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  1. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  2. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  3. The Cultural Negotiations of Korean Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine J.; Ma, Pei-Wen; Madan-Bahel, Anvita; Hunter, Carla D.; Jung, Sunna; Kim, Angela B.; Akitaya, Kyoko; Sasaki, Kiyoko

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the process of cultural adjustment among 13 Korean immigrant youths using consensual qualitative research (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997). Results indicate that Korean youth are expected to negotiate and shift their identities to meet differing expectations across various interpersonal contexts.…

  4. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

  5. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse linked to suicidal ideation and attempts: findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors.

  6. Association between Obesity and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status in Korean Adolescents Based on the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung Won; Park, Tae-jin; Kim, Jun-su; Byun, Sunghun; Lee, Young-seok; Kim, Jung-hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase in the obese adolescent population is being recognized as a serious medical and social problem. The present study aimed to examine the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity in Korean adolescents based on total available resources and local social inequality models. Methods The present study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in analyzing 72,438 Korean adolescents aged 12–18. The analysis investigated obesity odds ratio (OR) according to neighborhood SES adjusted for age and individual SES indices, which included family affluence scale (FAS), education level of parents, cohabitation with parents, and weekly allowance. Obesity OR was investigated according to neighborhood SES by FAS, and according to FAS by neighborhood SES. Results After adjusting for age and individual SES variables, there was no significant association between neighborhood SES and adolescent obesity for either boys or girls. However, girls in the high FAS group showed a pattern of lower neighborhood SES being associated with a significant increase in risk of obesity; in the high neighborhood SES group, boys showed a pattern of higher FAS being associated with a significant increase in risk of obesity, whereas girls show a pattern of decrease. Conclusion Although limited, the present study demonstrated that some girl groups exhibited a pattern of lower neighborhood SES being associated with an increase in risk of obesity, as well as a gender-based difference in risk of obesity by individual SES. Therefore, measures to prevent adolescent obesity should be established with consideration for differences in risk according to individual and neighborhood SES. PMID:26885325

  7. Early Initiation of Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and Sexual Intercourse Linked to Suicidal Ideation and Attempts: Findings from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between early initiation of problem behaviors (alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse) and suicidal behaviors (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), and explored the effect of concurrent participation in these problem behaviors on suicidal behaviors among Korean adolescent males and females. Materials and Methods Data were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative sample of middle and high school students (32,417 males and 31,467 females) in grades seven through twelve. Bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Several important covariates, such as age, family living structure, household economic status, academic performance, current alcohol drinking, current cigarette smoking, current butane gas or glue sniffing, perceived body weight, unhealthy weight control behaviors, subjective sleep evaluation, and depressed mood were included in the analyses. Results Both male and female preteen initiators of each problem behavior were at greater risk for suicidal behaviors than non-initiators, even after controlling for covariates. More numerous concurrent problematic behaviors were correlated with greater likelihood of seriously considering or attempting suicide among both males and females. This pattern was more clearly observed in preteen than in teen initiators although the former and latter were engaged in the same frequency of problem behavior. Conclusion Early initiation of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and sexual intercourse, particularly among preteens, represented an important predictor of later suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in both genders. Thus, early preventive intervention programs should be developed and may reduce the potential risks for subsequent suicidal behaviors. PMID:20046509

  8. The Relationship between Smoking and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors among Korean Adolescents: The Tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, 2014.

    PubMed

    Sim, Won Yong; Cho, Young Gyu; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Hur, Yang Im; Shin, Koh Eun; Byeon, Gyeong Ran

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent smoking is positively related to weight control attempts, especially by unhealthy methods. The co-occurrence of smoking and unhealthy weight control behaviors may cause serious health problems in adolescents. This study examined the relationship of smoking with unhealthy weight control behaviors among Korean adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 31,090 students of grades 7 to 12, who had tried to reduce or maintain their weight during the 30 days prior to The Tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, 2014. Data on height, weight, weight control methods, smoking, alcohol intake, living with one's family, and perceived economic status were obtained through self-report questionnaires. 'Unhealthy weight control behaviors' were subcategorized into 'extreme weight control behaviors' and 'less extreme weight control behaviors.' The smoking rates were 13.3%±0.4% in boys and 3.8%±0.2% in girls. Current smokers were more likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (odds ratio [OR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 2.00 in boys, and OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.59 to 2.65 in girls) and less extreme weight control behaviors (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.40 in boys, and OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.22 to 1.76 in girls) compared to non-smokers among both boys and girls. Current smoking is independently related to a high likelihood of engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors among Korean adolescents. This relationship is stronger for girls than for boys. Extreme weight control behaviors have a stronger relationship with current smoking than less extreme weight control behaviors.

  9. Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed. PMID:24921019

  10. Relationships between Body Image, Body Mass Index, and Smoking in Korean Adolescents: Results of a Nationwide Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Taek; Kim, Hye In; Kim, Jee Hoon; Lee, Seok-Jin R; Hong, Seri; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the association between subjective body image or objective body mass index (BMI) and the risk of daily smoking in Korean adolescents, with a purpose of identifying the most suitable models. Using the 2013 9th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data for 72,435 students, odds ratios were calculated for daily smoking in the past month, according to the subjective body image and calculated BMI using a respective multiple logistic regression model. The combined effect of these two factors was also analyzed by pairing a BMI category with a subjective body image category, using odds ratios for the same event within each sex group. Among the surveyed students, 7.2% of boys and 1.8% of girls were classified as daily smokers. Students who perceived themselves as being very obese tended to be at lower risk of daily smoking (OR=0.61 in boys with 95% CI=0.47 to 0.79; OR=0.66 in women with 95% CI=0.47 to 0.93). In addition, boys within the obese or overweight BMI category showed a lower risk of daily smoking (OR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.77-0.96). Lean BMI was significantly associated with higher odds ratios for daily smoking only in female students (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.02-1.52). When pairing these two objective and subjective factors, results suggested that subjective body image has a greater effect on daily smoking than BMI in both boys and girls. In both male and female students, subjective body image had a greater effect on daily smoking than body mass index. A model using the combination of BMI and subjective body image was the best fit in girls, in contrast to the model using subjective body image only best suitable in boys, for the prediction of daily smoking. These results including several factors associated with daily smoking in Korean students, provide useful data for the development and implementation of smoking intervention and cessation programs for adolescents.

  11. Smile arcs of Caucasian and Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Keun; Rashid, Robert G; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to measure and compare the smile arcs (tooth and lip arcs) of young Caucasian and Korean subjects. Two hundred subjects (100 male and 100 female) were selected from Caucasian and Korean students. Class photographs taken with a digital camera showing the subjects with a posed smile were used for this study. Curves were rendered as semitransparent overlays, which were manipulated over the images using Adobe Photoshop to determine the best fit for tooth and lip arcs. There were statistically significant differences due to ethnicity and gender. Mean lip arcs had greater curvature than mean tooth arcs.

  12. Nigeria's youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Igwe, S A

    1992-05-01

    Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth.

  13. Bullying increased suicide risk: prospective study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Leventhal, Bennett L; Koh, Yun-Joo; Boyce, W Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the independent impact of bullying on suicide risk. Bullying was assessed by peer nomination in a prospective study of 1,655 7th and 8th grade Korean students, and suicide by youth self-report. Odds Ratios (ORs) of bullying for suicidal risks were computed, controlling for other suicide risk factors. Victim-Perpetrators and female Victims at baseline showed increased risk for persistent suicidality (OR: 2.4-9.8). Male Incident Victims exhibited increased risk for suicidal behaviors and ideations (OR = 4.4, 3.6). Female Persistent Perpetrators exhibited increased risks for suicidal behaviors; male Incident Perpetrators had increased risk for suicidal ideations (OR = 2.7, 2.3). Baseline-only male Victim-Perpetrators showed increased risk for suicidal ideations. (OR = 6.4). Bullying independently increased suicide risks.

  14. Associations between the Risk of Internet Addiction and Problem Behaviors among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jisun; Lee, Jungkwon; Noh, Hye-Mi; Park, Yong Soon; Ahn, Eun Ju

    2013-03-01

    The number of internet users is increasing rapidly and internet addiction among adolescents has become a serious public health problem in Korea. In the light of behavioral addiction, this study was aimed to identify the associations between the risk of internet addiction and other problem behaviors which can lead to addiction, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, and sexual intercourse among a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (respondents, 73,238) were analyzed. Risk of internet addiction was assessed by the 'Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form: Self Report' which was developed by the Korean National Information Society Agency in 2008. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratios of problem behaviors among adolescents at high risk for internet addiction and adolescents at low risk for internet addiction. The odds of smoking experience, drug abuse experience, and sexual intercourse experience were significantly higher among boys at high risk for internet addiction compared to boys at low risk for internet addiction. Among girls at high risk of internet addiction, the odds of smoking experience, drinking experience, and drug abuse experience were significantly higher compared with girls at low risk of internet addiction. The risk of internet addiction was associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, drug abuse, and sexual intercourse experience among Korean adolescents.

  15. Relationship between Mobile Phone Addiction and the Incidence of Poor and Short Sleep among Korean Adolescents: a Longitudinal Study of the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Eun; Jang, Sung In; Ju, Yeong Jun; Kim, Woorim; Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Eun Cheol

    2017-07-01

    Three of ten teenagers in Korea are addicted to mobile phones. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between mobile phone addiction and the incidence of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration in adolescents. We used longitudinal data from the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea (2011-2013). A total of 1,125 students at baseline were included in this study after excluding those who already had poor sleep quality or short sleep duration in the previous year. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the data. High mobile phone addiction (mobile phone addiction score > 20) increased the risk of poor sleep quality but not short sleep duration. We suggest that consistent monitoring and effective intervention programs are required to prevent mobile phone addiction and improve adolescents' sleep quality. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  16. Risk Factors and Mediators of Suicidal Ideation Among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yi Jin; Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Jang Hyun; Kim, Joon Kyung

    2016-11-21

    A significant number of Korean adolescents have suicidal ideations and it is more prevalent among adolescents than any other age group in Korea. This study was conducted to attain a better understanding of the contributing factors to suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents. We recruited 569 high school students in Grades 10 and 11 in Pyeongtaek, Korea. The Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation was used to measure suicidal ideation as the outcome variable. The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the School Related Stress Scale, the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, and the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questions were used to measure thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness, school-related stress, bullying, and previous suicidal behaviors, respectively. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling. The findings suggest that perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness, school-related stress, and previous suicidal behaviors have significant direct effects on suicidal ideation. Hopelessness fully mediated the relation between thwarted belongingness and suicidal ideation, and partially mediated between perceived burdensomeness, school-related stress, and suicidal ideation. These findings provide more specific directions for a multidimensional suicide prevention program in order to be successful in reducing suicide rates among Korean adolescents.

  17. Violence Victimization in Korean Adolescents: Risk Factors and Psychological Problems.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jang, Hyesue; Jo, Minkyung

    2017-05-19

    We examined the risk factors for and psychological problems associated with violence victimization in a nationwide representative sample of Korean adolescents. Data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey was used. Participants were asked about their experience of being a victim of violence that required medical treatment during the past 12 months, as well as their perceived health, happiness, sleep satisfaction, stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The 12-month prevalence of violence victimization requiring medical treatment was 2.4%. The results indicated that adolescents were at an increased risk for violence victimization if they were male, older, had parents of a foreign nationality, did not reside with their family, worked part time, resided in small cities or rural areas, were high or low in socioeconomic status (SES), exhibited high or low levels of academic performance, used alcohol or tobacco, and were sexually active. In addition, while violence victimization was negatively associated with perceived health and happiness, it was positively associated with perceived stress, depressed mood, and suicidality. The results indicate that a social disadvantage, involvement in risky behavior, and psychological problems are associated with violence victimization. Effective violence prevention efforts should thus target high-risk groups, and clinical attention is needed to address the psychological costs associated with violence victimization.

  18. An Analysis of Career Maturity among Korean Youths Using Latent Growth Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sung-Man

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of career maturity among Korean youths between late adolescence and mid-20s, and explored how career-counseling experiences, academic achievement, household income, parental involvement, and gender affected their career maturity. We used the 2,362 Youth Panel data collected between 2008-2014 by…

  19. Perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang

    2011-03-01

    Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.

  20. The Future of Korean American Children and Youth: Marginality, Biculturality, and the Role of the American Public School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bok-Lim C.

    In this paper, the educational progress of Korean Americans is attributed largely to the effects of conflict between biculturality and marginality. This report examines the educational needs and problems of Korean American children and youth with respect to demographic and historical characteristics of Korean Americans and their evolving…

  1. Impact of youth cultural orientation on perception of family process and development among Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, Tae Yeun; Pekelnicky, Dina Drankus; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, You Seung

    2017-04-01

    This study examined how cultural orientations influence youth perception of family processes in Korean American families and how these family processes, in turn, predict depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among youth. Family processes were examined separately for maternal and paternal variables. This study used survey data from Korean American families living in the Midwest (256 youth and their parents) across 2 time periods, spanned over a year. At the time of the first interview, the average age of youth was 13 (SD = 1.00). Using structural equation modeling, this study tested the hypothesized associations concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier outcomes. Results show that identity and behavioral enculturation in one's heritage culture are predictors of bonding with parents, which is notably protective for youth. The results highlight the critical effect of enculturation in enhancing youth perception of the parent-child relationship. Behavioral acculturation to mainstream culture, in contrast, predicts youth problems, although the effect may not necessarily always be via family processes. Similarly, Korean and English language proficiencies predict fewer youth problems, but not always by way of family processes. A few differences emerged across maternal and paternal variables, although there was much commonality in the hypothesized relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Relationship between Mobile Phone Addiction and the Incidence of Poor and Short Sleep among Korean Adolescents: a Longitudinal Study of the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Three of ten teenagers in Korea are addicted to mobile phones. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between mobile phone addiction and the incidence of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration in adolescents. We used longitudinal data from the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea (2011–2013). A total of 1,125 students at baseline were included in this study after excluding those who already had poor sleep quality or short sleep duration in the previous year. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the data. High mobile phone addiction (mobile phone addiction score > 20) increased the risk of poor sleep quality but not short sleep duration. We suggest that consistent monitoring and effective intervention programs are required to prevent mobile phone addiction and improve adolescents' sleep quality. PMID:28581275

  3. Youth at Risk: Is Technology the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuirk, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    Discusses youth at-risk in Australia and describes a small research project on youth at risk and technology. The project investigated if and how computers were being used in youth-at-risk programs in New South Wales. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  4. U.S. History through the Eyes of South Korean Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Sohyun; Kim, Myung Jung; Delacruz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The study begins with the premise of the critical need of increased understanding of others in our global times. Given the intensive and extensive, and often complicated and controversial relations between the United States and South Korea in its modern history, it is critical for South Korean youth to build a more accurate understanding of their…

  5. U.S. History through the Eyes of South Korean Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Sohyun; Kim, Myung Jung; Delacruz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The study begins with the premise of the critical need of increased understanding of others in our global times. Given the intensive and extensive, and often complicated and controversial relations between the United States and South Korea in its modern history, it is critical for South Korean youth to build a more accurate understanding of their…

  6. Situating Alcohol Use and Delinquency within Developmental and Societal Context: The Case of Korean Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ji-Min; Bell, Nancy J.; Watson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    In this study involving self-report questionnaire data from 955 tenth-grade students in three locations within Korea, we address the meanings of alcohol use and delinquency for Korean youth. Findings (a) supported a facilitative role for alcohol, but not delinquency, with respect to perceived peer social competence; (b) indicated negative…

  7. Situating Alcohol Use and Delinquency within Developmental and Societal Context: The Case of Korean Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ji-Min; Bell, Nancy J.; Watson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    In this study involving self-report questionnaire data from 955 tenth-grade students in three locations within Korea, we address the meanings of alcohol use and delinquency for Korean youth. Findings (a) supported a facilitative role for alcohol, but not delinquency, with respect to perceived peer social competence; (b) indicated negative…

  8. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  9. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  10. A Test of an Integrative Model Using Social Factors and Personality Traits: Prediction on the Delinquency of South Korean Youth.

    PubMed

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung; Park, Woong-Sub

    2016-01-11

    To more fully comprehend juvenile delinquency, it is necessary to take an integrative approach, with consideration of both personality traits of social risk factors. Many scholars argue the necessity and strength of integrative approach on the ground that juvenile delinquency is an outcome of interplay of individual and social factors. The present study examines the general applicability of an integrative model of personal traits and social risk factors to youth delinquency in the South Korean context. The empirical results show that the delinquency predictors in the current South Korean sample are closely aligned to Loeber and Farrington's theoretical propositions and that found in Western nations. Perhaps this is because South Korea has undergone rapid Westernization for the last decades. Because the correlates in this sample and Western theoretical propositions and studies overlap, an integrative model of personality trait and social risk factors is indeed generally applicable to South Korea. This finding also depicts the extent of Westernization in the South Korean society at least among adolescents. Limitations of the present study and directions for the future study are discussed.

  11. Inhalant abuse: youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Falsafi, Nasrin

    2013-08-01

    Inhalant abuse is a significant problem affecting many people, particularly youth. The easy availability of products containing volatile substances (e.g., aerosol sprays, cleaning products, paint) provides opportunity for mind-altering experiences. Unfortunately, serious complications such as brain, cardiovascular, liver, and renal damage or even death may ensue. Adolescents perceive the risk as low, and parents may be unaware of the risks. Health care providers, particularly psychiatric nurses, should undertake strategies of prevention, assessment, and treatment of this challenging problem. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Cyberbullying, problematic internet use, and psychopathologic symptoms among Korean youth.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them.

  13. Cyberbullying, Problematic Internet Use, and Psychopathologic Symptoms among Korean Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them. PMID:24719154

  14. Korean immigrants' knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seon Y; Ryan, Catherine J; Zerwic, Julie Johnson

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors in a convenience sample of Korean immigrants. A total of 116 Korean immigrants in a Midwestern metropolitan area were recruited through Korean churches and markets. Knowledge was assessed using both open-ended questions and a structured questionnaire. Latent class cluster analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. About 76% of the sample had at least one self-reported risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Using an open-ended question, the majority of subjects could only identify one symptom. In the structured questionnaire, subjects identified a mean of 5 out of 10 heart attack symptoms and a mean of 5 out of 9 heart attack risk factors. Latent class cluster analysis showed that subjects clustered into two groups for both risk factors and symptoms: a high knowledge group and a low knowledge group. Subjects who clustered into the risk factor low knowledge group (48%) were more likely than the risk factor high knowledge group to be older than 65 years, to have lower education, to not know to use 911 when a heart attack occurred, and to not have a family history of heart attack. Korean immigrants' knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors was variable, ranging from high to very low. Education should be focused on those at highest risk for a heart attack, which includes the elderly and those with risk factors.

  15. Development, risk, and resilience of transgender youth.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Kimberly A

    2010-01-01

    Transgender youth face unique and complex issues as they confront cultural expectations of gender expression and how these fit with what is natural for them. Striving for balance, learning to cope, questioning, and eventually becoming comfortable with one's gender identity and sexual orientation are of paramount importance for healthy growth and development. Ineffective management of intense challenges over time without adequate social support places youth at risk for a number of unhealthy behaviors, including risk behaviors associated with acquiring HIV. This article explores early foundations of gender identity development, challenges in the development of transgender youth, and the limited data that exist on transgender youth and HIV risks. The concept of resilience is introduced as a counterbalancing area for assessment and intervention in practice and future research with transgender youth.

  16. Nevada Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ken; And Others

    A relatively small number of preventable behaviors, such as drinking alcohol and driving, failing to wear seat belts, and engaging in unprotected intercourse, contribute greatly to morbidity and mortality among youth and young adults. An extensive survey of the risk behaviors of one state's youth is described here. A total of 1,538 responses from…

  17. Estimating radiation risk induced by CT screening for Korean population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Won Seok; Yang, Hye Jeong; Min, Byung In

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to estimate the radiation risks induced by chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) screening for healthcare and to determine the cancer risk level of the Korean population compared to other populations. We used an ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator to compute the organ effective dose induced by CT screening (chest, low-dose chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis CT). A risk model was applied using principles based on the BEIR VII Report in order to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) using the Korean Life Table 2010. In addition, several countries including Hong Kong, the United States (U.S.), and the United Kingdom, were selected for comparison. Herein, each population exposed radiation dose of 100 mSv was classified according to country, gender and age. For each CT screening the total organ effective dose calculated by ImPACT was 6.2, 1.5, 5.2 and 11.4 mSv, respectively. In the case of Korean female LAR, it was similar to Hong Kong female but lower than those of U.S. and U.K. females, except for those in their twenties. The LAR of Korean males was the highest for all types of CT screening. However, the difference of the risk level was negligible because of the quite low value.

  18. Youth Internet use: risks and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Guan, Shu-Sha Angie; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri

    2009-07-01

    The Internet has become all pervasive in the lives of young people and this paper will review studies that examine the risks and opportunities that it affords. We will examine research that investigates the more negative aspects of youth online behavior such as addiction as well as online risks such as harassment/cyber bullying and sexual solicitation. In addition, positive aspects of Internet use such as its potential for learning and enhancing social relations as well as delivering health interventions will be examined. The results show that online risks such as addiction, cyber bullying, and sexual solicitation are associated with negative consequences for youth. It is important to note that not all children are equally susceptible and more research is necessary to identify the youth most at risk as well as to develop effective interventions. The Internet can also provide benefits in the areas of cognitive, social, and physical development, and can also be used to deliver treatment interventions. The Internet represents both risks and opportunities for young people. To protect youth who are at risk for online addiction, bullying, and solicitation, we need more research to understand which youth may be most susceptible and to develop targeted interventions to protect them. The Internet also has many positive aspects and can be used to enhance youth learning and empowerment; although it is a tremendous health resource and can be used to cheaply deliver interventions, we need to understand how to better implement them to enhance their effectiveness.

  19. Race-Ethnicity and Culture in the Family and Youth Outcomes: Test of a Path Model with Korean American Youth and Parents

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Tan, Kevin Poh Hiong; Yasui, Miwa; Pekelnicky, Dina Drankus

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interplay of parental racial-ethnic socialization and youth multidimensional cultural orientations to investigate how they indirectly and directly influence youth depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors. Using data from the Korean American Families (KAF) Project (220 youths, 272 mothers, and 164 fathers, N = 656), this study tested the relationships concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier youth outcomes. The main findings include that racial-ethnic socialization is significantly associated with mainstream and ethnic cultural orientation among youth, which in turn influences depressive symptoms (but not antisocial behaviors). More specifically, parental racial-ethnic identity and pride discourage youth mainstream orientation, whereas cultural socialization in the family, as perceived by youth, increases ethnic orientation. These findings suggest a varying impact of racial-ethnic socialization on the multidimensional cultural orientations of youth. Korean language proficiency of youth was most notably predictive of a decrease in the number of depressive symptoms concurrently, longitudinally, and after controlling for previous levels of depressive symptoms. English language proficiency was also associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms, implying a benefit of bilingualism. PMID:24611081

  20. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seulki; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women.

  1. Individualized Risk Prediction Model for Lung Cancer in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohee; Nam, Byung-Ho; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Ji An; Lim, Hyunsun; Han, Jun Tae; Park, Il Su; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Jin Soo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Korea. The objective of the present study was to develop an individualized risk prediction model for lung cancer in Korean men using population-based cohort data. Methods From a population-based cohort study of 1,324,804 Korean men free of cancer at baseline, the individualized absolute risk of developing lung cancer was estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. We checked the validity of the model using C statistics and the Hosmer–Lemeshow chi-square test on an external validation dataset. Results The risk prediction model for lung cancer in Korean men included smoking exposure, age at smoking initiation, body mass index, physical activity, and fasting glucose levels. The model showed excellent performance (C statistic = 0.871, 95% CI = 0.867–0.876). Smoking was significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in Korean men, with a four-fold increased risk in current smokers consuming more than one pack a day relative to non-smokers. Age at smoking initiation was also a significant predictor for developing lung cancer; a younger age at initiation was associated with a higher risk of developing lung cancer. Conclusion This is the first study to provide an individualized risk prediction model for lung cancer in an Asian population with very good model performance. In addition to current smoking status, earlier exposure to smoking was a very important factor for developing lung cancer. Since most of the risk factors are modifiable, this model can be used to identify those who are at a higher risk and who can subsequently modify their lifestyle choices to lower their risk of lung cancer. PMID:23408946

  2. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. Methods: We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. Results: A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women. PMID:27255073

  3. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... health agencies and tribal governments. Overview Youth Online Data Analysis Tool Results Participation Maps & History YRBSS Frequently Asked Questions Methods Data & Documentation Questionnaires Communication Resources Contact Us Get Email ...

  4. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Agricultural Risk Factors Among Korean Farmers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Lee, Myeong-Jun; Chung, HweeMin; Shin, Dong-Hee; Youn, Kan-Woo; Im, Sang-Hyuk; Chae, Hye Seon; Lee, Kyung Suk

    2016-01-01

    Farming is a strenuous occupation with various health risks, with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) being some of the most common. The risk factors for MSDs among Korean farmers are not well understood. Data were obtained from the Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (2012), which interviewed 16,113 participants regarding their demographic profiles, self-reported MSDs, and agricultural characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for MSDs. Subjects reported MSDs in the neck or upper extremities (5.89%), lower extremities (19.62%), and back (26.9%). Working in animal husbandry significantly increased the risk of MSDs in the neck/upper extremities, compared with irrigation farming (odds ratio: 1.837, 95% confidence interval: 1.130-2.987). The risk of MSDs increased significantly with number of years of farming, after adjusting for age and sex (neck/upper extremities, P for trend = .0002; lower extremities, <.001; back, <.001). Agriculture type, years of farming, and ergonomic factors increased the risk of MSDs among Korean farmers.

  5. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    PubMed Central

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  6. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: United States, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Williams, Barbara; Ross, James G.; Lowry, Richard; Kolbe, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    Examined national Youth Risk Behavior Survey data and state and local surveys of high school students to investigate behaviors contributing to unintentional injuries, violence, substance use, age at initiation of risk behaviors, substance abuse on school property, sexual behaviors contributing to pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases,…

  7. Cultivating Trust among Urban Youth at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Michael A.; Johnson, Bob L., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    By examining data from interviews with students in the Upward Bound program (a federally sponsored program that provides academic support to students at risk who are preparing for college entrance), this study seeks to strengthen an understanding of the role of trust among urban youth at risk in the educational organizations that serve them. This…

  8. Colorado: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Univ. Health Sciences Center, Denver.

    In April 1991, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to a sample of 1,412 high school students in Colorado public schools to collect information about priority health-risk behaviors among adolescents. Questionnaires were received from 1,170 students, a response rate of 83%. Classes in Colorado's 280 public schools were also selected to…

  9. Dietary Patterns and Osteoporosis Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Joo, Seong-Eun; Min, Haesook; Park, Jae Kyung; Kim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sung Soo; Ahn, Younjhin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of osteoporosis and related fractures has increased rapidly in Korean women. Proper nutrition intake is associated with the prevention of osteoporosis. We analyzed the association between dietary patterns and the risk of osteoporosis during a 4-year follow-up in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 1,725) who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were enrolled. Food intake was assessed using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a quantitative ultrasound device was used to measure the speed of sound at the radius and tibia. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis based on baseline intake data: traditional (high intake of rice, kimchi, and vegetables), dairy (high intake of milk, dairy products, and green tea), and western (high intake of sugar, fat, and bread). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risk for osteoporosis. An inverse association was detected between the dairy dietary pattern and the osteoporosis incidence [relative risk (RR): 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.93, p-trend=0.055 in radius; RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35–0.90, p-trend=0.048 in tibia]. Individuals in the highest quintile for the traditional dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.009 in tibia) and western dietary pattern (p-trend = 0.043 in radius) demonstrated a higher risk of osteoporosis incidence than those in the lowest quintile. Conclusion These results suggested that high consumption of milk, dairy products, and green tea may reduce the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. PMID:24159515

  10. At Risk Youth: Theory, Practice, and Reform--A Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronick, Robert F.

    The term "at-risk" has changed significantly in its usage and some of the insights offered by college students studying at-risk youth are presented in this paper. Their observations are grouped under what it means to be an at-risk youth; measurement techniques, such as the status or cohort method, which are used to identify such youth; the…

  11. Development of Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:24848006

  12. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  13. Youth-Initiated HIV Risk and Substance Use Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goggin, K.; Metcalf, K.; Wise, D.; Kennedy, S.; Murray, T.; Burgess, D.; Reese-Smith, J.; Terhune, N.; Broadus, K.; Downes, A.; Buckendahl, H.

    This study evaluates the first year of a novel HIV and substance use prevention program for inner city youth (Offering New Youth eXperiences--ONYX). Baseline and follow-up measures of knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors were administered seven months apart to 441 youth participating in the ONYX program. Youth (n=71) who provided data at both…

  14. Nevada Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, Penelope P.; Sharp, Joyce

    This report discusses results of the Nevada Department of Education's fourth statewide administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Students in grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 (N=2,702) from 75 public high schools participated in the study. Nevada high school students reported behaviors that equaled or exceeded goals established in the national…

  15. Listening to At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child & Youth Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter I describe the micro "risk society" of Limerick City and St. Augustine's Youth Encounter Project in terms of the social and cultural background of the interviewees, their perceived family and community identity, and their wider socialisation influences. The project is situated down one of the notorious Limerick lanes made…

  16. Youth Risk Assessment in Complex Agency Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groner, Mark R.; Solomon, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Advancements in the delivery of community-based services and tight utilization management of high-cost treatment options result in youths with serious behavior problems receiving intervention in lower levels of care than was true ten or fifteen years ago. This shift in where services tend to be delivered necessitates enhancement of risk assessment…

  17. Listening to At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child & Youth Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter I describe the micro "risk society" of Limerick City and St. Augustine's Youth Encounter Project in terms of the social and cultural background of the interviewees, their perceived family and community identity, and their wider socialisation influences. The project is situated down one of the notorious Limerick lanes made…

  18. U.S. Korean Youth's Ideas and Experience of U.S. Education, U.S. Society, and U.S. History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Sohyun

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on and conversing with the large body of research and literature on young people's historical understanding, Asian American education, transnational migration, and Korean American studies, this dissertation research explored contemporary U.S. Korean youth's ideas and experiences of U.S. education, U.S. society and U.S. history.…

  19. Risk Factors for Social Isolation in Older Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Ko, Jisook; Lee, Juyoung; Kim, Miyong T

    2016-02-01

    Given the importance of social ties and connectedness in the lives of older ethnic immigrants, the present study examined the prevalence of social isolation and its risk factors in older Korean Americans. Using survey data from 1,301 participants (Mage = 70.5, SD = 7.24), risk groups for marginal social ties with family and friends were identified and predictors of each type of social isolation explored. Male gender and poorer rating of health were identified as common risk factors for marginal ties to both family and friends. Findings also present specific risk factors for each type of social isolation. For example, an increased risk of having marginal ties with friends was observed among individuals with perceived financial strain, greater functional impairment, and a shorter stay in the United States. The common and specific risk factors should be incorporated in programs to reduce social isolation in older immigrant populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Risk Factors for Social Isolation in Older Korean Americans

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A.; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Ko, Jisook; Lee, Juyoung; Kim, Miyong T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Given the importance of social ties and connectedness in the lives of older ethnic immigrants, the present study examined the prevalence of social isolation and its risk factors in older Korean Americans. Method Using survey data from 1,301 participants (Mage = 70.5, SD = 7.24), risk groups for marginal social ties with family and friends were identified and predictors of each type of social isolation explored. Results Male gender and poorer rating of health were identified as common risk factors for marginal ties to both family and friends. Findings also present specific risk factors for each type of social isolation. For example, an increased risk of having marginal ties with friends was observed among individuals with perceived financial strain, greater functional impairment, and a shorter stay in the United States. Discussion The common and specific risk factors should be incorporated in programs to reduce social isolation in older immigrant populations. PMID:25953812

  1. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured health risk behaviors at alternative high schools. Many alternative students engaged in behaviors that made them high-risk for serious problems (e.g., motor vehicle safety, violence, nutrition, sexuality, exercise, and substance abuse). Their prevalence of high risk…

  2. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured health risk behaviors at alternative high schools. Many alternative students engaged in behaviors that made them high-risk for serious problems (e.g., motor vehicle safety, violence, nutrition, sexuality, exercise, and substance abuse). Their prevalence of high risk…

  3. Dyadic Taxonomy of Delinquent Youth: Exploring Risks and Outcomes Associated With Maternal-Youth Reporting Discrepancies of Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Joan A.; Sullivan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth < maternal, youth > maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more…

  4. Dyadic Taxonomy of Delinquent Youth: Exploring Risks and Outcomes Associated With Maternal-Youth Reporting Discrepancies of Delinquent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Joan A.; Sullivan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using latent class analysis (LCA), this study identified a dyadic taxonomy of delinquent youth categorized by varying types of maternal-youth reporting discrepancies (i.e., youth < maternal, youth > maternal) within a sample of 764 14-year-old high-risk youth. Four distinctive subgroups of youth were identified, two of which reported more…

  5. At-Risk Youth Appearance and Job Performance Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburg, Beth Winfrey; Workman, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the relationship of at-risk youth workplace appearance to other job performance criteria. Employers (n = 30; each employing from 1 to 17 youths) evaluated 178 at-risk high school youths who completed a paid summer employment experience. Appearance evaluations were significantly correlated with evaluations of…

  6. Life after the pan and the fire: Depression, order, attachment, and the legacy of abuse among North Korean refugee youth and adolescent children of North Korean refugees.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Lee, Jung Yun; Kang, Chulhee

    2015-07-01

    Given previous research on depression, history of physical abuse, family order, attachment, and parenting, we hypothesized that the physical abuse-depression relationship would be moderated by (a) family order and (b) attachment, and that (c) attachment and family order would interact significantly in predicting depression. Hypotheses were tested in South Korea in a random cluster sample of 82 youth aged 15-25 who were either themselves North Korean refugees (n=39) or who were born to North Korean refugee mothers in China (n=43). A qualitative interview was used to shed further light on the findings. Family order appears to be a protective factor against depression in that more order is associated with a weakened past abuse-depression relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. School bonds and the onset of substance use among Korean youth: an examination of social control theory.

    PubMed

    Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Ma, Julie

    2015-03-09

    This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi's social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization--four elements of social bonds within the school setting--in delayed initiation of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Discrete-time logistic regression was used to analyze five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N=3449 at baseline), a nationally representative sample of Korean youth. Stronger teacher attachment, higher educational aspiration, and higher rule internalization were correlated with delayed onset of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. On the other hand, participation in school extracurricular activities was positively associated with the onset of alcohol drinking, but not statistically significantly linked with the onset of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that early prevention strategies for youth substance use should specifically target school-related factors that represent social bonds developed among youth.

  8. Educational resilience among youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Karen A; Fraser, Mark W; Orthner, Dennis K

    2004-04-01

    Educational experts and others recognize the importance of early school experiences on later educational outcomes. Following a sample of youth based on 692 files from low-income, single parent families over time, from one urban school district in the Southeastern United States, 1989-1990 to 1996-1997, we apply event history analytic techniques to examine the relationship between first grade retention and completing high school. The findings indicate that being retained in the first grade increases the risk of dropping out of high school years later. The results also show a link between retention, extracurricular activity participation, and high school completion. The risk of dropping out is lower for those youth who were retained and were involved in activities during high school. The implication is that educational trajectories can be redirected such that positive educational outcomes can occur.

  9. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  10. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    PubMed

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  11. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  12. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  13. Risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Cho, KiHun; Cho, Hwi-Young; Han, Gyeong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between psychosocial stress, occupational stress, and musculoskeletal symptoms in Korean dental practitioners. [Subjects and Methods] Self-reported questionnaires were distributed to 401 dental practitioners in Korea. To assess the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, the Korean Occupational Stress Scale, and Psychosocial Well-Being Index Short Form were used. General and work-related characteristics of the subjects consisted of seven items, including age, career, height, weight, working days/week, working hours/day, and physical strain levels. [Results] In this study, 86.8% of the practitioners experienced musculoskeletal symptoms (shoulders, 72.8%; neck, 69.3%; waist, 68.3%; wrist, 58.4%; back, 44.1%; ankle, 38.7%; knee, 36.9%; hip, 20.4%; and elbows, 9.2%). Moreover, psychosocial and occupational stress can affect the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. In particular, we found that psychosocial stress has significant influence on the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. [Conclusion] To increase the quality of life and provide high-quality medical service for dental practitioners, risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders must be managed. Accordingly, dental practitioners must maintain good posture, get an appropriate amount of rest, and perform regular stretching exercise to reduce psychological stress and improve the work environment.

  14. The traditional Korean dietary pattern is associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Won; Cho, Mi Sook

    2014-01-01

    The traditional Korean diet has several healthy components, including abundant vegetables, fermented foods, a variety of foodstuffs, and a balance of animal and vegetable food intake. Although the traditional Korean diet has many healthy components, few studies have been conducted on the health advantages of the Korean dietary pattern. This study is intended to clarify the relationship between Korean dietary patterns and chronic diseases using the Integrated Korean Dietary Pattern Score (I-KDPS). I-KDPS is an index for measuring Korean dietary patterns based on traditional Korean meals and reflects the complex and multifaceted characteristics of Korean food culture. I-KDPS is composed of seven items to measure the level of balance and adequacy of Korean food consumption, with a maximum score of 60. When I-KDPS was applied to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2009), a nationwide survey, I-KDPS was closely related to the risk of metabolic syndrome. Even though there were a few differences among the years surveyed, the risk of metabolic syndrome, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased as I-KDPS increased. These results indicate that risk of diseases, including metabolic syndrome, decreases in individuals adhering to traditional Korean dietary patterns in adequate levels and those who eat a balanced diet. The result of this study shows that the traditional Korean table setting, which comprises side dishes, including seasoned vegetables, grilled dishes, and fermented products with cooked rice (bap), soup (guk), and kimchi, contains traits that help prevent metabolic syndrome. I-KDPS coupled with the basic study of the healthfulness of the Korean dietary lifestyle is expected to help establish a foundation for continuous development of health promoting Korean foods and dietary culture.

  15. Somatotype and body composition analysis of Korean youth soccer players according to playing position for sports physiotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotype and physical characteristic differences among elite youth soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, we evaluated twenty-two Korean youth soccer players in different playing positions. The playing positions were divided into forward (FW), midfielder (MF), defender (DF), and goalkeeper (GK). The participants' lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured and their somatotype determined according to the Heath-Carter method. [Results] The youth soccer players had twelve ectomorphic, eight mesomorphic, and two central predominant types. The DFs were taller than, but otherwise similar in physical characteristics to the FWs and MFs. The GKs were taller and heavier than the other players; however, their somatotype components were not significantly different. LBM, FFM, and BMR were significantly higher in GKs than in FWs and MFs. Although LBM, FFM, and BMR values between GKs and DFs showed large differences, they were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The present study may contribute to our understanding of the differences in somatotype and body composition of Korean youth soccer players involved in sports physiotherapy research.

  16. Somatotype and body composition analysis of Korean youth soccer players according to playing position for sports physiotherapy research

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotype and physical characteristic differences among elite youth soccer players. [Subjects and Methods] In the present study, we evaluated twenty-two Korean youth soccer players in different playing positions. The playing positions were divided into forward (FW), midfielder (MF), defender (DF), and goalkeeper (GK). The participants’ lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were measured and their somatotype determined according to the Heath-Carter method. [Results] The youth soccer players had twelve ectomorphic, eight mesomorphic, and two central predominant types. The DFs were taller than, but otherwise similar in physical characteristics to the FWs and MFs. The GKs were taller and heavier than the other players; however, their somatotype components were not significantly different. LBM, FFM, and BMR were significantly higher in GKs than in FWs and MFs. Although LBM, FFM, and BMR values between GKs and DFs showed large differences, they were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The present study may contribute to our understanding of the differences in somatotype and body composition of Korean youth soccer players involved in sports physiotherapy research. PMID:25995545

  17. Advancing Understanding of Acculturation for Adolescents of Asian Immigrants: Person-Oriented Analysis of Acculturation Strategy among Korean American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Tan, Kevin Poh Hiong; Yasui, Miwa; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation strategy, a significant predictor of immigrant adaptation, has been understudied with Asian Americans, in particular, Asian American youth. Using person-oriented latent profile analysis, this study identified acculturation strategies among Korean American early adolescents living in the Midwest. Two-hundred ninety one families were interviewed in 2007 that included 220 youth (mean age = 13, 47.7% female), along with 272 mothers and 164 fathers (N=656). They were re-interviewed in 2008 (N=588). The study found three distinct acculturation strategies: separation (11.8%, n=26), integrated bicultural (66.9%, n=150), and modest bicultural (21.3%, n=44). Integrated bicultural youth reported the strongest sense of ethnic identity and the most favorable characteristics, providing empirical support for the benefit of biculturalism. The findings further suggest that separation may not be as detrimental as previously thought, and modest bicultural—biculturalism that is not fully developed—may in fact be less desirable among Korean American youth. PMID:27146143

  18. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--National Alternative High School Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    1999-01-01

    The Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), which monitors six categories of health risk behaviors among youth and young adults. The 1998 ALT-YRBS measured priority health risk behaviors among students at alternative high schools. It used a three-stage…

  19. Results Of The 2003 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Martha C.; Parrie, Chelsey; Miller, Russell; Li, Yuan

    2004-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to measure the major health risk behaviors performed by youth. These health risk behaviors include: behaviors that contribute to intentional and unintentional injuries; the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs; sexual behaviors that contribute…

  20. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  1. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  2. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: 2011 National Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…

  3. A Prevention Program for Middle-School High Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittman, Elizabeth; Cassata, Marian

    A 5-year federally funded substance abuse prevention program targeted 426 high risk middle-school youth from 4 school districts in Nassau County, New York. Combining a child-centered model with a systemic approach, the program's goal was to prevent or delay the onset of alcohol and other drug use. High-risk youth were identified by school…

  4. The Children, Youth, and Families at Risk (CYFAR) Evaluation Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Lydia I.; Byrne, Richard A. W.; Marczak, Mary S.; Betts, Sherry C.; Mancini, Jay A.

