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Sample records for korrelation zwischen mrt

  1. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  2. Spanish-Speaking Students and the Language Factor in the MRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Sylvia; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to examine the effect of translating the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) for Spanish speaking school entrants, to determine whether administering the MRT in Spanish makes a significant difference on the scores of Spanish-speaking students, and whether these differences obtain for students in bilingual and all-English…

  3. Practising Mental Rotation Using Interactive Desktop Mental Rotation Trainer (iDeMRT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafi, Ahmad; Samsudin, Khairulanuar

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study involving 30 undergraduates (mean age = 20.5 years) in mental rotation (MR) training was conducted in an interactive Desktop Mental Rotation Trainer (iDeMRT). Stratified random sampling assigned students into one experimental group and one control group. The former trained in iDeMRT and the latter trained in conventional…

  4. Alignment and position visualization methods for the biomedical imaging and therapy (BMIT) MRT lift

    SciTech Connect

    Bree, Michael, E-mail: michael.bree@lightsource.ca; Miller, Denise; Kerr, Graham

    The Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) Lift is an eight stage positioning and scanning system at the Canadian Light Source’s BMIT Facility. Alignment of the sample with the beam using the MRT Lift is a time consuming and challenging task. The BMIT Group has developed a Python-based MRT Lift positioning and control program that uses a combination of computational and iterative methods to independently adjust the sample’s X, Y, Z, pitch and roll positions. The program offers “1-Click” alignment of the sample to the beam. Use of a wireframe visualization technique enables even minute movements to be illustrated. Proposed movements andmore » the resulting MRT Lift position can be manually verified before being applied. Optional integration with the SolidWorks modelling platform allows high quality renderings of the MRT Lift in its current or proposed position to be displayed in real time. Human factors principles are incorporated into the program with the objective of delivering easy to use controls for this complex device.« less

  5. The Effect of External Magnetic Fields on the MRT Instability in MagLIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Mark; Peterson, Kyle; Weis, Matthew; Lau, Yue Ying

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments on MagLIF which incorporate an external B-field suggest that the MRT instability within the liner has a different behavior than without the B-field. Previous work by Chandrasekhar and Harris have illustrated how the MRT growth rate, assuming fixed liner density and fixed acceleration, can change due to the presence of an external B-field. In this work, we show how the growth rate of the MRT instability is dynamically affected by the rapidly varying acceleration, liner density, and surface magnetic field, which is composed of the external B-field and the drive B-field of the liner in the MagLIF experiments. In addition, we also examine the effects of finite liner resistivity on MRT growth, which gives rise to an additional time scale corresponding to magnetic diffusion. We discuss the implications of this result for future MagLIF designs. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. [The monodigital recognition test (MRT)--a sensitivity-specific variant of Moberg's pick-up test].

    PubMed

    Clemens, R

    1979-01-01

    The Test for Mono-digital Recognition (MRT) is a procedure specifically designed for the measurement of gnostic performance. The new test was derived from MOBERG's Pick-up Test with the aim of eliminating its shortcomings. Additional injuries do not restrict the applicability of the MRT and the test is not confined to the skin area supplied by the median nerve. The MRT expresses the degree of gnostic disturbances by means of a point system. For testing a patient only two to four minutes are needed.

  7. [The use of the "cine-technic" in the MRT diagnosis of the temporomandibular joint].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Eberhard, D; Weigl, P; Assal, J; Randzio, J

    1992-03-01

    A new cine-technique in a prospective study using rapid gradient echo sequences was evaluated for the MRT investigation of the temporo-mandibular joint. A newly developed hydraulic apparatus was used to produce progressive opening of the jaw and MRT appearances were recorded during predetermined points of mandibular movement. The investigation included 16 normals and 34 patients. A modified gradient echo sequence was combined with an optimised surface coil or a special double coil and this provided good spatial resolution of the articular disc and of the muscular and bony structure. Amongst the abnormal findings were luxation of the disc (15 cases), tears in the disc (5 cases), late effects of internal derangements (12 cases) and condylar hypermotility (7 cases). The new cine-technique provides specific images in any chosen position of the mandible depending on the clinical disability of the patient.

  8. SU-C-BRE-04: Microbeam-Radiation-Therapy (MRT): Characterizing a Novel MRT Device Using High Resolution 3D Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q; Juang, T; Bache, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The feasibility of MRT has recently been demonstrated utilizing a new technology of Carbon-Nano-Tube(CNT) field emission x-ray sources.This approach can deliver very high dose(10's of Gy) in narrow stripes(sub-mm) of radiation which enables the study of novel radiation treatment approaches. Here we investigate the application of highresolution (50um isotropic) PRESAGE/Optical-CT 3D dosimetry techniques to characterize the radiation delivered in this extremely dosimetrically challenging scenario. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source irradiator comprises of a linear cathode array and a novel collimator alignment system. This allows a precise delivery of high-energy small beams up to 160 kVp. A cylindricalmore » dosimeter (∼2.2cm in height ∼2.5cm in diameter) was irradiated by CNT MRT delivering 3 strips of radiation with a nominal entrance dose of 32 Gy.A second dosimeter was irradiated with similar entrance dose, with a regular x-ray irradiator collimated to microscopical strip-beams. 50um (isotropic) 3D dosimetry was performed using an in-house optical-CT system designed and optimized for high resolution imaging (including a stray light deconvolution correction).The percentage depth dose (PDD), peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) and beam width (FWHM) data were obtained and analyzed in both cases. Results: High resolution 3D images were successfully achieved with the prototype system, enabling extraction of PDD and dose profiles. The PDDs for the CNT irradiation showed pronounced attenuation, but less build-up effect than that from the multibeam irradiation. The beam spacing between the three strips has an average value of 0.9mm while that for the 13 strips is 1.5 mm at a depth of 16.5 mm. The stray light corrected image shows line profiles with reduced noise and consistent PVR values. Conclusion: MRT dosimetry is extremely challenging due to the ultra small fields involved.This preliminary application of a novel, ultra-high resolution, optical-CT 3D

  9. Health co-benefits in mortality avoidance from implementation of the mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Soo Chen; Tainio, Marko; Woodcock, James; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    The mass rapid transit (MRT) is the largest transport infrastructure project under the national key economic area (NKEA) in Malaysia. As urban rail is anticipated to be the future spine of public transport network in the Greater Kuala Lumpur city, it is important to mainstream climate change mitigation and public health benefits in the local transport development. This study quantifies the health co-benefits in terms of mortality among the urbanites when the first line of the 150 km MRT system in Kuala Lumpur commences by 2017. Using comparative health risk assessment, we estimated the potential health co-benefits from the establishment of the MRT system. We estimated the reduced CO2 emissions and air pollution (PM2.5) exposure reduction among the general population from the reduced use of motorized vehicles. Mortality avoided from traffic incidents involving motorcycles and passenger cars, and from increased physical activity from walking while using the MRT system was also estimated. A total of 363,130 tonnes of CO2 emissions could be reduced annually from the modal shift from cars and motorcycles to the MRT system. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentration could be reduced 0.61 μg/m3 annually (2%). This could avoid a total of 12 deaths, mostly from cardio-respiratory diseases among the city residents. For traffic injuries, 37 deaths could be avoided annually from motorcycle and passenger cars accidents especially among the younger age categories (aged 15-30). One additional death was attributed to pedestrian walking. The additional daily physical activity to access the MRT system could avoid 21 deaths among its riders. Most of the mortality avoided comes from cardiovascular diseases. Overall, a total of 70 deaths could be avoided annually among both the general population and the MRT users in the city. The implementation of the MRT system in Greater Kuala Lumpur could bring substantial health co-benefits to both the general population and the MRT users mainly from the

  10. [Evaluation of the Marburg Spelling Training (MRT) in 2nd- and 3rd-grade students with spelling difficulties].

    PubMed

    Barkmann, Claus; Kuhlmann, Ester; Rosenboom, Lea; Wessolowski, Nino; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Children with severe dyslexia are substantially impaired because reading and writing are key competencies necessary for a successful academic and occupational career. In this evaluation study, a cohort of 2nd- and 3rd-grade students from a variety of Hamburg primary schools was trained with the Marburger Rechtschreibtraining (MRT) by supervised university graduates. The research questions focused on the feasibility of the MRT as a within-school training, the improvement of spelling and reading skills of the participants, subjective assessments of success, as well as potential predictors. Besides established performance tests, we also considered the subjective appraisals of parents, teachers, and coaches. The results demonstrate that standardized spelling training methods like the MRT can be consistently used during morning hours at schools. Within a year of starting MRT exercises, mean effect sizes in writing and reading were observed in performance tests using test norms. However, parent, teacher, and coach reports failed to replicate these improvements. Changes in writing performance were mainly associated with school class level; improvements in reading ability were dependent on initial writing performance. The results provide starting points for optimizing current training practices in elementary schools and for posing questions regarding the effectiveness of the MRT, as well as for training programs in general.

  11. Tanzendes Tier oder exzentrische Positionalität - Philosophische Anthropologie zwischen Darwinismus und Kulturalismus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Joachim

    Zunächst kurz vorweg zu den Formeln im Titel: "exzentrische Positionalität“ ist der Kategorienvorschlag der Philosophischen Anthropologie (genauer: von Helmuth Plessner) für den Menschen, für seine "Sonderstellung“ unter den Lebewesen - ich werde diesen Begriff erläutern. So viel kann man sagen: Der Terminus ist nicht schwieriger als "Transzendentalität“ oder das "Apriori“ oder "Autopoiesis“, also Begriffe, mit deren Orientierungswert in der intellektuellen Öffentlichkeit bereits gespielt wird, bietet aber möglicherweise mehr Erschließungskraft als die Kunstbegriffe z. B. von Kant, Maturana oder Luhmann. Und "tanzendes Tier“ ist ein glücklicher Anschauungsbegriff, eine Art Übersetzung für "exzentrische Positionalität“ - also ein "verrücktes“ Lebewesen, eine Verrückung im evolutionären Leben, die dieses Lebewesen von Natur aus zu einer bestimmten Art von Lebensführung, nämlich Kultur nötigt. Die Absicht des Beitrages ist es, die Philosophische Anthropologie als eine spezifische Theorietechnik zu präsentieren, um einen adäquaten Begriff des Menschen zu erreichen, und zwar eine Theoriestrategie angesichts des cartesianischen Dualismus - also des Dualismus zwischen Naturalismus und Kulturalismus.

  12. Mrt, a Gene Unique to Fungi, Encodes an Oligosaccharide Transporter and Facilitates Rhizosphere Competency in Metarhizium robertsii1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Weiguo; St. Leger, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    The symbiotic associations between rhizospheric fungi and plants have enormous environmental impact. Fungi are crucial to plant health as antagonists of pathogens and herbivores and facilitate the uptake of soil nutrients. However, little is known about the plant products obtained by fungi in exchange or how they are transported through the symbiotic interface. Here, we demonstrate that sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides in root exudates are important for rhizosphere competence in the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii (formerly known as Metarhizium anisopliae). We identified mutants in the Metarhizium raffinose transporter (Mrt) gene of M. robertsii that grew poorly in root exudate and were greatly reduced in rhizosphere competence on grass roots. Studies on sugar uptake, including competition assays, revealed that MRT was a sucrose and galactoside transporter. Disrupting MRT resulted in greatly reduced or no growth on sucrose and galactosides but did not affect growth on monosaccharides or oligosaccharides composed entirely of glucose subunits. Consistent with this, expression of Mrt is exclusively up-regulated by galactosides and sucrose. Expressing a green fluorescent protein gene under the control of the Mrt promoter confirmed that MRT was expressed by germlings in the vicinity of grass roots but not in surrounding bulk soil. Disrupting Mrt did not reduce virulence to insects, demonstrating that Mrt is exclusively involved in M. robertsii’s interactions with plants. To our knowledge, MRT is the first oligosaccharide transporter identified and characterized in a fungus and is unique to filamentous fungi, but homologous genes in Magnaporthe, Ustilago, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Epichloe, and Penicillium species indicate that oligosaccharide transport is of widespread significance. PMID:20837701

  13. Demonstration of Removal, Separation, and Recovery of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastestreams Using Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    Treatment Plant”, TM-2123-ENV, April 1995. 3. Ford, K.H., 1996, “ Heavy Metal Adsorption/ Biosorption Studies for Zero Discharge Industrial Wastewater...SEPARATION, AND RECOVERY OF HEAVY METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTESTREAMS USING MOLECULAR RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY (MRT) Final Report by Dr. Katherine...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER DEMONSTRATION OF REMOVAL, SEPARATION, AND RECOVERY OF HEAVY METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS USING

  14. A multiphase three-dimensional multi-relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model with surface tension adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammar, Sami; Pernaudat, Guillaume; Trépanier, Jean-Yves

    2017-08-01

    The interdependence of surface tension and density ratio is a weakness of pseudo-potential based lattice Boltzmann models (LB). In this paper, we propose a 3D multi-relaxation time (MRT) model for multiphase flows at large density ratios. The proposed model is capable of adjusting the surface tension independently of the density ratio. We also present the 3D macroscopic equations recovered by the proposed forcing scheme. A high order of isotropy for the interaction force is used to reduce the amplitude of spurious currents. The proposed 3D-MRT model is validated by verifying Laplace's law and by analyzing its thermodynamic consistency and the oscillation period of a deformed droplet. The model is then applied to the simulation of the impact of a droplet on a dry surface. Impact dynamics are determined and the maximum spread factor calculated for different Reynolds and Weber numbers. The numerical results are in agreement with data published in the literature. The influence of surface wettability on the spread factor is also investigated. Finally, our 3D-MRT model is applied to the simulation of the impact of a droplet on a wet surface. The propagation of transverse waves is observed on the liquid surface.

  15. The relationships between half-life (t1/2) and mean residence time (MRT) in the two-compartment open body model.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Eyal; Bialer, Meir

    2004-05-01

    In the one-compartment model following i.v. administration the mean residence time (MRT) of a drug is always greater than its half-life (t(1/2)). However, following i.v. administration, drug plasma concentration (C) versus time (t) is best described by a two-compartment model or a two exponential equation:C=Ae(-alpha t)+Be(-beta t), where A and B are concentration unit-coefficients and alpha and beta are exponential coefficients. The relationships between t(1/2) and MRT in the two-compartment model have not been explored and it is not clear whether in this model too MRT is always greater than t(1/2). In the current paper new equations have been developed that describe the relationships between the terminal t(1/2) (or t(1/2 beta)) and MRT in the two-compartment model following administration of i.v. bolus, i.v. infusion (zero order input) and oral administration (first order input). A critical value (CV) equals to the quotient of (1-ln2) and (1-beta/alpha) (CV=(1-ln2)/(1-beta/alpha)=0.307/(1-beta/alpha)) has been derived and was compared with the fraction (f(1)) of drug elimination or AUC (AUC-area under C vs t curve) associated with the first exponential term of the two-compartment equation (f(1)=A/alpha/AUC). Following i.v. bolus, CV ranges between a minimal value of 0.307 (1-ln2) and infinity. As long as f(1)MRT>t(1/2) and vice versa, and when f(1)=CV, then MRT=t(1/2). Following i.v. infusion and oral administration the denominator of the CV equation does not change but its numerator increases to (0.307+beta T/2) (T-infusion duration) and (0.307+beta/ka) (ka-absorption rate constant), respectively. Examples of various drugs are provided. For every drug that after i.v. bolus shows two-compartment disposition kinetics the following conclusions can be drawn (a) When f(1)<0.307, then f(1)MRT>t(1/2). (b) When beta/alpha>ln2, then CV>1>f(1) and thus(,) MRT>t(1/2). (c) When ln2>beta/alpha>(ln4-1), then 1>CV>0.5 and thus, in order for t(1/2)>MRT, f(1

  16. Weanling piglet cerebellum: a surrogate for tolerance to MRT (microbeam radiation therapy) in pediatric neuro-oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Blattmann, Hans; Di Michiel, Marco; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Guzman, Raphael; Zimmermann, Werner; Birrer, Stephan; Bley, Tim; Kircher, Patrick; Stettler, Regina; Fatzer, Rosmarie; Jaggy, Andre; Smilowitz, Henry; Brauer, Elke; Bravin, Alberto; Le Duc, Geraldine; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Thomlinson, William C.; Stepanek, Jiri; Wagner, Hans-Peter

    2001-12-01

    The cerebellum of the weanling piglet (Yorkshire) was used as a surrogate for the radiosensitive human infant cerebellum in a Swiss-led program of experimental microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) at the ESRF. Five weanlings in a 47 day old litter of seven, and eight weanlings in a 40 day old litter of eleven were irradiated in November, 1999 and June, 2000, respectively. A 1.5 cm-wide x 1.5 xm-high array of equally space approximately equals 20-30 micrometers wide, upright microbeams spaced at 210 micrometers intervals was propagated horizontally, left to right, through the cerebella of the prone, anesthetized piglets. Skin-entrance intra-microbeam peak adsorbed doses were uniform, either 150, 300, 425, or 600 gray (Gy). Peak and inter-microbeam (valley) absorbed doses in the cerebellum were computed with the PSI version of the Monte Carlo code GEANT and benchmarked using Gafchromic and radiochromic film microdosimetry. For approximately equals 66 weeks [first litter; until euthanasia], or approximately equals 57 weeks [second litter; until July 30, 2001] after irradiation, the littermates were developmentally, behaviorally, neurologically and radiologically normal as observed and tested by experienced farmers and veterinary scientists unaware of which piglets were irradiated or sham-irradiated. Morever, MRT implemented at the ESRF with a similar array of microbeams and a uniform skin-entrance peak dose of 625 Gy, followed by immunoprophylaxis, was shown to be palliative or curative in young adult rats bearing intracerebral gliosarcomas. These observations give further credence to MRT's potential as an adjunct therapy for brain tumors in infancy, when seamless therapeutic irradiation of the brain is hazardous.

  17. MoYvh1 subverts rice defense through functions of ribosomal protein MoMrt4 in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyu; Yang, Jie; Qian, Bin; Cai, Yongchao; Zou, Xi; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2018-04-01

    The accumulation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rice is important in its interaction with the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae during which the pathogen scavenges ROS through the production of extracellular enzymes that promote blast. We previously characterized the MoYvh1 protein phosphatase from M. oryzae that plays a role in scavenging of ROS. To understand the underlying mechanism, we found that MoYvh1 is translocated into the nucleus following oxidative stress and that this translocation is dependent on MoSsb1 and MoSsz1 that are homologous to heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) proteins. In addition, we established a link between MoYvh1 and MoMrt4, a ribosome maturation factor homolog whose function also involves shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover, we found that MoYvh1 regulates the production of extracellular proteins that modulate rice-immunity. Taking together, our evidence suggests that functions of MoYvh1 in regulating ROS scavenging require its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the partner proteins MoSsb1 and MoSsz1, as well as MoMrt4. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanism by which M. oryzae responds to and subverts host immunity through the regulation of ribosome biogenesis and protein biosynthesis.

  18. Comparative examination of the accuracy of a mechanical and an optical system in CT and MRT based instrument navigation.

    PubMed

    Hassfeld, S; Mühling, J

    2000-12-01

    The aim of an intraoperative instrument navigation system is to support the surgeon in the localization of anatomical regions and to guide the use of surgical instruments. An overview of technical principles and literature reports on various navigation systems is provided here. The navigation accuracy (tested on a plastic phantom under simulated operating room conditions) of the mechanical Viewing Wand system and the optical SPOCS system amounts to 1 to 3 mm for computerized tomography (CT) data, with a significant inverse dependence on the layer thickness. The values for magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) data are significantly higher. In regard to the choice of registration points, a statistically inverse dependence exists between the number of points and the distance between the points. During the time period between autumn 1993 and mid-1999, more than 120 clinical applications were performed. The intraoperative accuracy was in the range of < or = 3 mm. Registering the patient position with preoperatively inserted screw markers achieved accuracy values of < or = 2 mm. The instrument navigation technique has proved to be very advantageous for the spatial orientation of the surgeons. The possibility of checking resection borders has opened up new perspectives in tumor surgery. A quality improvement and a reduction of the operational risks as well as a considerable decline in the stress placed on the patient can be expected in the near future due the techniques of computer-assisted surgery.

  19. Korrespondenzfragen zwischen Energiesystem und Telekommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Heiko

    Telekommunikationsnetze und Stromnetze weisen viele Gemeinsamkeiten auf - sowohl hinsichtlich allgemeiner topologischer und hierarchischer Eigenschaften, als auch betreffs der konkreten Technoökonomie unter Regulierungsbedingungen. Das folgende Kapitel analysiert diese Eigenschaften und gibt Antworten auf die Frage, wie die wechselseitige Verkopplung beider, jeweils systemabdeckender Infrastrukturen zu einem Treiber der Energiewende in entwickelten Volkswirtschaften werden kann.

  20. Digitalisierung - Management Zwischen 0 und 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Stefan; Rachholz, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Digitization as a process of expressing actions and values by codes 0 and 1 has already has become part of our lives. Digitization enables enterprises to improve production, sales and to increase volume of production. However, no standard digitization strategy has been yet developed. Even in the digitized business process management system, the most important position remains to a human being. The improvement of software products, their availability and the education system in the area of introduction and use of information technology is thus a striking feature in development of managing (but also other) current processes.

  1. Nagelbefall kann bei Patienten mit Psoriasis auf eine Enthesiopathie hinweisen.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-González, Maria; Joven, Beatriz Esther; Sánchez, Julio; Andrés-Esteban, Eva María; Vanaclocha-Sebastián, Francisco; Romero, Pablo Ortiz; Díaz, Raquel Rivera

    2016-11-01

    Obwohl subklinische Enthesiopathie ein gut etabliertes diagnostisches Merkmal der Psoriasisarthritis (PsA) ist, wird sie häufig übersehen, da viele Patienten asymptomatisch sind. Gäbe es klinische Hinweise auf das Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie, würde dies den Klinikern die Möglichkeit eröffnen, eine PsA frühzeitig zu diagnostizieren. Es wurde eine monozentrische prospektive Studie mit insgesamt 90 Psoriasis-Patienten durchgeführt, um mittels Ultraschall das Vorliegen von Enthesenanomalien zu untersuchen und eine Korrelation mit dem Befall der Nägel festzustellen. Enthesenanomalien wurden bei 23 Patienten (25,5 %) gefunden, von denen 19 (82,6 %) Nagelbefall aufwiesen. Bei 4 Patienten waren die Nägel nicht betroffen. Enthesiopathie lag bei 31,1 % (19/61) der Patienten mit Onychopathie vor, von den Patienten ohne Nagelbefall litten nur 13,8 % (4/29) an Enthesiopathie (p = 0,07). Zwischen dem Target-NAPSI-Score und dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie bestand eine signifikante Korrelation. Eine signifikante Korrelation bestand darüber hinaus auch zwischen dem Vorliegen einer Enthesiopathie und der Anzahl der betroffenen Nägel (p = 0,035). Klinische Belege für eine Onychopathie können der Schlüssel für die frühe Diagnose einer Enthesiopathie bei Psoriasis-Patienten sein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. MRT fuel element inspection at Dounreay

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.

    1997-08-01

    To ensure that their production and inspection processes are performed in an acceptable manner, ie. auditable and traceable, the MTR Fuel Element Fabrication Plant at Dounreay operates to a documented quality system. This quality system, together with the fuel element manufacturing and inspection operations, has been independently certified to ISO9002-1987, EN29002-1987 and BS5750:Pt2:1987 by Lloyd`s Register Quality Assurance Limited (LRQA). This certification also provides dual accreditation to the relevant German, Dutch and Australian certification bodies. This paper briefly describes the quality system, together with the various inspection stages involved in the manufacture of MTR fuel elements at Dounreay.

  3. [Cerebral MRT in neurofibromatosis: gliosis versus neoplasia?].

    PubMed

    Mautner, V F; Pressler, M; Fünsterer, C; Schneider, E

    1989-08-01

    15 patients aged 1-39 years with documented neurofibromatosis had MR examinations of the cerebrum within the scope of a basic diagnosis and therapy programme. Clinical examination did not lead to pathologic findings for 7 of the patients; 3 patients suffered from general developmental disabilities. A neurologico-psychiatric examination showed pathological findings in 5 patients. Signal-intense foci in proton density and T2-weighted MR images were found in the globus pallidus, thalamus, hippocampus, cerebellum and midbrain. In 2 patients, these foci could be found as well in T1-weighted images. Differentiation between gliosis areas and low grade astrocytomas was not possible in MR.

  4. Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam

    2005-01-01

    On February 1, 2003 the Space Shuttle Columbia, returning to Earth with a crew of seven astronauts, disintegrated along a track extending from California to Louisiana. Observers on the ground filmed breakup of the spacecraft. Debris fell along a 567 statute mile track from Littlefield, Texas to Fort Polk, Louisiana; the largest ever recorded debris field. At the time of the accident the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) flight surgeon on-duty at the Mission Control Center (MCC) in Houston, Texas initiated the medical contingency response. The DOD surgeon at Patrick Air Force Base was notified, NASA medical personnel were recalled and the services of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) were requested. Subsequent to the accident the NASA flight surgeons that had supported the crew on orbit now provided medical support to the crewmember s families. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and numerous other federal, state and local agencies along with the citizens of Texas and Louisiana responded to the disaster. Search and recovery was managed from a Disaster Field Office (DFO) established in Lufkin, Texas. Mishap Investigation Team (MIT) medical operations were managed from Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana. Accident investigation teams (Columbia Accident Investigation Task Force (CAITF) and Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB)) appointed immediately after the disaster included current and former authorities in space medicine. In August 2003, the CAIB concluded its investigation and released its findings in a report published in February 2004.

  5. [MRT of the liver in Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vogl, T J; Steiner, S; Hammerstingl, R; Schwarz, S; Kraft, E; Weinzierl, M; Felix, R

    1994-01-01

    To show that Wilson's disease is one likely cause of multiple low-intensity nodules of the liver we obtained MR images in 16 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Wilson's disease. Corresponding to morphological changes MRI enabled the subdivision of the patients into two groups. Using a T2-weighted spin-echo sequence (TR/TE = 2000/45-90) liver parenchyma showed multiple tiny low-intensity-nodules surrounded by high-intensity septa in 10 out of 16 patients. 5 patients had also low-intensity nodules in T1-weighted images (TR/TE = 600/20). In patients of this group histopathology revealed liver cirrhosis (n = 7) and fibrosis (n = 2). Common feature of this patient group was marked inflammatory cell infiltration into fibrous septa, increase of copper concentration in liver parenchyma and distinct pathological changes of laboratory data. In the remaining 6 patients no pathological change of liver morphology was demonstrated by MRI corresponding to slight histopathological changes of parenchyma and normal laboratory data. As low-intensity nodules surrounded by high intensity septa can be demonstrated in patients with marked inflammatory infiltration of liver parenchyma MRI may help to define Wilson patients with poorer prognosis. In patients with low-intensity nodules of the liver and unknown cause of liver cirrhosis laboratory data and histopathology should be checked when searching for disorders of copper metabolism.

  6. Black Hawk Down: Film Zwischen Reflektion und Konstruktion Gesellschaftlicher Wirklichkeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pötzsch, Holger

    2009-05-01

    BLACK HAWK DOWN: FILM BETWEEN THE REFLECTION AND CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL REALITY - In this article, Ridley Scott's film Black Hawk Down (USA 2001) is read in the context of contemporary theories concerning cultural memory (Jan and Aleida Assmann) and media culture (Douglas Kellner). It is argued that film (and representation in general) does not merely reflect a preceding reality; it also actively serves to construct it. It is shown how Scott's film privileges one particular perspective on an actual event and how this point of view is objectified and installed in the memory of Western media culture. What potential implications does an increased blurring of fact and fiction in the representation of war have? What are the consequences for political and pedagogical practice? What role can cultural studies play in these processes?

  7. Franz Xaver Eder (1914 - 2009) Wanderer zwischen den Welten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Sigrid; Hoffmann, Dieter

    In seinem Essay "Die Struktur des historischen Universums" vergleicht Siegfried Kracauer die Mikrogeschichte mit den Großaufnahmen etwa von der Hand einer Figur, wie sie in Spielfilmen zwischengeschnitten werden.

  8. Zeitlicher Verlauf der avaskulären Nekrose des Hüftkopfes bei Patienten mit Pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Aghazadeh, Nessa; Saeidi, Vahide; Shahpouri, Farzam; Hejazi, Pardis; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda

    2016-10-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) wird in der Regel mit systemischen Corticosteroiden und Immunsuppressiva behandelt. Avaskuläre Nekrose (AVN) des Hüftkopfes ist eine gut bekannte schwerere Komplikation einer Corticosteroid-Therapie. Die Charakteristika dieser schweren Komplikation bei PV sind nach wie vor unbekannt. Nicht kontrollierte, retrospektive Untersuchung aller PV-bedingten AVN-Fälle, die in einer iranischen Klinik für bullöse Autoimmunerkrankungen zwischen 1985 und 2013 diagnostiziert wurden. Anhand der Krankenakten von 2321 untersuchten PV-Patienten wurden 45 Fälle (1,93 %) von femoraler AVN identifiziert. Dreißig davon waren Männer. Das mittlere Alter bei der Diagnose der AVN betrug 47,4 ± 14,2 Jahre. Der mittlere Zeitraum zwischen der Diagnose des PV und dem Einsetzen der AVN lag bei 25,3 ± 18,3 Monaten. Mit Ausnahme von acht Fällen (17,8 %) setzte die AVN bei der Mehrheit der Patienten innerhalb von drei Jahren nach Diagnose des PV ein. Die mittlere kumulative Dosis von Prednisolon bei Patienten mit AVN betrug 13.115,8 ± 7041,1 mg. Zwischen der Prednisolon-Gesamtdosis und dem Zeitraum bis zum Einsetzen der AVN bestand eine starke Korrelation (p = 0,001). Bei Patienten mit Alendronateinnahme in der Vorgeschichte war dieser Zeitraum signifikant kürzer (p = 0,01). Die AVN ist eine schwere Komplikation einer Corticosteroid-Behandlung bei Patienten mit PV. Sie wird bei 2 % der Patienten beobachtet und tritt vor allem in den ersten drei Behandlungsjahren auf. Bei Patienten, die höhere Dosen von Prednisolon erhalten, setzt die AVN tendenziell früher ein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Zwischen Commonsense und Wissenschaft Mathematik in der Erziehungsphilosophie A. N. Whiteheads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sölch, Dennis

    Obwohl Whitehead heute wie selbstverständlich als Philosoph rezipiert wird, so hat er seine wissenschaftliche Laufbahn doch als Mathematiker begonnen. Lange Zeit war er gemeinsam mit Bertrand Russell als Autor der Principia Mathematica unter Mathematikern und mathematischen Logikern deutlich besser bekannt als unter Philosophen. Doch selbst von denjenigen, die sich mit Whiteheads Überlegungen zur Metaphysik, zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte und zur Theologie befassen, werden seine Schriften zur Philosophie von Erziehung und Bildung häufig kaum beachtet. So entgeht es leicht, dass Whitehead nicht nur ein auf theoretischem Gebiet brillanter Mathematiker war, sondern sein theoretisches Fachwissen im Hinblick auf pädagogische und didaktische Relevanz fortwährend reflektiert hat.

  10. Diskrepanzen und Kongruenzen: Das Dilemma des afrikanischen Kindes zwischen Familie und Schule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Annemarie

    1986-03-01

    This article expounds the theory that the failure of school is due to the incompatibility of the educational goals of school and traditional upbringing in Africa. The thesis is put forward by adherents of the psychoanalytical model of child development and seeks to emphasize the discrepancies between the childhood where children are not frustrated and where their needs are cared for and the school education which represses the drives and its socialization of children. Finding a number of anthropological studies are discussed and reinterpretations of the ethno-psychoanalytical materials attempted. Neither the evaluation of childhood in Africa nor the theory that with school come wholly new expectations of behaviour (e.g., a performance requirement) can no longer be maintained. In conclusion, other explanations for the difficulties encountered by school in Africa are offered.

  11. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  12. MRT 5711 - Scope Radiochemical Analysis Comparison: Joint LANL-LLNL FY17 L-2 Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S. D.; Lee, A. S.

    A 2016 Level-1 milestone highlighted surprising differences in fundamental data used by the two US design laboratories. To better understand and ultimately resolve those differences, two Level-2 milestones were developed for execution in FY-17 and FY-18.

  13. [The effects of hook plates on the subacromial space--a clinical and MRT study].

