Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…
Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko
The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…
Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782
Choi, Sung Won; Park, Tae-jin; Kim, Jun-su; Byun, Sunghun; Lee, Young-seok; Kim, Jung-hoon
Background An increase in the obese adolescent population is being recognized as a serious medical and social problem. The present study aimed to examine the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity in Korean adolescents based on total available resources and local social inequality models. Methods The present study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in analyzing 72,438 Korean adolescents aged 12–18. The analysis investigated obesity odds ratio (OR) according to neighborhood SES adjusted for age and individual SES indices, which included family affluence scale (FAS), education level of parents, cohabitation with parents, and weekly allowance. Obesity OR was investigated according to neighborhood SES by FAS, and according to FAS by neighborhood SES. Results After adjusting for age and individual SES variables, there was no significant association between neighborhood SES and adolescent obesity for either boys or girls. However, girls in the high FAS group showed a pattern of lower neighborhood SES being associated with a significant increase in risk of obesity; in the high neighborhood SES group, boys showed a pattern of higher FAS being associated with a significant increase in risk of obesity, whereas girls show a pattern of decrease. Conclusion Although limited, the present study demonstrated that some girl groups exhibited a pattern of lower neighborhood SES being associated with an increase in risk of obesity, as well as a gender-based difference in risk of obesity by individual SES. Therefore, measures to prevent adolescent obesity should be established with consideration for differences in risk according to individual and neighborhood SES. PMID:26885325
Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Results Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Conclusion Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors. PMID:20046509
Igwe, S A
Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth.
Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas
This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks.
... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...
Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang
Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.
This select bibliography lists books, articles, and reports, almost all of which were published since 1980, on at-risk youth. The following areas are included: (1) general; (2) dropouts; (3) drug and alcohol abusers; (4) youth offenders; (5) teen parents; (6) young children at risk; and (7) unemployed youth. For each item the following information…
Lee, Ji-Min; Bell, Nancy J.; Watson, Wendy
In this study involving self-report questionnaire data from 955 tenth-grade students in three locations within Korea, we address the meanings of alcohol use and delinquency for Korean youth. Findings (a) supported a facilitative role for alcohol, but not delinquency, with respect to perceived peer social competence; (b) indicated negative…
An, Sohyun; Kim, Myung Jung; Delacruz, Stacy
The study begins with the premise of the critical need of increased understanding of others in our global times. Given the intensive and extensive, and often complicated and controversial relations between the United States and South Korea in its modern history, it is critical for South Korean youth to build a more accurate understanding of their…
Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil
This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…
Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung; Park, Woong-Sub
To more fully comprehend juvenile delinquency, it is necessary to take an integrative approach, with consideration of both personality traits of social risk factors. Many scholars argue the necessity and strength of integrative approach on the ground that juvenile delinquency is an outcome of interplay of individual and social factors. The present study examines the general applicability of an integrative model of personal traits and social risk factors to youth delinquency in the South Korean context. The empirical results show that the delinquency predictors in the current South Korean sample are closely aligned to Loeber and Farrington's theoretical propositions and that found in Western nations. Perhaps this is because South Korea has undergone rapid Westernization for the last decades. Because the correlates in this sample and Western theoretical propositions and studies overlap, an integrative model of personality trait and social risk factors is indeed generally applicable to South Korea. This finding also depicts the extent of Westernization in the South Korean society at least among adolescents. Limitations of the present study and directions for the future study are discussed.
Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il
To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them.
Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il
To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them. PMID:24719154
Stieglitz, Kimberly A
Transgender youth face unique and complex issues as they confront cultural expectations of gender expression and how these fit with what is natural for them. Striving for balance, learning to cope, questioning, and eventually becoming comfortable with one's gender identity and sexual orientation are of paramount importance for healthy growth and development. Ineffective management of intense challenges over time without adequate social support places youth at risk for a number of unhealthy behaviors, including risk behaviors associated with acquiring HIV. This article explores early foundations of gender identity development, challenges in the development of transgender youth, and the limited data that exist on transgender youth and HIV risks. The concept of resilience is introduced as a counterbalancing area for assessment and intervention in practice and future research with transgender youth.
Choi, Yoonsun; Tan, Kevin Poh Hiong; Yasui, Miwa; Pekelnicky, Dina Drankus
This study examined the interplay of parental racial-ethnic socialization and youth multidimensional cultural orientations to investigate how they indirectly and directly influence youth depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors. Using data from the Korean American Families (KAF) Project (220 youths, 272 mothers, and 164 fathers, N = 656), this study tested the relationships concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier youth outcomes. The main findings include that racial-ethnic socialization is significantly associated with mainstream and ethnic cultural orientation among youth, which in turn influences depressive symptoms (but not antisocial behaviors). More specifically, parental racial-ethnic identity and pride discourage youth mainstream orientation, whereas cultural socialization in the family, as perceived by youth, increases ethnic orientation. These findings suggest a varying impact of racial-ethnic socialization on the multidimensional cultural orientations of youth. Korean language proficiency of youth was most notably predictive of a decrease in the number of depressive symptoms concurrently, longitudinally, and after controlling for previous levels of depressive symptoms. English language proficiency was also associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms, implying a benefit of bilingualism. PMID:24611081
Yang, Won Seok; Yang, Hye Jeong; Min, Byung In
The purposes of this study are to estimate the radiation risks induced by chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) screening for healthcare and to determine the cancer risk level of the Korean population compared to other populations. We used an ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator to compute the organ effective dose induced by CT screening (chest, low-dose chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis CT). A risk model was applied using principles based on the BEIR VII Report in order to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) using the Korean Life Table 2010. In addition, several countries including Hong Kong, the United States (U.S.), and the United Kingdom, were selected for comparison. Herein, each population exposed radiation dose of 100 mSv was classified according to country, gender and age. For each CT screening the total organ effective dose calculated by ImPACT was 6.2, 1.5, 5.2 and 11.4 mSv, respectively. In the case of Korean female LAR, it was similar to Hong Kong female but lower than those of U.S. and U.K. females, except for those in their twenties. The LAR of Korean males was the highest for all types of CT screening. However, the difference of the risk level was negligible because of the quite low value.
Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.
Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688
Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver.
In April 1991, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to a sample of 1,412 high school students in Colorado public schools to collect information about priority health-risk behaviors among adolescents. Questionnaires were received from 1,170 students, a response rate of 83%. Classes in Colorado's 280 public schools were also selected to…
Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Williams, Barbara; Ross, James G.; Lowry, Richard; Kolbe, Lloyd
Examined national Youth Risk Behavior Survey data and state and local surveys of high school students to investigate behaviors contributing to unintentional injuries, violence, substance use, age at initiation of risk behaviors, substance abuse on school property, sexual behaviors contributing to pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases,…
Park, Sohee; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Ji An; Lim, Hyunsun; Han, Jun Tae; Park, Il Su; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Jin Soo
Purpose Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Korea. The objective of the present study was to develop an individualized risk prediction model for lung cancer in Korean men using population-based cohort data. Methods From a population-based cohort study of 1,324,804 Korean men free of cancer at baseline, the individualized absolute risk of developing lung cancer was estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. We checked the validity of the model using C statistics and the Hosmer–Lemeshow chi-square test on an external validation dataset. Results The risk prediction model for lung cancer in Korean men included smoking exposure, age at smoking initiation, body mass index, physical activity, and fasting glucose levels. The model showed excellent performance (C statistic = 0.871, 95% CI = 0.867–0.876). Smoking was significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in Korean men, with a four-fold increased risk in current smokers consuming more than one pack a day relative to non-smokers. Age at smoking initiation was also a significant predictor for developing lung cancer; a younger age at initiation was associated with a higher risk of developing lung cancer. Conclusion This is the first study to provide an individualized risk prediction model for lung cancer in an Asian population with very good model performance. In addition to current smoking status, earlier exposure to smoking was a very important factor for developing lung cancer. Since most of the risk factors are modifiable, this model can be used to identify those who are at a higher risk and who can subsequently modify their lifestyle choices to lower their risk of lung cancer. PMID:23408946
Goggin, K.; Metcalf, K.; Wise, D.; Kennedy, S.; Murray, T.; Burgess, D.; Reese-Smith, J.; Terhune, N.; Broadus, K.; Downes, A.; Buckendahl, H.
This study evaluates the first year of a novel HIV and substance use prevention program for inner city youth (Offering New Youth eXperiences--ONYX). Baseline and follow-up measures of knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors were administered seven months apart to 441 youth participating in the ONYX program. Youth (n=71) who provided data at both…
Groner, Mark R.; Solomon, Jean
Advancements in the delivery of community-based services and tight utilization management of high-cost treatment options result in youths with serious behavior problems receiving intervention in lower levels of care than was true ten or fifteen years ago. This shift in where services tend to be delivered necessitates enhancement of risk assessment…
Soule, Penelope P.; Sharp, Joyce
This report discusses results of the Nevada Department of Education's fourth statewide administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Students in grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 (N=2,702) from 75 public high schools participated in the study. Nevada high school students reported behaviors that equaled or exceeded goals established in the national…
Child & Youth Services, 2007
In this chapter I describe the micro "risk society" of Limerick City and St. Augustine's Youth Encounter Project in terms of the social and cultural background of the interviewees, their perceived family and community identity, and their wider socialisation influences. The project is situated down one of the notorious Limerick lanes made…
Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin
Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515
Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.
The 1998 National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured health risk behaviors at alternative high schools. Many alternative students engaged in behaviors that made them high-risk for serious problems (e.g., motor vehicle safety, violence, nutrition, sexuality, exercise, and substance abuse). Their prevalence of high risk…
Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju
This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r = .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI = .943, TLI = .902, CFI = .902, RMSEA = .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:24848006
Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju
This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r = .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI = .943, TLI = .902, CFI = .902, RMSEA = .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.
Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.
The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…
Reid, Joan A.; Sullivan, Christopher J.
Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth < maternal, youth > maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more…
Drawing on and conversing with the large body of research and literature on young people's historical understanding, Asian American education, transnational migration, and Korean American studies, this dissertation research explored contemporary U.S. Korean youth's ideas and experiences of U.S. education, U.S. society and U.S. history.…
Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Ma, Julie
This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi's social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization--four elements of social bonds within the school setting--in delayed initiation of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Discrete-time logistic regression was used to analyze five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N=3449 at baseline), a nationally representative sample of Korean youth. Stronger teacher attachment, higher educational aspiration, and higher rule internalization were correlated with delayed onset of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. On the other hand, participation in school extracurricular activities was positively associated with the onset of alcohol drinking, but not statistically significantly linked with the onset of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that early prevention strategies for youth substance use should specifically target school-related factors that represent social bonds developed among youth.
Emery, Clifton R; Lee, Jung Yun; Kang, Chulhee
Given previous research on depression, history of physical abuse, family order, attachment, and parenting, we hypothesized that the physical abuse-depression relationship would be moderated by (a) family order and (b) attachment, and that (c) attachment and family order would interact significantly in predicting depression. Hypotheses were tested in South Korea in a random cluster sample of 82 youth aged 15-25 who were either themselves North Korean refugees (n=39) or who were born to North Korean refugee mothers in China (n=43). A qualitative interview was used to shed further light on the findings. Family order appears to be a protective factor against depression in that more order is associated with a weakened past abuse-depression relationship.
Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu
Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…
Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon
This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.
Engstrom, Martha C.; Parrie, Chelsey; Miller, Russell; Li, Yuan
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to measure the major health risk behaviors performed by youth. These health risk behaviors include: behaviors that contribute to intentional and unintentional injuries; the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs; sexual behaviors that contribute…
Cho, KiHun; Cho, Hwi-Young; Han, Gyeong-Soon
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between psychosocial stress, occupational stress, and musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners. [Subjects and Methods] Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 401 dental practitioners in Korea. To assess the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale, and Psychosocial Well-Being Index Short Form were used. General and work-related characteristics of the subjects consisted of seven items, including age, career, height, weight, working days/week, working hours/day, and physical strain levels. [Results] In this study, 86.8% of the practitioners experienced musculoskeletal symptoms (shoulders, 72.8%; neck, 69.3%; waist, 68.3%; wrist, 58.4%; back, 44.1%; ankle, 38.7%; knee, 36.9%; hip, 20.4%; and elbows, 9.2%). Moreover, psychosocial and occupational stress can affect the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. In particular, we found that psychosocial stress has significant influence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] To increase the quality of life and provide high-quality medical service for dental practitioners, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders must be managed. Accordingly, dental practitioners must maintain good posture, get an appropriate amount of rest, and perform regular stretching exercise to reduce psychological stress and improve the work environment.
Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotype and physical characteristic differences among elite youth soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, we evaluated twenty-two Korean youth soccer players in different playing positions. The playing positions were divided into forward (FW), midfielder (MF), defender (DF), and goalkeeper (GK). The participants’ lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured and their somatotype determined according to the Heath-Carter method. [Results] The youth soccer players had twelve ectomorphic, eight mesomorphic, and two central predominant types. The DFs were taller than, but otherwise similar in physical characteristics to the FWs and MFs. The GKs were taller and heavier than the other players; however, their somatotype components were not significantly different. LBM, FFM, and BMR were significantly higher in GKs than in FWs and MFs. Although LBM, FFM, and BMR values between GKs and DFs showed large differences, they were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The present study may contribute to our understanding of the differences in somatotype and body composition of Korean youth soccer players involved in sports physiotherapy research. PMID:25995545
Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotype and physical characteristic differences among elite youth soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, we evaluated twenty-two Korean youth soccer players in different playing positions. The playing positions were divided into forward (FW), midfielder (MF), defender (DF), and goalkeeper (GK). The participants' lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured and their somatotype determined according to the Heath-Carter method. [Results] The youth soccer players had twelve ectomorphic, eight mesomorphic, and two central predominant types. The DFs were taller than, but otherwise similar in physical characteristics to the FWs and MFs. The GKs were taller and heavier than the other players; however, their somatotype components were not significantly different. LBM, FFM, and BMR were significantly higher in GKs than in FWs and MFs. Although LBM, FFM, and BMR values between GKs and DFs showed large differences, they were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The present study may contribute to our understanding of the differences in somatotype and body composition of Korean youth soccer players involved in sports physiotherapy research.
This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…
Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook
The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…
Gittman, Elizabeth; Cassata, Marian
A 5-year federally funded substance abuse prevention program targeted 426 high risk middle-school youth from 4 school districts in Nassau County, New York. Combining a child-centered model with a systemic approach, the program's goal was to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol and other drug use. High-risk youth were identified by school…
Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.
Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…
Silloway, Torey; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dahlin, Melissa
Hawaii's largest populations of at-risk youth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…
Astroth, Kirk A.
Puts the label "at risk" in perspective as it relates to youth. Points out that today's adolescents have lower rates of suicide, unwed pregnancy, drug abuse, smoking, and drunk driving than young and middle-aged adults. Suggests that extension youth education moves toward a condition-focused, resiliency model that recognizes the vitality and…
Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon
Abstract Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women. The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: “traditional,” “western,” and “prudent.” The “prudent” dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the “prudent” dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36–0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59–0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43–0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42–0.68). However, the “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS. The “prudent” dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795
Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon
Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862
Kaaya, S F; Leshabari, M T; Mbwambo, J K
Focusing on increased vulnerability to HIV infection, this article examines some of the contexts within which these risk-taking behaviors occur and illustrates that the risk of contracting the disease is just one of the many risks with which Tanzanian youths are confronted. The sexual and substance use behaviors, and the relationship between such behaviors and economic factors, are discussed. Where evidences exist, attempts are made to compare the prevalence of these behaviors among male and female youths, as well as urban and rural youths. The extent to which males and females engage in risk-taking behaviors is unknown; however, studies show that, depending on age and gender, between 17% and 61% of youths are sexually active. Rates in HIV transmission vary by gender and by whether the youths are rural or urban inhabitants. Factors like adverse socioeconomic conditions, unemployment, lack of parental guidance and supervision, and culture all influence sexual risk-taking behaviors among youths. Meanwhile, increasing use of drugs and alcohol among the young population has been closely linked to increased vulnerability to unprotected sexual intercourse. Again, survival needs play a major role in sustaining risk behaviors. The paper concludes by outlining policy implications of youth risk behaviors, taking into account a multisectoral approach in dealing with the problem.
Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi
This study examines Korean American community newspapers' representation of risks and benefits involved with medical tourism offered in Korea. Using framing theory, this research attempts to explain Korean Americans' highly positive perceptions and high willingness to use health and medical services in Korea through medical tourism rather than using such services in the United States. The result of content analyses indicated that Korean American community newspapers are rarely engaged in risk communication and lack sufficient information about potential risks of medical tourism while emphasizing diverse benefits. Korean ethnic media, as the primary source of health communication for Korean Americans, should provide more reliable health and medical information for the population's appropriate health management.
Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina
This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings. PMID:21414831
Rhew, Isaac C; David Hawkins, J; Oesterle, Sabrina
This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings.
The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy
Capuzzi, Dave, Ed.; Gross, Douglas R., Ed.
This book of readings consists of 15 chapters grouped into 4 "Parts." The readings provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. Sample programs that have been effective are described and data are provided on causal factors for youth problems.…
Schubot, David B.
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a questionnaire of 92 items assessing the 6 health-care behaviors resulting in the greatest amount of youth morbidity, mortality, and social problems: (1) intentional and unintentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual activity resulting in HIV infection, other sexually…
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne
Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…
Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008
This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…
Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.
This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…
Jung, Myungjin; Kang, Sangwook; Kwon, Sungho
This study examined whether team commitment mediates the relationship between self-esteem and perceived team climate in Korean youth soccer players. A total of 366 youth soccer players from the Korea football association participated in this study. Self-esteem and team commitment were found to significantly and positively affect perceived team climate; team commitment more strongly affected perceived team climate. Regarding structural relationships, self-esteem's direct effect on perceived team climate was not significant; however, self-esteem's indirect effect through team commitment was significant. Team commitment therefore mediated the relationship between self-esteem and perceived team climate. Metric invariance was supported for groups categorized by grade and key player, confirming that the model could be applied to various groups.
Stevens, Patricia; Griffin, Juree
This article presents results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results, which may assist in developing appropriate intervention/prevention programs, indicate a critical age for involvement in risk behaviors, gradual increase in risk behaviors over time, and gender differences in risk behaviors. (BF)
Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Nguyen, Tuong L; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Hopper, John L; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi
We carried out this study to evaluate the association between mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI and early-onset breast cancer in Asian women. We recruited 213 Korean patients with breast cancer (45% diagnosed before the age of 50 years) and 630 controls matched for age, menopausal status, and examination date. The percentage and absolute size of dense areas on digital mammograms were measured using a computer-assisted thresholding technique (Cumulus). We carried out an analysis using the conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for covariates. An increase by 1 SD in age and BMI-adjusted absolute dense area and percentage dense area was associated with a 1.15-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.29) and 1.20-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.37) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively. These associations were stronger for premenopausal disease (P=0.07 and 0.01, respectively) and for disease diagnosed before age 50 (P=0.07 and 0.02, respectively) than for postmenopausal disease (P=0.16 and 0.23, respectively) or later onset disease (P=0.10 and 0.10, respectively). There was no difference in the associations with premenopausal versus postmenopausal and early-onset versus late-onset disease. After adjusting for age and BMI, both a greater absolute dense area and a greater percentage dense area were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly at a young age.
Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Ma, Julie
This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi’s social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization—four elements of social bonds within the school setting—in delayed initiation of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Discrete-time logistic regression was used to analyze five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N = 3449 at baseline), a nationally representative sample of Korean youth. Stronger teacher attachment, higher educational aspiration, and higher rule internalization were correlated with delayed onset of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. On the other hand, participation in school extracurricular activities was positively associated with the onset of alcohol drinking, but not statistically significantly linked with the onset of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that early prevention strategies for youth substance use should specifically target school-related factors that represent social bonds developed among youth. PMID:25761170
Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo
Research on the social determinants of health suggests that interpersonal networks play a critical role in facilitating individual mental and physical well-being. Prior studies also indicate that ecological or contextual factors contribute to positive health outcomes. This study extends prior research by examining the factors associated with adolescent health in an Asian context. Based on the multilevel analysis of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (2006 & 2007), a longitudinal project funded by the Korean government, it investigates some of the key variables related to the mental health of Korean students. Much of previous research focuses on the functions of social capital. This study contributes to the social epidemiology literature by investigating the possible downside of network ties. Specifically, it asks whether having delinquent friends is associated with negative mental health experiences. In addition, little research has been conducted concerning the associations between adolescent health outcomes and school characteristics. This study moves in that direction by examining the relationship between mental well-being of students and a variety of school related variables (e.g., subjective attitude toward school and quality of relationship with peers and teachers). Hierarchical linear modeling shows that, among the social capital control variables, being properly integrated into the family and frequent peer interaction significantly add to mental health. At the individual (student) level only, ties to delinquent friends are negatively associated with mental health, while at both individual and contextual levels, school characteristics are positively related to adolescent subjective well-being.
Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Hopper, Tristan; Whelan, Patricia
This short communication provides our insights into how or in what ways educators can more effectively support aspiration of at-risk/high-risk youth toward meaningful education. These are informed by the key learnings from our ongoing youth engagement research. Those insights emphasize the importance of "meaningful engagement of youth"…
Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin
"The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…
Park, Jong Eun; Lee, Jung Eun
Depression is the fourth leading factor of disease burden for the global female population, but while increasing evidence has supported a contributing role of depression in cardiovascular disease, little is known about this association within the female population of Korea. We examined the association in a study of 5658 Korean women who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 279 cases of depression were included. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were associated with higher odds of depression: ORs (95% CIs) were 3.99 (2.25-7.05) for current smokers with <5 pack-years vs. never-smokers, 1.97 (1.18-3.30) for ≥28 vs. <20kg/m(2) of body mass index, 1.42 (1.03-1.95) for 100-125 vs. <100mg/dL of fasting serum glucose levels, and 2.10 (1.46-3.03) for a history of hyperlipidemia. Women with a history of two or three comorbid disorders (diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease) had a 1.63-fold higher OR for depression than women without any of these diseases. Korean women with depression had a greater prevalence of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease than women without depression.
Koki, Stanley I.
The Hawaii Project on Children and Youth At-Risk represents a long-term effort to strengthen the individual school's capacity to meet the special needs of students at-risk. According to the project's definition, a student is at-risk if he/she has consistently failed to make satisfactory school progress, if that failure could be positively…
Jang, Eun Jin; Park, ByeongJu; Kim, Tae-Young; Shin, Soon-Ae
Background Asian-specific prediction models for estimating individual risk of osteoporotic fractures are rare. We developed a Korean fracture risk prediction model using clinical risk factors and assessed validity of the final model. Methods A total of 718,306 Korean men and women aged 50–90 years were followed for 7 years in a national system-based cohort study. In total, 50% of the subjects were assigned randomly to the development dataset and 50% were assigned to the validation dataset. Clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture were assessed at the biennial health check. Data on osteoporotic fractures during the follow-up period were identified by ICD-10 codes and the nationwide database of the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). Results During the follow-up period, 19,840 osteoporotic fractures were reported (4,889 in men and 14,951 in women) in the development dataset. The assessment tool called the Korean Fracture Risk Score (KFRS) is comprised of a set of nine variables, including age, body mass index, recent fragility fracture, current smoking, high alcohol intake, lack of regular exercise, recent use of oral glucocorticoid, rheumatoid arthritis, and other causes of secondary osteoporosis. The KFRS predicted osteoporotic fractures over the 7 years. This score was validated using an independent dataset. A close relationship with overall fracture rate was observed when we compared the mean predicted scores after applying the KFRS with the observed risks after 7 years within each 10th of predicted risk. Conclusion We developed a Korean specific prediction model for osteoporotic fractures. The KFRS was able to predict risk of fracture in the primary population without bone mineral density testing and is therefore suitable for use in both clinical setting and self-assessment. The website is available at http://www.nhis.or.kr. PMID:27399597
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…
Barker, Brittany; Alfred, Gerald Taiaiake; Fleming, Kim; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora
Objectives Past research has identified risk factors associated with incarceration among adult Aboriginal populations; however, less is known about incarceration among street-involved Aboriginal youth. Therefore, we undertook this study to longitudinally investigate recent reports of incarceration among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Data were collected from a cohort of street-involved, drug-using youth from September 2005 to May 2013. Multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses were employed to examine the potential relationship between Aboriginal ancestry and recent incarceration. Results Among our sample of 1050 youth, 248 (24%) reported being of aboriginal ancestry, and 378 (36%) reported being incarcerated in the previous six months at some point during the study period. In multivariate analysis controlling for a range of potential confounders including drug use patterns and other risk factors, Aboriginal ancestry remained significantly associated with recent incarceration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–1.86). Conclusions Even after adjusting for drug use patterns and other risk factors associated with incarceration, this study found that Aboriginal street-involved youth were still significantly more likely to be incarcerated than their non-Aboriginal peers. Given the established harms associated with incarceration these findings underscore the pressing need for systematic reform including culturally appropriate interventions to prevent Aboriginal youth from becoming involved with the criminal justice system. PMID:26390949
Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack
This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…
Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob
This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…
Schubot, David B.
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was administered in a stratified random sample to South Dakota public schools including Bureau of Indian Affairs schools; private schools were not included. The six priority health-risk behaviors assessed in the YRBS are: (1) intentional and unintentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug…
South Dakota State Dept. of Human Services, Pierre.
The Youth Risk Behavior Survey was cooperatively developed by Centers for Disease Control and state and local departments of health to assess six health risk behaviors of adolescents that result in the greatest number of morbidity, mortality, and social problems. All public, private, and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools in South Dakota, containing…
Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.
Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…
Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison
This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…
Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.
Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…
Hazler, Richard J.; Denham, Sharon A.
Discusses social isolation as a major factor in determining how youth are increasingly put at risk for both immediate and lifelong difficulties and examines three at-risk situations that counselors face to better understand the origins and implications affecting assessment and interventions. Presents practical implications for how school and…
Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.
This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…
Kim, Dae Hyun; Shin, Gwang Rae; Choi, Young Je
To determine the risk factors for non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in Korean patients, medical records from 45 Korean patients group and 45 healthy controls group were retrospectively reviewed. 10 NAION risk factors, including age, sex, associated systemic disease, past medical/social history, and fundus findings were analyzed. Significant risk factors for NAION in Korean patients were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR) = 3.613, p = 0.020), hypercholesterolaemia (OR = 5.200, p = 0.001), smoking (OR = 3.58, p = 0.014), microaneurysm/haemorrhage (OR = 5.375, p = 0.024), and crowded small cup (OR = 17.200, p < 0.001).
Moon, Martha W.; Fornili, Katherine; O'Briant, Amanda L.
This article examines risk behavior among youth attending support groups for sexual minority youth in Richmond, Virginia, using a structured survey, with particular attention to partner selection and its relationship to risk. Within this generally high-risk group, youth reporting sex partners of both sexes had significantly higher risk profiles,…
Zeng, Gerald; Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Teoh, Jennifer
An increasing amount of research has been carried out to understand the characteristics of subgroups of adult sex offenders, but there is limited research into the risk factors and criminogenic needs of subgroups of youth who sexually offended. The current study investigated if there were differences in the risk and criminogenic needs of 167 Singaporean youth who sexually offended based on two typologies - youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually versus youth who offended only sexually, and youth who offended against child victims versus youth who offended against nonchild victims. Results show that youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually were found to have higher risk and criminogenic needs as compared to youth who only sexually offended. In addition, youth who offended against child victims were found to have higher numbers of previous sexual assaults as compared to youth who offended against nonchild victims. These differences have implications for the management and intervention of youth who sexually offended. PMID:24503949
Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Young-Kyun; Choi, Hyung Jin
Background Fracture-risk assessment tool (FRAX) using just clinical risk factors of osteoporosis has been developed to estimate individual risk of osteoporotic fractures. We developed prediction model of fracture risk using bone mineral density (BMD) as well as clinical risk factors in Korean, and assessed the validity of the final model. Methods To develop and validate an osteoporotic FRAX, a total of 768 Korean men and women aged 50 to 90 years were followed for 7 years in a community-based cohort study. BMD as well as clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture including age, sex, body mass index, history of fragility fracture, family history of fracture, smoking status, alcohol intake, use of oral glucocorticoid, rheumatoid arthritis, and other causes of secondary osteoporosis were assessed biannually. Results During the follow-up period, 86 osteoporotic fractures identified (36 in men and 50 in women). The developed prediction models showed high discriminatory power and had goodness of fit. Conclusions The developed a Korean specific prediction model for osteoporotic fractures can be easily used as a screening tool to identify individual with high risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further studies for validation are required to confirm the clinical feasibility in general Korean population. PMID:26981519
Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K
Although "association with delinquent peers" is commonly identified as "a risk factor for youth violence," this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these "doubly diverse" friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and "delinquent peers." It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk.
Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.
Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949
Douyon, Richard; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Page, J. Bryan
SUMMARY In order to characterize undesirable behavior (drug use, fighting, criminal activity) among Haitian youth at risk and determine the relationship between traumatic experience and that kind of behavior, investigators recruited 291 Haitian youths via networks of informal social relations in two zones of Miami/Dade County strongly idenitified with Haitian ethnicity. Each recruit responded to an interview schedule eliciting sociodemographic information and self-reported activities, including involvement in youth-dominated groups. They also reported traumatic experience. Clinicians administered CAPS to a subset of those respondents who self-reported traumatic experience. Staff ethnographers selected respondents for in-depth interviews and family studies to provide contextual depth for findings of the interview schedule and the CAPS assessments. Although traumatic experience may still play a role in mental health outcomes among children, childhood victimization among Haitian children does not appear to be related to the drug use and undesirable behaviors associated with unsupervised youth, including formation of gangs. PMID:16275637
Hong, Eun Pyo; Go, Min Jin; Kim, Hyung-Lae
A complex interplay among host, pathogen, and environmental factors is believed to contribute to the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The lack of replication of published genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings limits the clinical utility of reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a GWAS using 467 PTB cases and 1,313 healthy controls obtained from two community-based cohorts in Korea. We evaluated the performance of PTB risk models based on different combinations of genetic and nongenetic factors and validated the results in an independent Korean population comprised of 179 PTB cases and 500 healthy controls. We demonstrated the polygenic nature of PTB and nongenetic factors such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were strongly associated with PTB risk. None of the SNPs achieved genome-wide significance; instead, we were able to replicate the associations between PTB and ten SNPs near or in the genes, CDCA7, GBE1, GADL1, SPATA16, C6orf118, KIAA1432, DMRT2, CTR9, CCDC67, and CDH13, which may play roles in the immune and inflammatory pathways. Among the replicated SNPs, an intergenic SNP, rs9365798, located downstream of the C6orf118 gene showed the most significant association under the dominant model (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.32–1.92, P = 2.1×10−6). The performance of a risk model combining the effects of ten replicated SNPs and six nongenetic factors (i.e., age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure, and hemoglobin) were validated in the replication set (AUC = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76–0.84). The strategy of combining genetic and nongenetic risk factors ultimately resulted in better risk prediction for PTB in the adult Korean population. PMID:28355295
Bender, Kimberly A; DePrince, Anne; Begun, Stephanie; Hathaway, Jessica; Haffejee, Badiah; Schau, Nicholas
Homeless youth frequently experience victimization, and youth with histories of trauma often fail to detect danger risks, making them vulnerable to subsequent victimization. The current study describes a pilot test of a skills-based intervention designed to improve risk detection among homeless youth through focusing attention to internal, interpersonal, and environmental cues. Youth aged 18 to 21 years (N = 74) were recruited from a shelter and randomly assigned to receive usual case management services or usual services plus a 3-day manualized risk detection intervention. Pretest and posttest interviews assessed youths' risk detection abilities through vignettes describing risky situations and asking youth to identify risk cues present. Separate 2 (intervention vs. control) × 2 (pretest vs. posttest) mixed ANOVAs found significant interaction effects, as intervention youth significantly improved in overall risk detection compared with control youth. Post hoc subgroup analyses found the intervention had a greater effect for youth without previous experiences of indirect victimization than those with previous indirect victimization experiences.
Davidson, Lucy, Ed.; Linnoila, Markku, Ed.
Commissioned papers by a work group on risk factors for youth suicide, which examined environmental, behavioral, socio-cultural, biological, and psychological factors associated with an increased likelihood of suicide among young people are presented in this document. The following papers are presented: (1) "Sociodemographic, Epidemiologic, and…
Huff, C. Ronald
A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…
Drummond, Wilhelmina J.
Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…
Like other states, Idaho faces increasing numbers of youth considered at risk for becoming a detriment to society. Some communities are looking to the arts as a way to help young people channel their energies positively. In 1993 and 1994, the Idaho Commission on the Arts wanted to test the idea that artists working with first-time juvenile…
New Hampshire State Dept. of Education, Concord.
An 84-item multiple choice Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 2,092 students in 62 public high schools in New Hampshire during the spring of 1995. The survey covered behaviors in six categories: (1) behaviors that result in unintentional or intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that…
In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…
de Lone, Richard H.