    1999-01-01

    The Cooperative Extension Service's Children, Youth, and Families at Risk initiative is being assessed by the Evaluation Collaboration's three projects: state-strengthening evaluation project (resources to help states evaluate community programs); NetCon (evaluation of electronic and other networks); and National Youth at Risk Sustainability Study…

  5. Victimization and Health Risk Factors among Weapon-Carrying Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H.; Olson, E. Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. Methods: 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Results: Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization.…

  6. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  7. Dietary Patterns and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary patterns are a risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). The prevalence of MetS has increased in Korea, and this condition has become a public health issue. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of MetS among Korean women. The data of 5189 participants were analyzed to determine dietary intake and lifestyle. A principal components analysis was employed to determine participant dietary patterns with regard to 106 food items. MetS was diagnosed using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III. Logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between dietary pattern quintiles and MetS and to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjusting for potential confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: “traditional,” “western,” and “prudent.” The “prudent” dietary pattern consisted of a high intake of fruits and fruit products as well as nuts, dairy, and a low consumption of grains; this pattern was negatively associated with the risk of MetS. The highest quintile of the “prudent” dietary pattern was significantly less likely to develop MetS (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.36–0.68, P for trend <0.001) compared with the lowest quintile. This pattern was also negatively associated with all of the MetS diagnostic criteria: abdominal obesity (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.41–0.65), blood pressure (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59–0.87), triglycerides (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.85), fasting glucose (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43–0.95), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.42–0.68). However, the “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns were not associated with the risk of MetS. The “prudent” dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of developing MetS among Korean women. PMID:26313795

  8. Framing risks and benefits of medical tourism: a content analysis of medical tourism coverage in Korean American community newspapers.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines Korean American community newspapers' representation of risks and benefits involved with medical tourism offered in Korea. Using framing theory, this research attempts to explain Korean Americans' highly positive perceptions and high willingness to use health and medical services in Korea through medical tourism rather than using such services in the United States. The result of content analyses indicated that Korean American community newspapers are rarely engaged in risk communication and lack sufficient information about potential risks of medical tourism while emphasizing diverse benefits. Korean ethnic media, as the primary source of health communication for Korean Americans, should provide more reliable health and medical information for the population's appropriate health management.

  9. Health literacy in Korean immigrants at risk for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Rush, Elizabeth; Henry, Shayna

    2013-06-01

    Rising incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM) in Korean immigrants has highlighted the need for better prevention efforts. Health literacy is an important predictor in the utilization of preventative health measures, however little is known about health literacy in Korean immigrants. This study examined DM risk factors in a sample of 145 at-risk Korean immigrants, their level of health literacy, and associations between health literacy and DM risk factors. Findings indicated a high prevalence of DM risk factors and a low level of health literacy in the sample. Health literacy was correlated with English proficiency, acculturation, and lower waist to hip ratios among all participants, and with lower blood glucose levels among highly acculturated participants. Korean immigrants who are less acculturated may have lower health literacy than those who are more acculturated. Thus, linguistically and culturally sensitive health education should be incorporated into diabetes prevention efforts.

  10. Analysis of the Fiscal Resources Supporting At-Risk Youth, Ages 13-24, in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silloway, Torey; Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dahlin, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Hawaii's largest populations of at-risk youth include those youth who have dropped out of school, are at-risk of not completing high school, and youth who have completed school but are still not prepared for the workforce. Depending on estimates used, between 20 and 25 percent of Hawaiian youth are at risk of dropping out school. For older youth,…

  11. Team Commitment as a Mediator Between Self-Esteem and Team Climate as Perceived by Korean Youth Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Jung, Myungjin; Kang, Sangwook; Kwon, Sungho

    2016-06-01

    This study examined whether team commitment mediates the relationship between self-esteem and perceived team climate in Korean youth soccer players. A total of 366 youth soccer players from the Korea football association participated in this study. Self-esteem and team commitment were found to significantly and positively affect perceived team climate; team commitment more strongly affected perceived team climate. Regarding structural relationships, self-esteem's direct effect on perceived team climate was not significant; however, self-esteem's indirect effect through team commitment was significant. Team commitment therefore mediated the relationship between self-esteem and perceived team climate. Metric invariance was supported for groups categorized by grade and key player, confirming that the model could be applied to various groups.

  12. Are Youth at Risk? Reevaluating the Deficit Model of Youth Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.

    1993-01-01

    Puts the label "at risk" in perspective as it relates to youth. Points out that today's adolescents have lower rates of suicide, unwed pregnancy, drug abuse, smoking, and drunk driving than young and middle-aged adults. Suggests that extension youth education moves toward a condition-focused, resiliency model that recognizes the vitality and…

  13. Are Youth at Risk? Reevaluating the Deficit Model of Youth Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astroth, Kirk A.

    1993-01-01

    Puts the label "at risk" in perspective as it relates to youth. Points out that today's adolescents have lower rates of suicide, unwed pregnancy, drug abuse, smoking, and drunk driving than young and middle-aged adults. Suggests that extension youth education moves toward a condition-focused, resiliency model that recognizes the vitality and…

  14. Mammographic density and risk of breast cancer in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Nguyen, Tuong L; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Hopper, John L; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi

    2015-09-01

    We carried out this study to evaluate the association between mammographic density adjusted for age and BMI and early-onset breast cancer in Asian women. We recruited 213 Korean patients with breast cancer (45% diagnosed before the age of 50 years) and 630 controls matched for age, menopausal status, and examination date. The percentage and absolute size of dense areas on digital mammograms were measured using a computer-assisted thresholding technique (Cumulus). We carried out an analysis using the conditional logistic regression model with adjustment for covariates. An increase by 1 SD in age and BMI-adjusted absolute dense area and percentage dense area was associated with a 1.15-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.29) and 1.20-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.37) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively. These associations were stronger for premenopausal disease (P=0.07 and 0.01, respectively) and for disease diagnosed before age 50 (P=0.07 and 0.02, respectively) than for postmenopausal disease (P=0.16 and 0.23, respectively) or later onset disease (P=0.10 and 0.10, respectively). There was no difference in the associations with premenopausal versus postmenopausal and early-onset versus late-onset disease. After adjusting for age and BMI, both a greater absolute dense area and a greater percentage dense area were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly at a young age.

  15. Youth risk behavior survey: Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruangkanchanasetr, Suwanna; Plitponkarnpim, Adisak; Hetrakul, Priyasuda; Kongsakon, Ronnachai

    2005-03-01

    To identify the prevalence of risk behaviors and related risk factors in adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. Youth risk behavior survey questionnaires were collected from 2311 adolescents in 8 schools, 13 communities and 2 Juvenile Home Institutions from January to February 2001. Their mean age was 15.5 +/- 1.8 years, and 59% were female. Risk factors of interest were gender, parental marital status, socioeconomic status, family relationship, parental drug addiction, peer group, loneliness, self-esteem, and school performance. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify significant risk factors associated with each risk behavior. The risk behaviors leading to traffic accidents were rarely or never having worn a seat belt (30.6%) or helmet while bicycling (66.9%) and while motorcycling (50.1%), riding with drivers who had consumed alcohol (18.8%), and driving after consuming alcohol (12.1%). The studied group carried weapons (8.5%) and has been involved in a violent event (31.5%). Among 13.9% who were assaulted, 6.7% needed hospitalization; rape was reported by 2.4%. Depression was reported by 19.9%, with 12% having suicidal tendencies and 8% attempting suicide. The lifetime use vs. heavy use prevalence of substance abuse, respectively, was: 15.4% and 3.5% for smoking, 37.3% and 1.7% for alcohol, 37.8% and 4.6% for amphetamine use, and 37.9% and 0.1% for other drugs. Among the 10% who have had sexual intercourse, 1% were homosexual, 7.1% have never used a condom, and 2.1% resulted in pregnancy. Being male was a risk factor for every untoward behavior except depression. Other risk factors included poor self-esteem, poor school performance, and early school leaving. Factors relating to the family included a low socioeconomic status, poor relationships, broken families, and parental substance abuse. Socioenvironmental factors included being in a gang and loneliness. Some risk behaviors started at younger than 8 years old. Schools and media were given as the sources

  16. Risk behaviors and vulnerability to HIV infection among Tanzanian youth.

    PubMed

    Kaaya, S F; Leshabari, M T; Mbwambo, J K

    1998-01-01

    Focusing on increased vulnerability to HIV infection, this article examines some of the contexts within which these risk-taking behaviors occur and illustrates that the risk of contracting the disease is just one of the many risks with which Tanzanian youths are confronted. The sexual and substance use behaviors, and the relationship between such behaviors and economic factors, are discussed. Where evidences exist, attempts are made to compare the prevalence of these behaviors among male and female youths, as well as urban and rural youths. The extent to which males and females engage in risk-taking behaviors is unknown; however, studies show that, depending on age and gender, between 17% and 61% of youths are sexually active. Rates in HIV transmission vary by gender and by whether the youths are rural or urban inhabitants. Factors like adverse socioeconomic conditions, unemployment, lack of parental guidance and supervision, and culture all influence sexual risk-taking behaviors among youths. Meanwhile, increasing use of drugs and alcohol among the young population has been closely linked to increased vulnerability to unprotected sexual intercourse. Again, survival needs play a major role in sustaining risk behaviors. The paper concludes by outlining policy implications of youth risk behaviors, taking into account a multisectoral approach in dealing with the problem.

  17. Gender Differences in the Effects of Strain on the Delinquency of South Korean Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morash, Merry; Moon, Byongook

    2007-01-01

    General strain theory (GST) was tested as an explanation of violent and status offense delinquency of South Korean girls and boys. One research objective was to determine whether Korean girls and boys differed in their experience of each type of strain and in the levels of conditioning effects that might moderate the connections of strain to…

  18. School context, friendship ties and adolescent mental health: A multilevel analysis of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (KYPS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Harris Hyun-Soo

    2015-11-01

    Research on the social determinants of health suggests that interpersonal networks play a critical role in facilitating individual mental and physical well-being. Prior studies also indicate that ecological or contextual factors contribute to positive health outcomes. This study extends prior research by examining the factors associated with adolescent health in an Asian context. Based on the multilevel analysis of the Korean Youth Panel Survey (2006 & 2007), a longitudinal project funded by the Korean government, it investigates some of the key variables related to the mental health of Korean students. Much of previous research focuses on the functions of social capital. This study contributes to the social epidemiology literature by investigating the possible downside of network ties. Specifically, it asks whether having delinquent friends is associated with negative mental health experiences. In addition, little research has been conducted concerning the associations between adolescent health outcomes and school characteristics. This study moves in that direction by examining the relationship between mental well-being of students and a variety of school related variables (e.g., subjective attitude toward school and quality of relationship with peers and teachers). Hierarchical linear modeling shows that, among the social capital control variables, being properly integrated into the family and frequent peer interaction significantly add to mental health. At the individual (student) level only, ties to delinquent friends are negatively associated with mental health, while at both individual and contextual levels, school characteristics are positively related to adolescent subjective well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. School Bonds and the Onset of Substance Use among Korean Youth: An Examination of Social Control Theory

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Ma, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between school bonds and the onset of substance use among adolescents in South Korea. Based on Hirschi’s social control theory, this study tested the roles of teacher attachment, educational aspiration, extracurricular activities, and rule internalization—four elements of social bonds within the school setting—in delayed initiation of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Discrete-time logistic regression was used to analyze five waves of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (N = 3449 at baseline), a nationally representative sample of Korean youth. Stronger teacher attachment, higher educational aspiration, and higher rule internalization were correlated with delayed onset of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. On the other hand, participation in school extracurricular activities was positively associated with the onset of alcohol drinking, but not statistically significantly linked with the onset of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that early prevention strategies for youth substance use should specifically target school-related factors that represent social bonds developed among youth. PMID:25761170

  20. Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts.

    PubMed

    Rhew, Isaac C; David Hawkins, J; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2011-05-01

    This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings.

  1. Drug use and risk among youth in different rural contexts

    PubMed Central

    Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Oesterle, Sabrina

    2011-01-01

    This study compared levels of drug use and risk and protective factors among 18,767 adolescent youths from communities of less than 50,000 in population living either on farms, in the country but not on farms, or in towns. Current alcohol use, smokeless tobacco use, inhalant use, and other illicit drug use were more prevalent among high school-aged youths living on farms than among those living in towns. Prevalence of drug use did not significantly vary across youths living in different residential contexts among middle school youths. While risk and protective factors showed associations of similar magnitude with drug use across residential location, high school students living on farms were exposed to greater numbers of risk factors across multiple domains than were students living in towns. The findings suggest that outreach to farm-dwelling youths may be particularly important for interventions seeking to prevent adolescent drug use in rural settings. PMID:21414831

  2. [Risks of energy drinks in youths].

    PubMed

    Bigard, A-X

    2010-11-01

    The market value for energy drinks is continually growing and the annual worldwide energy drink consumption is increasing. However, issues related to energy drink ingredients and the potential for adverse health consequences remain to be elucidated. This aim of the present paper is to review the current knowledge on putative adverse effects of energy drinks, especially in youths. There are many energy drink brands in the worldwide market, even if only few brands are available in France. Although the energy drink content varies, these beverages often contain taurine, caffeine, vitamins B and carbohydrates. These drinks vary widely in both caffeine content (80 to 141 mg per can) and caffeine concentration. Except caffeine, the effects of energy drink ingredients on physical and cognitive performances remain controversial. Researchers identified moderate positive effects of energy drinks on performances, whereas others found contrary results. The adverse effects of energy drink can be related to either the toxicity of ingredients or specific situations in which energy drinks are used such as ingestion in combination with alcohol. Although the issue of taurine-induced toxic encephalopathy has been addressed, it is likely that the risk of taurine toxicity after energy drink consumption remains low. However, whether the prolonged use of energy drinks providing more than 3g taurine daily remains to be examined in the future. The consumption of energy drinks may increase the risk for caffeine overdose and toxicity in children and teenagers. The practice of consuming great amounts of energy drink with alcohol is considered by many teenagers and students a primary locus to socialize and to meet people. This pattern of energy drink consumption explains the enhanced risk of both caffeine and alcohol toxicity in youths. Twenty five to 40% of young people report consumption of energy drink with alcohol while partying. Consumption of energy drinks with alcohol during heavy

  3. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  4. Suicide Interventions Targeted toward At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.; McCullars, Adrianne

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is currently the third leading cause of death among youth; it has been named a public health concern. A number of programs have been developed to prevent suicide; many of these involve intervening with youth who are known to be at-risk because of their depression, expressed suicide ideation, or previous suicide attempts. This paper serves…

  5. South Dakota Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubot, David B.

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is a questionnaire of 92 items assessing the 6 health-care behaviors resulting in the greatest amount of youth morbidity, mortality, and social problems: (1) intentional and unintentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual activity resulting in HIV infection, other sexually…

  6. Cumulative Experiences of Violence among High-Risk Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Clum, Gretchen A.; Rice, Janet C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines type-specific and cumulative experiences of violence among a vulnerable population of youth. Sixty high-risk, shelter-dwelling, urban youth were interviewed regarding their history of childhood maltreatment, exposure to community violence (ECV), and experience with intimate partner violence (IPV). Results show a high prevalence…

  7. Health and Risk Behaviors of Massachusetts Youth, 2007: The Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two coordinated surveys of Massachusetts adolescents, the 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ESE) and the Massachusetts Youth Health Survey (DPH). These two surveys were supported by funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and administered in a random selection of 124 public…

  8. Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave, Ed.; Gross, Douglas R., Ed.

    This book of readings consists of 15 chapters grouped into 4 "Parts." The readings provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. Sample programs that have been effective are described and data are provided on causal factors for youth problems.…

  9. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and depression in Korean women: results from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Eun; Lee, Jung Eun

    2011-12-30

    Depression is the fourth leading factor of disease burden for the global female population, but while increasing evidence has supported a contributing role of depression in cardiovascular disease, little is known about this association within the female population of Korea. We examined the association in a study of 5658 Korean women who participated in the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 279 cases of depression were included. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were associated with higher odds of depression: ORs (95% CIs) were 3.99 (2.25-7.05) for current smokers with <5 pack-years vs. never-smokers, 1.97 (1.18-3.30) for ≥28 vs. <20kg/m(2) of body mass index, 1.42 (1.03-1.95) for 100-125 vs. <100mg/dL of fasting serum glucose levels, and 2.10 (1.46-3.03) for a history of hyperlipidemia. Women with a history of two or three comorbid disorders (diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease) had a 1.63-fold higher OR for depression than women without any of these diseases. Korean women with depression had a greater prevalence of major risk factors for cardiovascular disease than women without depression.

  10. Enhancing the educational achievement of at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Cole, K C; Poulin, S R

    2000-03-01

    This study examined a non-school program aimed at enhancing the educational performance of economically disadvantaged early adolescents who live in public housing. The educational enhancement program included discussions with adults, writing activities, leisure reading, homework, helping others, and games using cognitive skills. A three-arm research design juxtaposed program youth who received educational enhancements with comparison youth in affiliated facilities who did not receive the program and with control youth in other community programs without educational enhancements. From youths, follow-up data collected 2 1/2 years after baseline revealed uniformly positive outcomes for program youth on measures of reading, verbal skills, writing, and tutoring. Teacher reports at final follow-up favored program and comparison youth over controls on measures of reading, writing, games, overall school performance, and interest in class material. School grades were higher for program youth than for comparison and control youth for reading, spelling, history, science, and social studies. Overall grade averages were higher for program youth versus comparisons and controls, as was school attendance. Study data lend empirical support to the provision of educational enhancements in non-school settings for at-risk youths.

  11. Youth High-Risk Behaviors: Survey and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Patricia; Griffin, Juree

    2001-01-01

    This article presents results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results, which may assist in developing appropriate intervention/prevention programs, indicate a critical age for involvement in risk behaviors, gradual increase in risk behaviors over time, and gender differences in risk behaviors. (BF)

  12. Obesity-risk behaviors and their associations with body mass index (BMI) in Korean American children.

    PubMed

    Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret; Sadler, Lois; Jeon, Sangchoon; Nam, Soohyun; Song, Hee-Jung; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-08-03

    The purpose of the paper was to describe obesity-risk behaviors (diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) and examine the relationships of the obesity-risk behaviors with body mass index (BMI) in school-aged Korean American children. Korean American children have a risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing obesity-related complications; however, there is limited research about obesity-risk behaviors in Korean American children. A cross-sectional study. Obesity-risk behaviors of children were assessed with well-validated self-report questionnaires (i.e., Elementary-level School-based Nutrition Monitoring Questionnaire) from children and their mothers. Height and weight of children were measured. Data were analyzed with bivariate and multivariate analyses using mixed effects models to incorporate the correlation within siblings. A total of 170 Korean American children [mean age 10.9 (2.0) years; 52.4% girls; mean BMI 19.3(3.2); 28.7% ≥85 percentiles] participated in the study. Only 38.3% of Korean American children met established recommendations of 5 fruits/vegetables per day; 56.5% met recommendations for more than 3 days per week of vigorous physical activity, and 40.8% met recommendations for less than 2 hours of recreational screen time per day. Sixty percent and 88.8% of children met the recommendation of sleep on a weekday and weekend, respectively. Only screen time was positively associated with child BMI Z-score (β=0.08; p<.03). Health care providers need to be aware of the increased rate of overweight and obesity in Korean American children and initiate clinical interventions to improve obesity-risk behaviors, especially sedentary behavior, in Korean American children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Africentric Youth and Family Rites of Passage Program: Promoting Resilience among At-Risk African American Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Aminifu R.; Hill, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the effects of an Africentric youth and family rites of passage program on at-risk African American youths and their parents. Data were obtained from a three-year evaluation of a youth rites of passage demonstration project using therapeutic interventions based on Africentric principles. At-risk African American boys between…

  14. Insights on Inspirational Education for "High-Risk" Youth Informed by Participatory Action Research (PAR) on Youth Engagement: Short Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Hopper, Tristan; Whelan, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This short communication provides our insights into how or in what ways educators can more effectively support aspiration of at-risk/high-risk youth toward meaningful education. These are informed by the key learnings from our ongoing youth engagement research. Those insights emphasize the importance of "meaningful engagement of youth"…

  15. Development of a Korean Fracture Risk Score (KFRS) for Predicting Osteoporotic Fracture Risk: Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Jin; Park, ByeongJu; Kim, Tae-Young; Shin, Soon-Ae

    2016-01-01

    Background Asian-specific prediction models for estimating individual risk of osteoporotic fractures are rare. We developed a Korean fracture risk prediction model using clinical risk factors and assessed validity of the final model. Methods A total of 718,306 Korean men and women aged 50–90 years were followed for 7 years in a national system-based cohort study. In total, 50% of the subjects were assigned randomly to the development dataset and 50% were assigned to the validation dataset. Clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture were assessed at the biennial health check. Data on osteoporotic fractures during the follow-up period were identified by ICD-10 codes and the nationwide database of the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS). Results During the follow-up period, 19,840 osteoporotic fractures were reported (4,889 in men and 14,951 in women) in the development dataset. The assessment tool called the Korean Fracture Risk Score (KFRS) is comprised of a set of nine variables, including age, body mass index, recent fragility fracture, current smoking, high alcohol intake, lack of regular exercise, recent use of oral glucocorticoid, rheumatoid arthritis, and other causes of secondary osteoporosis. The KFRS predicted osteoporotic fractures over the 7 years. This score was validated using an independent dataset. A close relationship with overall fracture rate was observed when we compared the mean predicted scores after applying the KFRS with the observed risks after 7 years within each 10th of predicted risk. Conclusion We developed a Korean specific prediction model for osteoporotic fractures. The KFRS was able to predict risk of fracture in the primary population without bone mineral density testing and is therefore suitable for use in both clinical setting and self-assessment. The website is available at http://www.nhis.or.kr. PMID:27399597

  16. The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    "The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…

  17. Risk factors related to fatal truck crashes on Korean freeways.

    PubMed

    Choi, Saerona; Oh, Cheol; Kim, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting truck crashes on freeways and propose recommendations for safer truck traffic operations. Truck crashes were analyzed to identify how truck traffic safety is related to prevailing traffic and weather conditions. Prevailing traffic conditions were characterized by central tendencies and the spatiotemporal variation of traffic parameters collected from freeway traffic surveillance systems. A total of 377 truck crashes occurring on Korean freeways in a recent 3-year period, 2008-2010, were analyzed together with corresponding prevailing traffic conditions and weather conditions. Several statistical tests were conducted to understand the characteristics of prevailing traffic conditions before crash occurrence based on different weather conditions. In addition, a binary logistic regression technique was applied to identify causal factors affecting truck crash severity under normal and adverse weather conditions. Major findings from the analyses are discussed with truck operations strategies including speed enforcement, variable speed limit, and truck lane restriction from the safety enhancement point of view. Speed-related variables representing prevailing traffic conditions before crash occurrences were found to be the most statistically significant factors affecting truck crash severity, compared to volume-related variables such as the volume-to-capacity ratio (v/c). It is inferred that speed management is an effective tool for safer truck traffic operations on freeways. The major findings can be further discussed to derive valuable insights into truck traffic operations based on different weather conditions, such as normal and adverse. Some recommendations for safer truck traffic operations were presented based on the results obtained. The outcomes of this study could be effectively utilized to support the development of various traffic operations strategies and policies for truck traffic safety

  18. The Children and Youth At-Risk Effort in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koki, Stanley I.

    The Hawaii Project on Children and Youth At-Risk represents a long-term effort to strengthen the individual school's capacity to meet the special needs of students at-risk. According to the project's definition, a student is at-risk if he/she has consistently failed to make satisfactory school progress, if that failure could be positively…

  19. A Critical-Positive Youth Development Model for Intervening With Minority Youth at Risk for Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Case, Andrew D

    2017-06-15

    Minority youths who experience adversity in the forms of concentrated poverty, neighborhood violence, and social marginalization are at increased risk for delinquency. Yet, traditional approaches to reducing delinquency do not typically account for these social-structural risk factors. This article proposes a model of intervening that was developed to address this limitation. The current model was informed by the findings of a 9-month ethnography of a leadership development program for African American youths as well as positive youth development and critical theory frameworks. It delineates the roles of key intervention features in enhancing important assets among minority youths that help them to better navigate adverse social-structural conditions, decrease problem behaviors, and increase prosocial behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Risk Factors for Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy in a Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Shin, Gwang Rae; Choi, Young Je

    2017-04-01

    To determine the risk factors for non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in Korean patients, medical records from 45 Korean patients group and 45 healthy controls group were retrospectively reviewed. 10 NAION risk factors, including age, sex, associated systemic disease, past medical/social history, and fundus findings were analyzed. Significant risk factors for NAION in Korean patients were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR) = 3.613, p = 0.020), hypercholesterolaemia (OR = 5.200, p = 0.001), smoking (OR = 3.58, p = 0.014), microaneurysm/haemorrhage (OR = 5.375, p = 0.024), and crowded small cup (OR = 17.200, p < 0.001).

  1. Osteoporotic Fracture Risk Assessment Using Bone Mineral Density in Korean: A Community-based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Young-Kyun; Choi, Hyung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Fracture-risk assessment tool (FRAX) using just clinical risk factors of osteoporosis has been developed to estimate individual risk of osteoporotic fractures. We developed prediction model of fracture risk using bone mineral density (BMD) as well as clinical risk factors in Korean, and assessed the validity of the final model. Methods To develop and validate an osteoporotic FRAX, a total of 768 Korean men and women aged 50 to 90 years were followed for 7 years in a community-based cohort study. BMD as well as clinical risk factors for osteoporotic fracture including age, sex, body mass index, history of fragility fracture, family history of fracture, smoking status, alcohol intake, use of oral glucocorticoid, rheumatoid arthritis, and other causes of secondary osteoporosis were assessed biannually. Results During the follow-up period, 86 osteoporotic fractures identified (36 in men and 50 in women). The developed prediction models showed high discriminatory power and had goodness of fit. Conclusions The developed a Korean specific prediction model for osteoporotic fractures can be easily used as a screening tool to identify individual with high risk of osteoporotic fracture. Further studies for validation are required to confirm the clinical feasibility in general Korean population. PMID:26981519

  2. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Risk of Breast Cancer in Korean Women: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Kim, Eun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer incidence by age group in Korean women are unique. This systematic review aimed to investigate the association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer risk in Korean women. Methods: We searched electronic databases such as KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and RISS4U as well as PubMed for publications on Korean breast cancer patients. We also conducted manual searching based on references and citations in potential papers. All of the analytically epidemiologic studies that obtained individual data on HRT exposure and breast cancer occurrence in Korean women were selected. We restricted the inclusion of case-control studies to those that included age-matched controls. Estimates of summary odds ratio (SOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effect models. Results: One cohort and five case-control studies were finally selected. Based on the heterogeneity that existed among the six studies (I-squared=70.2%), a random effect model was applied. The summary effect size of HRT history from the six articles indicated no statistical significance in breast cancer risk (SOR, 0.983; 95% CI, 0.620 to 1.556). Conclusions: These facts support no significant effect of HRT history in the risk of breast cancer in Korean women. It is necessary to conduct a pooled analysis. PMID:26429288

  3. Nutritional status of Korean Americans: implications for cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kim, K K; Yu, E S; Chen, E H; Cross, N; Kim, J; Brintnall, R A

    2000-01-01

    To examine nutrient intake of Korean Americans, especially those foods and supplements implicated in cancer. Cross-sectional survey and descriptive analysis. Chicago, IL. 103 Korean Americans who were between 40 and 69 years of age. An Instrument, culturally and linguistically adapted from the Health Habits and History Questionnaire, was administered to assess nutrient intake from food and vitamin and mineral supplements. Bilingual interviewers collected data at respondents' homes. Relative to their diet in Korea, more than one-third of the respondents reported an increase in the consumption of beef, dairy products, coffee, soda, and bread, as well as a decrease in the intake of fish and rice and other grains. Compared to the general U.S. population included in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), Korean Americans had a greater intake of carbohydrates and vitamins A and C and lower intake of total fat, cholesterol, and saturated fat. Moreover, the percentages of calories were higher from carbohydrates and lower from fat, sweets, and alcohol for Korean Americans than those reported by NHIS respondents. Gender, education, and marital status were significantly associated with nutrient intake. The use of daily vitamin and calcium supplements was similar between respondents and those from NHIS. At their stage of cultural adaptation, the incorporation of a larger quantity of Western food items did not make for a less healthy dietary pattern among respondents. Data showed that Korean Americans continued to consume diets more consistent with Korean than with American food patterns, in as much as greater than 60% of their calories came from carbohydrates and about 16% of calories from fat. As a group, respondents met the recommended dietary guidelines for most nutrients, except for dietary fiber and calcium. Variation in dietary intake by age, culture, gender, and years in the United States is well accepted. Effective cancer prevention and initiatives for dietary

  4. Risk prediction of pulmonary tuberculosis using genetic and conventional risk factors in adult Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eun Pyo; Go, Min Jin; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2017-01-01

    A complex interplay among host, pathogen, and environmental factors is believed to contribute to the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The lack of replication of published genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings limits the clinical utility of reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a GWAS using 467 PTB cases and 1,313 healthy controls obtained from two community-based cohorts in Korea. We evaluated the performance of PTB risk models based on different combinations of genetic and nongenetic factors and validated the results in an independent Korean population comprised of 179 PTB cases and 500 healthy controls. We demonstrated the polygenic nature of PTB and nongenetic factors such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were strongly associated with PTB risk. None of the SNPs achieved genome-wide significance; instead, we were able to replicate the associations between PTB and ten SNPs near or in the genes, CDCA7, GBE1, GADL1, SPATA16, C6orf118, KIAA1432, DMRT2, CTR9, CCDC67, and CDH13, which may play roles in the immune and inflammatory pathways. Among the replicated SNPs, an intergenic SNP, rs9365798, located downstream of the C6orf118 gene showed the most significant association under the dominant model (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.32–1.92, P = 2.1×10−6). The performance of a risk model combining the effects of ten replicated SNPs and six nongenetic factors (i.e., age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure, and hemoglobin) were validated in the replication set (AUC = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76–0.84). The strategy of combining genetic and nongenetic risk factors ultimately resulted in better risk prediction for PTB in the adult Korean population. PMID:28355295

  5. Aboriginal Street-involved Youth Experience Elevated Risk of Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Brittany; Alfred, Gerald Taiaiake; Fleming, Kim; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; DeBeck, Kora

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Past research has identified risk factors associated with incarceration among adult Aboriginal populations; however, less is known about incarceration among street-involved Aboriginal youth. Therefore, we undertook this study to longitudinally investigate recent reports of incarceration among a prospective cohort of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Data were collected from a cohort of street-involved, drug-using youth from September 2005 to May 2013. Multivariate generalized estimating equation analyses were employed to examine the potential relationship between Aboriginal ancestry and recent incarceration. Results Among our sample of 1050 youth, 248 (24%) reported being of aboriginal ancestry, and 378 (36%) reported being incarcerated in the previous six months at some point during the study period. In multivariate analysis controlling for a range of potential confounders including drug use patterns and other risk factors, Aboriginal ancestry remained significantly associated with recent incarceration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–1.86). Conclusions Even after adjusting for drug use patterns and other risk factors associated with incarceration, this study found that Aboriginal street-involved youth were still significantly more likely to be incarcerated than their non-Aboriginal peers. Given the established harms associated with incarceration these findings underscore the pressing need for systematic reform including culturally appropriate interventions to prevent Aboriginal youth from becoming involved with the criminal justice system. PMID:26390949

  6. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  7. Association between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System and the risk of metabolic abnormalities in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Ju; Han, Sung Nim; Song, Sujin; Paik, Hee Young; Baik, Hyun Wook; Joung, Hyojee

    2011-12-01

    Consumption of a diet consistent with dietary guidelines is believed to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of general health. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS), which was based on the 2010 revised KDRIs, and the risk of metabolic abnormalities. Five hundred and ninety-six Korean adults between 30 and 59 years of age were recruited by advertisement to the Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital (BJGH), and those not taking regular medications and without diagnoses of fulminant disease were included. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, diagnostic parameters for metabolic syndrome (MetS), and 3-day dietary intakes from individuals in the study. The number of servings consumed from each food group was compared to the KFGS recommended servings for each of the 6 food groups. Poor adherence to the recommendations for servings of milk and dairy products (OR: 2.038, 1.128-3.682) was associated with a higher risk of MetS, and poor adherence to the guidelines for fruit consumption (OR: 1.849, 1.027-3.329) was associated with a higher risk for the existence an elevated waist circumference. Conversely, the consumption of meat, fish, eggs, and beans above the recommended number of servings was associated with a lower risk of having an elevated waist circumference (OR: 0.523, 0.288-0.950), and the consumption of vegetables above the recommended number of servings was associated with a reduced risk of having elevated fasting glucose (OR: 0.533, 0.298-0.954). These results suggest that adherence to the KFGS guidelines helps to prevent the development of MetS, but this association needs to be confirmed by prospective studies.

  8. Association between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System and the risk of metabolic abnormalities in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Ju; Han, Sung Nim; Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee Young

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of a diet consistent with dietary guidelines is believed to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of chronic diseases and the promotion of general health. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between adherence to the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS), which was based on the 2010 revised KDRIs, and the risk of metabolic abnormalities. Five hundred and ninety-six Korean adults between 30 and 59 years of age were recruited by advertisement to the Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital (BJGH), and those not taking regular medications and without diagnoses of fulminant disease were included. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, diagnostic parameters for metabolic syndrome (MetS), and 3-day dietary intakes from individuals in the study. The number of servings consumed from each food group was compared to the KFGS recommended servings for each of the 6 food groups. Poor adherence to the recommendations for servings of milk and dairy products (OR: 2.038, 1.128-3.682) was associated with a higher risk of MetS, and poor adherence to the guidelines for fruit consumption (OR: 1.849, 1.027-3.329) was associated with a higher risk for the existence an elevated waist circumference. Conversely, the consumption of meat, fish, eggs, and beans above the recommended number of servings was associated with a lower risk of having an elevated waist circumference (OR: 0.523, 0.288-0.950), and the consumption of vegetables above the recommended number of servings was associated with a reduced risk of having elevated fasting glucose (OR: 0.533, 0.298-0.954). These results suggest that adherence to the KFGS guidelines helps to prevent the development of MetS, but this association needs to be confirmed by prospective studies. PMID:22259682

  9. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Understanding Risk, Protection, and Substance Use among High-Risk Youth. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, J. Fred; Sambrano, Soledad; Sale, Elizabeth; Kasim, Rafa; Hermann, Jack

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. Major findings include: as youth age, levels of risk and protection shift considerably,…

  10. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Male Violent Youth Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.

    2010-01-01

    Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…

  11. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  12. Individual-Level Risk Factors of Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…

  13. South Dakota Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubot, David B.

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was administered in a stratified random sample to South Dakota public schools including Bureau of Indian Affairs schools; private schools were not included. The six priority health-risk behaviors assessed in the YRBS are: (1) intentional and unintentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug…

  14. South Dakota Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Human Services, Pierre.

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey was cooperatively developed by Centers for Disease Control and state and local departments of health to assess six health risk behaviors of adolescents that result in the greatest number of morbidity, mortality, and social problems. All public, private, and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools in South Dakota, containing…

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Risks Among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…

  16. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  17. Risk Factors Associated with Overdose among Bahraini Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ansari, Ahmed M.; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Matar, Ali M.; Marhoon, Huda; Buzaboon, Bana Y.; Raees, Ahmed G.

    2001-01-01

    Study aimed to identify risk factors, such as family pathology and psychosocial stress, of overdose suicide attempts among Bahraini youth. Stresses from living in a non-intact family; interpersonal relationships mainly with the opposite sex; unemployment; and school performance emerged as main risk factors. Previously identified factors, such as…

  18. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  19. Social Isolation of Youth at Risk: Conceptualizations and Practical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazler, Richard J.; Denham, Sharon A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses social isolation as a major factor in determining how youth are increasingly put at risk for both immediate and lifelong difficulties and examines three at-risk situations that counselors face to better understand the origins and implications affecting assessment and interventions. Presents practical implications for how school and…

  20. Individual-Level Risk Factors of Incarcerated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Nicole; Flower, Andrea; Fall, Anna Mari; Williams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review sought to understand the individual characteristics of incarcerated youth within the major risk factor domains identified by the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). A comprehensive search of the literature from 1979 to 2013 identified 85 articles of individual-level risk characteristics that…

  1. Risk and Criminogenic Needs of Youth Who Sexually Offended in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Gerald; Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    An increasing amount of research has been carried out to understand the characteristics of subgroups of adult sex offenders, but there is limited research into the risk factors and criminogenic needs of subgroups of youth who sexually offended. The current study investigated if there were differences in the risk and criminogenic needs of 167 Singaporean youth who sexually offended based on two typologies - youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually versus youth who offended only sexually, and youth who offended against child victims versus youth who offended against nonchild victims. Results show that youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually were found to have higher risk and criminogenic needs as compared to youth who only sexually offended. In addition, youth who offended against child victims were found to have higher numbers of previous sexual assaults as compared to youth who offended against nonchild victims. These differences have implications for the management and intervention of youth who sexually offended. PMID:24503949

  2. Risk Comparison among Youth Who Report Sex with Same-Sex versus Both-Sex Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Martha W.; Fornili, Katherine; O'Briant, Amanda L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines risk behavior among youth attending support groups for sexual minority youth in Richmond, Virginia, using a structured survey, with particular attention to partner selection and its relationship to risk. Within this generally high-risk group, youth reporting sex partners of both sexes had significantly higher risk profiles,…

  3. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K

    2013-08-01

    Although "association with delinquent peers" is commonly identified as "a risk factor for youth violence," this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these "doubly diverse" friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and "delinquent peers." It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk.

  4. Dissolving Borders: Reframing Risk, Delinquent Peers, and Youth Violence

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Deborah Freedman; Sung, Kenzo K.

