li; Zhang, Jiacai

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that working memory (WM) performance can be improved by intensive and adaptive computerized training. Here, we explored the WM training effect using Electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback (NF) in normal young adults. In the first study, we identified the EEG features related to WM in normal young adults. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that the power ratio of the theta-to-alpha rhythms in the anterior-parietal region, accurately classified a high percentage of the EEG trials recorded during WM and fixation control (FC) tasks. Based on these results, a second study aimed to assess the training effects of the theta-to-alpha ratio and tested the hypothesis that up-regulating the power ratio can improve working memory behavior. Our results demonstrated that these normal young adults succeeded in improving their WM performance with EEG NF, and the pre- and post-test evaluations also indicated that WM performance increase in experimental group was significantly greater than control groups. In summary, our findings provided preliminarily evidence that WM performance can be improved through learned regulation of the EEG power ratio using EEG NF.

  3. Prediction of outcomes in young adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Silky; Ahn, Sung-Yong; Moon, Hong-Joo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Heung-Seob; Chung, Yong-Gu; Kwon, Taek-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is rare in young adults and little is known about aneurysms in this subgroup. The effect of clinical and prognostic factors on the outcome based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores and the predictors of unfavorable outcomes were analyzed in young adults with aneurysmal SAH. A retrospective review of the clinical parameters, including age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, hyperlipidemia, location of the cerebral aneurysm, size of the aneurysm, multiplicity, perioperative complication such as hydrocephalus, vasospasm, and hematoma, and Hunt and Hess and Fisher grading on presentation, was conducted in 108 young adults (mean age 34.8 years) managed at our institute. The outcome was classified based on GOS grading into unfavorable (GOS scores 1-3) or favorable (GOS scores 4 or 5). The overall mortality rate was 3.7% (4/108 patients). Univariate regression analysis for the outcomes at discharge found that age at the time of presentation, male sex, size of aneurysm, multiple aneurysms, hyperlipidemia, and poor Hunt and Hess and Fischer grades were associated with unfavorable outcome. Multivariate regression analysis found independent effects of sex, multiple aneurysms, size of aneurysm, and Hunt and Hess grade on the outcome at discharge. Size of aneurysm, presence of multiple aneurysms, Hunt and Hess grade, and hypertension were the predictors of outcome at mean 2-year follow up based on multivariate exact regression analysis. The multimodal approach with aggressive medical management, early intervention, and surgical treatment might contribute to favorable long-term outcomes in patients with poor expected outcomes.

  4. Health Disparities Among Young Adult Sexual Minorities in the US

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Herring, Amy H.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging research suggests that young adult sexual minorities (identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or engaging in same-sex attractions or behaviors) experience poorer health than their majority counterparts, but many measures of health inequity remain unexamined in population-based research. Purpose To describe a wide range of health status and healthcare access characteristics of sexual minorities in comparison with those of the majority population in a national sample of U.S. young adults. Methods Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses of Wave IV data (2008) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 24–32 years, n=13,088) were conducted. Health measures were self-rated health; diagnosis of any of several physical or mental illnesses or sexually transmitted infections; measured body mass index; depression classified from self-reported symptoms; use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medication; uninsured; forgone care; and receipt of physical, dental, and psychological services. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2013. Results Sexual minority women had elevated odds of most adverse health conditions and lower odds of receiving a physical or dental examination. Sexual minority men had elevated odds of fewer adverse health conditions. Conclusions Young adult sexual minorities are at higher risk of poor physical and mental health. The results highlight the multidimensionality of sexual minority status and respond to calls for greater understanding of the health of this population. PMID:25241194

  5. Suicide Risks among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sibo; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA) study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age. PMID:25546276

  6. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics. PMID:26284999

  7. Social models of HIV risk among young adults in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola L

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research over the past 30 years has revealed that individual and social determinants impact HIV risk. Even so, prevention efforts focus primarily on individual behaviour change, with little recognition of the dynamic interplay of individual and social environment factors that further exacerbate risk engagement. Drawing on long-term research with young adults in Lesotho, I examine how social environment factors contribute to HIV risk. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, I developed novel scales to measure social control, adoption of modernity, and HIV knowledge. In survey research, I examined the effects of individual characteristics (i.e., socioeconomic status, HIV knowledge, adoption of modernity) and social environment (i.e., social control) on HIV risk behaviours. In addition, I measured the impact of altered environments by taking advantage of an existing situation whereby young adults attending a national college are assigned to either a main campus in a metropolitan setting or a satellite campus in a remote setting, irrespective of the environment in which they were socialised as youth. This arbitrary assignment process generates four distinct groups of young adults with altered or constant environments. Regression models show that lower levels of perceived social control and greater adoption of modernity are associated with HIV risk, controlling for other factors. The impact of social control and modernity varies with environment dynamics.

  8. YOUNG ADULT DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SEXUAL RISK

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Flanigan, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize ‘risk management’ as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015

  9. Influence of message error type on Korean adults' attitudes toward an individual who uses augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Hyun Jung; Park, Eun Hye

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of types of message errors on the attitudes of Korean adults toward a person who uses AAC. The attitudes of 72 adults who speak native Korean were examined through attitude questionnaires completed after viewing videotaped conversations between a boy with cerebral palsy and an adult without disabilities. Each interaction video involved a message with one of six error types, including various types of syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic errors. The participants provided information on their attitude towards the person who used AAC, and ranked their preferences among the six messages. The results provide evidence that attitudes towards the individual using AAC were most positive (in comparison with other conditions) when a pragmatic error was observed. Messages containing a syntactic error were ranked most favorably. Spearman's correlation analyses revealed some relationship between attitudes rating and preferences ranking. Our results provide evidence that specific language and cultural contexts may play an important role in shaping attitudes toward those who use AAC. PMID:25716683

  10. Dental pain related to quality of life and mental health in South Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Min, Jung-Ah; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-12-01

    High levels of stress, anxiety and depression have been reported in patients with orofacial pain. Dental pain has the potential to reduce quality of life (QOL), and pain relief is important aspect of QOL. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships of dental pain with QOL and mental health using a nationally representative, population-based study. This study analyzed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 5469). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was evaluated using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS, and mental health was evaluated by questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 5469 adults, 1992 (36.42%) presented self-reported dental pain. Participants with anxiety/depression or pain/discomfort, and participants with stress, melancholy, suicidal thought or depression showed significantly higher prevalence of dental pain. After adjusting for covariates, five aspects of QOL and five aspects of mental health were related with dental pain. The AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.39 (1.06-1.81) for mobility, 1.77 (1.19-2.63) for self-care, 1.38 (1.02-1.85) for usual activities, 1.73 (1.43-2.09) for pain/discomfort and 1.50 (1.13-1.98) for anxiety/depression. For mental health status factors, the AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.29 (1.11-1.51) for stress, 1.37 (1.09-1.74) for melancholy, 1.26 (1.01-1.58) for suicidal thoughts, 1.43 (.93-2.19) for consultation to psychiatrist and 1.53 (1.07-2.19) for depression. This study showed that dental pain has an association with lower HRQOL and worse mental health status in South Korean adults.

  11. HDRK-Man: a whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of a Korean adult male cadaver.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Hyeong; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Choonsik; Chung, Min Suk

    2008-08-01

    A Korean voxel model, named 'High-Definition Reference Korean-Man (HDRK-Man)', was constructed using high-resolution color photographic images that were obtained by serially sectioning the cadaver of a 33-year-old Korean adult male. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The resulting model was then implemented into a Monte Carlo particle transport code, MCNPX, to calculate the dose conversion coefficients for the internal organs and tissues. The calculated values, overall, were reasonable in comparison with the values from other adult voxel models. HDRK-Man showed higher dose conversion coefficients than other models, due to the facts that HDRK-Man has a smaller torso and that the arms of HDRK-Man are shifted backward. The developed model is believed to adequately represent average Korean radiation workers and thus can be used for more accurate calculation of dose conversion coefficients for Korean radiation workers in the future. PMID:18612173

  12. Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, S.; Sterne, J.; Montgomery, S.; Azima, H.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Impaired fetal growth may be a risk factor for asthma although evidence in children is conflicting and there are few data in adults. Little is known about risk factors which may influence asthma in late childhood or early adult life. Whilst there are clues that fatness may be important, this has been little studied in young adults. The relations between birth weight and childhood and adult anthropometry and asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema were investigated in a nationally representative sample of young British adults.
METHODS—A total of 8960 individuals from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were studied. They had recently responded to a questionnaire at 26 years of age in which they were asked whether they had suffered from asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema in the previous 12 months. Adult body mass index (BMI) was calculated from reported height and weight.
RESULTS—The prevalence of asthma at 26 years fell with increasing birth weight. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio comparing the lowest birth weight group (<2 kg) with the modal group (3-3.5 kg) was 1.99 (95% CI 0.96 to 4.12). The prevalence of asthma increased with increasing adult BMI. After controlling for birth weight and other confounders, the odds ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile was 1.72 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.29). The association between fatness and asthma was stronger in women; odds ratios comparing overweight women (BMI 25-29.99) and obese women (BMI ⩾30) with those of normal weight (BMI <25) were 1.51 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.06) and 1.84 (95% CI 1.19to 2.84), respectively. The BMI at 10 years was not related to adult asthma. Similar associations with birth weight and adult BMI were present for wheeze but not for hayfever or eczema.
CONCLUSIONS—Impaired fetal growth and adult fatness are risk factors for adult asthma.