Schools working in cooperation with business can reduce the number of youth at risk of long-term unemployment if teachers and school administrators are willing to learn from research developed outside the field of public education and if schools are substantially restructured to meet student needs. A review of the literature of labor economics and…
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell
In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…
This thesis is an art-based research video demonstration of an alternate medium for art therapy. It postulates the value and validity of media arts as a therapeutic modality by way of adopting the major motion picture green screening technique for therapy with an at-risk youth population. Four male participants, raging from 16 to 19 years of age,…
McCarter, Susan A.; Haber, Mason G.; Kazemi, Donna
Policy reform for at-risk youth is complicated by involvement of various service sectors. Issues related to coordinating systems of care in a dynamic policy environment are not new, but surprisingly little has been written to guide practitioners and policymakers in addressing them (Friedman in "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…
Tidwell, Romeria; Garrett, Susan Corona
Reviews the definitions of the term "youth at risk" and their perspectives on predisposing conditions. Discusses implications for counseling. Asserts that the sound diagnosis and treatment of adolescents' problems involves careful identification of predisposing conditions and negative outcomes. Includes 16 citations. (Author/CRR)
Fernan, Steven A.; And Others
How can state leaders mobilize to meet the health and safety needs of its school-age children? To understand more about children's health, the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI) has surveyed Wisconsin students. In 1993 the DPI and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) joined forces to conduct the Youth Risk Behavior Survey.…
Wishart, Diane; Taylor, Alison; Shultz, Lynette
This paper looks at policy discourse around "youth at risk" (YAR) by asking two questions: First, how have problems and solutions related to YAR been constructed by Governments? And second, how do particular technologies of Government (differentiation of schools, programmes, and course streams, and the funding and identification of…
Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Lescano, Celia; Donenberg, Geri; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Mello, Justin
The acquisition of affect regulation skills is often impaired or delayed in youth with mental health problems but the relationship between affect dysregulation and risk behaviors has not been well studied. Baseline data from adolescents (N =418; ages 13–19) recruited from therapeutic school settings examined the relationship between affect dysregulation, substance use, self-cutting, and sexual risk behavior. Analyses of covariance demonstrated that adolescents who did not use condoms at last sex, ever self-cut, attempted suicide, used alcohol and other drugs and reported less condom use self-efficacy when emotionally aroused were significantly more likely (p < .01) to report greater difficulty with affect regulation than peers who did not exhibit these behaviors. General patterns of difficulty with affect regulation may be linked to HIV risk behavior, including condom use at last sex. HIV prevention strategies for youth in mental health treatment should target affect regulation in relation to multiple risk behaviors. PMID:22669595
Choi, Eun Jin; Kim, Sun A; Kim, Nu Ri; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Yun, Yong-Woon; Shin, Min-Ho
Falls are a major health problem for elderly populations worldwide. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey to identify potential risk factors for falls in a representative population-based sample of community-dwelling older Korean adults. Risk factors for falls were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. The prevalence of falls was 16.9% in males and 24.3% in females [Corrected]. Age and female sex were associated with a higher risk of falls. Similarly, living alone, living in an urban area, poor self-rated health, and high stress were associated with a high risk of falls. Subjects with diabetes mellitus, stroke, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, cataracts, or depression had a high risk of falls. However, subjects with hypertension were at low risk for falls. In conclusion, age, female sex, marital status, residence location, self-rated health, stress, and several chronic conditions were significantly associated with the risk for falls in the older Korean adults. Our findings suggest that these risk factors should be addressed in public health policies for preventing falls.
Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.
This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…
Schussel, Lorne; Miller, Lisa
The healing process of the Best Self Visualization Method (BSM) is described within the framework of meditation, neuroscience, and psychodynamic theory. Cases are drawn from the treatment of high-risk youth, who have histories of poverty, survival of sexual and physical abuse, and/or current risk for perpetrating abuse. Clinical use of BSM is demonstrated in two case illustrations, one of group psychotherapy and another of individual therapy.
Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee
There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty. PMID:23610607
Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Myoungsook
There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty.
Hong, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Jin-Koo; Kang, Hyun-Sik
The present study investigated the relationships among metabolic risk factors, major lifestyle factors, and serum cytokines in a sample of Korean children. In a cross-sectional design, we studied a total of 275 children (130 boys and 145 girls) aged 12-13 years. Measured variables included anthropometrics, blood pressures (BP), VO2max, physical activity (PA), dietary intakes, lipids, glucose, and insulin. We explored the extent to which dietary intakes, VO2max, PA, and serum cytokines explained variance in a clustered risk score, which is a sum of Z scores for waist circumference, BP, TG, HDLC, and HOMA-IR, using a stepwise linear regression by blocks. VO2max, vigorous PA (VPA), and leptin were independent predictors for the clustered risk score while adjusting for age and Tanner stage. Our findings suggest that the clustered risk score is associated not only with low levels of VO2max and VPA, but also with elevated serum leptin in Korean children.
Weldy, David L
Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.
Cieslik, Mark, Ed.; Pollock, Gary, Ed.
Drawing on empirical research and theoretical writings, this book examines how concepts such as risk society and individualization may be used in the field of youth studies. It explores young peoples' identities, youth cultures, and a multiplicity of ways in which risk can be understood and influence youth policy agendas in the future. Chapter 1,…
Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge
Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…
Rea, Dan, Ed.; Warkentin, Robert, Ed.
This book contains papers from a conference on at-risk youth that focused on building strengths and empowering youth by giving them skills for school and life. Following an introduction titled "Motivational Strategies for Empowering Youth-At-Risk" by Dan Rea and Robert Warkentin, the papers are: (1) "The Role of Learning Environments: Social…
Smith, Cindy Ann; Newman-Thomas, Cathy; Stormont, Melissa
Youth mentoring, defined within this study, as the pairing of a youth at risk with a caring adult, is an intervention that is often used for youth at risk for academic and social failure. We sought to understand mentors' perspectives of the fundamental elements that foster positive mentor--mentee relationships that build resiliency and increase…
Touzard, Rachelle Silverstein
Family therapists and school counselors are increasingly called upon to provide services for youth in alternative education (Carver, Lewis, & Tice, 2010). Alternative education systems are programs for youth who have been defined as at risk. This study explored the at-risk discourse and asked the questions (a) how do youth and staff define the…
Nam, Ki Yeun; Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young
Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls.
Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho
Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls. PMID:26839487
Youth Marijuana Use 1 Modifiable Risk Factors for Marijuana Use Among Adolescents in a Youth Development Program Jenny A. Crain, MS, MPH, CPH, Suzanne L...risk for lifetime marijuana use. Keywords: Marijuana use; Risk factors; Youth development programs; Adolescents Modifiable Risk Factors for...negative consequences. Previous research has shown that adolescents with a history of prior marijuana, tobacco, and/or alcohol use are at greater risk of
Judge, Lawrence W.; Lee, Don; Surber, Karin; Bellar, David; Petersen, Jeffrey; Ivan, Emese; Kim, Hyeon Jung
The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) was launched in part to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of increasingly overweight and inactive adolescents. But since the initial announcement of the YOG by the International Olympic Committee in 2007, this new third addition to the Olympic family of events has provoked response from…
Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527
Cannon, Jennifer A. N.; Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Burlingame, Gary M.
This study used longitudinal youth outcome data in routine mental health services to test a system for identifying cases at risk for treatment failure. Participants were 2,715 youth (M age = 14) served in outpatient managed care and community mental health settings. Change trajectories were developed using multilevel modeling of archival data.…
Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn; Thimasarn-Anwar, Tewaporn; Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael
Services that utilise positive youth development practices (PYD) are thought to improve the quality of the service experience leading to better outcomes for at-risk youth. This article reports on a study of 605 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who were concurrent clients of two or more service systems (child welfare, juvenile justice, additional education, mental health). It was hypothesised that services adopting PYD approaches would be related to increases in youth resilience and better wellbeing outcomes. It was also hypothesised that risks, resilience, service experiences and wellbeing outcomes would differ by age, gender and ethnicity. Youth completed a self-report questionnaire administered individually. Path analysis was used to determine the relationship between risk, service use, resilience and a wellbeing outcome measure. MANOVA was then used to determine patterns of risk, service use, resilience and wellbeing among participants based on their demographic characteristics. Services using PYD approaches were significantly related to higher levels of youth resilience. Similarly, increased resilience was related to increased indicators of wellbeing, suggesting the mediating role of resilience between risk factors and wellbeing outcomes. When professionals adopt PYD practices and work with the positive resources around youth (their own resilience processes) interventions can make a significant contribution to wellbeing outcomes for at-risk youth.
Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H
Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire
Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Chae, Duckhee; Yi, Kwan Hyung; Im, Soye; Cho, Sung Hye
Korean-Chinese currently represent the largest group of migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of risk factors on the occurrence of work-related injuries and illnesses (WII). Data for 486 Korean-Chinese migrant workers were drawn from the 2010 Migrant Workers' Health and Safety Survey in Korea. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between WII and multiple risk factors. Individual health status (OR = 3.83, 95% CI [2.01, 7.30]), safety training (OR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.18, 0.85]), job satisfaction (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.07, 3.38]), physical and chemical hazard exposure (OR = 1.05, 95% CI [1.02, 1.08]), and length of stay (OR = 1.01, 95% CI [1.00, 1.01]) were identified as risk factors for WII. The findings suggest the need for a comprehensive approach to assess WII risk factors, including personal, work organization and psychosocial demands, and acculturation in Korean-Chinese migrant workers.
Johnson, Joyce, Comp.
This paper provides the results of a 1993 survey of 2,684 New Hampshire high school students in regard to risk taking, personal violence, suicide, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education, sexual activity, nutrition, and exercise. It found that in the preceding 30 days, 10.8 percent of students…
This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes focuses on the tendency of children from low-income families to drop out of high school, become teen parents, become involved in drug-related activities, and become involved in other activities that place them at high risk of long-term welfare dependency. Section 1 offers the background.…
Naar-King, Sylvie; Wright, Kathryn; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Frey, Maureen; Templin, Thomas; Lam, Phebe; Murphy, Debra
This study piloted a brief individual motivational intervention targeting multiple health risk behaviors in HIV-positive youth aged 16-25. Interviews about sexual behavior and substance use and viral load testing were obtained from 51 HIV-positive youth at baseline and post intervention. Youth were randomized to receive a four-session motivational…
Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan
Immigrant youth are at risk of experiencing harassment in school; however, we have only limited understanding of what makes youth harass their peers on ground of their ethnic origin. To address this major limitation, we examined (a) whether youth's negative attitudes toward immigrants impact their engagement in ethnic harassment over time and (b)…
Spiel, Craig Freeman; Mixon, Clifton S.; Holdaway, Alex S.; Evans, Steven W.; Harrison, Judith R.; Zoromski, Allison K.; Yost, Joanna Sadler
In this study, we intend to determine if reading tests aloud provides a differential boost to youth with elevated symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to same-aged peers. Participants were 36 youth, 44% with or at risk for ADHD, who participated in a week long summer camp. Over the course of the week, youth attended…
Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon
Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…
Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Grey, Margaret
Background: Rates of overweight in youth have increased at an alarming rate, particularly in minority youth, and depressive symptoms may affect the ability of youth to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors to manage weight and reduce their risk for health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressive…
Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.
This report evaluates the High Risk Youth Demonstration Project, which is predicated on the idea that youth-serving agencies (YSAs) can be key sources for adolescent AIDS education. When the Center for Population Options (CPO) conceptualized a strategy for bringing AIDS education to underserved youth, it was responding to the following three areas…
Waltz, James A; Demro, Caroline; Schiffman, Jason; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Xu, Ziye; Gold, James
Early identification efforts for psychosis have thus far yielded many more individuals "at risk" than actually develop psychotic illness. Here, we test whether measures of reinforcement learning (RL), known to be impaired in chronic schizophrenia, are related to the severity of clinical risk symptoms. Because of the reliance of RL on dopamine-rich frontostriatal systems and evidence of dopamine system dysfunction in the psychosis prodrome, RL measures are of specific interest in this clinical population. The current study examines relationships between psychosis risk symptoms and RL task performance in a sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 70) receiving mental health services. We observed significant correlations between multiple measures of RL performance and measures of both positive and negative symptoms. These results suggest that RL measures may provide a psychosis risk signal in treatment-seeking youth. Further research is necessary to understand the potential predictive role of RL measures for conversion to psychosis.
Kim, J; Celentano, D D; Crum, R M
In Asia, where men frequently have sex with prostitutes, there is a direct and statistically significant dose-response relationship between frequency of sex with prostitutes and HIV-1 seroprevalence. Young Korean men are reported to routinely have sex with prostitutes. Findings are reported from an examination of alcohol consumption and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behavior as related to prostitute visits and sex partner mix among 1095 representative male Korean university students aged 17-32 years, of mean age 22.1 years, during 1993-94. The men were drawn from 4 universities in Seoul. 25.8% of surveyed university students had visited prostitutes, 17.6% at least 2 times, and 12.9% had sexual experiences with both prostitutes and girlfriends. Heavier alcohol consumption was significantly related to multiple visits to prostitutes and to sexual experiences with both prostitutes and girlfriends.
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer
Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents. Although attention has focused primarily on alcohol use, less is known about the relationship between marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk youth. Since truant youth often experience problems in school, troubled family situations, and other psychosocial problems, they represent an important group of high-risk youth to study. Previous research suggests that truant youth are at considerable risk of continuing their troubled behavior in school and entering the juvenile justice system. It is also likely that truant youth are involved in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Involving them in effective intervention services could reduce these risk behaviors. The current study presents interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parents/guardians. Longitudinal data were analyzed to study: (1) the relationships between the youths’ marijuana use and engaging in sexual risk behavior over time, and (2) the effects of a substance use BI on their marijuana use and sexual risk behavior. Analyses examined a growth model for parallel processes in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior, and an assessment of the effect of the intervention on linear and quadratic trends, and on subgroups of youth differing in their sexual risk behavior and marijuana use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25400493
Kemper, G L J; van der Sluis, A; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Frencken, W G P; Elferink-Gemser, M T
The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19 years of age. Height and body mass were monitored at monthly measurement intervals and fat percentage was assessed every 3 months by use of the sum of skinfold method. Growth in height (cm), alternations in body mass index (kg/m(2)), fat percentage and fat-free mass index (kg/m(2)) were calculated. Injuries were recorded in accordance with the recommendations of the FIFA Consensus Model for Injury Registration. Odds ratio scores and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The following anthropometric injury risk factors were identified: ≥ 0.6 centimeter growth per month (p=0.03; OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), ≥ 0.3 kg/m(2) increase of body mass index value per month (p=0.03; OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.04-2.49) and low fat percentage; i. e., < 7% for players aged 11-16 and < 5% for players over 16 years (p=0.01; OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.18-2.76). Individual monitoring of anthropometrics provides useful information to determine increased risk of injury occurrence in elite-standard youth soccer.
Oh, Sun Min; Nam, Byung-Ho; Rhee, Yumie; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Deog Young; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang
Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for detecting osteoporosis, but is not recommended for general population screening. Therefore, this study aims to develop an osteoporosis risk-assessment model to identify high-risk individuals among Korean postmenopausal women. Data from 1,209 and 1,046 postmenopausal women who participated in the 2009 and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, respectively, were used for development and validation of an osteoporosis risk-assessment model. Osteoporosis was defined as T score less than or equal to -2.5 at either the femoral neck or lumbar spine. Performance of the candidate models and the Osteoporosis Self assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) were compared with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). To compare the developed Korean Osteoporosis Risk-Assessment Model (KORAM) with OSTA, a net reclassification improvement was further calculated. In the development dataset, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 33.9 %. KORAM, consisting of age, weight, and hormone therapy, had a sensitivity of 91.2 %, a specificity of 50.6 %, and an AUC of 0.709 with a specific cut-off score of -9. Comparable results were shown in the validation dataset: sensitivity 84.8 %, specificity 51.6 %, and AUC 0.682. Additionally, risk categorization with KORAM showed improved reclassification over that of OSTA from 7.4 to 41.7 %. KORAM can be easily used as a pre-screening tool to identify candidates for DXA tests. Further studies investigating cost-effectiveness and replicability in other datasets are required to establish the clinical utility of KORAM.
Udell, Wadiya; Donenberg, Geri; Emerson, Erin
We investigated the relationship between parenting practices (i.e., parental monitoring, parent permissiveness, and parent-teen communication), and probation youth's HIV-related sexual risk behavior (i.e., ever having sex, condom use, alcohol and marijuana use before sex). Participants were 61 male and female juvenile offenders, ages 13-17, on probation and awaiting sentencing. Results indicated different relationships between parenting and HIV-related sexual risk behavior for probation boys and girls. Parental monitoring, parenting permissiveness, and parent-teen communication were collectively related to whether girls' ever had sex and with boys' use of alcohol and marijuana use before last sex. Findings underscore the important role of parenting on probation teens' HIV risk behaviors.
Lee, Hunjoo; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Ji Young; Min, Sung-Gi
With support from the Korean Ministry of the Environment (ME), our interdisciplinary research staff developed the COnsumer Product Exposure and Risk assessment system (COPER). This system includes various databases and features that enable the calculation of exposure and determination of risk caused by consumer products use. COPER is divided into three tiers: the integrated database layer (IDL), the domain specific service layer (DSSL), and the exposure and risk assessment layer (ERAL). IDL is organized by the form of the raw data (mostly non-aggregated data) and includes four sub-databases: a toxicity profile, an inventory of Korean consumer products, the weight fractions of chemical substances in the consumer products determined by chemical analysis and national representative exposure factors. DSSL provides web-based information services corresponding to each database within IDL. Finally, ERAL enables risk assessors to perform various exposure and risk assessments, including exposure scenario design via either inhalation or dermal contact by using or organizing each database in an intuitive manner. This paper outlines the overall architecture of the system and highlights some of the unique features of COPER based on visual and dynamic rendering engine for exposure assessment model on web.
Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae Seo; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Jeong-Whun
No studies for the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in development of dentofacial abnormalities have been performed in Asian pediatric population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children. The present study included consecutive children who visited a pediatric clinic for sleep-disordered breathing due to habitual mouth breathing, snoring or sleep apnea. Their palatine tonsils and adenoids were graded by oropharyngeal endoscopy and lateral cephalometry. Anterior open bite, posterior crossbite, and Angle's class malocclusions were evaluated for dentofacial abnormality. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify age cutoffs to predict dentofacial abnormality. A total of 1,083 children were included. The presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy was significantly correlated with the prevalence of dentofacial abnormality [adjusted odds ratio = 4.587, 95% CI (2.747-7.658)] after adjusting age, sex, body mass index, allergy, and Korean version of obstructive sleep apnea-18 score. The cutoff age associated with dentofacial abnormality was 5.5 years (sensitivity = 75.5%, specificity = 67%) in the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and 6.5 years (sensitivity = 70.6%, specificity = 57%) in those without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In conclusion, adenotonsillar hypertrophy may be a risk factor for dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children and early surgical intervention could be considered with regards to dentofacial abnormality.
Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Jeongseon
Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35-75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI): 0.49 (0.31-0.76), p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids). However, these associations were not significant after further adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption (OR (95% CI): 0.62 (0.36-1.09), p trend = 0.458 for total flavonoids). Total flavonoids and their subclasses, except for isoflavones, were significantly associated with a reduced risk gastric cancer in women (OR (95% CI): 0.33 (0.15-0.73), p trend = 0.001 for total flavonoids) but not in men (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.39-1.24), p trend = 0.393 for total flavonoids). A significant inverse association with gastric cancer risk was observed in flavones, even after additional adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption in women. No significantly different effects of flavonoids were observed between H. pylori-positive and negative subjects. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids were inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and these protective effects of dietary flavonoids were prominent in women. No clear differences were observed in the subgroup analysis of H. pylori and smoking status.
How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…
Kim, Sun-Young; Park, Sung-Pa
Population-based studies have reported an increased risk of suicidal ideation in patients with migraine. However, there is some controversy as to whether migraine itself is a risk factor for suicidal ideation after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities. We calculated the frequency of suicidal ideation among patients with migraine visiting a tertiary care hospital and determined its risk factors. Patients with migraine and healthy controls completed self-report questionnaires to assess depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, and the frequency of suicidal ideation. Risk factors for suicidal ideation were investigated in terms of demographic, clinical, and psychiatric variables. One hundred eighty-five patients with migraine (156 females and 29 males; mean age 39.1 years) and 53 age and education-matched healthy controls participated in the study. The frequency of suicidal ideation was significantly greater in patients with migraine than healthy controls (odds ratio [OR]=5.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-22.10, p=0.003), but this significance was not sustained after adjusting for comorbid depression and anxiety. The risk of suicidal ideation in patients with migraine was associated with lower education levels, higher frequency of migraine attacks, stronger intensity of headaches, and presence of phonophobia, chronic migraine, depression, and anxiety. The strongest predictor was depression (OR=15.36, 95% CI 5.39-43.78, p<0.001), followed by the intensity of headache while completing the questionnaire (OR=1.293, 95% CI 1.077-1.553; p=0.006). The contribution of migraine-specific variables to suicidal ideation is trivial compared to that of depression and headache intensity.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…
Kushman, James W.; And Others
This document consists of Part 4 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. Part 4 deals with the school dropout and school and community programs that have proven to be effective in working with…
Lee, A; Tsang, C K K
This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence rates of different categories of youth risk behaviour by age, sex and parental education. The study population consisted of 26,111 Hong Kong students, aged 10-19 years, recruited from 48 primary (primary grades 4-6) and secondary schools (secondary grades 1-7). Less than one-third of subjects participated in vigorous exercise regularly, about one-third consumed an unhealthy diet frequently, 18% had tried smoking, and 14.5% had seriously considered attempting suicide. Although only 3.4% of students reported experience of sexual intercourse, less than half used a contraceptive device. Older students had higher prevalence rates of health-compromising behaviours than younger students. Female students were more likely to report suicide-related behaviour, attempting weight loss, and non-participation in vigorous physical activities. Students with parents of a lower educational background were more likely to report rarely or never wearing seat belts and bicycle helmets, suicide-related behaviour, smoking, sexual intercourse before 13 years of age, and attempting weight loss. The availability of data on youth health risk behaviours would enable health educators, public health practitioners and clinicians to plan appropriate screening and counselling for risk behaviours in early adolescents.
Kim, Ho Sun; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Park, Ki Byung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Joo-Hee
Background Osteoarthritis is a significant burden on personal health and for social cost, and its prevalence is rising. Recent research has revealed an association between osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease, and this study uses the Framingham risk score (FRS), which is widely used as a composite index of cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the association between osteoarthritis and various cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A total 9,514 participants aged 50 years or older who received knee X-ray diagnosis of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (total surveyees = 24,173) released by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was included for analysis. Knee osteoarthritis patients were defined as participants with K-L grade ≥2 on knee X-ray regardless of knee pain. The association between major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, diabetes, cholesterol, and smoking habits), FRS, and knee osteoarthritis was analyzed, adjusting for various covariates. Results Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in Koreans aged ≥50 years was 36.6%, and higher in women (men: 24.9%, women: 45.4%). Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in participants with hypertension was significantly higher than those without hypertension (fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.48). Knee osteoarthritis prevalence was also higher in participants with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes than those without (age, sex adjusted OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.00–1.41). Also, OR values increased statistically significantly with FRS as a continuous variable (fully adjusted OR 1.007; 95% CI 1.00–1.01). Conclusions Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis was associated with hypertension and diabetes, which are major cardiovascular risk factors, and the FRS. Further studies on FRS pertaining to its relationship with osteoarthritis are warranted. PMID:27764239
Tyler, Kimberly A
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14-21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19-21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14-18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV.
Crosby Budinger, Meghan; Cwik, Mary F; Riddle, Mark A
Crisis hotlines have been central to suicide prevention efforts; however, utilization among youth remains low. A sample of at-risk youth was surveyed about their awareness, utilization, and attitudes toward local and national crisis hotlines. Youth reported low rates of awareness and utilization, yet expressed a strong interest in phone hotlines (41% vs. 59% for new media categories combined). Youth reported stigma, but that help-seeking could be positively influenced by peers and adults in their support system. Implications include making crisis services available across several mediums and the importance of engaging trusted others in youth suicide awareness campaigns and prevention efforts.
Raposa, Elizabeth B; Rhodes, Jean E; Herrera, Carla
Although mentoring is a widely used intervention strategy, effect sizes for at-risk youth remain modest. Research is therefore needed to maximize the impact of mentoring for at-risk youth who might struggle to benefit from mentoring relationships. This study tested the hypothesis that different types of youth risk would have a negative impact on mentoring relationship quality and duration and explored whether mentor characteristics exacerbated or mitigated these negative effects. Results showed that elevated environmental stress at a youth's home and/or school predicted shorter match duration, and elevated rates of youth behavioral problems, such as poor academic performance or misconduct, predicted greater youth dissatisfaction and less positive mentor perceptions of relationship quality. Mentors with greater self-efficacy and more previous involvement with youth in their communities were able to buffer the negative effects of environmental stress on match duration. Similarly, mentors' previous involvement with youth buffered the negative effects of youth behavioral problems on mentor perceptions of relationship quality. Findings have important implications for the matching of mentors and at-risk youth in a way that improves mentoring outcomes.
Haag, Thore-Björn; Mayer, H. Michael; Schneider, Alexandra S.; Rumpf, Michael C.; Handel, Martin; Schneider, Christian
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to identify several responsible parameters for back pain (BP) in youth soccer players to create a risk assessment tool for early prevention. An iPad-based survey was used to screen for parameters in a cross-sectional study. This questionnaire includes items regarding anthropometric data, training habits and sports injuries and was put into practice with 1110 athletes. Sex (odds ratio (OR): 1.84), age group (1.48) and playing surface (1.56) were significantly associated with BP. A history of injuries especially to the spine and hip/groin increased the likelihood for evolving recurrent BP (1.74/1.40). Overall 15 factors seem to influence the appearance of pain and were integrated into a feasible nomogram. The nomogram provides a practical tool to identify the risks of developing BP for youth soccer players. Although most factors we identified are non-modifiable, this method allows to rank the importance of factors and especially their prevention treatments for athletes. PMID:27537067
Haque laz, Tabassum; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) demonstrates that American youth engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors.1 The frequency and type of these behaviors often differ by a number of factors, such as socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity. For example, results of the 2011 YRBSS revealed that white high school students were most likely to have texted or e-mailed while driving or been bullied on school property, while black high school students were most likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviors, to have been physically inactive, and to be obese.1 Conversely, Hispanic high school students were most likely to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; to have ever used cocaine, inhalants, or ecstasy; and to have failed to use protection to prevent pregnancy during last sexual intercourse.1 However, it is difficult to discern whether differences in risk-taking behaviors between and among ethnic groups can actually be attributed to differences in group norms, socioeconomic status, or cultural beliefs regarding acceptance or rejection of such behaviors,1 suggesting a need for more comprehensive regional investigations. PMID:24416689
Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Brooke-Weiss, Blair L.; Catalano, Richard F.
The Communities That Care Youth Survey measures risk and protective factors shown in prior studies to predict adolescent problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence. This paper describes the development and validation of cut points for the risk and protective factor scales in the Communities That Care Youth Survey that…
Moyer, Matthew B.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Lombardi, Emilia L.; Taylor, Christopher A.
Concerned about reports of a 15% decline in HIV testing among high-risk youth in an earlier study in Pittsburgh, this study was initiated to explore reasons why young people are not getting tested for HIV, while gathering data on their respective level of risk taking behaviors. A total of 580 surveys were collected from youth aged between 14 and…
Gould, Madelyn S.; Marrocco, Frank A.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kleinman, Marjorie; Amakawa, Lia; Altschuler, Elizabeth
Objective: We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youths and parents. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youths identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools…
Taylor, Connie E.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Ingersoll, Marcea; Dalton, C. J.; Dods, Jennifer; Godden, Lorraine; Chin, Peter; de Lugt, Jennifer
The transition from school to the workplace has been identified as challenging for at-risk youth who have already disengaged from learning and feel disenfranchised in the context of school. Work-based education (WBE), including co-operative education, has been recognized in recent years as an effective strategy for enabling at-risk youth to…
Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen
Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…
Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.
Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…
Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon
Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer.
Nurius, Paula S.; Russell, Patricia L.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A.
This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth, and that multiple-form victimization held the greatest jeopardy to development. Youth with multiple-form victimization reported significantly elevated risk factors (emotional distress, life stress, suicide risk, risky behaviors) and lower protective factors (social support, school engagement, family structure) than both single-form and never-exposed youth. Implications are discussed for preventive and early intervention programming and for examining the transition of at-risk youth into young adulthood. PMID:21494415
... Diet in Youth Might Raise Risk of Early Breast Cancer Study found an association, but didn't prove ... might also raise a younger woman's risk for breast cancer. "A diet high in sugar, refined carbohydrates, and ...
Pearson, Sarah S.; Jurich, Sonia
Youth court, also called teen court, peer jury, or student court, is an alternative to the traditional juvenile justice system and school disciplinary proceedings that empower youth and communities to take an active role in addressing the early stages of youth delinquency. The program provides communities with an opportunity to ensure immediate…
Kwon, Han Na; Lim, Hyunjung
Serum vitamin D status has been associated with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence for the increased risk of metabolic disorders in individuals with prediabetes and a low vitamin D status is limited and uncertain. Furthermore, it has not been confirmed whether this possible relationship occurs in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and metabolic risk factors in Korean adults with prediabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 subjects aged 20-65 years. Participants had fasting glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dl. A questionnaire was used to assess vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure and a dietary intake examined using 3-days dietary records. Clinical and biochemical data were also collected. The 2009 harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used. Serum vitamin D levels were classified according to criteria from the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. The majority of subjects (75%) had a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/ml, and among them, 31.1% were vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml). The proportion (42.9%) of subjects having low HDL-cholesterol was the highest among vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml) group (12 to < 20 ng/ml: 16.1%, ≥ 20 ng/ml: 6.7%). We observed an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and TG, AI (β = -6.355, SE = 2.463; β = -0.020, SE = 0.008) after adjusted confounders. Korean adults with prediabetes were more likely to have low serum 25(OH)D levels. A sufficient 25(OH)D level may have possible beneficial effects on lipid profiles.
Kwon, Han Na; Lim, Hyunjung
Serum vitamin D status has been associated with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence for the increased risk of metabolic disorders in individuals with prediabetes and a low vitamin D status is limited and uncertain. Furthermore, it has not been confirmed whether this possible relationship occurs in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and metabolic risk factors in Korean adults with prediabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 subjects aged 20–65 years. Participants had fasting glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dl. A questionnaire was used to assess vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure and a dietary intake examined using 3-days dietary records. Clinical and biochemical data were also collected. The 2009 harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used. Serum vitamin D levels were classified according to criteria from the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. The majority of subjects (75%) had a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/ml, and among them, 31.1% were vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml). The proportion (42.9%) of subjects having low HDL-cholesterol was the highest among vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml) group (12 to < 20 ng/ml: 16.1%, ≥ 20 ng/ml: 6.7%). We observed an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and TG, AI (β = -6.355, SE = 2.463; β = -0.020, SE = 0.008) after adjusted confounders. Korean adults with prediabetes were more likely to have low serum 25(OH)D levels. A sufficient 25(OH)D level may have possible beneficial effects on lipid profiles. PMID:27783655
DeLuca, Christopher; Godden, Lorraine; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Versnel, Joan
Background: The current global cohort of youth has been called "a generation at-risk", marked by a dramatic rise in youth who are not in employment, education or training programmes. In 2010, youth were three times as likely as adults to be unemployed, with youth unemployment worsening in 2012 and 2013. Accordingly, there is an urgent…
Hulvershorn, Leslie A.; Hummer, Tom A.; Fukunaga, Rena; Leibenluft, Ellen; Finn, Peter; Cyders, Melissa A.; Anand, Amit; Overhage, Lauren; Dir, Allyson; Brown, Joshua
Risky decision-making, particularly in the context of reward-seeking behavior, is strongly associated with the presence of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, there has been little research on the neural substrates underlying reward-related decision-making in drug-naïve youth who are at elevated risk for SUDs. Participants comprised 23 high-risk (HR) youth with a well-established SUD risk phenotype and 27 low-risk healthy comparison (HC) youth, aged 10–14. Participants completed the balloon analog risk task (BART), a task designed to examine risky decision-making, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The HR group had faster reaction times, but otherwise showed no behavioral differences from the HC group. HR youth experienced greater activation when processing outcome, as the chances of balloon explosion increased, relative to HC youth, in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). As explosion probability increased, group-by-condition interactions in the ventral striatum/anterior cingulate and the anterior insula showed increasing activation in HR youth, specifically on trials when explosions occurred. Thus, atypical activation increased with increasing risk of negative outcome (i.e., balloon explosion) in a cortico-striatal network in the HR group. These findings identify candidate neurobiological markers of addiction risk in youth at high familial and phenotypic risk for SUDs. PMID:26071624
Lee, Sang Min; Ahn, Jong Seong; Noh, Chang Suk; Lee, Sei Won
The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as the risk factors of wheezing among young adults in the Korean military. Young military conscripts in five areas completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. For subjects with current wheeze in one sample area, baseline spirometry and bronchodilator response were measured. For subjects without a significant response to bronchodilator (improvement in FEV1 of more than 200 mL and 12%), methacholine challenge tests (MCT) were also performed. Of 3,359 subjects that completed the questionnaire, 354 (10.5%) had current wheeze, 471 (14.0%) had current allergic rhinitis, and 326 (9.7%) had current eczema. Current wheeze was associated with family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Of 36 subjects with current wheeze who underwent PFT with or without MCT in the Anyang area, 24 (66.7%) were confirmed to have current asthma. In conclusion, the prevalence of allergic disease in young adults of Korean military is not low, and the risk factors of wheezing include family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis.
Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon
Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms.
Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A; Robbins, Reuben N; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A
This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV-infected (PHIV+), HIV-affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV- caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV- youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV- youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood.
Purpose Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the prevalence and management status of these factors for dyslipidemia among Korean adults aged 30 years old and older. Materials and Methods The prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes were analyzed among 12229 subjects (≥30 years) participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010–2012. Dyslipidemia was defined according to treatment criteria rather than diagnostic criteria in Korea. Therefore, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia was defined if LDL cholesterol levels exceeded the appropriate risk-based threshold established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Results The age-standardized prevalence was highest for dyslipidemia (39.6%), followed by hypertension (32.8%) and diabetes (9.8%). The lowest patient awareness was found for dyslipidemia (27.9%). The treatment rate was 66.5% for diabetes and 57.3% for hypertension, but only 15.7% for dyslipidemia. The control rate among those undergoing treatment was highest for hypertension (64.2%), followed by dyslipidemia (59.2%) and diabetes (22.1%). The higher the risk levels of CVD were, the lower the control rate of dyslipidemia. Conclusion While the prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher than hypertension and diabetes, awareness and treatment rates thereof were lower. Higher CVD-risk categories showed lower control rates of dyslipidemia. In order to improve awareness and control rates of dyslipidemia, diagnostic criteria should be reconciled with treatment targets based on cardiovascular risk in Korean populations. PMID:28120563
JEONG, Tchae-Won; JUNG, Min-Ju; LEE, Jun-Woo; KIM, Tae-Young
Abstract Background In the case of the elderly who highly depend on family, serious health problems can be caused due to the reduction of family meals. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the fundamental data for management of cardiovascular disease, one of the major causes of death in elderly Koreans, by investigating the effects of family meal frequency on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly males and females. Methods The raw data of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) were utilized. Data of 1,236 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood, blood pressure, nutrients and total energy intake. For collected data, using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0, the mean and standard deviation, and the path coefficient between groups through a multi-group analysis by structural equation model were checked Results As family meal frequency increased, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in Korean elderly males were likely to decrease, which led to conflicting results with those of Korean elderly females. Conclusion Frequent family meal makes a positive effect on reducing several risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly. PMID:26060777
Kelly, Brian C
This paper describes current patterns of club drug use and local conceptions of risk among New York City area youth. The data is drawn from a NIDA-funded ethnographic study of club drug initiation among "Bridge and Tunnel" youth. The paper entails an examination of the harmony and discontinuity between folk models of risk within this population and professional models of risk. The author explores how club drug-using youth conceive of risks related to club drug use, specifically ecstasy, and how such conceptions compare and contrast with current professional models of risk. These conceptions of risk are crucial to understand, as they form an informal logic by which club drug practices are guided. Ultimately, the author examines how the relationship between folk models and professional models might inform health promotion efforts targeting youth.
LaSala, Michael C
The family has long been considered a powerful influence on youth's high-risk behaviors. However, little is known about preventive family influences for gay and bisexual youth, a group at high risk for HIV infection. For this study, qualitative interviews from a sample of 38 gay and bisexual youth and their parents/guardians underwent a thematic analysis. Youth described parent-child closeness, parental warnings, and urgings to use condoms as influences. Youth denying family influence came from families in which parent-child relationships were disrupted or HIV-related discussion was lacking. Most families reported discomfort discussing HIV risk. These findings, along with a case example, suggest how family therapists can enhance parental influence by helping these families strengthen their relationships and discuss this important topic. Video Abstract.
Perrino, Tatiana; Pantin, Hilda; Huang, Shi; Brincks, Ahnalee; Brown, C Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo
Familias Unidas is an intervention that has been found to be efficacious in preventing and reducing substance use, sexual risk, and problem behaviors among Hispanic youth. While it does not specifically target youth internalizing symptoms, the intervention works to strengthen parenting and family factors associated with reduced risk of internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety symptoms). This study examines the effects of Familias Unidas on internalizing symptoms among high-risk youth, as well as the role of family level factors in the intervention's effects. A total of 242 12-17-year-old Hispanic youth with a history of delinquency and their primary caregivers were recruited from the school and juvenile justice systems, and randomly assigned to the Familias Unidas intervention or community practice control. A linear latent growth model was used to examine intervention effects on the trajectory of adolescent internalizing symptoms from baseline to 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Results show that the Familias Unidas intervention was more efficacious than control in reducing youth internalizing symptoms. Baseline youth externalizing and internalizing symptoms did not moderate the intervention's effects on the trajectory of youth internalizing symptoms. While parent-adolescent communication did not significantly moderate the intervention's effects, changes in parent-adolescent communication mediated the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, showing stronger intervention effects for youth starting with poorer communication. Findings indicate that the Familias Unidas intervention can reduce internalizing symptoms among high-risk Hispanic youth, and that improving parent-youth communication, a protective family factor, may be one of the mechanisms by which the intervention influences youth internalizing symptoms.
Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Heo, Jun; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Lee, Yoon Suk; Cho, Kwang Bum; Lee, Dong Wook; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Ho Gak; Kim, Hyun Soo
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate sex difference in the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinees. Examinees who underwent examination through health promotion center at 5 hospitals of Daegu-Gyeongbuk province in 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All examinees were checked for height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, and underwent laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made by ultrasound. Of the total of 30,544 examinees, mean age was 47.3 ± 10.9 years and male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Asymptomatic cholelithiasis was diagnosed in 1268 examinees with overall prevalence of 4.2%. In age below 40 years, females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males (2.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.020), whereas prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was higher in males than females older than 50 years (6.2% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age (≥50 years), obesity, and high blood pressure as risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in males and age, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and chronic hepatitis B infection in females (P < 0.05). Overall prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was 4.2% in Korean health screening examinees. Females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males younger than 40 years, whereas it was higher in males older than 50 years. Age and obesity were risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in both sexes. Males had additional risk factors of high blood pressure and females had hypertriglyceridemia and chronic hepatitis B infection. PMID:28353587
Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Behavior Lab.
This report presents results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Wyoming School Health Education Survey (SHES). Thirty-five schools participated in the YRBS, with 3,513 students in grades 9-12; 92 public schools with students in grades 7-12 participated in the SHES. Statistical data from the YRBS are provided in the…
Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Myoungsook; Kim, Young Ok
Hypertension and hypertriglycemia are the most important contributors to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease risk in South Koreans with a relatively lean body mass. These major contributors differ from those identified in Western populations. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the Korean diet associated with increased risk of MetS, whose prevalence has been steadily increasing in South Korea. On the basis of data collected from 5,320 subjects by the 2007–2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 3 dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and their association with the risk of MetS and its components was examined. The balanced Korean diet, a typical Korean diet of rice and kimchi intake supplemented by a variety of foods had a desirable macronutrient composition and was associated with a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.45–0.84) and hypertriglyceridemia (0.69, 0.49–0.88) in men and a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (0.59, 0.41–0.85) and MetS (0.67, 0.47–0.96) in women. The unbalanced Korean diet, characterized by a high intake of carbohydrates and sodium and little variety, was associated with a higher risk of MetS (1.44, 1.03–2.01) and elevated blood pressure (1.41, 1.00–1.98) in women. The semi-western diet, characterized by a relatively high intake of meat, poultry, and alcohol, was associated with a lower risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.70, 0.54–0.89) in women. Thus, macronutrient composition and sodium intake are associated with the risk of MetS and prehypertension in women. Maintaining a desirable macronutrient composition and avoiding excessive consumption of carbohydrates and sodium should be emphasized for prevention of MetS and hypertension in South Korean women. PMID:24205105
Kim, Yoo Mee; Hyun, Noo-Rie; Shon, Ho-Sang; Kim, Hae-Soon; Park, So-Young; Park, Il-Hyung; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Jung, Hong-Geun; Kim, Do-Hee; Lim, Sung-Kil
This cross-sectional, observational study was designed to identify clinical risk factors of osteoporosis and fractures in Korean women to validate the probability of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. A total of 1541 Korean women were recruited nationally. Fracture history of any site, risk factors of osteoporosis, and fall-related risk factors were surveyed and physical performance tests were conducted. Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure calcaneus bone mineral density (BMD). The number of positive responses on the modified 1-min osteoporosis risk test was related to the risk of osteoporosis. The frequency of osteoporosis was higher in those with a height reduction of >4 cm and a reduced body mass index (BMI). Multivariate analysis showed that older age and lower BMI were related to higher relative risk of osteoporosis. Time required to stand up from a chair and questions related to fall injury were significantly related to clinical fracture history of any site. Multivariate analysis showed that the relative risk of fractures at any site was higher in older subjects with a lower T-score and parental hip fracture history. This study shows that age and BMI are the most significant clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and that age, BMD, and parental history of hip fracture are highly applicable risk factors for validating the probability of osteoporotic fractures in Korean women.
Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda
Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les
Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…
National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.
The five case studies in this volume concern at-risk youth. Disadvantaged youth programs in different states were studied by different authors: (1) Albuquerque, New Mexico (Richard Mendel); (2) Baltimore, Maryland (Edward C. Lorenz); (3) Hartford, Connecticut (Richard Funkhouser and Delsie Gandia-Fabian; (4) Oakland, California (David Snedeker);…
Yates, Gary L.; And Others
Examination of data from 1985 visits by 110 runaway and 655 non-runaway youth to an outpatient medical clinic reveals that runaway youth are at greater risk for a wide variety of medical problems and of health-compromising behaviors including suicide, depression, prostitution, and drug use. (Author/BJV)
Defines "at-risk youth." Describes characteristics of resilient children and their families, friends and mentors, schools, and communities. Discusses camp program practices that have been shown to promote resiliency: focus on youth development, intentional processes that target the personal domain, organizational elements borrowed from…
Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry
In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…
Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra
Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora
Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded, prospective intervention project, a sample of truant youths' sexual risk behavior was tracked over five time points. Analyses of the data was informed by four objectives: (a) determine…
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Schmeidler, James
The authors report the results of latent class analyses and latent class transition analyses of antisocial behavior risk factors among 137 youths participating in a juvenile diversion program. The study examined the youths' latent classifications using baseline and 1-year follow-up measures of family, peer, education, and mental health risk…
Explanations for persistent youth unemployment (deficits in the unemployed, structural need for unemployment, location of decision-making power) lead to education of youth at risk as a solution, an old paradigm inadequate for the restructured labor market. New questions must be asked, such as separating income from waged labor and finding other…
Kim, Yeunhee J
A structural equation model was used to investigate the relationship between trauma exposure and comorbid mental health problems and the mediation effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) between trauma and mental health variables. The research model is based on the stress-vulnerability conceptual framework in which PTSD as a comorbid disorder mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and mental health problems. A self-administered survey was administered to 144 North Korean refugee youth residing in South Korea. Trauma exposure, both interpersonal and noninterpersonal, had no direct relationship with comorbid mental health problems. However, interpersonal trauma contributed to comorbid mental health problems through PTSD, demonstrating the mediation effect of PTSD and supporting the stress-vulnerability hypothesis of the current research model. Clinical implications of the study and future direction for research are discussed.
Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom
This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults.
Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H.; Lim, Seung Hun
Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact. PMID:23678258
Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom
This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581
Grey, Margaret; Berry, Diane; Davidson, Maryanne; Galasso, Pam; Gustafson, Elaine; Melkus, Gail
Type 2 diabetes is increasing among youth, with minority youth at highest risk. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a school-based program to prevent type 2 diabetes in youth at risk. Forty-one participants (age 12.6 [+ or -] 1.1 years; 63% female, 51% African American, 44% Hispanic, and 5% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of…
Association between Sleep Duration and Measurable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Healthy Korean Women: The Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV and V)
Min, Hyeyeon; Um, Yoo Jin; Jang, Bum Sup; Shin, Doosup; Choi, EunJoo
Study Objectives. To examine the association between sleep duration and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in healthy Korean women. Design. Cross-sectional study, using the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Methods. Among 8505 women (25–70 years) from KNHANES IV and V, participants were classified into five sleep groups based on self-reported sleep duration. MetS and its components were defined using the criteria set forth in National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. After adjusting for various confounders, shorter sleep duration (≤6 h) was found to have an association with low risk of reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglycerides, whereas very long sleep duration was found to have high risk of increased triglycerides. However, abdominal obesity showed an opposite trend: short sleep duration was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity than long sleep duration. Fasting glucose levels increased as sleep duration increased, but without significance. Moreover, blood pressure was not significantly associated with sleep duration. Consequently, MetS was less prevalent in those with short sleep duration. Conclusions. Sleep duration was positively associated with MetS, especially dyslipidemia and fasting hyperglycemia, but inversely associated with abdominal obesity. PMID:27956898
Weitzman, E.; Chen, Y.; Subramanian, S
Study objective: To test whether college youth smoking risks are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability and control. Design: Hierarchical multilevel multivariable modelling of cross sectional survey data. Outcomes included self reported current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking and heavy episodic (binge) drinking. Setting: 120 nationally representative US colleges. Participants: 10 924 randomly selected students. Main results: Individual risks for smoking and binge drinking are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability, policy enforcement and control over and above individual perceptions about these factors, student and college characteristics, and school binge drinking rates. Youth exposed to high levels of alcohol availability are at higher risk of smoking (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.75, 7.44) and binge drinking (OR 4.22, 95% CI 2.25, 7.93) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to strongly enforced alcohol policy environments are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.16, 0.57) and binge drinking (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10, 0.31) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to communities with strong parental controls are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01, 0.23) and binge drinking (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01, 0.21) than youth not so exposed. Individual risks related to environmental exposures differ for youth with varying perceptions about alcohol availability and policy control. Conclusions: Drinking environments in US college communities comprise strong independent risks for smoking. Smoking prevention models should be tested that include environmental drinking prevention strategies tailored to underlying perceptions and experiences of college youth. PMID:16286496
As mentoring is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve youth educational outcomes, it is important to continue to examine the effects of mentoring on these youth outcomes. This study uses secondary data from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and transcript data from the Adolescent…
Brotman, Melissa A.; Rooney, Melissa H.; Skup, Martha; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen
Intrasubject variability in response time (ISV-RT) was higher in youths with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with first-degree relatives with BD compared to youths without BD. ISV-RT may be a risk marker for BD.
Schuyler, Ashley C.; Edelstein, Zoe R.; Mathur, Sanyukta; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David M.; Santelli, John S.
Mobility, including migration and travel, influences risk of HIV. This study examined time trends and characteristics among mobile youth (15-24 years) in rural Uganda, and the relationship between mobility and risk factors for HIV. We used data from an annual household census and population-based cohort study in the Rakai district, Uganda. Data on in-migration and out-migration were collected among youth (15-24 years) from 43 communities from 1999-2011 (N=112,117 observations) and travel among youth residents from 2003-2008 (N=18,318 observations). Migration and travel were more common among young women than young men. One in five youth reported out-migration. Over time, out-migration increased among youth and in-migration remained largely stable. Primary reasons for migration included work, living with friends or family, and marriage. Recent travel within Uganda was common and increased slightly over time in teen women (15-19 years old), and young adult men and women (20-24 years old). Mobile youth were more likely to report HIV risk behaviours including: alcohol use, sexual experience, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Our findings suggest that among rural Ugandan youth, mobility is increasingly common and associated with HIV risk factors. Knowledge of patterns and characteristics of a young, high-risk mobile population has important implications for HIV interventions. PMID:26313708
Schuyler, Ashley C; Edelstein, Zoe R; Mathur, Sanyukta; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria J; Serwadda, David M; Santelli, John S
Mobility, including migration and travel, influences risk of HIV. This study examined time trends and characteristics among mobile youth (15-24 years) in rural Uganda, and the relationship between mobility and risk factors for HIV. We used data from an annual household census and population-based cohort study in the Rakai district, Uganda. Data on in-migration and out-migration were collected among youth (15-24 years) from 43 communities from 1999 to 2011 (N = 112,117 observations) and travel among youth residents from 2003 to 2008 (N = 18,318 observations). Migration and travel were more common among young women than young men. One in five youth reported out-migration. Over time, out-migration increased among youth and in-migration remained largely stable. Primary reasons for migration included work, living with friends or family, and marriage. Recent travel within Uganda was common and increased slightly over time in teen women (15-19 years old), and young adult men and women (20-24 years old). Mobile youth were more likely to report HIV-risk behaviours including: alcohol use, sexual experience, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Our findings suggest that among rural Ugandan youth, mobility is increasingly common and associated with HIV-risk factors. Knowledge of patterns and characteristics of a young, high-risk mobile population has important implications for HIV interventions.
Bae, Sang Hoon; Song, Ji Hoon
Using national jobless data and education statistics, this study examines the systemic association between Korea's youth unemployment trend and the workforce supply structure in which the youths' educational attainment patterns plays a key role. Focus is given to how type and length of education are correlated with employability. The findings of…
Dengue viral infection has rapidly spread around the world in recent decades. In Korea, autochthonous cases of dengue fever have not been confirmed yet. However, imported dengue cases have been increased since 2001. The risk of developing severe dengue in Korean has been increased by the accumulation of past-infected persons with residual antibodies to dengue virus and the remarkable growth of traveling to endemic countries in Southeast Asia. Notably, most of imported dengue cases were identified from July to December, suggesting that traveling during rainy season of Southeast Asia is considered a risk factor for dengue infection. Analyzing national surveillance data from 2011 to 2015, males aged 20–29 years are considered as the highest risk group. But considering the age and gender distribution of travelers, age groups 10–49 except 20–29 years old males have similar risks for infection. To minimize a risk of dengue fever and severe dengue, travelers should consider regional and seasonal dengue situation. It is recommended to prevent from mosquito bites or to abstain from repetitive visit to endemic countries. In addition, more active surveillance system and monitoring the prevalence asymptomatic infection and virus serotypes are required to prevent severe dengue and indigenous dengue outbreak. PMID:27822922
Je, Sungmo; Bae, Wonjun; Kim, Jiyeon; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Hwang, Eung Soo
Dengue viral infection has rapidly spread around the world in recent decades. In Korea, autochthonous cases of dengue fever have not been confirmed yet. However, imported dengue cases have been increased since 2001. The risk of developing severe dengue in Korean has been increased by the accumulation of past-infected persons with residual antibodies to dengue virus and the remarkable growth of traveling to endemic countries in Southeast Asia. Notably, most of imported dengue cases were identified from July to December, suggesting that traveling during rainy season of Southeast Asia is considered a risk factor for dengue infection. Analyzing national surveillance data from 2011 to 2015, males aged 20-29 years are considered as the highest risk group. But considering the age and gender distribution of travelers, age groups 10-49 except 20-29 years old males have similar risks for infection. To minimize a risk of dengue fever and severe dengue, travelers should consider regional and seasonal dengue situation. It is recommended to prevent from mosquito bites or to abstain from repetitive visit to endemic countries. In addition, more active surveillance system and monitoring the prevalence asymptomatic infection and virus serotypes are required to prevent severe dengue and indigenous dengue outbreak.
Ha, Shin; Choi, Hui Ran
The purpose of this study was to investigate the clustering pattern of four major lifestyle risk factors—smoking, heavy drinking, poor diet, and physical inactivity—among people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. There were 2,469 adults with metabolic syndrome aged 30 years or older available with the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dataset. We calculated the ratio of the observed to expected (O/E) prevalence for the 16 different combinations and the prevalence odds ratios (POR) of four lifestyle risk factors. The four lifestyle risk factors tended to cluster in specific multiple combinations. Smoking and heavy drinking was clustered (POR: 1.86 for male, 4.46 for female), heavy drinking and poor diet were clustered (POR: 1.38 for male, 1.74 for female), and smoking and physical inactivity were also clustered (POR: 1.48 for male). Those who were male, younger, low-educated and living alone were much more likely to have a higher number of lifestyle risk factors. Some helpful implications can be drawn from the knowledge on clustering pattern of lifestyle risk factors for more effective intervention program targeting metabolic syndrome. PMID:28350828
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005
The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012
The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013
The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012
The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…
Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna
Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours.
Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…
Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.
The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…
Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, DongHun
Based on Hirschi's social control theory (1969), this study examined the relationship between attachment (an element of social bonds) and the onset of substance use among South Korean adolescents. Using discrete-time logistic regression, the study investigated how attachment to parents, teachers, and close friends was associated with the timing of…
Idaho State Dept. of Health and Welfare, Boise. Div. of Consumer and Health Education.
Many of the health problems experienced by youth are caused by preventable behaviors, such as alcohol abuse and unprotected sexual intercourse. The increasing cost of health care demands that youth be taught to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors. School health programs are essential to attaining this goal. The results of the 1995 Idaho Youth…
Nelson, Annabelle; McClintock, Charles; Perez-Ferguson, Anita; Shawver, Mary Nash; Thompson, Greg
This research used a structured storytelling narrative methodology to capture the lived experience of youth participants to identify effective factors that helped them in three programs in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California. Thirty-nine youth aged 8-17 participated in two storytelling protocols at their home sites; one was a written…
Kwak, Ho-Chan; Kho, Seungyoung
In order to improve traffic safety on expressways, it is important to develop proactive safety management strategies with consideration for segment types and traffic flow states because crash mechanisms have some differences by each condition. The primary objective of this study is to develop real-time crash risk prediction models for different segment types and traffic flow states on expressways. The mainline of expressways is divided into basic segment and ramp vicinity, and the traffic flow states are classified into uncongested and congested conditions. Also, Korean expressways have irregular intervals between loop detector stations. Therefore, we investigated on the effect and application of the detector stations at irregular intervals for the crash risk prediction on expressways. The most significant traffic variables were selected by conditional logistic regression analysis which could control confounding factors. Based on the selected traffic variables, separate models to predict crash risk were developed using genetic programming technique. The model estimation results showed that the traffic flow characteristics leading to crashes are differed by segment type and traffic flow state. Especially, the variables related to the intervals between detector stations had a significant influence on crash risk prediction under the uncongested condition. Finally, compared with the single model for all crashes and the logistic models used in previous studies, the proposed models showed higher prediction performance. The results of this study can be applied to develop more effective proactive safety management strategies for different segment types and traffic flow states on expressways with loop detector stations at irregular intervals.
Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Garvey, Katharine C.; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A.; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Weitzman, Elissa R.
Background In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. Method To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9–18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children’s hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Results Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. Conclusions The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management. PMID:27227975
Collado, Anahi; Risco, Cristina M.; Banducci, Anne N.; Chen, Kevin W.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W.
Research indicates that White adolescents tend to engage in greater levels of risk behavior relative to Black adolescents. To better understand these differences, the current study examined real-time changes in risk-taking propensity (RTP). The study utilized the Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth Version (BART-Y), a well-validated real-time,…
Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Chan Wha; Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Hyeon Suk
Purpose Although the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has rapidly increased over the past decade, few studies have investigated its risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for thyroid cancer in Korean adults. Materials and Methods The study design was a hospital-based case-control study. Between August 2002 and December 2011, a total of 802 thyroid cancer cases out of 34,211 patients screened from the Cancer Screenee. Cohort of the National Cancer Center in South Korea were included in the analysis. A total of 802 control cases were selected from the same cohort, and matched individually (1:1) by age (±2 years) and area of residence for control group 1 and additionally by sex for control group 2. Results Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis using the control group 1 showed that females and those with a family history of thyroid cancer had an increased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas ever-smokers and those with a higher monthly household income had a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the analysis using control group 2 showed that a family history of cancer and alcohol consumption were associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas higher body mass index (BMI) and family history of thyroid cancer were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Conclusion These findings suggest that females, those with a family history of thyroid cancer, those with a higher BMI, non-smokers, non-drinkers, and those with a lower monthly household income have an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. PMID:27338034
Cederbaum, Julie A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Hutchinson, M. Katherine
Research indicates that knowing someone with HIV/AIDS is associated with greater perceived risk of contracting HIV and changes in sexual risk behaviors. The current study with a sample of 1,172 examined whether knowing someone with HIV/AIDS influenced sexual risk communication and youth engagement in sexual intercourse using the Philadelphia…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer
Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…
Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Bandiera, Frank; Schwartz, Seth J.; de la Vega, Pura; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda
Ecodevelopmental theory is a theoretical framework used to explain the interplay among risk and protective processes associated with HIV risk behaviors among adolescents. Although ecodevelopmentally based interventions have been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth, this theory has not yet been directly…
Short sleep duration and obesity are common health concerns in youth. This study of South Korean adolescents explores the association between the two conditions analyzing secondary data from the 2007 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample is representative of the South Korean adolescent population (N = 73,836). For data analysis, analysis of variance, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used. Findings indicated that (a) sleep duration is inversely associated with levels of body mass index, F(4, 72654) = 240.07, p < .0001, and risks for overweight and obesity, χ(2)(4, 72659) = 27.41, p < .0001; and (b) after controlling for obesity-related factors, reduced sleep is strongly associated with a greater risk for overweight and obesity, OR = 0.94, p < .0001. Given the important link between sleep and obesity, health professionals should consider sleep habits as a significant factor in obesity-related problems of youth.
Chung, In Hyuk; Kim, Hae Jung; Chung, Sochung
Purpose This study was performed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels as well as to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in Korean children. Methods Participants were 1,212 children aged 4 to 15 years, who visited Bundang CHA Medical Center (located at 37°N) between March 2012 and February 2013. Overweight was defined as body mass index≥85th percentile. Participants were divided into 4 age groups and 2 seasonal groups. VDD was defined by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) <20 ng/mL. Results The level of 25OHD was significantly lower in overweight group than in normal weight group (17.1±5.1 ng/mL vs. 19.1±6.1 ng/mL, P<0.001). Winter-spring season (odds ratio [OR], 4.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.45-5.77), older age group (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.36-1.88), and overweight (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.62-3.01) were independently related with VDD. The PTH levels were significantly higher in VDD group compared to vitamin D insufficiency and sufficiency group (P<0.001). In normal weight children, 25OHD (β=-0.007, P<0.001) and ionized calcium (β=-0.594, P=0.007) were independently related with PTH, however, these associations were not significant in overweight children. Conclusion VDD is very common in Korean children and its prevalence increases in winter-spring season, in overweight children and in older age groups. Further investigation on the vitamin D and PTH metabolism according to adiposity is required. PMID:25077091
Ryu, Hui Jin; Kim, Minyoung; Moon, Yeonsil; Choi, Yeji; Han, Jee-Young; Galvin, James E; Han, Seol-Heui
The Lewy body composite risk score (LBCRS) is a useful clinical screening tool to help determine whether the dementia is related to Lewy body pathology. The purpose of this study is to verify reliability, validity, and diagnostic usefulness of Korean version of LBCRS (K-LBCRS). CDR-sum of boxes, Mini-Mental State Examination, and standardized scales related to cognition, mood, behavior, and motor function were administered to a total of 107 subjects, including 30 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 54 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 23 cognitively normal elderly people and their collateral informants. Internal consistency of the K-LBCRS was good with Cronbach's alpha of 0.85, and concurrent validity was also satisfactory, with K-LBCRS correlating highly with CDR-SB and other scales. The test-retest reliability was very high with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The mean scores of K-LBCRS were significantly different among three groups, with DLB (6.2±2.4), AD (1.4±1.3), and controls (0.3±0.6). We identified a cut-off score of 3 as best to differentiate between DLB and AD, having AUC of 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00), sensitivity 97%, specificity 83%, positive predictive value 76%, negative predictive value 98%, which is the same score suggested in the original study. This study shows K-LBCRS as a new useful screening tool for Korean DLB patients in clinical settings.
Hermann, Jack; Sambrano, Soledad; Springer, J. Fred; Nister, Mary; Sale, Elizabeth; Brounstein, Paul J.; Cordray, David; Shadish, Will; Kasim, Rafa; Pan, Wei
This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. It provides concrete guidance regarding what elements of design and implementation are…
Bull, Sheana S; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Davis, Jonathan M; Roppolo, Rebecca; Corsi, Karen
Youth marijuana use is a growing concern with increasingly permissive views towards marijuana use. Little is known about attitudes and beliefs toward marijuana use among youth in the context of legalization. This study describes youth attitudes and beliefs about health risks associated with marijuana use, social norms of peer use, conversations with parents about marijuana use, and knowledge of recreational marijuana laws, using a venue-day-time sampling approach with diverse Colorado youth (n = 241) post-legalization. We considered demographic (gender, racial/ethnic and geographic) differences in knowledge of laws and perceptions of risk using bivariate and multivariate analyses. While many youth are knowledgeable about retail marijuana laws in Colorado, males were 2.12 times more likely to be familiar with laws compared to females. While 40 % of the sample perceived a moderate to high risk from weekly marijuana consumption and 57 % from daily consumption, fewer males perceived these risks. Over ¾ of the sample indicate they discuss marijuana with parents, but many fewer indicate discussing consequences and health effects of use with parents. Results suggest opportunities for parents and clinicians to influence youth attitudes and behaviors towards marijuana use. It may be worthwhile to target educational campaigns to different demographic groups, and to offer training and capacity building for parents to discuss marijuana with their teenaged children.
Abrams, Laura S.; Freisthler, Bridget
Research on youth reentering the community following incarceration has largely focused on individual risks for negative outcomes and in doing so, has overlooked the potential importance of the neighborhood context(s) where youth return. Addressing this research gap, this study explores associations between neighborhood risks and resources and rates of youth reentering the community following incarceration. Examining archival data from 272 zip codes in Los Angeles County, spatial analysis detected positive associations between rates of youth reentry and unemployment, poverty, and ethnic minority concentration. Reentry rates were also positively associated with neighborhood risks including density of off-premise alcohol outlets and level of community violence. Examining resources on their own, specifically designated youth services were positively associated with reentry rates, whereas education and mental health/substance abuse services were negatively associated. However, none of these resources were significantly associated with reentry rates when neighborhood risks were simultaneously considered. The results of this study highlight the relevance of neighborhood context in youth reentry research and lead to several directions for future study. PMID:23304429
Swahn, Monica H; Culbreth, Rachel; Salazar, Laura F; Kasirye, Rogers; Seeley, Janet
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134) of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590). Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590), 13.7% (n = 81) reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81) and 22.5% (n = 18) among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4), being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4), ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0), and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5). Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.
Swahn, Monica H.; Culbreth, Rachel; Salazar, Laura F.; Kasirye, Rogers; Seeley, Janet
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134) of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590). Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590), 13.7% (n = 81) reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81) and 22.5% (n = 18) among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4), being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4), ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0), and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5). Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan. PMID:27239340
Song, SuJin; Young Paik, Hee; Song, Won O; Song, YoonJu
In the present study, we examined the associations of total carbohydrate intake, dietary glycaemic load (DGL) and white rice intake with metabolic syndrome risk factors by sex in Korean adolescents. For the present cross-sectional study, data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-9) were used. A total of 2209 adolescents (n 1164 boys and n 1045 girls) aged 10-18 years with complete anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were included in the study. Dietary intake data were obtained using the 24 h recall method, and total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake were divided into quartiles by sex. The metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria for children and adolescents. Fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance were included as the metabolic syndrome risk factors. All statistical analyses considered the complex sampling design effect and appropriate sampling weights. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to estimate means with their standard errors of the mean for the metabolic syndrome risk factors across the quartiles of total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake. While high DGL was significantly associated with increased fasting glucose levels in boys, high total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake were consistently associated with reduced HDL-cholesterol levels in girls. High white rice intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in girls but not in boys. Optimising dietary carbohydrate intake with respect to the source or amount is fundamental to preventing and managing metabolic diseases in Asian adolescents.