    2013-01-01

    Although “association with delinquent peers” is commonly identified as “a risk factor for youth violence,” this framework leads us to blame individuals and ignore the complex lives of youth who face state, symbolic, and interpersonal violence. This study is based on interviews with young adults about their adolescence in a low-income immigrant gateway neighborhood of Oakland, California. Most of the interviewees have peer networks that are racially/ethnically diverse and also include both delinquent and conforming peers. We show that having these “doubly diverse” friendship networks helps youth move through their neighborhood safely and feel anchored to their community even when they leave to attend college. Even successful youth in our study do not erect borders between themselves and “delinquent peers.” It is easy to assign blame to youth for their friendships, their violent behavior, their lack of education, their unstable and low-paying jobs, but this calculus ignores both the structural factors that constrain youth choices and the benefits that seem to be linked to diverse friendships, even with delinquent peers. Growing up in a site of global capital accumulation and disinvestment in the era of neoliberalism, our interviewees challenge us to reframe risk. PMID:24072949

  5. Youth, Education and Risk: Facing the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Peter; Wyn, Johanna

    This book examines how social and economic changes in the past 20 years have affected the lives of Western youth and changed their attitudes toward and experiences of work, education, relationships, and health. Part 1 reviews 10 years of research, policy, and practice related to individuals aged 15-30 in the United Kingdom, Australia, the United…

  6. Response to Trauma in Haitian Youth at Risk

    PubMed Central

    Douyon, Richard; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Page, J. Bryan

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY In order to characterize undesirable behavior (drug use, fighting, criminal activity) among Haitian youth at risk and determine the relationship between traumatic experience and that kind of behavior, investigators recruited 291 Haitian youths via networks of informal social relations in two zones of Miami/Dade County strongly idenitified with Haitian ethnicity. Each recruit responded to an interview schedule eliciting sociodemographic information and self-reported activities, including involvement in youth-dominated groups. They also reported traumatic experience. Clinicians administered CAPS to a subset of those respondents who self-reported traumatic experience. Staff ethnographers selected respondents for in-depth interviews and family studies to provide contextual depth for findings of the interview schedule and the CAPS assessments. Although traumatic experience may still play a role in mental health outcomes among children, childhood victimization among Haitian children does not appear to be related to the drug use and undesirable behaviors associated with unsupervised youth, including formation of gangs. PMID:16275637

  7. The Relationship of Depression to Health Risk Behaviors and Health Perceptions in Korean College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Oksoo

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of depression to health risk behaviors and health perceptions in Korean college students. The level of students' depression predicted alcohol consumption, symptom pattern, and physical health. Students who were more depressed reported more symptoms and perceived their health as worse than those who were less…

  8. Enhancing Risk Detection Among Homeless Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Promising Pilot Intervention.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly A; DePrince, Anne; Begun, Stephanie; Hathaway, Jessica; Haffejee, Badiah; Schau, Nicholas

    2016-03-02

    Homeless youth frequently experience victimization, and youth with histories of trauma often fail to detect danger risks, making them vulnerable to subsequent victimization. The current study describes a pilot test of a skills-based intervention designed to improve risk detection among homeless youth through focusing attention to internal, interpersonal, and environmental cues. Youth aged 18 to 21 years (N = 74) were recruited from a shelter and randomly assigned to receive usual case management services or usual services plus a 3-day manualized risk detection intervention. Pretest and posttest interviews assessed youths' risk detection abilities through vignettes describing risky situations and asking youth to identify risk cues present. Separate 2 (intervention vs. control) × 2 (pretest vs. posttest) mixed ANOVAs found significant interaction effects, as intervention youth significantly improved in overall risk detection compared with control youth. Post hoc subgroup analyses found the intervention had a greater effect for youth without previous experiences of indirect victimization than those with previous indirect victimization experiences.

  9. Victimization and health risk factors among weapon-carrying youth.

    PubMed

    Stayton, Catherine; McVeigh, Katharine H; Olson, E Carolyn; Perkins, Krystal; Kerker, Bonnie D

    2011-11-01

    To compare health risks of 2 subgroups of weapon carriers: victimized and nonvictimized youth. 2003-2007 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were analyzed using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression. Among NYC teens, 7.5% reported weapon carrying without victimization; 6.9% reported it with victimization. Both subgroups were more likely than non-weapon carriers to binge drink, use marijuana, smoke, fight, and have multiple sex partners; weapon carriers with victimization also experienced persistent sadness and attempted suicide. Subgroups of weapon carriers have distinct profiles. Optimal response should pair disciplinary action with screening for behavioral and mental health concerns and victimization.

  10. Risk factors for falls in older Korean adults: the 2011 Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jin; Kim, Sun A; Kim, Nu Ri; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Yun, Yong-Woon; Shin, Min-Ho

    2014-11-01

    Falls are a major health problem for elderly populations worldwide. We analyzed data from the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey to identify potential risk factors for falls in a representative population-based sample of community-dwelling older Korean adults. Risk factors for falls were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. The prevalence of falls was 16.9% in males and 24.3% in females [Corrected]. Age and female sex were associated with a higher risk of falls. Similarly, living alone, living in an urban area, poor self-rated health, and high stress were associated with a high risk of falls. Subjects with diabetes mellitus, stroke, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, cataracts, or depression had a high risk of falls. However, subjects with hypertension were at low risk for falls. In conclusion, age, female sex, marital status, residence location, self-rated health, stress, and several chronic conditions were significantly associated with the risk for falls in the older Korean adults. Our findings suggest that these risk factors should be addressed in public health policies for preventing falls.

  11. HIV risk profile and prostitution among female street youths.

    PubMed

    Weber, Amy E; Boivin, Jean-François; Blais, Lucie; Haley, Nancy; Roy, Elise

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors among female street youths involved in prostitution and those with no history of prostitution. Youths aged 14 to 25 years were recruited into the Montreal Street Youth Cohort. Semiannually, youths completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Statistical analyses comparing characteristics and HIV risk factors for girls involved in prostitution and those never involved were carried out using parametric and nonparametric methods. Of the girls, 88 (27%) reported involvement in prostitution, and 177 girls reported no history of prostitution at the baseline interview. Girls involved in prostitution were two times and five times more likely to have reported bingeing on alcohol and on drugs, respectively. A history of injection drug use was four times more likely to have been reported by girls involved in prostitution. Further, these girls were 2.5 times more likely to have reported injected cocaine as their drug of choice. Girls involved in prostitution were younger the first time they had consensual sex and were twice as likely to have reported anal sex. Consistent condom use for anal, vaginal, and oral sex was low for all girls. Girls involved in prostitution reported more risky sexual partners. In conclusion, girls involved in prostitution may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to their injection drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Unique intervention strategies are necessary for reducing HIV infection among female street youths involved in prostitution.

  12. Transition age youth in publicly funded systems: identifying high-risk youth for policy planning and improved service delivery.

    PubMed

    Heflinger, Craig Anne; Hoffman, Cheri

    2008-10-01

    Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbances (SED) face many challenges as they approach the transition to adulthood and adult services. This study examines publicly funded transition-age youth in order to describe the numbers and type of youth in need of policy and service planning in one state. Using Medicaid enrollment and claims/encounter data, youth with high risk of transition difficulties were identified in the following groups: SED, state custody/foster care or risk of custody, users of intensive or frequent mental health services, or having diagnoses of major mental disorders, conduct disorders, or developmental disabilities. Almost one quarter of all enrolled 14 to 17-year olds met criteria for at least one of the high risk groups, and three-quarters of these were youth with SED. High risk youth are described, with greater detail on those with SED, and implications for policy, services, and research are discussed.

  13. Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Youth Suicide. Volume 2: Risk Factors for Youth Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lucy, Ed.; Linnoila, Markku, Ed.

    Commissioned papers by a work group on risk factors for youth suicide, which examined environmental, behavioral, socio-cultural, biological, and psychological factors associated with an increased likelihood of suicide among young people are presented in this document. The following papers are presented: (1) "Sociodemographic, Epidemiologic, and…

  14. Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youths. Research in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, C. Ronald

    A study was conducted to compare the criminal behavior of gang members and nongang at-risk youths in four urban and suburban communities, Denver (Colorado), Aurora (Colorado), Broward County (Florida), and Cleveland (Ohio). The first three communities were emergent, rather than chronic, gang environments, but in Cleveland, information on gangs…

  15. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and health-risk factors in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Say Jin; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Juyoung; Park, Chan; Lee, Lilha; Erickson, Kent L; Jung, In-Kyung

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify dietary patterns in Korean men and to determine the associations among dietary patterns, nutrient intake, and health-risk factors. Using baseline data from the Korean Health and Genome Study, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and associations between these dietary patterns and health-risk factors were analyzed. Three dietary patterns were identified: 1) the "animal-food" pattern (greater intake of meats, fish, and dairy products), 2) the "rice-vegetable" pattern (greater intake of rice, tofu, kimchi, soybean paste, vegetables, and seaweed), and 3) the "noodle-bread" pattern (greater intake of instant noodles, Chinese noodles, and bread). The animal-food pattern (preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive correlation with obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas the rice-vegetable pattern (preferred by older people with lower income and educational levels) was positively associated with hypertension. The noodle-bread pattern (also preferred by younger people with higher income and education levels) had a positive association with abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This study identifies three unique dietary patterns in Korean men, which are independently associated with certain health-risk factors. The rice-vegetable dietary pattern, modified for a low sodium intake, might be a healthy dietary pattern for Korean men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors associated with lifestyle factors and serum leptin in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Park, Jin-Koo; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigated the relationships among metabolic risk factors, major lifestyle factors, and serum cytokines in a sample of Korean children. In a cross-sectional design, we studied a total of 275 children (130 boys and 145 girls) aged 12-13 years. Measured variables included anthropometrics, blood pressures (BP), VO2max, physical activity (PA), dietary intakes, lipids, glucose, and insulin. We explored the extent to which dietary intakes, VO2max, PA, and serum cytokines explained variance in a clustered risk score, which is a sum of Z scores for waist circumference, BP, TG, HDLC, and HOMA-IR, using a stepwise linear regression by blocks. VO2max, vigorous PA (VPA), and leptin were independent predictors for the clustered risk score while adjusting for age and Tanner stage. Our findings suggest that the clustered risk score is associated not only with low levels of VO2max and VPA, but also with elevated serum leptin in Korean children.

  17. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty. PMID:23610607

  18. Gender specific effect of major dietary patterns on the metabolic syndrome risk in Korean pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Jin; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Seon Mee; Lee, Myoungsook

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of data on metabolic risk factors during pre-puberty, which is important for identifying the subgroups of youth, at whom early interventions should be targeted. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of metabolic risk factors and its subsequent relations with dietary patterns in Korean pre-pubertal children through a cross-sectional sample (n = 1,008; boys = 513) of pre-pubertal children (aged 8-9 years) from a sub-study of the Korea Metabolic Syndrome Research Initiatives (KMSRI) in Seoul, Korea. Measures of anthropometry and blood pressure as well as fasting blood samples were used in the analysis. A three-day food records were collected. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the age-adjusted National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. An added metabolic risk score was calculated for each subject by summing the quintile values of the five individual risk factors. Among the 5 risk components of metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference (WC) was the major factor (P < 0.001). A significant increasing trend of the added metabolic syndrome risk score was observed with the increase of WC (P (trend) < 0.001) among both genders. The cutoff point for high WC for pre-pubertal children was 61.3 cm for boys and 59.9 cm for girls. The prevalence of high triglyceride (TG) values was significantly higher in girls than it was in boys (P < 0.01). Girls in the highest quintile of balanced dietary pattern scores had lower TG values (P (trend) = 0.032) than did those in the lowest quintile. Moreover, girls in the highest quintile of western dietary pattern scores showed increasing trend for the added metabolic risk score (P (trend) = 0.026) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Adverse associations exist between western dietary patterns and the accumulation of metabolic risks among girls, not in boys, even during pre-puberty.

  19. Risk, Vulnerability, and Resilience among Youth: In Search of a Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugland, Barbara W.; Zaslow, Martha; Nord, Christine Winquist

    Most youth in America have a good chance of becoming productive members of adult society. However, for a particular group of young people, at-risk youth, the probability of maturing into responsible adulthood is less certain. "At-risk youth" is a term commonly used to describe those adolescents for whom there is a high probability (risk)…

  20. Issues in HIV/AIDS Service Delivery to High Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Carole A.; Peck, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the barriers and issues that exist in providing services to high-risk youth, such as runaways and homeless youth, for HIV infection. Ways of removing those barriers by empowering both service providers and youth are offered. Recommendations are also provided for policy development concerning youth and HIV/AIDS. (GR)

  1. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  2. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  3. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Yeun; Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho; Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-02-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls.

  4. Falls in Korean Polio Survivors: Incidence, Consequences, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SeungYeol; Yang, Eun Joo; Kim, Keewon; Jung, Se Hee; Jang, Soong-Nang; Han, Soo Jeong; Kim, Wan-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors participated in this study. All participants completed a questionnaire including fall history, symptoms related to post-polio syndrome and other information through a telephone interview. Among them, 80 participants visited our clinic for additional physical measurements and tests. Of the 317 respondents, 68.5% reported at least one fall in the past year. Of the fallers, 42.5% experienced at least one fall during one month. Most falls occurred during ambulation (76.6%), outside (75.2%) and by slipping down (29.7%). Of fallers, 45% reported any injuries caused by falls, and 23.3% reported fractures specifically. Female sex, old age, low bone mineral density, the presence of symptoms related to post-polio syndrome (PPS), poor balance confidence, short physical performance battery and weak muscle strength of knee extensor were not significantly associated with falls. Only leg-length discrepancy using spine-malleolar distance (SMD) was a significant factor associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. Our findings suggest that malalignment between the paralytic and non-paralytic limb length should be addressed in polio survivors for preventing falls. PMID:26839487

  5. Youth at Risk: In Search of a Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Romeria; Garrett, Susan Corona

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the definitions of the term "youth at risk" and their perspectives on predisposing conditions. Discusses implications for counseling. Asserts that the sound diagnosis and treatment of adolescents' problems involves careful identification of predisposing conditions and negative outcomes. Includes 16 citations. (Author/CRR)

  6. Exploring Dreamspace through Video Art with At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehinger, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is an art-based research video demonstration of an alternate medium for art therapy. It postulates the value and validity of media arts as a therapeutic modality by way of adopting the major motion picture green screening technique for therapy with an at-risk youth population. Four male participants, raging from 16 to 19 years of age,…

  7. The Construction and Production of Youth "at Risk"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Diane; Taylor, Alison; Shultz, Lynette

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at policy discourse around "youth at risk" (YAR) by asking two questions: First, how have problems and solutions related to YAR been constructed by Governments? And second, how do particular technologies of Government (differentiation of schools, programmes, and course streams, and the funding and identification of…

  8. Wisconsin Youth Risk Behaviors: 1993 Survey Results. Bulletin No. 94305.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernan, Steven A.; And Others

    How can state leaders mobilize to meet the health and safety needs of its school-age children? To understand more about children's health, the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (DPI) has surveyed Wisconsin students. In 1993 the DPI and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) joined forces to conduct the Youth Risk Behavior Survey.…

  9. Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results, 1991, 1993 & 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This report describes results from the 1995 Utah Youth Risk Behavior Survey of Utah's high school students and compares results to selected 1991 and 1993 results. The 76-item survey was identical to the national survey, though it omitted questions about sexual behavior. It examined unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco, alcohol, and…

  10. Education, Employment, and the At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lone, Richard H.

    Schools working in cooperation with business can reduce the number of youth at risk of long-term unemployment if teachers and school administrators are willing to learn from research developed outside the field of public education and if schools are substantially restructured to meet student needs. A review of the literature of labor economics and…

  11. Youth "At Risk"? Young People, Sexual Health and Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…

  12. Young at Art: Artists Working with Youth at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silha, Stephen

    Like other states, Idaho faces increasing numbers of youth considered at risk for becoming a detriment to society. Some communities are looking to the arts as a way to help young people channel their energies positively. In 1993 and 1994, the Idaho Commission on the Arts wanted to test the idea that artists working with first-time juvenile…

  13. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for students with disabilities. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 1,672 high school students with disabilities in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 1,672 due to nonresponse and…

  14. At-Risk Youth: A Compilation of Counseling Technique Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lizbeth A., Ed.

    This document consists of papers by masters degree students that concern counseling techniques for at-risk youth. The following papers included are: (1) "Adolescent Depression: Its Diagnosis and Treatment" (Bruce Bowers); (2) "Counseling the Bereaved Child: A School Counselor's Perspective" (David Boyle); (3) "Adolescents of Divorce: An Overview…

  15. Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results, 1995. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Hampshire State Dept. of Education, Concord.

    An 84-item multiple choice Youth Risk Behavior Survey was administered to 2,092 students in 62 public high schools in New Hampshire during the spring of 1995. The survey covered behaviors in six categories: (1) behaviors that result in unintentional or intentional injuries; (2) tobacco use; (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that…

  16. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  17. At Risk Youth. An Annotated Bibliography for Migrant Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Mary; Salerno, Anne

    This annotated bibliography on the education of secondary-school-aged migrant students or at-risk youth contains over 100 entries for books, journal articles, government reports, and audio-visual materials, organized alphabetically by personal authors' names and document titles in case of no personal author. The bibliography was compiled by a…

  18. State Governments and At-Risk Youth: The Critical Link.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLone, Richard H.

    This report shows how and why state governments must take the lead in solving the debilitating problems of high risk youth. These young persons will fail to become productive citizens without special interventions to improve their educational, occupational, and social skills. The basic problem is defined and research on effective responses is…

  19. Moving Youth from Risk to Opportunity. KIDS COUNT 2004 Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This essay, taken from the 2004 KIDS COUNT Data Book, focuses on the issues surrounding America's most at-risk young adults. For most American youth, the transition to adulthood inspires a mix of excitement and high anxiety. There is excitement about taking steps to realize emerging dreams, aspirations, and possibilities. Yet there is anxiety…

  20. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Nonpublic Accredited Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey high school student frequency distributions for nonpublic accredited schools. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 349 high school students in Nonpublic Region during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 349 due to nonresponse and percents may…

  1. Models to Guide System Reform for At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarter, Susan A.; Haber, Mason G.; Kazemi, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Policy reform for at-risk youth is complicated by involvement of various service sectors. Issues related to coordinating systems of care in a dynamic policy environment are not new, but surprisingly little has been written to guide practitioners and policymakers in addressing them (Friedman in "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"…

  2. Integrating Technology into the Curriculum for "At-Risk" Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Denise

    2009-01-01

    This Independent Learning Project (ILP) discusses the best practices in educational technology to improve the behavior, instruction, and learning of at-risk youth, for whom technology offers unique opportunities. Research is compiled from numerous scholarly print and online sources. A guide for teachers provides detailed strategies, software…

  3. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  4. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alternative Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior alternative school student frequency distributions. These frequency distributions are based upon surveys with 274 alternative school students in Montana during February of 2011. Frequency distributions may not total 274 due to nonresponse and percents may not total 100 percent due to…

  5. Adolescents At Risk: Causes of Youth Suicide in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Wilhelmina J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…

  6. A Stress Management Curriculum for At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollin, S. A.; Arnold, A. R.; Solomon, S.; Rubin, R. I.; Holland, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Project KICK (Kids in Cooperation with Kids) is a delinquency prevention program for at-risk youth that uses nontraditional approaches to stress management. Twelve African American children who were taught physical, cognitive, and experiential models of stress reduction and management reported that they enjoyed the program, and they demonstrated…

  7. Models to Guide System Reform for At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarter, Susan A.; Haber, Mason G.; Kazemi, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Policy reform for at-risk youth is complicated by involvement of various service sectors. Issues related to coordinating systems of care in a dynamic policy environment are not new, but surprisingly little has been written to guide practitioners and policymakers in addressing them (Friedman in "Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"…

  8. The Construction and Production of Youth "at Risk"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Diane; Taylor, Alison; Shultz, Lynette

    2006-01-01

    This paper looks at policy discourse around "youth at risk" (YAR) by asking two questions: First, how have problems and solutions related to YAR been constructed by Governments? And second, how do particular technologies of Government (differentiation of schools, programmes, and course streams, and the funding and identification of…

  9. Adolescents At Risk: Causes of Youth Suicide in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Wilhelmina J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores causes of the high teenage suicide rate in New Zealand by looking at environmental-social factors. Examines the problems these youth face, such as depression and alcohol use, and discusses their risk-taking behaviors. Findings are linked to current theory on adolescent suicide. Prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies are…

  10. Association between vitamin D status and metabolic syndrome risk among Korean population: based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-2, 2008.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyeun; Lim, Juwon; Kye, Soshin; Joung, Hyojee

    2012-05-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been linked to metabolic syndrome. However, community-based data for healthy Korean individuals are lacking. We aimed to assess the vitamin D status and the association of 25(OH)D deficiency with metabolic syndrome in the South Korean population (latitude 33-38°N). In this population-based study, we assessed 5559 South Korean adults selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-2, 2008. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was 56.0%. Subjects with vitamin D deficiency were younger and had higher education, lower physical activity, and lower alcohol consumption than those with normal vitamin D levels. The overall risk of metabolic syndrome was not associated with 25(OH)D concentration. The adjusted OR of reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) decreased across the quintiles of 25(OH)D concentrations (OR=0.72; 95% confidence interval=0.54-0.95 for comparisons of lowest vs. highest quintile; P for trend=0.003). A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was noted in the general South Korean population. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was inversely associated with the risk of having reduced HDL-C. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Affect regulation and HIV risk among youth in therapeutic schools

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Larry K.; Houck, Christopher; Lescano, Celia; Donenberg, Geri; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Mello, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of affect regulation skills is often impaired or delayed in youth with mental health problems but the relationship between affect dysregulation and risk behaviors has not been well studied. Baseline data from adolescents (N =418; ages 13–19) recruited from therapeutic school settings examined the relationship between affect dysregulation, substance use, self-cutting, and sexual risk behavior. Analyses of covariance demonstrated that adolescents who did not use condoms at last sex, ever self-cut, attempted suicide, used alcohol and other drugs and reported less condom use self-efficacy when emotionally aroused were significantly more likely (p < .01) to report greater difficulty with affect regulation than peers who did not exhibit these behaviors. General patterns of difficulty with affect regulation may be linked to HIV risk behavior, including condom use at last sex. HIV prevention strategies for youth in mental health treatment should target affect regulation in relation to multiple risk behaviors. PMID:22669595

  12. The Promotion and Perception of the Youth Olympic Games: A Korean Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Lee, Don; Surber, Karin; Bellar, David; Petersen, Jeffrey; Ivan, Emese; Kim, Hyeon Jung

    2013-01-01

    The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) was launched in part to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of increasingly overweight and inactive adolescents. But since the initial announcement of the YOG by the International Olympic Committee in 2007, this new third addition to the Olympic family of events has provoked response from…

  13. Best self visualization method with high-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Schussel, Lorne; Miller, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    The healing process of the Best Self Visualization Method (BSM) is described within the framework of meditation, neuroscience, and psychodynamic theory. Cases are drawn from the treatment of high-risk youth, who have histories of poverty, survival of sexual and physical abuse, and/or current risk for perpetrating abuse. Clinical use of BSM is demonstrated in two case illustrations, one of group psychotherapy and another of individual therapy.

  14. Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents. Part 3. Working with Youth at Risk: Behavioral Issues and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempley, Frances A.; And Others

    This document consists of Part 3 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. It includes six readings, each dealing with a specific behavior that places a young person at risk. "The Secret and…

  15. Modeling HIV Risk in Highly Vulnerable Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huba, G. J.; Panter, A. T.; Melchior, Lisa A.; Trevithick, Lee; Woods, Elizabeth R.; Wright, Eric; Feudo, Rudy; Tierney, Steven; Schneir, Arlene; Tenner, Adam; Remafedi, Gary; Greenberg, Brian; Sturdevant, Marsha; Goodman, Elizabeth; Hodgins, Antigone; Wallace, Michael; Brady, Russell E.; Singer, Barney; Marconi, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the structure of several HIV risk behaviors in an ethnically and geographically diverse sample of 8,251 clients from 10 innovative demonstration projects intended for adolescents living with, or at risk for, HIV. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified 2 risk factors for men (sexual intercourse with men and a…

  16. Relationship between adhering to dietary guidelines and the risk of obesity in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Soo Hyun; Song, YoonJu; Park, Mijung; Kim, Shin Hye; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2014-12-01

    Dietary guidelines for Korean children were released in 2009. The goal of the present study was to examine diet quality in terms of adherence to these dietary guidelines as well as explore the association between guideline adherence and risk of obesity in Korean children. Children aged 5-11 years (mean age = 8.9 years old, n = 191, 80.6% girls) were recruited from a university hospital in Seoul, Korea. Adherence to dietary guidelines for Korean children was calculated using the Likert scale (1-5), and children were then categorized into low, moderate, and high groups based on adherence scores. Obesity or being overweight was determined based on an age- and gender- specific percentile for body mass index (BMI) of the 2007 Korean National Growth Charts. Diet quality was evaluated from 3 days of dietary intake data. Children in the high adherence group were characterized by significantly lower BMI percentiles and paternal BMIs as well as higher percentages of fathers with a high level of education and higher household incomes compared to those in the low or moderate group. Children in the high adherence group consumed significantly higher amounts of milk and dairy products, were less likely to consume lower than the EAR of phosphorus and iron, and had higher NARs for calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and MAR than those in low groups. The ORs for obesity (BMI ≥ 95(th) percentile) or being overweight including obesity (BMI ≥ 85(th) percentile) were significantly lower in the high adherence group compared to the low adherence group (OR: 0.33, 95% CI = 0.13-0.82, P for trend = 0.019; OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.61 P for trend = 0.002). Korean children who adhered to dietary guidelines displayed better diet quality and a reduced risk of obesity.

  17. Risks of alcoholic energy drinks for youth.

    PubMed

    Weldy, David L

    2010-01-01

    Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.

  18. Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Alternative Schools Students: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

  19. Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Students with Disabilities: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

  20. Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Grades 7-8: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

  1. Multiple risk factors for work-related injuries and illnesses in korean-chinese migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Chae, Duckhee; Yi, Kwan Hyung; Im, Soye; Cho, Sung Hye

    2015-01-01

    Korean-Chinese currently represent the largest group of migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of risk factors on the occurrence of work-related injuries and illnesses (WII). Data for 486 Korean-Chinese migrant workers were drawn from the 2010 Migrant Workers' Health and Safety Survey in Korea. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between WII and multiple risk factors. Individual health status (OR = 3.83, 95% CI [2.01, 7.30]), safety training (OR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.18, 0.85]), job satisfaction (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.07, 3.38]), physical and chemical hazard exposure (OR = 1.05, 95% CI [1.02, 1.08]), and length of stay (OR = 1.01, 95% CI [1.00, 1.01]) were identified as risk factors for WII. The findings suggest the need for a comprehensive approach to assess WII risk factors, including personal, work organization and psychosocial demands, and acculturation in Korean-Chinese migrant workers.

  2. Association of the adiponectin gene variations with risk of ischemic stroke in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Cheong, My-Young; Bang, Ok-Sun; Cha, Min-Ho; Park, Young-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ho; Kim, Young Joo

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidence of variations in adiponectin (AdipoQ) genes that are associated with ischemic stroke has not been consistent, and it is unclear whether the same loci contribute to these associations in the Korean population. Using a Korean population, we tested ischemic stroke-associated AdipoQ markers. In a preliminary genome-wide association study using 320 250 k Affymetrix NSP chips, AdipoQ was found to be associated with ischemic stroke in Koreans. To study of AdipoQ, a further 673 ischemic stroke patients and 267 unrelated individuals without a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack were examined in a case-control study. Six polymorphisms (rs182052G > A, rs16861205G > A, rs822391T > C, rs822396A > G, rs12495941G > T and rs3774261A > G) that had a minor allele frequency of over 1% were strongly associated with stroke (p < 0.05). Two of these, rs822391T > C and rs822396A > G showed this association on both dominant and additive logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and sex. The haplotypes ht 1 (AGGCGG and AAGTAG) were significantly associated with susceptibility to stroke. Our findings show that polymorphisms in AdipoQ are associated with risk for ischemic stroke in the Korean population. This study lends further support to the putative role of AdipoQ in stroke.

  3. Empowering Youth-At-Risk with Skills for School and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Dan, Ed.; Warkentin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers from a conference on at-risk youth that focused on building strengths and empowering youth by giving them skills for school and life. Following an introduction titled "Motivational Strategies for Empowering Youth-At-Risk" by Dan Rea and Robert Warkentin, the papers are: (1) "The Role of Learning Environments: Social…

  4. A Critical Constructionist View of "At-Risk" Youth in Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touzard, Rachelle Silverstein

    2010-01-01

    Family therapists and school counselors are increasingly called upon to provide services for youth in alternative education (Carver, Lewis, & Tice, 2010). Alternative education systems are programs for youth who have been defined as at risk. This study explored the at-risk discourse and asked the questions (a) how do youth and staff define the…

  5. Young People in Risk Society: The Restructuring of Youth Identities and Transitions in Late Modernity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslik, Mark, Ed.; Pollock, Gary, Ed.

    Drawing on empirical research and theoretical writings, this book examines how concepts such as risk society and individualization may be used in the field of youth studies. It explores young peoples' identities, youth cultures, and a multiplicity of ways in which risk can be understood and influence youth policy agendas in the future. Chapter 1,…

  6. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  7. Long-Term Mentors' Perceptions of Building Mentoring Relationships with At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cindy Ann; Newman-Thomas, Cathy; Stormont, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Youth mentoring, defined within this study, as the pairing of a youth at risk with a caring adult, is an intervention that is often used for youth at risk for academic and social failure. We sought to understand mentors' perspectives of the fundamental elements that foster positive mentor--mentee relationships that build resiliency and increase…

  8. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  9. A Critical Constructionist View of "At-Risk" Youth in Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touzard, Rachelle Silverstein

    2010-01-01

    Family therapists and school counselors are increasingly called upon to provide services for youth in alternative education (Carver, Lewis, & Tice, 2010). Alternative education systems are programs for youth who have been defined as at risk. This study explored the at-risk discourse and asked the questions (a) how do youth and staff define the…

  10. Empowering Youth-At-Risk with Skills for School and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Dan, Ed.; Warkentin, Robert, Ed.

    This book contains papers from a conference on at-risk youth that focused on building strengths and empowering youth by giving them skills for school and life. Following an introduction titled "Motivational Strategies for Empowering Youth-At-Risk" by Dan Rea and Robert Warkentin, the papers are: (1) "The Role of Learning Environments: Social…

  11. Young People in Risk Society: The Restructuring of Youth Identities and Transitions in Late Modernity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cieslik, Mark, Ed.; Pollock, Gary, Ed.

    Drawing on empirical research and theoretical writings, this book examines how concepts such as risk society and individualization may be used in the field of youth studies. It explores young peoples' identities, youth cultures, and a multiplicity of ways in which risk can be understood and influence youth policy agendas in the future. Chapter 1,…

  12. Prevention moderates associations between family risks and youth catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, using a quasi-experimental design, whether 2 family risk factors, parental psychological dysfunction and nonsupportive parenting, during preadolescence could longitudinally predict elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity 9 years later, and to determine whether participation in an efficacious family centered prevention program could moderate these associations if they emerged. Rural African American preadolescents (N = 476) were assigned randomly to the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program or to a control condition. When youths were 11 years of age (M = 11.2 years), primary caregivers provided data on their own depressive symptoms and self-esteem, and youths provided data on their receipt of nonsupportive parenting. When the youths were 20 years of age, indicators of SNS activity, the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, were assayed from their overnight urine voids. Parental psychological dysfunction and nonsupportive parenting forecast elevated catecholamine levels for youths in the control condition, but not for those in the SAAF condition. The demonstration that a prevention program can induce reduction of catecholamine levels is important from both theoretical and public health perspectives, because it shows that the developmental progression from family risk factors to heightened sympathetic nervous system activity is not immutable. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between sleep duration and Framingham cardiovascular risk score and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Im, Eui; Kim, Gwang-Sil

    2017-09-01

    Studies have shown sleep duration to be related to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and hypertension. However, whether sleep duration is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the prevalence of CVD irrespective of conventional CV-risk factor, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, has not been well established for the Korean population.A total of 23,878 individuals aged 18 years or older from the 2007-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. We evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and CV-event risk using the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FRS; ≥10% or ≥20%) and the prevalence of CVD.After adjusting for traditional risk factors of CVD, a short sleep duration (≤5 hours) yielded odds ratios (OR) of 1.344 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.200-1.505) for intermediate to high risk and 1.357 (95% CI, 1.140-1.614) for high risk. A long sleep duration (≥9 hours) was also associated with both intermediate to high (OR 1.142, 95% CI 1.011-1.322) and high cardiovascular FRS (OR 1.276, 95% CI 1.118-1.457).Both short and long sleep durations were related with high CVD risk, irrespective of established CVD risk, and a short sleep duration was associated with a higher prevalence of CVD than an optimal or long sleep duration.

  14. Overweight, Obesity, Youth, and Health-Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. While the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well-documented, less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. Objectives This study examined the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Methods Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11 to 17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005/6 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas they were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons, compared to boys of normal weight. Conclusions Overweight and obese youth are at risk of developing health compromising behaviors which may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. PMID:20171527

  15. Change Trajectories for the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report: Identifying Youth at Risk for Treatment Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jennifer A. N.; Warren, Jared S.; Nelson, Philip L.; Burlingame, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal youth outcome data in routine mental health services to test a system for identifying cases at risk for treatment failure. Participants were 2,715 youth (M age = 14) served in outpatient managed care and community mental health settings. Change trajectories were developed using multilevel modeling of archival data.…

  16. The role of positive youth development practices in building resilience and enhancing wellbeing for at-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Jackie; Munford, Robyn; Thimasarn-Anwar, Tewaporn; Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Services that utilise positive youth development practices (PYD) are thought to improve the quality of the service experience leading to better outcomes for at-risk youth. This article reports on a study of 605 adolescents (aged 12-17 years) who were concurrent clients of two or more service systems (child welfare, juvenile justice, additional education, mental health). It was hypothesised that services adopting PYD approaches would be related to increases in youth resilience and better wellbeing outcomes. It was also hypothesised that risks, resilience, service experiences and wellbeing outcomes would differ by age, gender and ethnicity. Youth completed a self-report questionnaire administered individually. Path analysis was used to determine the relationship between risk, service use, resilience and a wellbeing outcome measure. MANOVA was then used to determine patterns of risk, service use, resilience and wellbeing among participants based on their demographic characteristics. Services using PYD approaches were significantly related to higher levels of youth resilience. Similarly, increased resilience was related to increased indicators of wellbeing, suggesting the mediating role of resilience between risk factors and wellbeing outcomes. When professionals adopt PYD practices and work with the positive resources around youth (their own resilience processes) interventions can make a significant contribution to wellbeing outcomes for at-risk youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Blood Cadmium Levels and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk in the General Korean Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Jang, Tae-Won; Lee, Hye Eun; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk. Methods The heavy metal dataset of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 through 2010, a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 4,668 non-institutionalized Koreans, was analyzed. Subjects were stratified into seven age groups to minimize the effects of age. The log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations were compared with the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk in each age stratum. Results The Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk was significantly associated with the log-transformed blood cadmium concentrations (p<0.05) in all age groups of Korean men, with the lowest regression coefficient (0.254) for men aged 20 to <35 years and the highest (3.354) for men aged 55 to <60 years; similar results, however, were not observed in Korean women. After adjusting for survey year, age, and urinary cotinine concentration, the log-transformed blood cadmium levels among men aged 20 to <35, 40 to <45, 50 to <55, and 60 to <65 years were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), but not with total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Conclusions Cadmium exposure, even at non-occupational levels, may be associated with CHD risk in men. Despite the declines in non-occupational cadmium exposure over the past several decades, more efforts are needed. PMID:25383551

  18. The Relationship between Subclinical Thyroid Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee Joong; Ahn, Seong Hee; Hong, Seongbin; Suh, Young Ju

    2017-10-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism are characterized by abnormal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with normal free thyroxine. Subclinical thyroid diseases, to date, have received less attention compared with other thyroid diseases since they are asymptomatic. This study aimed to verify the association between subclinical thyroid diseases and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk score in the Korean population. This was a population-based cohort study using data collected from 3,722 subjects (aged ≥ 30 years) during the 6th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI; 2013-2015). Gender-specific Framingham risk scores were calculated to identify the association between subclinical thyroid diseases and 10-year CVD risk score. Complex survey, with consideration of sampling weight, was analyzed using generalized linear models after stratification by gender. The TSH reference range was between 0.61 and 6.91 mIU/L in this study. TSH showed a positive association with the 10-year CVD risk score only in the female population (P = 0.001). There were significant differences in the least squares means of 10-year CVD risk score by the effect of subclinical hypothyroidism compared with euthyroidism (normal group) in females, after adjusting for body mass index, white blood cell, and urine iodine (P = 0.006 and Bonferroni corrected P = 0.012). In conclusion, subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with increased 10-year CVD risk score in the female Korean population aged 30 years or more. Therefore, we recommend to clinically checkup major CVD risk factors in female patients with subclinical hypothyroidism aged 30 years or more. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Metabolic syndrome: prevalence and risk factors in Korean gout patients.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Song, Gwan Gyu; Ji, Jong Dae; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Young Ho; Choi, Sung Jae

    2016-10-12

    We performed this study to investigate associations between metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and gout. We reviewed the medical records of 151 patients with gout at the Department of Rheumatology in Korea University Ansan Hospital. The following measures were examined: waist circumference, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and levels of triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting serum glucose, serum uric acid (SUA), creatinine, insulin, and C-peptide. We assessed metabolic syndrome by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index and renal function by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation; patients were classified according to World Health Organization Asia-Pacific obesity criteria. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in gout patients (50.8%) was higher than in non-gout patients. The mean SUA level was significantly higher in gout patients with metabolic syndrome (9.13 ± 3.15 mg/dL) than in gout patients without metabolic syndrome (8.14 ± 2.07 mg/dL). The mean SUA level was also significantly higher in patients with gout and CKD (9.55 ± 2.86 mg/dL) than in patients with gout but no CKD (7.74 ± 2.27 mg/dL). In gout patients, HOMA-IR was positively correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.409, p = 0.001). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with gout was 50.8%, which is higher than the prevalence in the general Korean population. Hyperuricemia in gout patients was correlated with metabolic syndrome and CKD. Insulin resistance may provide clues to better understand the relationship between metabolic syndrome, CKD, and gout.

  20. Extraction and Analysis of Risk Elements for Korean Homecare Patients with Senile Dementia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Kim, BoSeong; Lee, Jung-Chul; Park, Sung-Jun; Jeong, Ul-Ho; Baek, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide information for the protection of Korean homecare patients with senile dementia by investigating accident cases using a survey. With the survey of accident cases, the caregivers of 55 Korean homecare patients with senile dementia (75.9 ± 7.0 years) were administered the short form of the Samsung Dementia Questionnaire (S-SDQ) and an activities of daily living (ADL) test. Twelve risk elements were extracted. The order of frequency of occurrence from highest to lowest was "egress," "fall," "violence," "collision," "gas accident," "slip," "faucet misuse," "overeating," "drop," "discharge," "weird eating," and "self-injury." The percentage of risk elements resulting in physical harm was 40.1% across all risk elements. The risk elements resulting in the most physical harm were "fall," "collision," "slip," and "drop," respectively. Regarding the location of occurrence of risk elements, risk elements resulting in physical harm showed no significant differences between indoors and outdoors. Some risk elements, such as "egress," "fall," and "gas accident" happened concurrently with more than four other elements, while "collision," "drop," and "violence" happened together with more than two other elements. "Slip" happened significantly more often in the low ADL score group, while "gas accident" happened significantly more often in the high ADL score group. This study provides basic information about monitoring factors to protect senior homecare patients with senile dementia.

  1. Alcohol consumption and sexually transmitted disease risk behavior: partner mix among male Korean university students.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Celentano, D D; Crum, R M

    1998-02-01

    In Asia, where men frequently have sex with prostitutes, there is a direct and statistically significant dose-response relationship between frequency of sex with prostitutes and HIV-1 seroprevalence. Young Korean men are reported to routinely have sex with prostitutes. Findings are reported from an examination of alcohol consumption and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behavior as related to prostitute visits and sex partner mix among 1095 representative male Korean university students aged 17-32 years, of mean age 22.1 years, during 1993-94. The men were drawn from 4 universities in Seoul. 25.8% of surveyed university students had visited prostitutes, 17.6% at least 2 times, and 12.9% had sexual experiences with both prostitutes and girlfriends. Heavier alcohol consumption was significantly related to multiple visits to prostitutes and to sexual experiences with both prostitutes and girlfriends.

  2. Preliminary Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results--1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joyce, Comp.

    This paper provides the results of a 1993 survey of 2,684 New Hampshire high school students in regard to risk taking, personal violence, suicide, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education, sexual activity, nutrition, and exercise. It found that in the preceding 30 days, 10.8 percent of students…

  3. Student Assistance Programs and High Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Jenni

    This manual discusses a method for developing a comprehensive drug abuse prevention and intervention program for students in special education. The first section contains introductory material regarding high risk students in general and implications for special education. The second section outlines material on specific types of high-risk…

  4. Youth At-Risk of Welfare Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, April

    1999-01-01

    This issue of WIN (Welfare Information Network) Issue Notes focuses on the tendency of children from low-income families to drop out of high school, become teen parents, become involved in drug-related activities, and become involved in other activities that place them at high risk of long-term welfare dependency. Section 1 offers the background.…

  5. Awareness of human papillomavirus and factors associated with intention to obtain HPV vaccination among Korean youth: quasi experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Won

    2015-02-21

    This study aimed to determine the awareness among fifth-grade girls and boys of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV), and to determine the factors associated with intention to obtain the HPV vaccination. A quasi experimental design was employed with Korean fifth-grade students as the subjects for this study (n=117). Prior to providing HPV education, the awareness and health beliefs regarding STDs and cancer prevention were assessed according to gender. After 2 hours of HPV education, gender comparisons were made with respect to the awareness and health beliefs, HPV knowledge, and intention to obtain the HPV vaccination, and the factors associated with that intention. Prior to the 2hours education session, only two boys knew that HPV is a virus. There were significant gender differences with respect to responses to the statements "STD is preventable" (χ(2)=8.76, p=0.013) and "cancer is preventable" (χ(2)=6.37, p=0.041), and concerns about the pain associated with vaccine injection (z=-2.44, p=0.015). After HPV education, there were no significant gender differences in HPV knowledge and intention to obtain the HPV vaccination. Awareness that "HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer" was significantly related to intention to obtain the HPV vaccine among both boys and girls. Increased HPV knowledge could positively influence the intention to obtain the HPV vaccination among youth. Thus, HPV education at elementary school would be helpful to make students aware of HPV and the importance of HPV prevention.

