Simunek, J.; Sejna, M.; Jacques, D.; Langergraber, G.; Bradford, S. A.; van Genuchten, M. Th.
We have dramatically expanded the capabilities of the HYDRUS (2D/3D) software package by developing new modules to account for processes not available in the standard HYDRUS version. These new modules include the DualPerm, C-Hitch, HP2/3, Wetland, and Unsatchem modules. The dual-permeability modeling approach of Gerke and van Genuchten  simulating preferential flow and transport is implemented into the DualPerm module. Colloid transport and colloid-facilitated solute transport, the latter often observed for many contaminants, such as heavy metals, radionuclides, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives [Šimůnek et al., 2006] are implemented into the C-Hitch module. HP2 and HP3 are the two and three-dimensional alternatives of the HP1 module, currently available with HYDRUS-1D [Jacques and Šimůnek, 2005], that couple HYDRUS flow and transport routines with the generic geochemical model PHREEQC of Parkhurst and Appelo . The Wetland module includes two alternative approaches (CW2D of Langergraber and Šimůnek  and CWM1 of Langergraber et al. ) for modeling aerobic, anaerobic, and anoxic biogeochemical processes in natural and constructed wetlands. Finally, the Unsatchem module simulates the transport and reactions of major ions in a soil profile. Brief descriptions and an application of each module will be presented. Except for HP3, all modules simulate flow and transport processes in two-dimensional transport domains. All modules are fully supported by the HYDRUS graphical user interface. Further development of these modules, as well as of several other new modules (such as Overland), is still envisioned. Continued feedback from the research community is encouraged.
Korkusuz, Y; Kohlhase, K; Gröner, D; Erbelding, C; Luboldt, W; Happel, C; Ahmad, S; Vogl, T J; Gruenwald, F
Purpose: Microwave ablation (MWA) represents a novel thermal ablative treatment of benign thyroid nodules. The aim was to determine the energy required per ml volume reduction in order to match the required energy to the volume-of-interest (VOI). Materials and Methods: 25 patients with 25 nodules (6 solid, 13 complex and 6 cystic) were treated by microwave ablation (MWA). The transmitted energy (E) was correlated with the volume change (∆ V) after 3 months. The energy required per ml volume reduction after 3 months was calculated by E/∆ V. Results: MWA resulted in a significant (p < 0.0001) volume reduction (∆ V) with a mean of 12.4 ± 13.0 ml (range: 1.5 - 63.2 ml) and relative reduction of 52 ± 16 % (range: 22 - 77 %). There was a positive correlation between E and ∆ V (r = 0.82; p < 0.05). The mean E/∆ V was 1.52 ± 1.08 (range: 0.4 - 4.6) kJ/ml for all nodules and 2.30 ± 1.5 (0.9 - 4.6), 1.5 ± 0.9 (0.4 - 3.6), 0.75 ± 0.25 (0.4 - 1.2) kJ/ml, respectively, for solid, complex and cystic nodules with a significant difference in E/∆ V for solid and cystic (p < 0.03). Conclusion: The energy required per volume depends on the nodule consistency. Solid nodules require more energy than cystic ones. The estimation of the energy needed per volume-of-interest as an additional parameter should help to avoid under- or overtreatment. Key Points: • The estimated required energy for a volume-of-interest depends on the nodule consistency• In solid nodules a higher energy transmission than in cystic nodules is recommended• The energy transmission as an additional marker to ultrasound is helpful for improving periprocedural monitoring Citation Format: • Korkusuz Y, Kohlhase K, Gröner D et al. Microwave Ablation of Symptomatic Benign Thyroid Nodules: Energy Requirement per ml Volume Reduction. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2016; 188: 1054 - 1060.
Korkusuz Öztürk, Yasemin; Meral Özel, Nurcan
Extensional focal mechanism solutions are mostly observed even in the Central Marmara by this comprehensive research although the main Marmara Fault that is the western branch of the NAF, is dominated by a right lateral strike-slip regime. Marmara Region, a seismically very active area, is located at the western section of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The 1912 Mürefte and 1999 Izmit earthquakes are the last devastating events of the western and eastern sections of this region, respectively. The region between the locations of these earthquakes, is prone to a large earthquake. Therefore, the analysis of the Sea of Marmara is significant. The main objective of this research is to determine earthquake hypocenters and focal mechanism solutions accurately, hence we obtain recent states of stresses for this region. Accordingly, this research aims to define branches of fault structures and its geometrical orientations in the Sea of Marmara. In this study, a cluster of events in the Central Marmara is analyzed using hypocenter program as a usual location technique. In addition, these events and other clustered events (Korkusuz Öztürk et al., 2015) are relocated using HYPODD relocation procedure. Even though NAF is mostly dominated by a right lateral strike slip fault, we found out many extensional source mechanisms. Also, from the comparison of relocation results of hypocenter and HYPODD programs, it is found out that most of the relocations have the same orientations and dipping angles of the segments of the main Marmara Fault are not clear. As a result, since we observe many normal faulting mechanisms in the Sea of Marmara, we expect to observe some deviations in orientations of vertical orientations of the fault segments comparing a dip-slip model. Therefore, this research will continue to clearly identify fault dip angles of main fault segments in Marmara Sea. Further, our sensitive relocation and stress analyses will make an important contribution to a
Korkusuz, Y; Erbelding, C; Kohlhase, K; Luboldt, W; Happel, C; Grünwald, F
To determine the safety and efficacy of bipolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in benign thyroid nodules. 23 patients with 24 symptomatic benign thyroid nodules (21 regressive, 3 adenomas) ranging in volume from 0.5 to 112 ml (mean ± sd: 18 ± 24.4 ml) underwent bipolar RFA. Pain during the procedure was measured on a 10-point scale. Side-effects revealed by ultrasound or patients' complaints were documented. Periablative efficacy was measured 24 hours after RFA as change (Δ) in serum thyreoglobulin (Tg) and sonographic criteria (echogenity, Doppler blood flow and elasticity) categorized on a 3-point scale (echogenity, Doppler blood flow) or 4-point scale (elasticity). Efficacy in the 3 autonomous adenomas was measured as normalization of (99 m)Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy. Bipolar RFA was well tolerated by all patients with a median pain score of 3 ± 1.5 (range: 1 - 7). Side-effects were hematomas in 4 of 23 patients (17 %). Bipolar RFA resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in echogenity, blood flow, elasticity (Δ = 1 ± 0.28, 1 ± 0.46 and 1 ± 0.85 points, respectively), a median increase in Tg of 403 ± 2568 ng/ml as well as in a normalization of scintigraphy. Bipolar RFA is a safe and effective treatment option for symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. • Bipolar RFA is a safe and effective treatment for benign thyroid nodules.• Ultrasound imaging allows guidance during bipolar radiofrequency ablation.• (99 m)Tc-pertechnetate is able to detect the ablation area of autonomous adenomas. Citation Format: • Korkusuz Y, Erbelding C, Kohlhase K et al. Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Symptomatic Thyroid Nodules: Initial experience with Bipolar Radiofrequency. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2016; 188: 671 - 675. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.