Lee, Joo Yong; Yoon, Young Hee; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Seong; Kang, Se Woong; Kim, June-Gone; Park, Kyu Hyung; Jo, Young Joon
We investigated the demographic characteristics and risk factors of Korean patients with naÏve central or branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO or BRVO). This study enrolled 41 clinical sites throughout Korea and included 557 consecutive patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) from May through November 2010. A total of 557 patients with new-onset RVO participated in this study. Two hundred and three (36.4%) patients were diagnosed with CRVO and 354 (63.6%) patients were diagnosed with BRVO. Comparisons between the two groups showed that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in CRVO patients and hypertension was significantly higher in BRVO patients (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Poor baseline visual acuity was significantly associated with female and old age in BRVO patients (P = 0.002 and 0.013, respectively), whereas the wide intraretinal hemorrhage (CRVO, P = 0.029; BRVO, P < 0.001) and the macular ischemia (CRVO, P < 0.001; BRVO, P < 0.001) were associated with both groups. The study results show the clinical features of RVO in Korean patients. Hypertension is strongly associated with BRVO and diabetes mellitus is more strongly associated with CRVO in Korean patients with RVO. As the first nationwide study performed by the Korean Retinal Society, the results of this study can be applied to future studies on RVO.
Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas
Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth.
Pasch, Keryn E.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.
Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study…
So, Jiyeon; Cho, Hyunyi; Lee, Jinro
The smoking rate among adult men in South Korea is one of the highest in the world, standing at about 53%. Although various mass media-based educational initiatives have been taken to reduce this rate, their contribution toward the smoking risk perceptions of South Koreans has not been investigated. This study examined the association between genre-specific media exposure and personal and social risk perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers. Data from a survey of 558 South Korean college students (39% smokers) show that genre-specific media exposure differentially predicts personal and social risk perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers. News media exposure predicted smokers' personal risk perceptions, whereas entertainment media exposure predicted nonsmokers' personal risk perceptions. Exposure to a hybrid genre, health infotainment, predicted social risk perceptions, but not personal risk perceptions, of both smokers and nonsmokers. High rates of exposure to medical documentary were associated with low personal risk perceptions of nonsmokers, but not smokers. These results collectively suggest that mixed-media strategies may effectively address perceptions of personal and social risk of smoking. Suggestions for future research, and theoretical and practical implications, are offered.
Belmonte, K.; Latack, J. A.; Mellins, C. A.; Wasserman, G. A.; Donenberg, G. R.; Hirsch, J. S.
Using in-depth interviews with 20 probation youth (60% female; 35% white; 30% Hispanic; mean age 15years, range=13–17), their caregivers (100% female; mean age 44years, range=34–71) and 12 female probation officers (100% white; mean age 46years, range=34–57), we explored how family and probation systems exacerbate or mitigate sexual risk. We conducted thematic analyses of interviews, comparing narratives of families of sexually risky (n=9) versus non-sexually risky (n=11) youth. Family functioning differed by youth sexual risk behavior around quality of relationships, communication, and limit-setting and monitoring. The involvement of families of sexually risky youth in probation positively influenced family functioning. Data suggest these families are amenable to intervention and may benefit from family-based HIV/STI interventions delivered in tandem with probation. PMID:26539022
Cho, Joo-Jang; Hwang, Woo-Jun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Hye-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young
This study investigated the relationship between iridological constitution and angiotensinogen (AGN) gene polymorphism in hypertensives. In addition to angiotensin converting enzyme gene, AGN genotype is also one of the most well studied genetic markers of hypertension. Furthermore, iridology, one of complementary and alternative medicine, is the diagnosis of the medical conditions through noting irregularities of the pigmentation in the iris. Iridological constitution has a strong familial aggregation and is implicated in heredity. Therefore, the study classified 87 hypertensive patients with familial history of cerebral infarction and controls (n = 88) according to Iris constitution, and determined AGN genotype. As a result, the AGN/TT genotype was associated with hypertension (chi2 = 13.413, p < .05). The frequency of T allele was 0.92 in patients and 0.76 in controls (chi2 = 13.159, p < .05). In addition, iridological constitutional classification increased the relative risk for hypertension in the subjects with AGN/T allele. These results suggest that AGN polymorphism predicts hypertension, and iridological constitutional classification enhances the risk for hypertension associated with AGN/T in a Korean population.
Although pregnancy is a medical condition that contributes to bone loss, little information is available regarding bone mineral density (BMD) in puerperal women. This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and to identify associated risk factors. We surveyed all puerperal women who had BMD measurements taken 4–6 weeks after delivery in a tertiary university hospital, and did not have any bone loss-related comorbidities. Among the 1,561 Korean puerperal women, 566 (36.3%) had low BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and/or trochanter. Multivariate analysis revealed that underweight women had a significantly higher risk of low BMD compared with obese women at pre-pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83–5.63). Also, women with inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) were 1.4 times more likely to have low BMD than women with excessive GWG (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.04–1.94). One-way ANOVA showed that BMDs at the lumbar spine and total hip were significantly different between the 4 BMI groups (both P < 0.001) and also between the 3 GWG groups (both P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study identifies a high prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and thus suggests the need for further evaluation about the change of BMD in pregnancy and postpartum period. PMID:27709858
Kim, Teayeon; Lim, Chul-Hee; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kim, YouSeung; Heo, Seongbong; Cha, Sung Eun; Kim, Seajin
The number of wildfires and accompanying human injuries and physical damages has been increased by frequent drought. Especially, Korea experienced severe drought and numbers of wildfire took effect this year. We used MaxEnt model to figure out major environmental factors for wildfire and used RCP scenarios to predict future wildfire risk area. In this study, environmental variables including topographic, anthropogenic, meteorologic data was used to figure out contributing variables of wildfire in South and North Korea, and compared accordingly. As for occurrence data, we used MODIS fire data after verification. In North Korea, AUC(Area Under the ROC Curve) value was 0.890 which was high enough to explain the distribution of wildfires. South Korea had low AUC value than North Korea and high mean standard deviation which means there is low anticipation to predict fire with same environmental variables. It is expected to enhance AUC value in South Korea with environmental variables such as distance from trails, wildfire management systems. For instance, fire occurred within DMZ(demilitarized zone, 4kms boundary from 38th parallel) has decisive influence on fire risk area in South Korea, but not in North Korea. The contribution of each environmental variables was more distributed among variables in North Korea than in South Korea. This means South Korea is dependent on few certain variables, and North Korea can be explained as number of variables with evenly distributed portions. Although the AUC value and standard deviation of South Korea was not high enough to predict wildfire, the result carries an significant meaning to figure out scientific and social matters that certain environmental variables has great weight by understanding their response curves. We also made future wildfire risk area map in whole Korean peninsula using the same model. In four RCP scenarios, it was found that severe climate change would lead wildfire risk area move north. Especially North
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Krupa, Julie; Winters, Ken C.
Little is known of sexual risk behaviors among truant youths across gender. This study utilized latent class analysis to examined heterogeneity of sexual risk behaviors across gender among a sample of 300 truant adolescents. Results revealed two latent subgroups within gender: low vs. high sexual risk behaviors. There were gender differences in baseline covariates of sexual risk behaviors, with male truants in higher risk group experiencing ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) problems, and female truants in higher risk group experienced marijuana use and depression symptoms. African-American race was a significant covariate for high sexual risk behaviors for both genders. Service and practice implications of sexual risk issues of truant youth are discussed. PMID:27066517
Child & Youth Services, 2007
It is impossible to make global generalisations about children and youth from a phenomenological inquiry into the experiences of such a limited number of participants in just one city, Limerick, Ireland, and one case, St. Augustine's. The goal of phenomenological research is, however, not to seek generalisations but to expose the individual case,…
By definition, youth transitions involve young people moving between school, post-school study and employment. It is a time of flux, as young people try out different school, post-school work and study options. But are those who don't find work immediately likely to make a poor transition? Given that many may well have a spell out of the labour…
Fischer, Sarah; Young-Hyman, Deborah
Objectives Provide an updated literature review on prevalence, measurement, and correlates of disordered eating in youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D), present a novel theoretical risk model (i.e., The Modified Dual Pathway Model) for disordered eating in youth with T1D incorporating psychosocial and physiological risk factors, and discuss clinical implications. Methods Literature review of prevalence, correlates, risk factors, and outcomes of disordered eating behavior (DEB) in youth with T1D. Results Insulin treatment, subsequent weight gain, and disruptions to hunger and satiety regulation are hypothesized disease-related mechanisms through which the treatment of T1D may increase vulnerability to development of behavior characterized as DEB. The Modified Dual Pathway Model integrates these factors with a validated psychosocial risk (body dissatisfaction, depression, and abstinence violation) model for DEB in nondiabetic youth. Conclusions The Modified Dual Pathway model of DEB in youth with T1D is a comprehensive representation of both psychosocial and T1D-related risk factors with the potential to inform future interventions for this population. PMID:25502449
Barnes, T L; Crandell, J L; Bell, R A; Mayer-Davis, E J; Dabelea, D; Liese, A D
Youth with diabetes are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been shown to improve CVD risk. In this study, we evaluated whether changes in diet quality as characterized by DASH are associated with changes in CVD risk factors in youth with diabetes over time. Longitudinal mixed models were applied to data from 797 participants in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study representing three time points: baseline, 12- and 60-month follow-up. Data were restricted to youth whose diabetes was first diagnosed in 2002-2005. DASH-related adherence was poor and changed very little over time. However, an increase in DASH diet score was significantly associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels in youth with type 1 diabetes (β=-0.20, P-value=0.0063) and a decrease in systolic blood pressure among youth with type 2 diabetes (β=-2.02, P-value=0.0406). Improvements in dietary quality may be beneficial in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, further work in larger groups of youth with type 1 and 2 diabetes is desirable.
Guthrie, Larry F.; And Others
The Health Academy and the Media Academy, two innovative high school intervention programs for at-risk youth in Oakland (California), are examined. A collaborative effort of the school district, business, and community, the academies are school-within-a-school programs that engage about 120 at-risk students each in specific academic curricula for…
Morrison, Penelope; Nikolajski, Cara; Borrero, Sonya; Zickmund, Susan
The present work seeks to contribute to studies of cross-cultural risk and resiliency by presenting results from qualitative research with adolescents attending programs for at-risk youth in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. In 1990, Brazil introduced the Child and Adolescent Act (ECA), a significant piece of legislation that has had a direct impact on how…
Green, Dan; Penaloza, Linda J.; Chrisp, Eric; Dillon, Mary; Cassell, Carol M.; Tsinajinnie, Eugene; Rinehart, Judith; Ortega, Willa
In the fall of 2005, the New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM YRRS) was conducted in New Mexico public high schools, with 5,679 students in grades nine through twelve participating from 20 public high schools in the state. The NM YRRS is a tool that can assist administrators and policy makers in identifying health risk behaviors among…
Sociometrics, Inc., Hyattsville, MD.
In 1989, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development approved a 3-year international project to identify programs that have been effective in helping children at risk of educational failure. A conference held to launch the project identified program strategies for serving at-risk youth, determined ways for member countries to improve…
Capuzzi, David, Ed.; Gross, Douglas R., Ed.
This monograph outlines early prevention efforts that can decrease the development of destructive behaviors in at-risk youth. The text provides those who work with young people the information they need to identify individuals with the highest potential for "at-riskness." Such care givers also need to understand the causal factors for at-risk…
Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.
The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…
Rojewski, Jay W.; And Others
Examination of the impact of gender and academic-risk behavior on the career maturity and competence of 110 rural youth revealed that females were more involved and independent in their career development and that high-risk students were less able to solve career-related problems. Addresses implications for rural career education and vocational…
Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana
Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…
Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.
Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…
Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk behaviors was prospectively examined over the four…
Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa
African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…
Lee, Chang-Hun; Moak, Stacy; Walker, Jeffery T.
Despite the emerging phenomenon of sexting, scientific investigation with criminological perspectives has been limited. Utilizing data collected from 1,612 randomly selected youth in South Korea, this study begins the investigation into which criminological theory best explains sexting behaviors. Theories considered include self-control, social…
Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Park, Byung Lae; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Namgoong, Suhg; Kim, Ji On; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Shin, Joong-Gon; Park, Chul Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Jae Won; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Hwang, Jaeuk; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Woo, Sung-Il
Schizophrenia is regarded as a multifactorial and polygenic brain disorder that is attributed to different combinations of genetic and environmental risk factors. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have identified numerous risk factors, but the replication results remain controversial and ambiguous. To identify schizophrenia susceptibility loci in the Korean population, we performed a GWAS using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad V1.0 Microarray. We genotyped 1,140,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 350 Korea schizophrenia patients and 700 control subjects, and approximately 620,001 autosomal SNPs were passed our quality control. In the case-control analysis, the rs9607195 A>G on intergenic area 250 kb away from the ISX gene and the rs12738007 A>G on the intron of the MECR gene were the most strongly associated SNPs with the risk of schizophrenia (P = 6.2 × 10(-8) , OR = 0.50 and P = 3.7 × 10(-7) , OR = 2.39, respectively). In subsequent fine-mapping analysis, 6 SNPs of MECR were genotyped with 310 schizophrenia patients and 604 control subjects. The association of the MECR rs12738007, a top ranked-SNP in GWAS, was replicated (P = 1.5 × 10(-2) , OR = 1.53 in fine mapping analysis, P = 1.5 × 10(-6) , OR = 1.90 in combined analysis). The identification of putative schizophrenia susceptibility loci could provide new insights into genetic factors related with schizophrenia and clues for the development of diagnosis strategies.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming
The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N = 14,212). Wave 1 (1994-1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents' social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents.
Flores, Yvonne N.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Morales, Leo S.; Salmerón, Jorge; Skalicky, Anne M.; Edwards, Todd C.; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Patrick, Donald L.
Purpose To examine differences in self-reported perceived mental and physical health status (PHS), as well as known cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of normal weight, overweight, and obese Mexican youths. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 164 youths aged 11-18 years recruited in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included measures of generic and weight-specific quality of life (QoL), perceived health, physical function, depressive symptoms, and body shape satisfaction. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Fasting blood samples from participants yielded levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL). Results Nearly 50% of participants were female, 21% had a normal BMI, 39% were overweight, and 40% were obese. Obese youths reported significantly lower measures of PHS and showed an increase in cardiometabolic risk, compared to normal weight youths. Physical functioning, generic and weight-specific QoL were inversely associated with BMI, waist circumference and glucose. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, glucose levels and HDL cholesterol. No correlation was found between PHS and cardiometabolic risk measures after controlling for BMI. Conclusions In this sample of Mexican youths, obesity was associated with a significantly lower PHS and increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25648756
Huszti, Heather C.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kahana, Shoshana; Nichols, Sharon; Gonin, René; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill G.
Despite the rising number of new HIV infections among youth, few tailored interventions for youth living with HIV (YLH) have been developed and rigorously tested. Developing tailored interventions necessitates identifying different profiles of YLH and understanding how risk and protective factors cluster together. Obtaining this critical information requires accessing a sufficiently large sample of YLH from diverse geographic settings such as those available through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions (ATN). We recruited a cross-sectional sample of 1,712 YLH from ATN clinics; participants completed a survey on psychosocial and health factors. Using latent class analysis on nine composite variables representing risk factors, we identified five classes distinguished by substance use, sexual behavior, and pregnancy history and differing on health outcomes. Findings suggest a need for tailored interventions addressing multiple risky behaviors of HIV-infected youth and research to clarify how intervention effectiveness may differ by risk profile. PMID:25117556
Cuervo, Keren; Villanueva, Lidón
Although a large body of research has studied the factors associated to general recidivism, predictive validity of these factors has received less attention. Andrews and Bonta's General Personality and Social-Psychological Model attempts to provide an in-depth explanation of risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory was administered to 210 adolescents aged between 14 and 18 with a criminal record to analyse risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. Their possible differential contribution over a 2-year follow-up period was also examined. Risk factors showed good levels of recidivism prediction. The factors that emerged as the most discriminative were education/employment, leisure/recreation, and personality. Protective factors differentiated between recidivists and non-recidivists in all factors. Hence, results showed that not only individual but also social factors would be crucial in predicting recidivism.
Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle
Objectives. We used nuanced measures of sexual minority status to examine disparities in victimization and their variations by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Methods. We conducted multivariate analyses of pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Results. Although all sexual minorities reported more fighting, skipping school because they felt unsafe, and having property stolen or damaged at school than did heterosexuals, rates were highest among youths who identified as bisexual or who reported both male and female sexual partners. Gender differences among sexual minorities appeared to be concentrated among bisexuals and respondents who reported sexual partners of both genders. Sexual minority youths reported more fighting than heterosexual youths, especially at younger ages, and more nonphysical school victimization that persisted through adolescence. White and Hispanic sexual minority youths reported more indicators of victimization than did heterosexuals; we found few sexual minority differences among African American and Asian American youths. Conclusions. Victimization carries health consequences, and sexual minorities are at increased risk. Surveys should include measures that allow tracking of disparities in victimization by sexual minority status. PMID:24328633
Czaja, Marion D.; Belcher, Sandi
This report describes and evaluates the Raven School, a charter school established in 1998 to serve adjudicated youths ages 16 to 18. The school is administered by the Gulf Coast Trades Center, a private nonprofit organization located in the Sam Houston National Forest in rural Texas. In addition to academics and GED preparation, other program…
Now more than ever, counselors, teachers, community youth workers, and parents are striving to prevent individual and school-wide tragedy before it happens. Critical to the success of their efforts is a deep respect for the adolescent experience. In this book, author and social worker Michael Ungar takes a fresh, hopeful approach to challenging…
Gustavsson, Nora; MacEachron, Ann E.
Recent child welfare legislation requires agencies to address the educational well-being of foster youths. Schools face new accountability standards through No Child Left Behind and the Obama "Blueprint for Reform" as they move toward the goal of ensuring that all children receive a quality education. Both of these pieces of legislation…
Dembo, Richard; Pacheco, Kimberly; Schmeidler, James; Fisher, Lori; Cooper, Sheila
Reports the results of a study of substance use (measured by self-reports and hair test results) and delinquency among arrested youths entering a service intervention program. Results highlight important relationships between alcohol and other drug use and involvement in delinquency in the year prior to the interviews. (Author/RJM)
To compare atherogenic lipoprotein particles and vascular smooth muscle biomarkers in overweight youth with pre-diabetes (PD) vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT). 144 adolescents (60 black, 84 white; 102 female; PD=45, NGT=99) aged 10-19 years underwent a fasting blood draw and 2-h OGTT. Lipoprotein ...
Lee, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Ju Hyun; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Jin Won; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok
This study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among participants of the fifth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010. Of 8,958 participants, 6,758 individuals ≥10 yr had sufficient data for the analysis of anemia and iron status. ID was defined as a transferrin saturation <10% or serum ferritin <15 µg/L. The prevalence of ID and IDA was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-2.6%) and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.0%), respectively, in males, and 22.4% (95% CI, 20.7%-24.2%) and 8.0% (95% CI, 6.8%-9.2%), respectively, in females. In reproductive age females, the prevalence of ID and IDA was 31.4% (95% CI, 28.9%-33.8%) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.4%), respectively. Compared to the prevalence of IDA in adult males 18-49 yr, the relative risks of IDA in adults ≥65 yr, lactating females, premenopausal females, and pregnant females were 8.1, 35.7, 42.8, and 95.5, respectively. Low income, underweight, iron- or vitamin C-poor diets were also associated with IDA. For populations with defined risk factors in terms of age, gender, physiological state and socioeconomic and nutritional status, national health policy to reduce IDA is needed.
Osborne, K Juston; Bernard, Jessica A; Gupta, Tina; Dean, Derek J; Millman, Zachary; Vargas, Teresa; Ristanovic, Ivanka; Schiffman, Jason; Mittal, Vijay A
Beat gestures, rhythmic hand movements that co-occur with speech, appear to be uniquely associated with the cerebellum in healthy individuals. This behavior may also have relevance for psychosis-risk youth, a group characterized by cerebellar dysfunction. This study examined beat gesture frequency and postural sway (a sensitive index of cerebellar functioning) in youth at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis. Results indicated that decreased beat gesture frequency, but not self-regulatory movement, is associated with elevated postural sway, suggesting that beat gestures may be an important biomarker in this critical population.
Gable, Sara; Tosh, Aneesh K
The current article reviews several practical approaches to screening for obesity risk among children and youth, with an emphasis on the spectrum of physical activity. We encourage physicians to utilize evidence-based strategies (e.g., 5-2-1-0), implement motivational interviewing techniques, and focus on "crunch time" (i.e., the period of day after school and before bedtime) when gathering information about physical activity type and intensity. The insights gained are useful for evaluating obesity risk and establishing goals for lifestyle interventions. Characteristics of successful interventions with youth are also discussed and include goal-setting, self-monitoring, and pedometers.
Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Cho, Si Hyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok
Objectives Decreased renal function is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Our study was planned to verify the association of decreased renal function and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 251 Korean postmenopausal women who visited the health promotion center for a routine health checkup. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used to show renal function, which was estimated by calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Results Women with reduced eGFR (< 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2) had significantly higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) than women with normal eGFR (≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2). The eGFR was negatively correlated with baPWV (r = -0.352, P < 0.001), significantly. The eGFR was lower in women with coronary atherosclerosis than in normal control women, markedly. Reduced eGFR was significantly associated with the presence of coronary atherosclerosis (odds ratio [OR] = 7.528, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.728-20.772, P < 0.001). Conclusions Decreased eGFR was closely associated with increased arterial stiffness and coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Evaluating subclinical atherosclerosis by screening the renal function in postmenopausal women may be helpful screening high risk group and considering starting menopausal hormone therapy before atherosclerosis development. PMID:28119897
Balling, Allison; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Speicher, Nancy; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura
To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territory, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories, and cities…
Lippe, Jaclynn; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura; Speicher, Nancy
To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territorial, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories,…
Josie, Katherine Leigh; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Drotar, Dennis
A cumulative risk framework was used to examine the impact of the presence of multiple risk factors on key asthma outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], severity) for a sample of 149 inner-city African-American youth with asthma. The presence of a greater number of risk factors was associated with lower HRQoL and greater severity, regardless of age or gender. Cumulative risk methodology, in combination with selection of risk factors based on theoretical and empirical work, is a viable option for researchers and clinicians who are interested in examining the impact of multiple risk factors on disease functioning and status.
Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed.
Jones, Vanya; Cheng, Tina L.
There is increasing evidence of the interconnection between educational and health outcomes. Unfortunately wide disparities exist by both socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity in educational and vocational success. This study sought to promote urban youths’ career readiness as a way to reduce involvement in risk behaviors. Two hundred primarily African-American youth (ages 14-21) were recruited from a pediatric primary care clinic. Youth randomized to the intervention received three motivational interviewing sessions focused around expectations and planning for the future. Baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments included measures of career readiness and risk behavior involvement (i.e., physical fighting, alcohol and marijuana use). At 6-months, youth randomized to the intervention condition showed increased confidence in their ability to perform the behaviors needed to reach their college/career goals. Additionally, youth randomized to the intervention arm showed decreased fighting behavior (adjusted rate ratio: .27) and marijuana use (adjusted rate ratio: .61). Assisting urban youth in thinking and planning about their future holds promise as a way to reduce their involvement in risk behaviors. This study also demonstrated that motivational interviewing may hold promise for promoting positive behaviors (i.e., career readiness). PMID:26122751
This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population.
So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan
Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342
Slesnick, Natasha; Kang, Min Ju
While many studies provide useful information on the risk behaviors in which homeless youth engage, few prior studies evaluate Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk related reduction strategies. In this study, homeless youth (n = 180) were recruited from a drop-in center and randomly assigned to one of two conditions, either an integrated individual cognitive-behavioral treatment and HIV prevention intervention that focused on skills building and education or to treatment as usual. All youth were assessed at entry into the program and at 3 and 6 month follow-up points. Findings showed an interaction between treatment condition, age and time. In the interaction, youth assigned to the integrated treatment reported greater condom usage than youth assigned to treatment as usual, with younger youth assigned to treatment as usual showing no change in condom use. The number of sexual partners reported by youth in both treatment conditions was also reduced over time. However, youth in both conditions continued to engage in other high-risk behaviors. The integrated treatment findings are promising and suggest that interventions which target both HIV risk behavior in addition to other life areas (substance use, mental health and housing) among homeless youth may be necessary in order to significantly impact high-risk behaviors among this unique group. PMID:17940861
Kingston, Beverly E; Mihalic, Sharon F; Sigel, Eric J
The mental, emotional and behavioral health problems of high-risk youth and youth living in high-risk communities are not inevitable and can be prevented. A shift from the nation's focus on treating disease and illness after it occurs to a concentrated effort on preventing the root causes of these problems is needed. Prevention science suggests a comprehensive multitiered approach that provides evidence-based prevention supports for children and youth at each developmental stage and across multiple social contexts is likely to result in the greatest health impact and return on investment. However, actually implementing this approach at a neighborhood level has remained a challenge and an ongoing research gap especially in high-risk communities. This article describes a process and provides a case study example for implementing a comprehensive, multitiered approach in a high-risk community. This includes assessing and prioritizing the specific needs of individuals and communities; selecting evidence-based programs based upon assessed needs; and creating a continuum of programs to improve the health and well-being of youth across developmental age spans, social contexts, and levels of risk. Operational details and challenges for organizing and implementing this comprehensive approach are also described. We estimate that the collective impact of a multitiered evidence-based approach, implemented with fidelity, could conservatively result in a 30 to 40% reduction in problem behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record
Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes.
Wilson, Dawn K; Sweeney, Allison M; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Gause, Haylee; St George, Sara M
Nurturing environments within the context of families, schools, and communities all play an important role in enhancing youth's behavioral choices and health outcomes. The increasing prevalence rates of obesity among youth, especially among low income and ethnic minorities, highlight the need to develop effective and innovative intervention approaches that promote positive supportive environments across different contexts for at-risk youth. We propose that the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Family Systems Theory, and Self-Determination Theory offers a useful framework for understanding how individual, family, and social-environmental-level factors contribute to the development of nurturing environments. In this paper, we summarize evidence-based randomized controlled trials that integrate positive parenting, motivational, and behavioral skills strategies in different contexts, including primary care, home, community, and school-based settings. Taken together, these studies suggest that youth and parents are most likely to benefit when youth receive individual-level behavioral skills, family-level support and communication, and autonomous motivational support from the broader social environment. Future investigators and healthcare providers should consider integrating these evidence-based approaches that support the effects of positive social climate-based interventions on promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management in youth.
This study compares problem behaviors across a range of adolescent Asian Pacific Islander (API) subgroups using the Add Health data, and controlling for parental education or immigrant status. The study finds that Filipino, "other" API, and multiethnic API American youth are at higher risk for poorer outcomes than Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese…
Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Jeongseon
The human TAS2R38 gene encodes a bitter taste receptor that regulates the bitterness perception and differentiation of ingested nutritional/poisonous compounds in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. TAS2R38 gene variants are associated with alterations in individual sensitivity to bitter taste and food intake; hence, these genetic variants may modify the risk for diet-related diseases, including cancer. However, little is known about the association between TAS2R38 polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility. The present case-control study examined the influence of TAS2R38 polymorphisms on food intake and determined whether they predict gastric cancer risk in Koreans. A total of 1,580 subjects, including 449 gastric cancer cases, were genotyped for TAS2R38 A49P, V262A, I296V and diplotypes. Dietary data were analysed to determine the total consumption of energy, fibre, vegetables, fruits, sweets, fats, alcohol and cigarettes. TAS2R38 diplotype was not associated with food, alcohol or cigarette consumption, either independent or dependent of gastric cancer phenotype. However, the PAV/AVI diplotype significantly increased gastric cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio: 1.513; 95% confidence interval: 1.148–1.994) independent of dietary intake. Findings suggest that TAS2R38 may be associated with the risk for gastric cancer in Koreans, although the TAS2R38 diplotype did not influence dietary intake. PMID:27245112
Song, Jae Wook; Ko, Bonggyun; Cho, Poongjin; Chang, Woojin
The aim of this paper is to investigate the Korean financial system based on time-varying causal network. We discover many stylized facts by utilizing the firm-specific risk premiums for measuring the causality direction from a firm to firm. At first, we discover that the interconnectedness of causal network is affected by the outbreak of financial events; the co-movement of firm-specific risk premium is strengthened after each positive event, and vice versa. Secondly, we find that the major sector of the Korean financial system is the Depositories, and the financial reform in June-2011 achieves its purpose by weakening the power of risk-spillovers of Broker-Dealers. Thirdly, we identify that the causal network is a small-world network with scale-free topology where the power-law exponents of out-Degree and negative event are more significant than those of in-Degree and positive event. Lastly, we discuss that the current aspects of causal network are closely related to the long-term future scenario of the KOSPI Composite index where the direction and stability are significantly affected by the power of risk-spillovers and the power-law exponents of degree distributions, respectively.
Parra, Gilbert R.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.; Olsen, James P.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Davis, Genevieve L.; Gamble, Heather L.
This study investigated the practices and perceptions of psychologists related to targeting family risk factors when treating youth depression. Participants were practicing psychologists recruited through the National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology (N = 279). Psychologists completed a brief anonymous survey about addressing…
Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.
Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…
Miller, Shari; Herman-Stahl, Mindy; Fishbein, Diana; Lavery, Bud; Johnson, Michelle; Markovits, Lara
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the use of formative research to adapt, develop, and pretest a mindful yoga curriculum for high-risk youth attending a nontraditional high school. The formative work was conducted in the first year of a larger project to test the efficacy of a mindful yoga program through a randomized controlled trial. The…
Marcus, Carol E., Ed.; Swisher, John D., Ed.
This report focuses on prevention programs developed with support from the Office for Substance Abuse Prevention's (OSAP) High-Risk Youth Demonstration Grant Program. Included are an Introduction (Eric Goplerud and others) and the following reports: (1) "Athletes Coaching Teens for Substance Abuse Prevention: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Risk…
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
This organizational vignette is one in a multi-part series highlighting community providers. This particular issue spotlights Bridge Over Troubled Waters, Inc., of Boston, Massachusetts, an organization that works with youth at risk, many of whom have developmental disabilities. The collaboration between Bridge and the Institute for Community…
Educators are considering ways to help youth identified as "at-risk" succeed in school and beyond. Alternative programs (AP) can be effective environments for students who may not fit the mainstream mold and need additional support. Effective AP use a holistic approach that encompasses social, academic, psychological and career-related…
Bull, Kay Sather; Garrett, Marta
This bibliography of 185 books, journal articles, government and private agency reports, literature reviews, and conference papers was prepared for the "At-Risk" Task Force of the American Council on Rural Special Education. The general problem is one of children and youth who are placed, by the actions of self or others, in situations where they…
Loukas, Alexandra; Prelow, Hazel M.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Allua, Shane
The present study examined whether positive parenting and deviant peer associations mediated the relations between a cumulative risk composite comprising financial strain, neighborhood problems, and maternal psychological distress and subsequent youth adjustment problems. Drawn from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three City Study, the…
Roid, Gale H.
This sourcebook describes methods of dealing with dropouts in Oregon school districts. "At-risk youth" and "dropout" are defined and survey results of 98 percent of superintendents concerning program offerings are summarized. Data suggest that medium-size districts require greatest assistance. Despite increases in single-parent…
MMWR: Morbidity and Morality Weekly Report, 2000
In the United States, approximately three-fourths of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from only four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from this 1999 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey demonstrate that numerous high school students engage in behaviors that increase the…
Melnick, Merrill J.; Miller, Kathleen E.; Sabo, Donald F.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.
Data from the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was used to compare use of tobacco between athletes and nonathletes. Both female and male athletes were less likely to have smoked, which was truer for the more involved athletes. Both female and male athletes were more likely to have tried smokeless tobacco, with the effect greater for more involved…
Banks, Tachelle; Eaton, India
Preparing at-risk youth and students with mild disabilities for state and district tests is important for improving their test performance, and basic instruction in test preparation can significantly improve student test performance. The article defines noncognitive variables that adversely affect test-taker performance. The article also describes…
Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David
Objective: In light of public concern about the dangers to young people from maintaining online journals or "blogs," this exploratory paper examines whether bloggers are at increased risk for online sexual solicitation or harassment. Method: A national telephone survey of 1,500 youth Internet users, ages 10-17, conducted between March and June…
Sabo, Kenneth E.; Hamilton, Wendy V.
A 4-H program in a public housing project in New Mexico involved at-risk youth in activities such as archery and other shooting sports. These activities were found to promote motivation, cognitive development, self-esteem, and responsibility. (SK)
Everett, Sherry; Sussman, Michele; Ranslow, Steve; Shaughnessy, Lana
This youth risk behavior survey was completed by 7,667 students at 127 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) middle schools. The document is organized around the six categories of behavior that contribute substantially to the leading causes of death, illness, and social problems in the United States: unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use;…
This longitudinal study describes the influence of family, friends, community organizations, and school on the educational and employment experiences of 146 immigrant adolescent Latinos in Washington (District of Columbia) between 1982 and 1988. All had attended a special high school for at-risk immigrant youth. The following key findings are…
Ramey, Heather L.; Busseri, Michael A.; Khanna, Nishad; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents in many industrialized countries. We report evidence from a mediation model linking greater youth activity engagement, spanning behavioral and psychological components, with lower suicide risk through five hypothesized intrapersonal and interpersonal mediating factors. Self-report survey data…
Olson, Jonathan R.; Smith, Burgess; Hawkey, Kyle R.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Borden, Lynne M.