  6. Comparison of clinical characteristics of bipolar and depressive disorders in Korean clinical sample of youth: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Shon, Seung-Hyun; Joo, Yeonho; Park, Jangho; Youngstrom, Eric A; Kim, Hyo-Won

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder I, II (BD I and II) and not otherwise specified (BD NOS) to those of major depressive disorder (MDD) in a clinical sample of Korean children and adolescents. This study was a cross-sectional review of longitudinal observational data. Two psychiatrists retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 198 children and adolescents (age 6-18) that were diagnosed as having bipolar or depressive disorders from March 2010 to February 2012 at Department of Psychiatry of Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Every subject's diagnoses were reviewed and confirmed. BD I, II and MDD were assessed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV criteria. BD NOS was defined based on the criteria for the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study. Comparisons were made in demographic information, clinical characteristics, family history, and psychiatric comorbidities at baseline and during observation. Among 198 subjects, 20 (10.1 %) subjects were diagnosed as having BD I, 10 (5.1 %) as BD II, 25 (12.6 %) as BD NOS and 143 (73.7 %) as MDD. BD depression was associated with mood change while taking an antidepressant, familial bipolarity, aggressive behaviors, and atypical features. Comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder tended to be higher in BD NOS than in MDD. Presence of psychosocial stressors was more common in MDD than in BD depression. In children and adolescents, bipolar depression is distinct from unipolar depression in family history, comorbidity, and clinical characteristics.

  7. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Depressive Symptoms in Korean Women throughout Pregnancy and in Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Hwan; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal depression is a significant predictor for postpartum depression. However, there is a lack of research on risk factors for Korean women related to prenatal depression and the relationship between prenatal depression during the three trimesters and postpartum depression. Therefore, aims of this study were (1) to identify the prevalence of depression during all three trimesters and the postpartum period, (2) to evaluate the relationship between prenatal depression in each trimester and postpartum depression, and (3) to identify the relationship and differences in prenatal depression based on sociodemographic factors in Korean women. One hundred and fifty three Korean women were recruited from three maternity clinics in Korea. Prenatal and postpartum depressions were evaluated in the first, second (24-26 weeks), third (32-34 weeks) trimester and 4 weeks postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Korean. The prevalence of depression in the prenatal and postpartum period ranged from 40.5% to 61.4%. Depression in the second and the third trimester was significantly correlated with depression in the postpartum period. Unemployment and household income were risk factors for prenatal depression in the first and second trimesters. To assist women suffering from postpartum depression and prevent its effects, women should be screened for prenatal depression during all three trimesters. For Korean women with high risk factors for prenatal depression, we suggest that the Korean government establish healthcare policies related to depression screening as routine prenatal care and mental health referral systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of mercury from the Korean total diet study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Haeng Shin; Yoo, Dong Chul; Kim, Chun Huem; Kim, Gi Sun; Kim, Ji Ae; Lee, Yu Na; Kim, Young Soon; Kang, Kyung Mo; No, Ki Mi; Paek, Ock Jin; Seo, Jung Hyuk; Choi, Hoon; Park, Sung Kug; Choi, Dong Mi; Kim, Dong Sul; Choi, Dal Woong

    2009-01-01

    As a national project, obtaining information on the amount of heavy metal exposure of individuals through food intake is an important basic parameter for risk assessment. This study was conducted to evaluate dietary exposure levels and various risks from mercury (Hg) in Korean foods. In total, 342 samples comprising 114 food items were collected and then cooked prior to analysis. As found by Hg analysis, the mean content of metal in the fish and shellfish group was highest among the 15 Korean food groups. The total daily amount of Hg intake from typical Korean foods was 2.40 microg/person/d. The daily amount (microg/person/d) of Hg intake from each food group was 0.155 in grains and cereals, 0.008 potatoes and starch, 0.005 sugars and sweets, 0.0093 pulses, 0.0018 nuts and seeds, 0.203 vegetables, 0.027 fruits, 0.021 meats and poultry, 0.004 eggs, 1.826 fish and shellfish, 0.022 seaweed, 0.043 milk and dairy products, 0.008 oils and fats, 0.042 beverages, and 0.023 seasonings. The fish and shellfish group contributed most to total dietary intake at 76%. For risk assessment, probable daily intake (PDI) was calculated and compared with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The level of Hg intake through fish and shellfish of 0.001 mg/kg body weight bw/wk corresponded to 4.54% of the PTWI value of 0.005 mg/kg bw/wk, the safety standard for JECFA. The level of Hg intake through selected foods from the Food list for Koreans was 0.001 mg/kg bw/wk, corresponding to 5.95% of PTWI value. Therefore, overall intake was at levels below the recommended JECFA levels. The relative gender Hg hazard from Korean foods was 6.26% and 5.5% for males and females, respectively. The relative age Hg hazard from Korean foods was, 8.9% in those 3-6 yr old, 6.7% in those 7-12 yr old, 5.2% in those 13-19 yr old, 5.9% in those 20-29 yr old, 6.3% in those 30-49 yr old, 5.6% in those ages 50-64 yr, and 3.7% in the group of

  9. Cancer risk factors in Korean news media: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Shim, Minsun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Cho, Hyunsoon; Jung, Kyu Won; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the news coverage of cancer risk factors in Korea. This study aimed to examine how the news media encompasses a wide array of content regarding cancer risk factors and related cancer sites, and investigate whether news coverage of cancer risk factors is congruent with the actual prevalence of the disease. A content analysis was conducted on 1,138 news stories covered during a 5-year period between 2008 and 2012. The news stories were selected from nationally representative media in Korea. Information was collected about cancer risk factors and cancer sites. Of various cancer risk factors, occupational and environmental exposures appeared most frequently in the news. Breast cancer was mentioned the most in relation to cancer sites. Breast, cervical, prostate, and skin cancer were overrepresented in the media in comparison to incidence and mortality cases, whereas lung, thyroid, liver, and stomach cancer were underrepresented. To our knowledge, this research is the first investigation dealing with news coverage about cancer risk factors in Korea. The study findings show occupational and environmental exposures are emphasized more than personal lifestyle factors; further, more prevalent cancers in developed countries have greater media coverage, not reflecting the realities of the disease. The findings may help health journalists and other health storytellers to develop effective ways to communicate cancer risk factors.

  10. How do high-risk youth use the Internet? Characteristics and implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Wells, Melissa; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2008-08-01

    Using data from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,500 youth Internet users (ages 10 to 17), this study explores differences in Internet use characteristics between high risk youth and other Internet users. Those youth who engaged in aggressive behavior online and those who used the Internet on a cell phone were about twice as likely to be classified as high risk (having experienced high parent conflict or child maltreatment) as compared to other Internet users. Those youth who talked with known friends online were significantly less likely to be included in the high risk group. Controlling for demographic and Internet use characteristics, youth who received an aggressive sexual solicitation were almost 2.5 times as likely to report experiencing physical abuse, sexual abuse or high parent conflict. Implications for prevention are discussed, including avenues for reaching high risk populations of youth.

  11. Development and validation of osteoporosis risk-assessment model for Korean postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun Min; Nam, Byung-Ho; Rhee, Yumie; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Deog Young; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2013-07-01

    Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for detecting osteoporosis, but is not recommended for general population screening. Therefore, this study aims to develop an osteoporosis risk-assessment model to identify high-risk individuals among Korean postmenopausal women. Data from 1,209 and 1,046 postmenopausal women who participated in the 2009 and 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, respectively, were used for development and validation of an osteoporosis risk-assessment model. Osteoporosis was defined as T score less than or equal to -2.5 at either the femoral neck or lumbar spine. Performance of the candidate models and the Osteoporosis Self assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) were compared with respect to sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). To compare the developed Korean Osteoporosis Risk-Assessment Model (KORAM) with OSTA, a net reclassification improvement was further calculated. In the development dataset, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 33.9 %. KORAM, consisting of age, weight, and hormone therapy, had a sensitivity of 91.2 %, a specificity of 50.6 %, and an AUC of 0.709 with a specific cut-off score of -9. Comparable results were shown in the validation dataset: sensitivity 84.8 %, specificity 51.6 %, and AUC 0.682. Additionally, risk categorization with KORAM showed improved reclassification over that of OSTA from 7.4 to 41.7 %. KORAM can be easily used as a pre-screening tool to identify candidates for DXA tests. Further studies investigating cost-effectiveness and replicability in other datasets are required to establish the clinical utility of KORAM.

  12. Healthy Choices: Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Health Risk Behaviors in HIV-Positive Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naar-King, Sylvie; Wright, Kathryn; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Frey, Maureen; Templin, Thomas; Lam, Phebe; Murphy, Debra

    2006-01-01

    This study piloted a brief individual motivational intervention targeting multiple health risk behaviors in HIV-positive youth aged 16-25. Interviews about sexual behavior and substance use and viral load testing were obtained from 51 HIV-positive youth at baseline and post intervention. Youth were randomized to receive a four-session motivational…

  13. Youth Assets and Sexual Risk Behavior: Differences between Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…

  14. Is Reading Tests Aloud an Accommodation for Youth with or at Risk for ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiel, Craig Freeman; Mixon, Clifton S.; Holdaway, Alex S.; Evans, Steven W.; Harrison, Judith R.; Zoromski, Allison K.; Yost, Joanna Sadler

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we intend to determine if reading tests aloud provides a differential boost to youth with elevated symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to same-aged peers. Participants were 36 youth, 44% with or at risk for ADHD, who participated in a week long summer camp. Over the course of the week, youth attended…

  15. What Makes Youth Harass Their Immigrant Peers? Understanding the Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Immigrant youth are at risk of experiencing harassment in school; however, we have only limited understanding of what makes youth harass their peers on ground of their ethnic origin. To address this major limitation, we examined (a) whether youth's negative attitudes toward immigrants impact their engagement in ethnic harassment over time and (b)…

  16. Is Reading Tests Aloud an Accommodation for Youth with or at Risk for ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiel, Craig Freeman; Mixon, Clifton S.; Holdaway, Alex S.; Evans, Steven W.; Harrison, Judith R.; Zoromski, Allison K.; Yost, Joanna Sadler

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we intend to determine if reading tests aloud provides a differential boost to youth with elevated symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to same-aged peers. Participants were 36 youth, 44% with or at risk for ADHD, who participated in a week long summer camp. Over the course of the week, youth attended…

  17. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Urban Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Grey, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of overweight in youth have increased at an alarming rate, particularly in minority youth, and depressive symptoms may affect the ability of youth to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors to manage weight and reduce their risk for health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressive…

  18. Youth Assets and Sexual Risk Behavior: Differences between Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Trisha; Gavin, Lorrie; Oman, Roy; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Youth internal assets and external resources are protective factors that can help youth avoid potentially harmful behaviors. This study investigates how the relationship between youth assets or resources and two sexual risk behaviors (ever had sex and birth control use) varied by gender. Data were collected through in-home interviews from…

  19. What Makes Youth Harass Their Immigrant Peers? Understanding the Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Immigrant youth are at risk of experiencing harassment in school; however, we have only limited understanding of what makes youth harass their peers on ground of their ethnic origin. To address this major limitation, we examined (a) whether youth's negative attitudes toward immigrants impact their engagement in ethnic harassment over time and (b)…

  20. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Urban Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Grey, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rates of overweight in youth have increased at an alarming rate, particularly in minority youth, and depressive symptoms may affect the ability of youth to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors to manage weight and reduce their risk for health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressive…

  1. Reaching High-Risk Youth through Model AIDS Education Programs: A Case by Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    This report evaluates the High Risk Youth Demonstration Project, which is predicated on the idea that youth-serving agencies (YSAs) can be key sources for adolescent AIDS education. When the Center for Population Options (CPO) conceptualized a strategy for bringing AIDS education to underserved youth, it was responding to the following three areas…

  2. Korean Ministry of Environment's web-based visual consumer product exposure and risk assessment system (COPER).

    PubMed

    Lee, Hunjoo; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Ji Young; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-05-01

    With support from the Korean Ministry of the Environment (ME), our interdisciplinary research staff developed the COnsumer Product Exposure and Risk assessment system (COPER). This system includes various databases and features that enable the calculation of exposure and determination of risk caused by consumer products use. COPER is divided into three tiers: the integrated database layer (IDL), the domain specific service layer (DSSL), and the exposure and risk assessment layer (ERAL). IDL is organized by the form of the raw data (mostly non-aggregated data) and includes four sub-databases: a toxicity profile, an inventory of Korean consumer products, the weight fractions of chemical substances in the consumer products determined by chemical analysis and national representative exposure factors. DSSL provides web-based information services corresponding to each database within IDL. Finally, ERAL enables risk assessors to perform various exposure and risk assessments, including exposure scenario design via either inhalation or dermal contact by using or organizing each database in an intuitive manner. This paper outlines the overall architecture of the system and highlights some of the unique features of COPER based on visual and dynamic rendering engine for exposure assessment model on web.

  3. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  4. Korean and Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Literature: Impact of Narratives and Interpretive Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2014-01-01

    How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority or a model minority if they had early and consistent exposure to literature depicting the mirrored experiences of Korean/Korean Americans? This study employed qualitative methods and an interpretive approach which enhance understanding of the life experiences, literary…

  5. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy as a risk factor of dentofacial abnormality in Korean children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae Seo; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-11-01

    No studies for the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in development of dentofacial abnormalities have been performed in Asian pediatric population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children. The present study included consecutive children who visited a pediatric clinic for sleep-disordered breathing due to habitual mouth breathing, snoring or sleep apnea. Their palatine tonsils and adenoids were graded by oropharyngeal endoscopy and lateral cephalometry. Anterior open bite, posterior crossbite, and Angle's class malocclusions were evaluated for dentofacial abnormality. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify age cutoffs to predict dentofacial abnormality. A total of 1,083 children were included. The presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy was significantly correlated with the prevalence of dentofacial abnormality [adjusted odds ratio = 4.587, 95% CI (2.747-7.658)] after adjusting age, sex, body mass index, allergy, and Korean version of obstructive sleep apnea-18 score. The cutoff age associated with dentofacial abnormality was 5.5 years (sensitivity = 75.5%, specificity = 67%) in the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and 6.5 years (sensitivity = 70.6%, specificity = 57%) in those without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In conclusion, adenotonsillar hypertrophy may be a risk factor for dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children and early surgical intervention could be considered with regards to dentofacial abnormality.

  6. Reinforcement Learning Performance and Risk for Psychosis in Youth.

    PubMed

    Waltz, James A; Demro, Caroline; Schiffman, Jason; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily; Reeves, Gloria; Xu, Ziye; Gold, James

    2015-12-01

    Early identification efforts for psychosis have thus far yielded many more individuals "at risk" than actually develop psychotic illness. Here, we test whether measures of reinforcement learning (RL), known to be impaired in chronic schizophrenia, are related to the severity of clinical risk symptoms. Because of the reliance of RL on dopamine-rich frontostriatal systems and evidence of dopamine system dysfunction in the psychosis prodrome, RL measures are of specific interest in this clinical population. The current study examines relationships between psychosis risk symptoms and RL task performance in a sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 70) receiving mental health services. We observed significant correlations between multiple measures of RL performance and measures of both positive and negative symptoms. These results suggest that RL measures may provide a psychosis risk signal in treatment-seeking youth. Further research is necessary to understand the potential predictive role of RL measures for conversion to psychosis.

  7. Dietary flavonoids and gastric cancer risk in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-11-10

    Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35-75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI): 0.49 (0.31-0.76), p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids). However, these associations were not significant after further adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption (OR (95% CI): 0.62 (0.36-1.09), p trend = 0.458 for total flavonoids). Total flavonoids and their subclasses, except for isoflavones, were significantly associated with a reduced risk gastric cancer in women (OR (95% CI): 0.33 (0.15-0.73), p trend = 0.001 for total flavonoids) but not in men (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.39-1.24), p trend = 0.393 for total flavonoids). A significant inverse association with gastric cancer risk was observed in flavones, even after additional adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption in women. No significantly different effects of flavonoids were observed between H. pylori-positive and negative subjects. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids were inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and these protective effects of dietary flavonoids were prominent in women. No clear differences were observed in the subgroup analysis of H. pylori and smoking status.

  8. Overweight, obesity, youth, and health-risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. Although the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well documented, comparatively less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health-risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health. This study aims to examine the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U.S. youth. Self-reported height and weight, substance use, violence, and bullying were assessed in a nationally representative sample of students aged 11-17 years (N=7825) who participated in the 2005-2006 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey. Data were analyzed in 2009. Significant gender and age differences in the relationship of overweight/obesity with risk behaviors were observed. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with substance use among girls only: Frequent smoking and drinking were associated with overweight and obesity among younger girls, whereas these behaviors were associated with obesity among older girls. Frequent smoking and cannabis use were associated with overweight among younger girls only. Relationships between violent behavior and overweight/obesity were mainly observed among boys: Younger obese boys were more likely to be victims of bullying, whereas older obese boys were more likely to carry weapons compared to boys of normal weight. Overweight and obese young people are at risk of developing health-compromising behaviors that may compound medical and social problems associated with excess weight. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Suicidal ideation and risk factors in Korean migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Young; Park, Sung-Pa

    2014-10-01

    Population-based studies have reported an increased risk of suicidal ideation in patients with migraine. However, there is some controversy as to whether migraine itself is a risk factor for suicidal ideation after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities. We calculated the frequency of suicidal ideation among patients with migraine visiting a tertiary care hospital and determined its risk factors. Patients with migraine and healthy controls completed self-report questionnaires to assess depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, and the frequency of suicidal ideation. Risk factors for suicidal ideation were investigated in terms of demographic, clinical, and psychiatric variables. One hundred eighty-five patients with migraine (156 females and 29 males; mean age 39.1 years) and 53 age and education-matched healthy controls participated in the study. The frequency of suicidal ideation was significantly greater in patients with migraine than healthy controls (odds ratio [OR]=5.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-22.10, p=0.003), but this significance was not sustained after adjusting for comorbid depression and anxiety. The risk of suicidal ideation in patients with migraine was associated with lower education levels, higher frequency of migraine attacks, stronger intensity of headaches, and presence of phonophobia, chronic migraine, depression, and anxiety. The strongest predictor was depression (OR=15.36, 95% CI 5.39-43.78, p<0.001), followed by the intensity of headache while completing the questionnaire (OR=1.293, 95% CI 1.077-1.553; p=0.006). The contribution of migraine-specific variables to suicidal ideation is trivial compared to that of depression and headache intensity.

  10. Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents. Part 2. Examining the Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmo, Artis J.; And Others

    This document consists of Part 2 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. Part 2 contains five readings on causal factors related to at-risk behaviors. "The Harmful Effects of Dysfunctional Family…

  11. Prevalence and risk indicators of smoking among on-reserve First Nations youth.

    PubMed

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Thompson, Adam; Moraros, John; Tempier, Raymond

    2011-12-01

    To determine the current prevalence of smoking among First Nations youth living on reserve within the Saskatoon Tribal Council, and to determine the independent risk indicators associated with smoking among First Nations youth. Students in grades 5 to 8 attending school within the Saskatoon Tribal Council were asked to complete a youth health survey. Of 271 eligible students, 204 completed the consent protocol and the school survey, yielding a response rate of 75.3%; 26.5% of youth were defined as current smokers. Regression analysis indicated that older age, not having a happy home life, suicide ideation and having three or more friends who smoke cigarettes were independent risk indicators of smoking in First Nations youth. Smoking prevalence among on-reserve First Nations youth is quite high. The identification of four main risk indicators should assist with the design of youth smoking prevention and cessation programs.

  12. Association between Knee Osteoarthritis, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and the Framingham Risk Score in South Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Sun; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Park, Ki Byung; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Joo-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a significant burden on personal health and for social cost, and its prevalence is rising. Recent research has revealed an association between osteoarthritis and cardiovascular disease, and this study uses the Framingham risk score (FRS), which is widely used as a composite index of cardiovascular risk factors, to investigate the association between osteoarthritis and various cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A total 9,514 participants aged 50 years or older who received knee X-ray diagnosis of the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (total surveyees = 24,173) released by the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was included for analysis. Knee osteoarthritis patients were defined as participants with K-L grade ≥2 on knee X-ray regardless of knee pain. The association between major cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, diabetes, cholesterol, and smoking habits), FRS, and knee osteoarthritis was analyzed, adjusting for various covariates. Results Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in Koreans aged ≥50 years was 36.6%, and higher in women (men: 24.9%, women: 45.4%). Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in participants with hypertension was significantly higher than those without hypertension (fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.48). Knee osteoarthritis prevalence was also higher in participants with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes than those without (age, sex adjusted OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.00–1.41). Also, OR values increased statistically significantly with FRS as a continuous variable (fully adjusted OR 1.007; 95% CI 1.00–1.01). Conclusions Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis was associated with hypertension and diabetes, which are major cardiovascular risk factors, and the FRS. Further studies on FRS pertaining to its relationship with osteoarthritis are warranted. PMID:27764239

  13. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents. Although attention has focused primarily on alcohol use, less is known about the relationship between marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk youth. Since truant youth often experience problems in school, troubled family situations, and other psychosocial problems, they represent an important group of high-risk youth to study. Previous research suggests that truant youth are at considerable risk of continuing their troubled behavior in school and entering the juvenile justice system. It is also likely that truant youth are involved in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Involving them in effective intervention services could reduce these risk behaviors. The current study presents interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parents/guardians. Longitudinal data were analyzed to study: (1) the relationships between the youths’ marijuana use and engaging in sexual risk behavior over time, and (2) the effects of a substance use BI on their marijuana use and sexual risk behavior. Analyses examined a growth model for parallel processes in marijuana use and sexual risk behavior, and an assessment of the effect of the intervention on linear and quadratic trends, and on subgroups of youth differing in their sexual risk behavior and marijuana use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25400493

  14. Anthropometric Injury Risk Factors in Elite-standard Youth Soccer.

    PubMed

    Kemper, G L J; van der Sluis, A; Brink, M S; Visscher, C; Frencken, W G P; Elferink-Gemser, M T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether an increased risk of injury occurrence can be determined through frequent anthropometric measurements in elite-standard youth soccer players. Over the course of one season, we followed 101 male elite-standard youth soccer players between 11 and 19 years of age. Height and body mass were monitored at monthly measurement intervals and fat percentage was assessed every 3 months by use of the sum of skinfold method. Growth in height (cm), alternations in body mass index (kg/m(2)), fat percentage and fat-free mass index (kg/m(2)) were calculated. Injuries were recorded in accordance with the recommendations of the FIFA Consensus Model for Injury Registration. Odds ratio scores and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binary logistic regression analyses. The following anthropometric injury risk factors were identified: ≥ 0.6 centimeter growth per month (p=0.03; OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.06-2.52), ≥ 0.3 kg/m(2) increase of body mass index value per month (p=0.03; OR=1.61; 95% CI: 1.04-2.49) and low fat percentage; i. e., < 7% for players aged 11-16 and < 5% for players over 16 years (p=0.01; OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.18-2.76). Individual monitoring of anthropometrics provides useful information to determine increased risk of injury occurrence in elite-standard youth soccer.

  15. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer.

  16. Parents matter in HIV-risk among probation youth.

    PubMed

    Udell, Wadiya; Donenberg, Geri; Emerson, Erin

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between parenting practices (i.e., parental monitoring, parent permissiveness, and parent-teen communication), and probation youth's HIV-related sexual risk behavior (i.e., ever having sex, condom use, alcohol and marijuana use before sex). Participants were 61 male and female juvenile offenders, ages 13-17, on probation and awaiting sentencing. Results indicated different relationships between parenting and HIV-related sexual risk behavior for probation boys and girls. Parental monitoring, parenting permissiveness, and parent-teen communication were collectively related to whether girls' ever had sex and with boys' use of alcohol and marijuana use before last sex. Findings underscore the important role of parenting on probation teens' HIV risk behaviors.

  17. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative sore throat after endotracheal intubation in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Young; Sim, Woo Seog; Kim, Eun Sung; Lee, Sangmin M; Kim, Duk Kyung; Na, Yu Ri; Park, Dahye; Park, Hue Jung

    2017-04-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of postoperative sore throat (POST) in Korean patients undergoing general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation and to assess potential risk factors. Methods This prospective study enrolled patients who underwent all types of elective surgical procedures with endotracheal intubation and general anaesthesia. The patients were categorized into group S (those with a POST) or group N (those without a POST). The demographic, clinical and anaesthetic characteristics of each group were compared. Results This study enrolled 207 patients and the overall incidence of POST was 57.5% ( n = 119). Univariate analysis revealed that significantly more patients in group S had a cough at emergence and hoarseness in the postanaesthetic care unit compared with group N. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that an intracuff pressure ≥17 cmH2O was associated with POST. Multivariate analysis identified an intracuff pressure ≥17 cmH2O and cough at emergence as risk factors for POST. At emergence, as the intracuff pressure over ≥17 cmH2O increased, the incidence of hoarseness increased. Conclusions An intracuff pressure ≥17 cmH2O and a cough at emergence were risk factors for POST in Korean patients. Intracuff monitoring during anaesthesia and a smooth emergence are needed to prevent POST.

  18. Youth-caregiver Agreement on Clinical High-risk Symptoms of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Golembo-Smith, Shana; Bachman, Peter; Senturk, Damla; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Early identification of individuals who will go on to develop schizophrenia is a difficult endeavor. The variety of symptoms experienced by clinical high-risk youth make it difficult to identify who will eventually develop schizophrenia in the future. Efforts are being made, therefore, to more accurately identify at-risk individuals and factors that predict conversion to psychosis. As in most assessments of children and adolescents, however, both youth and parental report of symptomatology and resulting dysfunction are important to assess. The goals of the current study were to assess the extent of cross-informant agreement on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), a widely-used tool employed to determine clinical high-risk status. A total of 84 youth-caregiver pairs participated. Youth and caregiver raters displayed moderate overall agreement on SIPS-rated symptoms. Both youth and caregiver ratings of youth symptomatology contributed significantly to predicting conversion to psychosis. In addition, youth age and quality of youth-caregiver relationships appear to be related to cross-informant symptom ratings. Despite differences on individual SIPS domains, the majority of dyads agreed on youth clinical high-risk status. Results highlight the potential clinical utility of using caregiver informants to determine youth psychosis risk. PMID:24092494

  19. Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Status and Metabolic Risk Factors among Korean Adults with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Han Na; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Serum vitamin D status has been associated with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence for the increased risk of metabolic disorders in individuals with prediabetes and a low vitamin D status is limited and uncertain. Furthermore, it has not been confirmed whether this possible relationship occurs in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and metabolic risk factors in Korean adults with prediabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 subjects aged 20–65 years. Participants had fasting glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dl. A questionnaire was used to assess vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure and a dietary intake examined using 3-days dietary records. Clinical and biochemical data were also collected. The 2009 harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used. Serum vitamin D levels were classified according to criteria from the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. The majority of subjects (75%) had a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/ml, and among them, 31.1% were vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml). The proportion (42.9%) of subjects having low HDL-cholesterol was the highest among vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml) group (12 to < 20 ng/ml: 16.1%, ≥ 20 ng/ml: 6.7%). We observed an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and TG, AI (β = -6.355, SE = 2.463; β = -0.020, SE = 0.008) after adjusted confounders. Korean adults with prediabetes were more likely to have low serum 25(OH)D levels. A sufficient 25(OH)D level may have possible beneficial effects on lipid profiles. PMID:27783655

  20. The prevalence and risk factors for glucose intolerance in young Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyejin; Oh, Jee-Young; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Chung, Hyewon; Cho, Wha Young

    2009-10-01

    Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia play important roles in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, some women with PCOS have been shown to have insulin secretory defects and can be predicted to be at an increased risk for glucose intolerance. We performed the present study to determine the prevalence and risk factors for glucose intolerance in Korean women with PCOS. We consecutively recruited 194 women with PCOS diagnosed by American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ASRM/ESHRE) criteria. Anthropometric measures, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and measurement of insulin sensitivity (insulin mediated glucose uptake; IMGU) using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique were performed. In women with PCOS, the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and/or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 17.0% and type 2 diabetes 1.0%, and in lean women with PCOS, the prevalence of IGT and/or IFG was 5.9%. The prevalence of glucose intolerance was 28-fold higher in women with PCOS, and 9.8-fold higher in lean women with PCOS compared to age-matched Korean women. Women with glucose intolerance had higher BMI, waist circumference, free testosterone, fasting insulin, 2-h post-load insulin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride and lower sex hormone binding globulin and IMGU than women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (P < 0.05). IMGU was the most powerful predictor for glucose intolerance after adjustment for age, BMI, waist circumference, and hyperandrogenemia. The 2-h OGTT was the best screening measure for glucose intolerance and diagnosis of diabetes in women with PCOS. Young Korean women with PCOS have high prevalence for glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance is the most important factor associated with glucose intolerance.

  1. Risk and Criminogenic Needs of Youth Who Sexually Offended in Singapore: An Examination of Two Typologies.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gerald; Chu, Chi Meng; Koh, Li Lian; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    An increasing amount of research has been carried out to understand the characteristics of subgroups of adult sex offenders, but there is limited research into the risk factors and criminogenic needs of subgroups of youth who sexually offended. The current study investigated if there were differences in the risk and criminogenic needs of 167 Singaporean youth who sexually offended based on two typologies - youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually versus youth who offended only sexually, and youth who offended against child victims versus youth who offended against nonchild victims. Results show that youth who offended both sexually and nonsexually were found to have higher risk and criminogenic needs as compared to youth who only sexually offended. In addition, youth who offended against child victims were found to have higher numbers of previous sexual assaults as compared to youth who offended against nonchild victims. These differences have implications for the management and intervention of youth who sexually offended. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Mexican-origin youth's risk behavior from adolescence to young adulthood: The role of familism values.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Lorey A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Rodríguez de Jesús, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J

    2017-01-01

    Engagement in risk behavior has implications for individuals' academic achievement, health, and well-being, yet there is a paucity of developmental research on the role of culturally relevant strengths in individual and family differences in risk behavior involvement among ethnic minority youth. In this study, we used a longitudinal cohort-sequential design to chart intraindividual trajectories of risk behavior and test variation by gender and familism values in 492 youth from 12 to 22 years of age. Participants were older and younger siblings from 246 Mexican-origin families who reported on their risk behaviors in interviews spaced over 8 years. Multilevel cohort-sequential growth models revealed that youth reported an increase in risk behavior from 12 to 18 years of age, and then a decline to age 22. Male youth reported greater overall levels and a steeper increase in risk behavior from ages 12 to 18, compared to female youth. For familism values, on occasions when youth reported higher levels, they also reported lower levels of risk behavior (i.e., within-person effect). For sibling dyads characterized by higher average levels of familism values, youth reported lower average levels of risk behavior (i.e., between-family effect). Findings provide unique insights into risk behavior from adolescence to young adulthood among Mexican-origin youth. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Youth risk behaviour in a Chinese population: a territory-wide youth risk behavioural surveillance in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Tsang, C K K

    2004-03-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence rates of different categories of youth risk behaviour by age, sex and parental education. The study population consisted of 26,111 Hong Kong students, aged 10-19 years, recruited from 48 primary (primary grades 4-6) and secondary schools (secondary grades 1-7). Less than one-third of subjects participated in vigorous exercise regularly, about one-third consumed an unhealthy diet frequently, 18% had tried smoking, and 14.5% had seriously considered attempting suicide. Although only 3.4% of students reported experience of sexual intercourse, less than half used a contraceptive device. Older students had higher prevalence rates of health-compromising behaviours than younger students. Female students were more likely to report suicide-related behaviour, attempting weight loss, and non-participation in vigorous physical activities. Students with parents of a lower educational background were more likely to report rarely or never wearing seat belts and bicycle helmets, suicide-related behaviour, smoking, sexual intercourse before 13 years of age, and attempting weight loss. The availability of data on youth health risk behaviours would enable health educators, public health practitioners and clinicians to plan appropriate screening and counselling for risk behaviours in early adolescents.

  4. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: Selected 2011 National Health Risk Behaviors and Health Outcomes by Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade…

  5. Youth at Risk: A Resource for Counselors, Teachers and Parents. Part 4. Combating the Ultimate Risk: School Dropout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushman, James W.; And Others

    This document consists of Part 4 of a book of readings on at-risk youth designed to provide information and strategies for counselors, teachers, parents, administrators, social workers, and others who work with youth at risk. Part 4 deals with the school dropout and school and community programs that have proven to be effective in working with…

  6. Awareness, attitudes, and use of crisis hotlines among youth at-risk for suicide.

    PubMed

    Crosby Budinger, Meghan; Cwik, Mary F; Riddle, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    Crisis hotlines have been central to suicide prevention efforts; however, utilization among youth remains low. A sample of at-risk youth was surveyed about their awareness, utilization, and attitudes toward local and national crisis hotlines. Youth reported low rates of awareness and utilization, yet expressed a strong interest in phone hotlines (41% vs. 59% for new media categories combined). Youth reported stigma, but that help-seeking could be positively influenced by peers and adults in their support system. Implications include making crisis services available across several mediums and the importance of engaging trusted others in youth suicide awareness campaigns and prevention efforts.

  7. Homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers: Investigating the importance of social networks.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14-21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19-21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14-18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV.

  8. Risk assessment of back pain in youth soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Thore-Björn; Mayer, H. Michael; Schneider, Alexandra S.; Rumpf, Michael C.; Handel, Martin; Schneider, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to identify several responsible parameters for back pain (BP) in youth soccer players to create a risk assessment tool for early prevention. An iPad-based survey was used to screen for parameters in a cross-sectional study. This questionnaire includes items regarding anthropometric data, training habits and sports injuries and was put into practice with 1110 athletes. Sex (odds ratio (OR): 1.84), age group (1.48) and playing surface (1.56) were significantly associated with BP. A history of injuries especially to the spine and hip/groin increased the likelihood for evolving recurrent BP (1.74/1.40). Overall 15 factors seem to influence the appearance of pain and were integrated into a feasible nomogram. The nomogram provides a practical tool to identify the risks of developing BP for youth soccer players. Although most factors we identified are non-modifiable, this method allows to rank the importance of factors and especially their prevention treatments for athletes. PMID:27537067

  9. Gender Differences in Risk Behaviors Among High School Youth

    PubMed Central

    Haque laz, Tabassum; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) demonstrates that American youth engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors.1 The frequency and type of these behaviors often differ by a number of factors, such as socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity. For example, results of the 2011 YRBSS revealed that white high school students were most likely to have texted or e-mailed while driving or been bullied on school property, while black high school students were most likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviors, to have been physically inactive, and to be obese.1 Conversely, Hispanic high school students were most likely to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; to have ever used cocaine, inhalants, or ecstasy; and to have failed to use protection to prevent pregnancy during last sexual intercourse.1 However, it is difficult to discern whether differences in risk-taking behaviors between and among ethnic groups can actually be attributed to differences in group norms, socioeconomic status, or cultural beliefs regarding acceptance or rejection of such behaviors,1 suggesting a need for more comprehensive regional investigations. PMID:24416689

  10. Promoting Healthy Outcomes Among Youth with Multiple Risks: Innovative Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Mark T.; Lippold, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior problems, and mental health problems have extremely high social costs and lead to overburdened mental health and juvenile justice systems in the United States and Europe. The prevalence of these problems is substantial, and at-risk youth often present with a combination of concerns. An understanding of risk and protective factors at multiple levels, including the child, family, peer, school, and community, has influenced intervention development. At the individual and family levels, the most effective and cost-effective programs work intensively with youth and their families or use individual and group cognitive-behavioral approaches. However, there is a paucity of careful studies of effective policies and programs in the juvenile justice system. Research is needed that focuses on adoption, financing, implementation, and sustainable use of evidence-based programs in public service systems. In addition, the field needs to understand better for whom current programs are most effective to create the next generation of more effective and efficient programs. PMID:23297659

  11. The Impact of Youth Risk on Mentoring Relationship Quality: Do Mentor Characteristics Matter?

    PubMed

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Rhodes, Jean E; Herrera, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Although mentoring is a widely used intervention strategy, effect sizes for at-risk youth remain modest. Research is therefore needed to maximize the impact of mentoring for at-risk youth who might struggle to benefit from mentoring relationships. This study tested the hypothesis that different types of youth risk would have a negative impact on mentoring relationship quality and duration and explored whether mentor characteristics exacerbated or mitigated these negative effects. Results showed that elevated environmental stress at a youth's home and/or school predicted shorter match duration, and elevated rates of youth behavioral problems, such as poor academic performance or misconduct, predicted greater youth dissatisfaction and less positive mentor perceptions of relationship quality. Mentors with greater self-efficacy and more previous involvement with youth in their communities were able to buffer the negative effects of environmental stress on match duration. Similarly, mentors' previous involvement with youth buffered the negative effects of youth behavioral problems on mentor perceptions of relationship quality. Findings have important implications for the matching of mentors and at-risk youth in a way that improves mentoring outcomes.

  12. Prevalence of Allergic Diseases and Risk Factors of Wheezing in Korean Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Min; Ahn, Jong Seong; Noh, Chang Suk

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as the risk factors of wheezing among young adults in the Korean military. Young military conscripts in five areas completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. For subjects with current wheeze in one sample area, baseline spirometry and bronchodilator response were measured. For subjects without a significant response to bronchodilator (improvement in FEV1 of more than 200 mL and 12%), methacholine challenge tests (MCT) were also performed. Of 3,359 subjects that completed the questionnaire, 354 (10.5%) had current wheeze, 471 (14.0%) had current allergic rhinitis, and 326 (9.7%) had current eczema. Current wheeze was associated with family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Of 36 subjects with current wheeze who underwent PFT with or without MCT in the Anyang area, 24 (66.7%) were confirmed to have current asthma. In conclusion, the prevalence of allergic disease in young adults of Korean military is not low, and the risk factors of wheezing include family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. PMID:21286010

  13. Prevalence of allergic diseases and risk factors of wheezing in Korean military personnel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Min; Ahn, Jong Seong; Noh, Chang Suk; Lee, Sei Won

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, as well as the risk factors of wheezing among young adults in the Korean military. Young military conscripts in five areas completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. For subjects with current wheeze in one sample area, baseline spirometry and bronchodilator response were measured. For subjects without a significant response to bronchodilator (improvement in FEV1 of more than 200 mL and 12%), methacholine challenge tests (MCT) were also performed. Of 3,359 subjects that completed the questionnaire, 354 (10.5%) had current wheeze, 471 (14.0%) had current allergic rhinitis, and 326 (9.7%) had current eczema. Current wheeze was associated with family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Of 36 subjects with current wheeze who underwent PFT with or without MCT in the Anyang area, 24 (66.7%) were confirmed to have current asthma. In conclusion, the prevalence of allergic disease in young adults of Korean military is not low, and the risk factors of wheezing include family history of allergic disease, overweight, current smoking, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis.