 PMID:10212102

  13. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults.

  14. The effects of relationship focused intervention on Korean parents and their young children with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Mee; Mahoney, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the impact of Relationship Focused Intervention (RFI) on a sample of Korean mothers and their preschool-aged children with disabilities. Subjects were 18 mothers of children with developmental problems (ages 3-8 years). Ten of these mothers were assigned to an RFI Treatment group and eight to a No RFI Control group. The RFI was adopted from the Family/Child Curriculum (Mahoney, G. (1999; Family/Child Curriculum: A relationship focused approach to parent education/early intervention. Tallmadge, OH: Family Child Learning Center). This intervention focused on teaching mothers to use responsive interactive strategies through a process of modeling, coaching, role-playing and video feedback. It was implemented with parents during weekly group and individual intervention sessions that were conducted over three months period. Comparison of pre- and post-intervention assessments of parent-child interaction indicated that RFI was effective at encouraging parents to become more responsive, affective and achievement oriented with their children. These changes in mothers' interactional style were associated with an 18% increase in children's interactive behaviors. Regression analyses indicated that increases in children's behavior were associated positively with maternal responsiveness and negatively with maternal achievement orientation. Results from this study are discussed in terms of (a) implementing RFI with Korean mothers and (b) the mechanisms by which RFI promotes children's development. PMID:15590243

  15. "I Feel Lucky" - Gratitude Among Young Adults with Phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Diesen, Plata Sofie

    2016-10-01

    If persons with phenylketonuria (PKU) do not start a protein restricted diet in early infancy, they will suffer severe brain damage. Previous qualitative research on adults and adolescents with PKU has identified stigmatization, uncertain risk perceptions, considerable time spent on preparing food, and incongruence between the PKU diet and certain lifestyle demands. The aim of this study was to explore young and early treated Norwegian adults' experiences, by conducting in-depth interviews in 2011 with 11 adults with PKU, aged 20-30. Being the first qualitative study on people with PKU in Norway, the process was inspired by grounded theory. All participants reflected on their own health and existence by expressing positive counterfactual thoughts. They considered themselves lucky to have had parents who had managed the diet, they were grateful for the time and place they were born, and for information and treatment availability, although the results also show some ambiguous attitudes towards the hospital which provided the treatment. The expression of gratitude in association with having PKU suggests a major positive coping strategy. It contributes to a more holistic understanding of the experiences and attitudes of young, Norwegian adults with PKU, as it provides a counterweight to the negative experiences.

  16. Attractiveness judgments and discrimination of mommies and grandmas: perceptual tuning for young adult faces.

    PubMed

    Short, Lindsey A; Mondloch, Catherine J; Hackland, Anne T

    2015-01-01

    Adults are more accurate in detecting deviations from normality in young adult faces than in older adult faces despite exhibiting comparable accuracy in discriminating both face ages. This deficit in judging the normality of older faces may be due to reliance on a face space optimized for the dimensions of young adult faces, perhaps because of early and continuous experience with young adult faces. Here we examined the emergence of this young adult face bias by testing 3- and 7-year-old children on a child-friendly version of the task used to test adults. In an attractiveness judgment task, children viewed young and older adult face pairs; each pair consisted of an unaltered face and a distorted face of the same identity. Children pointed to the prettiest face, which served as a measure of their sensitivity to the dimensions on which faces vary relative to a norm. To examine whether biases in the attractiveness task were specific to deficits in referencing a norm or extended to impaired discrimination, we tested children on a simultaneous match-to-sample task with the same stimuli. Both age groups were more accurate in judging the attractiveness of young faces relative to older faces; however, unlike adults, the young adult face bias extended to the match-to-sample task. These results suggest that by 3 years of age, children's perceptual system is more finely tuned for young adult faces than for older adult faces, which may support past findings of superior recognition for young adult faces.

  17. A Structural Analysis on Korean Young Children's Mathematical Ability and Its Related Children's and Mothers' Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the structural relationships among variables that predict the mathematical ability of young children, namely young children's mathematical attitude, exposure to private mathematical learning, mothers' view about their children's mathematical learning, and mothers' mathematical attitude. To this end, we…

  18. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. PMID:27630404

  19. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.

  20. Analysis of the reliability of the make test in young adults by using a hand-held dynamometer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lim, Dong-Ho; Cho, Yong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of the make test, a manual muscle testing measurement method, using a hand-held dynamometer in Korean young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 42 university students participated in this study. The make test, a manual muscle testing method, was conducted. A hand-held dynamometer was used to measure elbow joint flexion during the make test. [Results] Both intra-rater (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.992) and inter-rater reliabilities (the intraclass correlation coefficient=0.949) were excellent, with values over 0.9. [Conclusion] The make test is a useful manual muscle testing method with high intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. PMID:27630404

  1. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  2. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    PubMed

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women.

  3. Moon orientation in adult and young sandhoppers under artificial light.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Alberto; Boddi, Vieri; Mercatelli, Luca; Castellini, Carlo

    2005-10-22

    Our experiments, carried out at night and during the day on adults and laboratory-born young of the sandhopper Talitrus saltator, deal with the identification and use of the moon as an orientating factor. Sandhoppers were released in an apparatus (a Plexiglas dome) that produced a scenario similar to the natural one (with artificial sky, moon or sun illuminated at different intensities). When tested at night, the adult and young sandhoppers used the artificial moon like the natural one, independently of the intensity of illumination of the artificial sky and moon. In other words, sandhoppers tested at night always identified the artificial moon as the moon and never as the sun. In daytime releases, the seaward orientation failed at low intensities of artificial sky and sun illumination (3.07 and 1.55 microW cm2, respectively), whereas the sun compass was used effectively at higher levels of artificial sun and sky illumination. The innate ability of moon compass orientation in inexpert young sandhoppers was demonstrated even under artificial light.

  4. Psychiatric and Addictive Symptoms of Young Adult Female Indoor Tanners

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting Online, except for the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) that was completed over the telephone. Subjects Participants were 306 female university students aged 18–25 years. Measures MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis Descriptive statistics, chi square analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780

  5. Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors' sunscreen use.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville

    2011-02-01

    Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p < .05) associated with inadequate sunscreen use (vs. nonuse) included skin cancer risk perceptions (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.3, 1.0), perceived barriers to sunscreen use (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.9), and stronger personal norms for applying sunscreen (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.2). These findings provide insight into the attributes that enable or inhibit the use of sunscreen among young competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context.

  6. Vowel perception by noise masked normal-hearing young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richie, Carolyn; Kewley-Port, Diane; Coughlin, Maureen

    2005-08-01

    This study examined vowel perception by young normal-hearing (YNH) adults, in various listening conditions designed to simulate mild-to-moderate sloping sensorineural hearing loss. YNH listeners were individually age- and gender-matched to young hearing-impaired (YHI) listeners tested in a previous study [Richie et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2923-2933 (2003)]. YNH listeners were tested in three conditions designed to create equal audibility with the YHI listeners; a low signal level with and without a simulated hearing loss, and a high signal level with a simulated hearing loss. Listeners discriminated changes in synthetic vowel tokens /smcapi e ɛ invv æ/ when F1 or F2 varied in frequency. Comparison of YNH with YHI results failed to reveal significant differences between groups in terms of performance on vowel discrimination, in conditions of similar audibility by using both noise masking to elevate the hearing thresholds of the YNH and applying frequency-specific gain to the YHI listeners. Further, analysis of learning curves suggests that while the YHI listeners completed an average of 46% more test blocks than YNH listeners, the YHI achieved a level of discrimination similar to that of the YNH within the same number of blocks. Apparently, when age and gender are closely matched between young hearing-impaired and normal-hearing adults, performance on vowel tasks may be explained by audibility alone.