In this article, we describe the results of a formative evaluation of a coaching model designed to support recipients of funding through the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) initiative. Results indicate that CYFAR coaches draw from a variety of types of coaching and that CYFAR principle investigators (PIs) are generally satisfied with…
Lichtinger, Einat; Leichtentritt, Judith
This study examines changes experienced by teachers of youth at socioeconomic risk during and after conducting self-regulation programs with their students. Participants' self-reports were classified into 3 change models. Teachers in the 1st model reported changes in their interaction with the school, their role with the students, and their own…
McBrien, J. Lynn
Refugee students, although frequently subsumed under the "immigrant" heading, often suffer from effects of significant trauma that can make them more vulnerable than children of voluntary immigrant families. This study evaluated a program created specifically for refugee youth at-risk for academic failure and "social death." The program goals…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students in urban schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 808 high school American Indian students in urban schools during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 808 due to…
Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…
Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011
This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for American Indian students on or near a reservation. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 720 high school American Indian students on or near a reservation in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions…
Miller, Kim S.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Cotton, Garnette
Sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), disproportionately affect African American adolescents and young adults. Many of our current strategies and approaches have been inadequate in the promotion of risk reduction among youth and need to be reconceptualized. This article identifies issues that may guide…
Cumming, Therese M.; Strnadová, Iva; Dowse, Leanne
The largest population of youth at risk for involvement in the juvenile justice system are those with disabilities and mental illness. There has been scant research into the pathways that these students take from home, school and the community to involvement in the justice system in Australia. This paper utilises insights from critical disability…
Wagener, Judy; Nehls-Lowe, Barbara
This report contains data from the 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, administered to 1,440 high school students throughout Wisconsin. Included are data on the prevalence of injuries; drug use; sexual behaviors; dietary behaviors; and physical activity. The results revealed that over 80% of students rarely or never wear bicycle helmets and 50%…
Lee, R. Scott
Resilience development is a growing field of study within the scholarly literature regarding social emotional achievement of at-risk students. Developing resiliency is based on the assumption that positive, pro-social, and/or strength-based values inherent in children and youth should be actively and intentionally developed. The core values of…
Sander, Janay B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.
Research on parent risk factors, family environment, and familial involvement in the treatment of depression in children and adolescents is integrated, providing an update to prior reviews on the topic. First, the psychosocial parent and family factors associated with youth depression are examined. The literature indicates that a broad array of…
Ronalds, Lisa; Allen-Craig, Sandy
In an effort to address the issue of youth homelessness in Australia, Regional Extended Family Services (REFS) have developed a wilderness-based therapeutic intervention. REFS aim to provide early intervention services for young people at risk of homelessness, and their families. This study examined the outcomes of the REFS wilderness program by…
Barbosa, João Paulo Dos Anjos Souza; Basso, Luciano; Seabra, André; Prista, Antonio; Tani, Go; Maia, José António Ribeiro; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia De Moraes
Negative associations between physical activity (PA), physical fitness and multiple metabolic risk factors (MMRF) in youths from populations with low PA are reported. The persistence of this association in moderately-to highly active populations is not, however, well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate this association in a Brazilian city with high frequency of active youths. We assessed 122 subjects (9.9 ± 1.3 years) from Muzambinho city. Body mass index, waist circumference, glycaemia, cholesterolaemia, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured. Maximal handgrip strength and one-mile walk/run test were used. Leisure time PA was assessed by interview. Poisson regression was used in the analysis. The model explained 11% of the total variance. Only relative muscular strength and one-mile walk/run were statistically significant (p < .05). Those who needed more time to cover the one-mile walk/run test had an increased in metabolic risk of 11%, and those with greater strength reduced the risk by about 82%. In conclusion, children and youths from an active population who need less time to cover the one-mile walk/run test or who had greater muscular strength showed a reduced metabolic risk. These results suggest that even in children and youths with high leisure time PA, a greater aerobic fitness and strength might help to further reduce their MMRF.
James, William H.; And Others
This document presents an evaluation of the effectiveness of the Growin' to Win Project, an after-school and summer program targeted at elementary and middle school aged youth at high risk of substance abuse and gang involvement. Growin' to Win is an expansion of a model latchkey program piloted at two Tacoma (Washington) schools in 1990. The…
Children First for Oregon, Portland.
This Kids Count databook examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on youth at risk. The statistical report is based on 12 indicators of well-being: (1) juvenile arrests; (2) teen sexuality; (3) high school dropout rate; (4) teen suicide; (5) reading proficiency; (6) math proficiency; (7) child abuse and neglect;…
Green, Tammy; Schumacher, Catherine; Middaugh, John; Asay, Elvin; Campbell, Terri; Shober, Beth
This report describes the methods and results of the 1999 Alaska Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1998 School Health Education Profile (SHEP). Each survey is intended to provide a better understanding of health and related programs within school settings. The YRBS asks students to report their behaviors in the six major areas of health…
Adams, Brittany Lee
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an equine-facilitated authentic leadership development program on at-risk youth. Participants were asked to participate in two focus groups and a 3-day equine-facilitated authentic leadership development program based on Bill George's Model of Authentic Leadership. Participants were…
Prelow, Hazel M.; Loukas, Alexandra; Jordan-Green, Lisa
The direct and mediated effects of socioenvironmental risk on internalizing and externalizing problems among Latino youth aged 10-14 were examined using prospective analyses. Participants in this study were 464 Latino mother and child dyads surveyed as part of the "Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study." It was hypothesized that…
Lankenau, Stephen E.; Clatts, Michael C.
Ketamine, a synthetic drug commonly consumed by high risk youth, produces a range of experiences, including sedation, dissociation, and hallucinations. While ketamine is more typically sniffed, we describe a small sample of young ketamine injectors (n=25) in New York City and highlight risks associated with this emerging type of injection drug use. Our findings indicate that the injection practices, injection groups, and use norms surrounding ketamine often differ from other injection drug use: intramuscular injections were more common than intravenous injections; injection groups were often large; multiple injections within a single episode were common; bottles rather than cookers were shared; and the drug was often obtained for free. Our findings suggest that the drug injection practices exercised by ketamine injectors place them at risk for bloodborne pathogens, such as HIV, HBV, and HCV. We conclude that ketamine injectors represent an emerging, though often hidden, population of injection drug users, particularly among high risk, street-involved youth. PMID:17440604
Meyerson, David A; Grant, Kathryn E
This themed issue presents five articles tackling the topic of risk and protective processes affecting children and adolescents living in urban poverty. Through their research, the authors seek understanding of the particular challenges that low-income urban youth face, with the ultimate goal of understanding how best to intervene at various levels of the ecological system. Within this broad theme, studies examine specific stressors, mediators, and moderators that impact the mental health of youth living in urban poverty. The final article presents a data-driven, community-based intervention for this population.
Yoon, Sungroh; Park, Man Sik; Choi, Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Moon, Du Geon; Hong, Sung Kyu; Lee, Sang Eun; Park, Chanwang
Purpose We developed the Korean Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator for High-Grade Prostate Cancer (KPCRC-HG) that predicts the probability of prostate cancer (PC) of Gleason score 7 or higher at the initial prostate biopsy in a Korean cohort (http://acl.snu.ac.kr/PCRC/RISC/). In addition, KPCRC-HG was validated and compared with internet-based Western risk calculators in a validation cohort. Materials and Methods Using a logistic regression model, KPCRC-HG was developed based on the data from 602 previously unscreened Korean men who underwent initial prostate biopsies. Using 2,313 cases in a validation cohort, KPCRC-HG was compared with the European Randomized Study of Screening for PC Risk Calculator for high-grade cancer (ERSPCRC-HG) and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator 2.0 for high-grade cancer (PCPTRC-HG). The predictive accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calibration plots. Results PC was detected in 172 (28.6%) men, 120 (19.9%) of whom had PC of Gleason score 7 or higher. Independent predictors included prostate-specific antigen levels, digital rectal examination findings, transrectal ultrasound findings, and prostate volume. The AUC of the KPCRC-HG (0.84) was higher than that of the PCPTRC-HG (0.79, p<0.001) but not different from that of the ERSPCRC-HG (0.83) on external validation. Calibration plots also revealed better performance of KPCRC-HG and ERSPCRC-HG than that of PCPTRC-HG on external validation. At a cut-off of 5% for KPCRC-HG, 253 of the 2,313 men (11%) would not have been biopsied, and 14 of the 614 PC cases with Gleason score 7 or higher (2%) would not have been diagnosed. Conclusions KPCRC-HG is the first web-based high-grade prostate cancer prediction model in Korea. It had higher predictive accuracy than PCPTRC-HG in a Korean population and showed similar performance with ERSPCRC-HG in a Korean population. This prediction model could help avoid unnecessary biopsy
Hong, Sung-Won; Linton, John A; Shim, Jae-Yong; Kang, Hee-Taik
We examined the association between alcohol-drinking pattern and diabetes mellitus (DM) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study included 12,486 participants (5551 men and 6935 women) who participated in the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized alcohol-drinking pattern into three groups based on the alcohol-use disorders identification test (AUDIT): low-risk (score: 0-7), intermediate-risk (score: 8-14), and high-risk (score: ≥15). DM was defined as having fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL or taking glucose-lowering medication, including insulin therapy. In the study population, 25.2% of men and 4.7% of women were high-risk drinkers. DM prevalence was 9.2% in men and 5.4% in women. DM prevalence was 9.0% and 5.7% in the low-risk drinking group, 7.6% and 4.1% in the intermediate-risk drinking group, and 11.2% and 3.5% in the high-risk drinking group in men and women, respectively. Compared to the low-risk drinking group, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of men and women in the intermediate-risk drinking group for DM were 1.043 (0.779-1.396) and 1.139 (0.712-1.824), respectively, and 1.480 (1.133-1.933) and 0.827 (0.296-2.311) in the high-risk drinking group, after adjusting for age and other confounding factors. In conclusion, high-risk drinking appears to be associated with a higher risk of DM in men, but not in women.
Bowie, Lillian; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta
Out-of-school time programs provide intervention and prevention services to young people who are deemed "at-risk" with the goal of improving their social, emotional, and academic development. However, research indicates that children and youth who are most "at-risk" are less likely to participate in out-of-school time programs, and do so less…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer
Truant youths represent a challenging, yet very promising group of at-risk youth to study. In addition to problems in school, they frequently experience troubled family situations, emotional/ psychological problems, involvement in substance use, and delinquency. Given the problems often experienced by truant youth, it is likely they are engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Identification of these youths’ problems and early placement into effective intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. The current study presents interim findings from an ongoing, NIDA-funded experimental, Brief Intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parent/guardians. Baseline, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow up data were analyzed to determine whether alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors were longitudinally related, examine the effects of the intervention on longitudinal alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, identify latent subgroups of youths in the data for alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, and determine whether the intervention influenced these subgroups. Results indicated alcohol use and sexual risk were longitudinally related. Subgroups of youth were also identified based on alcohol use and sexual risk behavior levels and trends. Further, limited treatment effects were observed for alcohol use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25242878
Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson; Hathazi, Dodi
Tryptamines and phenethylamines are two broad categories of psychoactive substances with a long history of licit and illicit use. Profiles of users of recently emerging tryptamines and phenethylamines are nonexistent, however, since surveillance studies do not query the use of these substances. This manuscript describes the types, modes of administration, onset of use, and context of use of a variety of lesser known tryptamines and phenethylamines among a sample of high-risk youth. Findings are based upon in-depth interviews with 42 youth recruited in public settings in Los Angles during 2005 and 2006 as part of larger study examining health risks associated with injecting ketamine. Youth reported that their use of tryptamines and phenethylamines was infrequent, spontaneous, and predominately occurred at music venues, such as festivals, concerts, or raves. Several purchased a variety of these “research chemicals” from the Internet and used them in private locations. While many described positive experiences, reports of short-term negative health outcomes included nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, disorientations, and frightening hallucinations. These findings, based upon pilot study data, move toward an epidemiology of tryptamine and phenethylamine use among high-risk youth. PMID:18365939
Lee, Sung Yeon; Cho, Nam H.; Jung, Young Ok; Seo, Young Il; Kim, Hyun Ah
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and the relevant risk factors for lumbar spondylosis (LS) among middle-aged and elderly rural Korean residents and to explore the association between radiographic LS and lower back pain (LBP) in relation to age and gender. Methods This community-based, cross-sectional study evaluated 1512 subjects with available radiograph. The prevalence of LBP was obtained using a questionnaire and disability resulting from LBP was measured using a validated Korean version of the Oswestry disability index (ODI). In lumbar spine radiographs, vertebral levels from L1/2 to L4/5 were evaluated for the presence of osteophytes and joint-space narrowing (JSN), and Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading was applied. Results Of 4261 subjects aged 40–79 years, data from 1512 subjects were included. The prevalence of radiographic LS indicated by grade ≥2 osteophytes and JSN were 53.9 and 15.8%, respectively. Seventy-three percent of subjects had KL grade ≥2 spondylosis and LBP was present in 36.5% of subjects. Although LS was more common among males, the prevalence of LBP was higher among females. Age, male gender and history of hand or knee arthritis were risk factors for LS. LS was significantly associated with LBP mostly among females over 60 years old and correlated with the ODI after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion Our study among rural Korean residents revealed a high prevalence of LS and LBP. The association between LS and LBP was observed mostly among females and LS was significantly correlated with the severity of back pain. PMID:28061494
Massetti, Greta M; David-Ferdon, Corinne
Youth violence is preventable, and the reduction of health disparities is possible with evidence-based approaches. Achieving community-wide reductions in youth violence and health disparities has been limited in part because of the lack of prevention strategies to address community risk factors. CDC-supported research has resulted in three promising community-level approaches: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in Los Angeles, California; alcohol policy to reduce youth access in Richmond, Virginia; and the Safe Streets program in Baltimore, Maryland. Evaluation findings indicated that BIDs in Los Angeles were associated with a 12% reduction in robberies (one type of violent crime) and an 8% reduction in violent crime overall. In Richmond's alcohol policy program, investigators found that the monthly average of ambulance pickups for violent injuries among youth aged 15-24 years had a significantly greater decrease in the intervention (19.6 to 0 per 1,000) than comparison communities (7.4 to 3.3 per 1,000). Investigators of Safe Streets found that some intervention communities experienced reductions in homicide and/or nonfatal shootings, but results were not consistent across communities. Communitywide rates of violence can be changed in communities with disproportionately high rates of youth violence associated with entrenched health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantage. Community-level strategies are a critical part of comprehensive approaches necessary to achieve broad reductions in violence and health disparities.
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung
The traditional cultural characteristics are challenged and negotiated in the process of acculturation; some characteristics are discarded, others are maintained, still others may get strengthened, new characteristics from the new cultures are adopted, and possibly a new hybrid of a culture of family socialization may emerge. The focus group interviews conducted with Korean-American parents and their children attest to the complexity of this process mixed with core and peripheral changes. The study findings show that Korean-American families appear to live more distinctly in the Korean culture than the mainstream Western culture, and the parental cultural adaptation is, at least at this point, minimal. Korean immigrant parents show reluctance and resistance to change, except in some of the areas that they believe are necessary and potentially helpful to their children. Family values are core values that parents are eager to maintain and transmit to their children. Korean-American parents are also deeply concerned that their children are growing up as a racial and cultural minority, which, they believe, is likely to impede children's development and future prospects. To protect their children, parents focus quite intensely on ethnic socialization within the family - a pattern that is shared among many Asian subgroups, particularly among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant families, because they strongly believe that a clear sense of ethnic identity and the deliberate preservation of the tradition helps buffer the risks and negativities derived from being an ethnic and cultural minority in the U.S. Youth, mostly second-generation immigrants, have internalized the Korean traditional family values and behaviors, probably more than their parents think that they have - a sign of successful enculturation. Unlike parents' fears, children do not seem to suffer greatly from identity confusion. The overall responses suggest that Korean-American youth are aware of their minority
Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; DeSalvo, Cathy; Gehringer, Robert; Epstein, Michael H.
Purpose: Undiagnosed language impairment (LI) for youth in residential care is a concern as similar populations have shown elevated levels of language delays. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to identify the percentage of youth in residential care who are at risk for LI and to compare the demographic, academic achievement, and functional…
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: October 2004-January 2006. Description of the System: The Youth Risk…
Versace, Amelia; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.
Objective: To study white matter (WM) development in youth at high familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD). WM alterations are reported in youth and adults with BD. WM undergoes important maturational changes in adolescence. Age-related changes in WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics in healthy…
Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane M.; Huang, David
This study utilized data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate youth risk trajectories for HIV and factors associated with different trajectories. The sample (N = 8,208) was 49.2% female, with a mean age of 14.31 (SD = 1.48). A group-based trajectory model was applied, which identified four distinct trajectories for both…
Gudino, Omar G.; Nadeem, Erum; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Lau, Anna S.
Urban Latino youth are exposed to high rates of violence, which increases risk for diverse forms of psychopathology. The current study aims to increase specificity in predicting responses by testing the hypothesis that youths' reinforcement sensitivity--behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral approach (BAS)--is associated with specific clinical…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer
Truant youths frequently experience family problems, emotional/psychological issues, substance misuse, and delinquency. They are likely engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate than the general youth population. Early intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. We present interim findings from an…
Bobo, Nichole; Schantz, Shirley; Kaufman, Francine R.; Kollipara, Sobha
Among children and youth who develop type 2 diabetes (T2DM) there are a number of genetic and environmental factors that lead to a combination of insulin resistance and relative-cell secretory failure of the pancreas. These factors include ethnicity (highest in American Indian youth), obesity, sedentary behavior, family history of T2DM, puberty,…
Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M.; Otwombe, Kennedy N.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E.
We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent–child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149
Carmona, Jasmin; Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Letcher, Amber
Research efforts to reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk behavior among street living youth have shown disappointing outcomes, with few studies reporting reduced risk behaviors. The current study tested the impact of an integrated HIV prevention intervention, and predictors of change, for youth (N=270) between the ages of 14 to 20 years receiving substance use treatment through a drop-in center. Condom use, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners and behaviors associated with an overall HIV risk index were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Findings suggest that HIV prevention integrated with substance use treatment is associated with increased condom use and reduced sex partners. However, the effects on condom use were short lived and dissipated by 12 months post-baseline. Higher treatment attendance and baseline substance use predicted increased condom use. Although no significant change was observed in the overall HIV risk index, increases in depressive symptoms were associated with increases in the index score, as well as more sexual partners. Future research should determine whether successful intervention requires reinforcement of risk reduction behaviors while youth remain homeless.
Schild, Cathleen; Reed, Emily A.; Hingston, Tessa; Dennis, Catlin H.; Wilson, Anna C.
Neighborhood features such as community socioeconomic status, recreational facilities, and parks have been correlated to the health outcomes of the residents living within those neighborhoods, especially with regard to health-related quality of life, body mass index, and physical activity. The interplay between one’s built environment and one’s perceptions may affect physical health, well-being, and pain experiences. In the current study, neighborhood characteristics and attitudes about physical activity were examined in a high-risk (youths with a parent with chronic pain) and low-risk (youths without a parent with chronic pain) adolescent sample. There were significant differences in neighborhood characteristics between the high-risk (n = 62) and low-risk (n = 77) samples (ages 11–15), with low-risk participants living in residences with more walkability, closer proximity to parks, and higher proportion of neighborhood residents having college degrees. Results indicate that neighborhood features (e.g., walkability and proximity to parks), as well as positive attitudes about physical activity were correlated with lower levels of pain and pain-related disability, and higher performance in physical functioning tests. These findings suggest that the built environment may contribute to pain outcomes in youth, above and beyond the influence of family history of pain. PMID:27869773
Lee, Dong-Yun; Kim, Seo-Hee; Woo, Sook Young; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok
Homosexual adolescents may face significant health disparities. We examined health-risk behaviors and health cognition related to homosexual behavior in a representative sample of adolescents.Data were obtained from 129,900 adolescents between 2008 and 2012 over 5 cycles of the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a national survey of students in grades 7 to 12. Various health-risk behaviors and aspects of health cognition were compared between homosexual and heterosexual adolescents and analyzed with multiple logistic regression models.Compared with heterosexual adolescents (n = 127,594), homosexual adolescents (n = 2306) were more likely to engage in various health-risk behaviors and to have poor health cognition. In multiple logistic regression analysis, not living with parents, alcohol experience (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.78 for males and 1.66; 1.33-2.07 for females), smoking experience (1.80; 1.54-2.10 for males and 3.15; 2.61-3.79 for females), and drug experience (3.65; 2.81-4.80 for males and 3.23; 2.35-4.46 for females) were associated with homosexual behavior. Homosexual adolescents were more likely to use adult internet content (2.82; 2.27-3.50 for males and 7.42; 4.19-13.15 for females), and to be depressed (1.21; 1.03-1.43 for males and 1.32; 1.06-1.64 for females). In addition, suicide ideation (1.51; 1.26-1.81 for males and 1.47; 1.16-1.86 for females) and attempts (1.67; 1.37-2.05 for males and 1.65; 1.34-2.03 for females) were significantly more prevalent among homosexual adolescents.Homosexual adolescents report disparities in various aspects of health-risk behavior and health cognition, including use of multiple substances, adult internet content and inappropriate weight loss methods, suicide ideation and attempts, and depressive mood. These factors should be addressed relevantly to develop specific interventions regarding sexual minorities.
Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha
We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016), and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030–1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women. PMID:28264442
Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha
We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016), and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030-1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.
Sohn, Sang-Hee; Joo, So-Hyun; Grable, John E.; Lee, Seonglim; Kim, Minjeung
The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between financial socialization agents, financial experiences, money attitudes, demographic characteristics, and the financial literacy of Korean adolescents. Using the 2006 Korean National Financial Literacy Test Survey for Adolescents (N = 1185), a series of regression analyses were…
Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60
Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…
Pachankis, John E.; Wolff, Joshua
Objectives. We examined whether the health risk behaviors of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are determined in part by the religious composition of the communities in which they live. Methods. Data were collected from 31 852 high school students, including 1413 LGB students, who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens survey in 2006 through 2008. Supportive religious climate was operationalized according to the proportion of individuals (of the total number of religious adherents) who adhere to a religion supporting homosexuality. Comprehensive data on religious climate were derived from 85 denominational groups in 34 Oregon counties. Results. Among LGB youths, living in a county with a religious climate that was supportive of homosexuality was associated with significantly fewer alcohol abuse symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40, 0.85) and fewer sexual partners (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.60, 0.99). The effect of religious climate on health behaviors was stronger among LGB than heterosexual youths. Results remained robust after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusions. The religious climate surrounding LGB youths may serve as a determinant of their health risk behaviors. PMID:22397347
Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E.
Objective The purpose of this study was to establish, using a quasi-experimental design, whether two family risk factors, parental psychological dysfunction and nonsupportive parenting, during preadolescence could longitudinally predict elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity 9 years later, and to determine whether participation in an efficacious family-centered prevention program could moderate these associations if they emerged. Methods Rural African American preadolescents (N = 476) were assigned randomly to the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program or to a control condition. When youths were 11 years of age (M = 11.2 years), primary caregivers provided data on their own depressive symptoms and self-esteem, and youths provided data on their receipt of nonsupportive parenting. When the youths were 20 years of age, indicators of SNS activity, the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, were assayed from their overnight urine voids. Results Parental psychological dysfunction and nonsupportive parenting forecast elevated catecholamine levels for youths in the control condition, but not for those in the SAAF condition. Conclusions The demonstration that a prevention program can induce reduction of catecholamine levels is important from both theoretical and public health perspectives, because it shows that the developmental progression from family risk factors to heightened sympathetic nervous system activity is not immutable. PMID:24588631
Yearwood, Edilma L; Crawford, Shanikqua; Kelly, Matthew; Moreno, Nina
The number of youth immigrating to the United States from Latin America and the Caribbean has consistently and dramatically been increasing. However, little research or epidemiological data that capture the mental health status of these youth from their countries of origin or once they enter the United States exist. As a result of migration and the acculturation process, these youth are at risk for exacerbation of preexisting mood disorders or development of mood or other psychiatric symptoms. Pre-migration social and environmental stressors affecting this population include poverty, exposure to violence, sexual or physical victimization, and substance abuse. Post-migration stressors include loss (of friends, family, country, and lifestyle), changes in social support, negative experiences in the United States, language difficulties, and academic challenges. This review of the existing literature will describe the contextual experiences of immigrant Latin American and Caribbean youth from their country of origin and as new immigrants in the United States, discuss their risk for mood disorders, highlight relevant assessment data that should be obtained, and identify treatment implications for advanced practice psychiatric-mental health nurses working with this population.
Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D
Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p < .05, ES = 0.15) related to less engagement in early health-risking sexual behaviors, possibly reflecting selective acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.
Gulley, Lauren D; Hankin, Benjamin L; Young, Jami F
Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7-16; 56 % female; N = 576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms.
Gulley, Lauren D.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.
Theories of temperament suggest that individual differences in affective reactivity (e.g., negative affectivity) may confer risk for internalizing psychopathology in youth and that self-regulatory aspects of temperament (e.g., effortful control) may protect against the deleterious effects of high negative affective reactivity. However, no study to date has examined how the relationship between temperament and youth internalizing psychopathology may be moderated by stress. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to test the interaction of temperament (e.g., negative affectivity and effortful control) and stressors as a predictor of youth (ages 7–16; 56% female; N = 576) depressive and anxious symptoms over a 3-month period. Findings show that at low levels of stress, high levels of effortful control protect against the development of depressive and anxious symptoms among youth with high levels of negative affectivity. However, at high levels of stress, this buffering effect is not observed. Gender and grade did not moderate this relationship. Overall, findings extend current understanding of how the interaction of individual psychosocial vulnerabilities and environmental factors may confer increased or decreased risk for depressive and anxious symptoms. PMID:25870113
Mwakagile, D; Mmari, E; Makwaya, C; Mbwana, J; Biberfeld, G; Mhalu, F; Sandstrom, E
Objectives: To investigate sex specific sexual behaviour in youths visiting a youth clinic for sexual and reproductive health in Dar es Saalam. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of youths between 10 and 24 years of age attending the youth health clinic in Dar es Saalam. The clinical investigation included testing for syphilis and HIV-1 antibodies Results: 1423 youths attended the clinic between September 1997 and August 1998. The study population comprised 213 (53.5%) males and 185 (46.5%) females. 97 (24.4%) were below 20 years. The mean age at coitarche was 16.5 and 17.0 years of age for males and females, respectively. The coitarche was involuntary in 15 females (8.6%). 49.5% males reported more than five lifetime partners compared with 14.1% for females (p<0.0001). Males reported recent partners to be 2.5 years younger, while females reported them to be 5.0 years older. No contraceptive use was reported by 29.7% of the males and 40.3% of females. 52.7% females had been pregnant and 26 (14.1%) reported induced abortions. Genital discharge was found in 69.5% and 73.9% and GUD in 36.6% and 27.1% of males and females respectively. 12 males (5.9%) and 43 females (24.6%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. 13.8% of the females with only one lifetime partner were HIV-1 infected compared with 40.9% with more than five partners (p = 0.028). Conclusions: Many youths in Dar es Salaam engage in sexual behaviours that put them at risk of unwanted pregnancies and STIs including HIV infection. Female youths were more likely to contract HIV infection than males. In African urban areas youth oriented clinics can have a pivotal role in HIV/STI prevention and control Key Words: youth; sexual behaviour; HIV PMID:11463924
Cohen, Joseph R.; Spiro, Carolyn N.; Young, Jami F.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Abela, John R. Z.
Independent lines of research illustrate the benefits of social support and the negative consequences of conflict and emotional neglect across family and peer contexts with regard to depression. However, few studies have simultaneously examined negative and positive interactions across relationships. We sought to address this gap in the literature by utilizing a person-centered approach to a) understand empirical, interpersonal profiles in youth and b) understand how these profiles confer risk for prospective depression. At baseline, 678 youth (380 females; 298 males) 3rd (N=208), 6th (N=245), and 9th graders (N=225) completed self-report measures for self-perceived negative/positive relationships across family and peers, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms in a laboratory setting. Next, youth were called every 3 months for 18 months and completed self-report depressive and anxiety symptom forms. Two-step cluster analyses suggested that children and adolescents fell into one of three interpersonal clusters, labeled: Support, Conflict, and Neglect. Our analyses supported a convergence model in which the quality of relationship was consistent across peers and family. Furthermore, mixed-level modeling (MLM) findings demonstrated that youth in the Conflict cluster were at increased risk for prospective depressive symptoms, while the Supported and Neglected profiles demonstrated similar symptom levels. Findings were unique to depressive symptoms and consistent across sex and age. Conflict seemed to uniquely confer risk for depression as findings concerning anxiety were not significant. These findings influence our interpersonal conceptualization of depression as well as clinical implications for how to assess and treat depression in youth. PMID:25907029
Vandoninck, Sofie; d'Haenens, Leen; De Cock, Rozane; Donoso, Veronica
This study investigates how teenagers use social networking sites (SNS) and other online communication applications, to what extent they are exposed to online contact risks related to the use of these online tools and how they cope with these risks. A written survey was administered among 815 Flemish adolescents aged 14-19. The study controls for…
Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine; Prado, Guillermo
The present study examined the relationship between Berry's acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry's four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population.
Farrelly, Colleen; Cordova, David; Huang, Shi; Estrada, Yannine
The present study examined the relationship between Berry’s acculturation typology and HIV risk behaviors and whether family functioning mediated any such effects. A total of 235 high risk Hispanic adolescents were categorized into one of Berry’s four acculturation typologies through the use of cut-off scores on measures of Hispanicism and Americanism. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors and the indirect effects of acculturation typology on HIV risk behaviors through family functioning. Acculturation typology was related to HIV risk behaviors. Family functioning partially mediated the effects of acculturation typology on the HIV risk behavior outcomes. These findings suggest that both Americanism and Hispanicism play an important role in the etiology of HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth and that both, along with family functioning, are important to consider when designing preventive interventions for this population. PMID:22532299
Kuhl, Danielle C; Warner, David F; Warner, Tara D
Youth violent victimization (YVV) is a risk factor for precocious exits from adolescence via early coresidential union formation. It remains unclear, however, whether these early unions 1) are associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, 2) interrupt victim continuity or victim-offender overlap through protective and prosocial bonds, or 3) are inconsequential. By using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,928; 18-34 years of age), we examine competing hypotheses for the effect of early union timing among victims of youth violence (n = 2,479)-differentiating across victimization only, perpetration only, and mutually combative relationships and considering variation by gender. The results from multinomial logistic regression models indicate that YVV increases the risk of IPV victimization in first unions, regardless of union timing; the null effect of timing indicates that delaying union formation would not reduce youth victims' increased risk of continued victimization. Gender-stratified analyses reveal that earlier unions can protect women against IPV perpetration, but this is partly the result of an increased risk of IPV victimization. The findings suggest that YVV has significant transformative consequences, leading to subsequent victimization by coresidential partners, and this association might be exacerbated among female victims who form early unions. We conclude by discussing directions for future research.
Kuhl, Danielle C.; Warner, David F.; Warner, Tara D.
Youth violent victimization (YVV) is a risk factor for precocious exits from adolescence via early coresidential union formation. It remains unclear, however, whether these early unions 1) are associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, 2) interrupt victim continuity or victim–offender overlap through protective and prosocial bonds, or 3) are inconsequential. By using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,928; 18–34 years of age), we examine competing hypotheses for the effect of early union timing among victims of youth violence (n = 2,479)—differentiating across victimization only, perpetration only, and mutually combative relationships and considering variation by gender. The results from multinomial logistic regression models indicate that YVV increases the risk of IPV victimization in first unions, regardless of union timing; the null effect of timing indicates that delaying union formation would not reduce youth victims’ increased risk of continued victimization. Gender-stratified analyses reveal that earlier unions can protect women against IPV perpetration, but this is partly the result of an increased risk of IPV victimization. The findings suggest that YVV has significant transformative consequences, leading to subsequent victimization by coresidential partners, and this association might be exacerbated among female victims who form early unions. We conclude by discussing directions for future research. PMID:26412867
Salimian, Parissa K; Chunara, Rumi; Weitzman, Elissa R
Adolescents are developmentally sensitive to pathways that influence alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. In the absence of guidance, their routine engagement with social media may add a further layer of risk. There are several potential mechanisms for social media use to influence AOD risk, including exposure to peer portrayals of AOD use, socially amplified advertising, misinformation, and predatory marketing against a backdrop of lax regulatory systems and privacy controls. Here the authors summarize the influences of the social media world and suggest how pediatricians in everyday practice can alert youth and their parents to these risks to foster conversation, awareness, and harm reduction.
Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan; Messias, Erick
Bullying is a common exposure in high school and more recently cyberbullying has become prevalent among teens. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of school bullying and cyberbullying and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 11.6% of students reported only school bullying, 6.2% only cyberbullying, and 10.2% both forms of bullying. We determined "feeling unsafe at school" was a significant risk factor for depression and all suicide questions. We also found that being a victim of school bullying, cyberbullying, or both, increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, and plan.