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, J; Schmidt, J; Altmann, T

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of middle- and long-term results after treatment of acromioclavicular joint injuries with a hook plate as a temporary implant and a comparison of the results with those described in literature have been made. In a retrospective study we were able to conduct follow-up examinations on 28 out of 39 Tossy III patients (72 %) who received surgical treatment using a hook plate according to Dreithaler. Examinations took place on average 3.0 (1.2-5.6) years after surgery. A special focus of attention was the effect of the hook plate on the subacromial space. Accordingly, physical examination was supplemented by sonography of the shoulder as well as comparative bilateral shoulder MRI. 86 % of our patients expressed satisfaction with the functional outcome of surgery as opposed to 54 % concerning its cosmetic result. In shoulder sonography no patient turned out to have suffered a higher grade rotator cuff lesion, whereas age-related degenerative alterations were found in 46 % of the patients. Instability under load was found in 7 patients (25 %). Among these were 3 with severe instability (11 %). 2 patients (7 %) were found to have a permanent subluxation of the acromioclavicular joint with partial range of motion impairment. All scores monitored (DASH, Taft, Constant-Murley) on average returned good to excellent results. MRI scans displayed no case of higher grade rotator cuff lesion. In accordance with the findings of ultrasound imaging a higher incidence of extraarticular ossification was found as well as, in some cases, arthrosis of the acromioclavicular joint. In our opinion, the hook plate designed by Dreithaler is easy to handle and serves as a qualified implant for temporary stabilisation of the acromioclavicular joint with middle- and long-term good to excellent results.

  14. MRT letter: Guided filtering of image focus volume for 3D shape recovery of microscopic objects.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq

    2014-12-01

    In this letter, a shape from focus (SFF) method is proposed that utilizes the guided image filtering to enhance the image focus volume efficiently. First, image focus volume is computed using a conventional focus measure. Then each layer of image focus volume is filtered using guided filtering. In this work, the all-in-focus image, which can be obtained from the initial focus volume, is used as guidance image. Finally, improved depth map is obtained from the filtered image focus volume by maximizing the focus measure along the optical axis. The proposed SFF method is efficient and provides better depth maps. The improved performance is highlighted by conducting several experiments using image sequences of simulated and real microscopic objects. The comparative analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed SFF method. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. MRT letter: Auto-fluorescence by human alveolar macrophages after in vitro exposure to air pollution particles.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Sangani, Rahul G; Brighton, Luisa E; Carson, John L

    2010-06-01

    Macrophages from smokers demonstrate an increased auto-fluorescence. Similarly, auto-fluorescence follows in vitro exposure of macrophages to cigarette smoke condensate (i.e., the particulate fraction of cigarette smoke). The composition of particles in cigarette smoke can be comparable to air pollution particles. We tested the postulate that macrophages exposed to air pollution particles could demonstrate auto-fluorescence. Healthy nonsmoking and healthy smoking volunteers (both 18-40 years of age) underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and alveolar macrophages isolated. Macrophages were incubated at 37 degrees C in 5% CO(2) with either PBS or 100 microg/mL particle for both 1 and 24 h. Particles included a residual oil fly ash, Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash, and ambient air particles collected from St. Louis, Missouri and Salt Lake City, Utah. At the end of incubation, 50 microL of the cell suspension was cytocentrifuged and examined at modes for viewing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and rhodamine fluorescence. Both emission source air pollution particles demonstrated FITC and rhodamine auto-fluorescence at 1 and 24 h, but the signal following incubation of the macrophages with oil fly ash appeared greater. Similarly, the ambient particles were associated with auto-fluorescence by the alveolar macrophages and this appeared to be dose-dependent. We conclude that exposure of macrophages to air pollution particles can be associated with auto-fluorescence in the FITC and rhodamine modes. c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  16. "Astronomica" in the Correspondence between Leonhard Euler and Daniel Bernoull (German Title: "Astronomica" im Briefwechsel zwischen Leonhard Euler und Daniel Bernoulli)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdun, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    The Euler Commission of the Swiss Academy of Sciences intends to terminate the edition of Leonhard Euler's works in the next year 2011 after nearly one hundred years since the beginning of the editorial works. These works include, e.g., Volume 3 of the Series quarta A which will contain the correspondence between Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) and Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1783) and which is currently being edited by Dr. Emil A. Fellmann (Basel) and Prof. Dr. Gleb K. Mikhailov (Moscow). This correspondence contains more than hundred letters, principally from Daniel Bernoulli to Euler. Parts of this correspondence were published uncommented already in 1843. It is astonishing that, apart from mathematics and physics (mainly mechanics and hydrodynamics), many topics addressed concern astronomy. The major part of the preserved correspondence between Euler and Daniel Bernoulli, in which astronomical themes are discussed, concerns celestial mechanics as the dominant discipline of theoretical astronomy of the eighteenth century. It was triggered and coined mainly by the prize questions of the Paris Academy of Science. In more than two thirds of the letters current problems and questions concerning celestial mechanics of that time are treated, focusing on the lunar theory and the great inequality in the motions of Jupiter and Saturn as special applications of the three body problem. In the remaining letters, problems concerning spherical astronomy are solved and attempts are made to explain certain phenomena in the field of "cosmic physics" concerning astronomical observations.

  17. Zwischen Gesetz und Fall. Mutmassungen uber Typologien als Padagogische Wissensform (Between General Law and the Individual Case. Conjectures Concerning Typologies as a Form of Pedagogical Knowledge).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Considers the mediation between scientific knowledge and practical action as a crucial feature of professional teaching. Investigates the assumption that typologies represent a form of knowledge which can bridge the gap between theory and practice. Differentiates between two forms of typological thinking and discusses reservations concerning…

  18. Zwischen "Fassade" und "wirklicher Absicht": Eine Betrachtung uber die dritte Erziehungsreform in Japan = Between "Facade" and "Real Intent": Observations on Japan's Third Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Toshiko

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that the Japanese educational system consists of the "facade" of ministerially-decreed harmony and the "real intent" of competition. Argues that the balance between the two has been endangered by recent reforms that seek to promote "creativity and diversification." Suggests that policymakers did not analyze…

  19. Long-term variation of the concentrations of long-lived Rn descendants and cosmogenic 7Be and determination of the MRT of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, C.; Fernández, M. C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.; Cañete, S.

    During a 6 years period, the atmospheric activity concentrations of the long-lived 222Rn daughters and 7Be concentrations were measured at Málaga (36° 43'40″ N; 4° 28'8″ W). The concentration data of long-lived radon daughters and 7Be together with meteorological variables were used for a comprehensive regression analysis of weekly variation of radioactivity in air. The seasonal variations of the concentrations show similar trend for the long-lived daughters of radon and 7Be concentrations. The activity concentrations were observed to be higher during the summer months than in other seasons. From the ratio between the activity concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb, a mean residence time of aerosol particles in the atmosphere of about 31 days was obtained. The average concentrations values of 210Pb and 7Be over the 6 years period have been found to be 510 and 4.6 mBq m -3, respectively. A mean aerosol mass concentrations of (46.6±7.8) μg m -3 was also determined during the period of measurements. The 7Be/ 210Pb activity ratios varied between 11 and 8.4. Correlation study has been carried out between the aerosol mass and concentrations of these tracers.

  20. Double-mode Two-photon Absorption and Enhanced Photon Antibunching Due to Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandilla, A.; Ritze, H.-H.

    Inspired by results of interfering signal and idler from a nondegenerate parametric amplifier we investigate the photon statistics of the resulting field after interference of two components subjected to double-mode two-photon absorption. This absorption process leads to a strong correlation of the participating modes, which can be used to generate fields with photon antibunching in interference experiments. In addition the photon number can be made small, which produces enhanced antibunching.Translated AbstractZwei-Photonen-Absorption aus zwei Moden und durch Interferenz verstärktes photon antibunchingDie quantenmechanische Betrachtung der Interferenz führt zu neuen Ergebnissen, wenn Felder ohne klassisches Analogon betrachtet werden. Insbesondere ergibt sich durch die Reduktion der Photonenzahl durch Interferenz eine effektive Verstärkung des Photon Antibunching, wie von den Verfassern in vorhergehenden Arbeiten gezeigt wurde. Die vorliegende Untersuchung betrachtet die Interferenz von zwei korrelierten Moden, wobei die Korrelation durch Zwei-Photonen-Absorption aus den beiden Moden zustande kommt. In jeder einzelnen Mode ergibt sich lediglich ein gewisses Bunching, wenn man mit kohärentem Licht in beiden Moden beginnt. Es wird die Interferenz der Feldstärke-Komponenten in bestimmten Polarisationsrichtungen untersucht. Zur Vereinfachung wird in den betrachteten Moden die gleiche Anfangsphotonenzahl vorausgesetzt und der Analysator auf minimale Transmittanz gebracht. Das eigentliche Signal entsteht dann durch Einführung einer endlichen Phasenverschiebung zwischen den beiden Moden. Dieses Signal zeigt Antibunching und kann in seiner Intensität beliebig variiert werden, was wegen des (1/n)-Charakters des Antibunching zu seiner Verstärkung führt. Ferner wird gezeigt, daß die zunächst für zwei linear polarisierte Moden durchgeführte Rechnung auf zwei zirkulare Moden sowie auf zwei gegenläufige Strahlen bei der dopplerfreien Zwei-Quanten-Absorption

  1. ABCB1-Gen-Polymorphismus in einer polnischen Kohorte ist mit Risiko für bullöses Pemphigoid assoziiert.

    PubMed

    Rychlik-Sych, Mariola; Barańska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Michał; Skrętkowicz, Jadwiga; Żebrowska, Agnieszka; Owczarek, Jacek; Waszczykowska, Elżbieta

    2017-05-01

    Polymorphismen im ABCB1-Gen, das für das P-Glykoprotein kodiert, können die intrazelluläre Konzentration von Xenobiotika beeinflussen und so zur Entwicklung von Autoimmunerkrankungen, einschließlich des bullösen Pemphigoids (BP), beitragen. In der vorliegenden Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob in einer polnischen Kohorte die C3435T- und G2677T/A-Polymorphismen im ABCB1-Gen mit dem Risiko für ein BP assoziiert sind. Die Studie umfasste 71 Patienten mit BP und 156 gesunde Probanden. Der C3435T-Polymorphismus wurde mittels PCR-RFLP bestimmt und der G2677T/A-Polymorphismus mittels Allel-spezifischer PCR. Es gab zwar keine Korrelation zwischen dem C3435-Polymorphismus und dem BP-Risiko, aber wir konnten eine derartige Assoziation hinsichtlich des G2677T/A-Polymorphismus nachweisen. Das relative Risiko eines BP war bei Personen mit dem 2677TA-Genotyp um mehr als den Faktor fünf erhöht (OR = 5,52; p = 0,0063) und bei Trägern des 2677TT-Genotyps mehr als verdoppelt (OR = 2,40; p = 0,0076). Mit 2,40 (p = 0,000018) war die OR bei Trägern des 2677T-Allels ebenfalls erhöht. Die höhere Prävalenz des 2677GG-Genotyps und des 2677G-Allels bei der Kontrollgruppe sowie eine OR < 1,0 (0,22 beziehungsweise 0,33) legen eine Schutzfunktion des 2677G-Allels hinsichtlich der Ausbildung eines BP nahe. Die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Studie zeigen, dass der G2677T/A-Polymorphismus im ABCB1-Gen das Risiko für die Entstehung eines BP beeinflussen könnte. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Reproductive and some peri-natal variables in a mixed breed beef cattle herd.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, R W; Gifford, D R

    1994-01-12

    ährend Korrelationen zwischen DC und Funktionen von DC auch nahe 1 waren. Die Korrelationen von DC mit BW und CE schwankten wenig nach den verschiedenen Transformationen und bewegten sich zwischen 0,26 und 0,28 sowie 0,10 und 0,12. Die Korrelation zwischen BW und CE war 0,06. Die Untersuchung weist auf eine Reihe von Problemen, die sich durch die Verwendung von DC als Reproduktionsvariable von Fleischrindern ergeben. Es wird der Schluß gezogen, daß DC derzeit zwar nützliche Information für die Praxis ist, daß aber das Suchen nach wissenschaftlich angemessenen weiblichen Reproduktionsmerkmalen fortgesetzt werden sollte. RESUMEN: Variables reproductivas y peri-natales en un rodeo de vacunos de carne de varias razas Las variables éxito al parto (CS), dias al parto (DC), peso al nacer (BW) y facilidad de parto (CE) se estudiaron en un rodeo de vacunos de carne compuesto de varias razas (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford y Simmental × Hereford). DC no estaba normalmente distribuida y una serie de transformaciones ensayadas fracasaron en normalizar esta variable. Las repetibilidades se estimaron por análisis de variancia. La inclusión (o exclusión) de las vacas falladas (no paridas) del análisis y las transformaciones estudiadas tuvieron poco efecto en la repetibilidad de DC, que varió de 0.10 a 0.12. Las repetibilidades de CS, BW y CE fueron 0.08, 0.26 y 0.03, respectivamente. Las correlaciones residuales de CS con DC y con funciones de DC fueron altas (valor absoluto 0.68 o mayor), mientras que las correlaciones entre DC y funciones de DC fueron cerca de uno. Las correlaciones de DC con BW y CE variaron poco con la transformación aplicada a DC, yendo (en valor absoluto) de 0.26 a 0.28 y 0.10 a 0.12, respectivamente. La correlación entre BW y CE fue de 0.06. El estudio apunta a una serie de problemas asociados con el uso de DC como variable reproductiva en vacunos de carne. Se concluye que aunque DC es actualmente una útil variable reproductiva de campo, la búsqueda de rasgos

  3. Sensitivity of malignant rhabdoid tumor cell lines to PD 0332991 is inversely correlated with p16 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Katsumi, Yoshiki; Iehara, Tomoko; Miyachi, Mitsuru

    Highlights: {yields} PD 0332991 (PD) could suppress four of five malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) cell lines. {yields} The sensitivity of the MRT cell lines to PD was inversely correlated with p16 expression (r = 0.951). {yields} p16 expression in MRT could be used to predict its sensitivity to PD. {yields} PD may be an attractive agent for patients with MRT whose tumors express low levels of p16. -- Abstract: Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm of young children. MRT is characterized by inactivation of integrase interactor 1 (INI1). Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), which acts downstreammore » of INI1, is required for the proliferation of MRT cells. Here we investigated the effects of PD 0332991 (PD), a potent inhibitor of CDK4, against five human MRT cell lines (MP-MRT-AN, KP-MRT-RY, G401, KP-MRT-NS, KP-MRT-YM). In all of the cell lines except KP-MRT-YM, PD inhibited cell proliferation >50%, (IC{sub 50} values 0.01 to 0.6 {mu}M) by WST-8 assay, and induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest, as shown by flow cytometry and BrdU incorporation assay. The sensitivity of the MRT cell lines to PD was inversely correlated with p16 expression (r = 0.951). KP-MRT-YM cells overexpress p16 and were resistant to the growth inhibitory effect of PD. Small interfering RNA against p16 significantly increased the sensitivity of KP-MRT-YM cells to PD (p < 0.05). These results suggest that p16 expression in MRT could be used to predict its sensitivity to PD. PD may be an attractive agent for patients with MRT whose tumors express low levels of p16.« less

  4. Zwischen Wollen, aber nicht können und Können, aber nicht wollen: Übergangsprobleme von Jugendlichen in Japan am Beispiel der „Freeter`` und „NEETs``

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eswein, Mikiko; Pilz, Matthias

    2012-08-01

    Caught between wanting but not being able to, and being able, but not wanting to: Transitional problems among Japanese youths based on the examples of "Freeters" and "NEETs" - The study of processes of transition from the education system to employment is particularly important in light of youth unemployment. In Japan this transition process is often declared to be successful. In recent years, however, numerous signs have indicated a change in the situation. This article analyses this problem based on the examples of two Japanese social groups, "Freeters" and "NEETs". These terms refer to young adults who do not immediately move into to regular employment. The article begins by analysing the causes, then comments on education policy measures undertaken to tackle the issue. Drawing on scientifically grounded models it is shown that both social groups are characterised by meagre formal school qualifications. Social background, by contrast, is not particularly relevant; although there are hints that parents' financial means play an increasingly important role in determining whether a young person attends a high-level educational institution. Although public opinion in Japan frequently attributes values and attitudes to these groups that deviate from the norm, this is not conclusively supported by existing empirical findings. Consequently, the reasons for these transitional problems tend to be perceived as being connected to the difficult labour market situation resulting from the ongoing economic crisis. In addition to certain education policy initiatives, Japan will therefore rely heavily in future on the ability to effectively manage the integration of its shrinking cohorts of school and university graduates.

  5. Controlling betrieblicher Weiterbildung zwischen Hoffnung und Illuson - oder: Auch im Westen nicht viel Neues (The Controlling of Within-Company Further Education between Hope and Illusion, or: Nothing New in the West).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Volker

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a survey of recent within-company further education publications available in German speaking areas, Anglo-Saxon countries, France, and Switzerland. Argues that there is a basic consensus evident in these publications. Critiques published patent remedies for controlling within-company further education. Searches for new methods of…

  6. H.C. Schumacher - Center of international communication in astronomy and mediator betwen Denmark an Germany. (German Title: H.C. Schumacher - Zentrum der internationalen Kommunikation in der Astronomie und Mittler zwischen Dänemark und Deutschland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    As the editor of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'', H.C. Schumacher played an outstanding role among the astronomers of the first half of the 19th century. Altona, his place of activity, belonged to the kingdom of Denmark. Both the foundation of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'' and its existence depended for several decades on the support by the Danish kings and high-ranking officials at the Copenhagen court. This paper analyses these questions on the basis of previously unused archival sources and discusses also Schumacher's life and his relations to the royal dynasty.

  7. Der Begriff des "Ki" und die japanische Padagogik: Uber Konflikte zwischen westlicher und japanischer Padagogik (The Concept of "Ki" and Japanese Pedagogy: On Conflicts between Western and Japanese Pedagogics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujikawa, Nobuo

    1997-01-01

    Sketches the characteristics of the Japanese educational tradition and analyzes conflicts between modern western pedagogies and traditional education. Argues that Japanese socialization processes stress a specifically Japanese construction of the "self" and of behavior. Concludes that Japanese educators should be more aware of this…

  8. 75 FR 23749 - Combined Notice of Filings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... amended negotiated rate agreement between MRT and LER. Filed Date: 04/26/2010. Accession Number: 20100426... between MRT and CES. Filed Date: 04/26/2010. Accession Number: 20100426-0212. Comment Date: 5 p.m. Eastern...

  9. [Cardiopulmonary dynamics during a maximal exertion test in Mexican endurance athletes].

    PubMed

    Padilla, J; Martínez, E; Olvera, G; Ojeda Cruz, P; Caudillo Pérez, D

    2000-01-01

    To search for cardiopulmonary (CP) kinetic and dynamic differences between Mexican resistance athletes (RES = 10) and non athletes (NON = 19). From the expired volume (Ve), measured by an open circuit spirometry, we calculated both VO2 and VCO2 during stress test while the volunteer pedalled seated on an electronic cycloergometer that started at 50 W.2 min-1 followed by increments of 25 W.2 min-1 each, until VO2máx was reached. The exercise transient time course (min) response (VO2, VCO2, Ve and heart rate, HR; and also O2 pulse, PulO2) was transformed to seconds and modelled by computer using linear regression technique by the interactive minimum squares method, and the mean response time (MRT) was used as an overall kinetic CP parameter. The transient MRTs for VO2, VCO2 and Ve were slow in RES compared to NON. While the transient CP dynamics in NON lasted MRT_VO2 < (MRT_PulO2, MRT_FC) < MRT_VCO2 < MRT_Ve; the RES: both MRT_PulO2 and MRT_HR shifted to the right ((MRT_VO2, MRT_VCO2) < (MRT_PulO2, MRT_FC) < MRT_Ve). The relationships between the best sport profit mean velocity and both the MRT_VO2, MRT_VCO2 and MRT_PulO2 (GEK = gas exchange kinetics) showed fast_RES and slow_GEK, and slow_RES and fast_GEK. The transient CP kinetics was slow in RES compared NON. It is possible to distinguish cardiopulmonary kinetic differences among resistance athletes holding different sport profiles.

  10. Confidence and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke-Simpson, Amanda; Voyer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-reported confidence ratings, performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and guessing behavior on the MRT. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while rating their confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in…

  11. Two Readiness Measures As Predictors Of First- And Third-Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randel, Mildred A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Multiple-regression procedures were used to assess effectiveness of the ABC Inventory and the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) in predicting first- and third-grade reading achievement. MRT performance accounted for 11 percent of the variance in first-grade SRA reading scores. In predicting third-grade reading, the MRT accounted for 26 percent of…

  12. 76 FR 1144 - CenterPoint Energy-Mississippi River Transmission Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... that on December 15, 2010, CenterPoint Energy- Mississippi River Transmission Corporation (MRT), 1111... Lincoln Parish, Louisiana. MRT states that the Inventory Verification Study disclosed a difference of approximately 1.2 Bcf less cushion gas than the accounting records. MRT avers that the differences were due to...

  13. Prediction of Academic Achievement with the McCarthy Screening Test and Metropolitan Readiness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullo, Dominic F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of the McCarthy Screening Test (MST) and Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) to predict academic readiness after kindergarten and achievement at the end of first grade. The MST significantly predicted children's scores of the MRT and SFAT. Additionally, the MRT was a significant predictor of the SFAT. (JAC)

  14. Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Divergence in Global Policy.

    PubMed

    Schandera, Johanna; Mackey, Tim K

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the UK became the first country permitting the clinical application of mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRT). Here, we explore how MRT have led to diverging international policy. In response, we recommend focused regulatory efforts coupled with United Nations (UN) leadership to build international consensus on the future of MRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validating a visual version of the metronome response task.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Patrick; Seli, Paul; Smilek, Daniel

    2018-02-12

    The metronome response task (MRT)-a sustained-attention task that requires participants to produce a response in synchrony with an audible metronome-was recently developed to index response variability in the context of studies on mind wandering. In the present studies, we report on the development and validation of a visual version of the MRT (the visual metronome response task; vMRT), which uses the rhythmic presentation of visual, rather than auditory, stimuli. Participants completed the vMRT (Studies 1 and 2) and the original (auditory-based) MRT (Study 2) while also responding to intermittent thought probes asking them to report the depth of their mind wandering. The results showed that (1) individual differences in response variability during the vMRT are highly reliable; (2) prior to thought probes, response variability increases with increasing depth of mind wandering; (3) response variability is highly consistent between the vMRT and the original MRT; and (4) both response variability and depth of mind wandering increase with increasing time on task. Our results indicate that the original MRT findings are consistent across the visual and auditory modalities, and that the response variability measured in both tasks indexes a non-modality-specific tendency toward behavioral variability. The vMRT will be useful in the place of the MRT in experimental contexts in which researchers' designs require a visual-based primary task.

  16. Homozygosity mapping in 64 Syrian consanguineous families with non-specific intellectual disability reveals 11 novel loci and high heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Abou Jamra, R; Wohlfart, Sigrun; Zweier, Markus; Uebe, Steffen; Priebe, Lutz; Ekici, Arif; Giesebrecht, Susanne; Abboud, Ahmad; Al Khateeb, Mohammed Ayman; Fakher, Mahmoud; Hamdan, Saber; Ismael, Amina; Muhammad, Safia; Nöthen, Markus M; Schumacher, Johannes; Reis, André

    2011-01-01

    Non-specific intellectual disability of autosomal recessive inheritance (NS-ARID) represents an important fraction of severe cognitive dysfunction disorders. To date, only 10 genes have been identified, and further 24 linked-ARID loci have been reported, as well as others with suggestive linkage. To discover novel genes causing NS-ARID, we undertook genome-wide homozygosity mapping in 64 consanguineous multiplex families of Syrian descent. A total of 11 families revealed unique, significantly linked loci at 4q26-4q28 (MRT17), 6q12-q15 (MRT18), 18p11 (MRT19), 16p12-q12 (MRT20), 11p15 (MRT21), 11p13-q14 (MRT23), 6p12 (MRT24), 12q13-q15 (MRT25), 14q11-q12 (MRT26), 15q23-q26 (MRT27), and 6q26-q27 (MRT28), respectively. Loci ranged between 1.2 and 45.6 Mb in length. One family showed linkage to chromosome 8q24.3, and we identified a mutation in TRAPPC9. Our study further highlights the extreme heterogeneity of NS-ARID, and suggests that no major disease gene is to be expected, at least in this study group. Systematic analysis of large numbers of affected families, as presented here, will help discovering the genetic causes of ID. PMID:21629298

  17. Change in genetic correlation due to selection using animal model evaluation.

    PubMed

    Strandén, I; Mäntysaari, E A; Mäki-Tanila, A

    1993-01-12

    Monte Carlo simulation and analytical calculations were used to study the effect of selection on genetic correlation between two traits. The simulated breeding program was based on a closed adult multiple ovulation and embryo transfer nucleus breeding scheme. Selection was on an index calculated using multi-trait animal model (AM). Analytical formulae applicable to any evaluation method were derived to predict change in genetic (co)variance due to selection under multi-trait selection using different evaluation methods. Two formulae were investigated, one assuming phenotypic selection and the other based on a recursive two-generation AM selection index. The recursive AM method approximated information due to relatives by a relationship matrix of two generations. Genetic correlation after selection was compared under different levels of initial genetic and environmental correlations with two different selection criteria. Changes in genetic correlation were similar in simulation and analytical predictions. After one round of selection the recursive AM method and the simulation gave similar predictions while the phenotypic selection predicted usually more change in genetic correlation. After several rounds of selection both analytical formulae predicted more change in genetic correlation than the simulation. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Änderung der genetischen Korrelation bei Selektion mit einem Tiermodell Der Selektionseffekt auf die genetische Korrelation zwischen zwei Merkmalen wurde mit Hilfe von Monte Carlo-Simulation und analytischen Berechnungen untersucht. Ein geschlossener Adulter - MOET (Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer) Zuchtplan wurde simuliert. Die Selektion gründete sich auf einen Index, der die Zuchtwertschätzung des Mehrmerkmals-Tiermodells benutzte. Analytische Formeln für die Voraussage der Änderung der genetischen (Ko)varianz unter multivariate Selektion für verschiedene Zuchtwertschätzungsmethode wurden deduziert. Zwei Formeln wurden studiert

  18. Fructose 1,6-biphosphate aldolase in the sera of Simmental young bulls Connection with the fattening capacity, muscle quantity and protein content.

    PubMed

    Križanović, D; Karadjole, I

    1993-01-12

    The activity of enzyme aldolase (ALD) was determined in the sera of Simmental young bulls, with the purpose to see whether there exists a relationship between the enzyme activity and fattening capacity and whether the ALD could be an indicator of the muscle quantity and protein content. Early ALD activity was correlated with slaughter weight and ADG in the last fattening month. The regression analysis suggests that young bulls with higher serum ALD acitivity at the start of the experiment had more total muscles and less bone in the analysed rib part. On the basis of ALD activity in the first fattening month it was possible to estimate protein and fat content in the MLD. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Fructose-1,6-biphosphat Aldolase beim Serum Simmentaler Jungbullen. Beziehung zwischen Mastfähigkeit, Muskelmenge und Proteingehalt Aldolase (ALD) Enzymtätigkeit im Serum von Simmentaler Jungbullen wurden in Hinblick auf eine Beziehung mit Mastfähigkeit, Muskelmenge und Proteingehalt untersucht. Es zeigt sich eine Korrelation zwischen früher ALD Aktivität und Schlachtgewicht und Tageszuwachs im Endmastmonat. Regressionsanalyse ergab, daß Jungbullen mit höherer ALD Aktivität bei Mastbeginn mehr Muskelanteil im m. longissimus dorsi und weniger Knochen besitzen. ALD Aktivität im ersten Mastmonat erlaubt Schätzung des Protein- und Fettgehalts im m. long, dorsi. RESUMEN: Fructosa 1,6-bifosfato aldolasa en el suero de los terneros simentales. Relatión con sus capacidades de ser cebados, su cantidad de músculos y el contenido de proteínas Con el fin de establecer la relación entre la actividad de enzimas y las capacidades durante el proceso de la ceba, asf como para precisar si el ALD puede servir como indicador de la cantidad de músculos y el contenido de proteinas, intentaba determinarse la actividad de los enzimas de aldolasa (ALD) en el suero de los terneros simentales. A base de la actividad indicial del ALD, es posible estimar el peso final de matadero y la crecencia

  19. Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: II. Residual-Field Inspection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    and low Hmax. In this way, the flux density in the material for the specimen with intermediate k (k = 36.4) magnetised using Hmax = 250 Oe... aerospace components for surface-breaking fatigue cracks. In the residual-field variant of MRT, inspections are performed following the application...packages which can adequately predict the fields produced in practical residual-field MRT. Finally, central- conductor MRT, for which there are fewer

  20. Causation and Validation of Nursing Diagnoses: A Middle Range Theory.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios; da Silva, Viviane Martins; Herdman, T Heather

    2017-01-01

    To describe a predictive middle range theory (MRT) that provides a process for validation and incorporation of nursing diagnoses in clinical practice. Literature review. The MRT includes definitions, a pictorial scheme, propositions, causal relationships, and translation to nursing practice. The MRT can be a useful alternative for education, research, and translation of this knowledge into practice. This MRT can assist clinicians in understanding clinical reasoning, based on temporal logic and spectral interaction among elements of nursing classifications. In turn, this understanding will improve the use and accuracy of nursing diagnosis, which is a critical component of the nursing process that forms a basis for nursing practice standards worldwide. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.

  1. Metal Separations and Recovery in the Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil E.

    2012-11-01

    Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) plays an important role in the hydrometallurgical processing dissolved entities in solutions in the mining industry. The status of this industry with respect to sustainability and environmental issues is presented and discussed. The roles of MRT and ion exchange in metal separation and recovery processes in the mining industry are discussed and evaluated. Examples of MRT separation processes of interest to the mining community are given involving gold, cobalt purification by extraction of trace cadmium, rhenium, and platinum group metals (PGMs). MRT processes are shown to be sustainable, economically viable, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly, and to have a low carbon footprint.

  2. Schule in der Transformation--Transformation der Schule? Was man aus Gesprachen mit ehemaligen Schulern uber die Schule "zwischen zwei Diktaturen" erfahren kann (Schools in Transitions--Transformation of the School? What Can Be Learnt from Former Students Who Experienced Schooling under Two Dictatorial Regimes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluchert, Gerhard; Leschinsky, Achim

    1998-01-01

    Addresses interviews that focused on former students' educations under two dictatorial regimes. All the interviewees took their school-leaving examinations between 1951 and 1954. Explains that the interviews are evaluated according to the preconditions, limits, and mechanisms of the school's influence on children and adolescents. (CMK)

  3. Engineered Modular Recombinant Transporters: Application of New Platform for Targeted Radiotherapeutic Agents to {alpha}-Particle Emitting {sup 211}At

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Department of Biophysics, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To generate and evaluate a modular recombinant transporter (MRT) for targeting {sup 211}At to cancer cells overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods and Materials: The MRT was produced with four functional modules: (1) human epidermal growth factor as the internalizable ligand, (2) the optimized nuclear localization sequence of simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen, (3) a translocation domain of diphtheria toxin as an endosomolytic module, and (4) the Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein (HMP) as a carrier module. MRT was labeled using N-succinimidyl 3-[{sup 211}At]astato-5-guanidinomethylbenzoate (SAGMB), its {sup 125}I analogue SGMIB, or with {sup 131}I using Iodogen.more » Binding, internalization, and clonogenic assays were performed with EGFR-expressing A431, D247 MG, and U87MG.wtEGFR human cancer cell lines. Results: The affinity of SGMIB-MRT binding to A431 cells, determined by Scatchard analysis, was 22 nM, comparable to that measured before labeling. The binding of SGMIB-MRT and its internalization by A431 cancer cells was 96% and 99% EGFR specific, respectively. Paired label assays demonstrated that compared with Iodogen-labeled MRT, SGMIB-MRT and SAGMB-MRT exhibited more than threefold greater peak levels and durations of intracellular retention of activity. SAGMB-MRT was 10-20 times more cytotoxic than [{sup 211}At]astatide for all three cell lines. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated the initial proof of principle for the MRT approach for designing targeted {alpha}-particle emitting radiotherapeutic agents. The high cytotoxicity of SAGMB-MRT for cancer cells overexpressing EGFR suggests that this {sup 211}At-labeled conjugate has promise for the treatment of malignancies, such as glioma, which overexpress this receptor.« less

  4. Emergent Literacy: A Comparison of Formal and Informal Assessment Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlin, Rebecca; Lipa, Sally

    1990-01-01

    Compares the effectiveness of the Concepts about Print (CAP) Test and the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) in assessing the literacy development of both normal and at-risk primary students. Finds the CAP to be an effective predictor for at-risk children. Finds the MRT not worth the time, effort, and cost of administration. (RS)

  5. Beyond Genetics in Mental Rotation Test Performance: The Power of Effort Attribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the effects on Mental Rotation Test (MRT) performance of instructions that stress the importance of (a) personal effort, and (b) genetically driven ability. A total of 120 high-school students were assigned to three groups, and administered two sub-tests of the MRT. Between the first and second sub-tests, the groups received…

  6. Sex Differences in Prereading Skills in Beginning Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuneman, Janice; Mitchell, Blythe C.

    Data collected during the standardization of the 1976 Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) were examined to provide information on sex differences in prereading skills. The MRT are designed for administration either at the beginning of kindergarten or between kindergarten and first grade. Performance on the six subtests and the total test on both…

  7. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Readiness Test Scores for Kindergarten Children and Achievement Scores Obtained at the End of Grades One and Two. S.S.T.A. Research Centre Report No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentin, Lena

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) scores in kindergarten (MRTK) and grade one (MRT1) with the reading scores of the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills (CTBS) at the end of grades one (CTBSR1) and two (CTBSR2). A secondary purpose of the study was to determine whether the…

  8. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  9. Predicting School Enrollments Using the Modified Regression Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grip, Richard S.; Young, John W.