  7. Integrating Adolescents and Young Adults into Adult-Centered Care for IBD.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Itishree; Holl, Jane L; Hanauer, Stephen; Keefer, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    Planned healthcare transition, initiated in pediatric care, is a gradual process aimed at fostering the adolescent patient's disease knowledge and skills with the ultimate objective of preparing patients and families for adult-centered care. The process is critical in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) where there is an increased risk of non-adherence, hospitalizations, and emergency department use as young adult patients graduate from pediatric to adult-centered care. While evidence for healthcare transition in IBD is mounting, important gaps remain in the understanding of this process from the perspective of the adult gastroenterologist. This paper summarizes what is known about healthcare transition in IBD and explores the unanswered questions-a conceptual and methodological framework for transition interventions, relevant outcomes that define successful transition, and key stakeholder perspectives. For the adult gastroenterologist managing the young adult patient population, this paper presents the paradigm of "care integration"-a process of ongoing, multi-modality support for the patient, initiated in the adult care setting, with the goal of improving self-management skills and active participation in medical decision-making.

  8. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  9. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ryeol; Park, Hye Jung; Park, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jung-Won

    2016-08-01

    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  10. Young Adult Substance Use and Depression as a Consequence of Delinquency Trajectories during Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study extended work from Wiesner and Windle (2004) by examining young adult outcomes (i.e., alcohol and illicit drug use, depression) of middle-adolescent trajectories of delinquent behavior for a community sample of 724 young women and men (at average ages 23.8 years). Each domain of young adult adjustment problems was assessed…

  11. Canon Fodder: Young Adult Literature as a Tool for Critiquing Canonicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hateley, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Young adult literature is a tool of socialisation and acculturation for young readers. This extends to endowing "reading" with particular significance in terms of what literature should be read and why. This paper considers some recent young adult fiction with an eye to its engagement with canonical literature and its representations of…

  12. Orthodontic treatment need in a Spanish young adult population

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Manzanera-Pastor, David; Almerich-Silla, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Orthodontic treatment need has often been assessed in child populations, but few studies employing internationally-recognized indices have been conducted in adult or young adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the orthodontic treatment need of a young adult population in Spain by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the need perceived by the patients. Study design: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a broad, representative sample of 671 adults aged between 35 and 44 years using health centers in the Valencia Region of Spain, following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 31.3% of the sample according to the DAI and 19.2% according to the IOTN (DHC). The orthodontic treatment need perceived by the patients was 21.1%. On relating treatment need to different variables, significant differences in patient perception were encountered by gender, as women perceived a greater need (23.9%) than men (14.4%). Significant differences in previous orthodontic treatment history were found between middle/high (15%) and low (9%) social class and between secondary/tertiary (14%) and primary (3.3%) education. Conclusions: There was no agreement between the treatment need assessed objectively by the indices and that perceived by the patient, or between the indices themselves. The decision to undergo orthodontic treatment can depend on socioeconomic and psychological factors and on values and principles that do not easily lend themselves to objective measurement. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, adult, malocclusion. PMID:22322504

  13. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID

  14. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID

  15. Registration and classification of adolescent and young adult cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Brad H; Birch, Jillian M

    2008-05-01

    Cancer registries are an important research resource that facilitate the study of etiology, tumor biology, patterns of delayed diagnosis and health planning needs. When outcome data are included, registries can track secular changes in survival related to improvements in early detection or treatment. The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) registry has been used to identify major gaps in survival for older adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients compared with younger children and older adults. In order to determine the reasons for this gap, the complete registration and accurate classification of AYA malignancies is necessary. There are inconsistencies in defining the age limits for AYAs although the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group proposed a definition of ages 15 through 39 years. The central registration and classification issues for AYAs are case-finding, defining common data elements (CDE) collected across different registries and the diagnostic classification of these malignancies. Goals to achieve by 2010 include extending and validating current diagnostic classification schemes and expanding the CDE to support AYA oncology research, including the collection of tracking information to assess long-term outcomes. These efforts will advance preventive, etiologic, therapeutic, and health services-related research for this understudied age group.

  16. Investing in the health and well-being of young adults.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E

    2015-02-01

    Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices.

  17. Risky and aggressive driving in young adults: Personality matters.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Elena; Panayiotou, Georgia; Konstantinou, Nikos; Loutsiou-Ladd, Anthi; Kapardis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Young, novice drivers constitute a disproportionate percentage of fatalities and injuries in road traffic accidents around the world. This study, attempts to identify motivational factors behind risky driving behavior, and examines the role of personality, especially sensation seeking, impulsivity and sensitivity to punishment/reward in predicting negative driving outcomes (accident involvement and traffic offences) among young drivers. Gender and driver's age are additional factors examined in relation to driving outcomes and personality. Adopting the contextual mediated model of traffic accident involvement (Sümer, 2003), the study is based on the theory that personality, age and gender represent distal factors that predict accident involvement indirectly through their relationship with stable tendencies towards aberrant driving behavior. Results from correlations and Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 6 indicated that direct personality effects on driving outcomes were few, whereas personality had significant correlations with aberrant driving behavior, showing that personality is a distal but important predictor of negative driving outcomes. These high risk traits appear to be at a peak among young male drivers. Thus, personality is important in understanding aggressive and risky driving by young adults and needs to be taken into consideration in designing targeted accident prevention policies.

  18. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow,  Susan; Cohen-Filipic,  Jessye; Kloss,  Jacqueline D.; Munshi,  Teja; Perlis,  Clifford S.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801

  19. Psychosocial correlates of sunburn among young adult women.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S

    2012-06-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  20. Entry into labour: The experience of young adults in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Candido A.

    1990-12-01

    This study focuses on the experience of young adults employed in the tertiary sector in Brasília. The results show that young people are prepared for work by on-the-job training and nonformal education; schooling is mainly an indicator of trainability. Entry into the labour force reinforces social differences in family background and schooling. The results tend to support the moderate version of classical theory with regard to the nature of school/work relationships. In the context of the conflict paradigm, the data run contrary to both reproductionism and the radical critique of this view. From the comparative standpoint youth is an underprivileged group in the labour market, regardless of sex, socioeconomic status and country of residence. Despite these variations, societies are stratified by age groups.

  1. Young Adults' Perceived Purposes of Emerging Adulthood: Implications for Cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Adam A; Willoughby, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between young adults' perceived purposes of emerging adulthood and their attitudes toward and participation in cohabitation. In a sample of 775 never married individuals, ages 18-29 (69% female, 69% white) from the United States, young people's perceptions of this period of life were associated with their acceptance of cohabitation, their reasoning for accepting cohabitation, and the likelihood of cohabiting. Results showed that the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was negatively associated with acceptance of cohabitation whereas the perception that emerging adulthood is a time to take risks was positively associated with acceptance of cohabitation. The perception that emerging adulthood is a time to prepare for future family roles was associated with an increased likelihood of having cohabited while the perception that emerging adulthood is a time of possibilities was associated with a decreased likelihood of having cohabited. Implications for future research are discussed.

  2. Family Planning Services for Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Minkowski, William L.; Weiss, Robert C.; Lowther, Laura; Shonick, Helen; Heidbreder, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    If we are to influence the numerical trends of venereal disease and of unwanted pregnancies in the young, family planning services should be made easily available to them. To encourage the widest possible and most effective use of such services requires that health professionals openly endorse their ready availability. They must foster non-judgmental attitudes, however unorthodox patient life styles may be, and provide the young with opportunities to explore their own sexual behavior. The Youth Clinics of the Department of Community Health Services in Los Angeles are designed to meet both the immediate therapeutic and preventive health needs of our patients. Contraceptive services, abortion counseling and referrals as well as individual, group and community education are the primary pillars of our program. There is an enormous task for all of us who are concerned with adolescents to press for sex education programs, in or out of the school system, that will include adults as well as our children. PMID:4813794