Demorest, Rebecca A; Koutures, Chris
The martial arts can provide children and adolescents with vigorous levels of physical exercise that can improve overall physical fitness. The various types of martial arts encompass noncontact basic forms and techniques that may have a lower relative risk of injury. Contact-based sparring with competitive training and bouts have a higher risk of injury. This clinical report describes important techniques and movement patterns in several types of martial arts and reviews frequently reported injuries encountered in each discipline, with focused discussions of higher risk activities. Some of these higher risk activities include blows to the head and choking or submission movements that may cause concussions or significant head injuries. The roles of rule changes, documented benefits of protective equipment, and changes in training recommendations in attempts to reduce injury are critically assessed. This information is intended to help pediatric health care providers counsel patients and families in encouraging safe participation in martial arts.
Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony
Preliminary studies with homeless youth have found surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest that youth's online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical 1st step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media, especially as it relates to who they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of social networking sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult-to-reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N = 1,046) were recruited through 3 drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether youth engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed.
Nugent, Nicole R.; Brown, Larry K.; Belzer, Marvin; Harper, Gary W.; Nachman, Sharon; Naar-King, Sylvie
Purpose To examine health risk behaviors in distressed youth living with HIV (YLH) with problem substance use. Methods Assessed distress, antiretroviral (ARV) adherence, and unprotected sex in a racially and geographically diverse sample of 122 YLH. Results A total of 87% of distressed YLH reported significantly more past-month ARV nonadherence (odds ratio [OR] = 7.15) and were more likely to have unprotected sex under the influence (OR = 5.14) than non-distressed youth. Conclusions Distressed YLH with problem substance youth may benefit from interventions to improve adherence and to decrease sexual risk, especially while under the influence of drugs. PMID:20133498
Shaughnessy, Lana; Everett, Sherry; Ranslow, Steve
This report presents findings from a spring 1997 survey of all middle-school students (grades 6-8) enrolled in schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by 6,990 students in 115 of the 122 BIA-funded middle schools; the overall response rate was 74 percent.…
Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cadenhead, Kristin; Cornblatt, Barbara; Woods, Scott W.; Addington, Jean; Walker, Elaine; Seidman, Larry J.; Perkins, Diana; Tsuang, Ming; McGlashan, Thomas; Heinssen, Robert
Context Early detection and prospective evaluation of individuals who will develop schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders are critical to efforts to isolate mechanisms underlying psychosis onset and to the testing of preventive interventions, but existing risk prediction approaches have achieved only modest predictive accuracy. Objectives To determine the risk of conversion to psychosis and to evaluate a set of prediction algorithms maximizing positive predictive power in a clinical high-risk sample. Design, Setting, and Participants Longitudinal study with a 2½-year follow-up of 291 prospectively identified treatment-seeking patients meeting Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes criteria. The patients were recruited and underwent evaluation across 8 clinical research centers as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study. Main Outcome Measure Time to conversion to a fully psychotic form of mental illness. Results The risk of conversion to psychosis was 35%, with a decelerating rate of transition during the 2½-year follow-up. Five features assessed at baseline contributed uniquely to the prediction of psychosis: a genetic risk for schizophrenia with recent deterioration in functioning, higher levels of unusual thought content, higher levels of suspicion/paranoia, greater social impairment, and a history of substance abuse. Prediction algorithms combining 2 or 3 of these variables resulted in dramatic increases in positive predictive power (ie, 68%–80%) compared with the prodromal criteria alone. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that prospective ascertainment of individuals at risk for psychosis is feasible, with a level of predictive accuracy comparable to that in other areas of preventive medicine. They provide a benchmark for the rate and shape of the psychosis risk function against which standardized preventive intervention programs can be compared. PMID:18180426
Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H.
In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person’s biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, se=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, se=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, se=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. PMID:26718449
Lee, Moon-Soo; Lim, Hong Euy; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Yang, Jaewon; Kim, Jeong Jin; Lee, Jae Eun; Cha, Jae Yeon; Lee, Hongjae
To examine the prevalence of the Type D construct using the Korean version of the Type D Personality-14 (DS14) on the Korean youth population and to identify relationships between the Type D construct and other mental health measures. Adolescent participants aged 13-18 years were recruited from 12 schools (7 middle schools and 5 high schools) in Ansan city, located in the southwest area of Gyeonggi-do province, Korea. A total of 4,899 students were assessed with the Korean version of the DS14, Beck depression inventory (BDI), Korean Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (K-ESI), Adolescent Mental health Problem behavior Questionnaire (AMPQ), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Korean version (AUDIT-K). We found significant differences in all the measured scales and subscale scores between two groups, those with Type D personality and those without (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). When comparing the distributions of the high risk participants identified by the results of BDI, K-ESI, AMPQ, and AUDIT-K between participants with either Type D or non-Type D personality, a significantly higher proportion of high risk participants were in the Type D personality group according to all measures (BDI: p < 0.001, K-ESI: p < 0.001, AMPQ: p < 0.001, AUDIT-K: p < 0.001). In conclusions, Type D adolescents experience various and more severe mental health problems. Type D personality was more related with internalizing symptoms in Korean adolescents. DS14 can be useful in a community mental health program designed for adolescents.
Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Krasileva, Kate E.; Marvin, Sarah; Zinberg, Jamie; Andaya, Angielette; Bachman, Peter; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.
Youths at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis typically exhibit significant social dysfunction. However, the specific social behaviors associated with psychosis risk have not been well characterized. We administer the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a measure of autistic traits that examines reciprocal social behavior, to the parents of 117 adolescents (61 CHR individuals, 20 age-matched adolescents with a psychotic disorder [AOP], and 36 healthy controls) participating in a longitudinal study of psychosis risk. AOP and CHR individuals have significantly elevated SRS scores relative to healthy controls, indicating more severe social deficits. Mean scores for AOP and CHR youths are typical of scores obtained in individuals with high functioning autism (Constantino & Gruber, 2005). SRS scores are significantly associated with concurrent real-world social functioning in both clinical groups. Finally, baseline SRS scores significantly predict social functioning at follow-up (an average of 7.2 months later) in CHR individuals, over and above baseline social functioning measures ( p < .009). These findings provide novel information regarding impairments in domains critical for adolescent social development, because CHR individuals and those with overt psychosis show marked deficits in reciprocal social behavior. Further, the SRS predicts subsequent real-world social functioning in CHR youth, suggesting that this measure may be useful for identifying targets of treatment in psychosocial interventions. PMID:24229557
Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A.; Latack, Jessica A.; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.
The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths’ experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth’s sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:25477706
Yates, Tuppett M; Grey, Izabela K
This investigation employed latent profile analysis to identify distinct patterns of multiform competence among 164 emancipated foster youth (Mage = 19.67 years, SD = 1.12; 64% female). Fit indices and conceptual interpretation converged on a four-profile solution. A subset of emancipated youth evidenced a maladaptive profile (16.5%; n = 27), which was characterized by low educational competence, low occupational competence, low civic engagement, problematic interpersonal relationships, low self-esteem, and high depressive symptoms. However, the largest group of emancipated youth exhibited a resilient profile in which they were faring reasonably well in all domains despite marked adversity (47%; n = 77). Two additional groups evidenced discordant adjustment patterns wherein they exhibited high levels of psychological competence despite behavioral difficulties (i.e., internally resilient; 30%; n = 49) or significant emotional difficulties despite manifest competence (i.e., externally resilient; 6.5%; n = 11). The obtained profiles were validated against independent measures of behavioral and socioemotional adjustment. Exploratory analyses examined etiological differences across profiles with respect to child welfare variables, such as age at entry into care, placement disruption, reason for placement, and severity of child maltreatment. The findings highlight the need for multidimensional models of risk and resilience and illustrate the importance of heretofore underappreciated heterogeneity in the adaptive outcomes of emancipated foster youth.
Penner, Erika K; Viljoen, Jodi L; Douglas, Kevin S; Roesch, Ronald
Theories of procedural justice suggest that individuals who experience respectful and fair legal decision-making procedures are more likely to believe in the legitimacy of the law and, in turn, are less likely to reoffend. However, few studies have examined these relationships in youth. To begin to fill this gap in the literature, in the current study, the authors studied 92 youth (67 male, 25 female) on probation regarding their perceptions of procedural justice and legitimacy, and then monitored their offending over the subsequent 6 months. Results indicated that perceptions of procedural justice predicted self-reported offending at 3 months but not at 6 months, and that youths' beliefs about the legitimacy of the law did not mediate this relationship. Furthermore, procedural justice continued to account for unique variance in self-reported offending over and above the predictive power of well-established risk factors for offending (i.e., peer delinquency, substance abuse, psychopathy, and age at first contact with the law). Theoretically, the current study provides evidence that models of procedural justice developed for adults are only partially replicated in a sample of youth; practically, this research suggests that by treating adolescents in a fair and just manner, justice professionals may be able to reduce the likelihood that adolescents will reoffend, at least in the short term.
Kronick, Robert F., Ed.
To reduce the number of school dropouts and youth homicides and to change poor social outcomes for children and youth at risk, it is necessary to consider socially imposed risk factors and reconceptualize ways of thinking about risk. Chapters in this collection discuss risk factors and show that schools can become supportive environments that…
Lee, J W; Park, D J; Kang, J H; Choi, S E; Yim, Y R; Kim, J E; Lee, K E; Wen, L; Kim, T J; Park, Y W; Sung, Y K; Lee, S S
Objectives The survival rate of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus has improved in the last few decades, but the rate of hospitalization and health care costs for these patients remain higher than in the general population. Thus, we evaluated the rate of hospitalization and associated risk factors in an inception cohort of Korean patients with lupus. Methods Of the 507 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus enrolled in the KORean lupus NETwork, we investigated an inception cohort consisting of 196 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus presenting within 6 months of diagnosis based on the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. We evaluated the causes of hospitalization, demographic characteristics, and laboratory and clinical data at the time of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosis of hospitalized patients and during a follow-up period. We calculated the hospitalization rate as the number of total hospitalizations divided by the disease duration, and defined "frequent hospitalization" as hospitalization more than once per year. Results Of the 196 patients, 117 (59.6%) were admitted to hospital a total of 257 times during the 8-year follow-up period. Moreover, 22 (11.2%) patients were hospitalized frequently. The most common reasons for hospitalization included disease flares, infection, and pregnancy-related morbidity. In the univariate regression analysis, malar rash, arthritis, pericarditis, renal involvement, fever, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index > 12, hemoglobin level < 10 mg/dl, albumin level < 3.5 mg/dl, and anti-Sjögren's syndrome A positivity were associated with frequent hospitalization. Finally, multivariate analysis showed that arthritis, pericarditis, and anti-Sjögren's syndrome A antibody positivity at the time of diagnosis were risk factors for frequent hospitalization. Conclusions Our results showed that frequent hospitalization occurred in 11.2% of hospitalized patients and
King, Dione Moultrie; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Blakey, Joan Marie; Mbizo, Justice
There are many health risk behaviors that may elevate the risk of adolescents engaging in teenage dating violence. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the health risk behaviors that are associated with a sample of female juvenile offenders to identify the extent to which those behaviors contribute to dating violence. The survey assessed respondents’ health risk behaviors prior to incarceration, their perceptions of quality of life, post-incarceration expectations, psychosocial factors and other social determinants. Results indicated youth exposure to dating violence, alcohol, drug and risky sexual behaviors in the year prior to incarceration. These findings demonstrate the need to address teen dating violence with at-risk adolescents in addition to risky behaviors. PMID:26408099
Lee, M. Linda
Presents examples of how using technology can help raise self-esteem and improve academic performance for students who are identified as being at-risk. Topics discussed include the use of computer labs, filmstrips, and videos to strengthen academic skills, and to deal with such social issues as drop-outs, alcoholism, pregnancy, and suicide. Two…
Berry, Judith L.
The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the behavioral effects of Yoshukai karate on four dependent variables: (1) student behavior as related to classroom discipline; (2) teacher attitudes toward at-risk students; (3) students' self-concepts; and (4) academic achievement as determined by scores on a standardized diagnostic test.…
Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.
This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…
Galotti, Kathleen M.; Kozberg, Steven F.; Gustafon, Mary
Typically, adolescence is a time when individuals begin to make consequential, life-framing decisions. However, much of the decision-making literature focuses on high-risk decisions, such as the use of drugs and alcohol, while much less is known about how adolescents make positive decisions, for example, regarding their educational or career…
Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick
We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.
Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn; Shields, Brian J.; Foutz, Lauren
Associations between multiple risks, emotion regulation skill, and basal cortisol levels were examined in a community sample of 69 African American youth (mean age = 11.30 years; 49% male) living in an urban setting. Multiple risks were assessed at Time 1 and consisted of 10 demographic and psychosocial risk factors including parent, child, and…
Oh, Chorong; Kim, Hak-Seon; No, Jae-Kyung
The frequency of dining out has rapidly increased; however, the independent associations between dining out, metabolic syndrome risk factors and nutritional status have not been well characterised. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between dining out, nutritional intakes and metabolic syndrome risk factors among Korean adults, using data from the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Frequency of dining out was significantly associated with intake of nutrients such as energy, water, protein, fat, carbohydrate, Ca, Na, vitamin A and carotene. Especially, the result revealed that Korean adults had insufficient Ca intake compared with the Korean reference intake (700 mg). As the frequency of dining out increased, so did energy intake. In addition, individuals who dined out seven or more times per week experienced a 64% higher likelihood of blood pressure abnormalities, an 88% higher likelihood of waist circumference abnormalities, and a 32% higher likelihood of low HDL-cholesterol levels than those who dined out less than once per week. BMI was not associated with the frequency of dining out. Our findings suggest that strategies to modify dining-out behaviour could reduce metabolic syndrome risk factors via improved nutrition.
Aichele, Stephen R.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; James, Susan; Grimm, Kevin
The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12–26 years of age) across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin), age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior. PMID:24927421
Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya; Valdez, Elizabeth; Gurrola, Maria; Marrs, Catherine
This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. They participated in 1 of 2 prevention interventions offered by a local non-governmental organization. The first intervention was tailored for adjudicated youth (N=49) who were either institutionalized or were returning to the community after involvement with the criminal justice system. The second intervention targeted youth (N=32) who were homeless/runaway and/or self-identified as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender (GLBT). T-tests and linear regression were used to determine the differences between youth reporting a history of violence by type of perpetrator, its relationship with HIV risk, and the role of ethnic identification and acculturation status as potential protective factors. Violence by a family member was the most common type of violence reported, with a history of violence positively related to HIV risk. Ethnic identification and linguistic acculturation had a protective effect against HIV risk among the homeless and GLBT youth but not among the adjudicated youth. PMID:20016770
Raffaelli, Marcela; Koller, Silvia H; Cerqueira-Santos, Elder; De Morais, Normanda Araújo
Exposure to developmental risks in three domains (community, economic, and family), and relations between risks and psychosocial well-being, were examined among 918 impoverished Brazilian youth aged 14-19 (M = 15.8 years, 51.9% female) recruited in low-income neighborhoods in one city in Southern Brazil. High levels of developmental risks were reported, with levels and types of risks varying by gender, age, and (to a lesser extent) race. Associations between levels of risks in the various domains and indicators of psychological (e.g., self-esteem, negative emotionality) and behavioral (e.g., substance use) adjustment differed for male and female respondents. Findings build on prior research investigating the development of young people in conditions of pervasive urban poverty and reinforce the value of international research in this endeavor.
Dariotis, Jacinda K; Johnson, Matthew W
Youth under 25 show substantial sexual and substance use risk behaviors. One factor associated with risk behaviors is delay discounting, the devaluation of delayed outcomes. This study determined if delay discounting for sexual outcomes is related to sexual risk and substance use among 18-24 year olds. Females (70) and males (56) completed the Sexual Discounting Task, which assessed their likelihood of having unprotected immediate sex versus waiting for sex with a condom, at various delays, with 4 hypothetical sexual partners selected from photographs: the person they most wanted to have sex with, least wanted to have sex with, judged most likely to have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), and judged least likely to have an STI. They also completed instruments assessing HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, substance use, risk attitudes, inhibition, impulsivity, and sensation-seeking. Condom use likelihood generally decreased with increasing delay. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex was greater for partners whom participants most (vs. least) wanted to have sex with and judged least (vs. most) likely to have an STI. Preference for immediate, unprotected sex in the "most want to have sex with" and "least likely to have an STI" conditions was related to greater lifetime risky sexual partners, lifetime number of unique substances used, disregard of social approval/danger, disinhibition, and sensation/excitement-seeking. Males showed greater likelihood of unprotected sex than females when condom use was undelayed, but delay similarly affected condom use between sexes. Delay discounting should be considered in strategies to minimize youth risk behavior.
Reed, Danielle; Reno, Jessica; Green, Dan
Research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between history of forced sex and poor behavioral health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe this relationship among high school students and to explore the impact of resiliency factors. Using data from the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey, we found that history of forced sex was associated with negative behavioral health outcomes for males and females, regardless of sexual orientation and disability status. Furthermore, the presence of a caring adult at home appeared to reduce the risk of substance abuse and suicidality among students with and without a history of forced sex.
Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls should be empowered how to
Dévieux, Jessy G; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Bryant, Vaughn E; Malow, Robert M
There is a dire need for interventions that will address the multiple factors--poverty, substance use, early sexual debut, and violence--that influence Haitian youth's engagement in risky behaviors. The deteriorating socioeconomic and political state of the country has had a deleterious effect on the sociocultural milieu and on the boundaries that have heretofore kept risky behaviors in check. Historically, the lakou system, a community-based approach that supports the family unit, has disintegrated, leading to the disruption of traditional parenting patterns. The unstable economic system has also led to the increasing use of children from poor families, who through the restavek system, are sent to work as servants in other households. The breakdown of traditional systems, coupled with the increasing economic and political instability, has had a significant effect on Haitian adolescents. Among boys, increased levels of substance use have been associated with multiple sex partnerships and very early sexual debut. Among girls, extremely high rates of sexual abuse and forced sex have led to relatively high levels of HIV. While the majority of them have been exposed to behavior change messages, behavior change itself has lagged because many adolescents do not accurately perceive their risk exposure. This review explores the risks of HIV transmission among Haitian youth, with a focus on vulnerability factors, including substance use, culture, and the socioeconomic context, and provides recommendations for intervention. An ecosystemic approach, designed specifically for Haitian youth and that takes environmental context and culture into account, is needed.
Lee, Kyu-Won; Park, Byoung-Jin; Kang, Hee-Taik; Lee, Yong-Jae
Alcohol consumption has been known to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS). Although some studies have revealed that mild to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of MS, most of these studies have focused the effect of alcohol consumption amount on MS. We examined the association between alcohol-drinking patterns and MS by using the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire to study 1,768 alcohol drinkers (847 men, 921 women) aged 20-75 years from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007. When compared with the subjects in the reference group (AUDIT score ≤ 7), the odds ratios (ORs, 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for MS of subjects in the highest group (AUDIT score ≥ 16) were 3.92 (2.40-6.22) in men and 2.27 (0.87-5.89) in women after adjusting for confounding variables. Among the items of the AUDIT score, several alcohol-drinking patterns, including "drinking frequency," "usual drinking quantity," "frequency of high-risk drinking," "frequency of inability to stop drinking," "frequency of feeling guilty after drinking," and "frequency of inability to remember after drinking" were strongly associated with the prevalence of MS in men. In women, there were significant relationships between MS and "usual drinking quantity," "frequency of feeling guilty after drinking," and "frequency of inability to stop drinking." In summary, AUDIT score was strongly associated with MS in Korean adults, particularly in men. Accordingly, in addition to the amount of daily alcohol consumption, alcohol-drinking patterns should be addressed in the prevention and treatment of MS.
Biddle, Virginia Sue; Sekula, L. Kathleen; Zoucha, Rick; Puskar, Kathryn R.
Introduction Nurse practitioners have the power to detect suicide risk and prevent suicide, a problem plaguing rural areas of the United States. Suicide risk assessment can be completed using the HEADSS (Home, Education, Activities, Drug use and abuse, Sexual behavior, and Suicidality and depression) interview instrument. The purpose of this study was to determine if HEADSS is appropriate for guiding suicide risk assessment of rural adolescents. Method High school students in Southwestern Pennsylvania completed qualitative questions from the Child Behavior Checklist and Coping Response Inventory as part of the Intervention to Promote Mental Health in Rural Youth. Qualitative content analysis was performed. Results Prominent themes identified by participants included academic performance, relationships, dislikes about school, friends, death, mental health, and the future. Several minor themes concerned safety. Most known risk factors for suicide were concerns of participants. Discussion The expansion of HEADSS to include death and safety should be considered. The modified version—HEADDSSS— can be used to guide suicide risk assessment of youth in rural Pennsylvania, ensuring both thoroughness of assessment and safety. PMID:20417887
Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Carnethon, Mercedes; Arredondo, Elva; Delamater, Alan M.; Perreira, Krista; Van Horn, Linda; Himes, John H.; Eckfeldt, John H.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Santisteban, Daniel A.; Isasi, Carmen R.
Purpose This article describes the conceptual model developed for the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latino Youth, a multisite epidemiologic study of obesity and cardiometabolic risk among U.S. Hispanic/Latino children. Methods Public health, psychology, and sociology research were examined for relevant theories and paradigms. This research, in turn, led us to consider several study design features to best represent both risk and protective factors from multiple levels of influence, as well as the identification of culturally relevant scales to capture identified constructs. Results The Socio-Ecological Framework, Social Cognitive Theory, family systems theory, and acculturation research informed the specification of our conceptual model. Data are being collected from both children and parents in the household to examine the bidirectional influence of children and their parents, including the potential contribution of intergenerational differences in acculturation as a risk factor. Children and parents are reporting on individual, interpersonal, and perceived organizational and community influences on children's risk for obesity consistent with Socio-Ecological Framework. Conclusions Much research has been conducted on obesity, yet conceptual models examining risk and protective factors lack specificity in several areas. Study of Latino Youth is designed to fill a gap in this research and inform future efforts. PMID:24246265
Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
We examined the direct contribution of parent and peer risk and promotive factors on youth condom use trajectories, in addition to the indirect influence of these factors via youth's substance use over four years in a sample of urban, African American youth (N = 679; 51% female; M = 14.86 years; SD = 0.65). Growth curve modeling was used to…
Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.
More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233
Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B
More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern US city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual-risk behaviour.
Brooks, Alison; Loud, Keith J; Brenner, Joel S; Demorest, Rebecca A; Halstead, Mark E; Kelly, Amanda K Weiss; Koutures, Chris G; LaBella, Cynthia R; LaBotz, Michele; Martin, Stephanie S; Moffatt, Kody
Ice hockey is an increasingly popular sport that allows intentional collision in the form of body checking for males but not for females. There is a two- to threefold increased risk of all injury, severe injury, and concussion related to body checking at all levels of boys' youth ice hockey. The American Academy of Pediatrics reinforces the importance of stringent enforcement of rules to protect player safety as well as educational interventions to decrease unsafe tactics. To promote ice hockey as a lifelong recreational pursuit for boys, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the expansion of nonchecking programs and the restriction of body checking to elite levels of boys' youth ice hockey, starting no earlier than 15 years of age.
Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Hee Soon; Chu, Sang-Hui; Jekal, Yoon-Suk; Lee, Ja-Yin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of predominant breast-feeding practices based on the criteria given by the World Health Organization and to identify the association between predominant breast-feeding during infancy and the development of obesity during preschool in South Korean children. This study employed a nonexperimental, retrospective study design. Five hundred and twenty-eight preschool children aged three to six years and their mothers were recruited. Twenty-seven percent of the participants engaged in predominant breast-feeding; on average they fed predominantly breast milk for the first 6.7 months. After adjusting for child and maternal characteristics, children who had mixed feeding were 1.68 times more likely to become obese than those who were predominantly breast-fed. In this study, it was identified that predominant breast-feeding has a positive effect on maintaining healthy body weight in Korean preschoolers. While encouraging predominant breast-feeding is only a part of the solution, it is an effective and important first step toward preventing preschool obesity.
Liu, Lenna L.; Kahn, Henry S.; Pettitt, David J.; Fino, Nora F.; Morgan, Tim; Maahs, David M.; Crimmins, Nancy A.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Liese, Angela D.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Bell, Ronny A.
Background Waist circumference (WC) is commonly measured by either the World Health Organization (WHO) or National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) protocol. Objective Compare the associations of WHO vs. NHANES WC-to-height ratio (WHtR) protocols with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in a sample of youth with diabetes. Methods For youth (10–19 years old with type 1 [N=3082] or type 2 [N=533] diabetes) in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, measurements were obtained of WC (by two protocols), weight, height, fasting lipids (total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, Non-HDL cholesterol) and blood pressures. Associations of CMRFs with WHO and NHANES WHtR were modeled stratified by body mass index (BMI) percentiles for age/sex: lower BMI (<85th BMI percentile; N=2071) vs. higher BMI (≥85th percentile; N=1594). Results Among lower-BMI participants, both NHANES and WHO WHtR were associated (p<0.005) with all CMRFs except blood pressure. Among higher-BMI participants, both NHANES and WHO WHtR were associated (p<0.05) with all CMRFs. WHO WHtR was more strongly associated (p<0.05) than NHANES WHtR with triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure in lower-BMI participants. Among high-BMI participants, WHO WHtR was more strongly associated (p<0.05) than NHANES WHtR with triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion Among youth with diabetes, WHtR calculated from either WC protocol captures cardiometabolic risk. The WHO WC protocol may be preferable to NHANES WC. PMID:28232855
Ankunda, Racheal; Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Kiwanuka, Noah
Introduction As young people living with HIV grow their sexual behaviour and it's implication on HIV prevention is of concern. This study describes the sexual risk related-behaviours and factors associated with abstinence among Youth Living with HIV in central Uganda. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 338 unmarried youth between 15 and 24 years accessing HIV care in central Uganda. Data was collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaires. Adjusted prevalence proportion ratios (adj. PPRs) of factors associated with sexual abstinence for at least six months were determined by multivariable log-binomial regression. Results Overall, 79% (269/338) of respondents were abstaining from sexual intercourse for atleast six months, although, 45% (150/338) had ever been sexually active. Of the 283 respondents who desired to get married in future, 40% preferred negative marriage partners. Only 31% (39/126) of respondents in boy/girl relationships had disclosed their HIV status to their partners. Among those currently sexually active (n = 69), 57% did not consistently use condoms and 30% had more than one sexual partner in the past six months. The adj.PRR of abstinence was higher among youth between 15 and 19 years compared to those between 20 and 24 years (adj. PPR = 1.26, 95% CI; 1.08-1.46). The prevalence of abstinence was significantly lower among respondent who consumed alcohol (adj. PPR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.16-0.61). Conclusion Tailored interventions promoting disclosure, consistent condoms use and discouraging alcohol consumption among sero-positive youth could reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:27642390
Alderete, TL; Toledo-Corral, CM; Goran, MI
The global pandemic of childhood obesity has led to increased risk for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Studies have shown decreased insulin sensitivity and/or secretion with increasing adiposity and consistently observed greater risk for T2DM in obese, non-Caucasian youth. In the current review we describe recent advances in understanding how obesity and metabolic status in children and adolescents confers various risk profiles for T2DM among Latinos, African-Americans, Caucasians, Asians and Native Americans. These possible determinants include ectopic fat distribution, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis, and elevated plasma levels of non-esterified free fatty acids. Future work should aim to elucidate the ethnic-specific pathophysiology of T2DM in order to develop and implement appropriate prevention and treatment strategies based on different ethnic profiles of diabetes risk. PMID:24445905
Zarrett, Nicole; Bell, Bethany A
This study examined the longitudinal effects of out-of-school time (OST) activities on youth weight-status through mid-to-late adolescence. First, using pattern-centered methods, we identified the prominent ways in which youth allocate their OST across 12 common active and sedentary activities available to them. Second, through multi-level modeling procedures we examined the relation of OST activity patterns to: 1) BMI-status during the 11th grade, and; 2) within-person change in BMI-status across the adolescent years. After accounting for race, gender, SES, pubertal-status, and gaming, youth who participated in a sports-dominant activity pattern for 2 or more years had significantly lower 11th grade odds of being at-risk for overweight/obesity compared to youth in all other activity patterns. Youth of all other activity patterns had similar odds of being at-risk as Low-Activity youth and each other. Understanding the relations of OST to youth healthy weight is a critical first step in developing healthy OST settings.
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Karas, Lora; Gulledge, Laura; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Schmeidler, James; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven
Baseline data collected in two brief intervention projects (BI-Court and Truancy Project) were used to assess similarities and differences in subgroups of at-risk youth. Classifications of these subgroups were based on their psychosocial characteristics (e.g., substance use). Multi-group latent class analysis (LCA) identified two BI-Court subgroups of youth, and three Truant subgroups. These classes can be viewed as differing along two dimensions, substance use involvement and emotional/behavioral issues. Equality tests of means across the latent classes for BI-Court and Truancy Project youths found significant differences that were consistent with their problem group classification. These findings highlight the importance of quality assessments and allocating appropriate services based on problem profiles of at-risk youth. PMID:21966055
Parental abuse is supposedly objectionable because it is the instigation of the child's delinquency. This instigation is likely to stem from the impairment of parental control arising from parental abuse, with respect to social control theory. For the substantiation of this likelihood, the present study surveyed 229 users of youth social work…
Pasch, Keryn E; Velazquez, Cayley E; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G; Lytle, Leslie A
Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study explores the bi-directional longitudinal relationships between substance use and body composition. Participants (N = 704; 50.7% female) were mostly white (86.4%) with a baseline mean age of 14.7 years. Objectively measured body composition was used to calculate body mass index z-scores (BMI z-score) and percent body fat. Cross-lagged structural equation models, accounting for clustering at the school level, were run to determine the longitudinal association between body composition and self-reported substance use (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana), adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, pubertal status, and weight satisfaction. Baseline alcohol use predicted decreased BMI z-score at follow-up and a similar association with percent body fat approached significance. Baseline cigarette use predicted increased percent body fat. No longitudinal associations were seen between baseline body composition and future substance use. Our results suggest that substance use contributes to subsequent body composition; however, body composition does not contribute to subsequent substance use. Continued research that explores these relationships longitudinally is greatly needed.
Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Bandiera, Frank; Schwartz, Seth J.; de la Vega, Pura; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda
Ecodevelopmental theory is a theoretical framework used to explain the interplay among risk and protective processes associated with HIV risk behaviors among adolescents. Although ecodevelopmentally based interventions have been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth, this theory has not yet been directly empirically tested through a basic research study in this population. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to empirically evaluate an ecodevelopmentally based model using structural equation modeling, with substance use and early sex initiation as the two outcomes of the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships. The sample consisted of 586 Hispanic youth (M age = 13.6; SD = 0.75) and their primary caregivers living in Miami, Florida. Adolescent, parent, and teacher reports were used. The results provided strong support for the theoretical model. More specifically, the parent–adolescent acculturation gap is indirectly related both to early sex initiation and to adolescent substance use through family functioning, academic functioning, perceived peer sexual behavior, and perceived peer substance use. Additionally, parent’s U.S. orientation is associated with adolescent substance use and adolescent sex initiation through social support for parents, parental stressors, family functioning, academic functioning, and perceived peer sexual behavior and substance use. These findings suggest that HIV risk behaviors may best be understood as associated with multiple and interrelated ecological determinants. PMID:20130302
Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; de Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S
Read, PJ, Oliver, JL, de Ste Croix, MBA, Myer, GD, and Lloyd, RS. Reliability of the tuck jump injury risk screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1510-1516, 2016-Altered neuromuscular control has been suggested as a mechanism for injury in soccer players. Ligamentous injuries most often occur during dynamic movements, such as decelerations from jump-landing maneuvers where high-risk movement patterns are present. The assessment of kinematic variables during jump-landing tasks as part of a preparticipation screen is useful in the identification of injury risk. An example of a field-based screening tool is the repeated tuck jump assessment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the within-subject variation of the tuck jump screening assessment in elite male youth soccer players. Twenty-five pre-peak height velocity (PHV) and 25 post-PHV elite male youth soccer players from the academy of a professional English soccer club completed the assessment. A test-retest design was used to explore the within-subject intersession reliability. Technique was graded retrospectively against the 10-point criteria set out in the screening protocol using two-dimensional video cameras. The typical error range reported for tuck jump total score (0.90-1.01 in pre-PHV and post-PHV players respectively) was considered acceptable. When each criteria was analyzed individually, kappa coefficient determined that knee valgus was the only criterion to reach substantial agreement across the two test sessions for both groups. The results of this study suggest that although tuck jump total score may be reliably assessed in elite male youth soccer players, caution should be applied in solely interpreting the composite score due to the high within-subject variation in a number of the individual criteria. Knee valgus may be reliably used to screen elite youth male soccer players for this plyometric technique error and for test-retest comparison.