  14. Prediction of future risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome based on Korean boy's metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Lee, AeJin; Jang, Han Byul; Ra, Moonjin; Choi, Youngshim; Lee, Hye-Ja; Park, Ju Yeon; Kang, Jae Heon; Park, Kyung-Hee; Park, Sang Ick; Song, Jihyun

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is strongly related to future insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Thus, identifying early biomarkers of obesity-related diseases based on metabolic profiling is useful to control future metabolic disorders. We compared metabolic profiles between obese and normal-weight children and investigated specific biomarkers of future insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. In all, 186 plasma metabolites were analysed at baseline and after 2 years in 109 Korean boys (age 10.5±0.4 years) from the Korean Child Obesity Cohort Study using the AbsoluteIDQ™ p180 Kit. We observed that levels of 41 metabolites at baseline and 40 metabolites at follow-up were significantly altered in obese children (p<0.05). Obese children showed significantly higher levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and several acylcarnitines and lower levels of acyl-alkyl phosphatidylcholines. Also, baseline BCAAs were significantly positively correlated with both homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and continuous metabolic risk score at the 2-year follow-up. In logistic regression analyses with adjustments for degree of obesity at baseline, baseline BCAA concentration, greater than the median value, was identified as a predictor of future risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. High BCAA concentration could be "early" biomarkers for predicting future metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early risk factors for depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents: a 6-to-8 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi; Park, Kyung Soon

    2013-11-01

    Depression during adolescence is critical to the individual's own development. Hence, identifying individuals with high-risk depression at an early stage is necessary. This study aimed to identify childhood emotional and behavioral risk factors related to depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents through a longitudinal study. The first survey took place from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment conducted in 2006, as the original participants reached 13-15 yr of age. The first assessment used the Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist and a general questionnaire on family structure, parental education, and economic status to evaluate the participants. The follow-up assessment administered the Korean Children's Depression Inventory. Multiple regression analysis revealed that childhood attention problems predicted depressive symptoms during adolescence for both boys and girls. For boys, family structure also predicted adolescent depressive symptoms. This study suggests that adolescents with attention problems during childhood are more likely to experience depressive symptoms.

  16. Psychosocial Functioning in Youths at High Risk to Develop Major Depressive Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…

  17. Academic and Social Outcomes for High-Risk Youths in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, Marni D.; Roos, Noralou P.; MacWilliam, Leonard; Leclair, Leanne; Ekuma, Okechukwu; Fransoo, Randy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined academic and social outcomes for high-risk youths in Manitoba, using longitudinal, population-based data. All children born in Manitoba in 1984-1985 who resided in Winnipeg the year they turned 18 were included in analyses (N = 11,703). High risk youths were defined as those involved with child welfare services, living in…

  18. Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

  19. High-Risk Behaviors among Youth and Their Reasons for Not Getting Tested for HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Matthew B.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Lombardi, Emilia L.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2007-01-01

    Concerned about reports of a 15% decline in HIV testing among high-risk youth in an earlier study in Pittsburgh, this study was initiated to explore reasons why young people are not getting tested for HIV, while gathering data on their respective level of risk taking behaviors. A total of 580 surveys were collected from youth aged between 14 and…

  20. Psychosocial Functioning in Youths at High Risk to Develop Major Depressive Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmaher, Boris; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Brent, David A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Axelson, David A.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents at high risk of major depressive disorder with youths with acute major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Method: High-risk (n = 57), major depressive disorder (n = 71), and healthy control (n = 48) youths and their families were recruited from 1987 to 1996 and…

  1. At-Risk Youth Find Work Hope in Work-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Connie E.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Ingersoll, Marcea; Dalton, C. J.; Dods, Jennifer; Godden, Lorraine; Chin, Peter; de Lugt, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The transition from school to the workplace has been identified as challenging for at-risk youth who have already disengaged from learning and feel disenfranchised in the context of school. Work-based education (WBE), including co-operative education, has been recognized in recent years as an effective strategy for enabling at-risk youth to…

  2. At-Risk Youth Find Work Hope in Work-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Connie E.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Ingersoll, Marcea; Dalton, C. J.; Dods, Jennifer; Godden, Lorraine; Chin, Peter; de Lugt, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The transition from school to the workplace has been identified as challenging for at-risk youth who have already disengaged from learning and feel disenfranchised in the context of school. Work-based education (WBE), including co-operative education, has been recognized in recent years as an effective strategy for enabling at-risk youth to…

  3. Measuring Risk and Protection in Communities Using the Communities that Care Youth Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Michael W.; Briney, John S.; Hawkins, J. David; Abbott, Robert D.; Brooke-Weiss, Blair L.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    The Communities That Care Youth Survey measures risk and protective factors shown in prior studies to predict adolescent problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence. This paper describes the development and validation of cut points for the risk and protective factor scales in the Communities That Care Youth Survey that…

  4. Alternatives for Youth-At-Risk: Outdoor Experiences for a Special Population. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingle, Kendall I.

    1980-01-01

    Camping or other outdoor experience is seen as an alternative to incarceration for youth-at-risk, matching the excitement of the street-gang society or peer group, while simultaneously giving youth-at-risk a sense of the reason for teamwork, adherence to a group-respected value system, regard for skills and abilities of others, plus a…

  5. Service Use by At-Risk Youths after School-Based Suicide Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Marrocco, Frank A.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Kleinman, Marjorie; Amakawa, Lia; Altschuler, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine follow-up service use by students identified at risk for suicidal behavior in a school-based screening program and assess barriers to seeking services as perceived by youths and parents. Method: We conducted a longitudinal study of 317 at-risk youths identified by a school-based suicide screening in six high schools…

  6. Risk Factors for Cigarette, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use among Runaway Youth Utilizing Two Services Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Zittel-Palmara, Kimberley M.; Forehand, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The high rates of substance use among American adolescents are challenging; however, runaway youth are at particularly high-risk for substance use. Runaway youth utilizing two service sectors, emergency crisis shelters and juvenile detention centers, were recruited to evaluate differences in risk factors associated with substance use. Findings…

  7. High-Risk Behaviors among Youth and Their Reasons for Not Getting Tested for HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Matthew B.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Lombardi, Emilia L.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2007-01-01

    Concerned about reports of a 15% decline in HIV testing among high-risk youth in an earlier study in Pittsburgh, this study was initiated to explore reasons why young people are not getting tested for HIV, while gathering data on their respective level of risk taking behaviors. A total of 580 surveys were collected from youth aged between 14 and…

  8. Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

  9. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 1993. CDC Surveillance Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, Laura; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Systems monitor six categories of priority health risk behaviors among youth and young adults: (1) behaviors that contribute to intentional or unintentional injuries; (2) tobacco use (3) alcohol and other drug use; (4) sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases;…

  10. High-density genotyping of immune loci in Koreans and Europeans identifies eight new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jun, Jae-Bum; Yoo, Dae Hyun; Kang, Young Mo; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Suh, Chang-Hee; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Jisoo; Chung, Won Tae; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Nath, Swapan K; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Kremer, Joel M; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Okada, Yukinori; Diogo, Dorothée; Liao, Katherine P; Karlson, Elizabeth W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K; Worthington, Jane; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Plenge, Robert M; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    A highly polygenic aetiology and high degree of allele-sharing between ancestries have been well elucidated in genetic studies of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, the high-density genotyping array Immunochip for immune disease loci identified 14 new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci among individuals of European ancestry. Here, we aimed to identify new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci using Korean-specific Immunochip data. We analysed Korean rheumatoid arthritis case-control samples using the Immunochip and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) array to search for new risk alleles of rheumatoid arthritis with anticitrullinated peptide antibodies. To increase power, we performed a meta-analysis of Korean data with previously published European Immunochip and GWAS data for a total sample size of 9299 Korean and 45,790 European case-control samples. We identified eight new rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci (TNFSF4, LBH, EOMES, ETS1-FLI1, COG6, RAD51B, UBASH3A and SYNGR1) that passed a genome-wide significance threshold (p<5×10(-8)), with evidence for three independent risk alleles at 1q25/TNFSF4. The risk alleles from the seven new loci except for the TNFSF4 locus (monomorphic in Koreans), together with risk alleles from previously established RA risk loci, exhibited a high correlation of effect sizes between ancestries. Further, we refined the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represent potentially causal variants through a trans-ethnic comparison of densely genotyped SNPs. This study demonstrates the advantage of dense-mapping and trans-ancestral analysis for identification of potentially causal SNPs. In addition, our findings support the importance of T cells in the pathogenesis and the fact of frequent overlap of risk loci among diverse autoimmune diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. High-Density Genotyping of Immune Loci in Koreans and Europeans Identifies Eight New Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk Loci

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jun, Jae-Bum; Yoo, Dae Hyun; Kang, Young Mo; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Suh, Chang-Hee; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Jisoo; Chung, Won Tae; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Nath, Swapan K.; Eyre, Steve; Bowes, John; Pappas, Dimitrios A.; Kremer, Joel M.; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis; Ärlestig, Lisbeth; Okada, Yukinori; Diogo, Dorothée; Liao, Katherine P.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid; Gregersen, Peter K.; Worthington, Jane; Greenberg, Jeffrey D.; Plenge, Robert M.; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective A highly polygenic etiology and high degree of allele-sharing between ancestries have been well-elucidated in genetic studies of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, the high-density genotyping array Immunochip for immune disease loci identified 14 new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci among individuals of European ancestry. Here, we aimed to identify new rheumatoid arthritis risk loci using Korean-specific Immunochip data. Methods We analyzed Korean rheumatoid arthritis case-control samples using the Immunochip and GWAS array to search for new risk alleles of rheumatoid arthritis with anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies. To increase power, we performed a meta-analysis of Korean data with previously published European Immunochip and GWAS data, for a total sample size of 9,299 Korean and 45,790 European case-control samples. Results We identified 8 new rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci (TNFSF4, LBH, EOMES, ETS1–FLI1, COG6, RAD51B, UBASH3A and SYNGR1) that passed a genome-wide significance threshold (p<5×10−8), with evidence for three independent risk alleles at 1q25/TNFSF4. The risk alleles from the 7 new loci except for the TNFSF4 locus (monomorphic in Koreans), together with risk alleles from previously established RA risk loci, exhibited a high correlation of effect sizes between ancestries. Further, we refined the number of SNPs that represent potentially causal variants through a trans-ethnic comparison of densely genotyped SNPs. Conclusion This study demonstrates the advantage of dense-mapping and trans-ancestral analysis for identification of potentially causal SNPs. In addition, our findings support the importance of T cells in the pathogenesis and the fact of frequent overlap of risk loci among diverse autoimmune diseases. PMID:24532676

  12. Risk factors for acute knee injury in female youth football.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus

    2016-03-01

    To prospectively evaluate risk factors for acute time-loss knee injury, in particular ACL injury, in female youth football players. Risk factors were studied in 4556 players aged 12-17 years from a randomised controlled trial during the 2009 season. Covariates were both intrinsic (body mass index, age, relative age effect, onset of menarche, previous acute knee injury or ACL injury, current knee complaints, and familial disposition of ACL injury) and extrinsic (no. of training sessions/week, no. of matches/week, match exposure ratio, match play with other teams, and artificial turf exposure). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from individual variable and multiple Cox regression analyses. Ninety-six acute knee injuries were recorded, 21 of them ACL injuries. Multiple Cox regression showed a fourfold higher ACL injury rate for players with familial disposition of ACL injury (HR 3.57; 95% CI 1.48-8.62). Significant predictor variables for acute knee injury were age >14 years (HR 1.97; 95% CI 1.30-2.97), knee complaints at the start of the season (HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.30-3.02), and familial disposition of ACL injury (HR 1.96; 95% CI 1.22-3.16). No differences in injury rates were seen when playing on artificial turf compared with natural grass. Female youth football players with a familial disposition of ACL injury had an increased risk of ACL injury and acute knee injury. Older players and those with knee complaints at pre-season were more at risk of acute knee injury. Although the predictive values were low, these factors could be used in athlete screening to target preventive interventions. II.

  13. Effects of Family Meal Frequency on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Elderly Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, Tchae-Won; JUNG, Min-Ju; LEE, Jun-Woo; KIM, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background In the case of the elderly who highly depend on family, serious health problems can be caused due to the reduction of family meals. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the fundamental data for management of cardiovascular disease, one of the major causes of death in elderly Koreans, by investigating the effects of family meal frequency on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly males and females. Methods The raw data of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) were utilized. Data of 1,236 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood, blood pressure, nutrients and total energy intake. For collected data, using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0, the mean and standard deviation, and the path coefficient between groups through a multi-group analysis by structural equation model were checked Results As family meal frequency increased, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in Korean elderly males were likely to decrease, which led to conflicting results with those of Korean elderly females. Conclusion Frequent family meal makes a positive effect on reducing several risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly. PMID:26060777

  14. Effects of Family Meal Frequency on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Elderly Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tchae-Won; Jung, Min-Ju; Lee, Jun-Woo; Kim, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    In the case of the elderly who highly depend on family, serious health problems can be caused due to the reduction of family meals. Therefore, this study aims to suggest the fundamental data for management of cardiovascular disease, one of the major causes of death in elderly Koreans, by investigating the effects of family meal frequency on the risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly males and females. The raw data of the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III) were utilized. Data of 1,236 respondents were extracted for analysis regarding anthropometry, blood, blood pressure, nutrients and total energy intake. For collected data, using SPSS 18.0 and Amos 18.0, the mean and standard deviation, and the path coefficient between groups through a multi-group analysis by structural equation model were checked. As family meal frequency increased, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in Korean elderly males were likely to decrease, which led to conflicting results with those of Korean elderly females. Frequent family meal makes a positive effect on reducing several risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Korean elderly.

  15. Management Status of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors for Dyslipidemia among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongseok; Son, Heejeong; Ryu, Ohk Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the prevalence and management status of these factors for dyslipidemia among Korean adults aged 30 years old and older. The prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes were analyzed among 12229 subjects (≥30 years) participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010-2012. Dyslipidemia was defined according to treatment criteria rather than diagnostic criteria in Korea. Therefore, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia was defined if LDL cholesterol levels exceeded the appropriate risk-based threshold established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The age-standardized prevalence was highest for dyslipidemia (39.6%), followed by hypertension (32.8%) and diabetes (9.8%). The lowest patient awareness was found for dyslipidemia (27.9%). The treatment rate was 66.5% for diabetes and 57.3% for hypertension, but only 15.7% for dyslipidemia. The control rate among those undergoing treatment was highest for hypertension (64.2%), followed by dyslipidemia (59.2%) and diabetes (22.1%). The higher the risk levels of CVD were, the lower the control rate of dyslipidemia. While the prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher than hypertension and diabetes, awareness and treatment rates thereof were lower. Higher CVD-risk categories showed lower control rates of dyslipidemia. In order to improve awareness and control rates of dyslipidemia, diagnostic criteria should be reconciled with treatment targets based on cardiovascular risk in Korean populations.

  16. Management Status of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors for Dyslipidemia among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongseok

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the prevalence and management status of these factors for dyslipidemia among Korean adults aged 30 years old and older. Materials and Methods The prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes were analyzed among 12229 subjects (≥30 years) participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010–2012. Dyslipidemia was defined according to treatment criteria rather than diagnostic criteria in Korea. Therefore, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia was defined if LDL cholesterol levels exceeded the appropriate risk-based threshold established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Results The age-standardized prevalence was highest for dyslipidemia (39.6%), followed by hypertension (32.8%) and diabetes (9.8%). The lowest patient awareness was found for dyslipidemia (27.9%). The treatment rate was 66.5% for diabetes and 57.3% for hypertension, but only 15.7% for dyslipidemia. The control rate among those undergoing treatment was highest for hypertension (64.2%), followed by dyslipidemia (59.2%) and diabetes (22.1%). The higher the risk levels of CVD were, the lower the control rate of dyslipidemia. Conclusion While the prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher than hypertension and diabetes, awareness and treatment rates thereof were lower. Higher CVD-risk categories showed lower control rates of dyslipidemia. In order to improve awareness and control rates of dyslipidemia, diagnostic criteria should be reconciled with treatment targets based on cardiovascular risk in Korean populations. PMID:28120563

  17. Correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among Korean-American women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyun; Huh, Bo Yun; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the factors associated with misperception of breast cancer risk, including unrealistic optimism and unrealistic pessimism, among Korean-American women (KAW). Baseline data were collected between March 2010 and October 2011 from 421 KAW aged 40–65 years who participated in a community-based randomized intervention trial designed to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Multivariate multinomial regression was performed to identify correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW. A total of 210 KAW (49.9%) had breast cancer risk perception consistent with their objective risk, whereas 50.1% of KAW in the study had some form of misperception of risk. Specifically, 167 participants (39.7%) were unrealistically optimistic about their own breast cancer risk; 44 (10.5%) were unrealistically pessimistic. In multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, living with a partner and higher education were significantly associated with higher odds of having unrealistic optimism. High social support was associated with a lower likelihood of having a pessimistic risk perception. Higher worry was associated with a higher likelihood of having unrealistic pessimism. Misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW and related factors must be considered when developing behavioral interventions for this population. PMID:26580449

  18. 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease among Korean adults: findings from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kayoung

    2014-09-20

    This study examined the distribution of the 10-year risk for development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD), and the proportion of participants eligible for lipid management, in the Korean population. The risk was estimated using the Pooled Cohort Equations for non-Hispanic Whites and the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III equations. Eligibility for lipid-lowering treatment was assessed using the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Cholesterol Guideline and the ATP III recommendation. Complex sampling design and area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were used. Among 7594 ASCVD-free Korean adults, aged 40-79 years, 31.3% (men, 44.1%; women, 19%) had a 10-year risk for an ASCVD event of ≥ 7.5%, and 27.1% (men, 39.4%; women, 15.2%) had a 10-year risk for a CHD event of ≥ 10%. These proportions differed according to age groups, ranging from 6.1 to 91.9% and 8.7 to 58.7% for patients in their 40s-70s, using the ASCVD and CHD risk estimations, respectively. Overall, 78.7% of individuals remain in the same risk stratum. Those eligible for lipid management included 32.8% of the participants using the ACC/AHA Guideline and 11.9% of those using the ATP III recommendation. In discriminating ASCVD, AUCs for the ASCVD risk assessment method and the CHD risk assessment method were 0.70 and 0.64, respectively (P<0.001). The distribution of 10-year ASCVD and CHD risk was different according to the risk assessment methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk and Protective Profiles Among Never Exposed, Single Form, and Multiple Form Violence Exposed Youth

    PubMed Central

    Nurius, Paula S.; Russell, Patricia L.; Herting, Jerald R.; Hooven, Carole; Thompson, Elaine A.

    2010-01-01

    This investigation integrated violence exposure with critical risk and protective factors linked to healthy adolescent adaptation and transition into early adulthood. A racially diverse sample of 848 adolescents identified as at-risk for school drop-out were assessed for no, single, or multiple forms of violence exposure. MANOVA tests revealed that youth with single form victimization fared more poorly than never-exposed youth, and that multiple-form victimization held the greatest jeopardy to development. Youth with multiple-form victimization reported significantly elevated risk factors (emotional distress, life stress, suicide risk, risky behaviors) and lower protective factors (social support, school engagement, family structure) than both single-form and never-exposed youth. Implications are discussed for preventive and early intervention programming and for examining the transition of at-risk youth into young adulthood. PMID:21494415

  20. Youth Court: A Community Solution for Embracing At-Risk Youth. A National Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Sarah S.; Jurich, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    Youth court, also called teen court, peer jury, or student court, is an alternative to the traditional juvenile justice system and school disciplinary proceedings that empower youth and communities to take an active role in addressing the early stages of youth delinquency. The program provides communities with an opportunity to ensure immediate…

  1. Youth Court: A Community Solution for Embracing At-Risk Youth. A National Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Sarah S.; Jurich, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    Youth court, also called teen court, peer jury, or student court, is an alternative to the traditional juvenile justice system and school disciplinary proceedings that empower youth and communities to take an active role in addressing the early stages of youth delinquency. The program provides communities with an opportunity to ensure immediate…

  2. Bad Diet in Youth Might Raise Risk of Early Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet in Youth Might Raise Risk of Early Breast Cancer Study found an association, but didn't prove ... might also raise a younger woman's risk for breast cancer. "A diet high in sugar, refined carbohydrates, and ...

  3. Sex differences in prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinee

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Kook Hyun; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Heo, Jun; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min; Lee, Yoon Suk; Cho, Kwang Bum; Lee, Dong Wook; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Ho Gak; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate sex difference in the prevalence and risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in Korean health screening examinees. Examinees who underwent examination through health promotion center at 5 hospitals of Daegu-Gyeongbuk province in 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. All examinees were checked for height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure, and underwent laboratory tests and abdominal ultrasound. Diagnosis of cholelithiasis was made by ultrasound. Of the total of 30,544 examinees, mean age was 47.3 ± 10.9 years and male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Asymptomatic cholelithiasis was diagnosed in 1268 examinees with overall prevalence of 4.2%. In age below 40 years, females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males (2.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.020), whereas prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was higher in males than females older than 50 years (6.2% vs. 5.1%, P = 0.012). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age (≥50 years), obesity, and high blood pressure as risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in males and age, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and chronic hepatitis B infection in females (P < 0.05). Overall prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis was 4.2% in Korean health screening examinees. Females showed higher prevalence of asymptomatic cholelithiasis than males younger than 40 years, whereas it was higher in males older than 50 years. Age and obesity were risk factors for asymptomatic cholelithiasis in both sexes. Males had additional risk factors of high blood pressure and females had hypertriglyceridemia and chronic hepatitis B infection. PMID:28353587

  4. Macronutrient Composition and Sodium Intake of Diet Are Associated with Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hea Young; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Myoungsook; Kim, Young Ok

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and hypertriglycemia are the most important contributors to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease risk in South Koreans with a relatively lean body mass. These major contributors differ from those identified in Western populations. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of the Korean diet associated with increased risk of MetS, whose prevalence has been steadily increasing in South Korea. On the basis of data collected from 5,320 subjects by the 2007–2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 3 dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis and their association with the risk of MetS and its components was examined. The balanced Korean diet, a typical Korean diet of rice and kimchi intake supplemented by a variety of foods had a desirable macronutrient composition and was associated with a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.45–0.84) and hypertriglyceridemia (0.69, 0.49–0.88) in men and a lower risk of elevated blood pressure (0.59, 0.41–0.85) and MetS (0.67, 0.47–0.96) in women. The unbalanced Korean diet, characterized by a high intake of carbohydrates and sodium and little variety, was associated with a higher risk of MetS (1.44, 1.03–2.01) and elevated blood pressure (1.41, 1.00–1.98) in women. The semi-western diet, characterized by a relatively high intake of meat, poultry, and alcohol, was associated with a lower risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.70, 0.54–0.89) in women. Thus, macronutrient composition and sodium intake are associated with the risk of MetS and prehypertension in women. Maintaining a desirable macronutrient composition and avoiding excessive consumption of carbohydrates and sodium should be emphasized for prevention of MetS and hypertension in South Korean women. PMID:24205105

  5. Preparing At-Risk Youth for a Changing World: Revisiting a Person-in-Context Model for Transition to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Christopher; Godden, Lorraine; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Versnel, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current global cohort of youth has been called "a generation at-risk", marked by a dramatic rise in youth who are not in employment, education or training programmes. In 2010, youth were three times as likely as adults to be unemployed, with youth unemployment worsening in 2012 and 2013. Accordingly, there is an urgent…

  6. Preparing At-Risk Youth for a Changing World: Revisiting a Person-in-Context Model for Transition to Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLuca, Christopher; Godden, Lorraine; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Versnel, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current global cohort of youth has been called "a generation at-risk", marked by a dramatic rise in youth who are not in employment, education or training programmes. In 2010, youth were three times as likely as adults to be unemployed, with youth unemployment worsening in 2012 and 2013. Accordingly, there is an urgent…

  7. Multiple Identification and Risks: Examination of Peer Factors Across Multiracial and Single-Race Youth

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; He, Michael; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Multiracial youth are thought to be more vulnerable to peer-related risk factors than are single-race youth. However, there have been surprisingly few well-designed studies on this topic. This study empirically investigated the extent to which multiracial youth are at higher risk for peer influenced problem behavior. Data are from a representative and longitudinal sample of youth from Washington State (N = 1,760, mean age = 14.13, 50.9% girls). Of those in the sample, 225 youth self-identified as multiracial (12.8%), 1,259 as White (71.5%), 152 as Latino (8.6%), and 124 as Asian American (7.1%). Results show that multiracial youth have higher rates of violence and alcohol use than Whites and more marijuana use than Asian Americans. Higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage and single-parent family status partly explained the higher rates of problem behaviors among multiracial youth. Peer risk factors of substance-using or antisocial friends were higher for multiracial youth than Whites, even after socioeconomic variables were accounted for, demonstrating a higher rate of peer risks among multiracial youth. The number of substance-using friends was the most consistently significant correlate and predictor of problems and was highest among multiracial youth. However, interaction tests did not provide consistent evidence of a stronger influence of peer risks among multiracial youth. Findings underscore the importance of a differentiated understanding of vulnerability in order to better target prevention and intervention efforts as well as the need for further research that can help identify and explain the unique experiences and vulnerabilities of multiracial youth. PMID:22395776

  8. Assessment of clinical risk factors to validate the probability of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo Mee; Hyun, Noo-Rie; Shon, Ho-Sang; Kim, Hae-Soon; Park, So-Young; Park, Il-Hyung; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Jung, Hong-Geun; Kim, Do-Hee; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2008-12-01

    This cross-sectional, observational study was designed to identify clinical risk factors of osteoporosis and fractures in Korean women to validate the probability of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. A total of 1541 Korean women were recruited nationally. Fracture history of any site, risk factors of osteoporosis, and fall-related risk factors were surveyed and physical performance tests were conducted. Peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure calcaneus bone mineral density (BMD). The number of positive responses on the modified 1-min osteoporosis risk test was related to the risk of osteoporosis. The frequency of osteoporosis was higher in those with a height reduction of >4 cm and a reduced body mass index (BMI). Multivariate analysis showed that older age and lower BMI were related to higher relative risk of osteoporosis. Time required to stand up from a chair and questions related to fall injury were significantly related to clinical fracture history of any site. Multivariate analysis showed that the relative risk of fractures at any site was higher in older subjects with a lower T-score and parental hip fracture history. This study shows that age and BMI are the most significant clinical risk factors for osteoporosis and that age, BMD, and parental history of hip fracture are highly applicable risk factors for validating the probability of osteoporotic fractures in Korean women.

  9. Grains, vegetables, and fish dietary pattern is inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome in South korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Jo, Inho

    2011-08-01

    Dietary patterns are critical in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the association between habitual dietary patterns and the risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean adults. The study sample was composed of 9,850 Korean adults (aged ≥19 years) who participated in the second and third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Dietary data were assessed by the 24-hour recall method. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Four dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis (white rice and kimchi pattern; meat and alcohol pattern; high fat, sweets, and coffee pattern; and grains, vegetables, and fish pattern). Each dietary pattern explained 8.6%, 6.7%, 5.7%, and 5.7% of the variation in food intakes, respectively. The meat and alcohol pattern was adversely associated with hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend 0.01) and elevated blood pressure (P for trend 0.01) after adjustments for potential risk factors of metabolic syndrome such as age, sex, body mass index, energy intake, alcohol intake, smoking status, and physical activity. In contrast, the grains, vegetables, and fish pattern was associated with lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend 0.0002) and was also inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome after adjusting for risk factors of the metabolic syndrome (P for trend 0.02). Our study suggests that a specific Korean dietary pattern that includes grains, vegetables, and fish may be associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome in South Korean adults. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-07-02

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults.

  11. Excessive Consumption of Green Tea as a Risk Factor for Periodontal Disease among Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Hwang, Eunkyung; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the relationship between the amount of green tea that is consumed and periodontitis. It is based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted between 2008 and 2010. A community periodontal index equal to code 3 was defined as moderate periodontitis, and code 4 was defined as severe periodontitis (n = 16,726). Consumption of green tea less than one cup per day was associated with a decreased prevalence of periodontal disease among Korean adults. The association between the consumption of green tea and periodontal disease was independent of various potential confounding factors, such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, exercise, metabolic syndrome, frequency of tooth brushing per day, use of secondary oral products, the number of dental examination per year, diabetes, hypertension, and white blood cell count. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval of no consumption was 1.360 (1.156, 1.601) when participants with consumption of two times per week ≤ x < 7 times per week was considered as a reference. However, consumption of one or more cups per day increased the prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis. In conclusion, excessive consumption of green tea may be considered as a risk factor for periodontal disease among Korean adults. PMID:27384581

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factor of Neck Pain in Elderly Korean Community Residents

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kyeong Min; Cho, Nam H.; Lim, Seung Hun

    2013-01-01

    Neck pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, which causes substantial medical cost. In Korea, prevalence of neck pain in community based population, especially in elderly subjects, has scarcely been reported. We evaluated the prevalence, the severity and the risk factors of neck pain in elderly Korean community residents. Data for neck pain were collected for 1,655 subjects from a rural farming community. The point, 6-months and cumulative lifetime prevalence of neck pain was obtained in addition to the measurement of the severity of neck pain. The mean age of the study subjects was 61 yr and 57% were females. The lifetime prevalence of neck pain was 20.8% with women having a higher prevalence. The prevalence did not increase with age, and the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain. Subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score in all domains except for mental health. The prevalence of neck pain was significantly associated with female gender, obesity and smoking. This is the first large-scale Korean study estimating the prevalence of neck pain in elderly population. Although the majority of individuals had low-intensity/low-disability pain, subjects with neck pain had a significantly worse SF-12 score indicating that neck pain has significant health impact. PMID:23678258

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as a Mediator Between Trauma Exposure and Comorbid Mental Health Conditions in North Korean Refugee Youth Resettled in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeunhee J

    2016-02-01

    A structural equation model was used to investigate the relationship between trauma exposure and comorbid mental health problems and the mediation effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) between trauma and mental health variables. The research model is based on the stress-vulnerability conceptual framework in which PTSD as a comorbid disorder mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and mental health problems. A self-administered survey was administered to 144 North Korean refugee youth residing in South Korea. Trauma exposure, both interpersonal and noninterpersonal, had no direct relationship with comorbid mental health problems. However, interpersonal trauma contributed to comorbid mental health problems through PTSD, demonstrating the mediation effect of PTSD and supporting the stress-vulnerability hypothesis of the current research model. Clinical implications of the study and future direction for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Neural Activation During Risky Decision-Making in Youth at High Risk for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A.; Hummer, Tom A.; Fukunaga, Rena; Leibenluft, Ellen; Finn, Peter; Cyders, Melissa A.; Anand, Amit; Overhage, Lauren; Dir, Allyson; Brown, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Risky decision-making, particularly in the context of reward-seeking behavior, is strongly associated with the presence of substance use disorders (SUDs). However, there has been little research on the neural substrates underlying reward-related decision-making in drug-naïve youth who are at elevated risk for SUDs. Participants comprised 23 high-risk (HR) youth with a well-established SUD risk phenotype and 27 low-risk healthy comparison (HC) youth, aged 10–14. Participants completed the balloon analog risk task (BART), a task designed to examine risky decision-making, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The HR group had faster reaction times, but otherwise showed no behavioral differences from the HC group. HR youth experienced greater activation when processing outcome, as the chances of balloon explosion increased, relative to HC youth, in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). As explosion probability increased, group-by-condition interactions in the ventral striatum/anterior cingulate and the anterior insula showed increasing activation in HR youth, specifically on trials when explosions occurred. Thus, atypical activation increased with increasing risk of negative outcome (i.e., balloon explosion) in a cortico-striatal network in the HR group. These findings identify candidate neurobiological markers of addiction risk in youth at high familial and phenotypic risk for SUDs. PMID:26071624

  15. Association between Sleep Duration and Measurable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Healthy Korean Women: The Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV and V)

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hyeyeon; Um, Yoo Jin; Jang, Bum Sup; Shin, Doosup; Choi, EunJoo

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives. To examine the association between sleep duration and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in healthy Korean women. Design. Cross-sectional study, using the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Methods. Among 8505 women (25–70 years) from KNHANES IV and V, participants were classified into five sleep groups based on self-reported sleep duration. MetS and its components were defined using the criteria set forth in National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. After adjusting for various confounders, shorter sleep duration (≤6 h) was found to have an association with low risk of reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased triglycerides, whereas very long sleep duration was found to have high risk of increased triglycerides. However, abdominal obesity showed an opposite trend: short sleep duration was associated with higher risk of abdominal obesity than long sleep duration. Fasting glucose levels increased as sleep duration increased, but without significance. Moreover, blood pressure was not significantly associated with sleep duration. Consequently, MetS was less prevalent in those with short sleep duration. Conclusions. Sleep duration was positively associated with MetS, especially dyslipidemia and fasting hyperglycemia, but inversely associated with abdominal obesity. PMID:27956898

  16. Individual and contextual factors of sexual risk behavior in youth perinatally infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A; Robbins, Reuben N; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A

    2012-07-01

    This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV-infected (PHIV+), HIV-affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV- caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV- youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV- youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood.

  17. Dissipation pattern and risk quotients assessment of amisulbrom in Korean melon cultivated in plastic house conditions.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Chung, Hyung Suk; Lee, Han Sol; Park, Sun-Hyang; Hacımüftüoğlu, Fazil; Chang, Byung-Joon; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2017-06-01

    Amisulbrom formulated as suspension concentrate was applied at the rate recommended for Korean melon to determine the dissipation pattern (at two different sites), the pre-harvest residue limit (PHRL), and risk assessments. Samples collected over 10 days were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and cleaned up with solid-phase extraction (SPE) Florisil cartridge. Residual concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (LC-UVD) and confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The standard showed good instrument response linearity with a correlation coefficient (R (2)) = 0.9999, and the recovery ranged from 87.5 to 93.7%. The dissipation half-life calculated from two different sites were found to be 7.0 and 8.8 days for sites 1 and 2, respectively. A PHRL graph constructed from the data indicated that if the residue levels were less than 0.55-0.59 mg/kg 3 days before harvest or less than 0.61-0.74 mg/kg 7 days before harvest, then they would be lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) at harvest. Risk assessments showed that the risk quotient (RQ) was 4.39-3.47% at 0 day, declined to 1.53-1.63% at 10 days. Therefore, the current data indicate that the amisulbrom can be applied safely to Korean melon; hence, it is unlikely to induce adverse health effects in consumers.

  18. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  19. Conceptions of risk in the lives of club drug-using youth.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes current patterns of club drug use and local conceptions of risk among New York City area youth. The data is drawn from a NIDA-funded ethnographic study of club drug initiation among "Bridge and Tunnel" youth. The paper entails an examination of the harmony and discontinuity between folk models of risk within this population and professional models of risk. The author explores how club drug-using youth conceive of risks related to club drug use, specifically ecstasy, and how such conceptions compare and contrast with current professional models of risk. These conceptions of risk are crucial to understand, as they form an informal logic by which club drug practices are guided. Ultimately, the author examines how the relationship between folk models and professional models might inform health promotion efforts targeting youth.

  20. Risk Behavior and Perception Among Youths Residing in Urban Public Housing Developments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Black, Maureen M.; Romer, Daniel; Ricardo, Izabel; Kaljee, Linda

    1994-01-01

    The scientific literature and popular media suggest that variations in housing structure and neighborhood influence risk behaviors among youths living in low-income urban communities. To explore the importance of these factors on early sexual intercourse, substance use, drug trafficking, and school truancy, data from a community-based survey, conducted in six public housing developments in a major eastern metropolis, were analyzed. The survey group consisted of 300 youths aged 9 through 15 years. There were minimal differences in three potential mediators of risk behaviors (e.g., perceived social support, parenting style, and perceived risk exposure) and in self-reported adolescent risk behaviors among youths residing in different housing developments and between youths residing in high-rise and in low-rise structures. These findings do not support the hypothesis that within a risk-dense low-income environment, variations in building structure or in neighborhood are associated with differences in adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:19313105

  1. Clustering of four major lifestyle risk factors among Korean adults with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Shin; Choi, Hui Ran

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the clustering pattern of four major lifestyle risk factors—smoking, heavy drinking, poor diet, and physical inactivity—among people with metabolic syndrome in South Korea. There were 2,469 adults with metabolic syndrome aged 30 years or older available with the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dataset. We calculated the ratio of the observed to expected (O/E) prevalence for the 16 different combinations and the prevalence odds ratios (POR) of four lifestyle risk factors. The four lifestyle risk factors tended to cluster in specific multiple combinations. Smoking and heavy drinking was clustered (POR: 1.86 for male, 4.46 for female), heavy drinking and poor diet were clustered (POR: 1.38 for male, 1.74 for female), and smoking and physical inactivity were also clustered (POR: 1.48 for male). Those who were male, younger, low-educated and living alone were much more likely to have a higher number of lifestyle risk factors. Some helpful implications can be drawn from the knowledge on clustering pattern of lifestyle risk factors for more effective intervention program targeting metabolic syndrome. PMID:28350828

  2. Epidemiological Characteristics and Risk Factors of Dengue Infection in Korean Travelers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dengue viral infection has rapidly spread around the world in recent decades. In Korea, autochthonous cases of dengue fever have not been confirmed yet. However, imported dengue cases have been increased since 2001. The risk of developing severe dengue in Korean has been increased by the accumulation of past-infected persons with residual antibodies to dengue virus and the remarkable growth of traveling to endemic countries in Southeast Asia. Notably, most of imported dengue cases were identified from July to December, suggesting that traveling during rainy season of Southeast Asia is considered a risk factor for dengue infection. Analyzing national surveillance data from 2011 to 2015, males aged 20–29 years are considered as the highest risk group. But considering the age and gender distribution of travelers, age groups 10–49 except 20–29 years old males have similar risks for infection. To minimize a risk of dengue fever and severe dengue, travelers should consider regional and seasonal dengue situation. It is recommended to prevent from mosquito bites or to abstain from repetitive visit to endemic countries. In addition, more active surveillance system and monitoring the prevalence asymptomatic infection and virus serotypes are required to prevent severe dengue and indigenous dengue outbreak. PMID:27822922

  3. Epidemiological Characteristics and Risk Factors of Dengue Infection in Korean Travelers.

    PubMed

    Je, Sungmo; Bae, Wonjun; Kim, Jiyeon; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Hwang, Eung Soo

    2016-12-01

    Dengue viral infection has rapidly spread around the world in recent decades. In Korea, autochthonous cases of dengue fever have not been confirmed yet. However, imported dengue cases have been increased since 2001. The risk of developing severe dengue in Korean has been increased by the accumulation of past-infected persons with residual antibodies to dengue virus and the remarkable growth of traveling to endemic countries in Southeast Asia. Notably, most of imported dengue cases were identified from July to December, suggesting that traveling during rainy season of Southeast Asia is considered a risk factor for dengue infection. Analyzing national surveillance data from 2011 to 2015, males aged 20-29 years are considered as the highest risk group. But considering the age and gender distribution of travelers, age groups 10-49 except 20-29 years old males have similar risks for infection. To minimize a risk of dengue fever and severe dengue, travelers should consider regional and seasonal dengue situation. It is recommended to prevent from mosquito bites or to abstain from repetitive visit to endemic countries. In addition, more active surveillance system and monitoring the prevalence asymptomatic infection and virus serotypes are required to prevent severe dengue and indigenous dengue outbreak.

  4. Youth Unemployment and the Role of Career and Technical Education: A Study of the Korean Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Sang Hoon; Song, Ji Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Using national jobless data and education statistics, this study examines the systemic association between Korea's youth unemployment trend and the workforce supply structure in which the youths' educational attainment patterns plays a key role. Focus is given to how type and length of education are correlated with employability. The findings of…

  5. Alcohol Drinking, Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sooyoung; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K; Shin, Hai-Rim; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer risk among Korean adults. Data from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort between 1993 and 2005 were analyzed. The study population comprised 18,707 subjects aged older than 20 years old. The subjects were followed until December 31, 2011 (median follow-up of 11.2 years). The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption for colorectal cancer risk. In men, longer duration and higher average amount of alcohol consumption were associated with elevated risk of colorectal cancer (HR 1.93 [1.17-3.18] for ≥ 30 years of consumption compared to non-drinkers; HR 2.24 [1.31-3.84] for ≥ 30 g/d). Former smokers showed a non-significantly elevated risk of colorectal cancer in men. There was no apparent association between alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk among women. Alcohol consumption was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk among Korean men, and both a longer duration and a higher amount of consumption were associated with elevated risk.

  6. Condoms and Connection: Parents, Gay and Bisexual Youth, and HIV Risk.

    PubMed

    LaSala, Michael C

    2015-10-01

    The family has long been considered a powerful influence on youth's high-risk behaviors. However, little is known about preventive family influences for gay and bisexual youth, a group at high risk for HIV infection. For this study, qualitative interviews from a sample of 38 gay and bisexual youth and their parents/guardians underwent a thematic analysis. Youth described parent-child closeness, parental warnings, and urgings to use condoms as influences. Youth denying family influence came from families in which parent-child relationships were disrupted or HIV-related discussion was lacking. Most families reported discomfort discussing HIV risk. These findings, along with a case example, suggest how family therapists can enhance parental influence by helping these families strengthen their relationships and discuss this important topic. Video Abstract.