    This report is based on a study in which a regression model was constructed to increase accuracy in enrollment predictions. A model, known as the Modified Regression Technique (MRT), was used to examine K-12 enrollment over the past 20 years in 2 New Jersey school districts of similar size and ethnicity. To test the model's accuracy, MRT was…

  10. A Cross-Modal Assessment of Reading Achievement in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Kathryn; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This study examined the ability of the Listen and Look (LL) test of cross-modal perception and the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) to predict reading achievement. Data from 79 first-grade pupils were analyzed. Both the LL and MRT demonstrated predictive validity. (Author/BW)

  11. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  12. A Further Examination of the Effects of Administering the Metropolitan Reading Tests in Spanish and English to Spanish-Speaking School Entrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Sylvia; And Others

    In a study designed to assess effects of administering the Metropolitan Reading Test (MRT) in Spanish versus English, 100 Puerto Rican kindergarten pupils were randomly split into two groups. The MRT was administered in English to one group and in a Spanish translation to the other group. The group who took the Spanish version significantly…

  13. Predicting Achievement in Grades Three through Ten Using the Metropolitan Readiness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, L. David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assessed correlations between 415 first graders' scores on the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and their scores on standardized achievement tests in mathematics and reading in grades 3, 6, 9, and 10. Concluded that the MRT has potential for contributing to readiness decisions in early grades. (MM)

  14. The Predictive Validity of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests, 1976 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of 176 first-grade children was tested on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests, 1976 Edition (MRT), during the initial month of school and was retested eight months later on the Stanford Achievement Test. Results demonstrated substantial validity of the MRT for predicting first-grade achievement. (Author/CTM)

  15. The Relationship of Maternal and Infant Variables to School Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rosalyn A.; And Others

    A prospective longitudinal investigation related 76 maternal and infant variables to performance on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) at age six. The 1,245 study subjects have been followed since birth. Their distribution on measures of intelligence and socioeconomic status is essentially normal. Subjects with high MRT scores were found to…

  16. A Mitochondrial Story: Mitochondrial Replacement, Identity and Narrative.

    PubMed

    Scully, Jackie Leach

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRT) are intended to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from mother to child. MRT represent a potentially powerful new biomedical technology with ethical, policy, economic and social implications. Among other ethical questions raised are concerns about the possible effects on the identity of children born from MRT, their families, and the providers or donors of mitochondria. It has been suggested that MRT can influence identity (i) directly, through altering the genetic makeup and physical characteristics of the child, or (ii) indirectly through changing the child's experience of disease, and by generating novel intrafamilial relationships that shape the sense of self. In this article I consider the plausibility and ethical implications of these proposed identity effects, but I focus instead on a third way in which identity may be affected, through the mediating influence of the wider social world on MRT effects on identity. By taking a narrative approach, and examining the nature and availability of identity narratives, I conclude that while neither direct genetic nor indirect experiential effects can be excluded, social responses to MRT are more likely to have a significant and potentially damaging influence on the generation of MRT children's narratives of identity. This conclusion carries some implications for the collective moral responsibility we hold to ensure that MRT, if implemented, are practised in ethically justifiable ways. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sex-Specific Response Strategies in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Hausmann, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the marked sex difference in the original mental rotation test (MRT) is simply a result of sex differences in response strategies. Thirty-four participants (17 males, 17 females) completed the revised Vandenberg and Kuse MRT [Peters, M., Laeng, B., Latham, K., Jackson, M., Zaiyouna, R., & Richardson, C.…

  18. Increased Specificity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Matrix Reasoning Test Instructions and Time Limits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callens, Andy M.; Atchison, Timothy B.; Engler, Rachel R.

    2009-01-01

    Instructions for the Matrix Reasoning Test (MRT) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition were modified by explicitly stating that the subtest was untimed or that a per-item time limit would be imposed. The MRT was administered within one of four conditions: with (a) standard administration instructions, (b) explicit instructions…

  19. Master Resilience Training in the U.S. Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reivich, Karen J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.; McBride, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Army Master Resilience Trainer (MRT) course, which provides face-to-face resilience training, is one of the foundational pillars of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program. The 10-day MRT course is the foundation for training resilience skills to sergeants and for teaching sergeants how to teach these skills to their soldiers. The…

  20. Treating Brain Tumor with Microbeam Radiation Generated by a Compact Carbon-Nanotube-Based Irradiator: Initial Radiation Efficacy Study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Frank, Jonathan E; Inscoe, Christina R; Burk, Laurel M; Hadsell, Mike; Lee, Yueh Z; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Microbeam radiation treatment (MRT) using synchrotron radiation has shown great promise in the treatment of brain tumors, with a demonstrated ability to eradicate the tumor while sparing normal tissue in small animal models. With the goal of expediting the advancement of MRT research beyond the limited number of synchrotron facilities in the world, we recently developed a compact laboratory-scale microbeam irradiator using carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission-based X-ray source array technology. The focus of this study is to evaluate the effects of the microbeam radiation generated by this compact irradiator in terms of tumor control and normal tissue damage in a mouse brain tumor model. Mice with U87MG human glioblastoma were treated with sham irradiation, low-dose MRT, high-dose MRT or 10 Gy broad-beam radiation treatment (BRT). The microbeams were 280 μm wide and spaced at 900 μm center-to-center with peak dose at either 48 Gy (low-dose MRT) or 72 Gy (high-dose MRT). Survival studies showed that the mice treated with both MRT protocols had a significantly extended life span compared to the untreated control group (31.4 and 48.5% of life extension for low- and high-dose MRT, respectively) and had similar survival to the BRT group. Immunostaining on MRT mice demonstrated much higher DNA damage and apoptosis level in tumor tissue compared to the normal brain tissue. Apoptosis in normal tissue was significantly lower in the low-dose MRT group compared to that in the BRT group at 48 h postirradiation. Interestingly, there was a significantly higher level of cell proliferation in the MRT-treated normal tissue compared to that in the BRT-treated mice, indicating rapid normal tissue repairing process after MRT. Microbeam radiation exposure on normal brain tissue causes little apoptosis and no macrophage infiltration at 30 days after exposure. This study is the first biological assessment on MRT effects using the compact CNT-based irradiator. It provides an alternative

  1. Better Efficacy of Synchrotron Spatially Microfractionated Radiation Therapy Than Uniform Radiation Therapy on Glioma.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Audrey; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda; El Atifi, Michèle; Rogalev, Léonid; Le Clec'h, Céline; Laissue, Jean Albert; Pelletier, Laurent; Le Duc, Géraldine

    2016-08-01

    Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is based on the spatial fractionation of the incident, highly focused synchrotron beam into arrays of parallel microbeams, typically a few tens of microns wide and depositing several hundred grays. This irradiation modality was shown to have a high therapeutic impact on tumors, especially in intracranial locations. However, mechanisms responsible for such a property are not fully understood. Thanks to recent progress in dosimetry, we compared the effect of MRT and synchrotron broad beam (BB) radiation therapy delivered at comparable doses (equivalent to MRT valley dose) on tumor growth control and on classical radiobiological functions by histologic evaluation and/or transcriptomic analysis. MRT significantly improved survival of rats bearing 9L intracranial glioma compared with BB radiation therapy delivered at a comparable dose (P<.001); the efficacy of MRT and BB radiation therapy was similar when the MRT dose was half that of BB. The greater efficacy of MRT was not correlated with a difference in cell proliferation (Mki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) or in transcriptomic stimulation of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor A or tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 2) but was correlated with a higher cell death rate (factor for apoptosis signals) and higher recruitment of macrophages (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 1 and CD68 transcripts) a few days after MRT. These results show the superiority of MRT over BB radiation therapy when applied at comparable doses, suggesting that spatial fractionation is responsible for a specific and particularly efficient tissue response. The higher induction of cell death and immune cell activation in brain tumors treated by MRT may be involved in such responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Better Efficacy of Synchrotron Spatially Microfractionated Radiation Therapy Than Uniform Radiation Therapy on Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchet, Audrey, E-mail: audrey.m.bouchet@gmail.com; Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is based on the spatial fractionation of the incident, highly focused synchrotron beam into arrays of parallel microbeams, typically a few tens of microns wide and depositing several hundred grays. This irradiation modality was shown to have a high therapeutic impact on tumors, especially in intracranial locations. However, mechanisms responsible for such a property are not fully understood. Methods and Materials: Thanks to recent progress in dosimetry, we compared the effect of MRT and synchrotron broad beam (BB) radiation therapy delivered at comparable doses (equivalent to MRT valley dose) on tumor growth control andmore » on classical radiobiological functions by histologic evaluation and/or transcriptomic analysis. Results: MRT significantly improved survival of rats bearing 9L intracranial glioma compared with BB radiation therapy delivered at a comparable dose (P<.001); the efficacy of MRT and BB radiation therapy was similar when the MRT dose was half that of BB. The greater efficacy of MRT was not correlated with a difference in cell proliferation (Mki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) or in transcriptomic stimulation of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor A or tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 2) but was correlated with a higher cell death rate (factor for apoptosis signals) and higher recruitment of macrophages (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 1 and CD68 transcripts) a few days after MRT. Conclusions: These results show the superiority of MRT over BB radiation therapy when applied at comparable doses, suggesting that spatial fractionation is responsible for a specific and particularly efficient tissue response. The higher induction of cell death and immune cell activation in brain tumors treated by MRT may be involved in such responses.« less

  3. Validation of the mean radiant temperature simulated by the RayMan software in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjung; Mayer, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    The RayMan software is worldwide applied in investigations on different issues in human-biometeorology. However, only the simulated mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) has been validated so far in a few case studies. They are based on T mrt values, which were experimentally determined in urban environments by use of a globe thermometer or applying the six-directional method. This study analyses previous T mrt validations in a comparative manner. Their results are extended by a recent validation of T mrt in an urban micro-environment in Freiburg (southwest Germany), which can be regarded as relatively heterogeneous due to different shading intensities by tree crowns. In addition, a validation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) simulated by RayMan is conducted for the first time. The validations are based on experimentally determined T mrt and PET values, which were calculated from measured meteorological variables in the daytime of a clear-sky summer day. In total, the validation results show that RayMan is capable of simulating T mrt satisfactorily under relatively homogeneous site conditions. However, the inaccuracy of simulated T mrt is increasing with lower sun elevation and growing heterogeneity of the simulation site. As T mrt represents the meteorological variable that mostly governs PET in the daytime of clear-sky summer days, the accuracy of simulated T mrt is mainly responsible for the accuracy of simulated PET. The T mrt validations result in some recommendations, which concern an update of physical principles applied in the RayMan software to simulate the short- and long-wave radiant flux densities, especially from vertical building walls and tree crowns.

  4. WE-EF-BRA-09: Microbeam Radiation Therapy Enhances Tumor Drug Uptake of PEGylated Liposomal Doxorubicin (PLD) in a Triple Negative Breast Cancer GEM Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, SX; Madden, AJ; Rivera, JN

    Purpose: Overcoming low anti-cancer drug uptake in tumors is a key challenge limiting its clinical use. We propose to enhance the drug delivery using upfront Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT). MRT is a preclinical cancer therapy that utilizes microplanar beams to deliver spatially oscillating planes of high and low doses. Animal studies have demonstrated that ultrahigh dose (100s Gy) MRT eradicates tumors without damaging the function of normal tissue exposed to the same radiation. Our previous study indicated that MRT induces intense angiogenesis in tumor rim and surrounding normal tissue 1–2 days post radiation. We hypothesize that the tumor microenvironment modulationmore » induced by MRT may enhance carrier-mediated agent drug delivery to tumors with inherent poor drug uptake. We thus investigated MRT-induced pharmacokinetics (PK) of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), a nano-scale doxorubicin, in T11 genetically engineered mouse model of triple negative breast cancer. Methods: A research irradiator (160kVp, RadSource Technologies) with a customized collimator was used to produce the MRT microbeam of in average 390µm width and 1190µm peak-to-peak distance. The peak dose rate of 1–2Gy/min. Dosimetry is by EBT3 film cross-calibrated with ion chamber at large fields. All mice were administered PLD at 6mg/kg IV x1 at 16h post MRT and sacrificed at 5min, 6h, 24h, and 96h post PLD administration (n=3 or 4 per group). Results: The MRT(28Gy)+PLD group mice had a total doxorubicin tumor concentration (area-under-the concentration-curve, AUC) of 206,040ng/mL•h, 3.71 times the concentration of the PLD-alone group. The MRT(34Gy)+PLD group had a higher mean total doxorubicin concentration in tumor (20,779ng/ml) than the MRT(28Gy)+PLD group (10,665ng/ml). Conclusion: Our preliminary results indicate that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) can enhance nano-scale anti-cancer drug delivery to tumors approximately 4-fold. The exact working mechanism, the comparison

  5. The effect of urban geometry on mean radiant temperature under future climate change: a study of three European cities.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Lindberg, Fredrik; Rayner, David; Thorsson, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    Future anthropogenic climate change is likely to increase the air temperature (T(a)) across Europe and increase the frequency, duration and magnitude of severe heat stress events. Heat stress events are generally associated with clear-sky conditions and high T(a), which give rise to high radiant heat load, i.e. mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). In urban environments, T mrt is strongly influenced by urban geometry. The present study examines the effect of urban geometry on daytime heat stress in three European cities (Gothenburg in Sweden, Frankfurt in Germany and Porto in Portugal) under present and future climates, using T(mrt) as an indicator of heat stress. It is found that severe heat stress occurs in all three cities. Similar maximum daytime T(mrt) is found in open areas in all three cities despite of the latitudinal differences in average daytime T(mrt). In contrast, dense urban structures like narrow street canyons are able to mitigate heat stress in the summer, without causing substantial changes in T(mrt) in the winter. Although the T(mrt) averages are similar for the north-south and east-west street canyons in each city, the number of hours when T(mrt) exceeds the threshold values of 55.5 and 59.4 °C-used as indicators of moderate and severe heat stress-in the north-south canyons is much higher than that in the east-west canyons. Using statistically downscaled data from a regional climate model, it is found that the study sites were generally warmer in the future scenario, especially Porto, which would further exacerbate heat stress in urban areas. However, a decrease in solar radiation in Gothenburg and Frankfurt reduces T(mrt) in the spring, while the reduction in T(mrt) is somewhat offset by increasing T(a) in other seasons. It suggests that changes in the T(mrt) under the future scenario are dominated by variations in T(a). Nonetheless, the intra-urban differences remain relatively stable in the future. These findings suggest that dense urban

  6. Development of Multiple-Frequency Ultrasonic Imaging System Using Multiple Resonance Piezoelectric Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Iwaki; Yoshizumi, Natsuki; Saito, Shigemi; Wada, Yuji; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    The authors have developed a multiple frequency imaging system using a multiple resonance transducer (MRT) consisting of 1-3 composite materials with a low mechanical quality factor Q bonded together. The MRT has a structure consisting of thin and thick piezoelectric plates, two matching layers, and a backing layer. This makes it possible to obtain B-mode images of satisfactory resolution using ultrasonic pulses owing to their short duration. In this paper, the vibration property of the MRT derived through equivalent-circuit analysis is first shown. By utilizing the result, an MRT capable of transmitting ultrasonic pulses for generation of the images of biological tissues with satisfactory resolution is designed and prototyped. Setting the prototype transducer in the mechanical sector probe of commercial ultrasonic diagnosis equipment, the speckle reduction effect is demonstrated using images of various phantoms to mimic biological tissues and a human thyroid.

  7. Fine root heterogeneity by branch order: exploring the discrepancy in root turnover estimates between minirhizotron and carbon isotopic methods

    Treesearch

    Dali Guo; Harbin Li; Robert J. Mitchell; Han Wenxuan; Joseph J. Hendricks; Timothy J. Fahey; Ronald L. Hendrick

    2008-01-01

    Fine roots constitute a large and dynamic component of the carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems. The reported fivefold discrepancy in turnover estimates between median longevity (ML) from minirhizotrons and mean residence time (MRT) using carbon isotopes may have global consequences.

  8. Using Naturalistic Driving Performance Data to Develop an Empirically Defined Model of Distracted Driving

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-08-05

    Driver distraction is defined as a diversion of attention away from the primary driving activity toward non-driving related tasks (Lee et al., 2008). Multiple resource theory (MRT) describes this diversion as a process of competition for attentional ...

  9. Mobile Robotic Telepresence Solutions for the Education of Hospitalized Children.

    PubMed

    Soares, Neelkamal; Kay, Jeffrey C; Craven, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Hospitalization affects children's school attendance, resulting in poor academic and sociodevelopmental outcomes. The increasing ubiquity of mobile and tablet technology in educational and healthcare environments, and the growth of the mobile robotic telepresence (MRT) industry, offer opportunities for the use of MRT to connect hospitalized children to their school environments. This article describes an approach at one rural healthcare center in collaboration with local school districts with the aim of describing strategies and limitations of MRT use. Future research is needed on MRT implementation, from user experiences to operational strategies, and outcome metrics need to be developed to measure academic and socioemotional outcomes. By partnering with educational systems and using this technology, hospital information technology personnel can help hospitalized children engage with their school environments to maintain connections with peers and access academic instruction.

  10. Linguistic Models of FO Use, Physiological Models of FO Control, and the Issue of "Mean Response Time."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Rebecca; Beckman, Mary; Honda, Kiyoshi

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates "mean response time" (MRT), a method used in previous studies to relate physiological evidence (recordings of electromyographic activity in the cricothyroid and sternohyoid) to acoustic evidence (fundamental frequency). (Author/VWL)

  11. Tazemetostat Rollover Study (TRuST): An Open-Label Rollover Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-05

    Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma; Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors (MRT); Rhabdoid Tumors of the Kidney (RTK); Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors (ATRT); Synovial Sarcoma; Epitheliod Sarcoma; Mesothelioma; Advanced Solid Tumors

  12. Quality of MR thermometry during palliative MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) treatment of bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Lam, Mie K; Huisman, Merel; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; van den Bosch, Maurice Aaj; Viergever, Max A; Moonen, Chrit Tw; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound has emerged as a clinical option for palliative treatment of painful bone metastases, with MR thermometry (MRT) used for treatment monitoring. In this study, the general image quality of the MRT was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and apparent temperature variation. Also, MRT artifacts were scored for their occurrence and hampering of the treatment monitoring. Analyses were performed on 224 MRT datasets retrieved from 13 treatments. The SNR was measured per voxel over time in magnitude images, in the target lesion and surrounding muscle, and was averaged per treatment. The standard deviation over time of the measured temperature per voxel in MRT images, in the muscle outside the heated region, was defined as the apparent temperature variation and was averaged per treatment. The scored MRT artifacts originated from the following sources: respiratory and non-respiratory time-varying field inhomogeneities, arterial ghosting, and patient motion by muscle contraction and by gross body movement. Distinction was made between lesion type, location, and procedural sedation and analgesic (PSA). The average SNR was highest in and around osteolytic lesions (21 in lesions, 27 in surrounding muscle, n = 4) and lowest in the upper body (9 in lesions, 16 in surrounding muscle, n = 4). The average apparent temperature variation was lowest in osteolytic lesions (1.2°C, n = 4) and the highest in the upper body (1.7°C, n = 4). Respiratory time-varying field inhomogeneity MRT artifacts occurred in 85% of the datasets and hampered treatment monitoring in 81%. Non-respiratory time-varying field inhomogeneities and arterial ghosting MRT artifacts were most frequent (94% and 95%) but occurred only locally. Patient motion artifacts were highly variable and occurred less in treatments of osteolytic lesions and using propofol and esketamine as PSA. In this study, the general image quality of

  13. SciTech Connect

    Kwok, C; Williams, L

    Purpose: Animal biodistribution data are required prior to introducing a new radiopharmaceutical into clinical trials. Protein engineering, using recombinant DNA techniques can produce a large number of related (cognate) antibodies to a given molecular target. Thus, it is important that these constructs be numerically related to one another via a single criterion. In the following, we use the mean residence time (MRT) in murine blood as this criterion. Methods: Five cognate anti-CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) antibodies were compared with regard to their MRT in whole blood of CEA-positive tumor-bearing (LS174T) mice. MRT was defined by blood AUC (area under the curve)more » divided by the initial blood uptake value; all in units of percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Cognates included single chain scFv (25 kDa), diabody (50 kDa), minibody (80 kDa), F(ab')2 (120 kDa), and intact (155 kDa) forms of the murine cT84.66 antibody against CEA. All were labeled with radioactive iodine. Results: The agents, in the sequence listed, exhibited MRT values of 1.16 +/- 0.01 h, 0.99 h, 5.06 +/- 0.70 h, 6.61 +/- 0.36 h, and 59.3 +/- 2.4 h respectively. Because of the monotonic nature of the sequence, a linear correlation analysis was performed between molecular weight (MW) and MRT or ln(MRT) of the 5 proteins. Probability of random correlation was 0.10 for MRT and 0.01 for ln(MRT). Conclusion: MRT values of cognate anti-CEA antibodies were found to be a monotonically increasing sequence with respect to MW. Cognate MW values correlated best to ln(MRT) of the protein species. Thus MRT was proportional to an exponential function of molecular weight. The extended intact antibody circulation time presumably reflected its relatively maximal MW. Presence of an intact FC segment on this native antibody may also have influenced these results.« less

  14. Osteopathic manual therapy in heart failure patients: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Thomaz, Sergio R; Teixeira, Felipe A; de Lima, Alexandra C G B; Cipriano Júnior, Gerson; Formiga, Magno F; Cahalin, Lawrence Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Heart Failure (HF) patients usually present with increased arterial resistance and reduced blood pressure (BP) leading to an impaired functional capacity. Osteopathic Manual Therapy (OMT) focused on myofascial release techniques (MRT) and in the balancing of diaphragmatic tensions, has been shown to improve blood flow in individuals using the resistive index (RI). However, its effects in HF patients have not been examined. To evaluate the acute response of selected osteopathic techniques on RI, heart rate (HR), and BP in patients with HF. Randomized-controlled clinical trial of HF patients assigned to MRT (six different techniques with three aimed at the pelvis, two at the thorax, and one at the neck for 15 min) or Control group (subjects in supine position for 15 min without intervention). The RI of the femoral, brachial and carotid arteries was measured via doppler ultrasound while HR and BP were measured via sphygmomanometry before and after a single MRT or control intervention. Twenty-two HF patients equally distributed (50% male, mean age 53 years; range 32-69 years) (ejection fraction = 35.6%, VO 2peak : 12.9 mL/kg -1 min -1 ) were evaluated. We found no intra or inter group differences in RI of the carotid (Δ MRT : 0.07% vs Δ Control :11.8%), brachial (Δ MRT :0.17% vs Δ Control : 2.9%), or femoral arteries (Δ MRT :1.65% vs Δ Control : 0.97%) (P > 0.05) and no difference in HR or BP (Δ MRT :0.6% vs Δ Control : 3%), (P > 0.05). A single MRT session did not significantly change the RI, HR, or BP of HF patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immersive virtual reality platform for medical training: a "killer-application".

    PubMed

    2000-01-01

    The Medical Readiness Trainer (MRT) integrates fully immersive Virtual Reality (VR), highly advanced medical simulation technologies, and medical data to enable unprecedented medical education and training. The flexibility offered by the MRT environment serves as a practical teaching tool today and in the near future the will serve as an ideal vehicle for facilitating the transition to the next level of medical practice, i.e., telepresence and next generation Internet-based collaborative learning.

  16. Internet-Enabled Audio Communication: A Richer Medium For Students Feedback?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roy D.; Keil, Mark

    This study compared the effects of using voice mail (v-mail) to electronic mail (e-mail) over the Internet to provide student feedback using Media Richness Theory (MRT) and Social Presence Theory (SPT) as the theoretical framework. MRT and SPT would predict that v-mail would be perceived as higher than e-mail in media richness and social presence.…

  17. Characteristics of the mean radiant temperature in high latitude cities—implications for sensitive climate planning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Holmer, Björn; Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of how the mean radiant temperature ( T mrt ) is affected by factors such as location, climate and urban setting contributes to the practice of climate sensitive planning. This paper examines how T mrt varies within an urban setting and how it is influenced by cloudiness. In addition, variations of T mrt in three high latitude cities are investigated in order to analyse the impact of geographical context and climate conditions. Results showed large spatial variations between sunlit and shaded areas during clear weather conditions, with the highest values of T mrt close to sunlit walls and the lowest values in the areas shaded by buildings and vegetation. As cloudiness increases, the spatial pattern is altered and the differences are reduced. The highest T mrt under cloudy conditions is instead found in open areas where the proportion of shortwave diffuse radiation from the sky vault is high. A regional comparison between three Swedish coastal cities showed that T mrt during summer is similar regardless of latitudinal location. On the other hand, large differences in T mrt during winter were found. Shadows, both from buildings and vegetation are the most effective measure to reduce extreme values of T mrt . However, extensive areas of shadow are usually not desired within outdoor urban environments at high latitude cities. One solution is to create diverse outdoor urban spaces in terms of shadow and also ventilation. This would provide individuals with access to a choice of thermal environments which they can use to assist their thermal regulation, based on personal needs and desires.

  18. Characteristics of the mean radiant temperature in high latitude cities--implications for sensitive climate planning applications.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Holmer, Björn; Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge of how the mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is affected by factors such as location, climate and urban setting contributes to the practice of climate sensitive planning. This paper examines how T mrt varies within an urban setting and how it is influenced by cloudiness. In addition, variations of T mrt in three high latitude cities are investigated in order to analyse the impact of geographical context and climate conditions. Results showed large spatial variations between sunlit and shaded areas during clear weather conditions, with the highest values of T mrt close to sunlit walls and the lowest values in the areas shaded by buildings and vegetation. As cloudiness increases, the spatial pattern is altered and the differences are reduced. The highest T mrt under cloudy conditions is instead found in open areas where the proportion of shortwave diffuse radiation from the sky vault is high. A regional comparison between three Swedish coastal cities showed that T mrt during summer is similar regardless of latitudinal location. On the other hand, large differences in T mrt during winter were found. Shadows, both from buildings and vegetation are the most effective measure to reduce extreme values of T mrt. However, extensive areas of shadow are usually not desired within outdoor urban environments at high latitude cities. One solution is to create diverse outdoor urban spaces in terms of shadow and also ventilation. This would provide individuals with access to a choice of thermal environments which they can use to assist their thermal regulation, based on personal needs and desires.

  19. Magnetic resonance T1 gradient-echo imaging in hepatolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Safar, F; Kamura, T; Okamuto, K; Sasai, K; Gejyo, F

    2005-01-01

    We examined the role of magnetic resonance T1-weighted gradient-echo (MRT1-GE) imaging in hepatolithiasis. MRT1-GE, precontrast computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) of 10 patients with hepatolithiasis were compared for their diagnostic accuracies in the detection and localization of intrahepatic calculi. The diagnosis of hepatolithiasis was confirmed by surgery. For localization of the stone, we divided the bile ducts into six areas: right and left hepatic ducts and bile ducts of the lateral, medial, right anterior, and right posterior segments of the liver. Chemical analysis of the stones was performed in eight patients. The total number of segments proved by surgery to contain stones was 18. Although not significantly different, the sensitivity of MRT1-GE was 77.8% (14 of 18 segments), higher than that of MRCP (66.7%, 12 of 18 segments) and that of CT (50%, nine of 18 segments). The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRCP + MRT1) was significantly higher than that of CT (p < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the result of surgery was significantly affected only by the result of magnetic resonance imaging. On MRT1-GE, all the depicted stones appeared as high-intensity signal areas within the low-intensity bile duct irrespective of their chemical composition. MRT1-GE imaging provides complementary information concerning hepatolithiasis.

  20. Biodosimetric quantification of short-term synchrotron microbeam versus broad-beam radiation damage to mouse skin using a dermatopathological scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Priyadarshika, R C U; Crosbie, J C; Kumar, B; Rogers, P A W

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Microbeam radiotherapy (MRT) with wafers of microscopically narrow, synchrotron generated X-rays is being used for pre-clinical cancer trials in animal models. It has been shown that high dose MRT can be effective at destroying tumours in animal models, while causing unexpectedly little damage to normal tissue. The aim of this study was to use a dermatopathological scoring system to quantify and compare the acute biological response of normal mouse skin with microplanar and broad-beam (BB) radiation as a basis for biological dosimetry. Method The skin flaps of three groups of mice were irradiated with high entrance doses (200 Gy, 400 Gy and 800 Gy) of MRT and BB and low dose BB (11 Gy, 22 Gy and 44 Gy). The mice were culled at different time-points post-irradiation. Skin sections were evaluated histologically using the following parameters: epidermal cell death, nuclear enlargement, spongiosis, hair follicle damage and dermal inflammation. The fields of irradiation were identified by γH2AX-positive immunostaining. Results The acute radiation damage in skin from high dose MRT was significantly lower than from high dose BB and, importantly, similar to low dose BB. Conclusion The integrated MRT dose was more relevant than the peak or valley dose when comparing with BB fields. In MRT-treated skin, the apoptotic cells of epidermis and hair follicles were not confined to the microbeam paths. PMID:21849367

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Partial α2 -Adrenoceptor Agonist and Pure α2 -Adrenoceptor Antagonist on the Behavioural Symptoms of Withdrawal after Chronic Alcohol Administration in Mice.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shivani; Vohora, Divya

    2016-08-01

    As an addictive drug, alcohol produces withdrawal symptoms if discontinued abruptly after chronic use. Clonidine (CLN), a partial α2 -adrenergic agonist, and mirtazapine (MRT), an antagonist of α2 -adrenoceptor, both clinically aid alcohol withdrawal. Considering different mechanisms of action of the two drugs, this study was designed to see how far these two mechanistically different drugs differ in their ability to decrease the severity of ethanol withdrawal syndrome. The effect of CLN and MRT on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety, depression and memory impairment was analysed using EPM, FST and PAR tests, respectively. Animals received distilled water, ethanol and/or either of the drugs (CLN and MRT) in different doses. Relapse to alcohol use was analysed by CPP test. Animals received ethanol as a conditioning drug and distilled water, CLN or MRT as test drug. CLN and MRT both alleviated anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. MRT (4 mg/kg) was more effective than CLN (0.1 mg/kg) in ameliorating the anxiogenic effect of alcohol withdrawal. However, CLN treatment increased depression. It significantly decreased swimming time and increased immobility time, whereas MRT treatment decreased immobility time and increased climbing and swimming time during abstinence. The effect was dose dependent for both drugs. The results of PAR test show that CLN treatment worsens working memory. Significant increase in SDE and TSZ and decrease in SDL were observed in CLN-treated animals. MRT treatment, on the other hand, improved working memory at both doses. Further, both CLN and MRT alleviated craving. A significant decrease in time spent in the ethanol-paired chamber was seen. MRT treatment at both doses showed better effect than CLN in preventing the development of preference in CPP test. These findings indicate a potential therapeutic use and better profile of mirtazapine over clonidine in improving memory, as well as in alleviating depression, anxiety and craving associated

  2. Neurocognitive sparing of desktop microbeam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bazyar, Soha; Inscoe, Christina R; Benefield, Thad; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Lee, Yueh Z

    2017-08-11

    Normal tissue toxicity is the dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy. Spatial fractionation irradiation techniques, like microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), have shown promising results in sparing the normal brain tissue. Most MRT studies have been conducted at synchrotron facilities. With the aim to make this promising treatment more available, we have built the first desktop image-guided MRT device based on carbon nanotube x-ray technology. In the current study, our purpose was to evaluate the effects of MRT on the rodent normal brain tissue using our device and compare it with the effect of the integrated equivalent homogenous dose. Twenty-four, 8-week-old male C57BL/6 J mice were randomly assigned to three groups: MRT, broad-beam (BB) and sham. The hippocampal region was irradiated with two parallel microbeams in the MRT group (beam width = 300 μm, center-to-center = 900 μm, 160 kVp). The BB group received the equivalent integral dose in the same area of their brain. Rotarod, marble burying and open-field activity tests were done pre- and every month post-irradiation up until 8 months to evaluate the cognitive changes and potential irradiation side effects on normal brain tissue. The open-field activity test was substituted by Barnes maze test at 8th month. A multilevel model, random coefficients approach was used to evaluate the longitudinal and temporal differences among treatment groups. We found significant differences between BB group as compared to the microbeam-treated and sham mice in the number of buried marble and duration of the locomotion around the open-field arena than shams. Barnes maze revealed that BB mice had a lower capacity for spatial learning than MRT and shams. Mice in the BB group tend to gain weight at the slower pace than shams. No meaningful differences were found between MRT and sham up until 8-month follow-up using our measurements. Applying MRT with our newly developed prototype compact CNT-based image-guided MRT system

  3. Magnetic resonance therapy for knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gökşen, Nurgül; Çaliş, Mustafa; Doğan, Serap; Çaliş, Havva T; Özgöçmen, Salih

    2016-08-01

    Therapeutic nuclear magnetic resonance therapy (MRT) works based on the electromagnetic fields. To investigate efficacy of MRT in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Outpatient clinic, university hospital. Patients who had mild to moderate knee OA at a single knee joint and between 30-75-years-old were randomized by blinded chip cards (1:1). The treatment group received ten sessions of one hour daily MRT, controls received placebo MRT. All patients underwent clinical examination at baseline, after 2 weeks, and 12 weeks. Imaging included blindly assessed ultrasonography and magnetic resonance (MR) of the knee. Ninety-seven patients completed the study. Both groups improved significantly but the average change from baseline in outcome parameters was similar in MRT group (on VAS-pain,-2.6; WOMAC-pain, -2.09; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.81; WOMAC-physical, -1.96) compared to placebo after two weeks (VAS-pain,-1.6; WOMAC-pain, -1.91; WOMAC-stiffness, -1.27; WOMAC-physical, -1.54). Also changes were quite similar at the 12th week after the treatment. SF-36 components at 12th week improved but changes were not significant. Imaging arm also failed to show significant differences between groups in terms of cartilage thickness on US and MR scores. No adverse events were recorded. MRT is safe, but not superior to placebo in terms of improvement in clinical or imaging parameters after a 10-day course of treatment in mild to moderate knee OA. The present study does not promote use of a 10-day course of MRT in mild to moderate knee OA.