  3. Relationship between Secondhand Smoking with Depressive Symptom and Suicidal Ideation in Korean Non-Smoker Adults: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Wook; Shin, Jin-Young; Goo, Ae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that mental health is affected not only by smoking, but also by secondhand smoking. But the most researches have been conducted in North America and/or Europe. We examined whether this relationship remains evident within the South Korean population. Specifically, we investigated the effect of secondhand smoking on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Methods We analyzed data from 6,043 non-smoking adults who participated in the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We compared the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in 3,006 participants who were exposed to secondhand smoking in the office or at home with 3,037 non-exposed participants. Results In unadjusted logistic regression analysis, secondhand smoking exposure group had more suicidal ideations than no secondhand smoking exposure (16.1% vs. 12.2%; odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.241–1.804), but risk of depressive symptoms was not significantly different between two groups (15.2% vs. 12.2%; OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.997–1.460). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, Among those exposed to secondhand smoking, the OR for depressive symptoms was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.866–1.299) and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.139–1.802) for suicidal ideation. Overall, secondhand smoking at home was significantly related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Among females, secondhand smoking exposure at home only (not in the office) was related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Conclusion Exposure to secondhand smoking, especially at home, may be associated with an increase in especially in female depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among adults in South Korea. PMID:27073608

  4. Modernity and Postmodernity Related Issues in Developing Ideas and Tasks of Adult Education in Korean Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    Korean society is in the midst of a conflict between modern and postmodern condition. The concept of modernity is rooted in the Enlightenment, which valued reason and proposed the rational and progressive construction and transformation of society and reality. As a result of a rational differentiation between culture and society, modern phenomena…

  5. Prescription Drug Misuse among Young Adults: Looking Across Youth Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Brian C; Wells, Brooke E; LeClair, Amy; Tracy, Daniel; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A

    2012-01-01

    Aims Youth cultures play a key role in the social organisation of drug trends among young people; the current prescription drug misuse trend is no different. The authors evaluated whether patterns of prescription drug misuse differed across several youth cultures. Methods Using field survey methods and time-space sampling during 2011, the authors assessed the patterns and prevalence of prescription drug misuse among young adults who are socially active in various urban youth cultures (n = 1781). Findings The prevalence of lifetime prescription drug misuse is highest within indie rock scenes (52.5%), electronic dance music scenes (52.1%), lesbian parties (53.8%) and alt scenes (50.9%). Prescription drug misuse was lowest among young adults in hip-hop scenes (25.0%). These findings were upheld in logistic regression analyses that accounted for demographic differences across youth cultures: indie rock scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11), electronic dance music scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.20), lesbian parties (adjusted odds ratio = 2.30) and alt scenes (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65) all reported statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher odds of misuse than college bar scenes. Recent prescription drug misuse mirrored patterns for lifetime misuse. Conclusions: The differing prevalence of prescription drug misuse across distinct youth cultures suggests that the trend has not diffused equally among young people. The differing prevalence across youth cultures indicates that the most efficacious strategies for youth intervention may be targeted approaches that account for the subculturally rooted differences in attitudes and social norms. PMID:23190213

  6. Food safety hazards lurk in the kitchens of young adults.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Maurer, Jaclyn; Wheatley, Virginia; Cottone, Ellen; Clancy, Michele

    2007-04-01

    Food mishandling in home kitchens likely causes a significant amount of foodborne disease; however, little is known about the food safety hazards lurking in home kitchens. The purposes of this study were to audit the kitchens of young adults with education beyond high school to identify food safety problems and develop recommendations for education efforts. Researchers developed a criterion-referenced home kitchen observation instrument to assess compliance of home food storage and rotation practices (e.g., temperature), sanitation and chemical storage, and general kitchen condition (e.g., infestation) with recommended practices. The instrument contained seven scales: Kitchen Cleanliness (eight items), Appliance Cleanliness (three items), Cleaning Supplies Availability (eight items), Temperatures (Food Thermometer Access & Refrigerator/Freezer Temperatures) (five items), Cold Food Storage (seven items), Dry Food Storage (eight items), and Poisons Storage (two items). Descriptive statistics were conducted to describe the study population, as a whole, and by gender. A total of 154 young adults (mean age, 20.7+/- 1.3 SD) enrolled in a northeastern university participated. Participants scored 70% or higher on Poisons Storage, Dry Food Storage, Kitchen Cleanliness, and Cleaning Supplies Availability scales but less than 60% on the Appliance Cleanliness and Cold Food Storage scales. Performance was lowest on the Temperatures scale. Females scored significantly higher than males on the Kitchen Cleanliness and Cleaning Supply Availability scales. Average refrigerator and freezer temperatures were higher than recommendations. Food safety education targeted at this young adult population needs to evolve into focused messages pertaining to the key food safety violations in this population.

  7. Complicated Grief & Depression in Young Adults: Personality & Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Herberman Mash, Holly B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Shear, M. Katherine; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Young adults experience problematic responses to loss more often than is commonly recognized. Few empirical studies have examined the contribution of intra- and interpersonal characteristics to grief and depression in bereaved young adults. This study investigated the association of dependency and quality of the relationship with the deceased (i.e., depth and conflict) with complicated grief (CG) and depression. Participants were 157 young adults aged 17–29 who experienced loss of a family member or close friend within the past three years (M = 1.74 years). Participants completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief, Beck Depression Inventory, Depth and Conflict subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory, and the Dependency subscale of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. Relationships among dependency and interpersonal depth and conflict and CG and depression were examined through analyses of covariance. Sixteen percent of participants met criteria for CG and 34% had mild to severe depression. Dependency and depth were independently related to CG and dependency was related to depression, but the pattern of associations was somewhat different for each outcome. Greater depth was associated with CG, at both high and low levels of dependency. High levels of dependency were related to more depressive symptoms. Interpretation of the findings is limited by the relatively small sample size and cross-sectional design. CG and depression are related but distinct responses to loss. Although dependency is associated with both CG and depression following loss, relationships between the bereaved and deceased that are characterized by high levels of depth are particularly related to the development of CG symptoms. PMID:24921421

  8. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Laretta

    2005-01-01

    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  9. Supragingival calculus formation in a group of young adults.

    PubMed

    Galgut, P N

    1996-12-01

    The presence of calculus was assessed on the lingual surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth in a randomly selected group of 63 young adults. The rate of regrowth of calculus after professional prophylaxis was also observed. Twenty-two individuals had supragingival calculus on the mandibular lingual surfaces of their teeth at baseline. Eleven of these individuals demonstrated regrowth of calculus by the end of the study, in spite of repeated professional prophylaxis. Thus, 17.5% of subjects exhibited rapid regrowth of calculus on the mandibular lingual surfaces of their teeth within 2 weeks of professional prophylaxis.

  10. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  11. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Smale, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  12. Childhood social inequalities influences neural processes in young adult caregiving.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Ho, Shaun S; Evans, Gary W; Liberzon, Israel; Swain, James E

    2015-12-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with harsh parenting with a risk of transmission to the next generation. This prospective study examined the relations between childhood poverty and non-parent adults' neural responses to infant cry sounds. While no main effects of poverty were revealed in contrasts of infant cry versus acoustically matched white noise, a gender by childhood poverty interaction emerged. In females, childhood poverty was associated with increased neural activations in the posterior insula, striatum, calcarine sulcus, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus, while, in males, childhood poverty was associated with reduced levels of neural responses to infant cry in the same regions. Irrespective of gender, neural activation in these regions was associated with higher levels of annoyance with the cry sound and reduced desire to approach the crying infant. The findings suggest gender differences in neural and emotional responses to infant cry sounds among young adults growing up in poverty.

  13. Incidental and intentional encoding in young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Alanís, Bernarda; Cansino, Selene

    2004-08-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in young and elderly adults during the performance of an incidental encoding task (subjects were unexpectedly given a recognition test) followed by an intentional task (subjects expected the recognition test). Both tasks consisted of an encoding stage in which subjects classified words (natural/artificial) and a recognition stage in which they indicated whether the words were old (presented during the encoding stage) or new. In both groups and tasks, the ERPs, during encoding, differed as a function of subsequent recognition: the old words correctly recognized generated greater amplitude potentials than the incorrect ones. The memory processes expressed by these ERPs are preserved in elderly adults, independently of whether the information is incidentally or intentionally encoded. PMID:15257155

  14. [Endocrine consequences in young adult survivors of childhood cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Leroy, C; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Desailloud, R

    2015-10-01

    Endocrine complications (particularly gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary and metabolic) of childhood cancer treatments are common in young adults. Gonadal damage may be the result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fertility preservation must be systematically proposed before initiation of gonadotoxic treatment if only the child is eligible. Hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency is common after brain or total-body irradiation, the somatotropic axis is the most sensitive to irradiation. Pituitary deficiency screening must be repeated since this endocrine consequence can occur many years after treatment. Hormone replacement must be prudent particularly in case of treatment with growth hormone or steroids. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular damage resulting from cancer treatments contribute to the increase of morbidity and mortality in this population and should be screened routinely even if the patient is asymptomatic. The multidisciplinary management of these adults must be organized and the role of the endocrinologist is now well established.