Santelli, John S.; Edelstein, Zoe R.; Mathur, Sanyukta; Wei, Ying; Zhang, Wenfei; Orr, Mark G.; Higgins, Jenny A.; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David M.
Background Prevalence of HIV infection is considerable among youth, although data on risk factors for new (incident) infections is limited. We examined incidence of HIV infection and risk and protective factors among youth in rural Uganda, including the role of gender and social transitions. Methods Participants were sexually experienced youth (15–24 years-old) enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study,1999–2008 (n=6741). Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to estimate incident rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incident HIV infection. Results HIV incidence was greater among young women than young men (14.1 vs. 8.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively); this gender disparity was greater among teens (14.9 vs. 3.6). Beyond behavioral (multiple partners and concurrency) and biological factors (sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms), social transitions such as marriage and staying in school influenced HIV risk. In multivariate analyses among women, HIV incidence was associated with living in a trading village [adjusted IRR (aIRR) = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.11], being a student (aIRR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.72), current marriage (aIRR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.81), former marriage (aIRR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.96), having multiple partners, and sexually transmitted infection symptoms. Among men, new infections were associated with former marriage (aIRR = 5.57; 95% CI: 2.51 to 12.36), genital ulceration (aIRR = 3.56; 95% CI: 1.97 to 6.41), and alcohol use (aIRR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.77). Conclusions During the third decade of the HIV epidemic in Uganda, HIV incidence remains considerable among youth, with young women particularly at risk. The risk for new infections was strongly shaped by social transitions such as leaving school, entrance into marriage, and marital dissolution; the impact of marriage was different for young men than women. PMID:23535293
Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun Young; Cho, Sung-Il; Lee, Seung Wook
Background and Objectives The objective of this study was to analyze and compare risk factors for peripheral artery disease (PAD) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects and Methods The sample included 7936 Korean patients aged ≥20 years who were hospitalized from 1994 to 2004. Of the 7936 subjects, PAD (n=415), CAD (n=3686), and normal controls (Control) (n=3835) were examined at the Health Promotion Center, Samsung Medical Center. Results The mean age (years) of PAD subjects was 64.4 (±9.3), while CAD subjects was 61.2 (±9.9), and Control subjects was 59.9 (±9.1) (p<0.01). The proportion of males was 90.6% for PAD, 71.4% for CAD, and 75.5% for Control subjects (p<0.01). The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease were significantly higher in subjects with PAD or CAD compared to those in Control. However, the ORs for high density lipoprotein, being overweight, and being obese were significantly lower in PAD subjects compared to those in Control. Conclusion We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD. PMID:23755078
Cusick, Gretchen Ruth; Havlicek, Judy R; Courtney, Mark E
This study examines a sample of foster youth at the onset of the transition to adulthood and explores how social bonds are related to the risk of arrest during adulthood. Drawing from official arrest records, event history models are used to examine the time to arrest. Because individuals may be at risk for different types of crime, competing risk regression models are used to distinguish among arrests for drug-related, nonviolent, or violent crimes. Between the ages of 17-18 and 24, 46% of former foster youth experience an arrest. Arrests were evenly distributed across drug, nonviolent, and violent crimes columns. Although findings fail to support the significance of social bonds to interpersonal domains, bonds to employment and education are associated with a lower risk for arrest. Child welfare policy and practice implications for building connections and protections around foster youth are discussed.
Cusick, Gretchen Ruth; Havlicek, Judy R.; Courtney, Mark E.
This study examines a sample of foster youth at the onset of the transition to adulthood and explores how social bonds are related to the risk of arrest during adulthood. Drawing from official arrest records, event history models are used to examine the time to arrest. Because individuals may be at risk for different types of crime, competing risk regression models are used to distinguish among arrests for drug-related, nonviolent, or violent crimes. Between the ages of 17–18 and 24, 46% of former foster youth experience an arrest. Arrests were evenly distributed across drug, nonviolent, and violent crimes columns. Although findings fail to support the significance of social bonds to interpersonal domains, bonds to employment and education are associated with a lower risk for arrest. Child welfare policy and practice implications for building connections and protections around foster youth are discussed. PMID:22239390
Kim, Bongjeong; Lee, Chung Yul; Kim, Hee Soon; Ko, Il Sun; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Gwang Suk
The purpose of this study was to examine ecological correlates of obesity among Korean children. Cross-sectional data, including measurements of height and weight, were collected by questionnaire from 1,644 children in the fifth and sixth grades. A multiple logistic regression model incorporating individual- and school-level variables determined factors of childhood obesity. Intrapersonal factors associated with obesity included gender, computer use, and dissatisfaction with body image; significant interpersonal factors included low level of the father's education and encouragement to engage in physical activity. School-level factors that were significant predictors included location in Gyeonggi province, having two or more school exercise facilities, physical-education classes of 2 hr per week, higher fat content of school lunch, and higher number of classes in the school. The findings indicate that multifaceted, multilevel prevention strategies to manage and prevent childhood obesity should include behavioral modification, familial support, and improvement of school environments.
Goosby, Bridget J.; Malone, Sarah; Richardson, Elizabeth; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Williams, Deadric
Objectives Our study examines the relationship between perceived discrimination and levels of C-reactive Protein and blood pressure in low-income youth ages 10–15 years old. Methods Data were collected from 10–15 year old focal children and their mothers. Face-to-face interviews were implemented to collect data on stressors including experiences of everyday discrimination from youth. High sensitivity CRP in dried blood spot samples and diastolic and systolic blood pressure were also collected at the time of the interview. Results Perceived discrimination among youth was significantly associated with higher levels of CRP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. CRP, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure remained significant after controlling for age-adjusted BMI, waist circumference, and other factors. Conclusion Discrimination is a salient risk factor for inflammation and cardiovascular health. Early life course inflammation and cardiovascular reactivity are important candidate pathways through which the repeated exposure to discrimination for minority group members contributes to racial and economic health inequities in adulthood. PMID:25753652
Stanton, B F; Fitzgerald, A M; Li, X; Shipena, H; Ricardo, I B; Galbraith, J S; Terreri, N; Strijdom, J; Hangula-Ndlovu, V; Kahihuata, J
Considerable progress has been made in the United States and Europe regarding HIV risk prevention efforts targeting adolescents. However, in Africa less progress has been made to date. This article address three questions: Can risk assessment questionnaires developed in Western countries be modified so as to be appropriate for use in African countries? Are social cognitive models appropriate in African settings? Does covariation among risk behaviors occur among youth residing in African countries? The data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted among 922 youth ages 12 to 18 years living in school-based hostels in Namibia. Data were collected using a theory-based risk assessment questionnaire. One third of the youth were sexually experienced, three quarters of whom had engaged in sexual intercourse in the previous 6 months. Over one third of these youth had had more that one sexual partner in the previous 6 months and over one half had not used a condom at last episode of intercourse. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire and the relationship between perceptions and behaviors provide evidence that theory-based questionnaires developed in Western countries can be modified for use in different cultural settings. The data also provide strong evidence of covariation between risk behaviors among Namibian youth.
Scarborough, Megan; Kulkarni, Shanti; Lewis, Carol M.; Palen, Lori-Ann; Wade, Emily; Pierce, Amy
This study highlights findings from focus groups on parent-child connectedness conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of high-risk youth in the southern United States. The primary aim of the study was to extend research on parent-child connectedness, a broad protective factor for adolescent risk behavior. In addition to describing…
Bauer, Anne M.; And Others
Consists of two articles on suicide among young people. Bauer and Shea outline what teachers should know about children at risk for suicide, including symptoms and risk factors. Prevention recommendations are provided. Rickgarn presents statistics on youth suicide, including racial patterns and the use of violent means. (CH)
Foti, Kathryn; Balaji, Alexandra; Shanklin, Shari
Background: To monitor priority health risk behaviors and school health policies and practices, respectively, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and the School Health Profiles (Profiles). CDC is often asked about the use and application of these survey data to improve…
Peterson, Christina Hamme; Buser, Trevor J.; Westburg, Nancy G.
A study of protective factors against substance use and sexual risk taking was conducted among 610 high-poverty urban youth. Higher levels of family attachment, social support, involvement, and self-esteem were associated with lower levels of risk behaviors. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)
Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Gil, Andres G.
This descriptive study employed a within-groups analytic approach to examine patterns of sexual risk behavior and co-occurring general and race/ethnicity-specific risk and protective factors in a community sample of African-American youth (n = 436). Cluster analysis was used to classify young adults by levels of self-reported past year sexual risk…
Miklowitz, David J.; Schneck, Christopher D.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Taylor, Dawn O.; George, Elizabeth L.; Cosgrove, Victoria E.; Howe, Meghan E.; Dickinson, L. Miriam; Garber, Judy; Chang, Kiki D.
Objective: Depression and brief periods of (hypo)mania are linked to an increased risk of progression to bipolar I or II disorder (BD) in children of bipolar parents. This randomized trial examined the effects of a 4-month family-focused therapy (FFT) program on the 1-year course of mood symptoms in youth at high familial risk for BD, and explored…
Okamoto, Scott K.; Mayeda, David T.; Ushiroda, Mari; Rehuher, Davis; Lauilefue, Tui; Ongalibang, Ophelia
This exploratory, qualitative study examined the risk and protective factors of Micronesian middle and high school students in Hawai’i. Forty one Micronesian youth participated in 9 focus groups that explored their experiences within their schools, families, and communities. The findings describe youths’ experiences of ecological stress beginning with their migration to Hawai’i, and the potential outcomes of this stress (e.g., fighting, gangs, and drug use). Cultural buffers, such as traditional practices and culturally specific prevention programs, were described as aspects that prevented adverse outcomes. Implications for prevention practice are discussed. PMID:20559460
Kim, Kyoungjoo; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Yuri; Lee, Yoon Su; Kwon, Hyouk-Soo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Cho, You Sook; Jang, An-Soo; Park, Jung-Won; Nahm, Dong-Ho; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Sang-Heon; Cho, Young-Joo; Choi, Byoung Whui; Moon, Hee-Bom; Kim, Tae-Bum
Background Though insurance claims data are useful for researching asthma, they have important limitations, such as a diagnostic inaccuracy and a lack of clinical information. To overcome these drawbacks, we used the novel method by merging the clinical data from our asthma cohort with the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. Methods and Results Longitudinal analysis of asthma-related healthcare use from the NHI claims database, merged with data of 736 patients registered in a Korean asthma cohort, was conducted for three consecutive years from registration of the cohort. Asthma-related asthma healthcare referred to outpatient and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and the use of systemic corticosteroids. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for asthma-related healthcare. Over three years after enrollment, many patients changed from tertiary to primary/secondary hospitals with a lack of maintenance of inhaled corticosteroid-based controllers. An independent risk factor for emergency visits was a previous history of asthma exacerbation. In hospitalizations, old age and Asthma Control Test (ACT) score variability were independent risk factors. An independent risk factor for per person cumulative duration of systemic corticosteroids was the FEV1 (Forced expiratory volume in one second)%. The use of systemic corticosteroids was independently associated with being female, the FEV1%, and ACT score variability. Conclusion We found that old age, being female, long-standing asthma, a low FEV1%, asthma brittleness, asthma drug compliance, and a history of asthma exacerbation were independent risk factors for increased asthma-related healthcare use in Korea. PMID:25397972
Wallins, Amy; Toledo, Lauren; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Gillespie, Scott; Leong, Traci; Graves, Chanda; Chakraborty, Rana
Abstract Youth carry the highest incidence of HIV infection in the United States. Understanding adolescent and young adult (AYA) perspectives on HIV transmission risk is important for targeted HIV prevention. We conducted a mixed methods study with HIV-infected and uninfected youth, ages 18–24 years, from Atlanta, GA. We provided self-administered surveys to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected AYAs to identify risk factors for HIV acquisition. By means of computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined transcribed focus group responses on HIV education, contributors to HIV transmission, and pre-sex HIV status disclosure. The 68 participants had the following characteristics: mean age 21.5 years (standard deviation: 1.8 years), 85% male, 90% black, 68% HIV-infected. HIV risk behaviors included the perception of condomless sex (Likert scale mean: 8.0) and transactional sex (88% of participants); no differences were noted by HIV status. Qualitative analyses revealed two main themes: (1) HIV risk factors among AYAs, and (2) barriers to discussing HIV status before sex. Participants felt the use of social media, need for immediate gratification, and lack of concern about HIV disease were risk factors for AYAs. Discussing HIV status with sex partners was uncommon. Key reasons included: fear of rejection, lack of confidentiality, discussion was unnecessary in temporary relationships, and disclosure negatively affecting the mood. HIV prevention strategies for AYAs should include improving condom use frequency and HIV disclosure skills, responsible utilization of social media, and education addressing HIV prevention including the risks of transactional sex. PMID:26588663
Hall, William J
Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer (LGBQ) youth suffer from depression. Identifying modifiable risk and protective factors for depression can inform the development of psychosocial interventions. The aim of this review is to evaluate the methodological characteristics and summarize the substantive findings of studies examining psychosocial risk and protective factors for depression among LGBQ youth. Eight bibliographic databases were searched, and 35 studies that met all inclusion criteria were included for review. Results show that prominent risk factors for depression include internalized LGBQ-related oppression, stress from hiding and managing a socially stigmatized identity, maladaptive coping, parental rejection, abuse and other traumatic events, negative interpersonal interactions, negative religious experiences, school bullying victimization, and violence victimization in community settings. Prominent protective factors include a positive LGBQ identity, self-esteem, social support from friends, and family support. LGBQ youth may face an array of threats to their mental health originating from multiple socioecological levels.
Kim, Haeyoung; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Choi, Doo Ho; Jung, Gee Hue; Shin, Inkyung; Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Sung-Won; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Gil, Won Ho; Kim, Seok Won
The purpose of the present study was to analyze genetic variations in the NBS1 gene and to evaluate the contribution of heterozygous NBS1 mutation to the risk of breast cancer among Korean patients with high-risk breast cancer negative for BRCA1/2 mutation. We screened 235 non-BRCA1/2 Korean patients with high-risk breast cancer for NBS1 mutations. The entire NBS1 gene was sequenced using fluorescent conformation-sensitive capillary electrophoresis. In silico analysis of the NBS1 variants was performed using PolyPhen-2 and SIFT. The frequency of variants predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis was compared between breast cancer patients and controls. Twenty-eight sequence variants in the NBS1 gene were identified: 9 exonic variants, including 5 missense mutations (p.R169C, p.I171V, p.E185Q, p.E564K, and p.F603L) and 4 silent mutations, and 19 variants within introns. Among the five missense variants, p.I171V (c.511A > G) was the only variant predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis. Heterozygosity for p.I171V was found in 4/235 patients with breast cancer and 3/281 individuals in the control group. The frequency of p.I171V was not significantly different between the patient and control groups (1.7 vs. 1.06%, p = 0.7). Heterozygosity of p.I171V in the NBS1 gene was found in a small proportion of Korean patients with high-risk breast cancer. The contribution of the p.I171V variant to the development of breast cancer among Korean patients was not significant.
Montanaro, Erika; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Bryan, Angela D.
Background Low retention rates are a problem for longitudinal studies involving adolescents, and this is particularly true for justice-involved youth. Methods This study evaluates: (1) strategies used to retain high-risk adolescents participating in a longitudinal research project, (2) the extent to which retention efforts were different in a justice-involved versus a non-justice involved (school-based) sample, and (3) differential characteristics of justice-involved versus school-based adolescents that might explain differences in retention difficulty. Results Compared with the school-based youth, justice-involved youth required significantly more phone calls to be successfully reached. Additionally, baseline substance use (alcohol and marijuana use frequency) was higher in the justice-involved sample and significantly related to retention difficulty. Conclusions High retention rates for justice-involved and substance-using youth are possible with focused efforts on frequent communication and effortful contact. PMID:25310226
Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098
Lim, Keol; Meier, Ellen B.
In the United States, international students, especially from Asia, have reportedly experienced difficulty adjusting to their new life and culture. Little research has been done to understand the role of social network service (SNS)s, including instant messaging, blogs, chatting websites, and email on these students. Korean students are the…
Urada, Lianne A; Silverman, Jay G; Cordisco Tsai, Laura; Morisky, Donald E
This study examines the socio-structural sexual health risks of female youth (aged 14-17) working in bar/spa venues and brothels in the Philippines, compared to their older counterparts. Aside from this study, few female sex work studies have interviewed youth under 18. On four southern Philippines islands, 770 female sex workers (FSWs), aged 14-48, were recruited from bar/spa venues and brothels to participate in a socio-structural HIV prevention study. Controlling for the effects of a larger HIV prevention intervention study involving 1484 female bar/spa workers, the minors, compared to older FSWs, had less education (AOR: 0.81, CI: 0.70-0.94), less children (AOR: 0.19, CI: 0.10-0.37), and were more likely to work in illegal brothels (AOR: 4.60, CI: 1.66-12.75) and to be high on drugs during sex (AOR: 2.26, CI: 1.39-3.67). It was less likely that anyone talked to them about HIV prevention (AOR: 0.32, CI: 0.15-0.72), but more likely they were recruited by venue owners (AOR: 5.67, 1.56-20.56) and were told by their managers to have sex without a condom (AOR: 6.80, CI: 2.06-22.39). Results suggest a need for organizational and policy level interventions to protect adolescent females from working in unsafe environments in the Philippines and to prevent youth from being recruited into high-risk situations.
Silverman, Jay G.; Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Morisky, Donald E.
This study examines the socio-structural sexual health risks of female youth (ages 14–17) working in bar/spa venues and brothels in the Philippines, compared to their older counterparts. Aside from this study, few female sex work studies have interviewed youth under 18. On four southern Philippines islands, 770 female sex workers, ages 14–48, were recruited from bar/spa venues and brothels to participate in a socio-structural HIV prevention study. Controlling for the effects of a larger HIV prevention intervention study involving 1,484 female bar/spa workers, the minors, compared to older FSWs, had less education (AOR: 0.81, CI: 0.70–0.94), less children (AOR: 0.19, CI: 0.10–0.37), and were more likely to work in illegal brothels (AOR: 4.60, CI: 1.66–12.75) and to be high on drugs during sex (AOR: 2.26, CI: 1.39–3.67). It was less likely that anyone talked to them about HIV prevention (AOR: 0.32, CI: 0.15–0.72), but more likely they were recruited by venue owners (AOR: 5.67, 1.56–20.56) and were told by their managers to have sex without a condom (AOR: 6.80, CI: 2.06–22.39). Results suggest a need for organizational and policy level interventions to protect adolescent females from working in unsafe environments in the Philippines and to prevent youth from being recruited into high-risk situations. PMID:25068199
Shin, Eun-su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok
We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS).
Moberg, Paul J.
Background: Previous research has provided compelling support for olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia patients, their first-degree relatives, and youth at-risk for psychosis. A previous meta-analysis revealed large effect sizes across olfactory tasks but was limited to 2 olfactory tasks and did not examine moderator variables. Thus, the current meta-analysis was undertaken to incorporate additional studies, risk cohorts, olfactory test domains, and moderator variable analyses. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted on 67 publications examining olfactory function in schizophrenia patients and 15 publications examining olfactory functioning in youth at-risk for psychosis, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, and individuals with schizotypy. Results: Results revealed medium-to-large olfactory deficits in schizophrenia patients though significant heterogeneity was evident. Several variables moderated overall study effects. At-risk youths similarly demonstrated medium-to-large effect sizes, whereas first-degree relatives and individuals with schizotypy showed small effects. Conclusions: Findings suggest robust olfactory deficits in schizophrenia and at-risk youths. In schizophrenia, several variables had significant impact on these deficits and warrant consideration in prospective studies. Our findings also indicate that olfactory measures may be a useful marker of schizophrenia risk status. PMID:23641047
Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse
Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…
Bortsov, Andrey V.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Hamman, Richard F.; Klingensmith, Georgeanna J.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Maahs, David M.; McKeown, Robert; Marcovina, Santica M.; Thomas, Joan; Williams, Desmond E.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.
The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among youth with type 1 diabetes is high and associated with age, gender, and race/ethnicity. It has also been shown that youth with type 1 diabetes often do not follow dietary recommendations. The objective of this cross-sectional observational study was to explore the association of sugar-sweetened and diet beverage intake with A1c, plasma lipids, adiponectin, leptin, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure in youth with type 1 diabetes. We examined data from 1,806 youth age 10–22 years with type 1 diabetes, of which 22% were minority (10% Hispanic, 8% African Americans, 4% other races) and 48% were female. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet beverage, and mineral water intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical covariates, physical activity and total energy intake, high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (at least one serving per day vs. none), was associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides, but not with A1c. High diet beverage intake was associated with higher A1c, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. These associations were partially confounded by body mass index, saturated fat and total fiber intake. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake may have an adverse effect on CVD risk in youth with type 1 diabetes. Diet beverage intake may be a marker of unhealthy lifestyle which, in turn, is associated with worse metabolic control and CVD risk profile in these youth. Youth with diabetes should be encouraged to minimize sugar-sweetened beverage intake. PMID:21249401
Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Shim, Kil Bo; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe
Samples of seven species of cephalopods and crustaceans were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury (Hg) using a direct Hg analyzer and for the metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distributions of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs, and whole tissues were determined, and a risk assessment was conducted to provide information concerning consumer safety. The heavy metals accumulated to higher levels (P < 0.05) in internal organs than in muscles for all species. The mean concentrations of Cd, which had the highest concentrations of the three hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg), in all internal organs (except those of blue crab) exceeded the regulatory limits set by Korea and the European Union. The Cd concentrations in all whole tissues of squid and octopus (relatively large cephalopods), red snow crab, and snow crab exceeded the European Union limits. The estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb, and Hg for each part of all species accounted for 1.73 to 130.57%, 0.03 to 0.39%, and 0.93 to 1.67%, respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives; the highest values were found in internal organs. The hazard index (HI) is recognized as a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. Because of the high HI (>1.0) of the internal organs of cephalopods and the maximum HI for whole tissue of 0.424, consumers eating internal organs or whole tissues of cephalopods could be at risk of high heavy metal exposure. Therefore, the internal organs of relatively large cephalopods and crabs (except blue crab) are unfit for consumption. However, consumption of flesh after removing internal organs is a suitable approach for decreasing exposure to harmful metals.
Lim, Soo Hyun; Jang, Hae In; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, Doo-Seok
Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the recent trends in contraceptive use among Korean adolescents. Methods Data reviewed were from the 2013–2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, which is a stratified, multistage-sampling designed online-based research project performed annually by the Korean government to ensure a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescence. Eight questions related to the topic of contraception were reviewed for the outcome variables. Results A total of 212,538 adolescents attending middle school and high school participated in the survey, and 8,755 students among them who were sexually active were included in the study. The percentage of contraceptive use showed a steady increase from 39% in 2013 to 48.7% in 2015; however, the proportion of adolescents who have never used any kind of contraception still remains high. Highly effective methods such as oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices were used by only 10% to 15% of sexually active adolescents. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the status of contraceptive use among Korean adolescents. Our data have the potential to help healthcare providers to formulate policies and develop interventions for encouraging effective contraceptive use among sexually active Korean adolescents. PMID:27896255
Hopkins, Katrina D.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Taylor, Catherine L.
We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12–17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000–2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth. PMID:25068434
Hopkins, Katrina D; Zubrick, Stephen R; Taylor, Catherine L
We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002), a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low) and psychosocial functioning (good/poor). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.
Saunders, Natasha R.; Lee, Hannah; Macpherson, Alison; Guan, Jun; Guttmann, Astrid
BACKGROUND: Firearm injuries contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality. The immigrant paradox suggests that, despite being more socially disadvantaged, immigrants are less likely than nonimmigrants to have poor outcomes. We tested the association of immigrant characteristics with firearm injuries among children and youth. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study involving residents of Ontario aged 24 years and younger from 2008–2012 using health and administrative databases. We estimated rate ratios of unintentional and assault-related firearm injuries by immigrant status using Poisson regression models with Generalized Estimating Equations. RESULTS: We included 15 866 954 nonimmigrant and 4 551 291 immigrant person-years in our analysis. Nonimmigrant males had 1032 unintentional (12.4 per 100 000, 95% confidence interval [CI] 11.7–13.2) and 304 assault-related (3.6 per 100 000, 95% CI 3.2–4.0) firearm injuries. Immigrant males had 148 unintentional (7.2 per 100 000, 95% CI 6.1–8.5) and 113 assault-related (5.5 per 100 000, 95% CI 4.5–6.6) firearm injuries. Compared with nonimmigrants, immigrants had a lower rate of unintentional firearm injury (adjusted rate ratio 0.5, 95% CI 0.4–0.6) but a similar rate of assault-related firearm injury. Among immigrants, refugees had a 43% higher risk of assault-related firearm injury compared with nonrefugees (adjusted rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–2.0). Immigrants from Central America and Africa accounted for 68% of immigrants with assault-related firearm injuries. INTERPRETATION: Compared with nonimmigrants, immigrant children and youth had a lower risk of unintentional firearm injury, although the risk of assault-related firearm injury was higher among refugees and immigrants from Central America and Africa. The results suggest that prevention strategies for firearm safety should target nonimmigrant youth as well as these newly identified high-risk immigrant populations. PMID:28385861
Kim, Hyun-Ah; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Yun-Ah; Choi, Jin A; Park, Yong-Moon
The associations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) with intraocular pressure and primary open angle glaucoma (OAG) have been reported. This study aimed to determine whether a difference in association exists between OAG and metabolic risk factors according to obesity status among Korean adults. A total of 8,816 participants (≥40 years) in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were classified into obese, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 and non-obese, BMI < 25 kg/m2. The prevalence of MetS was 40.1% in non-obese OAG and 66.0% in obese OAG. The prevalence of OAG increased with increasing number components for MetS in total population and in non-obese subjects (P < 0.001, respectively), while the prevalence of OAG was not associated with number of components for MetS in obese subjects (P = 0.14). In non-obese individuals, subjects with high triglycerides, high blood pressure (BP), and MetS were more likely to have OAG compared with those without high triglycerides, high BP, and MetS after adjusting for potential confounders. However, MetS or its components exhibited no significant association with glaucoma status in obese individuals. Our study provides understanding on the differences in association of OAG with MetS and its components according to obesity status. PMID:28004731
Nam, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Woo-Mi
Probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERA) for deriving ecological protective concentration (EPC) was previously suggested in USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Netherland. This study suggested the EPC of cadmium (Cd) based on the PERA to be suitable to Korean aquatic ecosystem. First, we collected reliable ecotoxicity data from reliable data without restriction and reliable data with restrictions. Next, we sorted the ecotoxicity data based on the site-specific locations, exposure duration, and water hardness. To correct toxicity by the water hardness, EU’s hardness corrected algorithm was used with slope factor 0.89 and a benchmark of water hardness 100. EPC was calculated according to statistical extrapolation method (SEM), statistical extrapolation methodAcute to chronic ratio (SEMACR), and assessment factor method (AFM). As a result, aquatic toxicity data of Cd were collected from 43 acute toxicity data (4 Actinopterygill, 29 Branchiopoda, 1 Polychaeta, 2 Bryozoa, 6 Chlorophyceae, 1 Chanophyceae) and 40 chronic toxicity data (2 Actinopterygill, 23 Branchiopoda, 9 Chlorophyceae, 6 Macrophytes). Because toxicity data of Cd belongs to 4 classes in taxonomical classification, acute and chronic EPC (11.07 μg/l and 0.034 μg/l, respectively) was calculated according to SEM technique. These values were included in the range of international EPCs. This study would be useful to establish the ecological standard for the protection of aquatic ecosystem in Korea. PMID:24278601
Nam, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo
Probabilistic ecological risk assessment (PERA) for deriving ecological protective concentration (EPC) was previously suggested in USA, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Netherland. This study suggested the EPC of cadmium (Cd) based on the PERA to be suitable to Korean aquatic ecosystem. First, we collected reliable ecotoxicity data from reliable data without restriction and reliable data with restrictions. Next, we sorted the ecotoxicity data based on the site-specific locations, exposure duration, and water hardness. To correct toxicity by the water hardness, EU's hardness corrected algorithm was used with slope factor 0.89 and a benchmark of water hardness 100. EPC was calculated according to statistical extrapolation method (SEM), statistical extrapolation methodAcute to chronic ratio (SEMACR), and assessment factor method (AFM). As a result, aquatic toxicity data of Cd were collected from 43 acute toxicity data (4 Actinopterygill, 29 Branchiopoda, 1 Polychaeta, 2 Bryozoa, 6 Chlorophyceae, 1 Chanophyceae) and 40 chronic toxicity data (2 Actinopterygill, 23 Branchiopoda, 9 Chlorophyceae, 6 Macrophytes). Because toxicity data of Cd belongs to 4 classes in taxonomical classification, acute and chronic EPC (11.07 μg/l and 0.034 μg/l, respectively) was calculated according to SEM technique. These values were included in the range of international EPCs. This study would be useful to establish the ecological standard for the protection of aquatic ecosystem in Korea.
Wilson, Erin C; Garofalo, Robert; Harris, Robert D; Herrick, Amy; Martinez, Miguel; Martinez, Jaime; Belzer, Marvin
This study examined the HIV risk behaviors and life experiences of 151 transgender female youth, ages 15-24, in Los Angeles and Chicago. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to identify life factors associated with ever having engaged in sex work. Sixty-seven percent of participants had ever engaged in sex work and 19% self-reported being HIV positive. Many factors were significantly associated with sex work for this sample population. A final multivariate logistic regression model found that lower education status, homelessness, use of street drugs, and perceived social support remained significantly associated with sex work when controlling for other factors. Findings highlight the complex HIV risk environment and suggest a need for sex work initiation research for transgender female youth. HIV prevention efforts for this population need to include broad-based approaches that take into account individual, social, and community-level factors relevant to the lives of transgender female youth.
Smith, Brian C; Armelie, Aaron P; Boarts, Jessica M; Brazil, Miquel; Delahanty, Douglas L
Youths who are lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) are more likely than heterosexuals to commit suicide. Substance use, PTSD, and depression are independent risk factors for suicidality; however, the extent to which these factors interact to predict suicidality is unclear. The current study examined the association between substance use, PTSD symptoms (PTSS), depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 68 traumatized minority LGB youths. Participants were recruited from an LGBT community center and completed a packet of questionnaires. Substance use and depressive symptoms were positively associated with prior suicide attempts. A significant three-way interaction revealed that substance use interacted with both PTSS and depressive symptoms to increase the odds of attempted suicide. Results underscore the importance of integrating substance use components into PTSD/depression treatment to reduce suicide risk in LGB youth.
Gow, Megan L; Garnett, Sarah P; Baur, Louise A; Lister, Natalie B
Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has become a prominent clinical issue in recent decades. Increasing numbers of young people have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly obesity, indicating the need for effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. The aim of this review was to identify specific dietary strategies that optimize improvements in risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth and hence reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes development. Our review of the current literature indicates that dietary interventions lead to weight loss when intervention adherence is high. However, in addition to weight loss, a diet that is reduced in carbohydrates may optimize improvements in other type 2 diabetes risk factors, including insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. While further research is needed to confirm this finding, reduced carbohydrate diets may include a very low-carbohydrate diet, a very low-energy diet, a lower-glycemic-index diet, and/or an intermittent fasting diet. This array of dietary strategies provides a suite of intervention options for clinicians to recommend to young people at risk of type 2 diabetes. However, these findings are in contrast to current guidelines for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults which recommends a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.
Gow, Megan L.; Garnett, Sarah P.; Baur, Louise A.; Lister, Natalie B.
Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents has become a prominent clinical issue in recent decades. Increasing numbers of young people have risk factors for type 2 diabetes, particularly obesity, indicating the need for effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategies. The aim of this review was to identify specific dietary strategies that optimize improvements in risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth and hence reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes development. Our review of the current literature indicates that dietary interventions lead to weight loss when intervention adherence is high. However, in addition to weight loss, a diet that is reduced in carbohydrates may optimize improvements in other type 2 diabetes risk factors, including insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. While further research is needed to confirm this finding, reduced carbohydrate diets may include a very low-carbohydrate diet, a very low-energy diet, a lower-glycemic-index diet, and/or an intermittent fasting diet. This array of dietary strategies provides a suite of intervention options for clinicians to recommend to young people at risk of type 2 diabetes. However, these findings are in contrast to current guidelines for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults which recommends a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27517953
Yadegarfard, Mohammadrasool; Ho, Robert; Bahramabadian, Fatemeh
This study examined the influence of age, education level and number of sex partners on levels of loneliness, depression, suicidal ideation and sexual-risk behaviour in Thai male-to-female transgender youth. A total of 190 participants filled in the study's questionnaire, designed to tap the primary variables of age, level of education, number of sex partners, loneliness, depression, suicidal ideation and sexual-risk behaviour. Results reveal that level of education has a significant influence on depression and loneliness, the number of sex partners has a significant influence on sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation and age has a significant influence on sexual-risk behaviour and suicidal ideation. Participants with higher levels of education reported more loneliness than participants who did not graduate from high school. In addition, participants who did not graduate from high school reported more depression than participants with some university credit. Furthermore, participants aged 15 to 19 years, compared with those of 20 to 25 years, reported higher level of sexual-risk behaviour and higher levels of suicidal ideation.