  4. High resolution 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, Frank M., E-mail: frank.gagliardi@wbrc.org.au; Cornelius, Iwan; Blencowe, Anton

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) techniques are under investigation at synchrotrons worldwide. Favourable outcomes from animal and cell culture studies have proven the efficacy of MRT. The aim of MRT researchers currently is to progress to human clinical trials in the near future. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the high resolution and 3D imaging of synchrotron generated microbeams in PRESAGE® dosimeters using laser fluorescence confocal microscopy. Methods: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated and irradiated with microbeams on the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Microbeam arrays comprised of microbeams 25–50 μm wide with 200more » or 400 μm peak-to-peak spacing were delivered as single, cross-fire, multidirectional, and interspersed arrays. Imaging of the dosimeters was performed using a NIKON A1 laser fluorescence confocal microscope. Results: The spatial fractionation of the MRT beams was clearly visible in 2D and up to 9 mm in depth. Individual microbeams were easily resolved with the full width at half maximum of microbeams measured on images with resolutions of as low as 0.09 μm/pixel. Profiles obtained demonstrated the change of the peak-to-valley dose ratio for interspersed MRT microbeam arrays and subtle variations in the sample positioning by the sample stage goniometer were measured. Conclusions: Laser fluorescence confocal microscopy of MRT irradiated PRESAGE® dosimeters has been validated in this study as a high resolution imaging tool for the independent spatial and geometrical verification of MRT beam delivery.« less

  5. Kommunikation mit Mitarbeitern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spychala, Anne; Fleischmann, Jürgen

    Kommunikation ist der Austausch von Nachrichten und Informationen zwischen Mitarbeitern eines Unternehmens (O'Hair et al. 1997). Dieser Austausch kann persönlich, aber z.B. auch per Telefon, E-Mail oder durch Computersysteme erfolgen. In diesem Kapitel betrachten wir die persönliche Kommunikation zwischen Vorgesetzten und Mitarbeitern. Zur persönlichen Kommunikation mit Mitarbeitern zählen sowohl formelle Gespräche mit Mitarbeitern als auch eher informelle Gespräche zwischen Tür und Angel. Die Gespräche können dabei mit einzelnen Mitarbeitern (z.B. jährliches Mitarbeitergespräch) oder mit Gruppen von Mitarbeitern (z.B. regelmäßige Projekt- oder Teambesprechungen) stattfinden.

  6. The effects of sex, sexual orientation, and digit ratio (2D:4D) on mental rotation performance.

    PubMed

    Peters, Michael; Manning, John T; Reimers, Stian

    2007-04-01

    In spite of the reduced level of experimental control, this large scale study brought some clarity into the relation between mental rotation task (MRT) performance and a number of variables where contradictory associations had previously been reported in the literature. Clear sex differences in MRT were observed for a sample of 134,317 men and 120,783 women, with men outperforming women. There were also MRT differences as a function of sexual orientation: heterosexual men performed better than homosexual men and homosexual women performed better than heterosexual women. Although bisexual men performed better than homosexual men but less well than heterosexual men, no significant differences were observed between bisexual and homosexual women. MRT performance in both men and women peaked in the 20-30 year range, and declined significantly and markedly thereafter. Both men and women showed a significant negative correlation between left and right digit finger ratio and MRT scores, such that individuals with smaller digit ratios (relatively longer ring finger than index finger) performed better than individuals with larger digit ratios.

  7. Effects of microbeam radiation therapy on normal and tumoral blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Audrey; Serduc, Raphäel; Laissue, Jean Albert; Djonov, Valentin

    2015-09-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new form of preclinical radiotherapy using quasi-parallel arrays of synchrotron X-ray microbeams. While the deposition of several hundred Grays in the microbeam paths, the normal brain tissues presents a high tolerance which is accompanied by the permanence of apparently normal vessels. Conversely, the efficiency of MRT on tumor growth control is thought to be related to a preferential damaging of tumor blood vessels. The high resistance of the healthy vascular network was demonstrated in different animal models by in vivo biphoton microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and histological studies. While a transient increase in permeability was shown, the structure of the vessels remained intact. The use of a chick chorioallantoic membrane at different stages of development showed that the damages induced by microbeams depend on vessel maturation. In vivo and ultrastructural observations showed negligible effects of microbeams on the mature vasculature at late stages of development; nevertheless a complete destruction of the immature capillary plexus was found in the microbeam paths. The use of MRT in rodent models revealed a preferential effect on tumor vessels. Although no major modification was observed in the vasculature of normal brain tissue, tumors showed a denudation of capillaries accompanied by transient increased permeability followed by reduced tumor perfusion and finally, a decrease in number of tumor vessels. Thus, MRT is a very promising treatment strategy with pronounced tumor control effects most likely based on the anti-vascular effects of MRT. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The gender difference on the Mental Rotations test is not due to performance factors.

    PubMed

    Masters, M S

    1998-05-01

    Men score higher than women on the Mental Rotations test (MRT), and the magnitude of this gender difference is the largest of that on any spatial test. Goldstein, Haldane, and Mitchell (1990) reported finding that the gender difference on the MRT disappears when "performance factors" are controlled--specifically, when subjects are allowed sufficient time to attempt all items on the test or when a scoring procedure that controls for the number of items attempted is used. The present experiment also explored whether eliminating these performance factors results in a disappearance of the gender difference on the test. Male and female college students were allowed a short time period or unlimited time on the MRT. The tests were scored according to three different procedures. The results showed no evidence that the gender difference on the MRT was affected by the scoring method or the time limit. Regardless of the scoring procedure, men scored higher than women, and the magnitude of the gender difference persisted undiminished when subjects completed all items on the test. Thus there was no evidence that performance factors produced the gender difference on the MRT. These results are consistent with the results of other investigators who have attempted to replicate Goldstein et al.'s findings.

  9. Psychological treatment of comorbid asthma and panic disorder in Latino adults: Results from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jonathan M.; Matte, Lynne; Interian, Alejandro; Lehrer, Paul M.; Lu, Shou-En; Scheckner, Bari; Steinberg, Dara M.; Oken, Tanya; Kotay, Anu; Sinha, Sumita; Shim, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Confusion between panic and asthma symptoms can result in serious self-management errors. A cognitive behavior psychophysiological therapy (CBPT) intervention was culturally adapted for Latinos consisting of CBT for panic disorder (PD), asthma education, differentiation between panic and asthma symptoms, and heart rate variability biofeedback. An RCT compared CBPT to music and relaxation therapy (MRT), which included listening to relaxing music and paced breathing at resting respiration rates. Fifty-three Latino (primarily Puerto Rican) adults with asthma and PD were randomly assigned to CBPT or MRT for 8 weekly sessions. Both groups showed improvements in PD severity, asthma control, and several other anxiety and asthma outcome measures from baseline to post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. CBPT showed an advantage over MRT for improvement in adherence to inhaled corticosteroids. Improvements in PD severity were mediated by anxiety sensitivity in CBPT and by depression in MRT, although earlier levels of these mediators did not predict subsequent improvements. Attrition was high (40%) in both groups, albeit comparable to CBT studies targeting anxiety in Latinos. Additional strategies are needed to improve retention in this high-risk population. Both CBPT and MRT may be efficacious interventions for comorbid asthma-PD, and CBPT may offer additional benefits for improving medication adherence. PMID:27668723

  10. Conformal image-guided microbeam radiation therapy at the ESRF biomedical beamline ID17

    SciTech Connect

    Donzelli, Mattia, E-mail: donzelli@esrf.fr; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Nemoz, Christian

    Purpose: Upcoming veterinary trials in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) demand for more advanced irradiation techniques than in preclinical research with small animals. The treatment of deep-seated tumors in cats and dogs with MRT requires sophisticated irradiation geometries from multiple ports, which impose further efforts to spare the normal tissue surrounding the target. Methods: This work presents the development and benchmarking of a precise patient alignment protocol for MRT at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The positioning of the patient prior to irradiation is verified by taking x-ray projection images from different angles. Results: Usingmore » four external fiducial markers of 1.7  mm diameter and computed tomography-based treatment planning, a target alignment error of less than 2  mm can be achieved with an angular deviation of less than 2{sup ∘}. Minor improvements on the protocol and the use of smaller markers indicate that even a precision better than 1  mm is technically feasible. Detailed investigations concerning the imaging dose lead to the conclusion that doses for skull radiographs lie in the same range as dose reference levels for human head radiographs. A currently used online dose monitor for MRT has been proven to give reliable results for the imaging beam. Conclusions: The ESRF biomedical beamline ID17 is technically ready to apply conformal image-guided MRT from multiple ports to large animals during future veterinary trials.« less

  11. All things rhabdoid and SMARC: An enigmatic exploration with Dr. Louis P. Dehner.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christine E

    2016-11-01

    Over the past several decades, our understanding of malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) and the central nervous system equivalent atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) has undergone considerable refinement, particularly in terms of genetic characterization. MRT (both renal and extra-renal) and ATRT share phenotypic similarities and a common genetic signature, that being inactivating alterations of the SWI/SNF complex component SMARCB1 (or rarely SMARCA4). Unfortunately, a wide array of tumors bears significantly overlapping phenotypic characteristics to MRT/ATRT, posing a formidable diagnostic challenge. Likewise, the list of tumors bearing SMARC-related alterations has grown at a dizzying pace, and the original assumption that SMARCB1 alterations were unique to MRT/ATRT has been essentially negated. It should come as no surprise that Dr. Louis P. Dehner, no stranger to enigmatic lesions, participated significantly in this pathologic controversy, and the circuitous journey of entity discovery and clarification. This review aims to (1) summarize our current knowledge of MRT and ATRT with an emphasis on genetic characterization, (2) present insight into so-called "composite rhabdoid tumors" (CRTs), and (3) and provide an updated account of others tumors bearing SMARC alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Coupling of sausage, kink, and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in a cylindrical liner

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, M. R.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y., E-mail: yylau@umich.edu

    This paper analyzes the coupling of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT), sausage, and kink modes in an imploding cylindrical liner, using ideal MHD. A uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary value is included in each region: liner, its interior, and its exterior. The dispersion relation is solved exactly, for arbitrary radial acceleration (-g), axial wavenumber (k), azimuthal mode number (m), liner aspect ratio, and equilibrium quantities in each region. For small k, a positive g (inward radial acceleration in the lab frame) tends to stabilize the sausage mode, but destabilize the kink mode. For large k, a positive g destabilizes both the kinkmore » and sausage mode. Using the 1D-HYDRA simulation results for an equilibrium model that includes a pre-existing axial magnetic field and a preheated fuel, we identify several stages of MRT-sausage-kink mode evolution. We find that the m = 1 kink-MRT mode has a higher growth rate at the initial stage and stagnation stage of the implosion, and that the m = 0 sausage-MRT mode dominates at the main part of implosion. This analysis also sheds light on a puzzling feature in Harris' classic paper of MRT [E. G. Harris, Phys. Fluids 5, 1057 (1962)]. An attempt is made to interpret the persistence of the observed helical structures [Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] in terms of non-axisymmetric eigenmode.« less

  13. "Mitochondrial Replacement" Technologies and Human Germline Nuclear Modification.

    PubMed

    Lane, Alyssa; Nisker, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    In 2015 the United Kingdom became the first jurisdiction to approve "mitochondrial replacement techniques" (MRT), thereby dropping prohibitions against creating human embryos with a permanently altered genetic make-up for purposes of reproduction. MRT is a misnomer because in fact it is the nucleus of the oocyte of the woman who wants a genetically related child that is transferred to the enucleated oocyte of a woman paid to undergo IVF to provide the oocyte. MRT thus constitutes nuclear transfer, which is prohibited by criminal sanctions under sections of laws on reproductive cloning in Canada, the United States, Australia, and European countries that regulate assisted reproduction. By adopting policies permitting the use of MRT, the United Kingdom has become the first jurisdiction to counteract an international consensus prohibiting germline modification. Analyses of the legal, ethical, and societal implications of MRT in assisted human reproduction are essential. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Consistent forcing scheme in the cascaded lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Linlin; Luo, Kai Hong

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we give an alternative derivation for the cascaded lattice Boltzmann method (CLBM) within a general multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) framework by introducing a shift matrix. When the shift matrix is a unit matrix, the CLBM degrades into an MRT LBM. Based on this, a consistent forcing scheme is developed for the CLBM. The consistency of the nonslip rule, the second-order convergence rate in space, and the property of isotropy for the consistent forcing scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulations of several canonical problems. Several existing forcing schemes previously used in the CLBM are also examined. The study clarifies the relation between MRT LBM and CLBM under a general framework.

  15. Studies on Morphological and Physio-Ecological Variations of the Reniform Nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira, 1940 with an Emphasis on Differential Geographical Distribution of Amphimictic and Parthenogenetic Populations in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakasono, Kazutoshi

    2004-01-01

    The geographical distribution and polymorphism in morphological and biological characters of the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, in Japan were studied. The northern limit of habitat of this nematode was found on the 14 °C isothermal line of annual average-air temperature. Three morphologically different groups were ascertained which corresponded to three biological types based on male frequency. Incidence of males was consistent within populations and was not affected by environmental factors. Sexual attraction of males by females indicated reproductive isolation between the male-numerous type (MNT) and male-rare type (MRT) or male-absent type (MAT). Reproduction was amphimictic in the MNT and parthenogenetic in the MRT and MAT. Larval development in both MRT and MAT, but not that of MNT popula-tions, was inhibited at 34 °C. Differences in host preference were also observed among populations. PMID:19262821

  16. Electrothermal instability growth in magnetically driven pulsed power liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Kyle J.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Yu, Edmund P.; Herrmann, Mark C.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Smith, Ian C.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Nakhleh, Charles

    2012-09-01

    This paper explores the role of electro-thermal instabilities on the dynamics of magnetically accelerated implosion systems. Electro-thermal instabilities result from non-uniform heating due to temperature dependence in the conductivity of a material. Comparatively little is known about these types of instabilities compared to the well known Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. We present simulations that show electrothermal instabilities form immediately after the surface material of a conductor melts and can act as a significant seed to subsequent MRT instability growth. We also present the results of several experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator to investigate signatures of electrothermal instability growth on well characterized initially solid aluminum and copper rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns risetime current pulse. These experiments show excellent agreement with electrothermal instability simulations and exhibit larger instability growth than can be explained by MRT theory alone.

  17. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in organized dairy farms, using milk ELISA, in quetta city, balochistan, pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shafee, Muhammad; Rabbani, Masood; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Ahmad, Mansoor Din; Razzaq, Abdul

    2011-01-24

    A total of 200 milk samples from cattle (n = 86) and buffalo (n = 114) were evaluated using milk ring test (MRT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). The overall prevalence was found to be 3% and 8.5% in cattle and buffaloes using MRT and i-ELISA, respectively. The prevalence was 4.6% and 1.7% in cattle and buffalo using MRT, respectively, while i-ELISA exhibited 20% and 0% in cattle and buffalo, respectively. The prevalence was higher in government dairy farm, compared to privately owned dairy farm. This paper points out an alarming situation in the target area with respect to the public health significance.

  18. Prevalence of Bovine Brucellosis in Organized Dairy Farms, Using Milk ELISA, in Quetta City, Balochistan, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shafee, Muhammad; Rabbani, Masood; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Ahmad, Mansoor din; Razzaq, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A total of 200 milk samples from cattle (n = 86) and buffalo (n = 114) were evaluated using milk ring test (MRT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). The overall prevalence was found to be 3% and 8.5% in cattle and buffaloes using MRT and i-ELISA, respectively. The prevalence was 4.6% and 1.7% in cattle and buffalo using MRT, respectively, while i-ELISA exhibited 20% and 0% in cattle and buffalo, respectively. The prevalence was higher in government dairy farm, compared to privately owned dairy farm. This paper points out an alarming situation in the target area with respect to the public health significance. PMID:21331157

  19. Mathematical modelling of digesta passage rate, mean retention time and in vivo apparent digestibility of two different lengths of hay and big-bale grass silage in ponies.

    PubMed

    Moore-Colyer, M J S; Morrow, H J; Longland, A C

    2003-07-01

    Welsh-cross pony geldings (about 300 kg live weight) were used in a 4x4 Latin square experiment to determine the rate of passage and apparent digestibility of unchopped big-bale grass silage (BBL), chopped big-bale grass silage (BBS), unchopped grass hay (HL) and chopped grass hay (HS) offered at approximately 15 g/kg live weight per d. On day 1 of collection weeks, ponies were fed 85 g ytterbium chloride hexahydrate-marked feed 1.5 h after the morning meal. Total faecal collections commenced 8 h later and continued for 168 h. Apparent digestibilities of feed DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP, Nx6.25), acid-detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) were also determined. Faecal excretion data were subjected to the models of Pond et al. (1988) and digesta mean retention time (MRT) calculated from these models and using the algebraic method of Thielmans et al. (1978). Silage had significantly (P<0.05) higher digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, ADF and NDF than hay; however, chop length had no effect. All the models of Pond et al. (1988) accurately described (R(2)>0.8) the pattern of faecal marker excretion. MRT of BBL (29.0 h)>BBS(27 h)>HS and HL (26 h). Compartmental analysis using the G3 model of Pond et al. (1988) showed BBL and HS diets had longer MRT in the time-dependent compartment, whereas BBS and HL had longer MRT in the time-independent compartment. Results from this experiment indicate that BBL and BBS are readily accepted and digested by ponies. While Yb is a successful external marker for determining total tract MRT and for modelling faecal excretion curves in horses, the results did not allow any definite conclusions to be drawn on digesta MRT within the different compartments of the equid gut.

  20. How can streamflow and climate-landscape data be used to estimate baseflow mean response time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Runrun; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Zhicai; Soulsby, Chris; Gao, Man

    2018-02-01

    Mean response time (MRT) is a metric describing the propagation of catchment hydraulic behavior that reflects both hydro-climatic conditions and catchment characteristics. To provide a comprehensive understanding of catchment response over a longer-time scale for hydraulic processes, the MRT function for baseflow generation was derived using an instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) model that describes the subsurface response to effective rainfall inputs. IUH parameters were estimated based on the "match test" between the autocorrelation function (ACFs) derived from the filtered base flow time series and from the IUH parameters, under the GLUE framework. Regionalization of MRT was conducted using estimates and hydroclimate-landscape indices in 22 sub-basins of the Jinghe River Basin (JRB) in the Loess Plateau of northwest China. Results indicate there is strong equifinality in determination of the best parameter sets but the median values of the MRT estimates are relatively stable in the acceptable range of the parameters. MRTs vary markedly over the studied sub-basins, ranging from tens of days to more than a year. Climate, topography and geomorphology were identified as three first-order controls on recharge-baseflow response processes. Human activities involving the cultivation of permanent crops may elongate the baseflow MRT and hence increase the dynamic storage. Cross validation suggests the model can be used to estimate MRTs in ungauged catchments in similar regions of throughout the Loess Plateau. The proposed method provides a systematic approach for MRT estimation and regionalization in terms of hydroclimate and catchment characteristics, which is helpful in the sustainable water resources utilization and ecological protection in the Loess Plateau.

  1. Efficacy of budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy compared with higher-dose budesonide as step-up from low-dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Christine R; Eriksson, Göran; Bateman, Eric D; Reddel, Helen K; Sears, Malcolm R; Lindberg, Magnus; O'Byrne, Paul M

    2017-04-20

    Asthma management may involve a step up in treatment when symptoms are not well controlled. We examined whether budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy (MRT) is as effective as higher, fixed-dose budesonide plus as-needed terbutaline in patients requiring step-up from Step 2 treatment (low-dose inhaled corticosteroids), stratified by baseline reliever use. A post-hoc analysis utilized data from three clinical trials of 6-12 months' duration. Patients aged ≥12 years with symptomatic asthma uncontrolled despite Step 2 treatment were included. Severe exacerbation rate, lung function and reliever use were analysed, stratified by baseline reliever use (<1, 1-2 and >2 occasions/day). Overall, 1239 patients were included. Reductions in severe exacerbation rate with budesonide/formoterol MRT versus fixed-dose budesonide were similar across baseline reliever use levels, and were statistically significant in patients using 1-2 (42%, p = 0.01) and >2 (39%, p = 0.02) reliever occasions/day, but not <1 reliever occasion/day (35%, p = 0.11). Both treatments significantly increased mean FEV 1 from baseline; improvements were significantly greater for budesonide/formoterol MRT in all reliever use groups. Reductions in reliever use from baseline were significantly greater with budesonide/formoterol MRT versus fixed-dose budesonide in patients using 1-2 and >2 reliever occasions/day (-0.33 and -0.74 occasions/day, respectively). Treatment benefit with budesonide/formoterol MRT versus higher, fixed-dose budesonide plus short-acting β 2 -agonist was found in Step 2 patients with relatively low reliever use, supporting the proposal that budesonide/formoterol MRT may be useful when asthma is uncontrolled with low-dose inhaled corticosteroid.

  2. Persistence of dysphagia and odynophagia after mediastinal radiation and chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer or lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shields, Helen; Li, Justin; Pelletier, Stephen; Wang, Helen; Freedman, Rachel; Mamon, Harvey; Ng, Andrea; Freedman, Arnold; Come, Steven; Avigan, David; Huberman, Mark; Recht, Abram

    2017-02-01

    Esophageal symptoms are common during radiation and chemotherapy. It is unclear how often these symptoms persist after therapy. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 320 adults treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer (84), lung cancer (109), or Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (127) who were disease-free at 10-14 months after therapy. Treatment included chemotherapy with or without nonmediastinal radiation therapy (150 patients), chemotherapy plus sequential mediastinal radiation therapy (MRT) (48 patients), chemotherapy plus concurrent MRT (61 patients), or non-MRT only (61 patients). Proton pump inhibitor use was documented. All treatment groups had similar prevalence of the esophageal symptom of heartburn before therapy. Rates were higher during treatment in those who received MRT with or without chemotherapy, but declined by 10-14 months after treatment. However, low baseline rates of dysphagia (4%) and odynophagia (2%) increased significantly after combined chemotherapy and MRT to 72% for dysphagia and 62% for odynophagia (P < 0.01) during treatment and stayed significantly elevated over baseline with 27% of the patients having dysphagia and 11% having odynophagia at 10-14 months after treatment. The use of proton pump inhibitors by patients who had MRT with chemotherapy was significantly increased during and after treatment (P = 0.002). Dysphagia, odynophagia and the use of proton pump inhibitors were significantly more common both during and after treatment than before treatment in patients who received both chemotherapy and mediastinal radiation. Our data highlight the important challenge for clinicians of managing patients with lung cancer and lymphoma who have persistent esophageal problems, particularly dysphagia and odynophagia, at approximately 1 year after treatment. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  3. Exercise-mediated vasodilation in human obesity and metabolic syndrome: effect of acute ascorbic acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Harrell, John W; Johansson, Rebecca E; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Proctor, Lester T; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G

    2014-09-15

    We tested the hypothesis that infusion of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, would alter vasodilator responses to exercise in human obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) was measured in lean, obese, and MetSyn adults (n = 39, 32 ± 2 yr). A brachial artery catheter was inserted for blood pressure monitoring and local infusion of AA. FBF was measured during dynamic handgrip exercise (15% maximal effort) with and without AA infusion. To account for group differences in blood pressure and forearm size, and to assess vasodilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC = FBF/mean arterial blood pressure/lean forearm mass) was calculated. We examined the time to achieve steady-state FVC (mean response time, MRT) and the rise in FVC from rest to steady-state exercise (Δ, exercise - rest) before and during acute AA infusion. The MRT (P = 0.26) and steady-state vasodilator responses to exercise (ΔFVC, P = 0.31) were not different between groups. Intra-arterial infusion of AA resulted in a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (174 ± 37%). AA infusion did not alter MRT or steady-state FVC in any group (P = 0.90 and P = 0.85, respectively). Interestingly, higher levels of C-reactive protein predicted longer MRT (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) and a greater reduction in MRT with AA infusion (r = -0.43, P = 0.02). We concluded that AA infusion during moderate-intensity, rhythmic forearm exercise does not alter the time course or magnitude of exercise-mediated vasodilation in groups of young lean, obese, or MetSyn adults. However, systemic inflammation may limit the MRT to exercise, which can be improved with AA. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of lyophilized beer extracts on HL-60 cell line.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Nappo, Annunziata; Petitto, Fabio; Iacomino, Giuseppe; Nazzaro, Filomena; Palumbo, Rosanna; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2005-01-01

    An impressive number of studies have suggested that red wine can be considered the protective beverage of choice against chronic and degenerative pathologies. Only few and controversial data are available on a potential, similar role for beer, which represents a more cost-effective, safe, and widely available beverage. Starting from the evidence that many antioxidant compounds present in red wine are also present at similar or even higher concentrations in beers, we first screened 48 commercially available beers and selected one (Mrt-HP) with very high polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity estimated by ferric reducing antioxidant power. We demonstrated that a lyophilized preparation of Mrt-HP beer was cytotoxic with respect to a beer with low polyphenolic content (Trt-LP) when assayed on HL-60 human leukemia cell line. We measured a 60% decrease in cell viability at a polyphenol concentration of 250 microM quercetin equivalents. We also demonstrated that Mrt-HP cytotoxicity was not an artifact due to cell growth conditions because addition of Mrt-HP extracts to cell medium generated peroxide levels indistinguishable from controls. By means of cytofluorimetric analysis of pre-G1 population and caspase 3 activation, we demonstrated that Mrt-HP extracts activated apoptosis in HL-60 cell line. Finally, we found that the concentration of quercetin, resveratrol, and gallic acid in Mrt-HP was 10, 4.6, and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than in Trt-LP, suggesting that the presence of these molecules might be responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. These data, together with the low in vivo beer toxicity reported in the literature, suggest a possible chemopreventive role for this beverage that requires further studies in animal models.

  5. Exercise-mediated vasodilation in human obesity and metabolic syndrome: effect of acute ascorbic acid infusion

    PubMed Central

    Limberg, Jacqueline K.; Kellawan, J. Mikhail; Harrell, John W.; Johansson, Rebecca E.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Proctor, Lester T.; Sebranek, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that infusion of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, would alter vasodilator responses to exercise in human obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) was measured in lean, obese, and MetSyn adults (n = 39, 32 ± 2 yr). A brachial artery catheter was inserted for blood pressure monitoring and local infusion of AA. FBF was measured during dynamic handgrip exercise (15% maximal effort) with and without AA infusion. To account for group differences in blood pressure and forearm size, and to assess vasodilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC = FBF/mean arterial blood pressure/lean forearm mass) was calculated. We examined the time to achieve steady-state FVC (mean response time, MRT) and the rise in FVC from rest to steady-state exercise (Δ, exercise − rest) before and during acute AA infusion. The MRT (P = 0.26) and steady-state vasodilator responses to exercise (ΔFVC, P = 0.31) were not different between groups. Intra-arterial infusion of AA resulted in a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (174 ± 37%). AA infusion did not alter MRT or steady-state FVC in any group (P = 0.90 and P = 0.85, respectively). Interestingly, higher levels of C-reactive protein predicted longer MRT (r = 0.52, P < 0.01) and a greater reduction in MRT with AA infusion (r = −0.43, P = 0.02). We concluded that AA infusion during moderate-intensity, rhythmic forearm exercise does not alter the time course or magnitude of exercise-mediated vasodilation in groups of young lean, obese, or MetSyn adults. However, systemic inflammation may limit the MRT to exercise, which can be improved with AA. PMID:25038148

  6. Absorbed dose-to-water protocol applied to synchrotron-generated x-rays at very high dose rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, P.; Crosbie, J. C.; Cornelius, I.; Berkvens, P.; Donzelli, M.; Clavel, A. H.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.

    2016-07-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new radiation treatment modality in the pre-clinical stage of development at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. MRT exploits the dose volume effect that is made possible through the spatial fractionation of the high dose rate synchrotron-generated x-ray beam into an array of microbeams. As an important step towards the development of a dosimetry protocol for MRT, we have applied the International Atomic Energy Agency’s TRS 398 absorbed dose-to-water protocol to the synchrotron x-ray beam in the case of the broad beam irradiation geometry (i.e. prior to spatial fractionation into microbeams). The very high dose rates observed here mean the ion recombination correction factor, k s , is the most challenging to quantify of all the necessary corrections to apply for ionization chamber based absolute dosimetry. In the course of this study, we have developed a new method, the so called ‘current ramping’ method, to determine k s for the specific irradiation and filtering conditions typically utilized throughout the development of MRT. Using the new approach we deduced an ion recombination correction factor of 1.047 for the maximum ESRF storage ring current (200 mA) under typical beam spectral filtering conditions in MRT. MRT trials are currently underway with veterinary patients at the ESRF that require additional filtering, and we have estimated a correction factor of 1.025 for these filtration conditions for the same ESRF storage ring current. The protocol described herein provides reference dosimetry data for the associated Treatment Planning System utilized in the current veterinary trials and anticipated future human clinical trials.

  7. High resolution X-ray fluorescence imaging for a microbeam radiation therapy treatment planning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Inscoe, Christina; Burk, Laurel; Ger, Rachel; Yuan, Hong; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses an array of high-dose, narrow (~100 μm) beams separated by a fraction of a millimeter to treat various radio-resistant, deep-seated tumors. MRT has been shown to spare normal tissue up to 1000 Gy of entrance dose while still being highly tumoricidal. Current methods of tumor localization for our MRT treatments require MRI and X-ray imaging with subject motion and image registration that contribute to the measurement error. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel form of imaging to quickly and accurately assist in high resolution target positioning for MRT treatments using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The key to this method is using the microbeam to both treat and image. High Z contrast media is injected into the phantom or blood pool of the subject prior to imaging. Using a collimated spectrum analyzer, the region of interest is scanned through the MRT beam and the fluorescence signal is recorded for each slice. The signal can be processed to show vascular differences in the tissue and isolate tumor regions. Using the radiation therapy source as the imaging source, repositioning and registration errors are eliminated. A phantom study showed that a spatial resolution of a fraction of microbeam width can be achieved by precision translation of the mouse stage. Preliminary results from an animal study showed accurate iodine profusion, confirmed by CT. The proposed image guidance method, using XRF to locate and ablate tumors, can be used as a fast and accurate MRT treatment planning system.

  8. Direct observation of electrothermal instability structures on intensely Ohmically heated aluminum with current flowing in a surface skin layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awe, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Implosions on the Z Facility assemble high-energy-density plasmas for radiation effects and ICF experiments, but achievable stagnation pressures and temperatures are degraded by the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. While the beryllium liners (tubes) used in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments are astonishingly smooth (10 to 50 nm RMS roughness), they also contain distributed micron-scale resistive inclusions, and large MRT amplitudes are observed. Early in the implosion, an electrothermal instability (ETI) may provide a perturbation which greatly exceeds the initial surface roughness of the liner. Resistive inhomogeneities drive nonuniform current density and Joule heating, resulting in locally higher temperature, and thus still higher resistivity. Such unstable temperature and pressure growth produce density perturbations which seed MRT. For MagLIF liners, ETI seeding of MRT has been inferred by evaluating late-time MRT, but a direct observation of ETI is not made. ETI is directly observed on the surface of 1.0-mm-diameter solid Al rods pulsed to 1 MA in 100 ns via high resolution gated optical imaging (2 ns temporal and 3 micron spatial resolution). Aluminum 6061 alloy rods, with micron-scale resistive inclusions, consistently first demonstrate overheating from distinct, 10-micron-scale, sub-eV spots, which 5-10 ns later merge into azimuthally stretched elliptical spots and discrete strata (40-100 microns wide by 10 microns tall). Axial plasma filaments form shortly thereafter. Surface plasma can be suppressed for rods coated with dielectric, enabling extended study of the evolution of stratified ETI structures, and experimental inference of ETI growth rates. This fundamentally new and highly 3-dimensional dataset informs ETI physics, including when the ETI seed of MRT may be initiated.