  15. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eliza M.; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group. PMID:26246791

  16. Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Eliza M; Rosenstein, Donald L

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer are at risk for depression due to disruptions in their developmental trajectory, greater physical symptom burden, and increased likelihood of developing aggressive disease. Rates of depression and other psychological disorders are substantially higher in AYAs with cancer when compared with older adults. Psychiatrists caring for these patients must consider the age-appropriate developmental context of these patients along with familial and medical factors that may influence the presentation and treatment of depression. Previous research suggests that psychosocial interventions specifically designed for AYA patients are promising, but studies of psychopharmacology treatments for depression are lacking. There is a pressing need for prospective studies and controlled clinical trials that evaluate the optimal strategies for treating depression in this patient group.

  17. Conservative Management of a Young Adult with Hip Arthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Kyle M.; Heiderscheit, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Case report Background Clinical practice guidelines regarding the conservative management of degenerative hip conditions in older adults routinely incorporate therapeutic exercise and manual therapy. However, the application of these recommendations to young, active adults is less clear. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a young adult with advanced hip arthrosis using a multi-faceted rehabilitation program. Case Description A 28-year old female with severe left hip degeneration per diagnostic imaging was referred to physical therapy. Reduced hip range of motion and strength, sacroiliac joint asymmetries, and a modified Harris Hip Score of 76 were observed. She was seen for 12 visits over a 3-month period and treated with an individualized program including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and neuromuscular re-education. Outcome Substantial improvements were noted in pain, hip range of motion and strength and function (modified Harris Hip Score of 97). In addition, she discontinued the use of anti-inflammatory medications and returned to her prior level of activity. Improvements were maintained at a 3 month follow up, with symptom recurrence managed using a self mobilization technique to the left hip and massage to the left iliopsoas. Discussion Degenerative hip conditions are common among older adults but are relatively rare in the younger population. Although it is likely that this patient will experience a return of her symptoms and functional limitations as her hip disease progresses, the immediate improvements may delay the need for eventual surgical management. These outcomes suggest that physical therapy management should be considered in those with an early onset of degenerative hip disease and are consistent with results previously reported in the older population. Level of Evidence Therapy, Level 4 PMID:20026881

  18. Risk of Opioid Addiction Up 37 Percent Among Young U.S. Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161306.html Risk of Opioid Addiction Up 37 Percent Among Young U.S. Adults Study ... study was that the odds for an opioid addiction among younger teens remained stable. Teenagers and young ...

  19. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults. PMID:27630731

  20. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults.

  1. Modulatory Effect of Eui-E-In-Tang on Serum Leptin Concentration in Obese Korean Female Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Wansu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and cytokines. However, to date, the relationship between the serum levels of cytokines in obese individuals and taking herbal drugs remains largely unexplored. Methods. Serum cytokines were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling assay. Serum samples of obese female Korean adults (obese group; n = 20) as well as normal female Korean adults (normal group; n = 21) were collected at the start and end of study period. Twenty obese female Korean adults were randomized to receive Eui-E-In-Tang (Eui-E-In-Tang group; n = 9) at a daily dose of 9 g or a matched placebo (placebo group; n = 11) for 12 weeks. Results. According to investigating serum cytokine levels at the start point of this study, the serum C-peptide, insulin, leptin, lipocalin-2, and adipsin levels in the obese group were found to be significantly higher than in the normal group. And the investigation of serum cytokine levels at the end point of this study demonstrated that mean serum leptin of Eui-E-In-Tang group was found to be significantly reduced (P = 0.037). Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that Eui-E-In-Tang may exert immunomodulatory effect via altering the circulating concentration of leptin in Korean female adults. PMID:27630731

  2. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  3. End-of-life communication in Korean older adults: With focus on advance care planning and advance directives.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Ji Eun; Cho, BeLong; Yoo, Sang Ho; Kim, SangYun; Yoo, Jun-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    The present article aimed to provide a comprehensive review of current status of end-of-life (EOL) care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, with focus on the EOL communication and use of advance directives (AD) in elderly Koreans. Through literature review, we discuss the current status of EOL care and sociocultural considerations in Korea, and provide a look-ahead. In Korea, patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very end of life. Advance care planning is rare, and most do-not-resuscitate decisions are made between the family and physician at the very end of patient's life. Koreans, influenced mainly by Confucian tradition, prefer a natural death and discontinuation of life-sustaining treatment. Although Koreans generally believe that death is natural and unavoidable, they tend not to think about or discuss death, and regard preparation for death as unnecessary. As a result, AD are completed by just 4.7% of the general adult population. This situation can be explained by several sociocultural characteristics including opting for natural death, wish not to burden others, preference for family involvement and trust in doctor, avoidance of talking about death, and filial piety. Patients often receive life-sustaining treatment until the very EOL, advance care planning and the use of AD is not common in Korea. This was related to unique sociocultural characteristics of Korea. A more active role of physicians, development of a more deliberate EOL discussion process, development of culturally appropriate AD and promotion of advance care planning might be required to provide good EOL care in Korea.

  4. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  5. Predictors of the Severity and Serious Outcomes of Anaphylaxis in Korean Adults: A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Mi Kyeong; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Tae-Bum; Sohn, Seong-Wook; Koh, Young-Il; Park, Hye-Kyung; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Kim, Cheol-Woo; Hur, Gyu-Young; Kim, Joo-Hee; Kim, Sang-Heon; Choi, Gil-Soon; Lee, Soo-Keol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Differences in definitions of the condition, relevant triggers, and the geographical locations of study centers, cause estimates of the prevalence of anaphylaxis to vary. Recent epidemiological data indicate that the incidence of anaphylaxis is rising. Methods To investigate the causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis in Korean adults, factors associated with the severity of the condition, and serious outcomes, a retrospective medical record review was performed on adult patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2007 and 2011 in 15 University Hospitals of South Korea. Results A total of 1,806 cases (52% male, age 16-86 years) were reported. Cutaneous symptoms (84.0%), combined with respiratory (53.9%) and/or cardiovascular (55.4%) symptoms, were the most frequent presentations. Using a recognized grading system, 1,776 cases could be classified as either mild, 340; moderate, 690; or severe, 746. Although eliciting factors varied significantly by age, gender, and regional and seasonal factors, drugs (46.5%; including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and radiocontrast media) were the most common cause of anaphylaxis, followed by foods (24.2%), insect stings (16.4%), exercise (5.9%), and unknown etiology (7.0%). All of age, multi-organ involvement, a history of allergic disease, and drug-induced anaphylaxis, were significant predictors of serious outcomes requiring hospital admission or prolongation of hospital stay. Epinephrine auto-injectors were prescribed for 7.4% of reported cases. Conclusions The principal causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adults were drugs, food, and insect stings. Drug-associated anaphylaxis, a history of allergic disease, multi-organ involvement, and older age, were identified as predictors of serious outcomes. PMID:25553259

  6. [Prolonged fever: specific issues in the young adult population].

    PubMed

    Carmoi, T; Grateau, G; Billhot, M; Dumas, G; Biale, L; Perrot, G; Algayres, J-P

    2010-12-01

    Early studies on prolonged fever date back to the 1960s. Fifty years later, prolonged unexplained fever remains a diagnostic challenge to the general internists. Although the aetiologies of prolonged fevers have not changed much in the general population, the distribution between the various causes is not the same anymore. A regular decrease in infectious and neoplastic causes is noticed whatever the age. Prolonged fevers related to inflammatory disorders and fevers that remain of unknown origin still represent approximately 30 to 50% of the cases. In the young adult population, as in the older patients, prolonged fevers can be attributed to four groups: infection, inflammation, neoplasic and other aetiologies (including drug-related fevers). In the young adult population, the management of prolonged fever presents some specific issues that are the purpose of this review coupled with our own experience. The prognosis of undiagnosed prolonged fever is usually favourable, as a life-threatening aetiology is exceptionally diagnosed during the follow-up if the initial management was complete and accurate.