  7. Asthma and mental health among youth in high-risk service settings.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Renee D; Hottinger, Kate; Pena, Lillian; Chacko, Anil; Feldman, Jonathan; Wamboldt, Marianne Z; Hoven, Christina

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of asthma and mental health problems among representative samples of youth in high-risk service settings and the community, and to examine the relationship between asthma and mental health in these groups. Data were drawn from the Alternative Service Use Patterns of Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbance Study (SED) (n = 1181), a combined representative, cross-sectional sample of youth in various clinical settings and the community. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between asthma and mental disorders. Demographic characteristics were investigated as potential confounders. Asthma was common among 15.2% of youth in service settings and 18.8% of youth in the community. The prevalence of mental disorders was extremely high among youth with and without asthma in all service settings, and asthma was associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders among youth in the community, but not among youth in service settings. The relationship between asthma and internalizing disorders among youth in the community does not appear entirely attributable to confounding by demographics. Findings are consistent with and extend previous data by showing that both asthma and mental disorders are disproportionately common among youth in high-risk service settings. Almost half of youth with asthma in service settings meet diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder. Clinicians and policy makers who are responsible for the health care of youth in these high-risk groups should be aware that asthma is common, and that the prevalence of internalizing disorders are especially common among those with asthma.

  8. Reducing the Risk of Internalizing Symptoms among High-risk Hispanic Youth through a Family Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Perrino, Tatiana; Pantin, Hilda; Huang, Shi; Brincks, Ahnalee; Brown, C Hendricks; Prado, Guillermo

    2016-03-01

    Familias Unidas is an intervention that has been found to be efficacious in preventing and reducing substance use, sexual risk, and problem behaviors among Hispanic youth. While it does not specifically target youth internalizing symptoms, the intervention works to strengthen parenting and family factors associated with reduced risk of internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety symptoms). This study examines the effects of Familias Unidas on internalizing symptoms among high-risk youth, as well as the role of family level factors in the intervention's effects. A total of 242 12-17-year-old Hispanic youth with a history of delinquency and their primary caregivers were recruited from the school and juvenile justice systems, and randomly assigned to the Familias Unidas intervention or community practice control. A linear latent growth model was used to examine intervention effects on the trajectory of adolescent internalizing symptoms from baseline to 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Results show that the Familias Unidas intervention was more efficacious than control in reducing youth internalizing symptoms. Baseline youth externalizing and internalizing symptoms did not moderate the intervention's effects on the trajectory of youth internalizing symptoms. While parent-adolescent communication did not significantly moderate the intervention's effects, changes in parent-adolescent communication mediated the intervention's effects on internalizing symptoms, showing stronger intervention effects for youth starting with poorer communication. Findings indicate that the Familias Unidas intervention can reduce internalizing symptoms among high-risk Hispanic youth, and that improving parent-youth communication, a protective family factor, may be one of the mechanisms by which the intervention influences youth internalizing symptoms. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  9. Healthy Wyoming: Start with Youth Today. Results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior and School Health Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Behavior Lab.

    This report presents results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Wyoming School Health Education Survey (SHES). Thirty-five schools participated in the YRBS, with 3,513 students in grades 9-12; 92 public schools with students in grades 7-12 participated in the SHES. Statistical data from the YRBS are provided in the…

  10. Application of Social Control Theory to Examine Parent, Teacher, and Close Friend Attachment and Substance Use Initiation among Korean Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, DongHun

    2016-01-01

    Based on Hirschi's social control theory (1969), this study examined the relationship between attachment (an element of social bonds) and the onset of substance use among South Korean adolescents. Using discrete-time logistic regression, the study investigated how attachment to parents, teachers, and close friends was associated with the timing of…

  11. Application of Social Control Theory to Examine Parent, Teacher, and Close Friend Attachment and Substance Use Initiation among Korean Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Yoonsun; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, DongHun

    2016-01-01

    Based on Hirschi's social control theory (1969), this study examined the relationship between attachment (an element of social bonds) and the onset of substance use among South Korean adolescents. Using discrete-time logistic regression, the study investigated how attachment to parents, teachers, and close friends was associated with the timing of…

  12. Family Risk Factors and Prevalence of Dissociative Symptoms among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…

  13. Five Case Studies for Youth-at-Risk Project. Research Report No. 88-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The five case studies in this volume concern at-risk youth. Disadvantaged youth programs in different states were studied by different authors: (1) Albuquerque, New Mexico (Richard Mendel); (2) Baltimore, Maryland (Edward C. Lorenz); (3) Hartford, Connecticut (Richard Funkhouser and Delsie Gandia-Fabian; (4) Oakland, California (David Snedeker);…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Truant Youths' Involvement in Sexual Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded, prospective intervention project, a sample of truant youths' sexual risk behavior was tracked over five time points. Analyses of the data was informed by four objectives: (a) determine…

  15. Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

  16. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  17. Youth Risk Behavior Survey of High School Students Attending Bureau Funded Schools, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Lana; Branum, Cheryl; Everett-Jones, Sherry

    In spring 2001, 5,654 American Indian high school students attending schools funded by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) completed the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The survey examined youth behaviors in the areas of motor vehicle safety, weapons, violence, suicide, current and lifetime tobacco use, current and lifetime drug and alcohol use,…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Truant Youths' Involvement in Sexual Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded, prospective intervention project, a sample of truant youths' sexual risk behavior was tracked over five time points. Analyses of the data was informed by four objectives: (a) determine…

  19. Assessment of High Risk/High Need Youth in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    A study was undertaken to examine the high risk/high need youth population of West Virginia. Workers from 55 county school boards, 27 area offices of health centers, private and public psychiatric hospitals with adolescent units, juvenile probation offices, and state juvenile correctional facilities were asked to nominate certain youths as high…

  20. A Risk Profile Comparison of Runaway and Non-Runaway Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Gary L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examination of data from 1985 visits by 110 runaway and 655 non-runaway youth to an outpatient medical clinic reveals that runaway youth are at greater risk for a wide variety of medical problems and of health-compromising behaviors including suicide, depression, prostitution, and drug use. (Author/BJV)

  1. Family Risk Factors and Prevalence of Dissociative Symptoms among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…

  2. Assessing At-Risk Youth Using the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory with a Latino Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkin, Richard S.; Cavazos, Javier, Jr.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Garcia, Roberto; Dominguez, Denise L.; Valarezo, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Factor analyses were conducted on scores from the Reynolds Adolescent Adjustment Screening Inventory (RAASI; Reynolds, 2001) representing at-risk Latino youth. The 4-factor model of the RAASI did not exhibit a good fit. However, evidence of generalizability for Latino youth was noted. (Contains 3 tables.)

  3. Serving At-Risk Youth at Camp: Understanding This Population and Meeting Their Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Randall

    2001-01-01

    Defines "at-risk youth." Describes characteristics of resilient children and their families, friends and mentors, schools, and communities. Discusses camp program practices that have been shown to promote resiliency: focus on youth development, intentional processes that target the personal domain, organizational elements borrowed from…

  4. Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

  5. Serving At-Risk Youth at Camp: Understanding This Population and Meeting Their Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Randall

    2001-01-01

    Defines "at-risk youth." Describes characteristics of resilient children and their families, friends and mentors, schools, and communities. Discusses camp program practices that have been shown to promote resiliency: focus on youth development, intentional processes that target the personal domain, organizational elements borrowed from…

  6. Risk and Nostalgia: The Problem of Education and Youth Unemployment in Australia--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explanations for persistent youth unemployment (deficits in the unemployed, structural need for unemployment, location of decision-making power) lead to education of youth at risk as a solution, an old paradigm inadequate for the restructured labor market. New questions must be asked, such as separating income from waged labor and finding other…

  7. Psychosocial Functioning Problems over Time among High-Risk Youths: A Latent Class Transition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Schmeidler, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors report the results of latent class analyses and latent class transition analyses of antisocial behavior risk factors among 137 youths participating in a juvenile diversion program. The study examined the youths' latent classifications using baseline and 1-year follow-up measures of family, peer, education, and mental health risk…

  8. Predicting crash risk and identifying crash precursors on Korean expressways using loop detector data.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ho-Chan; Kho, Seungyoung

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve traffic safety on expressways, it is important to develop proactive safety management strategies with consideration for segment types and traffic flow states because crash mechanisms have some differences by each condition. The primary objective of this study is to develop real-time crash risk prediction models for different segment types and traffic flow states on expressways. The mainline of expressways is divided into basic segment and ramp vicinity, and the traffic flow states are classified into uncongested and congested conditions. Also, Korean expressways have irregular intervals between loop detector stations. Therefore, we investigated on the effect and application of the detector stations at irregular intervals for the crash risk prediction on expressways. The most significant traffic variables were selected by conditional logistic regression analysis which could control confounding factors. Based on the selected traffic variables, separate models to predict crash risk were developed using genetic programming technique. The model estimation results showed that the traffic flow characteristics leading to crashes are differed by segment type and traffic flow state. Especially, the variables related to the intervals between detector stations had a significant influence on crash risk prediction under the uncongested condition. Finally, compared with the single model for all crashes and the logistic models used in previous studies, the proposed models showed higher prediction performance. The results of this study can be applied to develop more effective proactive safety management strategies for different segment types and traffic flow states on expressways with loop detector stations at irregular intervals.

  9. Examining the developmental process of risk for exposure to community violence among urban youth.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Cammack, Nicole L; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research has documented the effects of community violence exposure on adolescents' behavior and mental health functioning, yet there has been less research on the process by which early risks increase the likelihood that youth will be exposed to community violence. The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 623 urban youth followed from 1st grade through adolescence to examine the process by which early-onset aggressive behavior and poor academic readiness influenced risk for community violence exposure. Consistent with transactional developmental theories, early-onset aggressive and disruptive behavior was associated with poor academic readiness; these early risks contributed to later peer rejection, and subsequent conduct problems and greater affiliation with deviant peers, which in turn increased youths' exposure to community violence. Having an enhanced understanding of the risk process directs attention to potential targets for preventive interventions for youth at risk for subsequent exposure to violence.

  10. Preliminary Testing of a Program to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Youth.(research Papers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Margaret; Berry, Diane; Davidson, Maryanne; Galasso, Pam; Gustafson, Elaine; Melkus, Gail

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing among youth, with minority youth at highest risk. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a school-based program to prevent type 2 diabetes in youth at risk. Forty-one participants (age 12.6 [+ or -] 1.1 years; 63% female, 51% African American, 44% Hispanic, and 5% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of…

  11. Preliminary Testing of a Program to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Youth.(research Papers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Margaret; Berry, Diane; Davidson, Maryanne; Galasso, Pam; Gustafson, Elaine; Melkus, Gail

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing among youth, with minority youth at highest risk. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a school-based program to prevent type 2 diabetes in youth at risk. Forty-one participants (age 12.6 [+ or -] 1.1 years; 63% female, 51% African American, 44% Hispanic, and 5% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of…

  12. Youth Risk Factors and Educational Outcomes of Mentored and Non-Mentored Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos-Brown, Karen

    2010-01-01

    As mentoring is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve youth educational outcomes, it is important to continue to examine the effects of mentoring on these youth outcomes. This study uses secondary data from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and transcript data from the Adolescent…

  13. Youth Risk Factors and Educational Outcomes of Mentored and Non-Mentored Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos-Brown, Karen

    2010-01-01

    As mentoring is receiving increasing attention as a method to improve youth educational outcomes, it is important to continue to examine the effects of mentoring on these youth outcomes. This study uses secondary data from Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and transcript data from the Adolescent…

  14. Paternal, perceived maternal, and youth risk factors as predictors of youth stage of substance use a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe González; Brook, Judith S; Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined paternal, perceived maternal, and youth risk factors at Time 1 (T1) (e.g., substance use, violent victimization, parental rules) as predictors of the stage of substance use in the adolescent child at Time 2 (T2). Participants (N = 296) consisted of drug-abusing fathers and one of their adolescent children, aged 12 to 20 years. Fathers and youths were each administered structured interviews separately and in private. Adolescents were re-interviewed approximately one year later. Pearson correlation analyses showed that the paternal, perceived maternal, and youth risk factors were significantly related to adolescent stage of substance use at T2. With an increase in risk factors, there was an increase in T2 stage of substance use in the child. Findings imply that father-oriented treatment programs should focus on how paternal behaviors, such as illegal drug use, inadequate parenting skills, and a poor father-child relationship contribute to youth problem behaviors, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use.

  15. Family history of gastric cancer is associated with the risk of colorectal neoplasia in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Kim, Nam Hee; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Park, Soo-Kyung; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il

    2017-10-01

    Family history of cancers at different sites except for colorectum has not been evaluated as a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). To investigate CRN risk according to family history of cancers at 12 different sites, including stomach and colorectum. A cross-sectional study was performed on 139,497 asymptomatic Koreans who underwent colonoscopy as part of a health check-up. The mean age of the study population was 41.6 and the prevalence of CRN was 16.3%. Multivariate analyses revealed that family histories of CRC (adjusted odds ratio; confidence interval, 1.26; 1.17-1.35) and gastric cancer (1.07; 1.01-1.13) were independent risk factors for CRN. Notably, the risk of CRN increased even more for participants with family histories of both CRC and gastric cancer (1.38; 1.12-1.70). Family history of CRC was associated with risk of CRN in participants aged both <50 and ≥50 years, whereas family history of gastric cancer was associated with risk of CRN in participants aged <50 years (1.22; 1.14-1.30), but not in participants aged ≥50 years (1.08; 0.99-1.18). Family history of gastric cancer was an independent risk factor for CRN, especially in those aged <50years. Persons with family histories of gastric cancer and CRC, especially those with family histories of both, may need to begin colonoscopy earlier. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Lee, Chan Wha; Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea has rapidly increased over the past decade, few studies have investigated its risk factors. This study examined the risk factors for thyroid cancer in Korean adults. Materials and Methods The study design was a hospital-based case-control study. Between August 2002 and December 2011, a total of 802 thyroid cancer cases out of 34,211 patients screened from the Cancer Screenee. Cohort of the National Cancer Center in South Korea were included in the analysis. A total of 802 control cases were selected from the same cohort, and matched individually (1:1) by age (±2 years) and area of residence for control group 1 and additionally by sex for control group 2. Results Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis using the control group 1 showed that females and those with a family history of thyroid cancer had an increased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas ever-smokers and those with a higher monthly household income had a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the analysis using control group 2 showed that a family history of cancer and alcohol consumption were associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer, whereas higher body mass index (BMI) and family history of thyroid cancer were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Conclusion These findings suggest that females, those with a family history of thyroid cancer, those with a higher BMI, non-smokers, non-drinkers, and those with a lower monthly household income have an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. PMID:27338034

  17. Development of a prototype Typhoon Risk Model over the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. Y.; Cocke, S.; Shin, D. W.; CHOI, M.; Kwon, J.

    2016-12-01

    Risk can be defined as probability of a given hazard of a given level causing a particular level of loss of damage (Alexander, 2000). Risk management is important for mitigation and developing plans for emergencies. More effective risk management strategies can help reduce potential losses from natural disasters like typhoon, floods, earthquakes, and so on. We are developing a prototype typhoon risk model to assess the current and potentially future hazard due to typhoons in the Western Pacific. To develop the typhoon risk model, a variety of sources of data over Korea are used such as population, damage to buildings, agriculture, ships, etc. The model is based on proven concepts used in catastrophe models that have been used in the U.S. and other regions of the world. Recently, the sea surface temperatures where typhoons have occurred have tended to increase. According to recent studies of global warming, the intensity of typhoons could increase, and the frequency of typhoons may decrease in the future climate. The prototype risk model can help us determine the change in risk as a consequence of the change in typhoon activity. We focus on Korea and other regions of interest to Korean insurers, re-insurers, and related industries. The model can potentially be coupled to various damage models or emergency management systems for planning and mitigation. In addition, the assessment would be useful for emergency planners, coastal community planners, and private and governmental insurance programs. This work was funded by the Korea Meteorological Administration Research and Development Program under Grant KMIPA2016-8030.

  18. Youth smoking risk and community patterns of alcohol availability and control: a national multilevel study

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, E.; Chen, Y.; Subramanian, S

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To test whether college youth smoking risks are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability and control. Design: Hierarchical multilevel multivariable modelling of cross sectional survey data. Outcomes included self reported current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking and heavy episodic (binge) drinking. Setting: 120 nationally representative US colleges. Participants: 10 924 randomly selected students. Main results: Individual risks for smoking and binge drinking are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability, policy enforcement and control over and above individual perceptions about these factors, student and college characteristics, and school binge drinking rates. Youth exposed to high levels of alcohol availability are at higher risk of smoking (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.75, 7.44) and binge drinking (OR 4.22, 95% CI 2.25, 7.93) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to strongly enforced alcohol policy environments are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.16, 0.57) and binge drinking (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10, 0.31) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to communities with strong parental controls are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01, 0.23) and binge drinking (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01, 0.21) than youth not so exposed. Individual risks related to environmental exposures differ for youth with varying perceptions about alcohol availability and policy control. Conclusions: Drinking environments in US college communities comprise strong independent risks for smoking. Smoking prevention models should be tested that include environmental drinking prevention strategies tailored to underlying perceptions and experiences of college youth. PMID:16286496

  19. Increased Intrasubject Variability in Response Time in Youths with Bipolar Disorder and At-Risk Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Rooney, Melissa H.; Skup, Martha; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Intrasubject variability in response time (ISV-RT) was higher in youths with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with first-degree relatives with BD compared to youths without BD. ISV-RT may be a risk marker for BD.

  20. Increased Intrasubject Variability in Response Time in Youths with Bipolar Disorder and At-Risk Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Melissa A.; Rooney, Melissa H.; Skup, Martha; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Intrasubject variability in response time (ISV-RT) was higher in youths with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with first-degree relatives with BD compared to youths without BD. ISV-RT may be a risk marker for BD.

  1. At-Risk and Delinquent Youth. Multiple Programs Lack Coordinated Federal Effort. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Youth Violence, Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Cornelia M.

    The General Accounting Office evaluated federal programs that serve at-risk and delinquent youth. The work, which took place over several years, focused on: (1) who administers such programs; (2) how much money is spent on federal programs for at-risk youth; and (3) what is known about their effectiveness. Overall, its is apparent that multiple…

  2. Mobility among youth in Rakai, Uganda: Trends, characteristics, and associations with behavioural risk factors for HIV.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, Ashley C; Edelstein, Zoe R; Mathur, Sanyukta; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria J; Serwadda, David M; Santelli, John S

    2015-08-27

    Mobility, including migration and travel, influences risk of HIV. This study examined time trends and characteristics among mobile youth (15-24 years) in rural Uganda, and the relationship between mobility and risk factors for HIV. We used data from an annual household census and population-based cohort study in the Rakai district, Uganda. Data on in-migration and out-migration were collected among youth (15-24 years) from 43 communities from 1999 to 2011 (N = 112,117 observations) and travel among youth residents from 2003 to 2008 (N = 18,318 observations). Migration and travel were more common among young women than young men. One in five youth reported out-migration. Over time, out-migration increased among youth and in-migration remained largely stable. Primary reasons for migration included work, living with friends or family, and marriage. Recent travel within Uganda was common and increased slightly over time in teen women (15-19 years old), and young adult men and women (20-24 years old). Mobile youth were more likely to report HIV-risk behaviours including: alcohol use, sexual experience, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Our findings suggest that among rural Ugandan youth, mobility is increasingly common and associated with HIV-risk factors. Knowledge of patterns and characteristics of a young, high-risk mobile population has important implications for HIV interventions.

  3. Mobility among youth in Rakai, Uganda: Trends, characteristics, and associations with behavioural risk factors for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Ashley C.; Edelstein, Zoe R.; Mathur, Sanyukta; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David M.; Santelli, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Mobility, including migration and travel, influences risk of HIV. This study examined time trends and characteristics among mobile youth (15-24 years) in rural Uganda, and the relationship between mobility and risk factors for HIV. We used data from an annual household census and population-based cohort study in the Rakai district, Uganda. Data on in-migration and out-migration were collected among youth (15-24 years) from 43 communities from 1999-2011 (N=112,117 observations) and travel among youth residents from 2003-2008 (N=18,318 observations). Migration and travel were more common among young women than young men. One in five youth reported out-migration. Over time, out-migration increased among youth and in-migration remained largely stable. Primary reasons for migration included work, living with friends or family, and marriage. Recent travel within Uganda was common and increased slightly over time in teen women (15-19 years old), and young adult men and women (20-24 years old). Mobile youth were more likely to report HIV risk behaviours including: alcohol use, sexual experience, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use. Our findings suggest that among rural Ugandan youth, mobility is increasingly common and associated with HIV risk factors. Knowledge of patterns and characteristics of a young, high-risk mobile population has important implications for HIV interventions. PMID:26313708

  4. Parenting and youth sexual risk in context: The role of community factors.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, Nada M; Armistead, Lisa P; Tully, Erin C; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Black South African youth are disproportionately affected by HIV, and risky sexual behaviors increase youths' vulnerability to infection. U.S.-based research has highlighted several contextual influences on sexual risk, but these processes have not been examined in a South African context. In a convenience sample of Black South African caregivers and their 10-14-year-old youth (Mage = 11.7, SD = 1.4; 52.5% female), we examined the relation between parenting and youth sexual risk within the context of community-level processes, including neighborhood quality and maternal social support. Hypotheses were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that better neighborhood quality and more social support predicted positive parenting, which in turn predicted less youth sexual risk. There was a significant indirect effect from neighborhood quality to youth sexual risk via parenting. Results highlight the importance of the community context in parenting and youth sexual risk in this understudied sample. HIV prevention-interventions should be informed by these contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Cho, Seongbeom; Jacobs, David R; Park, Kyong

    2014-10-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that coffee consumption may have beneficial effects on metabolic diseases; however, few previous studies have considered the types of coffee consumed and the additives used. We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and its components. We analyzed 17,953 Korean adults, aged 19-65 years, using cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2007-2011). Coffee consumption level, types of coffee consumed, and the additives used were assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recall. Demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Data on metabolic biomarkers were obtained from a health examination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of prevalent metabolic syndrome and its components according to frequency and type of coffee consumption. We found that 76% of the subjects were habitual coffee drinkers, most of whom consumed instant coffee mix containing sugar and powder creamer. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (95% CI) comparing those who consumed coffee ≥3 times/day with those who consumed coffee <1 time/week were 1.37 (1.15-1.63) for obesity, 1.33 (1.11-1.59) for abdominal obesity, 1.28 (1.09-1.51) for hypo-HDL cholesterolemia, and 1.37 (1.10-1.72) for metabolic syndrome. Instant-coffee drinkers were observed to have elevated risks of these metabolic conditions. Consumption of coffee, particularly instant coffee mix, may have harmful effects on MetSyn, perhaps partly deriving from excessive intake of sugar and powder creamer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D deficiency in Korean children: prevalence, risk factors, and the relationship with parathyroid hormone levels

    PubMed Central

    Chung, In Hyuk; Kim, Hae Jung; Chung, Sochung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels as well as to describe the prevalence and the risk factors of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in Korean children. Methods Participants were 1,212 children aged 4 to 15 years, who visited Bundang CHA Medical Center (located at 37°N) between March 2012 and February 2013. Overweight was defined as body mass index≥85th percentile. Participants were divided into 4 age groups and 2 seasonal groups. VDD was defined by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) <20 ng/mL. Results The level of 25OHD was significantly lower in overweight group than in normal weight group (17.1±5.1 ng/mL vs. 19.1±6.1 ng/mL, P<0.001). Winter-spring season (odds ratio [OR], 4.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.45-5.77), older age group (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.36-1.88), and overweight (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.62-3.01) were independently related with VDD. The PTH levels were significantly higher in VDD group compared to vitamin D insufficiency and sufficiency group (P<0.001). In normal weight children, 25OHD (β=-0.007, P<0.001) and ionized calcium (β=-0.594, P=0.007) were independently related with PTH, however, these associations were not significant in overweight children. Conclusion VDD is very common in Korean children and its prevalence increases in winter-spring season, in overweight children and in older age groups. Further investigation on the vitamin D and PTH metabolism according to adiposity is required. PMID:25077091

  7. Validation of the Korean Version of the Lewy Body Composite Risk Score (K-LBCRS).

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hui Jin; Kim, Minyoung; Moon, Yeonsil; Choi, Yeji; Han, Jee-Young; Galvin, James E; Han, Seol-Heui

    2017-01-01

    The Lewy body composite risk score (LBCRS) is a useful clinical screening tool to help determine whether the dementia is related to Lewy body pathology. The purpose of this study is to verify reliability, validity, and diagnostic usefulness of Korean version of LBCRS (K-LBCRS). CDR-sum of boxes, Mini-Mental State Examination, and standardized scales related to cognition, mood, behavior, and motor function were administered to a total of 107 subjects, including 30 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 54 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 23 cognitively normal elderly people and their collateral informants. Internal consistency of the K-LBCRS was good with Cronbach's alpha of 0.85, and concurrent validity was also satisfactory, with K-LBCRS correlating highly with CDR-SB and other scales. The test-retest reliability was very high with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The mean scores of K-LBCRS were significantly different among three groups, with DLB (6.2±2.4), AD (1.4±1.3), and controls (0.3±0.6). We identified a cut-off score of 3 as best to differentiate between DLB and AD, having AUC of 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00), sensitivity 97%, specificity 83%, positive predictive value 76%, negative predictive value 98%, which is the same score suggested in the original study. This study shows K-LBCRS as a new useful screening tool for Korean DLB patients in clinical settings.

  8. Association of DASH diet with cardiovascular risk factors in youth with diabetes mellitus: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study.

    PubMed

    Liese, Angela D; Bortsov, Andrey; Günther, Anke L B; Dabelea, Dana; Reynolds, Kristi; Standiford, Debra A; Liu, Lenna; Williams, Desmond E; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Bell, Ronny; Marcovina, Santica

    2011-04-05

    We have shown that adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is related to blood pressure in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We explored the impact of the DASH diet on other cardiovascular disease risk factors. Between 2001 and 2005, data on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein particle density, apolipoprotein B, body mass index, waist circumference, and adipocytokines were ascertained in 2130 youth aged 10 to 22 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, categorized into the DASH food groups, and assigned an adherence score. Among youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus, higher adherence to the DASH diet was significantly and inversely associated with low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio and A(1c) in multivariable-adjusted models. Youth in the highest adherence tertile had an estimated 0.07 lower low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio and 0.2 lower A(1c) levels than those in the lowest tertile adjusted for confounders. No significant associations were observed with triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein particle density, adipocytokines, apolipoprotein B, body mass index Z score, or waist circumference. Among youth with type 2 diabetes mellitus, associations were observed with low-density lipoprotein particle density and body mass index Z score. The DASH dietary pattern may be beneficial in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease risk in youth with diabetes mellitus.

  9. Association between short sleep duration and obesity among South korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee

    2011-03-01

    Short sleep duration and obesity are common health concerns in youth. This study of South Korean adolescents explores the association between the two conditions analyzing secondary data from the 2007 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The sample is representative of the South Korean adolescent population (N = 73,836). For data analysis, analysis of variance, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used. Findings indicated that (a) sleep duration is inversely associated with levels of body mass index, F(4, 72654) = 240.07, p < .0001, and risks for overweight and obesity, χ(2)(4, 72659) = 27.41, p < .0001; and (b) after controlling for obesity-related factors, reduced sleep is strongly associated with a greater risk for overweight and obesity, OR = 0.94, p < .0001. Given the important link between sleep and obesity, health professionals should consider sleep habits as a significant factor in obesity-related problems of youth.

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Self-Reported Violence of Osaka and Seattle Male Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P.; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non- Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769

  11. Smokers Report: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Current Smoking. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  12. Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for American Indian Students in Urban Schools: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System is an epidemiologic surveillance system that was established by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems that can occur during…

  13. Students with Special Needs: A Health Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Special Education Assistance. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  14. Sports Team Participation: A Risk Behavior Comparison of Montana High School Students Based on Sports Team Participation. 2011 Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is administered by the Montana Office of Public Instruction every two years to students in grades 7 through 12. The purpose of the survey is to help monitor the prevalence of behaviors that not only influence youth health, but also put youth at risk for the most significant health and social problems…

  15. Risk and clinical characteristics of lymphoma in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel diseases: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Ye, Byong Duk; Lee, Changhyun; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Seon-Ok; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-02-01

    Studies of lymphoma risk in Western inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients show conflicting results; however, none have examined the lymphoma risk and clinical characteristics of Asian IBD patients. Patients with lymphoma were identified in an IBD database from 3 tertiary referral centers in Seoul, Korea. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of lymphoma was estimated using data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry of the National Cancer Center. The risk of lymphoma in relation to specific medications was also explored. Seven cases of lymphoma (0.1%) were identified in 6585 IBD patients. The median age at lymphoma diagnosis was 43 years (range, 33 to 70 y) and the median duration of IBD at lymphoma diagnosis was 96.1 months (range, 15.1 to 171.6 mo). Three patients had underlying ulcerative colitis and 4 had Crohn's disease (CD). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was diagnosed in 5 patients (71.4%) and Hodgkin disease (HD) in 2 patients (28.6%). The SIR of lymphoma was 2.03 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.81-4.18] in the entire IBD patients. Both the SIR of lymphoma in CD patients (9.31; 95% CI, 1.13-33.62) and the SIR of HD (13.16; 95% CI, 1.59-47.53) in IBD patients were increased. The SIR of lymphoma in patients who were exposed to thiopurines was 5.93 (95% CI, 1.61-15.18). The risk of lymphoma in CD patients and the risk of HD in IBD patients seem to be increased in Korea. Thiopurine may be related with the risk of lymphoma in Korean IBD patients.

  16. Risky decision-making: An fMRI study of youth at high risk for alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescents with a family history of alcoholism (FHP) are at risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD), and some studies indicate that FHP individuals show deficits in executive functioning. The ability to make adaptive decisions is one aspect of successful executive functioning that is often measured during risk-taking tasks; however, this behavior has not been examined in FHP youth. Since impaired decision-making could predispose FHP youth to make poor choices related to alcohol use, the current study examined the neural substrates of risk-taking in FHP adolescents and their family history negative (FHN) peers. Methods Thirty-one (18 FHP, 13 FHN) youth between 13-15 years old were included in this study. All youth had used little to no alcohol prior to study involvement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine the neural substrates of risk-taking during the Wheel of Fortune (WOF) decision-making task (Ernst et al., 2004) in FHP and FHN youth. Results FHP youth did not differ from FHN youth in risk-taking behavior, but showed less brain response during risky decision-making in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right cerebellar regions compared to FHN peers. Conclusions Despite no behavioral differences on the WOF decision-making task, FHP youth exhibited atypical neural response during risk-taking compared to FHN peers. Atypical brain activity, in regions implicated in executive functioning could lead to reduced cognitive control, which may result in risky choices regarding alcohol use. This could help explain the higher rates of AUDs seen in FHP adolescents. Further examination of risky behavior and associated brain response over the course of adolescence is necessary to characterize the vulnerabilities of FHP youth in the absence of alcohol abuse. PMID:22250647

  17. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  18. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  19. Idaho Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 1995. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Health and Welfare, Boise. Div. of Consumer and Health Education.

    Many of the health problems experienced by youth are caused by preventable behaviors, such as alcohol abuse and unprotected sexual intercourse. The increasing cost of health care demands that youth be taught to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors. School health programs are essential to attaining this goal. The results of the 1995 Idaho Youth…

  20. Storytelling Narratives: Social Bonding as Key for Youth at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Annabelle; McClintock, Charles; Perez-Ferguson, Anita; Shawver, Mary Nash; Thompson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This research used a structured storytelling narrative methodology to capture the lived experience of youth participants to identify effective factors that helped them in three programs in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California. Thirty-nine youth aged 8-17 participated in two storytelling protocols at their home sites; one was a written…

  1. Storytelling Narratives: Social Bonding as Key for Youth at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Annabelle; McClintock, Charles; Perez-Ferguson, Anita; Shawver, Mary Nash; Thompson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This research used a structured storytelling narrative methodology to capture the lived experience of youth participants to identify effective factors that helped them in three programs in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California. Thirty-nine youth aged 8-17 participated in two storytelling protocols at their home sites; one was a written…

  2. Baseline characteristics and risk factors of retinal vein occlusion: a study by the Korean RVO Study Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yong; Yoon, Young Hee; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Seong; Kang, Se Woong; Kim, June-Gone; Park, Kyu Hyung; Jo, Young Joon

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the demographic characteristics and risk factors of Korean patients with naÏve central or branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO or BRVO). This study enrolled 41 clinical sites throughout Korea and included 557 consecutive patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) from May through November 2010. A total of 557 patients with new-onset RVO participated in this study. Two hundred and three (36.4%) patients were diagnosed with CRVO and 354 (63.6%) patients were diagnosed with BRVO. Comparisons between the two groups showed that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in CRVO patients and hypertension was significantly higher in BRVO patients (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Poor baseline visual acuity was significantly associated with female and old age in BRVO patients (P = 0.002 and 0.013, respectively), whereas the wide intraretinal hemorrhage (CRVO, P = 0.029; BRVO, P < 0.001) and the macular ischemia (CRVO, P < 0.001; BRVO, P < 0.001) were associated with both groups. The study results show the clinical features of RVO in Korean patients. Hypertension is strongly associated with BRVO and diabetes mellitus is more strongly associated with CRVO in Korean patients with RVO. As the first nationwide study performed by the Korean Retinal Society, the results of this study can be applied to future studies on RVO.

  3. Risk factors and a predictive model for thyroid cancer in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Kwak, Keun-Hae

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence in Korean women has increased radically and is the highest in all cancer types. However, the rate of cancer screening among women is very low. The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer and to develop a predictive model based on these risk factors. The study design comprised a literature review and a case-control study. To construct a predictive model, the participants selected were 260 female outpatients diagnosed with malignant neoplasm of thyroid gland who had undergone thyroid removal surgery. A total of 259 people for the control group were selected by adopting a 5-year age-matching method. From the literature review, 6 categories of risk factors were identified. Nine variables, including occupation, live(d) in coastal region, family history of thyroid cancer, history of benign thyroid tumor, menopause status and weight gain, number of full-term deliveries, abortion, exercise intensity, and stress, remained as statistically significant risk factors in the stepwise regression model. Regarding the predictive power of the model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was .79, accuracy was .77, sensitivity was .89, specificity was .65, positive predictive value was .72, and negative predictive value was .85. The predictive power of the model was relatively good, so it can be used to identify individuals at high risk for thyroid cancer. The predictive model can be used in promoting to participate in early cancer-screening tests. Thus, it will be possible to detect thyroid cancer in its earliest stage, diminish mortality, and improve quality of life.

  4. Metabolic syndrome risk factors are associated with white rice intake in Korean adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Song, SuJin; Young Paik, Hee; Song, Won O; Song, YoonJu

    2015-02-14

    In the present study, we examined the associations of total carbohydrate intake, dietary glycaemic load (DGL) and white rice intake with metabolic syndrome risk factors by sex in Korean adolescents. For the present cross-sectional study, data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-9) were used. A total of 2209 adolescents (n 1164 boys and n 1045 girls) aged 10-18 years with complete anthropometric, biochemical and dietary intake data were included in the study. Dietary intake data were obtained using the 24 h recall method, and total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake were divided into quartiles by sex. The metabolic syndrome and its risk factors were defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria for children and adolescents. Fasting insulin levels and insulin resistance were included as the metabolic syndrome risk factors. All statistical analyses considered the complex sampling design effect and appropriate sampling weights. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to estimate means with their standard errors of the mean for the metabolic syndrome risk factors across the quartiles of total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake. While high DGL was significantly associated with increased fasting glucose levels in boys, high total carbohydrate intake, DGL and white rice intake were consistently associated with reduced HDL-cholesterol levels in girls. High white rice intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in girls but not in boys. Optimising dietary carbohydrate intake with respect to the source or amount is fundamental to preventing and managing metabolic diseases in Asian adolescents.

  5. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Garvey, Katharine C.; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A.; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Weitzman, Elissa R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. Method To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9–18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children’s hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Results Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. Conclusions The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management. PMID:27227975

  6. Prevalence of Low Bone Mineral Density and Associated Risk Factors in Korean Puerperal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although pregnancy is a medical condition that contributes to bone loss, little information is available regarding bone mineral density (BMD) in puerperal women. This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and to identify associated risk factors. We surveyed all puerperal women who had BMD measurements taken 4–6 weeks after delivery in a tertiary university hospital, and did not have any bone loss-related comorbidities. Among the 1,561 Korean puerperal women, 566 (36.3%) had low BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and/or trochanter. Multivariate analysis revealed that underweight women had a significantly higher risk of low BMD compared with obese women at pre-pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83–5.63). Also, women with inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) were 1.4 times more likely to have low BMD than women with excessive GWG (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.04–1.94). One-way ANOVA showed that BMDs at the lumbar spine and total hip were significantly different between the 4 BMI groups (both P < 0.001) and also between the 3 GWG groups (both P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study identifies a high prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and thus suggests the need for further evaluation about the change of BMD in pregnancy and postpartum period. PMID:27709858

  7. Prevalence of Low Bone Mineral Density and Associated Risk Factors in Korean Puerperal Women.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dong Gyu; Kwon, Ji Young; Choi, Sae Kyung; Ko, Hyun Sun; Shin, Jong Chul; Park, In Yang

    2016-11-01

    Although pregnancy is a medical condition that contributes to bone loss, little information is available regarding bone mineral density (BMD) in puerperal women. This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and to identify associated risk factors. We surveyed all puerperal women who had BMD measurements taken 4-6 weeks after delivery in a tertiary university hospital, and did not have any bone loss-related comorbidities. Among the 1,561 Korean puerperal women, 566 (36.3%) had low BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and/or trochanter. Multivariate analysis revealed that underweight women had a significantly higher risk of low BMD compared with obese women at pre-pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83-5.63). Also, women with inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) were 1.4 times more likely to have low BMD than women with excessive GWG (aOR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.04-1.94). One-way ANOVA showed that BMDs at the lumbar spine and total hip were significantly different between the 4 BMI groups (both P < 0.001) and also between the 3 GWG groups (both P < 0.001). In conclusion, this study identifies a high prevalence of low BMD in puerperal women and thus suggests the need for further evaluation about the change of BMD in pregnancy and postpartum period.

  8. Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism predicts hypertension, and iridological constitutional classification enhances the risk for hypertension in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joo-Jang; Hwang, Woo-Jun; Hong, Seung-Heon; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Lee, Hye-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between iridological constitution and angiotensinogen (AGN) gene polymorphism in hypertensives. In addition to angiotensin converting enzyme gene, AGN genotype is also one of the most well studied genetic markers of hypertension. Furthermore, iridology, one of complementary and alternative medicine, is the diagnosis of the medical conditions through noting irregularities of the pigmentation in the iris. Iridological constitution has a strong familial aggregation and is implicated in heredity. Therefore, the study classified 87 hypertensive patients with familial history of cerebral infarction and controls (n = 88) according to Iris constitution, and determined AGN genotype. As a result, the AGN/TT genotype was associated with hypertension (chi2 = 13.413, p < .05). The frequency of T allele was 0.92 in patients and 0.76 in controls (chi2 = 13.159, p < .05). In addition, iridological constitutional classification increased the relative risk for hypertension in the subjects with AGN/T allele. These results suggest that AGN polymorphism predicts hypertension, and iridological constitutional classification enhances the risk for hypertension associated with AGN/T in a Korean population.

  9. Racial Differences in Risk-Taking Propensity on the Youth Version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collado, Anahi; Risco, Cristina M.; Banducci, Anne N.; Chen, Kevin W.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2017-01-01

    Research indicates that White adolescents tend to engage in greater levels of risk behavior relative to Black adolescents. To better understand these differences, the current study examined real-time changes in risk-taking propensity (RTP). The study utilized the Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth Version (BART-Y), a well-validated real-time,…

  10. Changes in Risk-Taking among High School Students, 1991-1997: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggess, Scott; Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Porter, Laura

    Using nationally representative data from students in grades 9 to 12 from the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) of 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997, this study examined changes in high school students' participation in health risk behaviors. Ten specific health risk behaviors were identified, each of which poses potential immediate and…

  11. Racial Differences in Risk-Taking Propensity on the Youth Version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART-Y)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collado, Anahi; Risco, Cristina M.; Banducci, Anne N.; Chen, Kevin W.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2017-01-01

    Research indicates that White adolescents tend to engage in greater levels of risk behavior relative to Black adolescents. To better understand these differences, the current study examined real-time changes in risk-taking propensity (RTP). The study utilized the Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth Version (BART-Y), a well-validated real-time,…

  12. Genre-specific media and perceptions of personal and social risk of smoking among South Korean college students.

    PubMed

    So, Jiyeon; Cho, Hyunyi; Lee, Jinro

    2011-05-01

    The smoking rate among adult men in South Korea is one of the highest in the world, standing at about 53%. Although various mass media-based educational initiatives have been taken to reduce this rate, their contribution toward the smoking risk perceptions of South Koreans has not been investigated. This study examined the association between genre-specific media exposure and personal and social risk perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers. Data from a survey of 558 South Korean college students (39% smokers) show that genre-specific media exposure differentially predicts personal and social risk perceptions of smokers and nonsmokers. News media exposure predicted smokers' personal risk perceptions, whereas entertainment media exposure predicted nonsmokers' personal risk perceptions. Exposure to a hybrid genre, health infotainment, predicted social risk perceptions, but not personal risk perceptions, of both smokers and nonsmokers. High rates of exposure to medical documentary were associated with low personal risk perceptions of nonsmokers, but not smokers. These results collectively suggest that mixed-media strategies may effectively address perceptions of personal and social risk of smoking. Suggestions for future research, and theoretical and practical implications, are offered.