  9. SU-F-T-673: Effects of Cardiac Induced Brain Pulsations On Proton Minibeams

    SciTech Connect

    Eagle, J; Marsh, S; Lee, E

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of internal motion within the brain on spatially modulated proton minibeam radiation therapy (pMRT) for small animal research. Methods: The peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) is an essential dosimetric factor for pMRT. Motion of an animal brain caused by cardiac-induced pulsations (CIP) can impact dose deposition. For synchrotron generated high dose rate X-ray microbeams this effect is evaded due to the quasi-instantaneous delivery. By comparison, pMRT potentially suffers increased spread due to lower dose rates. However, for a given dose rate it is less susceptible to beam spread than microbeams, due to the spatial modulationmore » being an order of magnitude larger. Monte Carlo simulations in TOPAS were used to model the beam spread for a 50.5MeV pMRT beam. Motion effects were simulated for a 50mm thick brass collimator with 0.3mm slit width and 1.0mm center-to-center spacing in a water phantom. The maximum motion in a rat brain due to CIP has been reported to be 0.06mm. Motion was simulated with a peak amplitude in the range 0–0.2mm. Results: The impact of 0.06mm peak motion was minimal and reduced the PVDR by about 1% at a depth of 10mm. For 0.2mm peak motion the PVDR was reduced by 16% at a depth of 10mm. Conclusion: For the pMRT beam the magnitude of cardiac-induced brain motion has minimal impact on the PVDR for the investigated collimator geometry. For more narrow beams the effect is likely to be larger. This indicates that delivery of pMRT to small animal brains should not be affected considerably by beamlines with linac compatible dose rates.« less

  10. CAD in der Praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labisch, Susanna

    Konstruktion und Fertigung erfolgen in der Praxis fast ausschließlich rechnerunterstützt. Mit diesem Rechnereinsatz beim Konstruieren (CAD, Computer Aided Design) und Fertigen CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) scheint die technische Zeichnung an Bedeutung zu verlieren, da die Verständigung zwischen Konstruktions- und Fertigungsabteilung primär durch den Austausch digitaler Daten erfolgen kann.

  11. Invasive forstliche schad-organismen in Nordamerika

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. Fettig; Horst E.  Delb

    2017-01-01

    In Nordamerika sind Wälder infolge von Einwandernden, internationalem Handel und Tourismus traditionell stark von Einschleppungen gebietsfremder invasiver Schadorganismen betroffen. Infolge von Globalisierung und Klimawandel gibt es aufgrund der Ähnlichkeiten von Klima, Flora und Fauna zwischen Europa und Nordamerika viele Parallelen.

  12. Europeanization of the Hospital Markets - Opportunities and Risks for German Hospitals (Europaeisierung des Krankenhausmarkets - Chancen und Risiken fuer deutsche Krankenhaeuser)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-06

    Information Services Institut (3M HIS Institut) hat u.a. mit der Entwicklung eines Werkzeugs zur Pflege und Weiterentwicklung des deutschen DRG-Systems ftir... Pflege (Krankenhauspflege) a. die Kosten wachsen schneller als allgerneine Inflation b. praktisch stabile Krankenversicherungsentnahme c. es existieren 9...Krankenkassen d. die Pflege ist von der Krankenversicherung voll (theoretisch) vergUltet e. Missverhlitnis zwischen Versicherungsentnuhrne und

  13. Maintenance Resources by Building Use for U.S. Army Installations. Volume 2. Appendices A through H

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Installations, Volume II: Appendices A Through H RDTE dated 1980REIMB 1984 6 . AUTHOR(S) Edgar S. Neely and Robert D. Neathammer 7 . PERFORML’JG...Recurring Maintenance Factor 1.10 MRT For Major Cost Tasks and Replacement Tasks Decade 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 0 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .050 .190 .240 .300 .280...Special Condition Multiplier 1.00 Annual Recurring Maintenance Factor .79 MRT For Major Cost Tasks and Replacement Tasks Decade 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 0

  14. Real-time photo-magnetic imaging.

    PubMed

    Nouizi, Farouk; Erkol, Hakan; Luk, Alex; Unlu, Mehmet B; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-10-01

    We previously introduced a new high resolution diffuse optical imaging modality termed, photo-magnetic imaging (PMI). PMI irradiates the object under investigation with near-infrared light and monitors the variations of temperature using magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT). In this paper, we present a real-time PMI image reconstruction algorithm that uses analytic methods to solve the forward problem and assemble the Jacobian matrix much faster. The new algorithm is validated using real MRT measured temperature maps. In fact, it accelerates the reconstruction process by more than 250 times compared to a single iteration of the FEM-based algorithm, which opens the possibility for the real-time PMI.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of a compact microbeam radiotherapy system based on carbon nanotube field emission technology.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Eric C; Chang, Sha X

    2012-08-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an experimental radiotherapy technique that has shown potent antitumor effects with minimal damage to normal tissue in animal studies. This unique form of radiation is currently only produced in a few large synchrotron accelerator research facilities in the world. To promote widespread translational research on this promising treatment technology we have proposed and are in the initial development stages of a compact MRT system that is based on carbon nanotube field emission x-ray technology. We report on a Monte Carlo based feasibility study of the compact MRT system design. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using EGSnrc-based codes. The proposed small animal research MRT device design includes carbon nanotube cathodes shaped to match the corresponding MRT collimator apertures, a common reflection anode with filter, and a MRT collimator. Each collimator aperture is sized to deliver a beam width ranging from 30 to 200 μm at 18.6 cm source-to-axis distance. Design parameters studied with Monte Carlo include electron energy, cathode design, anode angle, filtration, and collimator design. Calculations were performed for single and multibeam configurations. Increasing the energy from 100 kVp to 160 kVp increased the photon fluence through the collimator by a factor of 1.7. Both energies produced a largely uniform fluence along the long dimension of the microbeam, with 5% decreases in intensity near the edges. The isocentric dose rate for 160 kVp was calculated to be 700 Gy∕min∕A in the center of a 3 cm diameter target. Scatter contributions resulting from collimator size were found to produce only small (<7%) changes in the dose rate for field widths greater than 50 μm. Dose vs depth was weakly dependent on filtration material. The peak-to-valley ratio varied from 10 to 100 as the separation between adjacent microbeams varies from 150 to 1000 μm. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the proposed compact MRT system

  16. On some stochastic formulations and related statistical moments of pharmacokinetic models.

    PubMed

    Matis, J H; Wehrly, T E; Metzler, C M

    1983-02-01

    This paper presents the deterministic and stochastic model for a linear compartment system with constant coefficients, and it develops expressions for the mean residence times (MRT) and the variances of the residence times (VRT) for the stochastic model. The expressions are relatively simple computationally, involving primarily matrix inversion, and they are elegant mathematically, in avoiding eigenvalue analysis and the complex domain. The MRT and VRT provide a set of new meaningful response measures for pharmacokinetic analysis and they give added insight into the system kinetics. The new analysis is illustrated with an example involving the cholesterol turnover in rats.

  17. Economic evaluation of multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment versus cognitive behavioural therapy for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Köke, Albère; Hitters, Minou; Rijnders, Nieke; Pont, Menno

    2017-01-01

    Background A multi-centre RCT has shown that multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment (MRT) is more effective in reducing fatigue over the long-term in comparison with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but evidence on its cost-effectiveness is lacking. Aim To compare the cost-effectiveness of MRT versus CBT for patients with CFS from a societal perspective. Methods A multi-centre randomized controlled trial comparing MRT with CBT was conducted among 122 patients with CFS diagnosed using the 1994 criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and aged between 18 and 60 years. The societal costs (healthcare costs, patient and family costs, and costs for loss of productivity), fatigue severity, quality of life, quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were measured over a follow-up period of one year. The main outcome of the cost-effectiveness analysis was fatigue measured by the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). The main outcome of the cost-utility analysis was the QALY based on the EuroQol-5D-3L utilities. Sensitivity analyses were performed, and uncertainty was calculated using the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and cost-effectiveness planes. Results The data of 109 patients (57 MRT and 52 CBT) were analyzed. MRT was significantly more effective in reducing fatigue at 52 weeks. The mean difference in QALY between the treatments was not significant (0.09, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.19). The total societal costs were significantly higher for patients allocated to MRT (a difference of €5,389, 95% CI: 2,488 to 8,091). MRT has a high probability of being the most cost effective, using fatigue as the primary outcome. The ICER is €856 per unit of the CIS fatigue subscale. The results of the cost-utility analysis, using the QALY, indicate that the CBT had a higher likelihood of being more cost-effective. Conclusions The probability of being more cost-effective is

  18. Economic evaluation of multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment versus cognitive behavioural therapy for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vos-Vromans, Desirée; Evers, Silvia; Huijnen, Ivan; Köke, Albère; Hitters, Minou; Rijnders, Nieke; Pont, Menno; Knottnerus, André; Smeets, Rob

    2017-01-01

    A multi-centre RCT has shown that multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment (MRT) is more effective in reducing fatigue over the long-term in comparison with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), but evidence on its cost-effectiveness is lacking. To compare the cost-effectiveness of MRT versus CBT for patients with CFS from a societal perspective. A multi-centre randomized controlled trial comparing MRT with CBT was conducted among 122 patients with CFS diagnosed using the 1994 criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and aged between 18 and 60 years. The societal costs (healthcare costs, patient and family costs, and costs for loss of productivity), fatigue severity, quality of life, quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), and cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were measured over a follow-up period of one year. The main outcome of the cost-effectiveness analysis was fatigue measured by the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). The main outcome of the cost-utility analysis was the QALY based on the EuroQol-5D-3L utilities. Sensitivity analyses were performed, and uncertainty was calculated using the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and cost-effectiveness planes. The data of 109 patients (57 MRT and 52 CBT) were analyzed. MRT was significantly more effective in reducing fatigue at 52 weeks. The mean difference in QALY between the treatments was not significant (0.09, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.19). The total societal costs were significantly higher for patients allocated to MRT (a difference of €5,389, 95% CI: 2,488 to 8,091). MRT has a high probability of being the most cost effective, using fatigue as the primary outcome. The ICER is €856 per unit of the CIS fatigue subscale. The results of the cost-utility analysis, using the QALY, indicate that the CBT had a higher likelihood of being more cost-effective. The probability of being more cost-effective is higher for MRT when using fatigue as primary

  19. Applying the log-normal distribution to target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, Gerald C.

    1992-09-01

    Holst and Pickard experimentally determined that MRT responses tend to follow a log-normal distribution. The log normal distribution appeared reasonable because nearly all visual psychological data is plotted on a logarithmic scale. It has the additional advantage that it is bounded to positive values; an important consideration since probability of detection is often plotted in linear coordinates. Review of published data suggests that the log-normal distribution may have universal applicability. Specifically, the log-normal distribution obtained from MRT tests appears to fit the target transfer function and the probability of detection of rectangular targets.

  20. GrB TWEAK: A Potential Novel Biologic for NSCLC Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    saline (control) or GrB-Fc-IT4 at 20 mg...intravenously   treated  with   saline  or  MRT-­‐101  construct  (Qod  X  5).  On  average,  tumors  from   saline -­‐treated...also   demonstrated   >50%   tumor   suppression   vs   saline   controls.   Overall,   treatment  with  MRT-­‐101

  1. Comparison of different methods of estimating the mean radiant temperature in outdoor thermal comfort studies.

    PubMed

    Krüger, E L; Minella, F O; Matzarakis, A

    2014-10-01

    Correlations between outdoor thermal indices and the calculated or measured mean radiant temperature T(mrt) are in general of high importance because of the combined effect on human energy balance in outdoor spaces. The most accurate way to determine T(mrt) is by means of integral radiation measurements, i.e. measuring the short- and long-wave radiation from six directions using pyranometers and pyrgeometers, an expensive and not always an easily available procedure. Some studies use globe thermometers combined with air temperature and wind speed sensors. An alternative way to determine T(mrt) is based on output from the RayMan model from measured data of incoming global radiation and morphological features of the monitoring site in particular sky view factor (SVF) data. The purpose of this paper is to compare different methods to assess the mean radiant temperature T(mrt) in terms of differences to a reference condition (T(mrt) calculated from field measurements) and to resulting outdoor comfort levels expressed as PET and UTCI values. The T(mrt) obtained from field measurements is a combination of air temperature, wind speed and globe temperature data according to the forced ventilation formula of ISO 7726 for data collected in Glasgow, UK. Four different methods were used in the RayMan model for T(mrt) calculations: input data consisting exclusively of data measured at urban sites; urban data excluding solar radiation, estimated SVF data and solar radiation data measured at a rural site; urban data excluding solar radiation with SVF data for each site; urban data excluding solar radiation and including solar radiation at the rural site taking no account of SVF information. Results show that all methods overestimate T(mrt) when compared to ISO calculations. Correlations were found to be significant for the first method and lower for the other three. Results in terms of comfort (PET, UTCI) suggest that reasonable estimates could be made based on global radiation

  2. Akne.

    PubMed

    Degitz, Klaus; Ochsendorf, Falk

    2017-07-01

    Akne ist eine chronische Erkrankung mit hoher Prävalenz unter Jugendlichen. Pathogenetische Hauptfaktoren (und ihre klinischen Korrelate) sind gesteigerte Talgproduktion (Seborrhoe), follikuläre Hyperkeratose (Komedonen) und perifollikuläre Entzündungsvorgänge (Papulopusteln). Die Krankheit wird von endogenen (Androgene, IGF-1, neuroendokrine Faktoren) und exogenen (Propionibacterium acnes, Diät, mechanische Irritation, Inhaltsstoffe medizinischer oder kosmetischer Externa) Einflüssen moduliert. Akne geht mit zum Teil hoher Morbidität einher und kann bereits bei leichter Ausprägung eine erhebliche Verschlechterung der Lebensqualität bewirken. Zu Therapie stehen wirksame topische und systemische Behandlungsverfahren zur Verfügung. Eine optimale Behandlung erfordert eine stadiengerechtes Management und kontinuierliche ärztliche Begleitung der Patienten über den erforderlichen Behandlungszeitraum. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Pharmacokinetics of phenolic antioxidant 4-methyl-2,6-diisobornylphenol upon intravenous injection].

    PubMed

    Chernyshova, G A; Smol'iakova, V I; Plotnikov, M B; Ianovskaia, E A; Gurto, R V; Udut, V V; Kuchin, A V; Chukicheva, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 4-methyl-2,6-diisobornylphenol (MDIBP) in rat blood plasma has been studied after intravenous injection. The drug concentration in the plasma was determined using a reverse-phase HPLC procedure. It is shown that MDIBP rapidly penetrates into intensively perfused organs, but is slowly eliminated from the organism (MRT value amounting to 9 h).

  4. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  5. Explaining sex differences in mental rotation: role of spatial activity experience.

    PubMed

    Nazareth, Alina; Herrera, Asiel; Pruden, Shannon M

    2013-05-01

    Males consistently outperform females on mental rotation tasks, such as the Vandenberg and Kuse (1978) Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47(2), 599-604, mental rotation test (MRT; e.g. Voyer et al. 1995) in Psychological Bulletin, 117, 250-265. The present study investigates whether these sex differences in MRT scores can be explained in part by early spatial activity experience, particularly those spatial activities that have been sex-typed as masculine/male-oriented. Utilizing an online survey, 571 ethnically diverse adult university students completed a brief demographic survey, an 81-item spatial activity survey, and the MRT. Results suggest that the significant relation between sex of the participant and MRT score is partially mediated by the number of masculine spatial activities participants had engaged in as youth. Closing the gap between males and females in spatial ability, a skill linked to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics success, may be accomplished in part by encouraging female youth to engage in more particular kinds of spatial activities.

  6. Validation of Magnetic Resonance Thermometry by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydquist, Grant; Owkes, Mark; Verhulst, Claire M.; Benson, Michael J.; Vanpoppel, Bret P.; Burton, Sascha; Eaton, John K.; Elkins, Christopher P.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic Resonance Thermometry (MRT) is a new experimental technique that can create fully three-dimensional temperature fields in a noninvasive manner. However, validation is still required to determine the accuracy of measured results. One method of examination is to compare data gathered experimentally to data computed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this study, large-eddy simulations have been performed with the NGA computational platform to generate data for a comparison with previously run MRT experiments. The experimental setup consisted of a heated jet inclined at 30° injected into a larger channel. In the simulations, viscosity and density were scaled according to the local temperature to account for differences in buoyant and viscous forces. A mesh-independent study was performed with 5 mil-, 15 mil- and 45 mil-cell meshes. The program Star-CCM + was used to simulate the complete experimental geometry. This was compared to data generated from NGA. Overall, both programs show good agreement with the experimental data gathered with MRT. With this data, the validity of MRT as a diagnostic tool has been shown and the tool can be used to further our understanding of a range of flows with non-trivial temperature distributions.

  7. Primary Mental Abilities and Metropolitan Readiness Tests as Predictors of Achievement in the First Primary Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The prediction of achievement provides teachers with necessary information to help children attain optimal achievement. If some skill prerequistites to learning which are not fully developed can be identified and strengthened, higher levels of achievement may result. The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) are routinely given to all University City…

  8. [Possibilities of follow-up imaging after implantation of a carbon fiber-reinforced hip prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Krüger, T; Alter, C; Reichel, H; Birke, A; Hein, W; Spielmann, R P

    1998-03-01

    There are many problems in the radiological diagnosis of aseptic loosening in total hip arthroplasty. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) are not usable for metallic implants (stainless steel, cobalt alloy, titanium alloy). From April 1993 to December 1993 15 CFRP non-cemented hip prostheses have been implanted. In a prospective clinical study plane radiographs, CT and MRT have been analysed. Three stems were revised (1 femoral fracture, 1 severe thigh pain, 1 aseptic loosening). CFRP are not visible in plane radiographs. There was a complete (two-third of the cases) or nearly complete (one-third of the cases) small sclerotic interface between the prosthesis and the bone, these were apparent in CT and MRT in stable implant cases and did not have any clinical correlations. The small sclerotic interface is quite different in comparison to so called "Reactive Lines". In one case of aseptic loosening there was an interposition of soft tissue between prosthesis and bone in MRT and CT. CFRP inaugurates new diagnostic possibilities in aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis and in tumour surgery too.

  9. Gender-Specific Effects of Artificially Induced Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Men outperform women in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) by about one standard deviation. The present study replicated a gender belief account [Moe, A., & Pazzaglia, F. (2006). Following the instructions! Effects of gender beliefs in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 369-377.] for (part of) this effect. A sample of 300…

  10. Pretest and Posttest Results of the First KEEP Program Year. Technical Report #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    This report presents a pre- and posttest evaluation of the first program year of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP). Each of the 28 children in the KEEP kindergarten class received three tests: the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and the Standard English Repetition…

  11. Pre- and Post-Test Results of KEEP Class 2: 1973-74. Technical Report #40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Candy

    This report presents the pre-and posttest results for the kindergarten year of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) Class 2, 1973-1974. Results are presented for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI), the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and the Standard English Repetition Test (SERT). Comparisons are made…

  12. The pharmacokinetics of ketoconazole and its effects on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and fentanyl in dogs.

    PubMed

    KuKanich, B; Hubin, M

    2010-02-01

    Ketoconazole inhibits the Cytochrome P450 3A12 (CYP3A12) metabolizing enzyme as well as the p-glycoprotein efflux pump. The extent and clinical consequence of these effects are poorly understood in dogs. The objective was to assess the pharmacokinetics of ketoconazole after single and multiple doses and the effect of multiple doses of ketoconazole on midazolam (a known CYP3A12 substrate) and the opioid fentanyl. Six greyhound dogs were studied. The study consisted of three phases. Phase 1 consisted of i.v. midazolam (0.23 mg/kg base) and fentanyl (15.71 microg/kg base). Phase 2 consisted of a single oral dose of ketoconazole (mean dose 12.34 mg/kg). Phase 3 consisted of i.v. midazolam (0.23 mg/kg) and fentanyl (10 microg/kg) after 5 days of oral ketoconazole (12.25 mg/kg/day). Ketoconazole significantly inhibited its own elimination with the mean residence time (MRT) increasing from 6.24 h in Phase 1 to 12.54 h in Phase 3. Ketoconazole significantly decreased the elimination of midazolam, as expected, with the MRT increasing from 0.81 to 1.49 h. The elimination of fentanyl was not significantly altered by co-administration of ketoconazole with the MRT being 3.90 and 6.35 h. The MRT was the most robust estimate of decreased drug elimination.

  13. Genome-Wide Profiles of Extra-cranial Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors Reveal Heterogeneity and Dysregulated Developmental Pathways | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are rare lethal tumors of childhood that most commonly occur in the kidney and brain. MRTs are driven by SMARCB1 loss, but the molecular consequences of SMARCB1 loss in extra-cranial tumors have not been comprehensively described and genomic resources for analyses of extra-cranial MRT are limited.

  14. A Phase II, Multicenter Study of the EZH2 Inhibitor Tazemetostat in Adult Subjects With INI1-Negative Tumors or Relapsed/Refractory Synovial Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-18

    Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors (MRT); Rhabdoid Tumors of the Kidney (RTK); Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors (ATRT); Selected Tumors With Rhabdoid Features; Synovial Sarcoma; INI1-negative Tumors; Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor of Ovary; Renal Medullary Carcinoma; Epithelioid Sarcoma; Poorly Differentiated Chordoma (or Other Chordoma With Sponsor Approval); Any Solid Tumor With an EZH2 GOF Mutation

  15. Synchrotron Radiation Therapy from a Medical Physics point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezado, Y.; Adam, J. F.; Berkvens, P.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Fois, G.; Thengumpallil, S.; Edouard, M.; Vautrin, M.; Deman, P.; Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Renier, M.; Elleaume, H.; Estève, F.; Bravin, A.

    2010-07-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) therapy is a promising alternative to treat brain tumors, whose management is limited due to the high morbidity of the surrounding healthy tissues. Several approaches are being explored by using SR at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), where three techniques are under development Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT), Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) and Minibeam Radiation Therapy (MBRT). The sucess of the preclinical studies on SSRT and MRT has paved the way to clinical trials currently in preparation at the ESRF. With this aim, different dosimetric aspects from both theoretical and experimental points of view have been assessed. In particular, the definition of safe irradiation protocols, the beam energy providing the best balance between tumor treatment and healthy tissue sparing in MRT and MBRT, the special dosimetric considerations for small field dosimetry, etc will be described. In addition, for the clinical trials, the definition of appropiate dosimetry protocols for patients according to the well established European Medical Physics recommendations will be discussed. Finally, the state of the art of the MBRT technical developments at the ESRF will be presented. In 2006 A. Dilmanian and collaborators proposed the use of thicker microbeams (0.36-0.68 mm). This new type of radiotherapy is the most recently implemented technique at the ESRF and it has been called MBRT. The main advantage of MBRT with respect to MRT is that it does not require high dose rates. Therefore it can be more easily applied and extended outside synchrotron sources in the future.

  16. Temperature mapping of laser-induced hyperthermia in an ocular phantom using magnetic resonance thermography.

    PubMed

    Maswadi, Saher M; Dodd, Stephen J; Gao, Jia-Hong; Glickman, Randolph D

    2004-01-01

    Laser-induced heating in an ocular phantom is measured with magnetic resonance thermography (MRT) using temperature-dependent phase changes in proton resonance frequency. The ocular phantom contains a layer of melanosomes isolated from bovine retinal pigment epithelium. The phantom is heated by the 806-nm output of a continuous wave diode laser with an irradiance of 2.4 to 21.6 W/cm2 in a beam radius of 0.8 or 2.4 mm, depending on the experiment. MRT is performed with a 2 T magnet, and a two-turn, 6-cm-diam, circular radio frequency coil. Two-dimensional temperature gradients are measured within the plane of the melanin layer, as well as normal to it, with a temperature resolution of 1 degrees C or better. The temperature gradients extending within the melanin layer are broader than those orthogonal to the layer, consistent with the higher optical absorption and consequent heating in the melanin. The temperature gradients in the phantom measured by MRT closely approximate the predictions of a classical heat diffusion model. Three-dimensional temperature maps with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm in all directions are also made. Although the temporal resolution is limited in the prototype system (22.9 s for a single image "slice"), improvements in future implementations are likely. These results indicate that MRT has sufficient spatial and temperature resolution to monitor target tissue temperature during transpupillary thermotherapy in the human eye.

  17. TxDOT wildland fire management training.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-06-01

    In 2011, the Texas Tech Center for Multidisciplinary Research in Transportation (TechMRT) was contracted by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) to analyze best practices for the department in responding to wildfires. This project (0-6735) ...

  18. Enhanced distribution and extended elimination of glycyrrhetinic acid in mice liver by mPEG-PLA modified (mPEGylated) liposome.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Yu, Hua; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang Ji

    2010-04-06

    A rapid and simple method of high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector for the quantification of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) in mice plasma and tissues has been developed and validated. With the established assay method, the pharmacokinetic profiles and tissue distribution of GA in different formulations are compared in mice after intravenous administration of the drug (25mg/kg). The results showed that mPEG-PLA modified (mPEGylated) GA liposome (PL-GA) significantly prolonged the mean residence time (MRT) of GA in mice plasma and liver (MRT: 0.43+/-0.13 and 1.72+/-0.11h, respectively) than the normal GA liposome (L-GA) (MRT: 0.23+/-0.01 and 1.07+/-0.31h, respectively) and GA sodium injection (S-GA) (MRT: 0.13+/-0.01 and 0.95+/-0.08h, respectively). Moreover, PL-GA specifically increased GA uptake in liver (AUC(0-infinity,)(liver) value of 1.6-fold and 1.3-fold higher than that for S-GA and L-GA, respectively) and reduced its distribution into other tissues after dosing. Due to these pharmacokinetic properties, it may be promising to develop PL-GA further as a new pharmaceutical preparation for GA on the treatment of various chronic hepatic diseases. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Discrete effect on the halfway bounce-back boundary condition of multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for convection-diffusion equations.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shuqi; Hong, Ning; Shi, Baochang; Chai, Zhenhua

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we will focus on the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model for two-dimensional convection-diffusion equations (CDEs), and analyze the discrete effect on the halfway bounce-back (HBB) boundary condition (or sometimes called bounce-back boundary condition) of the MRT model where three different discrete velocity models are considered. We first present a theoretical analysis on the discrete effect of the HBB boundary condition for the simple problems with a parabolic distribution in the x or y direction, and a numerical slip proportional to the second-order of lattice spacing is observed at the boundary, which means that the MRT model has a second-order convergence rate in space. The theoretical analysis also shows that the numerical slip can be eliminated in the MRT model through tuning the free relaxation parameter corresponding to the second-order moment, while it cannot be removed in the single-relaxation-time model or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook model unless the relaxation parameter related to the diffusion coefficient is set to be a special value. We then perform some simulations to confirm our theoretical results, and find that the numerical results are consistent with our theoretical analysis. Finally, we would also like to point out the present analysis can be extended to other boundary conditions of lattice Boltzmann models for CDEs.

  20. Restless Mind, Restless Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Thomson, David R.; Cheyne, James Allan; Martens, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz; Smilek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the hypothesis that failures of task-related executive control that occur during episodes of mind wandering are associated with an increase in extraneous movements (fidgeting). In 2 studies, we assessed mind wandering using thought probes while participants performed the metronome response task (MRT), which…

  1. Cognitive strategies in the mental rotation task revealed by EEG spectral power.

    PubMed

    Gardony, Aaron L; Eddy, Marianna D; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-11-01

    The classic mental rotation task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971) is commonly thought to measure mental rotation, a cognitive process involving covert simulation of motor rotation. Yet much research suggests that the MRT recruits both motor simulation and other analytic cognitive strategies that depend on visuospatial representation and visual working memory (WM). In the present study, we investigated cognitive strategies in the MRT using time-frequency analysis of EEG and independent component analysis. We scrutinized sensorimotor mu (µ) power reduction, associated with motor simulation, parietal alpha (pα) power reduction, associated with visuospatial representation, and frontal midline theta (fmθ) power enhancement, associated with WM maintenance and manipulation. µ power increased concomitant with increasing task difficulty, suggesting reduced use of motor simulation, while pα decreased and fmθ power increased, suggesting heightened use of visuospatial representation processing and WM, respectively. These findings suggest that MRT performance involves flexibly trading off between cognitive strategies, namely a motor simulation-based mental rotation strategy and WM-intensive analytic strategies based on task difficulty. Flexible cognitive strategy use may be a domain-general cognitive principle that underlies aptitude and spatial intelligence in a variety of cognitive domains. We close with discussion of the present study's implications as well as future directions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Schemas in Problem Solving: An Integrated Model of Learning, Memory, and Instruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    reflected in the title of a recent article: "lybid Coupation, in Cognitive Science: Neural Networks ad Symbl (3. A Andesson, 1990). And, Marvin Mtuky...Rumneihart, D. E (1989). Explorations in parallel distributed processing: A handbook of models, programs, and exercises. Cambridge, MA: The MrT Press. Minsky

  3. No sex differences in the TAMI.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R; Singhal, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    The Test of Ability in Movement Imagery (TAMI; Madan and Singhal in J Mot Behav 45:153-166, 2013) has recently been developed as an objective measure for evaluating individual ability in movement imagery. Other tests of imagery have reported sex differences, including the mental rotations test (MRT) and the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ). However, some have attributed these observed sex differences to other processes, such as difference in spatial abilities and confidence. Here, we tested for sex differences in the TAMI in a large sample of young adults (N = 246). In the same sample, we also administered a modified version of the MRT that included both block configurations and human figures and the VMIQ2. This modified MRT was used, as the imagery processes involved in the TAMI may be more similar to those involved in the rotations of human figures. While strong sex differences were found in both subscales of the modified MRT, no sex differences were observed in the TAMI.

  4. The Effects of Written Language Awareness on First Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nancy E.; Blum, Irene H.

    A battery of four reading readiness assessment tasks was administered to 267 first grade students to determine if the tasks predicted reading achievement as well as the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT). The four tasks, which were the best predictors in a previous study of seven readiness tasks, were the aural word boundaries task, the…

  5. Are Males Always Better than Females in Mental Rotation? Exploring a Gender Belief Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica

    2009-01-01

    Males outperform females in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) for biological, strategic and cultural reasons. The present research tested a motivational explanation with the hypothesis that females could do better when induced to have positive beliefs and expectations. All-female and all-male samples were divided into six groups, each having listened…

  6. National Employment Outlook for Medical Record Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, David Lynn; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Contains estimates of future employment levels and annual job openings through 1985 for medical record technicians (MRTs). This information is compared to enrollment and completion date for MRT training programs certified by the American Medical Association to determine the adequacy of the current supply of MRTs in light of future MRT…

  7. Factor Analysis of the Metropolitan Readiness Test on First-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Ernest O.; Wiebe, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the factor composition of the Metropolitan Readiness Test, using first-grade subjects (N=1,241). A total battery score was supported, as well as a second factor believed to represent a language dimension of the test. None of the MRT's other content areas or a distinct prereading measure were identified. (Author/JAC)

  8. Early and Late Inhibitions Elicited by a Peripheral Visual Cue on Manual Response to a Visual Target: Are They Based on Cartesian Coordinates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawryszewski, Luiz G.; Carreiro, Luiz Renato R.; Magalhaes, Fabio V.

    2005-01-01

    A non-informative cue (C) elicits an inhibition of manual reaction time (MRT) to a visual target (T). We report an experiment to examine if the spatial distribution of this inhibitory effect follows Polar or Cartesian coordinate systems. C appeared at one out of 8 isoeccentric (7[degrees]) positions, the C-T angular distances (in polar…

  9. Separating "Rotators" from "Nonrotators" in the Mental Rotations Test: A Multigroup Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Items of mental rotation tests can not only be solved by mental rotation but also by other solution strategies. A multigroup latent class analysis of 24 items of the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) was conducted in a sample of 1,695 German pupils and students to find out how many solution strategies can be identified for the items of this test. The…

  10. On Some Stopping Times of Citation Processes. From Theory to Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanzel, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    Proposes a new measure of the citation speed of scientific publications based on a stopping time approach. The stochastic process approach in bibliometrics is described, mean response time (MRT) is discussed, harmonic mean response time (HMRT) is explained, and examples are given. (six references) (LRW)

  11. Promise for the Future: An Evaluation of the Texas Master Reading Teacher Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Linda DeZell; O'Neill, Kevin J.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.; Parker, Richard I.

    In 1999 the Texas Legislature provided for the creation of the Master Reading Teacher (MRT) Certificate to address several issues. MRTs primary duties are to: serve as reading teachers; consult with and mentor other teachers; and provide research-based information and training. In September 2001 the Texas Education Agency asked Dr. Jan Hasbrouck…

  12. Validity of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment for Predicting First Grade Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panter, Janet E.; Bracken, Bruce A.