  7. Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

  8. Community matters: intimate partner violence among rural young adults.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Mattingly, Marybeth J; Dixon, Kristiana J; Banyard, Victoria L

    2014-03-01

    Drawing on social disorganization theory, the current study examined the extent to which community-level poverty rates and collective efficacy influenced individual reports of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, victimization, and bystander intervention among a sample of 178 young adults (18-24; 67.4% women) from 16 rural counties across the eastern US who completed an online survey that assessed demographic information, IPV perpetration, victimization, bystander intervention, and collective efficacy. We computed each county's poverty rate from the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. Generalized estimating equations demonstrated that after controlling for individual-level income status, community-level poverty positively predicted IPV victimization and perpetration for both men and women. Collective efficacy was inversely related to IPV victimization and perpetration for men; however, collective efficacy was unrelated to IPV victimization and perpetration for women. Whereas IPV bystander intervention was positively related to collective efficacy and inversely related to individual-level income status for both men and women, community-level poverty was unrelated to IPV bystander intervention for both men and women. Overall, these findings provide some support for social disorganization theory in explaining IPV among rural young adults, and underscore the importance of multi-level IPV prevention and intervention efforts focused around community-capacity building and enhancement of collective efficacy.

  9. Staged Resection of Large Hypervascular Vestibular Schwannomas in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Takumi; Izumiyama, Hitoshi; Imaizumi, Youichi; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Shimazu, Motohiko; Sasaki, Ken; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kushima, Miki

    2001-01-01

    Two young adults underwent resection of large hypervascular vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas) via two-stage surgery. The first patient, a 27-year-old woman with hydrocephalus, had a large hypervascular vestibular tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle (CPA) supplied by the left anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The second patient, a 34-year-old woman, had a large AICA-supplied hypervascular vestibular tumor in the left CPA that displaced the brain stem significantly. At the initial stage, only the lateral aspect of the tumor was debulked due to excessive bleeding from the tumor bed. Angiography 1 or 2 months after the initial operation showed that the tumor was hypovascular. At the second stage, the remnant medial aspect of the tumor was relatively avascular and nonadherent to the brain stem. Without blood transfusion during the second stage, the tumor was removed totally in the first patient and subtotally in the second patient. Pathological examination revealed that dilatated blood vessels were prominently increased at the first surgery; however, at the second surgery, the number of blood vessels had decreased, showing necrosis and degeneration. Although there are no absolute indications for the staged resection of vestibular schwannomas, this procedure may represent one of the safest options for these difficult lesions in young adults. ImagesFigure 1p201-bFigure 1p202-bFigure 2p203-bFigure 2p204-b PMID:17167621

  10. Perpetuation theory and the racial segregation of young adults.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Pat Rubio

    2016-03-01

    Previous research confirms a strong empirical association between the racial composition of young adults' residential areas and the racial compositions of the residential areas and schools of their youth. Perpetuation theory predicts that part of this association is causal. The present study uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) and the U.S. Censuses of 1990 and 2000 to test for this effect with regression models, propensity-score-weighted models with robustness tests, and regression models that look at long-distance movers. The findings suggest that the association declines rapidly as the distance moved increases, but it remains robust even at long distances. It is also stronger for African Americans and more assimilated Latinos than for whites and less assimilated Latinos. These findings suggests that to some extent, young white, African American, and Latino adults are residentially segregated from each other because they grew up that way. Policies that promote integrating youth residentially and/or desegregating schools may contribute to residential integration over time. PMID:26857168

  11. Tobacco Industry Lifestyle Magazines Targeted to Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423

  12. Clues of subjective social status among young adults.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, François; Roos, J Micah; Combs, R M

    2015-07-01

    We investigate determinants of subjective social status (SSS) as measured by respondents placing themselves on a ten-rung ladder from least to most "money", "education" and "respected job", in a large sample of young adults. The most potent clues of SSS are proximate in the life course, reflecting educational attainment and current socioeconomic and job situation, rather than distal characteristics such as family background, although relatively distal High school GPA has a lingering effect. Additional analyses reveal that College selectivity has a substantial impact on SSS, net of other variables in the model; Currently married does not significantly contribute to SSS, but contrary to some expectations Number of children significantly lowers SSS. We find no evidence of greater "status borrowing" by women as associations of SSS with shared household characteristics (Household income, Household assets, Home ownership) do not differ by gender. Our findings for these young adults support the conclusion of earlier research that SSS reflects a "cognitive averaging" of standard dimensions of socioeconomic status. PMID:26004468

  13. The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving

    PubMed Central

    PATIL, SUJATA M.; SHOPE, JEAN THATCHER; RAGHUNATHAN, TRIVELLORE E.; BINGHAM, C. RAYMOND

    2007-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle injury is the major cause of mortality among young adults. Information about the individual characteristics of those who drive dangerously could enhance traffic safety programs. The goal of this research was to examine the association between various personality-related characteristics and risky driving behaviors. Methods Young adults in Michigan, USA (n = 5,362) were surveyed by telephone regarding several personality factors (risk-taking, hostility, aggression, tolerance of deviance, achievement expectations) and driving behaviors (competitive driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, aggressive driving, and drink/driving). Michigan driver records were obtained to examine offenses, serious offenses, driving offense points, crashes and serious crashes in the three pre-interview years. Multivariate regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, and marital status were conducted separately by sex to identify personality factors related to driving. Results For men and women, greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and tolerance of deviance were significant predictors of a competitive attitude toward driving, risk-taking driving, high-risk driving, driving aggression, and drink/driving. Greater risk-taking propensity, physical/verbal hostility, aggression, and to a small degree, expectations for achievement predicted higher numbers of offenses, serious offenses, and points. Conclusion Traffic safety policies and programs could be enhanced through recognition of the role personality factors play in driving behavior and the incorporation of this knowledge into the design and implementation of interventions that modify the behaviors associated with them. PMID:17114089

  14. Masticatory function, taste, and salivary flow in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Polliane M; Castelo, Paula M; Carpenter, Guy H; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate masticatory function and taste and their possible relationship with salivary flow in young adults with good oral health. The study also examined whether anthropometric measurements and gender could influence the variables studied. A total of 171 subjects were selected (125 females, 46 males). Masticatory performance was evaluated with the sieve method, and perceived masticatory ability was measured using the visual analogue scale. Taste was evaluated using the drop test with four different flavors in three different concentrations, and unstimulated and stimulated saliva flows were measured. The anthropometric variables measured included body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The independent variables studied could not predict masticatory performance. The independent variables, BMI, WC, and gender, predicted 14% of perceived masticatory ability, and BMI predicted 5% of taste. Masticatory performance was not related to salivary flow or anthropometric parameters in young healthy adults. Perceived masticatory ability was related to BMI, WC, and gender, whereas taste was only weakly related to BMI. The flow rate did not exhibit a statistically significant difference between males and females for the anthropometric groups. (J Oral Sci 58, 391-399, 2016). PMID:27665979

  15. Pathogenic Responses among Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Brundage, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Of the unexplained characteristics of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic, the extreme mortality rate among young adults (W-shaped mortality curve) is the foremost. Lack of a coherent explanation of this and other epidemiologic and clinical manifestations of the pandemic contributes to uncertainty in preparing for future pandemics. Contemporaneous records suggest that immunopathologic responses were a critical determinant of the high mortality rate among young adults and other high-risk subgroups. Historical records and findings from laboratory animal studies suggest that persons who were exposed to influenza once before 1918 (e.g., A/H3Nx 1890 pandemic strain) were likely to have dysregulated, pathologic cellular immune responses to infections with the A/H1N1 1918 pandemic strain. The immunopathologic effects transiently increased susceptibility to ultimately lethal secondary bacterial pneumonia. The extreme mortality rate associated with the 1918–19 pandemic is unlikely to recur naturally. However, T-cell–mediated immunopathologic effects should be carefully monitored in developing and using universal influenza vaccines. PMID:22306191

  16. Psychological predictors of young adults' use of social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M

    2010-04-01

    Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites.

  17. Transfer to Adult Care--Experiences of Young Adults with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Asp, Ann; Bratt, Ewa-Lena; Bramhagen, Ann-Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of children born with congenital heart disease survive into adulthood due to successes of cardiac surgery and medical management. Interviews with 16 young adults with congenital heart disease to explore their experiences of transfer from pediatric to adult care were performed. The analysis identified five themes; Feeling secure during the transfer process, Experiencing trust in the care, Expecting to be involved, Assuming responsibility for one's health is a process and Lack of knowledge leads to uncertainty. In conclusion; a structured and gradual transfer process was necessary to enable the informants to shoulder the responsibility for self-care.

  18. Young Adults' Attitudes and Perceptions of Obesity and Weight Management: Implications for Treatment Development.

    PubMed

    Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee

    2016-03-01

    Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.

  19. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults. PMID:23774283

  20. Serum Predictors of Percent Lean Mass in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A

    2016-08-01

    Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults.