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Selected Steps Communities, United States, 2007 and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--Pacific Island United States Territories, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries. Volume 57, Number SS-12
Shaw, Frederic E., Ed.
The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "MMWR" contains the following studies: (1) Youth Risk Behavior…
Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Herman, Jack
This multiple-site study assessed 48 prevention programs for high-risk youth funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, identifying program characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes. Data analysis indicated that substance abuse programs reduced rates of substance use, and the positive effects of program…
Katz, Michelle; Giani, Elisa; Laffel, Lori
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Specific risk factors associated with diabetes, such as hyperglycemia and kidney disease, have been demonstrated to increase the incidence and progression of CVD. Nevertheless, few data exist on the effects of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, obesity and hypertension on CVD risk in youth with T1D. Improvements in understanding and approaches to the evaluation and management of CVD risk factors, specifically for young persons with T1D, are desirable. Recent advances in non-invasive techniques to detect early vascular damage, such as the evaluation of endothelial dysfunction and aortic or carotid intima media thickness, provide new tools to evaluate the progression of CVD in childhood. In the present review, current CVD risk factor management, challenges, and potential therapeutic interventions in youth with T1D are described. PMID:26520142
Lee, Sylvia; And Others
In 1986, the Keep Youth in School Project, a joint venture of the Catholic University of America, the Family and Child Services of Washington, D.C., the District of Columbia Department of Human Services, and the Marriott Corporation, began a 3-year research and demonstration program to develop a practice model for helping minority foster children…
Jo, Youngoh; Zhang, Yan
Limited studies have examined whether self-control fully mediates the effect of parenting on deviant behavior beyond Western cultures. Using a sample of 882 South Korean middle and high schools students, this article examines the applicability of Gottfredson and Hirschi's argument about the role of parenting in self-control theory in the context of Asian culture. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) suggest the relationships among parenting, self-control, and delinquency hold in South Korean culture: Parenting has only an indirect effect through self-control on delinquency. The findings of multigroup SEM, however, indicate that gender differences exist in the relationships among parenting, self-control, and delinquency. This study provides support for cultural invariance of self-control theory but suggests that more studies examining gender differences and interaction between gender and race in the theory are required.
Sohn, Sang-Hee; Joo, So-Hyun; Grable, John E; Lee, Seonglim; Kim, Minjeung
The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between financial socialization agents, financial experiences, money attitudes, demographic characteristics, and the financial literacy of Korean adolescents. Using the 2006 Korean National Financial Literacy Test Survey for Adolescents (N = 1185), a series of regression analyses were performed to determine the factors related to financial literacy. It was found that those who chose media as their primary financial socialization agent, and those who had a bank account, exhibited higher levels of financial literacy. Among the sample, those who saw money as good or as a reward for efforts tended to report higher levels of financial literacy, while those perceiving money in terms of avoidance or achievement had lower levels of financial literacy. Students with mid-range monthly allowances showed higher levels of financial literacy compared to the highest allowance group. Implications for financial educators, policy makers, and researchers are provided.
Marshall, Brandon DL; Kerr, Thomas; Shoveller, Jean A; Montaner, Julio SG; Wood, Evan
Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS). We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4%) were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0%) reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4%) reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07). Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14) and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18). Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81). Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings. PMID:19134203
Background In Canada, there are limited occasions for youth, and especially at-risk youth, to participate in cooking programs. The paucity of these programs creates an opportunity for youth-focused cooking programs to be developed, implemented, and evaluated with the goal of providing invaluable life skills and food literacy to this potentially vulnerable group. Thus, an 18-month community-based cooking program for at-risk youth was planned and implemented to improve the development and progression of cooking skills and food literacy. Findings This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of a cooking skills intervention for at-risk youth. The manuscript provides information about the process of planning and implementing the intervention as well as the evaluation plan. Results of the intervention will be presented elsewhere. Objectives of the intervention included the provision of applied food literacy and cooking skills education taught by local chefs and a Registered Dietitian, and augmented with fieldtrips to community farms to foster an appreciation and understanding of food, from 'gate to plate'. Eight at-risk youth (five girls and three boys, mean age = 14.6) completed the intervention as of November 2010. Pre-test cooking skills assessments were completed for all participants and post-test cooking skills assessments were completed for five of eight participants. Post intervention, five of eight participants completed in-depth interviews about their experience. Discussion The Cook It Up! program can provide an effective template for other agencies and researchers to utilize for enhancing existing programs or to create new applied cooking programs for relevant vulnerable populations. There is also a continued need for applied research in this area to reverse the erosion of cooking skills in Canadian society. PMID:22085523
Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Ekwaru, John Paul; Maximova, Katerina; Majumdar, Sumit R; Storey, Kate E; McGavock, Jonathan; Veugelers, Paul J
Only few studies examined the effect of diet on prospective changes in cardiometabolic (CM) risk factors in children and youth despite its importance for understanding the role of diet early in life for cardiovascular disease in adulthood. To test the hypothesis that dietary intake is associated with prospective changes in CM risk factors, we analyzed longitudinal observations made over a period of 2 years among 448 students (aged 10-17 years) from 14 schools in Canada. We applied mixed effect regression to examine the associations of dietary intake at baseline with changes in body mass index, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and insulin sensitivity score between baseline and follow-up while adjusting for age, sex, and physical activity. Dietary fat at baseline was associated with increases in SBP and DBP z scores (per 10 g increase in dietary fat per day: β = 0.03; p < 0.05) and WC (β = 0.31 cm; p < 0.05) between baseline and follow-up. Every additional gram of sodium intake at baseline was associated with an increase in DBP z score of 0.04 (p < 0.05) between baseline and follow-up. Intake of sugar, vegetables and fruit, and fibre were not associated with changes in CM risk factors in a statistically significant manner. Our findings suggest that a reduction in the consumption of total dietary fat and sodium may contribute to the prevention of excess body weight and hypertension in children and youth, and their cardiometabolic sequelae later in life.
Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Marshall, Sharon; Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita
Few studies have analyzed the development course beginning in pre-/early adolescence of overall engagement in health-risk behaviors and associated social risk factors that place individuals in different health-risk trajectories through mid-adolescence. The current longitudinal study identified 1276 adolescents in grade six and followed them for three years to investigate their developmental trajectories of risk behaviors and to examine the association of personal and social risk factors with each trajectory. Group-based trajectory modeling was applied to identify distinctive trajectory patterns of risk behaviors. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the effects of the personal and social risk factors on adolescents' trajectories. Three gender-specific behavioral trajectories were identified for males (55.3% low-risk, 37.6% moderate-risk, increasing, and 7.1% high-risk, increasing) and females (41.4% no-risk, 53.4% low-risk, increasing and 5.2% moderate to high-risk, increasing). Sensation-seeking, family, peer, and neighborhood factors at baseline predicted following the moderate-risk, increasing trajectory and the high-risk, increasing trajectory in males; these risk factors predicted following the moderate to high-risk, increasing trajectory in females. The presence of all three social risk factors (high-risk neighborhood, high-risk peers and low parental monitoring) had a dramatic impact on increased probability of being in a high-risk trajectory group. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early personal and social risk factors on subsequent risk behaviors in early to middle adolescence. Future adolescent health behavior promotion interventions might consider offering additional prevention resources to pre- and early adolescent youth who are exposed to multiple contextual risk factors (even in the absence of risk behaviors) or youth who are early-starters of delinquency and substance use behaviors
Feng, Dan; Zhang, Jihui; Fu, Junling; Wu, Heng; Wang, Yonghui; Li, Lujiao; Zhao, Yanglu; Li, Ming; Gao, Shan
The evidence for a link between sleep duration and cardiovascular risk is accumulating in youths, but no study has yet investigated the relationship between sleep duration and change of cardiac structure. In this study, we recruited 559 youths aged 14–28 years from the cohort of Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Study. Questionnaire, color Doppler echocardiography, oral glucose tolerance test and blood biomarkers analyses were performed. We found that sleep duration was negatively correlated with body mass index, waist circumstance, and HbA1c (all P < 0.05), but not with adiponectin and leptin. Meanwhile, participants with shorter sleep duration (≤7 h) had larger interventricular septal diastolic thickness, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameter, LV posterior wall thickness, LV mass (LVM), and LV mass index (LVMI), compared to participants in 7–9 h/night or >9 h/night group. Findings remained significant after adjustment for the major confounding factors (P < 0.05). Multivariate regression modeling revealed that each additional hour of sleep was associated with smaller LVM (β: −3.483, P < 0.0001) and LVMI (β: −0.815, P < 0.0001). Our findings suggest that short sleep has a possible direct effect on cardiac remodeling, occurring already at young ages. PMID:27966597
Bedi, Gillinder; Carrillo, Facundo; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Slezak, Diego Fernández; Sigman, Mariano; Mota, Natália B; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Javitt, Daniel C; Copelli, Mauro; Corcoran, Cheryl M
Background/Objectives: Psychiatry lacks the objective clinical tests routinely used in other specializations. Novel computerized methods to characterize complex behaviors such as speech could be used to identify and predict psychiatric illness in individuals. AIMS: In this proof-of-principle study, our aim was to test automated speech analyses combined with Machine Learning to predict later psychosis onset in youths at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis. Methods: Thirty-four CHR youths (11 females) had baseline interviews and were assessed quarterly for up to 2.5 years; five transitioned to psychosis. Using automated analysis, transcripts of interviews were evaluated for semantic and syntactic features predicting later psychosis onset. Speech features were fed into a convex hull classification algorithm with leave-one-subject-out cross-validation to assess their predictive value for psychosis outcome. The canonical correlation between the speech features and prodromal symptom ratings was computed. Results: Derived speech features included a Latent Semantic Analysis measure of semantic coherence and two syntactic markers of speech complexity: maximum phrase length and use of determiners (e.g., which). These speech features predicted later psychosis development with 100% accuracy, outperforming classification from clinical interviews. Speech features were significantly correlated with prodromal symptoms. Conclusions: Findings support the utility of automated speech analysis to measure subtle, clinically relevant mental state changes in emergent psychosis. Recent developments in computer science, including natural language processing, could provide the foundation for future development of objective clinical tests for psychiatry. PMID:27336038
Kim, Hyun Min; Seong, Jong-Mi; Kim, Jaetaek
The objective of this study was to carry out a large population-based study to understand the factors associated with hypoglycemia-related hospitalizations among older Korean adults with diabetes mellitus.This study analyzed data from a subset of the 2013 Health Insurance and Review and Assessment service-Adult Patient Sample. A total of 307,170 subjects, comprising 41.7% men and 58.3% women, had diabetes mellitus. Hypertension (80.8%) was the most common comorbidity, and dyslipidemia (59.0%) and ischemic heart disease (21.3%) were also prevalent. Approximately half of the patients with diabetes had >2 comorbidities, and two-thirds of the patients had >3 comorbidities. The proportion of patients taking insulin or sulfonylureas was 54.9%, and 23.2% of the patients were taking other medications. About 21.9% of the patients were treated nonpharmacologically. A total of 2867 hypoglycemia-related admission occurred, the incident rate was 9.33 per 1000 person. The risk was higher among female patients and older patients with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic liver disease, chronic kidney disease, dementia, and malignancies. Treatment modalities, including insulin and sulfonylureas, were associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. After adjustments for age, sex, the different comorbidities, and the treatment modalities, we determined that chronic kidney disease and dementia were associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia-related hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 2.52 and OR = 1.93, respectively). Furthermore, patients with chronic kidney disease or dementia who were treated with sulfonylureas and insulin had very high risks of hypoglycemia, and the incident rate was 66.6 and 63.75 per 1000 person, respectively.In conclusion, the presence of comorbidities, especially chronic kidney disease and dementia, increased the risk of hypoglycemia-associated hospitalization within this population of older patients
Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A
Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p < 0.001); Korean subjects were less likely to see herbs as a form of cancer prevention (34 % Chinese, 20 % Korean, 35 % Vietnamese; p < 0.001). Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p < 0.0001). Important differences exist in knowledge, attitudes, and health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable. Reporting Period Covered: January-December 2007. Description of the System: The…
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Lim, Connie; Whittle, Lisa; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2008-December 2009. Description of the…
National Center for American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, Denver, CO.
This technical report examines the literature on substance abuse prevention programs among American Indian and Alaska Native populations, particularly high-risk youth, and reports on aspects of demonstration projects. The literature was reviewed for specific mention of attempted intervention activities focusing on alcohol and drug abuse prevention…
Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Hason, Iris
This study examines 15 at-risk Israeli youngsters' work and family plans and the perceived barriers and resources influencing the realization of those plans. In-depth interviews analyzed by Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) demonstrate the complexity of the future awaiting these youths. Participants perceive work mainly as a means of obtaining…
Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko
Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexual minority research team members, Indigenous advisory groups, and community consultations. In all three countries, Indigenous sexual minority youth were more likely to experience enacted stigma (such as bullying, discrimination, exclusion, harassment, or school-based violence) and report increased HIV risk behaviours (such as lack of condom use, multiple sexual partners, pregnancy involvement, and injection drug use) compared to heterosexual peers. Data were analyzed by age, gender, and sexual orientation, and for some groups, higher levels of enacted stigma was associated with higher HIV risk. The findings highlight the need for more research, including identifying protective factors, and developing interventions that focus on promoting resilience, addressing the levels of stigma and homophobic violence in school, and restoring historical traditions of positive status for Indigenous sexual minority people. PMID:26793243
Bechtel, Kristin; Lowenkamp, Christopher T.; Latessa, Edward
The purpose of the Youth Level of Service Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) is to assess, classify, and assist agencies with developing treatment and service plans according to the offender's criminogenic risk factors. Given the limited research in the predictive validity for this instrument, the current study attempts to examine this issue on a…
Betts, Sherry C.; Marczak, Mary S.; Peterson, Donna J.; Sewell, Margaret; Lipinski, John
As part of the Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) Evaluation Collaboration, responses from extension professionals in 42 states and territories to the 74-item Organizational Change Survey were analyzed. Overall trends in the discrepancy between the current and ideal status of extension as indicated by all state discrepancy scores in all…
Malloy, JoAnne M.; Sundar, Vidyalakshmi; Hagner, David; Pierias, Leigh; Viet, Tara
This article describes the results of a research project designed to assess the efficacy of a secondary transition model, RENEW (Rehabilitation, Empowerment, Natural supports, Education and Work), on the social and emotional functioning of 20 youth at risk of dropping out of high school using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale…
Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Shanklin, Shari; Flint, Katherine H.; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Whittle, Lisa; Lim, Connie; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Priority health-risk behaviors, which are behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during childhood and adolescence, extend into adulthood, and are interrelated and preventable. Reporting Period Covered: September 2010-December 2011. Description of the…
This study analyzed data on victimization by bullying and harassment on school property in a large, diverse, random sample of high school students in Arizona using data from the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. No gender differences in frequency of victimization were detected, but differences by grade, Body Mass Index category, academic…
Johnson, Andrew O.; Mink, Michael D.; Harun, Nusrat; Moore, Charity G.; Martin, Amy B.; Bennett, Kevin J.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare national estimates of drug use and exposure to violence between rural and urban teens. Methods: Twenty-eight dependent variables from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to compare violent activities, victimization, suicidal behavior, tobacco use, alcohol use, and illegal drug use…
Epkins, Catherine C.; Heckler, David R.
Models of social anxiety and depression in youth have been developed separately, and they contain similar etiological influences. Given the high comorbidity of social anxiety and depression, we examine whether the posited etiological constructs are a correlate of, or a risk factor for, social anxiety and/or depression at the symptom level and the…
Reschke, Lauren D.; Miller, Edgar R.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Loeffler, Lauren F.; Holmes, Kathryn W.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Brady, Tammy M.
Background Uric acid (UA) is associated with high blood pressure in adolescents and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults. We sought to determine if UA is independently associated with CVD risk factors and left ventricular mass (LVM) over time in hypertensive youth. Methods One-year prospective observational study of hypertensive children aged 3-19 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum UA with CVD risk factors and LVM were explored. Results At baseline: mean age 13.8 years, mean UA 5.5 mg/dL, 24 % with elevated UA, 51 % overweight/obese, and 39 % with LVH. Measures of adiposity, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity CRP, LVM and LVH were all significantly associated with elevated UA at baseline, but not with change over time. Each 1 mg/dL increase in baseline UA was associated with 2.5 g/m2.7 greater LVM index at follow-up (95% CI 0.64, 4.39; p=0.01); after adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index z-score, change in UA, time, BP and medication use, this association was no longer significant. Conclusions Hypertensive children with elevated UA have a higher prevalence of obesity-related CVD risk factors. Among hypertensive children, UA may be a marker of adiposity and not an independent CVD risk factor. PMID:26135139
Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana
Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.
Anatale, Katharine; Kelly, Sarah
Adolescence is a tumultuous and challenging time period in life. Sexual risk behavior among adolescents is a widespread topic of interest in the current literature. Two common factors that influence increased sexual risk behavior are symptoms of depression and negative body image. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body image and symptoms of depression upon sexual risk-taking in an adolescent female population. A secondary data analysis of the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used to explore girls' sexual activity, body image, and mental health. There were 7,708 high-school girls who participated in this study. Three questions were used to represent the constructs under investigation. There were significant correlations between sexual activity, body image, and symptoms of depression; only symptoms of depression were significant predictors of both sexual activity and condom usage. Body image was a predictor of sexual activity, but not condom use. Our findings support previous studies that suggested that people with depressive symptoms were more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Our study also supports the idea that a negative body image decreases sexual activity; however, other researchers have reported that negative body image leads to an increase in sexual activity.
Sieving, Renee E; Bernat, Debra H; Resnick, Michael D; Oliphant, Jennifer; Pettingell, Sandra; Plowman, Shari; Skay, Carol
Multifaceted, sustained efforts are needed to reduce early pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases among high-risk adolescents. An important area for research is testing youth development interventions offered through clinic settings, where access to high-risk adolescents is plentiful and few efforts have rigorously evaluated a dual approach of building protective factors while addressing risk. This article presents findings from a pilot study of Prime Time, a clinic-based youth development intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors among girls at risk for early pregnancy. Girls aged 13 to 17 years meeting specified risk criteria were assigned to Prime Time treatment groups. The Prime Time intervention included a combination of case management services and peer leadership groups. Participants completed self-report surveys at baseline, 12 and 18 months following enrollment. At 12 months, the intervention group reported significantly fewer sexual partners than the control group. At 18 months, the intervention group reported significantly more consistent condom use with trends toward more consistent hormonal and dual method use. Dose-response analyses suggested that relatively high levels of exposure to a youth development intervention were needed to change contraceptive use behaviors among adolescents at risk for early pregnancy. Given promising findings, further testing of the Prime Time intervention is warranted.
Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne
Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…
Gup, Nancy J.
The prevalence of suicidality among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth is considerably higher than the reported rates for heterosexual youth. The strongest predictors for suicidality among all youth are substance abuse; victimization; social isolation; and exposure to suicide attempts or completion among family members. Homosexual and bisexual youth…
Albaugh, Matthew D.; Harder, Valerie S.; Althoff, Robert R.; Rettew, David C.; Ehli, Erik A.; Lengyel-Nelson, Timea; Davies, Gareth E.; Ayer, Lynsay; Sulman, Julie; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.
Objective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth exhibiting Val-homozygosity would have greater average…
National Center for Health Statistics (DHHS/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.
The 1992 National Health Interview Survey-Youth Risk Behavior Survey (NHIS-YRBS) studied 13,789 youth 12-21 years of age. This report presents the data according to sex, age, Hispanic origin, and race for youth of non-Hispanic origin. The 10 data tables cover: cigarette and other tobacco use, alcohol and other drug use, sexual experience, HIV/AIDS…
BROWNING, CHRISTOPHER R.; BURRINGTON, LORI A.; LEVENTHAL, TAMA; BROOKS-GUNN, JEANNE
We draw on collective efficacy theory to extend a contextual model of early adolescent sexual behavior. Specifically, we hypothesize that neighborhood structural disadvantage—as measured by levels of concentrated poverty, residential instability, and aspects of immigrant concentration—and diminished collective efficacy have consequences for the prevalence of early adolescent multiple sexual partnering. Findings from random effects multinomial logistic regression models of the number of sexual partners among a sample of youth, age 11 to 16, from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 768) reveal evidence of neighborhood effects on adolescent higher-risk sexual activity. Collective efficacy is negatively associated with having two or more sexual partners versus one (but not zero versus one) sexual partner. The effect of collective efficacy is dependent upon age: The regulatory effect of collective efficacy increases for older adolescents. PMID:18771063
Shumway, K; Pate, M L; McNeal, L G
The purpose of this study was to provide a formative needs assessment of Diné (Navajo) parents for the prevention of childhood injuries resulting from livestock and horses. The research objectives were to identify parents' perceived livestock and horse related injury risks to Diné children and describe Diné community stakeholder input on prevention interventions for reducing injury risks to children associated with livestock and horse related activities on farms or ranches. The assessment used a survey constructed of closed and open-response questions to gauge Diné farmers' and ranchers' perceptions of injury risks to children who live or work on agricultural operations. Additional questions were asked to gauge Diné acceptance of an online training program as a prevention intervention to reduce livestock and horse related injuries to children. A total of 96 individuals agreed to participate in the survey and provided usable responses. A total of 53.2% (f = 50) of participants were female. Sixty-three percent of participants (f = 58) perceived that youth who work with intact male livestock were at high risk for injury. A total of 25 individuals perceived that youth who ride horses without equestrian helmets were at high risk for injury. Approximately 96% (f = 89) of those surveyed agreed or strongly agreed that they would use an online training program to promote agricultural health and safety for Diné youth. When participants were asked if there were safety issues associated with having youth working on a farm or ranch, a very large portion felt that the biggest issue was a lack of education and instruction from elders. A recommendation for an injury prevention practice included developing a user-friendly online network, giving parents and community leaders access to resources to assist in educating youth in local agricultural traditions integrated with safety training.
Logan-Greene, Patricia; Nurius, Paula S.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole L.; Walsh, Elaine; Thompson, Elaine Adams
This study extends prior examination of adolescent violence etiology, drawing on an ethnically diverse, community accessed, yet emotionally vulnerable sample (N = 849) of adolescents at-risk for school dropout. A balanced risk and protective factor framework captured theorized dimensions of strain, coping, and support resources. We tested the…
Turnbull, Gavin; Spence, Jean
The concept of risk has found increasing prominence in social policy, human services management and front-line practice in recent years. This is particularly the case in relation to children and young people, who, in the UK, have been subject to a range of interventions based on the identification of population-based risk factors. Through the…
Kim, Young Sik; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Lee, Hyo Suk
To investigate risk factors for HCV infection according to the genotype, we studied 178 patients positive for HCV-PCR and 226 controls that were negative for the anti-HCV antibody. One hundred and twenty five controls (community control) were recruited from spouses of HCV-PCR-positive patients and the other 101 from hospital visitors (hospital control). HCV genotyping was performed by PCR, and epidemiological data were obtained from all participants. The distribution of HCV genotypes was as follows -- 1a (0.6%), 1b (39.9%), 2a (38.2%), 2b (0%), 3 (1.1%), and unclassified (20.2%). By multivariate analysis, blood transfusion (OR 2.90) and endoscopy (OR 2.80) were found to be risk factors for HCV genotype 1b versus the community control. Similarly, blood transfusion (OR 3.17) was found to be risk factors for HCV genotype 1b versus the hospital control. Blood transfusion (OR 2.75) and endoscopy (OR 3.57) were risk factors for HCV genotype 2a versus the community control, and blood transfusion (OR 4.55) and endoscopy (OR 2.16) were those versus the hospital control. Our results suggest that the risk factors for HCV infection are similar among the different genotypes. Blood transfusion and endoscopy were found to be associated with HCV infection. PMID:11961301
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun
We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed.
Mellins, Claude A; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Malee, Kathleen; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Patton, Doyle; Smith, Renee; Usitalo, Ann; Allison, Susannah M; Van Dyke, Russell; Seage, George R
In a sample of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected (PHEU) adolescents, we examined the co-occurrence of behavioral health risks including mental health problems, onset of sexual and drug use behaviors, and (in PHIV+ youth) nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants, recruited from 2007 to 2010, included 349 youth, ages 10-16 years, enrolled in a cohort study examining the impact of HIV infection and ART. Measures of the above behavioral health risks were administered to participants and primary caregivers. Nearly half the participants met study criteria for at least one behavioral health risk, most frequently, mental health problems (28%), with the onset of sexual activity and substance use each reported by an average of 16%. Among the sexually active, 65% of PHIV+ and 50% of PHEU youth reported unprotected sex. For PHIV +youth, 34% reported recent ART nonadherence, of whom 45% had detectable HIV RNA levels. Between 16% (PHIV+) and 11% (PHEU) of youth reported at least two behavioral health risks. Older age, but not HIV status, was associated with having two or more behavioral health risks versus none. Among PHIV+ youth, living with a birth mother (versus other caregivers) and detectable viral load were associated with co-occurrence of behavioral health risks. In conclusion, this study suggests that for both PHIV+ and PHEU youth, there are multiple behavioral health risks, particularly mental health problems, which should be targeted by service systems that can integrate prevention and treatment efforts.
Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S; Roberts, Jennifer; Nelson, Nadeana; Calac, Daniel; Gilder, David A; Ehlers, Cindy L
Investigating the alcohol environment for rural American Indian youth, we conducted 70 interviews with leading members and youth representatives of nine Southern California tribes. We also conducted brief observations in all 13 stores licensed to sell alcohol on and close to the reservation lands of the nine tribes. Underage youth may obtain alcoholic beverages at stores either directly through illegal sales to minors or indirectly through social sources. Stores are also environments within which alcoholic beverages and heavy drinking may become normalized for youth. Limitations and implications for convenience store-based prevention research on alcohol retail environment for youth in rural populations areas are discussed.
Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.; Roberts, Jennifer; Nelson, Nadeana; Calac, Daniel; Gilder, David A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.
Investigating the alcohol environment for rural American Indian youth, we conducted 70 interviews with leading members and youth representatives of nine Southern California tribes. We also conducted brief observations in all 13 stores licensed to sell alcohol on and close to the reservation lands of the nine tribes. Underage youth may obtain alcoholic beverages at stores either directly through illegal sales to minors or indirectly through social sources. Stores are also environments within which alcoholic beverages and heavy drinking may become normalized for youth. Limitations and implications for convenience store-based prevention research on alcohol retail environment for youth in rural population areas are discussed. PMID:25529892
Recent third-person perception articles suggest that optimistic bias is the mechanism underlying the perceptual bias, but fail to empirically test the assumption. Minority "at-risk" youth are neglected in both literatures, despite the fact that they are frequently the target audience for the resulting campaigns. This study sought to…
Tveit, M; Rosengren, B E; Nilsson, J Å; Karlsson, M K
Physical activity is favorable for peak bone mass but if the skeletal benefits remain and influence fracture risk in old age is debated. In a cross-sectional controlled mixed model design, we compared dual X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mineral density (BMD) and bone size in 193 active and retired male elite soccer players and 280 controls, with duplicate measurements of the same individual done a mean 5 years apart. To evaluate lifetime fractures, we used a retrospective controlled study design in 397 retired male elite soccer players and 1368 controls. Differences in bone traits were evaluated by Student's t-test and fracture risk assessments by Poisson regression and Cox regression. More than 30 years after retirement from sports, the soccer players had a Z-score for total body BMD of 0.4 (0.1 to 0.6), leg BMD of 0.5 (0.2 to 0.8), and femoral neck area of 0.3 (0.0 to 0.5). The rate ratio for fracture after career end was 0.6 (0.4 to 0.9) and for any fragility fracture 0.4 (0.2 to 0.9). Exercise-associated bone trait benefits are found long term after retirement from sports together with a lower fracture risk. This indicates that physical activity in youth could reduce the burden of fragility fractures.
Atherton, Olivia E; Conger, Rand D; Ferrer, Emilio; Robins, Richard W
Substance use initiation in adolescence is a critical issue, given its association with substance dependency and associated problems in adulthood. However, due to the dearth of fine-grained, longitudinal studies, the factors associated with early initiation are poorly understood, especially in minority youth. The present study examined substance use initiation in a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N=674) assessed annually from age 10 to 16. Using discrete-time survival analyses, we found that initiation escalated rapidly from late childhood to adolescence, and we identified a wide range of factors, from the individual to the cultural level of analysis, that significantly increased or decreased risk for early initiation. These findings have important implications for programs aimed at preventing early substance use by Mexican-origin youth.
Bae, Jong-Myon; Ahn, Yoon-Ok
The aim of this study was to identify the 'high-normal blood pressure' as a risk factor of hypertension for applying primary prevention strategy in Korean people. To keep time sequence of events, and to prevent information bias, nested case control study was chosen for avoiding measurement errors because hypertension is a benign disease. Source population consisted of the 'Seoul Cohort' participants and follow-up was done by using Korea Medical Insurance Corporation's database on the utilization of health services from January 1, 1993 to June 30, 1997. Incidence cases were ascertained through the chart review, telephone contacts, and direct blood pressure measurements. Controls included the pairing of 4 individuals to each case on the basis of age. The statistically significant risk factors of hypertension were body mass index, dietary fiber, alcohol consumption, weekly activity, and history of quitting smoking as well as high-normal blood pressure (p<0.05). The multivariate odds ratio of high-normal blood pressure adjusted for all risk factors was 1.84 (95% CI, 1.31-2.56). Thus, the 'high-normal blood pressure' is considered as a risk factor for hypertension in Korean middle-aged men, which suggests that the vigorous lifestyle modification for persons with 'high-normal blood pressure' is needed. PMID:12068135
Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Poong Ho; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe
Molluscan shellfish (gastropods and bivalves) were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury by direct Hg analyzer and for other metals, such as cadmium, lead, chromium, silver, nickel, copper and zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs and whole tissues were determined and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. Heavy metals were accumulated significantly higher (P < 0.05) in internal organs than in muscles for all species. The mean Cd level, which had the highest level of three hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg) in all internal-organ samples were above the regulatory limit of Korea and the mean level in whole tissue samples of the selected gastropod species, bay scallop and comb pen shell, exceeded the limit (except in a few cases). The sum of the estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb and Hg for each part of all tested species accounted for 1.59-16.94, 0.02-0.36, and 0.07-0.16% respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The hazard index for each part of gastropods and bivalves was below 1.0, however, the maximum HI for internal organs of all analysed species was quite high (0.71). These results suggest that consumption of flesh after removing the internal organs of some molluscan shellfish (all gastropod species, bay scallop and comb pen shell) is a suitable way for reducing Cd exposure.
Cecil, Charlotte AM; Lysenko, Laura J.; Jaffee, Sara R.; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Smith, Rebecca G.; Relton, Caroline L.; Woodward, Geoffrey; McArdle, Wendy; Mill, Jonathan; Barker, Edward D.
Youth with high callous-unemotional traits (CU) are at risk for early-onset and persistent conduct problems. Research suggests that there may be different developmental pathways to CU (genetic/constitutional vs environmental), and that the absence or presence of co-occurring internalizing problems is a key marker. However, it is unclear whether such a distinction is valid. Intermediate phenotypes such as DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification regulating gene expression, may help to clarify aetiological pathways. This is the first study to examine prospective inter-relationships between environmental risk (prenatal/postnatal) and DNA methylation (birth, age 7, age 9) in the prediction of CU (age 13), for youth low vs. high in internalizing problems. We focused on DNA methylation in the vicinity of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as it has been previously implicated in CU. Participants were 84 youth with early-onset and persistent conduct problems drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. For youth with low internalizing problems (46%), we found that: (i) OXTR methylation at birth associated with higher CU (age 13) as well as decreased experience of victimization during childhood (birth – age 9), (ii) higher prenatal parental risks (maternal psychopathology, criminal behaviors, substance use) associated with higher OXTR methylation at birth, and (iii) OXTR methylation levels were more stable across time (birth – age 9). In contrast, for youth with high internalizing problems, CU was associated with prenatal risks of an interpersonal nature (i.e., intimate partner violence, family conflict) but not OXTR methylation. Findings support the existence of distinct developmental pathways to CU. PMID:25199917
Gray, Donald Z.; And Others
This report describes the results of the 1993 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and summarizes results of the 1992 Utah School Health Education Survey. Many health problems experienced by youth are caused by a few preventable behaviors, such as alcohol abuse and unprotected sexual intercourse. Tobacco use, dietary patterns that cause disease,…
This article examines how the related concepts of risk factors, protective factors, and resilience relate to postschool outcomes for youth with disabilities, especially the adult transitions of youth with high-incidence disabilities. Issues related to research and practice are identified, including building resilience through support at the…