    2009-01-01

    The Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA) was administered to all kindergarten students enrolled in two rural elementary schools in the fall of 2004. Eight months later, the reading portion of the Metropolitan Readiness Tests, 6th Edition (MRT-6) was administered. Teachers were asked to indicate whether they had concerns about each student's…

  13. Factor Structure and Validation of a Set of Readiness Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Maurice; Lynch, Mervin

    A study was undertaken to identify the factor structure of a battery of readiness measures and to demonstrate the concurrent and predictive validity of one instrument in that battery--the Pre-Reading Screening Procedures (PSP). Concurrent validity was determined by examining the correlation of the PSP with the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT),…

  14. Enhancement of Spatial Ability in Girls in a Single-Sex Environment through Spatial Experience and the Impact on Information Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarlis, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The test scores of spatial ability for women lag behind those of men in many spatial tests. On the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), a significant gender gap has existed for over 20 years and continues to exist. High spatial ability has been linked to efficiencies in typical computing tasks including Web and database searching, text editing, and…

  15. Prediction of School Readiness from Kindergarten Temperament Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Michael J.; Nagle, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationship between temperament and school readiness scores among 152 kindergarten children. All correlations between Temperament Assessment Battery for Children (TABC) scales and Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) scores were significant when effects of receptive vocabulary were removed. Results showed that, once TABC persistence…

  16. Relationship between Spatial Abilities, Mental Rotation and Functional Anatomy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillot, Aymeric; Champely, Stephane; Batier, Christophe; Thiriet, Patrice; Collet, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between visuo-spatial representation, mental rotation (MR) and functional anatomy examination results. A total of 184 students completed the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), Mental Rotation Test (MRT) and Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control. The time spent on personal assignment was also considered.…

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Change in Children's Mental Rotation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Corth, Martin; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated quantitative and qualitative changes in mental rotation performance and solution strategies with a focus on sex differences. German children (N = 519) completed the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) in the 5th and 6th grades (interval: one year; age range at time 1: 10-11 years). Boys on average outperformed girls on both…

  18. Validation of the Lollipop Test: A Diagnostic Screening Test of School Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Alex L.; Morris, John D.

    1984-01-01

    The validity of the Lollipop Test: A Diagnostic Screening Test of School Readiness was examined using the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), Level I, Form Q, as the criterion. Appreciable concurrent validity was found across test batteries. Implications for school readiness screening are discussed. (Author/BS)

  19. On the Relationship between Solution Strategies in Two Mental Rotation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Anne B.; Geiser, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in solution strategies have frequently been reported for different measures of mental rotation (MR) ability. In the present study (N=346 German students), we investigated the relationship between solution strategies on two tests commonly used to identify different patterns of strategies: the Mental Rotations Test (MRT;…

  20. Following the Instructions! Effects of Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Research has widely demonstrated male superiority in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT). Various explanations have been put forward to account for these differences. We considered gender beliefs and argued that women may fare less well than men partly because they are considered unable to perform this kind of task. Beliefs about spatial ability were…

  1. The Effectiveness of Four Readiness Tests As Predictors of First Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telegdy, Gabriel A.

    1975-01-01

    Results suggest that the STAR or MRT, coupled with teacher observations and the BGT, can provide a school system with an adequate screening readiness battery. Of the several skills measured by readiness tests, letter knowledge is the most predictive of actual first grade achievement. (Author)

  2. A Comparison of Piagetian Conservation Concepts with Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caballero, Jane Alexis

    This study involved a comparison of first and second grade students' performance on the Piagetian Task Administration Instrument (PTAI), the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) with actual reading achievement measured by placement on the Indiviudally Paced Instruction (IPI) Tracking Card in Reading, which was…

  3. The Reliability and Validity of the Concepts About Print and Record of Oral Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, H. D.; Day, Kaaren C.

    The Concepts about Print (Sand) and Record of Oral Language (ROL) tests were administered three times to 29 male and 27 female kindergarten children as part of a study to determine the reliability and concurrent validity of the tests. The Sand and Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT) were administered to the returning participants (27 males and 24…

  4. Single molecule diffusion and the solution of the spherically symmetric residence time equation.

    PubMed

    Agmon, Noam

    2011-06-16

    The residence time of a single dye molecule diffusing within a laser spot is propotional to the total number of photons emitted by it. With this application in mind, we solve the spherically symmetric "residence time equation" (RTE) to obtain the solution for the Laplace transform of the mean residence time (MRT) within a d-dimensional ball, as a function of the initial location of the particle and the observation time. The solutions for initial conditions of potential experimental interest, starting in the center, on the surface or uniformly within the ball, are explicitly presented. Special cases for dimensions 1, 2, and 3 are obtained, which can be Laplace inverted analytically for d = 1 and 3. In addition, the analytic short- and long-time asymptotic behaviors of the MRT are derived and compared with the exact solutions for d = 1, 2, and 3. As a demonstration of the simplification afforded by the RTE, the Appendix obtains the residence time distribution by solving the Feynman-Kac equation, from which the MRT is obtained by differentiation. Single-molecule diffusion experiments could be devised to test the results for the MRT presented in this work. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Automated Speech Intelligibility System for Head-Borne Personal Protective Equipment: Proof of Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    selected as the listener headform for this effort. The HATS has binaural sound quality microphones inserted into the ear canals and rubber pinnae that...Blank 16 APPENDIX - WORD LISTS AND SUBJECT RESPONSES MRT Set 1 (spoken word is in bold type) kick, lick, sick, tick, wick, pick neat, beat , seat, meat

  6. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of an Axial Magnetic Field on the Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Ablating Planar Foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Patel, S. G.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; Weiss, M. R.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Lau, Y. Y.

    2014-10-01

    Experiments are underway to study the effects an axial magnetic field on the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) in ablating planar foils on the 1-MA LTD at the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments (MAIZE) facility at the University of Michigan. For 600 kA drive current, a 15 T axial magnetic field is produced using helical return current posts. During the current pulse, the magnetic field may diffuse into the foil, creating a sheared magnetic field along with the possibility of shear stabilization of the MRT instability. Theoretical investigation at UM has shown that a sheared azimuthal magnetic field coupled with an axial magnetic field reduces the MRT growth rate in general. In order to study this effect, the amount of magnetic shear is controlled by offsetting the initial position of the foil. A 775 nm Ti:sapphire laser will be used to shadowgraph the foil in order to measure the MRT growth rate. By comparing these results to previous experiments at UM, the effects of magnetic shear and an axial magnetic field will be determined. This work was supported by US DoE. S.G. Patel and A.M. Steiner supported by NPSC funded by Sandia. D.A. Yager-Elorriaga supported by NSF fellowship Grant DGE 1256260.

  7. Environmental Support for High Frequency Acoustic Measurements at NOSC (Naval Ocean Systems Center) Oceanographic Tower, 26 April-7 May 1982. Part 1. Sediment Geoacoustic Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    surrounding the tripod (cores 14, 15, 16) were moderately to moderately well-sorted, fine-skewed, platykurtic to mesokurtic coarse grained sands, The...side of the interface. mrt Sediments throughout the 18 cm length of core 7 were moderately sorted, very finely-skewed, platykurtic to mesokurtic

  8. Aeromedical Lessons from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation. The contents include: 1) Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT); 2) Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO); 3) Mishap Investigation Team (MIT); 4) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mishap Response Plan; 5) Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP); and 6) STS-107 Crew Surgeon.

  9. Mode selection of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability from the point of view of Landau phase transition theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Jia Kun; Huang, Xian Bin; Ren, Xiao Dong; Wei, Bing

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical model referring to mode selection of Z-pinch-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability, which explains the generation of fundamental instability mode and evolution of fundamental wavelength in experiments, is proposed on the basis of the Landau theory of phase transition. The basic idea of this phase transition model lies in that the appearance of MRT instability pattern can be considered as a consequence of the spontaneous generation of interfacial structure like the spontaneous magnetization in a ferromagnetic system. It is demonstrated that the amplitude of instability is responsible for the order parameter in the Landau theory of phase transition and the fundamental wavelength appears to play a role analogous to inverse temperature in thermodynamics. Further analysis indicates that the MRT instability is characterized by first order phase transition and the fundamental wavelength is proportional to the square root of energy entering into the system from the driving source. The theory predicts that the fundamental wavelength grows rapidly and saturates reaching a limiting wavelength of the order of the liner's final outer radius. The results given by this theory show qualitative agreement with the available experimental data of MRT instability of liner implosions conducted on the Sandia Z machine as well as Primary Test Stand facility at the Institute of Fluid Physics.

  10. The Kindergarten Auditory Screening Test as a Predictor of Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Howard

    1976-01-01

    Correlation coefficients were obtained between the Kindergarten Auditory Screening Test (KAST), the Metropolitan Readiness Test (MRT), and the Gates MacGinitie Reading Tests, Primary Form (GMRT). Neither the coefficients obtained nor an examination of extreme groups indicated that the KAST was an effective predictor of reading disability. (Author)

  11. Individual Differences in the Mental Rotation Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turgut, Melih

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gender, academic performance and preschool education on mental rotation skills among Turkish prospective teachers. A total of 525 undergraduate students (364 female) from a government university located in western Turkey completed the Mental Rotation Test (MRT). A three-way [2 (gender) × 5 (academic…

  12. Variable temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon in North American forests

    Treesearch

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Christopher W. Swanston; Gary M. King; Randall K. Kolka

    2009-01-01

    We investigated mean residence time (MRT) for soil organic carbon (SOC) sampled from paired hardwood and pine forests located along a 22 °C mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient in North America. We used acid hydrolysis fractionation, radiocarbon analyses, long-term laboratory incubations (525-d), and a three-pool model to describe the size and kinetics of...

  13. Fibroblast growth factor receptors as novel therapeutic targets in SNF5-deleted malignant rhabdoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Wöhrle, Simon; Weiss, Andreas; Ito, Moriko; Kauffmann, Audrey; Murakami, Masato; Jagani, Zainab; Thuery, Anne; Bauer-Probst, Beatrice; Reimann, Flavia; Stamm, Christelle; Pornon, Astrid; Romanet, Vincent; Guagnano, Vito; Brümmendorf, Thomas; Sellers, William R; Hofmann, Francesco; Roberts, Charles W M; Graus Porta, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive pediatric cancers arising in brain, kidney and soft tissues, which are characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor SNF5/SMARCB1. MRTs are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and thus a high unmet clinical need exists for novel therapies for MRT patients. SNF5 is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex which affects gene expression by nucleosome remodeling. Here, we report that loss of SNF5 function correlates with increased expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in MRT cell lines and primary tumors and that re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells causes a marked repression of FGFR expression. Conversely, siRNA-mediated impairment of SWI/SNF function leads to elevated levels of FGFR2 in human fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment with NVP-BGJ398, a selective FGFR inhibitor, blocks progression of a murine MRT model. Hence, we identify FGFR signaling as an aberrantly activated oncogenic pathway in MRTs and propose pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs as a potential novel clinical therapy for MRTs.

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Targets in SNF5-Deleted Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wöhrle, Simon; Jagani, Zainab; Thuery, Anne; Bauer-Probst, Beatrice; Reimann, Flavia; Stamm, Christelle; Pornon, Astrid; Romanet, Vincent; Guagnano, Vito; Brümmendorf, Thomas; Sellers, William R.; Hofmann, Francesco; Roberts, Charles W. M.; Graus Porta, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive pediatric cancers arising in brain, kidney and soft tissues, which are characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor SNF5/SMARCB1. MRTs are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and thus a high unmet clinical need exists for novel therapies for MRT patients. SNF5 is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex which affects gene expression by nucleosome remodeling. Here, we report that loss of SNF5 function correlates with increased expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in MRT cell lines and primary tumors and that re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells causes a marked repression of FGFR expression. Conversely, siRNA-mediated impairment of SWI/SNF function leads to elevated levels of FGFR2 in human fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment with NVP-BGJ398, a selective FGFR inhibitor, blocks progression of a murine MRT model. Hence, we identify FGFR signaling as an aberrantly activated oncogenic pathway in MRTs and propose pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs as a potential novel clinical therapy for MRTs. PMID:24204904

  15. Green Infrastructure Concept for JABODETABEKJUR Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan; Gates Chang, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Sixty “Mega Cities” would emerge by 2015 catering of 600 million populations, and were threatened by the climate change, because of cyclones, flooding, etc. Jakarta became a metro region covering Jakarta, Bogor, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok and Cianjur. Jakarta metropolitan faced the very high population growth, urban sprawling, traffic jams, flooding, green open space reduction, environmental degradation, urban slums and illegal street hawkers. Flooding and traffic congestions were the two most important issues to solve. SWOT analysis and urban design solutions were produced to create a sustainable solution. Related to transportation issues, Singapore Mass Rapid Transport (MRT) concept was evaluated. Meanwhile the Netherlands’ polder concept as well as Singapore’s Integrated Water Management were also analyzed. The development of above ground MRT as well as Busway could be developed to connect Jakarta Metropolitan Region. The networks were developed on the main toll road networks. The MRT and Busway would eventually replace the need of automobile use in the future. The Transit - Oriented - Development (TOD) with high density can be suggested to be concentrated nearby the MRT and Busway interchange stations. The Netherlands’ polder and were adopted for urban’ low-lying lands in Jakarta Metropolitan Region, A polder system was defined as the Integrated Man-made Drainage System consisting Dikes, Drains, Retention Ponds, Outfall Structures or Pumping Stations. The polder system was proposed to be extended to Tangerang and Bekasi area.

  16. Influence of ground surface characteristics on the mean radiant temperature in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Onomura, Shiho; Grimmond, C S B

    2016-09-01

    The effect of variations in land cover on mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is explored through a simple scheme developed within the radiation model SOLWEIG. Outgoing longwave radiation is parameterised using surface temperature observations on a grass and an asphalt surface, whereas outgoing shortwave radiation is modelled through variations in albedo for the different surfaces. The influence of ground surface materials on T mrt is small compared to the effects of shadowing. Nevertheless, altering ground surface materials could contribute to a reduction in T mrt to reduce the radiant load during heat-wave episodes in locations where shadowing is not an option. Evaluation of the new scheme suggests that despite its simplicity it can simulate the outgoing fluxes well, especially during sunny conditions. However, it underestimates at night and in shadowed locations. One grass surface used to develop the parameterisation, with very different characteristics compared to an evaluation grass site, caused T mrt to be underestimated. The implications of using high temporal resolution (e.g. 15 minutes) meteorological forcing data under partly cloudy conditions are demonstrated even for fairly proximal sites.

  17. Effect of fiber source on cell wall digestibility and rate of passage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    García, J; Carabaño, R; de Blas, J C

    1999-04-01

    The influence of fiber source on fiber digestion and mean retention time was investigated. Six fibrous feedstuffs with wide differences in chemical composition and particle size were selected: paprika meal, olive leaves, alfalfa hay, soybean hulls, sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw, and sunflower hulls. Six diets were formulated to contain one of these ingredients as the sole source of fiber. To avoid nutrient imbalances, fiber sources were supplemented with different proportions of a concentrate free of fiber based on soy protein isolate, wheat flour, lard, and a vitamin and mineral mix to obtain diets containing at least 18.5% CP and 5% starch. Fecal apparent digestibility of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPd) and its monomers, NDF, NDF-ADL, and ADF-ADL, were determined using four New Zealand White x California growing rabbits per diet. Total, ileorectal, and cecal mean retention times (tMRT, i-rMRT, and cMRT, respectively) were determined for diets based on paprika meal, olive leaves, soybean hulls, and sunflower hulls in 16 does (four per diet) fitted with T-cannulas at the terminal ileum. In both trials, DMI was negatively correlated with the proportion of fine particles (FP: < .315 mm) and positively correlated with the proportion of large particles (LP: > 1.25 mm) (P < .01). Stepwise regression analysis showed that FP was the dietary characteristic best related to digestibilities of NSP, uronic acids, glucose and NDF, tMRT, and cMRT (P < .001), showing a positive correlation with these variables. In all these cases, this procedure selected the proportion of large particles as a second variable in the model. Degree of lignification of NDF, considering lignin as the difference between ADL and acid detergent cutin, was only included as the third variable for the model of NDF digestibility. Digestibility of NSP was positively correlated with those of NDF, NDF-ADL, and ADF-ADL (r = .82, .87 and .85, respectively, P < .001); the latter was also highly correlated

  18. Survival of rats bearing advanced intracerebral F 98 tumors after glutathione depletion and microbeam radiation therapy: conclusions from a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Schültke, E; Bräuer-Krisch, E; Blattmann, H; Requardt, H; Laissue, J A; Hildebrandt, G

    2018-05-10

    Resistance to radiotherapy is frequently encountered in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. It is caused at least partially by the high glutathione content in the tumour tissue. Therefore, the administration of the glutathione synthesis inhibitor Buthionine-SR-Sulfoximine (BSO) should increase survival time. BSO was tested in combination with an experimental synchrotron-based treatment, microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), characterized by spatially and periodically alternating microscopic dose distribution. One hundred thousand F98 glioma cells were injected into the right cerebral hemisphere of adult male Fischer rats to generate an orthotopic small animal model of a highly malignant brain tumour in a very advanced stage. Therapy was scheduled for day 13 after tumour cell implantation. At this time, 12.5% of the animals had already died from their disease. The surviving 24 tumour-bearing animals were randomly distributed in three experimental groups: subjected to MRT alone (Group A), to MRT plus BSO (Group B) and tumour-bearing untreated controls (Group C). Thus, half of the irradiated animals received an injection of 100 μM BSO into the tumour two hours before radiotherapy. Additional tumour-free animals, mirroring the treatment of the tumour-bearing animals, were included in the experiment. MRT was administered in bi-directional mode with arrays of quasi-parallel beams crossing at the tumour location. The width of the microbeams was ≈28 μm with a center-to-center distance of ≈400 μm, a peak dose of 350 Gy, and a valley dose of 9 Gy in the normal tissue and 18 Gy at the tumour location; thus, the peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR) was 31. After tumour-cell implantation, otherwise untreated rats had a mean survival time of 15 days. Twenty days after implantation, 62.5% of the animals receiving MRT alone (group A) and 75% of the rats given MRT + BSO (group B) were still alive. Thirty days after implantation, survival was 12.5% in Group A and 62

  19. Habitual exercise training in older adults offsets the age-related prolongation in leg vasodilator kinetics during single limb lower body exercise.

    PubMed

    Hughes, William E; Kruse, Nicholas T; Ueda, Kenichi; Casey, Darren P

    2018-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that aging is associated with prolonged leg vasodilator kinetics and habitual exercise training in older adults improves these responses relative to untrained older adults. Additionally, we examined the relationship between contraction-induced rapid onset vasodilation (ROV) and vasodilator kinetics. Young (n=10), older untrained (n=13) and older trained (n=14) adults performed single and rhythmic knee-extension contractions at 20% and 40% work-rate maximum (WR max ). Femoral artery diameter and mean blood velocity were measured by Doppler ultrasound. Vascular conductance (VC; ml·min -1 ·mmHg-1) was calculated using blood flow (ml·min -1 ) and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). The primary outcome was the kinetic response (mean response time; MRT), modeled using an exponential model, expressed as the number of duty cycles to change 63% of the steady-state amplitude. There was no age or training related differences in VC MRT between the groups at 20% WR max . Older untrained adults exhibited prolonged VC MRT at 40% WR max relative to young (37{plus minus}16 vs. 24{plus minus}10 duty-cycles; P<0.05) and older trained adults (37{plus minus}16 vs. 23{plus minus}14 duty-cycles; P<0.05). There were no differences in VC MRT between young and older trained adults at 40% WR max (P=0.96). There were no associations between peak ROV and VC MRT at 20% or 40% WR max (r=-0.08 and 0.22; P=0.67 and 0.20, respectively) in the group as a whole. Our data suggest 1) advancing age prolongs leg vasodilator kinetics; 2) habitual exercise training in older adults offsets this age-related prolongation; and 3) contraction-induced ROV is not related to vasodilator kinetics within a group of young and older adults.

  20. Impact of fibre intake and fibre source on digestibility, gut development, retention time and growth performance of indigenous and exotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Ngoc, T T B; Len, N T; Lindberg, J E

    2013-05-01

    The impact of fibre level and fibre source on digestibility, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, total tract mean retention time (MRT) and growth performance was studied in indigenous Mong Cai (MC) and exotic Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) pigs. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soyabean meal, fish meal and soyabean oil, and cassava residue (CR) or brewer's grain (BG) as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF) and were fed ad libitum. A low-fibre diet (LF), containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM), was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG) were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 27 days. Increased dietary fibre level resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in average daily gain, digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP and gross energy (GE) at the ileum and in the total tract, and in MRT, and an increase (P < 0.05) in the feed conversion ratio and in the weight of the GIT (except for small intestine and caecum). The coefficients of total tract digestibility of fibre fractions were higher in HF diets than in the LF diet, with highest values for diet HF-CR, which had a high proportion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides. MC pigs had longer MRT of digesta than LY pigs (P < 0.05), resulting in higher digestibility at the ileum and in the total tract. Across diets and breeds, the total tract apparent digestibility of OM, CP and GE was positively related (R 2 = 0.80 to 0.84) to the MRT of solids, whereas the MRT was negatively related to the DM intake (R 2 = 0.60).

  1. Diagnostic Power of Macular Retinal Thickness Analysis and Structure-Function Relationship in Glaucoma Diagnosis Using SPECTRALIS OCT.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Teresa; Manerba, Linda; Lanzafame, Pietro; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic power of the Posterior Pole Asymmetry Analysis (PPAA) from the SPECTRALIS OCT in glaucoma diagnosis and to define the correlation between the visual field sensitivity (VFS) and macular retinal thickness (MRT). 90 consecutive open-angle glaucoma patients and 23 healthy subjects were enrolled. All subjects underwent Visual Field test (Humphrey Field Analyzer, central 24-2 SITA-Standard) and SD-OCT volume scans (SPECTRALIS, Posterior Pole Asymmetry Analysis). The areas under the Receiving Operating Characteristic curve (AROC) were calculated to assess discriminating power for glaucoma, at first considering total MRT values and hemisphere MRT value and then quadrant MRT values from 16 square cells in a 8 x 8 posterior pole retinal thickness map that were averaged for a mean retinal thickness value. Structure function correlation was performed for total values, hemisphere values and for each quadrant compared to the matching central test points of the VF. The AROCs ranged from 0.70 to 0.82 (p < 0.0001), with no significant differences between each other. The highest AROC observed was in inferior nasal quadrant. The VFS showed a strong correlation only with the corresponding MRT value s for quadrant analysis: Superior Temporal (r = 0.33, p = 0.0013), Superior Nasal (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001), Inferior Temporal (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001) and Inferior Nasal (r = 0.55, p < 0.0001). the quadrant analysis showed statistically significant structure-function correlations and may provide additional data for the diagnostic performance of SPECTRALIS OCT.

  2. In situ Biological Dose Mapping Estimates the Radiation Burden Delivered to ‘Spared’ Tissue between Synchrotron X-Ray Microbeam Radiotherapy Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Rothkamm, Kai; Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Daley, Frances; Bourne, Sarah; Barber, Paul R.; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Cann, Leonie; Rogers, Peter A. W.

    2012-01-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) using high doses of synchrotron X-rays can destroy tumours in animal models whilst causing little damage to normal tissues. Determining the spatial distribution of radiation doses delivered during MRT at a microscopic scale is a major challenge. Film and semiconductor dosimetry as well as Monte Carlo methods struggle to provide accurate estimates of dose profiles and peak-to-valley dose ratios at the position of the targeted and traversed tissues whose biological responses determine treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to utilise γ-H2AX immunostaining as a biodosimetric tool that enables in situ biological dose mapping within an irradiated tissue to provide direct biological evidence for the scale of the radiation burden to ‘spared’ tissue regions between MRT tracks. Γ-H2AX analysis allowed microbeams to be traced and DNA damage foci to be quantified in valleys between beams following MRT treatment of fibroblast cultures and murine skin where foci yields per unit dose were approximately five-fold lower than in fibroblast cultures. Foci levels in cells located in valleys were compared with calibration curves using known broadbeam synchrotron X-ray doses to generate spatial dose profiles and calculate peak-to-valley dose ratios of 30–40 for cell cultures and approximately 60 for murine skin, consistent with the range obtained with conventional dosimetry methods. This biological dose mapping approach could find several applications both in optimising MRT or other radiotherapeutic treatments and in estimating localised doses following accidental radiation exposure using skin punch biopsies. PMID:22238667

  3. The rapid diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections and its impact on antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    PubMed

    Keske, Şiran; Ergönül, Önder; Tutucu, Faik; Karaaslan, Doruk; Palaoğlu, Erhan; Can, Füsun

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to describe the potential benefit of new rapid molecular respiratory tests (MRT) in decreasing inappropriate antibiotic use among the inpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). We included patients from inpatient and outpatient departments who had ILI and performed MRT between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016 in a 265-bed private hospital in Istanbul. At the end of 2015, we implemented antimicrobial stewardship including systematic use of MRT. Then, we compared our observations between the year 2015 and the year 2016. We designed the study according to the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) tool. A U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system (BioFire FilmArray, Idaho Technology, Salt Lake City, UT) which detects 17 viruses and three bacteria was used for diagnosis. In total, 1317 patients were included; 630 (48%) were inpatients and 569 (43%) were older than 16 years of age. At least one virus was detected in 747 (57%) patients. Rhinovirus/enterovirus, influenza virus, and adenovirus were the most commonly detected. Among hospitalized patients, in children, a significant decrease in antibiotic use (44.5% in 2015 and 28.8% in 2016, p = 0.009) was observed, but in adults, the decrease was not statistically significant (72% in 2015 and 63% in 2016, p = 0.36). The duration of antibiotic use after the detection of virus was significantly decreased in both children and adults (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007, respectively). By using MRT, inappropriate antibiotic use and, also, duration of inappropriate antibiotic use after the detection of virus was significantly decreased. It is time to increase the awareness about the viral etiology in respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and implement MRT in clinical practice.

  4. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    PubMed

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Evolution of Magnetic Rayleigh–Taylor Instability into the Outer Solar Corona and Low Interplanetary Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sudheer K.; Singh, Talwinder; Kayshap, P.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze the observations from Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)-A and B/COR-1 of an eruptive prominence in the intermediate corona on 2011 June 7 at 08:45 UT, which consists of magnetic Rayleigh–Taylor (MRT) unstable plasma segments. Its upper-northward segment shows spatio-temporal evolution of MRT instability in form of finger structures up to the outer corona and low interplanetary space. Using the method of Dolei et al., It is estimated that the density in each bright finger is greater than the corresponding dark region lying below it in the surrounding intermediate corona. The instability is evolved due to wave perturbations that are parallel to the magnetic field at the density interface. We conjecture that the prominence plasma is supported by tension component of the magnetic field against gravity. Through the use of linear stability theory, the magnetic field is estimated as 21–40 mG to suppress growth of MRT instability in the observed finger structures. In the southward plasma segment, a horn-like structure is observed at 11:55 UT in the intermediate corona that also indicates MRT instability. Falling blobs are also observed in both of the plasma segments. In the outer corona, up to 6–13 solar radii, the mushroom-like plasma structures have been identified in the upper-northward MRT unstable plasma segment using STEREO-A/COR-2. These structures most likely grew due to the breaking and twisting of fingers at large spatial scales in weaker magnetic fields. In the lower interplanetary space up to 20 solar radii, these structures are fragmented into various small-scale localized plasma spikes, most likely due to turbulent mixing.

  6. A comparison of three different physiotherapy modalities used in the physiotherapy of burns.

    PubMed

    Sar, Zübeyir; Polat, Mine Gülden; Özgül, Bahar; Aydoğdu, Onur; Camcoğlu, Burcu; Acar, Ahmet Hakan; Yurdalan, Saadet Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared the effectiveness of matrix rhythm therapy, ultrasound treatment (UT), laser treatment (LT) used in the physiotherapy of burns. The study was conducted at the Wound and Burn Healing Center, Dr. Lütfi Kırdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital (Turkey) from June 2009 to January 2012. The case series comprised 39 individuals with second- and third-degree upper-limb burns, whose burn traumas ended approximately 1 to 3 months previously. Participants were separated into three groups: matrix rhythm treatment (MRT), UT and LT; each group was also applied a treatment protocol including whirlpool and exercise. Pain, range of motion (ROM), muscular strength, skin elasticity, and sensory functions were evaluated before and after the treatment. Pressure sense and passive ROM were higher in the MRT group than in the LT group (P < .05). Pain was lower in the LT group than in the UT group, and passive ROM was higher in the UT group than the in LT group (P < .05). Active ROM was found to increase in all treatment groups, whereas passive ROM increased only in the MRT and UT groups; pressure sense increased only in the MRT group, and pain decreased only in the LT group (P < .05). MRT was found to be more effective in the restoration of sensory functions than LT, whereas LT was more effective in reducing pain than UT. No significant difference was observed in terms of skin elasticity according to the results of three treatment modalities. It is suggested that further research with more cases should be conducted to examine the long-term effect of treatment modalities.

  7. Comparison of two methods for measuring γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence as a marker of DNA damage in cultured human cells: applications for microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.; Andrais, B.; Mirzayans, R.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Fallone, B. G.; Warkentin, B.

    2013-06-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) delivers single fractions of very high doses of synchrotron x-rays using arrays of microbeams. In animal experiments, MRT has achieved higher tumour control and less normal tissue toxicity compared to single-fraction broad beam irradiations of much lower dose. The mechanism behind the normal tissue sparing of MRT has yet to be fully explained. An accurate method for evaluating DNA damage, such as the γ-H2AX immunofluorescence assay, will be important for understanding the role of cellular communication in the radiobiological response of normal and cancerous cell types to MRT. We compare two methods of quantifying γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence for uniformly irradiated cell cultures: manual counting of γ-H2AX foci by eye, and an automated, MATLAB-based fluorescence intensity measurement. We also demonstrate the automated analysis of cell cultures irradiated with an array of microbeams. In addition to offering a relatively high dynamic range of γ-H2AX signal versus irradiation dose ( > 10 Gy), our automated method provides speed, robustness, and objectivity when examining a series of images. Our in-house analysis facilitates the automated extraction of the spatial distribution of the γ-H2AX intensity with respect to the microbeam array — for example, the intensities in the peak (high dose area) and valley (area between two microbeams) regions. The automated analysis is particularly beneficial when processing a large number of samples, as is needed to systematically study the relationship between the numerous dosimetric and geometric parameters involved with MRT (e.g., microbeam width, microbeam spacing, microbeam array dimensions, peak dose, valley dose, and geometric arrangement of multiple arrays) and the resulting DNA damage.

  8. Verknüpfung von DQ-Indikatoren mit KPIs und Auswirkungen auf das Return on Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frank

    Häufig ist nicht klar, welche Beziehungen zwischen Datenqualitätsindikatoren (DQI, Definition folgt weiter unten) und Key Performance Indicators (KPI, s. Abschnitt 1.3 für weitere Details) eines Unternehmens oder einer Organisation bestehen. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb von Bedeutung, da die Kenntnis dieser Beziehungen maßgeblich die Ausprägung eines Datenqualitätsprojekts beeinflusst.

  9. The efficacy of tailored print materials in promoting colorectal cancer screening: results from a randomized trial involving callers to the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alfred C; Mason, Mondi; Wolfe, Pam; Rimer, Barbara K; Lipkus, Isaac; Strecher, Victor; Warneke, Richard; Morra, Marion E; Allen, Amy Reasinger; Davis, Sharon W; Gaier, Amy; Graves, Carlan; Julesberg, Karen; Nguyen, Lynne; Perocchia, Rosemarie; Speyer, Jo Beth; Wagner, Doug; Thomsen, Chris; Bright, Mary Anne

    2005-01-01

    In this large randomized trial among callers to the Cancer Information Service (CIS), tailored print materials were tested for efficacy in promoting colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (fecal occult blood test [FOBT], flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy). All participants completed baseline interviews at the end of their usual service calls to the CIS, as well as short-term (6-month) and longer-term (14-month) telephone follow-up interviews. The study sample (n = 4,014) was restricted to English-speaking CIS callers 50 + years of age, who would be eligible for CRC screening at 14 months follow-up and did not call the CIS about CRC or CRC screening. Four experimental conditions were compared: a single untailored (SU) mailout of print material (the control condition); a single tailored (ST) mailout of print material; four (multiple) tailored (MT) mailouts of print materials spanning 12 months, all of which were tailored to information obtained at baseline; and four (multiple) retailored (MRT) mailouts also spanning 12 months, with retailoring of the print materials (mailouts 2, 3, and 4) based on updated information obtained from the 6-month follow-up interviews. Consistent with the main hypothesis of this trial, a significant linear trend across the SU, ST, MT, and MRT groups was found at 14 months (42%, 44%, 51%, and 48%, respectively, p = 0.05). Only for MT was there a significant difference compared with SU (p = 0.03) for the sample as a whole, while no differences were found for MT vs. MRT at 14 months. Significant moderator effects in the predicted direction were found among females, younger participants, and among those with a history of CRC screening, all of which involved the SU vs. MT MRT comparisons. Only among younger participants (ages 50-59) was there a difference between SU vs. ST at 14 months. Given these results, we conclude from this trial the following: (1) the MRT intervention failed to show added benefit beyond the MT intervention, (2) the

  10. Gender differences in mental rotation across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Petra; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in mental rotation in younger adults are prominent in paper-pencil tests as well as in chronometric tests with polygons as stimuli, less is known about this topic in the older age ranges. Therefore, performance was assessed with the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) paper-pencil test as well as with a computer-based two-stimulus same-different task with polygons in a sample of 150 adults divided into three age groups, 20-30, 40-50, and 60-70 years. Performance decreased with age, and men outperformed women in all age groups. The gender effect decreased with age in the MRT, possibly due to a floor effect. Gender differences remained constant across age, however, in the error rates of the computer-based task.