  1. Theory of Mind Among Young Adult Children From Alcoholic Families

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Glass, Jennifer M; Heitzeg, Mary M; Wojnar, Marcin; Puttler, Leon I; Zucker, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the evidence that several cognitive and emotional functions are impaired in adult alcohol-dependent patients and the possibility that some of these deficits are transmitted to their children, the objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the perception of complex mental states would be reduced in young adults from families with a positive family history of alcohol dependence. It was also anticipated that social-perceptual deficits would confer unique predictive ability beyond that shared with other cognitive risk factors for alcohol dependence and/or substance use risk. Method: Data from 301 youth ages 18–21 years, recruited from an ongoing community longitudinal study of alcoholic and matched control families, were analyzed. Family history of alcohol dependence as well as alcohol-dependence diagnosis in the youth was based on diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. A substance use risk factor measured early problem alcohol/other drug use. The perception of mental states was measured with the computerized version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Results: Children of alcohol-dependent parents did not show impairment in the mental states perception task, nor did social perception skills predict alcohol dependence in the youth. Correlational analysis performed between RMET and the substance use risk factor showed no significant association between the variables. Conclusions: The study results do not confirm the hypothesis that behaviorally measured social perception impairment is more prevalent in the children of alcohol-dependent parents. In addition, social-perceptual deficits were not a unique marker of either alcohol dependence or high risk for alcohol dependence in this young adult sample. PMID:25208207

  2. Perspectives of young adults with cerebral palsy on transitioning from pediatric to adult healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Larivière-Bastien, Danaë; Bell, Emily; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Racine, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Transition from pediatric to adult healthcare is a well-established challenge for individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders like cerebral palsy. With regard to ethics, some of the key aspects to explore include the following: if and how individuals feel respected during the transition process; if and how their values and preferences are developed and integrated within transition; and if and how young patients are prepared to participate in decision making (to be autonomous) within the transition. We carried out a qualitative study on 14 young adults with cerebral palsy. Some participants reported positive experiences. However, several tension points were identified, including before the transition (eg, transition envisaged with fear and apprehension); during the transition (eg, lack of cooperation or communication between providers in the pediatric and adult healthcare systems); and after the transition (eg, feelings of abandonment). We discuss the clinical influence and ethical significance of better capturing ethical values within the transition process and preparing young individuals to engage in discussions about their health and disease management. PMID:23948690

  3. Battle on the Gender Homefront: Depictions of the American Civil War in Contemporary Young-Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp-Itnyre, Alisa

    2007-01-01

    The American Civil War has been a popular topic for young-adult writers for years, with new books now being written from young women's perspectives. In this paper, I will examine the gender ideologies that infiltrate contemporary Civil War books for young adults. I will examine four recent young-adult Civil-War novels: G. Clifton Wisler's "Mr.…

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for depression in Korean adult patients with asthma: is there a difference between elderly and non-elderly patients?

    PubMed

    Choi, Gil-Soon; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Joo-Hee; Choi, Seon Yoon; Lee, Soo-Keol; Nam, Young-Hee; Lee, Young-Mok; Park, Hae-Sim

    2014-12-01

    Depression is an important comorbidity of asthma. However, little information is available about depression and its potential impact on asthma control in Korean adult asthma patients. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for depression in Korean adults with persistent asthma. The 127 non-elderly (20-64 yr) and 75 elderly (≥65 yr) patients with asthma were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were extracted, and the patients completed the Asthma Specific Quality of Life (AQOL) questionnaire and asthma control test (ACT). Depression status was defined using the Korean version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Depression was more prevalent in non-elderly (18.9%) than in elderly patients with asthma (13.3%). Patients with depression were significantly younger, had lower economic status, shorter disease duration, poorer asthma control, and worse AQOL scores (P<0.05). Within the non-elderly group, younger age and shorter disease duration were significantly associated with depression (P<0.05). Within the elderly group, a higher body mass index and current smoking status were significantly associated with depression (P<0.05). The PHQ-9 score was significantly correlated with worse ACT and AQOL scores in both groups. In conclusion, depression is strongly associated with poor asthma control and quality of life in Korean adult asthma patients. Our results provide important clues that used to target modifiable factors which contribute to development of depression in asthma patients.

  5. Development of a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life (QOL) among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. To develop a situation-specific theory, three sources were considered: (a) the conceptual model of health promotion and QOL for people with chronic and disabling conditions (an existing theory related to the QOL in patients with chronic diseases); (b) a literature review using multiple databases including Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, PsycINFO, and two Korean databases; and (c) findings from our structural equation modeling study on health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. The proposed situation-specific theory is constructed with six major concepts including barriers, resources, perceptual factors, psychosocial factors, health-promoting behaviors, and health-related QOL. The theory also provides the interrelationships among concepts. Health care providers and nurses could incorporate the proposed situation-specific theory into development of diabetes education programs for improving health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly men but elderly women had a higher prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a population of Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between sarcopenic obesity (SO) and nutrition status, according to sex in Korean adults who were 60 years or older. Body composition was categorized as SO, sarcopenic nonobesity, nonsarcopenic obesity, and nonsarcopenic nonobesity. Obesity was defined by body mass index. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight (Wt) of less than 1 SD below the sex-specific mean for young adults. Subjects included 1433 subjects (658 men and 775 women) who were 60 years or older and who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2010. Sarcopenic obesity was more prevalent in women (31.3%) than in men (19.6%). Individuals with SO had significantly higher fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (male: 3.2 ± 1.4, female: 3.4 ± 2.1), and triglycerides (male: 167.3 ± 90.6 mg/dL, female: 160.7 ± 85.0 mg/dL). High-density lipoprotein was under the normal criteria (50 mg/dL) in women. Intake of nutrients associated with muscle loss (protein, vitamin D, calcium, and vitamin C) was significantly different among the male but not the female groups. Although protein intake was normal, calcium and vitamin D intakes were insufficient in all groups. In conclusion, body composition changes were related to nutrient intakes in elderly (60 years or older) men but not elderly women. Women had a higher prevalence of SO than did men, suggesting that early nutritional intervention in elderly women may help them address age-associated body composition changes. PMID:25524331

  7. Age- and Sex-Specific Relationships between Household Income, Education, and Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Ra; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Jin-Young; Ersek, Jennifer; Liu, Junxiu; Jo, Sun-Jin; Lee, Kang-Sook; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the effects of age and sex on the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and the prevalence and control status of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. Methods Data came from 16,175 adults (6,951 men and 9,227 women) over the age of 30 who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. SES was measured by household income or education level. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence or control status of diabetes were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses across household income quartiles and education levels. Results The household income-DM and education level-DM relationships were significant in younger age groups for both men and women. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI for diabetes were 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) and 2.28 (1.29, 4.02) for the lowest vs. highest quartiles of household income and education level, respectively, in women younger than 65 years of age (both P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). The adjusted OR and 95% CI for diabetes was 2.28 (1.53, 3.39) for the lowest vs. highest quartile of household income in men younger than 65 (P for linear trend < 0.05 with Bonferroni adjustment). However, in men and women older than 65, no associations were found between SES and the prevalence of DM. No significant association between SES and the status of glycemic control was detected. Conclusions We found age- and sex-specific differences in the relationship of household income and education with the prevalence of DM in Korea. DM preventive care is needed for groups with a low SES, particularly in young or middle-aged populations. PMID:25622031

  8. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. PMID:25012953

  9. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children.