  13. Clinical psychopathology in youth at familial high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jai L; Tandon, Neeraj; Montrose, Debra M; Mermon, Diana; Eack, Shaun M; Miewald, Jean; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2017-09-07

    While the course of psychopathology has been explored from an index mental health diagnosis onwards, there are few detailed, prospective studies of the occurrence of clinical psychopathology in youth with familial risk for severe mental illnesses such as psychosis. We sought to describe the appearance of Axis I psychopathology in a unique sample of adolescents with a family history of schizophrenia (FHR). One hundred and sixty two first- and second-degree relatives (mean age 15.7 ± 3.6; range 8-25) of probands with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed at baseline and annual intervals for up to 3 years, focusing on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) Axis I psychopathology. Fourteen individuals (8.6%) developed a psychotic disorder. One hundred and five subjects (65%) met criteria for an Axis I disorder over the course of the study, the most common of which was a depressive episode (40 subjects; 25%). Of the 148 individuals who did not develop psychosis, 91 (61%) had one or more Axis I disorders compared with 10/14 converters who had a comorbid Axis I disorder (71%). Ordered by increasing age of onset, diagnoses included cognitive and externalizing disorders, anxiety disorders, affective disorders, substance use disorders and psychotic disorders. In addition to an elevated risk of psychosis, young FHR relatives manifest a broad range of non-psychotic Axis I psychopathology in childhood and adolescence. This breadth of diagnoses has implications for the structure and function of mental health services for young people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Body Image and Risk Behaviors in Youth with HIV.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Ronald H; Loew, Megan M; Wilkins, Megan L; Sun, Yilun; Tang, Li; Porter, Jerlym S; Gaur, Aditya H

    2017-04-01

    Body image concerns are common among people living with HIV. Among adults with HIV, body image concerns have been shown to be related to risky sexual behaviors; little research has been conducted among youth living with HIV (YLWH). The current study examined the predictors, including body image, of sexual risk behaviors among YLWH. Adolescents from a single clinic (n = 143; age range, 16-24 years; 69% male; 95% African American) completed a computerized self-report survey to assess demographic, behavioral, and body image domains. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the medical record. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations between risk factors and risky sexual behaviors. Results indicated that YLWH who reported less favorable body image perceptions (p = 0.04) and more sexual partners (p = 0.05) were less likely to use condoms during their last sexual encounter. YLWH with six or more sexual partners were more likely to use drugs or alcohol during their last sexual encounter (p = 0.03). A belief that their HIV medications changed their body physically (p = 0.05), history of HIV-related complications (p = 0.03), an undetectable viral load at their most recent clinical laboratory draw (p = 0.01), and having a high school diploma or equivalent (p = 0.001) were independently associated with disclosure of participant's HIV status to a romantic/sexual partner. Findings suggest that body image perceptions may influence risky sexual behavior in YLWH. Further study is warranted to understand and intervene upon this relationship to improve individual and public health outcomes.

  15. The framingham risk score, diet, and inflammatory markers in Korean men with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juyong; Bae, Wookyung

    2012-01-01

    The Framingham risk score (FRS) has been used to assess the risk of a cardiovascular event and to identify patients for risk factor modifications. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of the FRS with dietary intake and inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 180 men (49.2 ± 10.2 years) with MS. Serum levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin were examined. Participants were asked to complete the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using the previous 1 year as a reference point. The absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk percentage over 10 years was calculated to estimate the FRS, which was classified as low risk (< 10%), intermediate risk (10-20%), and high risk (> 20%). Mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids was lower in subjects who had > 20% FRS than in subjects who had < 10% FRS (3.7 ± 1.9 g/day vs. 4.7 ± 1.9 g/day; P < 0.05). Significant differences in the Index of Nutritional Quality of protein, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, niacin, vitamin B6, and vitamin C were observed between the > 20% FRS group and the < 10% FRS group (P < 0.05). IL-6 concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with a < 10% FRS than in subjects who were 10-20% FRS or > 20% FRS (0.91 ± 0.26 vs. 1.48 ± 033 vs. 2.72 ± 0.57 pg/mL, respectively; P < 0.05). IL-6 and dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids together explained 6.6% of the variation in FRS levels in a stepwise multiple regression model. Our results provide some evidence that dietary intake in the higher CVD risk group was inferior to that in the lower risk group and that dietary fat intake and IL-6 were associated with FRS and MS in Korean men. PMID:22808350

  16. The framingham risk score, diet, and inflammatory markers in Korean men with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Cheongmin; Kim, Juyong; Bae, Wookyung

    2012-06-01

    The Framingham risk score (FRS) has been used to assess the risk of a cardiovascular event and to identify patients for risk factor modifications. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of the FRS with dietary intake and inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 180 men (49.2 ± 10.2 years) with MS. Serum levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin were examined. Participants were asked to complete the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using the previous 1 year as a reference point. The absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk percentage over 10 years was calculated to estimate the FRS, which was classified as low risk (< 10%), intermediate risk (10-20%), and high risk (> 20%). Mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids was lower in subjects who had > 20% FRS than in subjects who had < 10% FRS (3.7 ± 1.9 g/day vs. 4.7 ± 1.9 g/day; P < 0.05). Significant differences in the Index of Nutritional Quality of protein, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B(1), niacin, vitamin B(6), and vitamin C were observed between the > 20% FRS group and the < 10% FRS group (P < 0.05). IL-6 concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with a < 10% FRS than in subjects who were 10-20% FRS or > 20% FRS (0.91 ± 0.26 vs. 1.48 ± 033 vs. 2.72 ± 0.57 pg/mL, respectively; P < 0.05). IL-6 and dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids together explained 6.6% of the variation in FRS levels in a stepwise multiple regression model. Our results provide some evidence that dietary intake in the higher CVD risk group was inferior to that in the lower risk group and that dietary fat intake and IL-6 were associated with FRS and MS in Korean men.

  17. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  18. The Influence of Knowing Someone with AIDS on Youth HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederbaum, Julie A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Hutchinson, M. Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that knowing someone with HIV/AIDS is associated with greater perceived risk of contracting HIV and changes in sexual risk behaviors. The current study with a sample of 1,172 examined whether knowing someone with HIV/AIDS influenced sexual risk communication and youth engagement in sexual intercourse using the Philadelphia…

  19. The Influence of Knowing Someone with AIDS on Youth HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederbaum, Julie A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Hutchinson, M. Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that knowing someone with HIV/AIDS is associated with greater perceived risk of contracting HIV and changes in sexual risk behaviors. The current study with a sample of 1,172 examined whether knowing someone with HIV/AIDS influenced sexual risk communication and youth engagement in sexual intercourse using the Philadelphia…

  20. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  1. An Empirical Test of Ecodevelopmental Theory in Predicting HIV Risk Behaviors among Hispanic Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Bandiera, Frank; Schwartz, Seth J.; de la Vega, Pura; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Ecodevelopmental theory is a theoretical framework used to explain the interplay among risk and protective processes associated with HIV risk behaviors among adolescents. Although ecodevelopmentally based interventions have been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth, this theory has not yet been directly…

  2. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth With Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence and persistence of 20 HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) sexual and drug use risk behaviors and to predict their occurrence in 4 mutually exclusive diagnostic groups of delinquent youth: (1) major mental disorders (MMD); (2) substance use disorders (SUD); (3) comorbid MMD and SUD (MMD+SUD); and (4) neither disorder. Methods At the baseline interview, HIV/STI risk behaviors were assessed in 800 juvenile detainees, aged 10 to 18 years; youth were reinterviewed approximately 3 years later. The final sample (n = 689) includes 298 females and 391 males. Results The prevalence and persistence of HIV/STI risk behaviors was high in all diagnostic groups. Youth with SUD at baseline were over 10 times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex at follow-up than youth with MMD+SUD (AOR=10.86, 95% CI=1.43–82.32; AOR=11.63, 95% CI=1.49–90.89, respectively) and four times more likely to be sexually active and to have vaginal sex than youth with neither disorder (AOR=4.20, 95% CI=1.06–16.62; AOR=4.73, 95% CI=1.21–18.50, respectively). Youth with MMD at baseline were less likely to have engaged in unprotected vaginal and oral sex at follow-up compared with youth with neither disorder (AOR=0.11, 95% CI=0.02–0.50; AOR=0.07, 95% CI=0.01–0.34, respectively), and with youth with SUD (AOR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02–0.50; OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02–0.47, respectively). Youth with MMD+SUD were less likely (AOR=0.28, 95% CI=0.09–0.92) to engage in unprotected oral sex compared with those with neither disorder. Conclusions Irrespective of diagnostic group, delinquent youth are at great risk for HIV/STIs as they age into adulthood. SUD increases risk. Because detained youth are released after approximately 2 weeks, their risk behaviors become a community health problem. Pediatricians and child psychiatrists must collaborate with corrections professionals to develop HIV/STI interventions and ensure that programs started in detention

  3. Factor Analysis of Wildfire and Risk Area Estimation in Korean Peninsula Using Maximum Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Teayeon; Lim, Chul-Hee; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Kim, YouSeung; Heo, Seongbong; Cha, Sung Eun; Kim, Seajin

    2016-04-01

    The number of wildfires and accompanying human injuries and physical damages has been increased by frequent drought. Especially, Korea experienced severe drought and numbers of wildfire took effect this year. We used MaxEnt model to figure out major environmental factors for wildfire and used RCP scenarios to predict future wildfire risk area. In this study, environmental variables including topographic, anthropogenic, meteorologic data was used to figure out contributing variables of wildfire in South and North Korea, and compared accordingly. As for occurrence data, we used MODIS fire data after verification. In North Korea, AUC(Area Under the ROC Curve) value was 0.890 which was high enough to explain the distribution of wildfires. South Korea had low AUC value than North Korea and high mean standard deviation which means there is low anticipation to predict fire with same environmental variables. It is expected to enhance AUC value in South Korea with environmental variables such as distance from trails, wildfire management systems. For instance, fire occurred within DMZ(demilitarized zone, 4kms boundary from 38th parallel) has decisive influence on fire risk area in South Korea, but not in North Korea. The contribution of each environmental variables was more distributed among variables in North Korea than in South Korea. This means South Korea is dependent on few certain variables, and North Korea can be explained as number of variables with evenly distributed portions. Although the AUC value and standard deviation of South Korea was not high enough to predict wildfire, the result carries an significant meaning to figure out scientific and social matters that certain environmental variables has great weight by understanding their response curves. We also made future wildfire risk area map in whole Korean peninsula using the same model. In four RCP scenarios, it was found that severe climate change would lead wildfire risk area move north. Especially North

  4. Risk Factors for Osteoarthritis and Contributing Factors to Current Arthritic Pain in South Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Won, Sung Hun; Kim, Tae Gyun; Choi, Young; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Kim, Yeon Ho; Park, Moon Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although previous studies have focused on risk factors for osteoarthritis, there is some debate on this issue. Furthermore, associated factors with arthritic symptom (arthralgia) have not been sufficiently investigated, despite its clinical importance in the management of osteoarthritis. This study was performed to examine the risk factors for osteoarthritis and the contributing factors to current arthritic pain in older adults. Materials and Methods The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys was conducted in 2009. Therein, 720 males and 1008 females aged 65 years and older were included. Comprehensive data on habitual, socioeconomic, medical, nutritional, and psychological factors were collected along with the presence of osteoarthritis and arthritic pain. After univariate analysis, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for osteoarthritis and contributing factors to current arthritic pain. Results Age (p=0.005), female gender (p<0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001), and osteoporosis (p<0.001) were significant risk factors for osteoarthritis, while higher education level (p=0.025) was a protective factor for osteoarthritis. Higher BMI (p=0.047), lack of weekly moderate intensity activity (p<0.001), and unfavorable subjective health status (p<0.001) were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain among subjects with osteoarthritis. Both osteoarthritis and current arthritic pain adversely affected health related quality of life. Conclusion Higher BMI, lack of weekly moderate intensity activity, and unfavorable subjective health status were significant factors contributing to current arthritic pain. More attention needs to be paid to psychiatric effects on osteoarthritis and joint related pain. PMID:25510755

  5. Housing stability over two years and HIV risk among newly homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Batterham, Philip; Mallett, Shelley; Rice, Eric; Milburn, Norweeta G

    2007-11-01

    The stability of living situation was examined as a predictor of young people's HIV-related sexual and drug use acts two years after leaving home for the first time. Newly homeless youth aged 12-20 years were recruited in Los Angeles County, California, U.S.A. (n = 261) and Melbourne, Australia (n = 165) and followed longitudinally at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Their family history of moves and the type and frequency of moves over the two years following becoming newly homeless were examined. Regression analyses indicated that recent sexual risk two years after becoming newly homeless was not related to the instability of youths' living situations; condom use was higher among youth with more placements in institutional settings and among males. Drug use was significantly related to having moved more often over two years and Melbourne youth used drugs significantly more than youth in Los Angeles.

  6. Housing Stability Over Two Years and HIV Risk among Newly Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Doreen; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Batterham, Philip; Mallett, Shelley; Rice, Eric; Milburn, Norweeta G.

    2010-01-01

    The stability of living situation was examined as a predictor of young people's HIV-related sexual and drug use acts two years after leaving home for the first time. Newly homeless youth aged 12–20 years were recruited in Los Angeles County, California, U.S.A. (n = 261) and Melbourne, Australia (n = 165) and followed longitudinally at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Their family history of moves and the type and frequency of moves over the two years following becoming newly homeless were examined. Regression analyses indicated that recent sexual risk two years after becoming newly homeless was not related to the instability of youths' living situations; condom use was higher among youth with more placements in institutional settings and among males. Drug use was significantly related to having moved more often over two years and Melbourne youth used drugs significantly more than youth in Los Angeles. PMID:17497219

  7. Educational Disparities in Distribution of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Quality of Care in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jae-Moon; Kim, Ji-Hye; Suh, Beom-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate how educational status influences cardiovascular risk factors and care of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Methods From Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey IV, we obtained survey results of 6,835 men and 9,067 women more than 30 years old. We performed multivariate logistic regression to compare cardiovascular risk factors and care of hypertension and diabetes respective to educational status. Results There were disparities in cardiovascular risk factors by educational status. In men, impaired fasting glucose, high triglyceride, and smoking were less frequently found in the highest educated group than in the middle educated group. In women, the prevalence of abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, high blood pressure, high triglyceride, and metabolic syndrome among the highest educated group were significantly lower. The proportion of those with proper physical activity in the highest educated group was found to be less than that of the middle educated group, regardless of gender. For care of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, disease recognition and treatment were lower among the lowest educated group in men, while these disparities were not shown in women. Instead, the lowest educated group in diabetic women received screening exams for eye and kidney complications less than the middle education group. In both genders, the high education group had a higher chance of receiving education about diabetes mellitus. Conclusion There were educational disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and care of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The disparities were found to be different by gender. PMID:23372903

  8. A Multigroup, Longitudinal Study of Truant Youths, Marijuana Use, Depression, and STD-Associated Sexual Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; M. Krupa, Julie; Wareham, Jennifer; Schmeidler, James; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2017-01-01

    Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. Previous research involving non-truant youths has found sexual risk behaviors to be related to marijuana use and depression, with differential effects for male and female youths. Using data collected in a National Institute on Drug Abuse…

  9. The National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs: Findings on Designing and Implementing Effective Prevention Programs for Youth at High Risk. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Jack; Sambrano, Soledad; Springer, J. Fred; Nister, Mary; Sale, Elizabeth; Brounstein, Paul J.; Cordray, David; Shadish, Will; Kasim, Rafa; Pan, Wei

    This document summarizes findings from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention's National Cross-Site Evaluation of High-Risk Youth Programs, which identified characteristics associated with strong substance abuse prevention outcomes in 48 prevention programs. It provides concrete guidance regarding what elements of design and implementation are…

  10. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Testing Among High-Risk Youths: Supporting Positive Opportunities With Teens (SPOT) Youth Center

    PubMed Central

    Garbutt, Jane; Kaushik, Gaurav N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the development of and service utilization at Supporting Positive Opportunities with Teens (SPOT)—a community-based health and social service facility in St. Louis, Missouri, for youths that focuses on increasing HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Methods. We identified the US-based, co-located youth health and social service models that guided the establishment of the SPOT. We analyzed the first 5 years (2008–2013) of service delivery and utilization data. Results. During the study period, the SPOT provided services for 8233 youths in 37 480 visits. The 5 most utilized services included HIV and STI screening, food, transportation, contraception, and case management. A total of 9812 gonorrhea and chlamydia screenings revealed 1379 (14.1%) cases of chlamydia and 437 (4.5%) cases of gonorrhea, and 5703 HIV tests revealed 59 HIV infections (1.0%); 93.0% of patients found to have an STI were treated within a 5-day window. Conclusions. Co-locating health and social services in informal community settings attracts high-risk youths to utilize services and can prove instrumental in reducing STI burden in this population. PMID:25973833

  11. Effects of Self-Control, Social Control, and Social Learning on Sexting Behavior among South Korean Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Moak, Stacy; Walker, Jeffery T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emerging phenomenon of sexting, scientific investigation with criminological perspectives has been limited. Utilizing data collected from 1,612 randomly selected youth in South Korea, this study begins the investigation into which criminological theory best explains sexting behaviors. Theories considered include self-control, social…

  12. Effects of Self-Control, Social Control, and Social Learning on Sexting Behavior among South Korean Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Moak, Stacy; Walker, Jeffery T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emerging phenomenon of sexting, scientific investigation with criminological perspectives has been limited. Utilizing data collected from 1,612 randomly selected youth in South Korea, this study begins the investigation into which criminological theory best explains sexting behaviors. Theories considered include self-control, social…

  13. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala

    PubMed Central

    Swahn, Monica H.; Culbreth, Rachel; Salazar, Laura F.; Kasirye, Rogers; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134) of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590). Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590), 13.7% (n = 81) reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81) and 22.5% (n = 18) among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4), being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4), ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0), and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5). Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan. PMID:27239340

  14. Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risks of Sex Work among Youth in the Slums of Kampala.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Culbreth, Rachel; Salazar, Laura F; Kasirye, Rogers; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda. Methods. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134) of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590). Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work. Results. Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590), 13.7% (n = 81) reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81) and 22.5% (n = 18) among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4), being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4), ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0), and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5). Discussion. The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.

  15. Examining the Developmental Process of Risk for Exposure to Community Violence among Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Cammack, Nicole L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable research has documented the effects of community violence exposure on adolescents’ behavior and mental health functioning, yet there has been less research on the process by which early risks increase the likelihood that youth will be exposed to community violence. The current study used data from a community epidemiologically-defined sample of 623 urban youth followed from first grade through adolescence to examine the process by which early-onset aggressive behavior and poor academic readiness influenced risk for community violence exposure. Consistent with transactional developmental theories, early-onset aggressive and disruptive behavior was associated with poor academic readiness; these early risks contributed to later peer rejection, and subsequent conduct problems and greater affiliation with deviant peers, which in turn increased youths’ exposure to community violence. Having an enhanced understanding of the risk process directs attention to potential targets for preventive interventions for youth at risk for subsequent exposure to violence. PMID:21480029

  16. A Spatial Analysis of Risks and Resources for Reentry Youth in Los Angeles County

    PubMed Central

    Abrams, Laura S.; Freisthler, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Research on youth reentering the community following incarceration has largely focused on individual risks for negative outcomes and in doing so, has overlooked the potential importance of the neighborhood context(s) where youth return. Addressing this research gap, this study explores associations between neighborhood risks and resources and rates of youth reentering the community following incarceration. Examining archival data from 272 zip codes in Los Angeles County, spatial analysis detected positive associations between rates of youth reentry and unemployment, poverty, and ethnic minority concentration. Reentry rates were also positively associated with neighborhood risks including density of off-premise alcohol outlets and level of community violence. Examining resources on their own, specifically designated youth services were positively associated with reentry rates, whereas education and mental health/substance abuse services were negatively associated. However, none of these resources were significantly associated with reentry rates when neighborhood risks were simultaneously considered. The results of this study highlight the relevance of neighborhood context in youth reentry research and lead to several directions for future study. PMID:23304429

  17. Awareness, Perception of Risk and Behaviors Related to Retail Marijuana Among a Sample of Colorado Youth.

    PubMed

    Bull, Sheana S; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Davis, Jonathan M; Roppolo, Rebecca; Corsi, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Youth marijuana use is a growing concern with increasingly permissive views towards marijuana use. Little is known about attitudes and beliefs toward marijuana use among youth in the context of legalization. This study describes youth attitudes and beliefs about health risks associated with marijuana use, social norms of peer use, conversations with parents about marijuana use, and knowledge of recreational marijuana laws, using a venue-day-time sampling approach with diverse Colorado youth (n = 241) post-legalization. We considered demographic (gender, racial/ethnic and geographic) differences in knowledge of laws and perceptions of risk using bivariate and multivariate analyses. While many youth are knowledgeable about retail marijuana laws in Colorado, males were 2.12 times more likely to be familiar with laws compared to females. While 40 % of the sample perceived a moderate to high risk from weekly marijuana consumption and 57 % from daily consumption, fewer males perceived these risks. Over ¾ of the sample indicate they discuss marijuana with parents, but many fewer indicate discussing consequences and health effects of use with parents. Results suggest opportunities for parents and clinicians to influence youth attitudes and behaviors towards marijuana use. It may be worthwhile to target educational campaigns to different demographic groups, and to offer training and capacity building for parents to discuss marijuana with their teenaged children.

  18. Genome-wide association study with the risk of schizophrenia in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Park, Byung Lae; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Namgoong, Suhg; Kim, Ji On; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Shin, Joong-Gon; Park, Chul Soo; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Jae Won; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Hwang, Jaeuk; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Woo, Sung-Il

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is regarded as a multifactorial and polygenic brain disorder that is attributed to different combinations of genetic and environmental risk factors. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have identified numerous risk factors, but the replication results remain controversial and ambiguous. To identify schizophrenia susceptibility loci in the Korean population, we performed a GWAS using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad V1.0 Microarray. We genotyped 1,140,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 350 Korea schizophrenia patients and 700 control subjects, and approximately 620,001 autosomal SNPs were passed our quality control. In the case-control analysis, the rs9607195 A>G on intergenic area 250 kb away from the ISX gene and the rs12738007 A>G on the intron of the MECR gene were the most strongly associated SNPs with the risk of schizophrenia (P = 6.2 × 10(-8) , OR = 0.50 and P = 3.7 × 10(-7) , OR = 2.39, respectively). In subsequent fine-mapping analysis, 6 SNPs of MECR were genotyped with 310 schizophrenia patients and 604 control subjects. The association of the MECR rs12738007, a top ranked-SNP in GWAS, was replicated (P = 1.5 × 10(-2) , OR = 1.53 in fine mapping analysis, P = 1.5 × 10(-6) , OR = 1.90 in combined analysis). The identification of putative schizophrenia susceptibility loci could provide new insights into genetic factors related with schizophrenia and clues for the development of diagnosis strategies.

  19. Anomalous prefrontal-limbic activation and connectivity in youth at high-risk for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kiki; Garrett, Amy; Kelley, Ryan; Howe, Meghan; Sanders, Erica Marie; Acquaye, Tenah; Bararpour, Layla; Li, Sherrie; Singh, Manpreet; Jo, Booil; Hallmayer, Joachim; Reiss, Allan

    2017-11-01

    Abnormal prefrontal-limbic brain activation in response to facial expressions has been reported in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD). However, it is less clear whether these abnormalities exist prior to onset of mania, thus representing a biomarker predicting development of BD. We examined brain activation in 50 youth at high risk for BD (HR-BD), compared with 29 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. HR-BD was defined as having a parent with BD, as well as current mood or attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, or a history of at least one depressive episode. FMRI data were collected during an implicit emotion perception task using facial expression stimuli. Activation to fearful faces versus calm faces was compared between HR-BD and HC groups, including analyses of functional connectivity, and comparison of allele subgroups of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene. While viewing fearful versus calm faces, HR-BD youth had significantly greater activation than HC youth in the right amygdala, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), superior frontal cortex, cerebellum, and lingual gyrus. HR-BD youth, relative to HC youth, had greater functional connectivity between the right amygdala and the VLPFC as well as visual cortical regions Within the HR-BD group, youth with the s-allele had a trend for greater activation in the right amygdala and subgenual cingulate cortex CONCLUSIONS: Similar to youth with BD, youth at high risk for BD have greater activation than healthy controls in the amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to fearful faces, as well greater functional connectivity between these regions. HR-BD youth with the s-allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene may be at greatest risk for developing BD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Youth Substance Use and Body Composition: Does Risk in One Area Predict Risk in the Other?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study…

  1. Youth Substance Use and Body Composition: Does Risk in One Area Predict Risk in the Other?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Velazquez, Cayley E.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Both substance use and obesity are prevalent among youth. As youth age, substance use rates increase and over the past three decades, obesity rates among youth have tripled. While these two factors have both short- and long-term health impacts, little research has explored how substance use and obesity among youth may be related. This study…

  2. Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth.

  3. Risk Factors for Smartphone Addiction in Korean Adolescents: Smartphone Use Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    With widespread use of the smartphone, clinical evidence for smartphone addiction remains unclear. Against this background, we analyzed the effect of smartphone use patterns on smartphone addiction in Korean adolescents. A total of 370 middle school students participated. The severity of smartphone addiction was measured through clinical interviews and the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. As a result, 50 (13.5%) were in the smartphone addiction group and 320 (86.5%) were in the healthy group. To investigate the effect of smartphone use patterns on smartphone addiction, we performed self-report questionnaires that assessed the following items: smartphone functions mostly used, purpose of use, problematic use, and parental attitude regarding smartphone use. For smartphone functions mostly used, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores in “Online chat.” For the purpose of use, the addiction group showed significantly higher “habitual use,” “pleasure,” “communication,” “games,” “stress relief,” “ubiquitous trait,” and “not to be left out.” For problematic use, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores on “preoccupation,” “tolerance,” “lack of control,” “withdrawal,” “mood modification,” “conflict,” “lies,” “excessive use,” and “loss of interest.” For parental attitude regarding children's smartphone use, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores in “parental punishment.” Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that “female,” “use for learning,” “use for ubiquitous trait,” “preoccupation,” and “conflict” were significantly correlated with smartphone addiction. This study demonstrated that the risk factors for smartphone addiction were being female, preoccupation, conflict, and use for ubiquitous trait; the protective factor was use for learning. Future studies will be required to reveal the additional clinical evidence of

  4. An Exploration of Family and Juvenile Justice Systems to Reduce Youth HIV/STI Risk

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, K.; Latack, J. A.; Mellins, C. A.; Wasserman, G. A.; Donenberg, G. R.; Hirsch, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 20 probation youth (60% female; 35% white; 30% Hispanic; mean age 15years, range=13–17), their caregivers (100% female; mean age 44years, range=34–71) and 12 female probation officers (100% white; mean age 46years, range=34–57), we explored how family and probation systems exacerbate or mitigate sexual risk. We conducted thematic analyses of interviews, comparing narratives of families of sexually risky (n=9) versus non-sexually risky (n=11) youth. Family functioning differed by youth sexual risk behavior around quality of relationships, communication, and limit-setting and monitoring. The involvement of families of sexually risky youth in probation positively influenced family functioning. Data suggest these families are amenable to intervention and may benefit from family-based HIV/STI interventions delivered in tandem with probation. PMID:26539022

  5. Childhood gender nonconformity: a risk indicator for childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress in youth.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Koenen, Karestan C; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-03-01

    Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with poorer relationships with parents, but it is unknown if childhood gender nonconformity is associated with childhood abuse or risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in youth. We examined whether gender nonconformity before age 11 years was associated with childhood sexual, physical, and psychological abuse and lifetime risk of probable PTSD by using self-report questionnaire data from the 2007 wave of the Growing Up Today Study (n = 9864, mean age = 22.7 years), a longitudinal cohort of US youth. We further examined whether higher exposure to childhood abuse mediated possible elevated prevalence of PTSD in nonconforming children. Finally, we examined whether association of childhood gender nonconformity with PTSD was independent of sexual orientation. Exposure to childhood physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, and probable PTSD were elevated in youth in the top decile of childhood gender nonconformity compared with youth below median nonconformity. Abuse victimization disparities partly mediated PTSD disparities by gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity predicted increased risk of lifetime probable PTSD in youth after adjustment for sexual orientation. We identify gender nonconformity as an indicator of children at increased risk of abuse and probable PTSD. Pediatricians and school health providers should consider abuse screening for this vulnerable population. Further research to understand how gender nonconformity might increase risk of abuse and to develop family interventions to reduce abuse risk is needed.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors for iron deficiency anemia in the korean population: results of the fifth KoreaNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Ju Hyun; Ahn, Soyeon; Kim, Jin Won; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Bang, Soo-Mee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among participants of the fifth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010. Of 8,958 participants, 6,758 individuals ≥10 yr had sufficient data for the analysis of anemia and iron status. ID was defined as a transferrin saturation <10% or serum ferritin <15 µg/L. The prevalence of ID and IDA was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3%-2.6%) and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.0%), respectively, in males, and 22.4% (95% CI, 20.7%-24.2%) and 8.0% (95% CI, 6.8%-9.2%), respectively, in females. In reproductive age females, the prevalence of ID and IDA was 31.4% (95% CI, 28.9%-33.8%) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%-13.4%), respectively. Compared to the prevalence of IDA in adult males 18-49 yr, the relative risks of IDA in adults ≥65 yr, lactating females, premenopausal females, and pregnant females were 8.1, 35.7, 42.8, and 95.5, respectively. Low income, underweight, iron- or vitamin C-poor diets were also associated with IDA. For populations with defined risk factors in terms of age, gender, physiological state and socioeconomic and nutritional status, national health policy to reduce IDA is needed.

  7. The relationship between sexual behavior and nonsexual risk behaviors among unmarried youth in three Asian cities.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xiaowen; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Li, Nan; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    Health risk behaviors in adolescents and youth, such as smoking, alcohol, drug use, violence, suicide, and unprotected sexual behavior, are issues of major public health concern. Addressing the relationship between sexual behavior and nonsexual risk behaviors will make a significant contribution to the design of effective intervention programs for this population of adolescents and unmarried youth. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Asian cities with a common heritage of Confucian values: Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei. Data were collected in 2006 from 17,016 youth aged 15-24 years residing in both urban and rural districts of the three settings. The relationships between sexual behavior and seven nonsexual risk behaviors among unmarried adolescents were examined using χ(2) tests, logistic regression models, Cox regression models, and cluster analysis. Sexual behavior was associated with seven nonsexual risk behaviors, especially with smoking, drinking, drug use, and running away from home. In terms of the age at initiation of risk behaviors, smoking and drinking were usually initiated before sexual intercourse. Sexual behavior and nonsexual risk behaviors co-occurred in the high-risk group in all three cities. Youth having the highest risk of sexual behavior were more likely to have the highest risk of nearly all nonsexual risk behaviors, with the exception of fighting in Hanoi and gambling in Shanghai and Taipei. Sexual behavior among unmarried youth is correlated with nonsexual risk behaviors but with different patterns across the three settings. Interventions aimed at reducing unprotected sex generally focus only on the sexual behavior; however, considering the correlations found here between sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors, they should target multiple risk behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Children and Youth: The Evolution of At Risk to "High Promise" Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child & Youth Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to make global generalisations about children and youth from a phenomenological inquiry into the experiences of such a limited number of participants in just one city, Limerick, Ireland, and one case, St. Augustine's. The goal of phenomenological research is, however, not to seek generalisations but to expose the individual case,…

  9. At Risk Youth: A Transitory State? Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Briefing Paper 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anlezark, Alison

    2011-01-01

    By definition, youth transitions involve young people moving between school, post-school study and employment. It is a time of flux, as young people try out different school, post-school work and study options. But are those who don't find work immediately likely to make a poor transition? Given that many may well have a spell out of the labour…

  10. Montana Youth Risk Behavior Survey Report, 2005 for Montana High Schools: Statewide Analysis of Selected Behavior Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) report is a continuation of the surveillance and reporting system for adolescent risk behaviors developed by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of the Youth…

  11. Evaluation of risk for metabolic syndrome according to the fasting insulin concentration in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju Young; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Joong-Myung; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Choi, Young-Jun; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-01-01

    As a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important global health problem due to its high worldwide prevalence. The objective of this study is to determine whether the fasting serum insulin concentration influences future incidence of MetS. A total of 14,621 Korean men without MetS participating in a medical health check-up program were followed up from 2005 until 2010. They were divided into 4 groups according to baseline fasting insulin concentrations. The incidence of MetS was compared among the groups, and Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine if MetS was associated with higher fasting insulin concentration. The incidence of MetS increased according to the baseline fasting insulin concentration (first quartile: 8.4%, second quartile: 12.3%, third quartile: 16.3%, fourth quartile: 26.5%, P<0.001). Even after adjusting for multiple covariates, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for MetS was higher for the second (1.13 (0.93-1.37)), third (1.29 (1.06-1.56)) and fourth quartile group (1.70 (1.36-2.13)), compared to the first quartile group (P for trend <0.001). The incidence of MetS increased proportionally to fasting insulin concentration. Additionally, increased fasting insulin concentration was an independent risk factor for the future development of MetS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased Renal Function Is a Risk Factor for Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in Korean Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Chon, Seung Joo; Cho, Si Hyun; Choi, Young Sik; Lee, Byung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Decreased renal function is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Our study was planned to verify the association of decreased renal function and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 251 Korean postmenopausal women who visited the health promotion center for a routine health checkup. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was used to show renal function, which was estimated by calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. Coronary atherosclerosis was assessed by 64-row multidetector computed tomography. Results Women with reduced eGFR (< 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2) had significantly higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) than women with normal eGFR (≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2). The eGFR was negatively correlated with baPWV (r = -0.352, P < 0.001), significantly. The eGFR was lower in women with coronary atherosclerosis than in normal control women, markedly. Reduced eGFR was significantly associated with the presence of coronary atherosclerosis (odds ratio [OR] = 7.528, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.728-20.772, P < 0.001). Conclusions Decreased eGFR was closely associated with increased arterial stiffness and coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Evaluating subclinical atherosclerosis by screening the renal function in postmenopausal women may be helpful screening high risk group and considering starting menopausal hormone therapy before atherosclerosis development. PMID:28119897

  13. The genetic effect of copy number variations on the risk of alcoholism in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Bae, Joon Seol; Jung, Myung Hun; Lee, Boung Chul; Cheong, Hyun Sub; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Pasaje, Charisse Flerida A; Lee, Jin Sol; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism, a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by excessive alcohol consumption, has been a leading cause of morbidity and premature death. This condition is believed to be influenced by genetic factors. As copy number variation (CNV) has been recently discovered in human genome, genomic diversity of human genome is more frequent than previously thought. Many studies have reported evidences that CNV is associated with the development of complex diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that CNV can predict the risk of alcoholism. Using the Illumina HumanHap660W-Quad BeadChip (∼660 k markers), genome-wide genotyping was performed to obtain signal and allelic intensities from 116 alcoholic cases and 1,022 healthy controls (total n = 1,138) in a Korean population. To identify alcoholism-associated CNV regions, we performed a genome-wide association analysis, using multivariate logistic regression model controlling for age and gender. We identified a total of 255,732 individual CNVs and 3,261 CNV regions (1,067 common CNV regions, frequency > 1%) in this study. Results from multivariate logistic regression showed that the chr20:61195302-61195978 regions were significantly associated with the risk of alcoholism after multiple corrections (p = 5.02E-05, p(corr) = 0.04). Most of the identified variations in this study overlapped with the previously reported CNVs in the Database of Genomic Variants (95.3%). The identified CNVs, which encompassed 3,226 functional genes, were significantly enriched in the cellular part, in the membrane-bound organelle, in the cell part, in developmental processes, in cell communication, in neurological system process, in sensory perception of smell and chemical stimulus, and in olfactory receptor activity. This is the first genome-wide association study to investigate the relationship between common CNV and alcoholism. Our results suggest that the newly identified CNV regions may contribute to the development of alcoholism

  14. Sexual Risk Behavior among Male and Female Truant Youths: Exploratory, Multi-Group Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Krupa, Julie; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of sexual risk behaviors among truant youths across gender. This study utilized latent class analysis to examined heterogeneity of sexual risk behaviors across gender among a sample of 300 truant adolescents. Results revealed two latent subgroups within gender: low vs. high sexual risk behaviors. There were gender differences in baseline covariates of sexual risk behaviors, with male truants in higher risk group experiencing ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) problems, and female truants in higher risk group experienced marijuana use and depression symptoms. African-American race was a significant covariate for high sexual risk behaviors for both genders. Service and practice implications of sexual risk issues of truant youth are discussed. PMID:27066517

  15. Candidate Risks Indicators for Bipolar Disorder: Early Intervention Opportunities in High-Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Steven; Goodday, Sarah; Bentall, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric illnesses like bipolar disorder are increasingly understood to be neurodevelopmental disorders with clinical, psychological, and biological indicators recognizable long before the emergence of the full-blown syndromes. Methods: This paper is a selective review of findings from studies of high-risk children of affected parents that inform the knowledge of illness risk and development markers of bipolar disorder. We specifically focus on candidate clinical, biological, and psychological risk indicators that could serve as targets for future early intervention and prevention studies. Results: There is convergent evidence from prospective studies that bipolar disorder typically debuts as depressive episodes after puberty. In some high-risk children, sleep and anxiety disorders precede mood disorders by several years and reflect an increased vulnerability. An association between early exposure to adversity (eg, exposure to parental illness, neglect from mother) and increased risk of psychopathology may be mediated through increased stress reactivity evident at both behavioral and biological levels. Inter-related psychological processes including reward sensitivity, unstable self-esteem, rumination, and positive self-appraisal are risk factors for mood disorders. Disturbances in circadian rhythm and immune dysfunction are associated with mood disorders and may be vulnerability markers influenced by these other risk factors. Conclusions: There is accruing evidence of a number of measurable and potentially modifiable markers of vulnerability and developing illness in youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies of multiple biological and psychological risk processes in high-risk offspring, both individually and together, will improve our understanding of illness onset and lead to the development of specific early interventions. PMID:26116493

  16. Candidate Risks Indicators for Bipolar Disorder: Early Intervention Opportunities in High-Risk Youth.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Anne; Jones, Steven; Goodday, Sarah; Bentall, Richard

    2015-06-25

    Psychiatric illnesses like bipolar disorder are increasingly understood to be neurodevelopmental disorders with clinical, psychological, and biological indicators recognizable long before the emergence of the full-blown syndromes. This paper is a selective review of findings from studies of high-risk children of affected parents that inform the knowledge of illness risk and development markers of bipolar disorder. We specifically focus on candidate clinical, biological, and psychological risk indicators that could serve as targets for future early intervention and prevention studies. There is convergent evidence from prospective studies that bipolar disorder typically debuts as depressive episodes after puberty. In some high-risk children, sleep and anxiety disorders precede mood disorders by several years and reflect an increased vulnerability. An association between early exposure to adversity (eg, exposure to parental illness, neglect from mother) and increased risk of psychopathology may be mediated through increased stress reactivity evident at both behavioral and biological levels. Inter-related psychological processes including reward sensitivity, unstable self-esteem, rumination, and positive self-appraisal are risk factors for mood disorders. Disturbances in circadian rhythm and immune dysfunction are associated with mood disorders and may be vulnerability markers influenced by these other risk factors. There is accruing evidence of a number of measurable and potentially modifiable markers of vulnerability and developing illness in youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies of multiple biological and psychological risk processes in high-risk offspring, both individually and together, will improve our understanding of illness onset and lead to the development of specific early interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  17. Change in DASH diet score and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.