  11. SPECT measurements with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in focal epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryding, E.; Rosen, I.; Elmqvist, D.

    1988-12-01

    The ability of SPECT measurements with (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO (Ceretec) to find the location of the epileptic focus was studied in patients under consideration for neurosurgical treatment for therapy-resistant focal epilepsy. The location of low (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at interictal measurements, and of high (/sup 99m/Tc)-HM-PAO uptake regions found at ictal measurements, was compared to the findings of extensive ictal and interictal EEG examinations, and to the results of CT and MRT. While EEG revealed focal epileptic activity in all of the 14 patients, SPECT showed regional abnormalities in 13 (93%). CT and MRT showed abnormal findings in 30%.

  12. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  13. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian Women: Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117

  14. Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for immiscible fluids at high Reynolds numbers.

    PubMed

    Fakhari, Abbas; Lee, Taehun

    2013-02-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method for immiscible multiphase flows with large density ratio is extended to high Reynolds number flows using a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator, and its stability and accuracy are assessed by simulating the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The MRT model is successful at damping high-frequency oscillations in the kinetic energy emerging from traveling waves generated by the inclusion of curvature. Numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with prior studies using adaptive mesh refinement techniques applied to the Navier-Stokes equations. Effects of viscosity and surface tension, as well as density ratio, are investigated in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. It is shown that increasing the Reynolds number results in a more chaotic interface evolution and eventually shattering of the interface, while surface tension is shown to have a stabilizing effect.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin in equine tissues and plasma.

    PubMed

    Clark, C; Dowling, P M; Ross, S; Woodbury, M; Boison, J O

    2008-02-01

    The macrolide antibiotic tilmicosin has potential for treating bacterial respiratory tract infections in horses. A pharmacokinetic study evaluated the disposition of tilmicosin in the horse after oral (4 mg/kg) or subcutaneous (s.c.) (10 mg/kg) administration. Tilmicosin was not detected in equine plasma or tissues after oral administration at this dose. With s.c. injection, tilmicosin concentrations reached a maximum concentration of approximately 200 ng/mL in the plasma of the horses. Tilmicosin concentrations in plasma persisted with a mean residence time (MRT) of 19 h. Maximum tissue residue concentrations (C(max)) of tilmicosin measured in equine lung, kidney, liver and muscle tissues after s.c. administration were 2784, 4877, 1398, and 881 ng/g, respectively. The MRT of tilmicosin in these tissues was approximately 27 h. Subcutaneous administration of tilmicosin resulted in severe reactions at the injection sites.

  16. Compact cryogenic system with mechanical cryocoolers for antihydrogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Mohri, A; Kanai, Y; Enomoto, Y; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a compact cryogenic system which cools a vacuum chamber housing multi-ring trap electrodes (MRTs) of an antihydrogen synthesis trap using mechanical cryocoolers to achieve background pressure less than 10(-12) Torr. The vacuum chamber and the cryocoolers are thermally connected by copper strips of 99.9999% in purity. All components are installed within a diametric gap between the MRT of phi108 mm and a magnet bore of phi160 mm. An adjusting mechanism is prepared to align the MRT axis to the magnet axis. The vacuum chamber was successfully cooled down to 4.0 K after 14 h of cooling with heat load of 0.8 W.

  17. Accuracy and Numerical Stabilty Analysis of Lattice Boltzmann Method with Multiple Relaxation Time for Incompressible Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipto; Purqon, Acep

    2017-07-01

    Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is the novel method for simulating fluid dynamics. Nowadays, the application of LBM ranges from the incompressible flow, flow in the porous medium, until microflows. The common collision model of LBM is the BGK with a constant single relaxation time τ. However, BGK suffers from numerical instabilities. These instabilities could be eliminated by implementing LBM with multiple relaxation time. Both of those scheme have implemented for incompressible 2 dimensions lid-driven cavity. The stability analysis has done by finding the maximum Reynolds number and velocity for converged simulations. The accuracy analysis is done by comparing the velocity profile with the benchmark results from Ghia, et al and calculating the net velocity flux. The tests concluded that LBM with MRT are more stable than BGK, and have a similar accuracy. The maximum Reynolds number that converges for BGK is 3200 and 7500 for MRT respectively.

  18. Mechanism-based model of a mass rapid transit system: A perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Khoon, Lee Kee; Guang, Hung Gih; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our findings on the spatiotemporal dynamics within the mass rapid transit (MRT) system of Singapore. We show that the trip distribution of Origin-Destination (OD) station pairs follows a power-law, implying the existence of critical OD pairs. We then present and discuss the empirically validated agent-based model (ABM) we have developed. The model allows recreation of the observed statistics and the setting up of various scenarios and their effects on the system, such as increasing the commuter population and the propagation of travel delays within the transportation network. The proposed model further enables identification of bottlenecks that can cause the MRT to break down, and consequently provide foresight on how such disruptions can possibly be managed. This can potentially provide a versatile approach for transport planners and government regulators to make quantifiable policies that optimally balance cost and convenience as a function of the number of the commuting public.

  19. Monte Carlo-based treatment planning system calculation engine for microbeam radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rovira, I; Sempau, J; Prezado, Y

    2012-05-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a synchrotron radiotherapy technique that explores the limits of the dose-volume effect. Preclinical studies have shown that MRT irradiations (arrays of 25-75-μm-wide microbeams spaced by 200-400 μm) are able to eradicate highly aggressive animal tumor models while healthy tissue is preserved. These promising results have provided the basis for the forthcoming clinical trials at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The first step includes irradiation of pets (cats and dogs) as a milestone before treatment of human patients. Within this context, accurate dose calculations are required. The distinct features of both beam generation and irradiation geometry in MRT with respect to conventional techniques require the development of a specific MRT treatment planning system (TPS). In particular, a Monte Carlo (MC)-based calculation engine for the MRT TPS has been developed in this work. Experimental verification in heterogeneous phantoms and optimization of the computation time have also been performed. The penelope/penEasy MC code was used to compute dose distributions from a realistic beam source model. Experimental verification was carried out by means of radiochromic films placed within heterogeneous slab-phantoms. Once validation was completed, dose computations in a virtual model of a patient, reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images, were performed. To this end, decoupling of the CT image voxel grid (a few cubic millimeter volume) to the dose bin grid, which has micrometer dimensions in the transversal direction of the microbeams, was performed. Optimization of the simulation parameters, the use of variance-reduction (VR) techniques, and other methods, such as the parallelization of the simulations, were applied in order to speed up the dose computation. Good agreement between MC simulations and experimental results was achieved, even at the interfaces between two

  20. Optimization of integrated impeller mixer via radiotracer experiments.

    PubMed

    Othman, N; Kamarudin, S K; Takriff, M S; Rosli, M I; Engku Chik, E M F; Adnan, M A K

    2014-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments are carried out in order to determine the mean residence time (MRT) as well as percentage of dead zone, V dead (%), in an integrated mixer consisting of Rushton and pitched blade turbine (PBT). Conventionally, optimization was performed by varying one parameter and others were held constant (OFAT) which lead to enormous number of experiments. Thus, in this study, a 4-factor 3-level Taguchi L9 orthogonal array was introduced to obtain an accurate optimization of mixing efficiency with minimal number of experiments. This paper describes the optimal conditions of four process parameters, namely, impeller speed, impeller clearance, type of impeller, and sampling time, in obtaining MRT and V dead (%) using radiotracer experiments. The optimum conditions for the experiments were 100 rpm impeller speed, 50 mm impeller clearance, Type A mixer, and 900 s sampling time to reach optimization.

  1. Preconditioned wire array Z-pinches driven by a double pulse current generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Lu, Yihan; Sun, Fengju; Li, Xingwen; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Daoyuan; Qiu, Aici; Lebedev, Sergey

    2018-07-01

    Suppression of the core-corona structure and wire ablation in wire array Z-pinches is investigated using a novel double pulse current generator ‘Qin-1’ facility. The ‘Qin-1’ facility allows coupling a ∼10 kA 20 ns prepulse generator with a ∼0.8 MA 160 ns main current generator. The tailored prepulse current preheats wires to a gaseous state and the time interval between the prepulse and the main current pulse allows formation of a more uniform mass distribution for the implosion. The implosion of a gasified two aluminum-wire array showed no ablation phase and allowed all array mass to participate in the implosion. The initial perturbations formed from the inhomogeneous ablation were suppressed, however, the magneto Rayleigh–Taylor (MRT) instability during the implosion was still significant and further researches on the generation and development of the MRT instabilities of this gasified wire array are needed.

  2. Mitochondrial genome inheritance and replacement in the human germline.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Don P; Hayama, Tomonari; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondria, the ubiquitous power packs in nearly every eukaryotic cell, contain their own DNA, known as mtDNA, which is inherited exclusively from the mother. The number of mitochondrial genomes varies depending on the cell's energy needs. The mature oocyte contains the highest number of mitochondria of any cell type, although there is little if any mtDNA replication after fertilization until the embryo implants. This has potential repercussions for mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT; see description of currently employed methods below) used to prevent the transmission of mtDNA-based disorders. If only a few mitochondria with defective mtDNA are left in the embryo and undergo extensive replication, it might therefore thwart the purpose of MRT In order to improve the safety and efficacy of this experimental therapy, we need a better understanding of how and which mtDNA is tagged for replication versus transcription after fertilization of the oocyte. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Monte Carlo-based treatment planning system calculation engine for microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Rovira, I.; Sempau, J.; Prezado, Y.

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a synchrotron radiotherapy technique that explores the limits of the dose-volume effect. Preclinical studies have shown that MRT irradiations (arrays of 25-75-{mu}m-wide microbeams spaced by 200-400 {mu}m) are able to eradicate highly aggressive animal tumor models while healthy tissue is preserved. These promising results have provided the basis for the forthcoming clinical trials at the ID17 Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The first step includes irradiation of pets (cats and dogs) as a milestone before treatment of human patients. Within this context, accurate dose calculations are required. The distinct featuresmore » of both beam generation and irradiation geometry in MRT with respect to conventional techniques require the development of a specific MRT treatment planning system (TPS). In particular, a Monte Carlo (MC)-based calculation engine for the MRT TPS has been developed in this work. Experimental verification in heterogeneous phantoms and optimization of the computation time have also been performed. Methods: The penelope/penEasy MC code was used to compute dose distributions from a realistic beam source model. Experimental verification was carried out by means of radiochromic films placed within heterogeneous slab-phantoms. Once validation was completed, dose computations in a virtual model of a patient, reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images, were performed. To this end, decoupling of the CT image voxel grid (a few cubic millimeter volume) to the dose bin grid, which has micrometer dimensions in the transversal direction of the microbeams, was performed. Optimization of the simulation parameters, the use of variance-reduction (VR) techniques, and other methods, such as the parallelization of the simulations, were applied in order to speed up the dose computation. Results: Good agreement between MC simulations and experimental results was achieved

  4. Gender differences in patterns of spatial ability, environmental cognition, and math and English achievement in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J L; Ferguson, L R

    1989-01-01

    Relationships were explored among three measures of spatial ability--the Embedded Figures Test (EFT), the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and the Differential Aptitude Spatial Relations subtest (DAT)--an environmental cognition task (MAP), American College Testing (ACT) math and English achievement, and gender in a sample of 282 undergraduates. Variance attributable to gender among the spatial tasks ranged from 0.5% in the EFT to 12% in the MRT. Gender accounted for only 1% of the variance in the MAP task. Gender differences were noted in regression analyses; women's math and English achievement scores were both predictive of spatial ability, while for men, only math achievement was predictive of spatial ability. The results were interpreted as substantiating sex role socialization theory of cognitive abilities.

  5. The effect of gender and age differences on media selection in small and medium tourism enterprises.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Majid A; Zarei, Behrouz; Dehkordi, Shabnam A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that gender and age differences have on the communication media selection within the context of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMEs). Media Richness Theory (MRT) was used to assess media preferences in the firms. Using a mail questionnaire, data from 78 firms were collected on seven popular media in use. Historical data of the firms, media characteristics, and other firm-specific factors were included in the analysis. The results indicated that there are substantial gender and age differences in term of communication media selection. This is consistent with MRT and highlights the importance of choosing the appropriate media in SMEs, according with the employee's behaviors, in order to achieve better outcomes and to smooth the path towards good performance in the future.

  6. Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy in Reproductive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Don P.; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in disease and in age-related infertility. Mitochondrial replacement therapies (MRT) in oocytes or zygotes such as pronuclear (PNT), spindle (ST) or polar body (PBT) transfer could prevent second generation transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects. PNT, associated with high levels of mtDNA carryover in mice but low levels in human embryos, carries ethical issues secondary to donor embryo destruction. ST, developed in primates, supports normal development to adults and low mtDNA carryover. PBT in mice, coupled with PN or ST, may increase the yield of reconstructed embryos with low mtDNA carryover. MRT also offers replacement of the deficient cytoplasm in oocytes from older patients, with the expectation of high pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization. PMID:25573721

  7. Implicit versus explicit momentum relaxation time solution for semiconductor nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, E. G., E-mail: egmarin@ugr.es; Ruiz, F. G., E-mail: franruiz@ugr.es; Godoy, A., E-mail: agodoy@ugr.es

    2015-07-14

    We discuss the necessity of the exact implicit Momentum Relaxation Time (MRT) solution of the Boltzmann transport equation in order to achieve reliable carrier mobility results in semiconductor nanowires. Firstly, the implicit solution for a 1D electron gas with a isotropic bandstructure is presented resulting in the formulation of a simple matrix system. Using this solution as a reference, the explicit approach is demonstrated to be inaccurate for the calculation of inelastic anisotropic mechanisms such as polar optical phonons, characteristic of III-V materials. Its validity for elastic and isotropic mechanisms is also evaluated. Finally, the implications of the MRT explicitmore » approach inaccuracies on the total mobility of Si and III-V NWs are studied.« less

  8. Mitochondrial replacement techniques and Mexico's rule of law: on the legality of the first maternal spindle transfer case

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Arellano, María de Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Abstract News about the first baby born after a mitochondrial replacement technique (MRT; specifically maternal spindle transfer) broke on September 27, 2016 and, in a matter of hours, went global. Of special interest was the fact that the mitochondrial replacement procedure happened in Mexico. One of the scientists behind this world first was quoted as having said that he and his team went to Mexico to carry out the procedure because, in Mexico, there are no rules. In this paper, we explore Mexico's rule of law in relation to mitochondrial replacement techniques and show that, in fact, certain instances of MRTs are prohibited at the federal level and others are prohibited at the state level. According to our interpretation of the law, the scientists behind this first successful MRT procedure broke federal regulations regarding assisted fertilization research. PMID:28852557

  9. An accelerated photo-magnetic imaging reconstruction algorithm based on an analytical forward solution and a fast Jacobian assembly method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouizi, F.; Erkol, H.; Luk, A.; Marks, M.; Unlu, M. B.; Gulsen, G.

    2016-10-01

    We previously introduced photo-magnetic imaging (PMI), an imaging technique that illuminates the medium under investigation with near-infrared light and measures the induced temperature increase using magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT). Using a multiphysics solver combining photon migration and heat diffusion, PMI models the spatiotemporal distribution of temperature variation and recovers high resolution optical absorption images using these temperature maps. In this paper, we present a new fast non-iterative reconstruction algorithm for PMI. This new algorithm uses analytic methods during the resolution of the forward problem and the assembly of the sensitivity matrix. We validate our new analytic-based algorithm with the first generation finite element method (FEM) based reconstruction algorithm previously developed by our team. The validation is performed using, first synthetic data and afterwards, real MRT measured temperature maps. Our new method accelerates the reconstruction process 30-fold when compared to a single iteration of the FEM-based algorithm.

  10. Mixing effects on nitrogen and oxygen concentrations and the relationship to mean residence time in a hyporheic zone of a riffle-pool sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Clinton Davis,

    2015-01-01

    Flow paths and residence times in the hyporheic zone are known to influence biogeochemical processes such as nitrification and denitrification. The exchange across the sediment-water interface may involve mixing of surface water and groundwater through complex hyporheic flow paths that contribute to highly variable biogeochemically active zones. Despite the recognition of these patterns in the literature, conceptualization and analysis of flow paths and nitrogen transformations beneath riffle-pool sequences often neglect to consider bed form driven exchange along the entire reach. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) were monitored in the hyporheic zone beneath a riffle-pool sequence on a losing section of the Truckee River, NV. Spatially-varying hyporheic exchange and the occurrence of multi-scale hyporheic mixing cells are shown to influence concentrations of DO and NO3- and the mean residence time (MRT) of riffle and pool areas. Distinct patterns observed in piezometers are shown to be influenced by the first large flow event following a steady 8 month period of low flow conditions. Increases in surface water discharge resulted in reversed hydraulic gradients and production of nitrate through nitrification at small vertical spatial scales (0.10 to 0.25 m) beneath the sediment-water interface. In areas with high downward flow rates and low MRT, denitrification may be limited. The use of a longitudinal two-dimensional flow model helped identify important mechanisms such as multi-scale hyporheic mixing cells and spatially varying MRT, an important driver for nitrogen transformation in the riverbed. Our observations of DO and NO3- concentrations and model simulations highlight the role of multi-scale hyporheic mixing cells on MRT and nitrogen transformations in the hyporheic zone of riffle-pool sequences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Composition of Alginate-Polyethylene Glycol Microcapsules and Transplant Site on Encapsulated Islet Graft Outcomes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Chiara; Manzoli, Vita; Abreu, Maria M.; Verheyen, Connor A.; Seskin, Michael; Najjar, Mejdi; Molano, R. Damaris; Torrente, Yvan; Ricordi, Camillo; Tomei, Alice A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the effects of capsule composition and transplantation site on graft outcomes of encapsulated islets will aid in the development of more effective strategies for islet transplantation without immunosuppression. Methods Here, we evaluated the effects of transplanting alginate (ALG)-based microcapsules (Micro) in the confined and well-vascularized epididymal fat pad (EFP) site, a model of the human omentum, as opposed to free-floating in the intraperitoneal cavity (IP) in mice. We also examined the effects of reinforcing ALG with polyethylene glycol (PEG). To allow transplantation in the EFP site, we minimized capsule size to 500 ± 17 μm. Unlike ALG, PEG resists osmotic stress, hence we generated hybrid microcapsules by mixing PEG and ALG (MicroMix) or by coating ALG capsules with a 15 ± 2 μm PEG layer (Double). Results We found improved engraftment of fully allogeneic BALB/c islets in Micro capsules transplanted in the EFP (median reversal time [MRT], 1 day) versus the IP site (MRT, 5 days; P < 0.01) in diabetic C57BL/6 mice and of Micro encapsulated (MRT, 8 days) versus naked (MRT, 36 days; P < 0.01) baboon islets transplanted in the EFP site. Although in vitro viability and functionality of islets within MicroMix and Double capsules were comparable to Micro, addition of PEG to ALG in MicroMix capsules improved engraftment of allogeneic islets in the IP site, but resulted deleterious in the EFP site, probably due to lower biocompatibility. Conclusions Our results suggest that capsule composition and transplant site affect graft outcomes through their effects on nutrient availability, capsule stability, and biocompatibility. PMID:27525644

  12. Infrared Sensor Readout Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    Line Replaceable Unit LT Level Translator MRT Minimum Resolvable Temperature MTF Modulation Transfer Function PC Printed Circuit SCCCD Surface...reduced, not only will the aliased noise increase, but signal aliasing will also start to occur. Atlbe display level this means that sharp edges could...converted from a quantity ol charge to a voltage- level shift by the action ol the precharge pulse that presets the potential on the output diode node to

  13. Interspecies scaling: predicting volumes, mean residence time and elimination half-life. Some suggestions.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, I

    1998-05-01

    Extrapolation of animal data to assess pharmacokinetic parameters in man is an important tool in drug development. Clearance, volume of distribution and elimination half-life are the three most frequently extrapolated pharmacokinetic parameters. Extensive work has been done to improve the predictive performance of allometric scaling for clearance. In general there is good correlation between body weight and volume, hence volume in man can be predicted with reasonable accuracy from animal data. Besides the volume of distribution in the central compartment (Vc), two other volume terms, the volume of distribution by area (Vbeta) and the volume of distribution at steady state (VdSS), are also extrapolated from animals to man. This report compares the predictive performance of allometric scaling for Vc, Vbeta and VdSS in man from animal data. The relationship between elimination half-life (t(1/2)) and body weight across species results in poor correlation, most probably because of the hybrid nature of this parameter. To predict half-life in man from animal data, an indirect method (CL=VK, where CL=clearance, V is volume and K is elimination rate constant) has been proposed. This report proposes another indirect method which uses the mean residence time (MRT). After establishing that MRT can be predicted across species, it was used to predict half-life using the equation MRT=1.44 x t(1/2). The results of the study indicate that Vc is predicted more accurately than Vbeta and VdSS in man. It should be emphasized that for first-time dosing in man, Vc is a more important pharmacokinetic parameter than Vbeta or VdSS. Furthermore, MRT can be predicted reasonably well for man and can be used for prediction of half-life.

  14. Influenza and other respiratory virus infections in outpatients with medically attended acute respiratory infection during the 2011-12 influenza season.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Richard K; Rinaldo, Charles R; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Gk, Balasubramani; Thompson, Mark G; Moehling, Krissy K; Bullotta, Arlene; Wisniewski, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a major cause of outpatient visits, yet only a portion is tested to determine the etiologic organism. Multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (MRT-PCR) assays for detection of multiple viruses are being used increasingly in clinical settings. During January-April 2012, outpatients with acute respiratory illness (≤ 7 days) were tested for influenza using singleplex RT-PCR (SRT-PCR). A subset was assayed for 18 viruses using MRT-PCR to compare detection of influenza and examine the distribution of viruses and characteristics of patients using multinomial logistic regression. Among 662 participants (6 months-82 years), detection of influenza was similar between the MRT-PCR and SRT-PCR (κ = 0.83). No virus was identified in 267 (40.3%) samples. Commonly detected viruses were human rhinovirus (HRV, 15.4%), coronavirus (CoV, 10.4%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, 8.4%), human metapneumovirus (hMPV, 8.3%), and influenza (6%). Co-detections were infrequent (6.9%) and most commonly occurred among those <18 years old. In regression analyses, compared with non-viral illnesses, RSV and hMPV were significantly more frequent in children and less frequent in 18- to 49-year-olds than in those ≥ 50 years (P = 0.01), fever was more common in hMPV and influenza infections (P = 0.008), nasal congestion was more frequent in CoV, HRV, hMPV, influenza and RSV infections (P = 0.001), and body mass index was higher among those with influenza (P = 0.036). Using MRT-PCR, a viral etiology was found in three-fifths of patients with medically attended outpatient visits for acute respiratory illness during the influenza season; co-detected viruses were infrequent. Symptoms varied by viral etiology. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Broadband Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Solution (Tech Insertion - C4 Enhancement for the U.S. Army in Transformation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    synchronization , timing and frequency to all of the traffic terminals through the reference burst. The MRT also periodically synchronizes all of the traffic...1 2005 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium The Future of C2 Broadband Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Solution...UK Army) Dale White Barry Kruse Shawn White LTC Edward Eidson Thomas Mims COL Charles Dunn III Charlie Pangle Battle Command Battle

  16. Comparative study of the discrete velocity and lattice Boltzmann methods for rarefied gas flows through irregular channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wei; Lindsay, Scott; Liu, Haihu; Wu, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Rooted from the gas kinetics, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a powerful tool in modeling hydrodynamics. In the past decade, it has been extended to simulate rarefied gas flows beyond the Navier-Stokes level, either by using the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature, or by introducing the relaxation time that is a function of the gas-wall distance. While the former method, with a limited number of discrete velocities (e.g., D2Q36), is accurate up to the early transition flow regime, the latter method (especially the multiple relaxation time (MRT) LBM), with the same discrete velocities as those used in simulating hydrodynamics (i.e., D2Q9), is accurate up to the free-molecular flow regime in the planar Poiseuille flow. This is quite astonishing in the sense that less discrete velocities are more accurate. In this paper, by solving the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation accurately via the discrete velocity method, we find that the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature cannot describe the large variation in the velocity distribution function when the rarefaction effect is strong, but the MRT-LBM can capture the flow velocity well because it is equivalent to solving the Navier-Stokes equations with an effective shear viscosity. Since the MRT-LBM has only been validated in simple channel flows, and for complex geometries it is difficult to find the effective viscosity, it is necessary to assess its performance for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. Our numerical simulations based on the accurate discrete velocity method suggest that the accuracy of the MRT-LBM is reduced significantly in the simulation of rarefied gas flows through the rough surface and porous media. Our simulation results could serve as benchmarking cases for future development of the LBM for modeling and simulation of rarefied gas flows in complex geometries.

  17. Simulations of Bingham plastic flows with the multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, SongGui; Sun, QiCheng; Jin, Feng; Liu, JianGuo

    2014-03-01

    Fresh cement mortar is a type of workable paste, which can be well approximated as a Bingham plastic and whose flow behavior is of major concern in engineering. In this paper, Papanastasiou's model for Bingham fluids is solved by using the multiplerelaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model (MRT-LB). Analysis of the stress growth exponent m in Bingham fluid flow simulations shows that Papanastasiou's model provides a good approximation of realistic Bingham plastics for values of m > 108. For lower values of m, Papanastasiou's model is valid for fluids between Bingham and Newtonian fluids. The MRT-LB model is validated by two benchmark problems: 2D steady Poiseuille flows and lid-driven cavity flows. Comparing the numerical results of the velocity distributions with corresponding analytical solutions shows that the MRT-LB model is appropriate for studying Bingham fluids while also providing better numerical stability. We further apply the MRT-LB model to simulate flow through a sudden expansion channel and the flow surrounding a round particle. Besides the rich flow structures obtained in this work, the dynamics fluid force on the round particle is calculated. Results show that both the Reynolds number Re and the Bingham number Bn affect the drag coefficients C D , and a drag coefficient with Re and Bn being taken into account is proposed. The relationship of Bn and the ratio of unyielded zone thickness to particle diameter is also analyzed. Finally, the Bingham fluid flowing around a set of randomly dispersed particles is simulated to obtain the apparent viscosity and velocity fields. These results help simulation of fresh concrete flowing in porous media.

  18. Objective assessment of drowsiness and reaction time during intermittent Ramadan fasting in young men: a case-crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ramadan fasting and its attendant lifestyle changes induce changes in the circadian rhythm and in associated physiological and metabolic functions. Previous studies that have assessed psychomotor performance during Ramadan fasting have reported conflicting results. Therefore, we designed this study to objectively assess the effects of intermittent fasting during and outside Ramadan (to control for lifestyle changes) on drowsiness, blink total duration and mean reaction time (MRT) test while controlling for potential confounders. Methods Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 25.3 ± 2.9 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.4 ± 3.2 kg/m2 reported to the sleep laboratory on four occasions for polysomnography (PSG) and drowsiness and psychomotor assessments as follows: 1) adaptation; 2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing the Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting) (BLF); 3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline) (BL); and 4) during the second week of Ramadan while fasting (Ramadan). OPTALERT™ was used to objectively assess daytime drowsiness using the Johns Drowsiness Scale (JDS), and blink total duration and a visual reaction time test were used to assess MRT. Results Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly lower at BLF (17.7 ± 8.1%) and at Ramadan (18.6 ± 10.7%) compared with BL (25.6 ± 4.8%) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between JDS scores and blink total duration during the two test periods in BL, BLF and Ramadan. There were no significant changes in MRT during BL, BLF and Ramadan. Conclusions Under controlled conditions of fixed light/dark exposure, caloric intake, sleep/wake schedule and sleep quality, the Islamic intermittent fasting has no impact on drowsiness and vigilance as measured by the JDS, total blink duration and MRT. PMID:23937904

  19. Objective assessment of drowsiness and reaction time during intermittent Ramadan fasting in young men: a case-crossover study.

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S; Nashwan, Samar; Hammad, Omeima; Sharif, Munir M; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R

    2013-08-12

    Ramadan fasting and its attendant lifestyle changes induce changes in the circadian rhythm and in associated physiological and metabolic functions. Previous studies that have assessed psychomotor performance during Ramadan fasting have reported conflicting results. Therefore, we designed this study to objectively assess the effects of intermittent fasting during and outside Ramadan (to control for lifestyle changes) on drowsiness, blink total duration and mean reaction time (MRT) test while controlling for potential confounders. Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 25.3 ± 2.9 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.4 ± 3.2 kg/m2 reported to the sleep laboratory on four occasions for polysomnography (PSG) and drowsiness and psychomotor assessments as follows: 1) adaptation; 2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing the Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting) (BLF); 3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline) (BL); and 4) during the second week of Ramadan while fasting (Ramadan). OPTALERT™ was used to objectively assess daytime drowsiness using the Johns Drowsiness Scale (JDS), and blink total duration and a visual reaction time test were used to assess MRT. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly lower at BLF (17.7 ± 8.1%) and at Ramadan (18.6 ± 10.7%) compared with BL (25.6 ± 4.8%) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between JDS scores and blink total duration during the two test periods in BL, BLF and Ramadan. There were no significant changes in MRT during BL, BLF and Ramadan. Under controlled conditions of fixed light/dark exposure, caloric intake, sleep/wake schedule and sleep quality, the Islamic intermittent fasting has no impact on drowsiness and vigilance as measured by the JDS, total blink duration and MRT.

  20. Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: I. Active-Field Inspection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Historically, MRT found its most extensive application in the inspection of critical high-strength steel components of the F-111 aircraft to...Steve Burke is Group Leader Acoustic Material Systems within Maritime Division and Task Leader for AIR 07/101 Assessment and Control of Aircraft ...Maritime Division. He has previously led research programs in advanced electromagnetic and ultrasonic NDE for aircraft applications. Geoff has BSc and BE

  1. US Army Armor Reference Data in Three Volumes. Volume I. The Army Division.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    dental treatment ASSIGNMENT Organic Armored Division, TOE 17 (d) Optometrc services CAPABILITIES a Provides the following combat service support to a...Support Command. Infantry Division (Mechaniied TOE 29-ft 1 Provides expedient dental treatment CAPABILITIES a Provides medical staff services, including g...administration, and supervision of and f Provides expedient dental treatment plan, mrt division level ol4 uii novel medicaf support rendered by

  2. Comparative study of the discrete velocity and lattice Boltzmann methods for rarefied gas flows through irregular channels.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei; Lindsay, Scott; Liu, Haihu; Wu, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Rooted from the gas kinetics, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is a powerful tool in modeling hydrodynamics. In the past decade, it has been extended to simulate rarefied gas flows beyond the Navier-Stokes level, either by using the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature, or by introducing the relaxation time that is a function of the gas-wall distance. While the former method, with a limited number of discrete velocities (e.g., D2Q36), is accurate up to the early transition flow regime, the latter method (especially the multiple relaxation time (MRT) LBM), with the same discrete velocities as those used in simulating hydrodynamics (i.e., D2Q9), is accurate up to the free-molecular flow regime in the planar Poiseuille flow. This is quite astonishing in the sense that less discrete velocities are more accurate. In this paper, by solving the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook kinetic equation accurately via the discrete velocity method, we find that the high-order Gauss-Hermite quadrature cannot describe the large variation in the velocity distribution function when the rarefaction effect is strong, but the MRT-LBM can capture the flow velocity well because it is equivalent to solving the Navier-Stokes equations with an effective shear viscosity. Since the MRT-LBM has only been validated in simple channel flows, and for complex geometries it is difficult to find the effective viscosity, it is necessary to assess its performance for the simulation of rarefied gas flows. Our numerical simulations based on the accurate discrete velocity method suggest that the accuracy of the MRT-LBM is reduced significantly in the simulation of rarefied gas flows through the rough surface and porous media. Our simulation results could serve as benchmarking cases for future development of the LBM for modeling and simulation of rarefied gas flows in complex geometries.

  3. Comparison of gastrointestinal transit times between chickens from D+ and D- genetic lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Rougière, N; Carré, B

    2010-11-01

    D+ (high digestion efficiency) and D- (low digestion efficiency) genetic chicken lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency were compared in this experiment. Gizzard functions were tested in terms of digesta mean retention time and reactions to high dilution of a corn diet with 15% coarse sunflower hulls. The corn standard (S) and high fibre (F) experimental diets were given from 9 days of age to chickens from both lines. Besides the measurements of growth efficiencies (9 to 20 days), digestibilities (20 to 23 days) and gut anatomy (0, 9, 29, 42 and 63 days), two digestive transit studies were performed at 9 and 29 days of age. For the transit studies, the S and F diets were labelled with 0.5% TiO2 and 1% Cr-mordanted sunflower hulls. These diets were fed ad libitum during 3 days, and then the birds were euthanized. The digestive contents were analysed for the determination of marker concentrations and mean retention times (MRTs) in digestive compartments (crop + oesophagus, proventriculus + gizzard, duodenum + jejunum, ileum, rectum + cloaca and caeca) were determined. D+ birds were confirmed as better digesters than D- birds during the growth period, in association with larger gizzard and pancreas, and lighter small intestine in D+ than in D-birds. The MRT in the proventriculus-gizzard system, higher in D+ than in D- birds, was a major factor associated with differences between D+ and D- birds regarding digestion efficiencies and gut anatomy. Diet dilution with fibres reduced differences in digestion efficiencies and proventriculus-gizzard MRT between lines. Differences in gut anatomy between lines tended to disappear after 8 weeks of age. In conclusion, this study showed that MRT in the proventriculus-gizzard system was a major factor associated with genotype differences between the D+ and D- genetic chicken lines selected for divergent digestion efficiency, with longer MRT found in D+ than in D- birds.