  10. Germ Cell Tumors in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Calaminus, Gabriele; Joffe, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a group of biologically complex malignancies that affect patients at different sites within the body and at different ages. The varying nature of these tumors reflects their cell of origin which is the primordial germ cell, which normally gives rise to ovarian and testicular egg and sperm producing cells. These cells retain an ability to give rise to all types of human tissues, and this is illustrated by the different kinds of GCTs that occur. In adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients, GCTs predominantly present as testicular, ovarian or mediastinal primary GCTs, and represent some of the most complex therapeutic challenges within any AYA practice. The varying types of GCTs, defined by primary site and/or age at presentation, can look very similar microscopically. However, there is growing evidence that they may have different molecular characteristics, different biology and different requirements for curative treatments. Whilst in adult testicular GCTs there is evidence for an environmental cause during fetal development and a genetic component, these causative factors are much less well understood in other GCTs. GCTs are some of the most curable cancers in adults, but some patients exhibit resistance to standard treatments. Because of this, today's clinical research is directed at understanding how to best utilize toxic therapies and promote healthy survivorship. This chapter explores the biology, behavior and treatment of GCTs and discusses how the AYA group of GCTs may hold some of the keys to understanding fundamental unanswered questions of biological variance and curability in GCTs. PMID:27595361

  11. The Experiences of Mothers of Young Adults with an Intellectual Disability Transitioning from Secondary School to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…

  12. Personal views about aging among Korean American older adults: the role of physical health, social network, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A

    2012-06-01

    Given the importance of a positive attitude towards one's own aging, we examined its predictors in a sample of 230 Korean American older adults (M (age) = 69.8 years, SD = 7.05). Personal views about aging, measured with a subscale of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), were regressed on demographic variables, physical health-related factors, and psychosocial attributes (social network and acculturation). Results from the hierarchical regression analysis showed that better physical health conditions (fewer chronic conditions, less functional disability, and better vision) were associated with more positive personal views about aging. Other significant contributors included larger social networks and higher levels of acculturation. Findings suggest that personal views about aging among immigrant elderly populations can be enhanced by promoting physical health, social connectedness, and acculturation. Ways to maintain and improve positive attitudes about personal aging are discussed in a cultural context. PMID:22581472

  13. Mediating effect of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life among low-income older Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jung

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life (QOL) for low-income older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles County, CA. A cross-sectional survey of low-income older Korean immigrants who use ADHC programs was conducted. Self-reported measures included sociocultural characteristics, acculturation, cognitive function, family network, utilization of ADHC, and QOL. The study found that for QOL, two variables had only direct effects: years in ADHC and acculturation. Family network was directly associated with QOL and indirectly associated with it through the variable "years in ADHC." Our findings indicate that a strong family network is positively associated with more years of attendance in ADHC, and with higher QOL scores. Thus, policy makers and practitioners should be aware of the positive association among social networks, attendance in ADHC, and higher QOL among low-income older Korean immigrants.

  14. Religious Background and Gambling Among Young Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the gambling industry over the last 40 years, there have been few large-scale, nationally representative longitudinal studies of gambling among young adults. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate whether and how the gambling behavior of young adults is associated with their religious beliefs and practices during adolescence. We find that young adults who grew up as conservative Protestants, mainline Protestants, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses; those were raised in a community with a higher percentage of conservative Protestants; and those who attended religious services weekly are less likely to have ever gambled. Among gamblers, young adults who attended religious services up to three times per month as adolescents are more likely to experience gambling problems than those who never attend. Notably, accounting for a young adult's propensity for risk-taking behavior does not explain the associations between religion and gambling.

  15. Religious Background and Gambling Among Young Adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Uecker, Jeremy E; Stokes, Charles E

    2016-03-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the gambling industry over the last 40 years, there have been few large-scale, nationally representative longitudinal studies of gambling among young adults. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate whether and how the gambling behavior of young adults is associated with their religious beliefs and practices during adolescence. We find that young adults who grew up as conservative Protestants, mainline Protestants, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses; those were raised in a community with a higher percentage of conservative Protestants; and those who attended religious services weekly are less likely to have ever gambled. Among gamblers, young adults who attended religious services up to three times per month as adolescents are more likely to experience gambling problems than those who never attend. Notably, accounting for a young adult's propensity for risk-taking behavior does not explain the associations between religion and gambling. PMID:25722077

  16. Adult: young ratio influences song acquisition in female European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Bertin, Aline; Hausberger, Martine; Henry, Laurence; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2009-05-01

    One parallel between humans and most songbirds is the fact that young require social interactions with an adult to acquire specific vocalizations. Songbirds are considered good models for comparative studies, although reports to date concern almost exclusively male songbirds. In addition, adult influence on vocal communication is generally investigated only in restricted social contexts (usually dyads). Here, the authors analyzed song learning and spatial associations among young female starlings that were maintained for 1 year in dyads (1 adult, 1 young), triads (2 adults, 1 young) or a larger group (7 young, 2 adults). Segregation by age was seen in the triads and in the larger group. The influence of adults (proportion of songs copied from adults) decreased as the young adult ratio increased. Unusual temporal features were observed in young maintained in triads and young neglected copying adult songs in the presence of peers. These results are among the first to explore the circumstances under which females learn and from whom they learn. They also add new insight to a wide range of questions about social influences on learning. PMID:19450026

  17. Self-Evaluated Dental Appearance Satisfaction among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Ogbomo, AC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental appearance satisfaction is important among young adults because judgment concerning the personal characteristics of individuals is influenced by their dental appearance in the absence of other information. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among young adults. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional survey of financial industry prone undergraduates of University of Benin was conducted between July and September, 2010. The self-administered questionnaire which assessed information on demographic characteristics, smoking habit, alcohol use, previous dental visit, dental appearance satisfaction, tooth shape, size, arrangement and strength was the tool of data collection. The data was subjected to descriptive, Chi-square and regression statistics using statistical package for the social sciences version 17.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). (P < 0.05) was considered to be significant. Results: A total of 399 undergraduates which are made up of 179 (44.9%) males and 220 (55.1%) females with mean age of 24.66 (4.20) years participated in this study. Self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction was expressed by 79.4% (317/399) of the participants. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction were skin color (P = 0.03, odds ratio [OR] =2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.09-6.09) and perceived tooth strength (P = 0.02, OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 1.40-24.28) among males and alcohol consumption (P = 0.04, OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.21-0.95] and perceived size of tooth (P = 0.02, OR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.15-4.89) among females. The significant predictors of self-evaluated dental appearance satisfaction among the participants were ethnicity (P = 0.04, OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.32-0.96), skin color (P = 0.04, OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.03-2.93), perceived tooth size (P = 0.03, OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.07-3.09) and strength (P = 0.01, OR = 3.42, 95% CI = 1.58-7.41). Conclusion: Ethnicity, tooth arrangement

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of Intanza(®)/IDflu(®) intradermal influenza vaccine in South Korean adults: a multicenter, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hoon Han, Sang; Hee Woo, Jun; Weber, Francoise; Joo Kim, Woo; Ran Peck, Kyong; Il Kim, Sang; Hwa Choi, Young; Myung Kim, June

    2013-09-01

    Intanza(®)/IDflu(®) (Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France) is an intradermal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine developed as an alternative to intramuscular influenza vaccine. The objective of this study was to confirm the immunogenicity and safety of Intanza/IDflu in South Korean adults. In a phase IV multicenter trial, South Korean adults 18-59 y old (n = 120) and ≥ 60 y old (n = 120) were randomized 1:1 to receive a single dose of Intanza/IDflu (9 µg for 18-59 y, 15 µg for ≥ 60 y) or trivalent intramuscular vaccine (Vaxigrip(®) 15 µg, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France). Blood was collected on pre-vaccination (day 0) and on day 21. Hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates and seroconversion rates were determined on day 21. Geometric mean titers, seroprotection and seroconversion rates were similar between the intradermal and intramuscular vaccines in both age groups for all three vaccine strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B). Both vaccines met Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use criteria for all three strains. Solicited systemic reactions of the intradermal groups were generally mild, transient, and similar to those of the intramuscular groups. Solicited injection site reactions were more frequent in the intradermal groups but were mostly mild, transient, and consisted mainly of pain, erythema, and pruritus. No treatment-related serious adverse events or other safety concerns were reported. These results confirm that Intanza/IDflu is an effective and well-tolerated alternative to IM influenza vaccination. (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT ID: NCT01215669).

  19. Andragogy for Teen and Young Adult Learners with Intellectual Disabilities: Learning, Independence, and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.

    2012-01-01

    Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…

  20. Association between Personality Traits and Sleep Quality in Young Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2015-01-01

    Personality is a trait that affects behavior and lifestyle, and sleep quality is an important component of a healthy life. We analyzed the association between personality traits and sleep quality in a cross-section of 1,406 young women (from 18 to 40 years of age) who were not reporting clinically meaningful depression symptoms. Surveys were carried out from December 2011 to February 2012, using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All analyses were adjusted for demographic and behavioral variables. We considered beta weights, structure coefficients, unique effects, and common effects when evaluating the importance of sleep quality predictors in multiple linear regression models. Neuroticism was the most important contributor to PSQI global scores in the multiple regression models. By contrast, despite being strongly correlated with sleep quality, conscientiousness had a near-zero beta weight in linear regression models, because most variance was shared with other personality traits. However, conscientiousness was the most noteworthy predictor of poor sleep quality status (PSQI ≥ 6) in logistic regression models and individuals high in conscientiousness were least likely to have poor sleep quality, which is consistent with an OR of 0.813, with conscientiousness being protective against poor sleep quality. Personality may be a factor in poor sleep quality and should be considered in sleep interventions targeting young women. PMID:26030141