    PubMed

    Barnes, T L; Crandell, J L; Bell, R A; Mayer-Davis, E J; Dabelea, D; Liese, A D

    2013-10-14

    Youth with diabetes are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been shown to improve CVD risk. In this study, we evaluated whether changes in diet quality as characterized by DASH are associated with changes in CVD risk factors in youth with diabetes over time. Longitudinal mixed models were applied to data from 797 participants in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study representing three time points: baseline, 12- and 60-month follow-up. Data were restricted to youth whose diabetes was first diagnosed in 2002-2005. DASH-related adherence was poor and changed very little over time. However, an increase in DASH diet score was significantly associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels in youth with type 1 diabetes (β=-0.20, P-value=0.0063) and a decrease in systolic blood pressure among youth with type 2 diabetes (β=-2.02, P-value=0.0406). Improvements in dietary quality may be beneficial in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, further work in larger groups of youth with type 1 and 2 diabetes is desirable.

  18. Sexual Risk Taking Among Transgender Male-to-Female Youths With Different Partner Types

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Robert; Harris, D. Robert; Belzer, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between partner types (categorized as main, casual, or commercial) and sexual risk behaviors of sexually active male-to-female (transgender female) youths. Methods. We interviewed 120 transgender female youths aged 15 to 24 years recruited from clinics, community-based agencies, club and bar venues, referrals, and the streets of Los Angeles, California, and Chicago, Illinois. Results. Sexual risk behaviors varied by partner type. Transgender female youths were less likely to use condoms during receptive anal intercourse with their main partner and were less likely to use condoms with a main partner while under the influence of substances. Youth participants were also more likely to talk to a main partner about their HIV status. Our data identified no demographic or social factors that predicted condom use during receptive anal intercourse by partner type. Conclusions. Research and interventions that focus on understanding and mitigating risk behaviors by partner type, especially those that tackle the unique risks incurred with main partners, may make important contributions to risk reduction among transgender female youths. PMID:20622176

  19. Risk and Resilience Factors for Grade Retention in Youth with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ladd, Rebecca J.; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Walcott, Christy M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Youth with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at higher risk for grade retention than healthy peers. This is salient because research suggests grade retention is ineffective and places youth at additional risk for negative outcomes. The aims of the present study were to identify possible risk factors for grade retention in youth with SCD and to examine positive family functioning as a possible resilience factor. Procedure Data were extracted from phase 3 of the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease, a multisite, longitudinal study of individuals with SCD. Participants were 370 youth, aged 6–16 years, with complete data on history of grade retention. Collected data included demographics, history of grade retention, disease severity factors, evidence of stroke, family functioning, and academic achievement. A logistic regression model predicting grade retention risk was calculated. Results Increasing age, lower reading achievement, and lower family cohesion were predictive of higher likelihood of grade retention. Also, high family achievement-orientation moderated the negative effects of increasing age on likelihood of grade retention, such that at increasing levels of family achievement-orientation, the relationship between age and grade retention decreased. Conclusions These findings suggest the need for interventions that promote connectedness and achievement-orientation in families of youth with SCD. Research is also needed to further explore other possible risk or resilience factors for grade retention in this population, such as school absenteeism. PMID:24519984

  20. Topical Review: A Comprehensive Risk Model for Disordered Eating in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Sarah; Young-Hyman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Provide an updated literature review on prevalence, measurement, and correlates of disordered eating in youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D), present a novel theoretical risk model (i.e., The Modified Dual Pathway Model) for disordered eating in youth with T1D incorporating psychosocial and physiological risk factors, and discuss clinical implications. Methods Literature review of prevalence, correlates, risk factors, and outcomes of disordered eating behavior (DEB) in youth with T1D. Results Insulin treatment, subsequent weight gain, and disruptions to hunger and satiety regulation are hypothesized disease-related mechanisms through which the treatment of T1D may increase vulnerability to development of behavior characterized as DEB. The Modified Dual Pathway Model integrates these factors with a validated psychosocial risk (body dissatisfaction, depression, and abstinence violation) model for DEB in nondiabetic youth. Conclusions The Modified Dual Pathway model of DEB in youth with T1D is a comprehensive representation of both psychosocial and T1D-related risk factors with the potential to inform future interventions for this population. PMID:25502449

  1. Cumulative Risk for Early Sexual Initiation among American Indian Youth: A Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…

  2. Risks/Needs of Children/Youth with Behavior Disorders in Correctional Institutions in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…

  3. The Strength-Based Model for Counseling At-Risk Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    2006-01-01

    In her strength-based model to train counseling psychologists, Smith (2006 [this issue]) criticizes deficit models of counseling. Rather than focusing on at-risk adolescents' victim status, she argues that counseling psychologists should concentrate on identifying at-risk youths' cultural and individual strengths. One can infer from her new…

  4. Providing Options for At-Risk Youth: The Health and Media Academies in Oakland. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Larry F.; And Others

    The Health Academy and the Media Academy, two innovative high school intervention programs for at-risk youth in Oakland (California), are examined. A collaborative effort of the school district, business, and community, the academies are school-within-a-school programs that engage about 120 at-risk students each in specific academic curricula for…

  5. Youth Perspectives on Risk and Resiliency: A Case Study from Juiz De Fora, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Penelope; Nikolajski, Cara; Borrero, Sonya; Zickmund, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present work seeks to contribute to studies of cross-cultural risk and resiliency by presenting results from qualitative research with adolescents attending programs for at-risk youth in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. In 1990, Brazil introduced the Child and Adolescent Act (ECA), a significant piece of legislation that has had a direct impact on how…

  6. Youth at Risk: A Prevention Resource for Counselors, Teachers, and Parents. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David, Ed.; Gross, Douglas R., Ed.

    This monograph outlines early prevention efforts that can decrease the development of destructive behaviors in at-risk youth. The text provides those who work with young people the information they need to identify individuals with the highest potential for "at-riskness." Such care givers also need to understand the causal factors for at-risk…

  7. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…

  8. New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (YRRS). 2005 Report of State Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dan; Penaloza, Linda J.; Chrisp, Eric; Dillon, Mary; Cassell, Carol M.; Tsinajinnie, Eugene; Rinehart, Judith; Ortega, Willa

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2005, the New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM YRRS) was conducted in New Mexico public high schools, with 5,679 students in grades nine through twelve participating from 20 public high schools in the state. The NM YRRS is a tool that can assist administrators and policy makers in identifying health risk behaviors among…

  9. Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk behaviors was prospectively examined over the four…

  10. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  11. Mexican-Origin Youth's Risk Behavior from Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Role of Familism Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Rodríguez de Jesús, Sue A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.

    2017-01-01

    Engagement in risk behavior has implications for individuals' academic achievement, health, and well-being, yet there is a paucity of developmental research on the role of culturally relevant strengths in individual and family differences in risk behavior involvement among ethnic minority youth. In this study, we used a longitudinal…

  12. Youth at Risk: A Prevention Resource for Counselors, Teachers, and Parents. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David, Ed.; Gross, Douglas R., Ed.

    This monograph outlines early prevention efforts that can decrease the development of destructive behaviors in at-risk youth. The text provides those who work with young people the information they need to identify individuals with the highest potential for "at-riskness." Such care givers also need to understand the causal factors for at-risk…

  13. Youth Perspectives on Risk and Resiliency: A Case Study from Juiz De Fora, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Penelope; Nikolajski, Cara; Borrero, Sonya; Zickmund, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present work seeks to contribute to studies of cross-cultural risk and resiliency by presenting results from qualitative research with adolescents attending programs for at-risk youth in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. In 1990, Brazil introduced the Child and Adolescent Act (ECA), a significant piece of legislation that has had a direct impact on how…

  14. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  15. Risks/Needs of Children/Youth with Behavior Disorders in Correctional Institutions in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratkajec, Gabrijela; Jedud, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Previous research and experience in Croatia show that interventions are not matched with the risk level and intervention needs of children with behavior disorders. As a result of that, the situation in Croatia requires actuarial approach to the risks and needs assessment of children and youth. The purpose of the current research is to put stronger…

  16. Effects of Gender and Academic-Risk Behavior on the Career Maturity of Rural Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the impact of gender and academic-risk behavior on the career maturity and competence of 110 rural youth revealed that females were more involved and independent in their career development and that high-risk students were less able to solve career-related problems. Addresses implications for rural career education and vocational…

  17. Children and Youth At Risk. Conference Proceedings (Washington, D.C., February 5-7, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sociometrics, Inc., Hyattsville, MD.

    In 1989, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development approved a 3-year international project to identify programs that have been effective in helping children at risk of educational failure. A conference held to launch the project identified program strategies for serving at-risk youth, determined ways for member countries to improve…

  18. Cumulative Risk for Early Sexual Initiation among American Indian Youth: A Discrete-Time Survival Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…

  19. Using Internet Resources To Strengthen Community Programs and Collaborations for Children, Youth, and Families At Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Josephine A.; Mead, June P.; Haugan, Heidi L.

    A New York State Cornell Cooperative Extension project for children, youth, and families is implementing electronic connectivity or Internet access to support the development of computer literacy among staff and program participants and to promote positive program outcomes in communities at risk. Reducing Risks and Increasing Capacity (RRIC) is a…

  20. Psychological Distress, Substance Use, and HIV/STI Risk Behaviors among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Psychological distress has been inconsistently associated with sexual risk behavior in youth, suggesting additional factors, such as substance use, may explain this relationship. The mediating or moderating role of substance use on the relationship between psychological distress and sexual risk behaviors was prospectively examined over the four…

  1. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…

  2. The Relationship of Oxidative Stress, Adiposity, and Metabolic Risk Factors in Healthy Black and White Youth

    PubMed Central

    Warolin, Joshua; Coenen, Kimberly R.; Kantor, Jeff L.; Whitaker, Lauren E.; Wang, Li; Acra, Sari A.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Buchowski, Maciej S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress is elevated in obese youth, but less is known regarding racial disparities in the relationship of oxidative stress with metabolic risk factors. Objectives To determine the relationship between oxidative stress and metabolic risk factors, adiposity, leptin, adiponectin, and cardiovascular fitness (VO2PEAK) in healthy African American and White American youth. Methods A marker of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane), validated markers of metabolic risk factors, fitness and body composition were measured in African American (n=82) and White American (n=76) youth (8–17 years old) recruited over a range of body mass index (BMI) percentiles (4th to 99th). Results F2-isoprostane concentration was positively correlated with percentage body fat (r=0.198) and percentage truncal fat (r=0.173), but was not different between African American and White American males and females (p =0.208). African American youth had significantly higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p =0.023 and p =0.011, respectively). After adjusting for gender, age, BMI, and Tanner stage, African American youth varied from White Americans in the association of F2-isoprostane with diastolic blood pressure (p =0.047), but not with systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, VO2PEAK, or HOMA-IR (all p>0.05). Conclusions Oxidative stress, as measured by urinary F2-isoprostane concentrations, was positively associated with percent body fat and percent truncal fat in youth. Oxidative stress levels were similar among African American and White American youth. Among markers of the metabolic syndrome, a significant difference between African American and White American youth was demonstrated only in the association of oxidative stress with diastolic blood pressure. PMID:23296459

  3. Social networks and risk for depressive symptoms in a national sample of sexual minority youth.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N = 14,212). Wave 1 (1994-1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents' social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents.

  4. Social Networks and Risk for Depressive Symptoms in a National Sample of Sexual Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Xuan, Ziming

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N=14,212). Wave 1 (1994–1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents’ social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents. PMID:22771037

  5. Risk factors related to cognitive functioning: a cross-national comparison of U.S. and Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jiyoung; Lee, Chae Man; Dugan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of factors related to cognitive functioning in later life in a U.S. and Korean sample. The study sample was comprised of subjects from the HRS (N = 10,175) and the KLoSA (N = 3,550). Separate multivariate regression models were employed to examine the impact of socio-demographic, health, and health behaviors on cognitive functioning among older adults. Regression results showed that age, gender, education, wealth, self-rated health, ADL, IADL, stroke, and poor eyesight were significantly associated with cognitive functioning in both countries. However, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, and drinking were significantly associated with cognition only among Americans, while marital status and poor hearing were significantly associated with cognition only among Koreans. In addition, gender-specific models suggested several socio-economic and health factors had significantly different effects by gender in both countries. Cross-national comparative research identified similar risk factors, suggesting robust associations. Unique factors related to cognitive functioning in U.S. and Korean older adults highlight the important role of societal influences on cognitive outcomes.

  6. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  7. Vitamin D status and associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees in South Korea: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Jin; Kim, Yoon Jung; Kim, Sun Hwa; An, Jee Hyun; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Hee Young; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Kim, Nam Hoon

    2015-11-30

    Vitamin D deficiency is now recognised as a common health problem associated with various chronic diseases; however, it has not been fully elucidated among the minority groups. Here, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated metabolic risk factors among North Korean refugees living in South Korea. Cross-sectional analysis from the longitudinal cohort, the North Korean refugee health in South Korea (NORNS) study. A total of 386 North Korean refugees aged ≥30 years, who measured serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) was 87% and no participants had an adequate vitamin D level (25(OH)D ≥30 ng/mL). Underweight participants (body mass index (BMI) <18 kg/m(2)) had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels than individuals with normal BMI (≥18.5 and<23 kg/m(2)). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lowest 25(OH)D level (<10 ng/mL) was significantly associated with metabolic syndrome (OR, 6.37, 95% CI 1.34 to 30.3), high triglyceride (OR, 6.71, 95% CI 1.75 to 25.7), and low high-density lipoprotein (OR, 5.98, 95% CI 1.54 to 23.2) compared with 25(OH)D levels ≥20 ng/mL after adjusting for age, sex, season, length of residence in South Korea, physical activity and BMI. Vitamin D deficiency is very common among North Korean refugees in South Korea. Despite their lower BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with metabolic syndrome in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Perceived health status and cardiometabolic risk among a sample of youth in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flores, Yvonne N; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Morales, Leo S; Salmerón, Jorge; Skalicky, Anne M; Edwards, Todd C; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Patrick, Donald L

    2015-08-01

    To examine differences in self-reported perceived mental and physical health status, as well as known cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of normal weight, overweight, and obese Mexican youths. Cross-sectional analysis of 164 youths aged 11-18 years recruited in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included measures of generic and weight-specific quality of life, perceived health, physical function, depressive symptoms, and body shape satisfaction. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Fasting blood samples from participants yielded levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol (total, HDL, and LDL). Nearly 50 % of participants were female, 21 % had a normal BMI, 39 % were overweight, and 40 % were obese. Obese youths reported significantly lower measures of perceived health status (PHS) and showed an increase in cardiometabolic risk, compared with normal weight youths. Physical functioning, generic and weight-specific QoL were inversely associated with BMI, waist circumference, and glucose. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, glucose levels, and HDL cholesterol. No correlation was found between PHS and cardiometabolic risk measures after controlling for BMI. In this sample of Mexican youths, obesity was associated with a significantly lower PHS and increased cardiometabolic risk.

  9. Social Networking Technology Use and Engagement in HIV Related Risk and Protective Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary studies with homeless youth find surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest youths’ online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical first step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media especially as it relates to whom they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of Social Networking Sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult to reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N=1046) were recruited through three drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether or not they engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed. PMID:27337044

  10. Perceived health status and cardiometabolic risk among a sample of youth in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Yvonne N.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Morales, Leo S.; Salmerón, Jorge; Skalicky, Anne M.; Edwards, Todd C.; Gallegos-Carrillo, Katia; Patrick, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine differences in self-reported perceived mental and physical health status (PHS), as well as known cardiometabolic risk factors in a sample of normal weight, overweight, and obese Mexican youths. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 164 youths aged 11-18 years recruited in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that included measures of generic and weight-specific quality of life (QoL), perceived health, physical function, depressive symptoms, and body shape satisfaction. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Fasting blood samples from participants yielded levels of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL). Results Nearly 50% of participants were female, 21% had a normal BMI, 39% were overweight, and 40% were obese. Obese youths reported significantly lower measures of PHS and showed an increase in cardiometabolic risk, compared to normal weight youths. Physical functioning, generic and weight-specific QoL were inversely associated with BMI, waist circumference and glucose. Depressive symptoms were positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, glucose levels and HDL cholesterol. No correlation was found between PHS and cardiometabolic risk measures after controlling for BMI. Conclusions In this sample of Mexican youths, obesity was associated with a significantly lower PHS and increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25648756

  11. Indicators of Victimization and Sexual Orientation Among Adolescents: Analyses From Youth Risk Behavior Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used nuanced measures of sexual minority status to examine disparities in victimization and their variations by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Methods. We conducted multivariate analyses of pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Results. Although all sexual minorities reported more fighting, skipping school because they felt unsafe, and having property stolen or damaged at school than did heterosexuals, rates were highest among youths who identified as bisexual or who reported both male and female sexual partners. Gender differences among sexual minorities appeared to be concentrated among bisexuals and respondents who reported sexual partners of both genders. Sexual minority youths reported more fighting than heterosexual youths, especially at younger ages, and more nonphysical school victimization that persisted through adolescence. White and Hispanic sexual minority youths reported more indicators of victimization than did heterosexuals; we found few sexual minority differences among African American and Asian American youths. Conclusions. Victimization carries health consequences, and sexual minorities are at increased risk. Surveys should include measures that allow tracking of disparities in victimization by sexual minority status. PMID:24328633

  12. Strengths-Based Counseling with At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Now more than ever, counselors, teachers, community youth workers, and parents are striving to prevent individual and school-wide tragedy before it happens. Critical to the success of their efforts is a deep respect for the adolescent experience. In this book, author and social worker Michael Ungar takes a fresh, hopeful approach to challenging…

  13. Educational Policy and Foster Youths: The Risks of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Nora; MacEachron, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent child welfare legislation requires agencies to address the educational well-being of foster youths. Schools face new accountability standards through No Child Left Behind and the Obama "Blueprint for Reform" as they move toward the goal of ensuring that all children receive a quality education. Both of these pieces of legislation…

  14. A Charter School in Partnerships for At-Risk Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Marion D.; Belcher, Sandi

    This report describes and evaluates the Raven School, a charter school established in 1998 to serve adjudicated youths ages 16 to 18. The school is administered by the Gulf Coast Trades Center, a private nonprofit organization located in the Sam Houston National Forest in rural Texas. In addition to academics and GED preparation, other program…

  15. Strengths-Based Counseling with At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Now more than ever, counselors, teachers, community youth workers, and parents are striving to prevent individual and school-wide tragedy before it happens. Critical to the success of their efforts is a deep respect for the adolescent experience. In this book, author and social worker Michael Ungar takes a fresh, hopeful approach to challenging…

  16. Continuities in Problem Behavior among High Risk Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Poythress, Norman; Meyers, Kathleen; Cook, Brittany; Schmeidler, James

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a test of a structural model reflecting the longitudinal relationships of psychosocial problems among youths involved in a Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded clinical trial for juveniles that participated in a diversion program. The project is evaluating the efficacy of an intensive 16-week case management service…

  17. Drug Use and Delinquent Behavior among High Risk Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dembo, Richard; Pacheco, Kimberly; Schmeidler, James; Fisher, Lori; Cooper, Sheila

    1997-01-01

    Reports the results of a study of substance use (measured by self-reports and hair test results) and delinquency among arrested youths entering a service intervention program. Results highlight important relationships between alcohol and other drug use and involvement in delinquency in the year prior to the interviews. (Author/RJM)

  18. Pre-diabetes in overweight youth and early atherogenic risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To compare atherogenic lipoprotein particles and vascular smooth muscle biomarkers in overweight youth with pre-diabetes (PD) vs. normal glucose tolerance (NGT). 144 adolescents (60 black, 84 white; 102 female; PD=45, NGT=99) aged 10-19 years underwent a fasting blood draw and 2-h OGTT. Lipoprotein ...

  19. A drop-out prevention program for high-risk inner-city youth.

    PubMed

    Lever, Nancy; Sander, Mark A; Lombardo, Sylvie; Randall, Camille; Axelrod, Jennifer; Rubenstein, Michelle; Weist, Mark D

    2004-07-01

    Inner-city youth are at high risk for dropping out of high school. Within this article, risk factors associated with dropout and strategies for effective prevention and intervention are reviewed. An example of a school-based drop-out prevention program is highlighted. The FUTURES Program is a school-based drop-out prevention program designed to address the needs of high-risk youth through smaller classes, character development, career preparation, case management/mentoring, positive incentives, and access to mental health services. Components of the program are described in detail and data evaluating the effectiveness of the program are presented. Directions for the future development of programs and conducting research to prevent dropout by inner-city youth are discussed.

  20. Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Read, Paul J.; Oliver, Jon L.; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Lloyd, Rhodri S.

    2017-01-01

    Injuries reported in male youth soccer players most commonly occur in the lower extremities, and include a high proportion of ligament sprains at the ankle and knee with a lower proportion of overuse injuries. There is currently a paucity of available literature that examines age- and sex-specific injury risk factors for such injuries within youth soccer players. Epidemiological data have reported movements that lead to non-contact ligament injury include running, twisting and turning, over-reaching and landing. Altered neuromuscular control during these actions has been suggested as a key mechanism in females and adult populations; however, data available in male soccer players is sparse. The focus of this article is to review the available literature and elucidate prevalent risk factors pertaining to male youth soccer players which may contribute to their relative risk of injury. PMID:26856339

  1. Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors for Recidivism in Spanish Youth Offenders.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Keren; Villanueva, Lidón

    2015-10-01

    Although a large body of research has studied the factors associated to general recidivism, predictive validity of these factors has received less attention. Andrews and Bonta's General Personality and Social-Psychological Model attempts to provide an in-depth explanation of risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory was administered to 210 adolescents aged between 14 and 18 with a criminal record to analyse risk and protective factors in relation to youth recidivism. Their possible differential contribution over a 2-year follow-up period was also examined. Risk factors showed good levels of recidivism prediction. The factors that emerged as the most discriminative were education/employment, leisure/recreation, and personality. Protective factors differentiated between recidivists and non-recidivists in all factors. Hence, results showed that not only individual but also social factors would be crucial in predicting recidivism.

  2. Profiles of Risk Among HIV-infected Youth in Clinic Settings

    PubMed Central

    Huszti, Heather C.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kahana, Shoshana; Nichols, Sharon; Gonin, René; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rising number of new HIV infections among youth, few tailored interventions for youth living with HIV (YLH) have been developed and rigorously tested. Developing tailored interventions necessitates identifying different profiles of YLH and understanding how risk and protective factors cluster together. Obtaining this critical information requires accessing a sufficiently large sample of YLH from diverse geographic settings such as those available through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions (ATN). We recruited a cross-sectional sample of 1,712 YLH from ATN clinics; participants completed a survey on psychosocial and health factors. Using latent class analysis on nine composite variables representing risk factors, we identified five classes distinguished by substance use, sexual behavior, and pregnancy history and differing on health outcomes. Findings suggest a need for tailored interventions addressing multiple risky behaviors of HIV-infected youth and research to clarify how intervention effectiveness may differ by risk profile. PMID:25117556

  3. A comparison of drug use and risk behavior profiles among younger and older street youth.

    PubMed

    Hadland, Scott E; Marshall, Brandon D L; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio S; Wood, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Among 559 street youth recruited between 2005 and 2007 in Vancouver, Canada, young drug users (<21 years of age) were compared with older drug users (≥21 years) with regard to recent drug use and sexual practices using multiple logistic regression. Older youth were more likely to be male and of Aboriginal ancestry, to have more significant depressive symptoms, to have recently engaged in crack smoking, and to have had a recent history of injection drug use. Young drug users, by contrast, were more likely to have engaged in recent binge alcohol use. Efforts to reduce drug use-related harm among street youth may be improved by considering the highly prevalent use of "harder" drugs and risk for depression among older youth.

  4. Youth participation in disaster risk reduction through science clubs in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Glenn; Shaw, Rajib

    2015-04-01

    With the UN-led celebration of the International Year of Youth from August 2010 to August 2011 there has been a renewed interest in young people and the vital role they can play in important issues, such as disaster risk reduction (DRR). This study aims to examine the potential of science clubs as a vehicle for youth participation in DRR in the Philippines. A questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain quantitative and qualitative data. A total of 658 science club members from different provinces of the Philippines participated in the survey. The result of the survey is used to explain how the major barriers to youth participation in DRR can be overcome. Through science clubs, the youth can become a link between their school, home and community and can contribute to spreading knowledge about disaster prevention, preparedness and response learned inside and outside the classroom. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  5. Elevated fasting insulin levels increase the risk of abdominal obesity in Korean men.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Taegi; Choi, Young-Jun; Chung, Ju Youn; Ryoo, Jae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether an elevated fasting insulin level predicts abdominal obesity. A cohort study was conducted with 13,707 non-obese Korean men. They were categorized into 4 groups according to the quartile of fasting insulin level, and followed up from 2005 to 2010. Incidence rates of obesity were compared among the 4 groups during follow-up, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for abdominal obesity according to fasting insulin level. The overall incidence rate of obesity was 16.2%, but the rate increased in proportion to the fasting insulin level (quartiles 1-4: 9.8%, 12.4%, 16.9%, 25.5%, P<0.001). When HR of the 1st quartile was regarded as the reference, HRs for abdominal obesity increased proportionally to baseline fasting insulin level in an unadjusted model. However, after adjustment for covariates, including baseline waist circumference (WC), only in the quartile 4 group was the statistical significance of the association maintained [quartile 2-4; abdominal obesity: 0.89 (0.76-1.02), 1.00 (0.86-1.14) and 1.24 (1.08-1.43), P for trend <0.001]. Although the risk of incident abdominal obesity was highest in the group with the highest fasting insulin levels, an overall proportional relationship between fasting insulin level and incident abdominal obesity was not found. Additionally, this association was largely accounted for by baseline WC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic Variation in the TAS2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor and Gastric Cancer Risk in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Ryu, Keun Won; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    The human TAS2R38 gene encodes a bitter taste receptor that regulates the bitterness perception and differentiation of ingested nutritional/poisonous compounds in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. TAS2R38 gene variants are associated with alterations in individual sensitivity to bitter taste and food intake; hence, these genetic variants may modify the risk for diet-related diseases, including cancer. However, little is known about the association between TAS2R38 polymorphisms and gastric cancer susceptibility. The present case-control study examined the influence of TAS2R38 polymorphisms on food intake and determined whether they predict gastric cancer risk in Koreans. A total of 1,580 subjects, including 449 gastric cancer cases, were genotyped for TAS2R38 A49P, V262A, I296V and diplotypes. Dietary data were analysed to determine the total consumption of energy, fibre, vegetables, fruits, sweets, fats, alcohol and cigarettes. TAS2R38 diplotype was not associated with food, alcohol or cigarette consumption, either independent or dependent of gastric cancer phenotype. However, the PAV/AVI diplotype significantly increased gastric cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio: 1.513; 95% confidence interval: 1.148–1.994) independent of dietary intake. Findings suggest that TAS2R38 may be associated with the risk for gastric cancer in Koreans, although the TAS2R38 diplotype did not influence dietary intake. PMID:27245112

  7. Time-varying causal network of the Korean financial system based on firm-specific risk premiums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jae Wook; Ko, Bonggyun; Cho, Poongjin; Chang, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the Korean financial system based on time-varying causal network. We discover many stylized facts by utilizing the firm-specific risk premiums for measuring the causality direction from a firm to firm. At first, we discover that the interconnectedness of causal network is affected by the outbreak of financial events; the co-movement of firm-specific risk premium is strengthened after each positive event, and vice versa. Secondly, we find that the major sector of the Korean financial system is the Depositories, and the financial reform in June-2011 achieves its purpose by weakening the power of risk-spillovers of Broker-Dealers. Thirdly, we identify that the causal network is a small-world network with scale-free topology where the power-law exponents of out-Degree and negative event are more significant than those of in-Degree and positive event. Lastly, we discuss that the current aspects of causal network are closely related to the long-term future scenario of the KOSPI Composite index where the direction and stability are significantly affected by the power of risk-spillovers and the power-law exponents of degree distributions, respectively.

  8. Emotional Processing and Brain Activity in Youth at High Risk for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Cservenka, Anita; Fair, Damien A.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Even in the absence of heavy alcohol use, youth with familial alcoholism (family history positive [FHP]) exhibit atypical brain functioning and behavior. Although emotional and cognitive systems are affected in alcohol use disorders (AUDs), little attention has focused on whether brain and behavior phenotypes related to the interplay between affective and executive functioning may be a premorbid risk factor for the development of AUDs in FHP youth. Methods Twenty-four FHP and 22 family history negative (FHN) 12- to 16-year-old adolescents completed study procedures. After exclusion of participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms and those who did not meet performance criteria during an Emotional Go-NoGo task, 19 FHP and 17 FHN youth were included in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses. Resting state functional connectivity MRI, using amygdalar seed regions, was analyzed in 16 FHP and 18 FHN youth, after exclusion of participants with excessive head movement. Results fMRI showed that brain activity in FHP youth, compared with FHN peers, was reduced during emotional processing in the superior temporal cortex, as well as during cognitive control within emotional contexts in frontal and striatal regions. Group differences in resting state amygdalar connectivity were seen bilaterally between FHP and FHN youth. In FHP youth, reduced resting state synchrony between the left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus was related to poorer response inhibition, as measured during the fMRI task. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine emotion–cognition interactions and resting state functional connectivity in FHP youth. Findings from this research provide insight into neural and behavioral phenotypes associated with emotional processing in familial alcoholism, which may relate to increased risk of developing AUDs. PMID:24890898

  9. Emotional processing and brain activity in youth at high risk for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Fair, Damien A; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2014-07-01

    Even in the absence of heavy alcohol use, youth with familial alcoholism (family history positive [FHP]) exhibit atypical brain functioning and behavior. Although emotional and cognitive systems are affected in alcohol use disorders (AUDs), little attention has focused on whether brain and behavior phenotypes related to the interplay between affective and executive functioning may be a premorbid risk factor for the development of AUDs in FHP youth. Twenty-four FHP and 22 family history negative (FHN) 12- to 16-year-old adolescents completed study procedures. After exclusion of participants with clinically significant depressive symptoms and those who did not meet performance criteria during an Emotional Go-NoGo task, 19 FHP and 17 FHN youth were included in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses. Resting state functional connectivity MRI, using amygdalar seed regions, was analyzed in 16 FHP and 18 FHN youth, after exclusion of participants with excessive head movement. fMRI showed that brain activity in FHP youth, compared with FHN peers, was reduced during emotional processing in the superior temporal cortex, as well as during cognitive control within emotional contexts in frontal and striatal regions. Group differences in resting state amygdalar connectivity were seen bilaterally between FHP and FHN youth. In FHP youth, reduced resting state synchrony between the left amygdala and left superior frontal gyrus was related to poorer response inhibition, as measured during the fMRI task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine emotion-cognition interactions and resting state functional connectivity in FHP youth. Findings from this research provide insight into neural and behavioral phenotypes associated with emotional processing in familial alcoholism, which may relate to increased risk of developing AUDs. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Putting in Work: Qualitative Research on Substance Use and Other Risk Behaviors Among Gang Youth in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson-Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Gang youth are notoriously difficult to access for research purposes. Despite this difficulty, qualitative research about substance use among gang youth is important because research indicates that such youth use more substances than their nongang peers. This manuscript discusses how a small sample of gang youth (n = 60) in Los Angeles was accessed and interviewed during a National Institute of Drug Abuse-funded pilot study on substance use and other risk behaviors. Topics discussed include the rationale and operationalization of the research methodology, working with community-based organizations, and the recruitment of different gang youth with varying levels of substance use. PMID:20222782

  11. Exclusionary health policy: responding to the risk of poor health among sexual minority youth in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ylioja, Thomas; Craig, Shelley L

    2014-01-01

    Measuring indicators of health status and demographics are essential in the population health approach. In Canada, sexual minority youth face increased risk for poor health outcomes in behavioral and mental health indicators, yet the health policy response has been severely lacking. The current population health approach exacerbates the social exclusion of a vulnerable, at-risk population. The authors examine health status through the social determinants of health to highlight the need for including sexual identity, attraction, and behavior in youth population health surveys. Additional interventions that address the social determinants of health are needed.

  12. Children, youth, and parents: screening for obesity risk with the spectrum of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Gable, Sara; Tosh, Aneesh K

    2014-01-01

    The current article reviews several practical approaches to screening for obesity risk among children and youth, with an emphasis on the spectrum of physical activity. We encourage physicians to utilize evidence-based strategies (e.g., 5-2-1-0), implement motivational interviewing techniques, and focus on "crunch time" (i.e., the period of day after school and before bedtime) when gathering information about physical activity type and intensity. The insights gained are useful for evaluating obesity risk and establishing goals for lifestyle interventions. Characteristics of successful interventions with youth are also discussed and include goal-setting, self-monitoring, and pedometers.

  13. Beat gestures and postural control in youth at ultrahigh risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Osborne, K Juston; Bernard, Jessica A; Gupta, Tina; Dean, Derek J; Millman, Zachary; Vargas, Teresa; Ristanovic, Ivanka; Schiffman, Jason; Mittal, Vijay A

    2016-11-30

    Beat gestures, rhythmic hand movements that co-occur with speech, appear to be uniquely associated with the cerebellum in healthy individuals. This behavior may also have relevance for psychosis-risk youth, a group characterized by cerebellar dysfunction. This study examined beat gesture frequency and postural sway (a sensitive index of cerebellar functioning) in youth at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis. Results indicated that decreased beat gesture frequency, but not self-regulatory movement, is associated with elevated postural sway, suggesting that beat gestures may be an important biomarker in this critical population.

  14. Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2003: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Palau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Allison; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Speicher, Nancy; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura

    2005-01-01

    To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territory, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories, and cities…

  15. Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2005: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Republic of Palau, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippe, Jaclynn; Brener, Nancy D.; McManus, Tim; Kann, Laura; Speicher, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    To monitor priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). The YRBSS includes national, state, territorial, and local school-based surveys of high school students in grades 9-12. In addition, some states, territories,…

  16. Promoting “Healthy Futures” to Reduce Risk Behaviors in Urban Youth: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Vanya; Cheng, Tina L.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the interconnection between educational and health outcomes. Unfortunately wide disparities exist by both socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity in educational and vocational success. This study sought to promote urban youths’ career readiness as a way to reduce involvement in risk behaviors. Two hundred primarily African-American youth (ages 14-21) were recruited from a pediatric primary care clinic. Youth randomized to the intervention received three motivational interviewing sessions focused around expectations and planning for the future. Baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments included measures of career readiness and risk behavior involvement (i.e., physical fighting, alcohol and marijuana use). At 6-months, youth randomized to the intervention condition showed increased confidence in their ability to perform the behaviors needed to reach their college/career goals. Additionally, youth randomized to the intervention arm showed decreased fighting behavior (adjusted rate ratio: .27) and marijuana use (adjusted rate ratio: .61). Assisting urban youth in thinking and planning about their future holds promise as a way to reduce their involvement in risk behaviors. This study also demonstrated that motivational interviewing may hold promise for promoting positive behaviors (i.e., career readiness). PMID:26122751

  17. Perceived mental illness stigma, intimate relationships and sexual risk behavior in youth with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Hackler, Dusty; Walsh, Tracy A; Latack, Jessica A; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R; Wainberg, Milton L

    2013-05-01

    The current study examines the role of mental illness-related stigma on romantic or sexual relationships and sexual behavior among youth with mental illness (MI), including youths' experiences of stigma, the internalization of these experiences, and the behavior associated with managing stigma within romantic and sexual relationships. We conducted in-depth interviews with N=20 youth with mental illness (MI) (55% male, 16-24 years, 75% Latino) from 4 psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. We conducted a thematic analysis to investigate shared experiences of MI stigma and its impact on youth's sexual or romantic relationships and associated behaviors. Our analysis revealed four main themes: 1) societal perceptions of those with MI as partners (societal stigma); 2) individual experiences of stigma within relationships (individual level); 3) internalized stigma of self as a partner (social-psychological processes); and 4) managing a stigmatized identity, of which some of the behaviors directly placed them at increased risk for HIV. We found that just under half of the sample (n=9/20) endorsed all themes, including engaging in HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors as a method to manage a stigmatize identity, which suggests that MI stigma and sexual risk may be linked. We discuss differences by gender and diagnosis. Findings provide new information for providers and researchers to address on the role of stigma experiences in the romantic and sexual behavior of youth in psychiatric treatment. Implications for stigma and HIV/STI prevention interventions are discussed.

  18. Development of a self-assessment score for metabolic syndrome risk in non-obese Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Kim, Youngyo; Park, Taeyoung

    2017-03-01

    There is a need for simple risk scores that identify individuals at high risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study was performed to develop and validate a self-assessment score for MetS risk in non-obese Korean adults. Data from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), 2007-2009 were used to develop a MetS risk score. We included a total of 5,508 non-obese participants aged 19-64 years who were free of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, stroke, angina, or cancer. Multivariable logistic regression model coefficients were used to assign each variable category a score. The validity of the score was assessed in an independent population survey performed in 2010 and 2011, KNHANES V (n=3,892). Age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, dairy consumption, dietary habit of eating less salty and food insecurity were selected as categorical variables. The MetS risk score value varied from 0 to 13, and a cut-point MetS risk score of >=7 was selected based on the highest Youden index. The cut-point provided a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 61%, positive predictive value of 14%, and negative predictive value of 98%, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78. Consistent results were obtained in the validation data sets. This simple risk score may be used to identify individuals at high risk for MetS without laboratory tests among non-obese Korean adults. Further studies are needed to verify the usefulness and feasibility of this score in various settings.

  19. Genetic Testing and Neuroimaging for Youth at Risk for Mental Illness: Trading off Benefit and Risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace; Mizgalewicz, Ania; Borgelt, Emily; Illes, Judy

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, mental illness is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. The first onset of mental illness usually occurs during childhood or adolescence, with nearly 12 million diagnosed cases in the United States alone. Neuroimaging and genetic testing have been invaluable in research on behavioral, affective, and attentional disorders, particularly with their potential predictive capabilities, and ability to improve diagnosis and to decrease the associated burdens of disease. The present study focused specifically the perspectives of mental health providers on the role of neuroimaging and genetic testing in clinical practice with children and adolescents. We interviewed 38 psychiatrists, psychologists, and allied mental health professionals who work primarily with youth about their receptivity toward either the use of neuroimaging or genetic testing. Interviews probed the role they foresee for these modalities for prediction, diagnosis, treatment planning, and the benefits and risks they anticipate. Practitioners anticipated three major benefits associated with clinical introduction of imaging and genetic testing in the mental health care for youth: (1) improved understanding of the brain and mental illness, (2) more accurate diagnosis than available through conventional clinical examination, and (3) legitimization of treatment plans. They also perceived three major risks: (1) misuse or misinterpretation of the imaging or genetic data, (2) potential adverse impacts on employment and insurance as adolescents reach adulthood, and (3) infringements on self-esteem or self-motivation. The nature of the interview questions focused on the future of neuroimaging and genetic testing testing research in the context of clinical neuroscience. Therefore, the responses from interview participants are based on anticipated rather than actual experience. Continued expansion of brain imaging and genetic testing into clinical care will

  20. Cigarette pack design and perceptions of risk among UK adults and youth.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Dockrell, Martin; Arnott, Deborah; Lee, Alex; McNeill, Ann

    2009-12-01

    It is illegal in the EU for tobacco packaging to suggest that some cigarettes are safer than others. This study examined consumer perceptions of cigarette packs in the UK, including perceptions of 'plain packaging', in which colour and other design elements are removed, whilst retaining the brand name. 516 adult smokers and 806 youth aged 11-17 participated in an online survey. Participants were asked to compare pairs of cigarette packs on five measures: taste, tar delivery, health risk, attractiveness and either ease of quitting (adult smokers) or brand they would choose if trying smoking (youth). Adults and youth were significantly more likely to rate packs with the terms 'smooth', 'silver' and 'gold' as lower tar, lower health risk and either easier to quit smoking (adults) or their choice of pack if trying smoking (youth). For example, more than half of adults and youth reported that brands labelled as 'smooth' were less harmful compared with the 'regular' variety. The colour of packs was also associated with perceptions of risk and brand appeal: compared with Marlboro packs with a red logo, Marlboro packs with a gold logo were rated as lower health risk by 53% and easier to quit by 31% of adult smokers. Plain packs significantly reduced false beliefs about health risk and ease of quitting, and were rated as significantly less attractive and appealing to youth for trying smoking. Current regulations have failed to remove potentially misleading information from tobacco packaging. Removing colours from packs (plain packaging), as well as terms such as 'smooth' 'gold' and 'silver' would significantly reduce false beliefs and increase compliance with existing legislation.