  4. Speech Recognition Using Neural Nets and Dynamic Time Warping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    flost tmap [~J20J0[16J; mnt r, Ci: double diet ; double minimum =99M9.9; for (r =0; r < fysize ; ri-i-){ for (c =0; c f xeize ; c+ +){ diet 6 .0; for...i)[1] = (location[iflO] 0); Lmindist (I map, inp, close) double inp[16J; mrt close [2] float tmap [20(201[161 double diet ; double minimum 9.99e31

  5. Modeling, measuring, and mitigating instability growth in liner implosions on Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Kyle

    2015-11-01

    Electro-thermal instabilities result from non-uniform heating due to temperature dependence in the conductivity of a material. In this talk, we will discuss the role of electro-thermal instabilities on the dynamics of magnetically accelerated implosion systems. We present simulations that show electro-thermal instabilities form immediately after the surface material of a conductor melts and can act as a significant seed to subsequent magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability growth. We discuss measurement results from experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator to investigate signatures of electro-thermal instability growth on well-characterized initially solid aluminum or beryllium rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns risetime current pulse. These measurements show good agreement with electro-thermal instability simulations and exhibit larger instability growth than can be explained by MRT theory alone. Recent experiments have confirmed simulation predictions of dramatically reduced instability growth in solid metallic rods when thick dielectric coatings are used to mitigate density perturbations arising from the electro-thermal instability. These results provide further evidence that the inherent surface roughness of the target is not the dominant seed for the MRT instability, in contrast with most inertial confinement fusion approaches. These results suggest a new technique for substantially reducing the integral MRT growth in magnetically driven implosions. Indeed, recent results on the Z facility with 100 km/s Al and Be liner implosions show substantially reduced growth. These new results include axially magnetized, CH-coated beryllium liner radiographs in which the inner liner surface is observed to be remarkably straight and uniform at a radius of about 120 microns (convergence ratio ~20). Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under

  6. Competitive-level differences in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery and twelve minute run test performance in soccer referees.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Abt, Grant; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine yo-yo intermittent recovery test (Yo-Yo test) and 12-minute run test (12MRT) performances in experienced soccer referees of different competitive levels. Three groups (n = 14 each) of experienced Italian soccer referees officiating in the first (series AB, top-level), third (series C, medium-level), and fourth (series D, low-level) division, were randomly submitted to the 12MRT and the Yo-Yo test during 2 testing sessions, 48-hours apart. 12MRT performances were 3,000 +/- 112 m; 2,894 +/- 99 m; and 2,896 +/- 171 m for top-level, medium-level and low-level referees, respectively (p > 0.05). In the Yo-Yo test, the top-level, medium-level, and low-level referees covered 1,874 +/- 431 m; 1,360 +/- 172 m; and 1,272 +/- 215 m, respectively. The test performances of top-level referees in the Yo-Yo test was significantly different from those scored by medium-level and low-level referees (p < 0.05). After the Yo-Yo test, blood lactate concentrations (BLC) were higher in the medium-level and low-level referees compared with the top-level referees (p < 0.05). The results of the present study show that the Yo-Yo test and not the 12MRT can discriminate endurance performance in experienced elite level soccer referees. With respect to its discriminative and match performance validity, the Yo-Yo test may be considered a relevant field test to assess endurance preparedness for experienced soccer referees and a useful tool in talent selection.

  7. Design, construction, and optimization of a novel, modular, and scalable incubation chamber for continuous viral inactivation.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Raquel; Godfrey, Scott; Coffman, Jon; Amarikwa, Linus; Parker, Stephanie; Hernandez, Lindsay; Wachuku, Chinenye; Mai, Ben; Song, Brian; Hoskatti, Shashidhar; Asong, Jinkeng; Shamlou, Parviz; Bardliving, Cameron; Fiadeiro, Marcus

    2017-07-01

    We designed, built or 3D printed, and screened tubular reactors that minimize axial dispersion to serve as incubation chambers for continuous virus inactivation of biological products. Empirical residence time distribution data were used to derive each tubular design's volume equivalent to a theoretical plate (VETP) values at a various process flow rates. One design, the Jig in a Box (JIB), yielded the lowest VETP, indicating optimal radial mixing and minimal axial dispersion. A minimum residence time (MRT) approach was employed, where the MRT is the minimum time the product spends in the tubular reactor. This incubation time is typically 60 minutes in a batch process. We provide recommendations for combinations of flow rates and device dimensions for operation of the JIB connected in series that will meet a 60-min MRT. The results show that under a wide range of flow rates and corresponding volumes, it takes 75 ± 3 min for 99% of the product to exit the reactor while meeting the 60-min MRT criterion and fulfilling the constraint of keeping a differential pressure drop under 5 psi. Under these conditions, the VETP increases slightly from 3 to 5 mL though the number of theoretical plates stays constant at about 1326 ± 88. We also demonstrated that the final design volume was only 6% ± 1% larger than the ideal plug flow volume. Using such a device would enable continuous viral inactivation in a truly continuous process or in the effluent of a batch chromatography column. Viral inactivation studies would be required to validate such a design. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:954-965, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment versus cognitive behavioural therapy for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vos-Vromans, D C W M; Smeets, R J E M; Huijnen, I P J; Köke, A J A; Hitters, W M G C; Rijnders, L J M; Pont, M; Winkens, B; Knottnerus, J A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the difference in treatment effect, at 26 and 52 weeks after the start of treatment, between cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment (MRT) for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Multicentre, randomized controlled trial of patients with CFS. Participants were randomly assigned to MRT or CBT. Four rehabilitation centres in the Netherlands. A total of 122 patients participated in the trial. Primary outcomes were fatigue measured by the fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength and health-related quality of life measured by the Short-Form 36. Outcomes were assessed prior to treatment and at 26 and 52 weeks after treatment initiation. A total of 114 participants completed the assessment at 26 weeks, and 112 completed the assessment at 52 weeks. MRT was significantly more effective than CBT in reducing fatigue at 52 weeks. The estimated difference in fatigue between the two treatments was -3.02 [95% confidence interval (CI) -8.07 to 2.03; P = 0.24] at 26 weeks and -5.69 (95% CI -10.62 to -0.76; P = 0.02) at 52 weeks. Patients showed an improvement in quality of life over time, but between-group differences were not significant. This study provides evidence that MRT is more effective in reducing long-term fatigue severity than CBT in patients with CFS. Although implementation in comparable populations can be recommended based on clinical effectiveness, it is advisable to analyse the cost-effectiveness and replicate these findings in another multicentre trial. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  9. Resilience Training for Healthcare Staff (RTHS) Implementation Evaluation Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-05

    Healthcare Staff (RTHS) Implementation Evaluation Phase 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Start, Amanda...been evaluated . As of September 2016, 149 MRTs had been certified to teach the MRT Medical Program. Between October and November 2016, 149 MRTs received...an online survey invitation. A follow up phone survey was attempted to 97 MRTs stationed INCONUS. Results of the evaluation included

  10. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles.

  11. Development of Principles for Multimodal Displays in Army Human-Robot Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Research Laboratory ATTN: RDRL- HRM -D Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5425 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...the practical limitations of various cognitive resource channels for HRI tasks. 2.1.2 Purpose Now that MRT and the common workload manipulations...with more mission targets. • Workload conditions were not counter-balanced for practice effects. 7 Increasing task difficulty generally

  12. Benchmarking and validation of a Geant4-SHADOW Monte Carlo simulation for dose calculations in microbeam radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Iwan; Guatelli, Susanna; Fournier, Pauline; Crosbie, Jeffrey C; Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Lerch, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a synchrotron-based radiotherapy modality that uses high-intensity beams of spatially fractionated radiation to treat tumours. The rapid evolution of MRT towards clinical trials demands accurate treatment planning systems (TPS), as well as independent tools for the verification of TPS calculated dose distributions in order to ensure patient safety and treatment efficacy. Monte Carlo computer simulation represents the most accurate method of dose calculation in patient geometries and is best suited for the purpose of TPS verification. A Monte Carlo model of the ID17 biomedical beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has been developed, including recent modifications, using the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit interfaced with the SHADOW X-ray optics and ray-tracing libraries. The code was benchmarked by simulating dose profiles in water-equivalent phantoms subject to irradiation by broad-beam (without spatial fractionation) and microbeam (with spatial fractionation) fields, and comparing against those calculated with a previous model of the beamline developed using the PENELOPE code. Validation against additional experimental dose profiles in water-equivalent phantoms subject to broad-beam irradiation was also performed. Good agreement between codes was observed, with the exception of out-of-field doses and toward the field edge for larger field sizes. Microbeam results showed good agreement between both codes and experimental results within uncertainties. Results of the experimental validation showed agreement for different beamline configurations. The asymmetry in the out-of-field dose profiles due to polarization effects was also investigated, yielding important information for the treatment planning process in MRT. This work represents an important step in the development of a Monte Carlo-based independent verification tool for treatment planning in MRT.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Thermometry-Guided Stereotactic Laser Ablation of Cavernous Malformations in Drug-Resistant Epilepsy: Imaging and Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, D. Jay; Willie, Jon T.; Fernald, Brad; Saindane, Amit M.; Drane, Daniel L.; Barrow, Daniel L.; Gross, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Surgery is indicated for cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) that cause medically refractory epilepsy. Real-time magnetic resonance thermography (MRT)-guided stereotactic laser ablation (SLA) is a minimally invasive approach to treating focal brain lesions. SLA of CCM has not previously been described. OBJECTIVE To describe MRT-guided SLA, a novel approach to treating CCM-related epilepsy, with respect to feasibility, safety, imaging, and seizure control in 5 consecutive patients. METHODS Five patients with medically refractory epilepsy undergoing standard presurgical evaluation were found to have corresponding lesions fulfilling imaging characteristics of CCM and were prospectively enrolled. Each underwent stereotactic placement of a saline-cooled cannula containing an optical fiber to deliver 980-nm diode laser energy via twist drill craniostomy. MR anatomic imaging was used to evaluate targeting prior to ablation. MR imaging provided evaluation of targeting and near real-time feedback regarding extent of tissue thermocoagulation. Patients maintained seizure diaries, and remote imaging (6–21 months post-ablation) was obtained in all patients. RESULTS Imaging revealed no evidence of acute hemorrhage following fiber placement within presumed CCM. MRT during treatment and immediate post-procedure imaging confirmed desired extent of ablation. We identified no adverse events or neurological deficits. Four of 5 (80%) patients achieved freedom from disabling seizures after SLA alone (Engel class 1 outcome), with follow-up ranging 12–28 months. Reimaging of all subjects (6–21 months) indicated lesion diminution with surrounding liquefactive necrosis, consistent with the surgical goal of extended lesionotomy. CONCLUSION Minimally invasive MRT-guided SLA of epileptogenic CCM is a potentially safe and effective alternative to open resection. Additional experience and longer follow-up are needed. PMID:27959970

  14. Human Operator Interface with FLIR Displays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    model (Ratches, et al., 1976) used to evaluate FUIR system performanmce. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAOE(When Does Bntoff. PREFACE The research...the minimum resolv- able temperature (MRT) paradigm to test two modeled FLIR systems. Twelve male subjects with 20/20 uncorrected vision served as...varying iv levels of size, contrast, noise, and MTF. The test results were compared with the NVL predictive model (Ratches, et al., 1975) used to

  15. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Tactical Aircraft (TA) A/P22P-14A Respirator Assembly (V)5: Speech Intelligibility Performance with Double Hearing Protection, HGU-84/P Flight Helmet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-06

    Pressure Level (SPL) background pink noise. The speech intelligibility tests shall result in a Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) score as listed below...Speech intelligibility testing shall be measured per ANSI S3.2 for each background pink noise level using a minimum of ten talkers and of ten...listeners. The test shall be conducted wearing the JSAM-TA using appropriate communication 6 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release

  16. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Tactical Aircraft (TA) A/P22P-14A Respirator Assembly (V)3: Noise Attenuation and Speech Intelligibility Performance with Double Hearing Protection, HGU-68/P Flight Helmet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-31

    dB Sound Pressure Level (SPL) background pink noise. The speech intelligibility tests shall result in a Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) score as listed...below. Speech intelligibility testing shall be measured per ANSI S3.2 for each background pink noise level using a minimum of ten talkers and of ten...listeners. The test shall be conducted wearing the JSAM-TA using appropriate communication amplification. Test must include the configurations

  17. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Tactical Aircraft (TA) A/P22P-14A Respirator Assembly (V)3: Noise Attenuation and Speech Intelligibility Performance with Double Hearing Protection, HGU-55A/P JHMCS Flight Helmet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    in an environment 71-115 dB Sound Pressure Level (SPL) background pink noise. The speech intelligibility tests shall result in a Modified Rhyme... Test (MRT) score as listed below. Speech intelligibility testing shall be measured per ANSI S3.2 for each background pink noise level using a...minimum of ten talkers and of ten listeners. The test shall be conducted wearing the JSAM-TA using appropriate communication amplification. Test must

  18. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the floor of mouth: first reported case in the oral cavity of an adult.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Stephanie L; Kerpel, Stanley; Reich, Renee F; Freedman, Paul D

    2015-06-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are exceedingly rare lesions. To our knowledge, only 2 cases have been reported in the oral cavity, with both examples occurring in infants. The current case is the third reported case of MRT of the oral cavity and the first reported case to occur in an adult at this location. The following report describes the clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor.

  19. Enthalpy-based multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in metal foams.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; He, Ya-Ling; Li, Qing

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an enthalpy-based multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is developed for solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in metal foams under the local thermal nonequilibrium (LTNE) condition. The enthalpy-based MRT-LB method consists of three different MRT-LB models: one for flow field based on the generalized non-Darcy model, and the other two for phase-change material (PCM) and metal-foam temperature fields described by the LTNE model. The moving solid-liquid phase interface is implicitly tracked through the liquid fraction, which is simultaneously obtained when the energy equations of PCM and metal foam are solved. The present method has several distinctive features. First, as compared with previous studies, the present method avoids the iteration procedure; thus it retains the inherent merits of the standard LB method and is superior to the iteration method in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Second, a volumetric LB scheme instead of the bounce-back scheme is employed to realize the no-slip velocity condition in the interface and solid phase regions, which is consistent with the actual situation. Last but not least, the MRT collision model is employed, and with additional degrees of freedom, it has the ability to reduce the numerical diffusion across the phase interface induced by solid-liquid phase change. Numerical tests demonstrate that the present method can serve as an accurate and efficient numerical tool for studying metal-foam enhanced solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in latent heat storage. Finally, comparisons and discussions are made to offer useful information for practical applications of the present method.

  20. Reliability and Construct Validity of the 6-Minute Racerunner Test in Children and Youth with Cerebral Palsy, GMFCS Levels III and IV.

    PubMed

    Bolster, Eline A M; Dallmeijer, Annet J; de Wolf, G Sander; Versteegt, Marieke; Schie, Petra E M van

    2017-05-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability and construct validity of a novel 6-Minute Racerunner Test (6MRT) in children and youth with cerebral palsy (CP) classified as Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III and IV. The racerunner is a step-propelled tricycle. The participants were 38 children and youth with CP (mean age 11 y 2 m, SD 3 y 7 m; GMFCS III, n = 19; IV, n = 19). Racerunner capability was determined as the distance covered during the 6MRT on three occasions. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and smallest detectable differences (SDD) were calculated to assess test-retest reliability. The ICC for tests 2 and 3 were 0.89 (SDD 37%; 147 m) for children in level III and 0.91 for children in level IV (SDD 52%; 118 m). When the average of two separate test occasions was used, the SDDs were reduced to 26% (104 m; level III) and 37% (118 m; level IV). For tests 1 to 3, the mean distance covered increased from 345 m (SD 148 m) to 413 m (SD 137 m) for children in level III, and from 193 m (SD 100 m) to 239 m (SD 148 m) for children in level IV. Results suggest high test-retest reliability. However, large SDDs indicate that a single 6MRT measurement is only useful for individual evaluation when large improvements are expected, or when taking the average of two tests. The 6MRT discriminated the distance covered between children and youth in levels III and IV, supporting construct validity.

  1. Enthalpy-based multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in metal foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; He, Ya-Ling; Li, Qing

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an enthalpy-based multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is developed for solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in metal foams under the local thermal nonequilibrium (LTNE) condition. The enthalpy-based MRT-LB method consists of three different MRT-LB models: one for flow field based on the generalized non-Darcy model, and the other two for phase-change material (PCM) and metal-foam temperature fields described by the LTNE model. The moving solid-liquid phase interface is implicitly tracked through the liquid fraction, which is simultaneously obtained when the energy equations of PCM and metal foam are solved. The present method has several distinctive features. First, as compared with previous studies, the present method avoids the iteration procedure; thus it retains the inherent merits of the standard LB method and is superior to the iteration method in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Second, a volumetric LB scheme instead of the bounce-back scheme is employed to realize the no-slip velocity condition in the interface and solid phase regions, which is consistent with the actual situation. Last but not least, the MRT collision model is employed, and with additional degrees of freedom, it has the ability to reduce the numerical diffusion across the phase interface induced by solid-liquid phase change. Numerical tests demonstrate that the present method can serve as an accurate and efficient numerical tool for studying metal-foam enhanced solid-liquid phase-change heat transfer in latent heat storage. Finally, comparisons and discussions are made to offer useful information for practical applications of the present method.

  2. Distributed Emulation in Support of Large Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Provider LTE Long Term Evolution MB Megabyte MIPS Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages MRT Multi-Threaded Routing Toolkit NPS Naval...environment, modifications to a network, protocol, or model can be executed – and the effects measured – without affecting real-world users or services...produce their results when analyzing performance of Long Term Evolution ( LTE ) gateways [3]. Many research scenarios allow problems to be represented

  3. Detecting the impact of bank and channel modification on invertebrate communities in Mediterranean temporary streams (Sardinia, SW Italy).

    PubMed

    Buffagni, Andrea; Tenchini, Roberta; Cazzola, Marcello; Erba, Stefania; Balestrini, Raffaella; Belfiore, Carlo; Pagnotta, Romano

    2016-09-15

    We hypothesized that reach-scale, bank and channel modification would impact benthic communities in temporary rivers of Sardinia, when pollution and water abstraction are not relevant. A range of variables were considered, which include both artificial structures/alterations and natural features observed in a stream reach. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were used to assess the effects of the explanatory variables on invertebrate assemblages and five groups, characterized by different habitat modification and/or features, were recognized. Four node variables determined the splits in the MRT analysis: channel reinforcement, tree-related bank and channel habitats, channel modification and bank modification. Continuity of trees in the river corridor diverged among MRT groups and significant differences among groups include presence of alders, extent of channel shading and substrate diversity. Also, the percentage of in-stream organic substrates, in particular CPOM/Xylal, showed highly significant differences among groups. For practical applications, thresholds for the extent of channel reinforcement (40%) and modification (10%) and for bank alteration (≈30%) were provided, that can be used to guide the implementation of restoration measures. In moderately altered river reaches, a significant extent of tree-related habitats (≈5%) can noticeably mitigate the effects of morphological alteration on aquatic invertebrates. The outcomes highlight the importance of riparian zone management as an opportune, achievable prospect in the restoration of Mediterranean temporary streams. The impact of bank and channel modification on ecological status (sensu WFD) was investigated and the tested benthic metrics, especially those based on abundance data, showed legible differences among MRT groups. Finally, bank and channel modification appears to be a potential threat for the conservation of a few Sardo-Corsican endemic species. The introduction of management criteria that

  4. The use of point-of-decision prompts to increase stair climbing in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Robert Alan; Haaland, Benjamin Adam; Leung, Carol; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2013-01-07

    Physical inactivity is a significant contributor to worldwide mortality and morbidity associated with non-communicable diseases. An excellent avenue to incorporate lifestyle physical activity into regular routine is to encourage the use of stairs during daily commutes. We evaluated the effectiveness of point-of-decision prompts (PODPs) in promoting the use of stairs instead of the escalators in a Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) station. We measured the number of stair climbers before the PODPs were put up, during the 4 weeks that they were in use, and 2 weeks after they were removed. Measurements at a no intervention control site were additionally taken. The use of stair-riser banners was associated with an increase in the number of people using the stairs by a factor of 1.49 (95% CI 1.34-1.64). After the banners were removed, the number of stair climbers at the experimental station dropped to slightly below baseline levels. The Singapore MRT serves a diverse multi-ethnic population with an average daily ridership of over 2 million and 88 stations island-wide. An increase of physical activity among these MRT commuters would have a large impact at the population level. Our findings can be translated into part of the national strategy to encourage an active lifestyle in Singaporeans.

  5. Microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Wagner, Hans-Peter; Archer, David W.; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Di Michiel, Marco; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Brauer, Elke; Spanne, Per O.; Gebbers, Jan-Olef; Dixon, Keith; Blattmann, Hans

    1999-10-01

    The central nervous system of vertebrates, even when immature, displays extraordinary resistance to damage by microscopically narrow, multiple, parallel, planar beams of x rays. Imminently lethal gliosarcomas in the brains of mature rats can be inhibited and ablated by such microbeams with little or no harm to mature brain tissues and neurological function. Potentially palliative, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of malignant brain tumors in human infants under three years of age is so fraught with the danger of disrupting the functional maturation of immature brain tissues around the targeted tumor that it is implemented infrequently. Other kinds of therapy for such tumors are often inadequate. We suggest that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) might help to alleviate the situation. Wiggler-generated synchrotron x-rays were first used for experimental microplanar beam (microbeam) radiation therapy (MRT) at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source in the early 1990s. We now describe the progress achieved in MRT research to date using immature and adult rats irradiated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, and investigated thereafter at the Institute of Pathology of the University of Bern.

  6. Compensating for magnetic field inhomogeneity in multigradient-echo-based MR thermometry.

    PubMed

    Simonis, Frank F J; Petersen, Esben T; Bartels, Lambertus W; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2015-03-01

    MR thermometry (MRT) is a noninvasive method for measuring temperature that can potentially be used for radio frequency (RF) safety monitoring. This application requires measuring absolute temperature. In this study, a multigradient-echo (mGE) MRT sequence was used for that purpose. A drawback of this sequence, however, is that its accuracy is affected by background gradients. In this article, we present a method to minimize this effect and to improve absolute temperature measurements using MRI. By determining background gradients using a B0 map or by combining data acquired with two opposing readout directions, the error can be removed in a homogenous phantom, thus improving temperature maps. All scans were performed on a 3T system using ethylene glycol-filled phantoms. Background gradients were varied, and one phantom was uniformly heated to validate both compensation approaches. Independent temperature recordings were made with optical probes. Errors correlated closely to the background gradients in all experiments. Temperature distributions showed a much smaller standard deviation when the corrections were applied (0.21°C vs. 0.45°C) and correlated well with thermo-optical probes. The corrections offer the possibility to measure RF heating in phantoms more precisely. This allows mGE MRT to become a valuable tool in RF safety assessment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Multi-gradient echo MR thermometry for monitoring of the near-field area during MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Mie K.; de Greef, Martijn; Bouwman, Job G.; Moonen, Chrit T. W.; Viergever, Max A.; Bartels, Lambertus W.

    2015-10-01

    The multi-gradient echo MR thermometry (MGE MRT) method is proposed to use at the interface of the muscle and fat layers found in the abdominal wall, to monitor MR-HIFU heating. As MGE MRT uses fat as a reference, it is field-drift corrected. Relative temperature maps were reconstructed by subtracting absolute temperature maps. Because the absolute temperature maps are reconstructed of individual scans, MGE MRT provides the flexibility of interleaved mapping of temperature changes between two arbitrary time points. The method’s performance was assessed in an ex vivo water bath experiment. An ex vivo HIFU experiment was performed to show the method’s ability to monitor heating of consecutive HIFU sonications and to estimate cooling time constants, in the presence of field drift. The interleaved use between scans of a clinical protocol was demonstrated in vivo in a patient during a clinical uterine fibroid treatment. The relative temperature measurements were accurate (mean absolute error 0.3 °C) and provided excellent visualization of the heating of consecutive HIFU sonications. Maps were reconstructed of estimated cooling time constants and mean ROI values could be well explained by the applied heating pattern. Heating upon HIFU sonication and subsequent cooling could be observed in the in vivo demonstration.

  8. Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques, Scientific Tourism, and the Global Politics of Science.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sarah; Palacios-González, César; De Jesús Medina Arellano, María

    2017-09-01

    The United Kingdom is the first and so far only country to pass explicit legislation allowing for the licensed use of the new reproductive technology known as mitochondrial replacement therapy. The techniques used in this technology may prevent the transmission of mitochondrial DNA diseases, but they are controversial because they involve the manipulation of oocytes or embryos and the transfer of genetic material. Some commentators have even suggested that MRT constitutes germline genome modification. All eyes were on the United Kingdom as the most likely location for the first MRT birth, so it was a shock when, on September 27, 2016, an announcement went out that the first baby to result from use of the intervention had already been born. In New York City, United States-based scientist John Zhang used maternal spindle transfer (one of the recognized MRT methods) to generate five embryos for a woman carrying oocytes with deleterious mutations of the mitochondrial DNA. Zhang then shipped the only euploid embryo to Mexico, where it was transferred to the mother's uterus. Zhang's team's travel across international borders to carry out experimental procedures represents a form of scientific tourism that has not been properly ethically explored; it can, however, have seriously detrimental effects for developing countries. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  9. Combining microwave resonance technology to multivariate data analysis as a novel PAT tool to improve process understanding in fluid bed granulation.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Vera; Herdling, Thorsten; Reich, Gabriele; Menezes, José C; Lochmann, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    A set of 192 fluid bed granulation batches at industrial scale were in-line monitored using microwave resonance technology (MRT) to determine moisture, temperature and density of the granules. Multivariate data analysis techniques such as multiway partial least squares (PLS), multiway principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate batch control charts were applied onto collected batch data sets. The combination of all these techniques, along with off-line particle size measurements, led to significantly increased process understanding. A seasonality effect could be put into evidence that impacted further processing through its influence on the final granule size. Moreover, it was demonstrated by means of a PLS that a relation between the particle size and the MRT measurements can be quantitatively defined, highlighting a potential ability of the MRT sensor to predict information about the final granule size. This study has contributed to improve a fluid bed granulation process, and the process knowledge obtained shows that the product quality can be built in process design, following Quality by Design (QbD) and Process Analytical Technology (PAT) principles. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Numerical simulation of convection and heat transfer in Czochralski crystal growth by multiple-relaxation-time LBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ding; Huang, Weichao; Zhang, Ni

    2017-07-01

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric swirling model based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) in a pseudo Cartesian coordinate system is posited to simulate Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth in this paper. Specifically, the multiple-relaxation-time LBM (MRT-LBM) combined with the finite difference method (FDM) is used to analyze the melt convection and heat transfer in the process of Cz crystal growth. An incompressible axisymmetric swirling MRT-LB D2Q9 model is applied to solve for the axial and radial velocities by inserting thermal buoyancy and rotational inertial force into the two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann equation. In addition, the melt temperature and the azimuthal velocity are solved by MRT-LB D2Q5 models, and the crystal temperature is solved by FDM. The comparison results of stream functions values of different methods demonstrate that our hybrid model can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal coupling in the axisymmetric swirling model correctly and effectively. Furthermore, numerical simulations of melt convection and heat transfer are conducted under the conditions of high Grashof (Gr) numbers, within the range of 105 ˜ 107, and different high Reynolds (Re) numbers. The experimental results show our hybrid model can obtain the exact solution of complex crystal-growth models and analyze the fluid-thermal coupling effectively under the combined action of natural convection and forced convection.

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows with the Lattice Boltzmann Method: Effect of Collision Model, SGS Model and Grid Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Aniruddhe; Akhavan, Rayhaneh

    2017-11-01

    Effect of collision model, subgrid-scale model and grid resolution in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of wall-bounded turbulent flows with the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is investigated in turbulent channel flow. The Single Relaxation Time (SRT) collision model is found to be more accurate than Multi-Relaxation Time (MRT) collision model in well-resolved LES. Accurate LES requires grid resolutions of Δ+ <= 4 in the near-wall region, which is comparable to Δ+ <= 2 required in DNS. At larger grid resolutions SRT becomes unstable, while MRT remains stable but gives unacceptably large errors. LES with no model gave errors comparable to the Dynamic Smagorinsky Model (DSM) and the Wall Adapting Local Eddy-viscosity (WALE) model. The resulting errors in the prediction of the friction coefficient in turbulent channel flow at a bulk Reynolds Number of 7860 (Reτ 442) with Δ+ = 4 and no-model, DSM and WALE were 1.7%, 2.6%, 3.1% with SRT, and 8.3% 7.5% 8.7% with MRT, respectively. These results suggest that LES of wall-bounded turbulent flows with LBM requires either grid-embedding in the near-wall region, with grid resolutions comparable to DNS, or a wall model. Results of LES with grid-embedding and wall models will be discussed.

  12. Effective Simulation Strategy of Multiscale Flows using a Lattice Boltzmann model with a Stretched Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, Eman; Premnath, Kannan

    2017-11-01

    Resolving multiscale flow physics (e.g. for boundary layer or mixing layer flows) effectively generally requires the use of different grid resolutions in different coordinate directions. Here, we present a new formulation of a multiple relaxation time (MRT)-lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for anisotropic meshes. It is based on a simpler and more stable non-orthogonal moment basis while the use of MRT introduces additional flexibility, and the model maintains a stream-collide procedure; its second order moment equilibria are augmented with additional velocity gradient terms dependent on grid aspect ratio that fully restores the required isotropy of the transport coefficients of the normal and shear stresses. Furthermore, by introducing additional cubic velocity corrections, it maintains Galilean invariance. The consistency of this stretched lattice based LB scheme with the Navier-Stokes equations is shown via a Chapman-Enskog expansion. Numerical study for a variety of benchmark flow problems demonstrate its ability for accurate and effective simulations at relatively high Reynolds numbers. The MRT-LB scheme is also shown to be more stable compared to prior LB models for rectangular grids, even for grid aspect ratios as small as 0.1 and for Reynolds numbers of 10000.

  13. Conceptualization and validation of an open-source closed-loop deep brain stimulation system in rat.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hemmings; Ghekiere, Hartwin; Beeckmans, Dorien; Tambuyzer, Tim; van Kuyck, Kris; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2015-04-21

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) applies constant electrical stimulation to specific brain regions to treat neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS with real-time feedback is gaining attention in recent years, after proved more effective than conventional DBS in terms of pathological symptom control clinically. Here we demonstrate the conceptualization and validation of a closed-loop DBS system using open-source hardware. We used hippocampal theta oscillations as system input, and electrical stimulation in the mesencephalic reticular formation (mRt) as controller output. It is well documented that hippocampal theta oscillations are highly related to locomotion, while electrical stimulation in the mRt induces freezing. We used an Arduino open-source microcontroller between input and output sources. This allowed us to use hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) to steer electrical stimulation in the mRt. Our results showed that closed-loop DBS significantly suppressed locomotion compared to no stimulation, and required on average only 56% of the stimulation used in open-loop DBS to reach similar effects. The main advantages of open-source hardware include wide selection and availability, high customizability, and affordability. Our open-source closed-loop DBS system is effective, and warrants further research using open-source hardware for closed-loop neuromodulation.

  14. A masked NES in INI1/hSNF5 mediates hCRM1-dependent nuclear export: implications for tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Errol; Zhang, Zhi-Kai; Davies, Kelvin P.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.

    2002-01-01

    INI1 (integrase interactor 1)/hSNF5 is a component of the mammalian SWI/SNF complex and a tumor suppressor mutated in malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT). We have identified a nuclear export signal (NES) in the highly conserved repeat 2 domain of INI1 that is unmasked upon deletion of a downstream sequence. Mutation of conserved hydrophobic residues within the NES, as well as leptomycin B treatment abrogated the nuclear export. Full-length INI1 specifically associated with hCRM1/exportin1 in vivo and in vitro. A mutant INI1 [INI1(1–319) delG950] found in MRT lacking the 66 C-terminal amino acids mislocalized to the cytoplasm. Full-length INI1 but not the INI1(1–319 delG950) mutant caused flat cell formation and cell cycle arrest in cell lines derived from MRT. Disruption of the NES in the delG950 mutant caused nuclear localization of the protein and restored its ability to cause cell cycle arrest. These observations demonstrate that INI1 has a masked NES that mediates regulated hCRM1/exportin1-dependent nuclear export and we propose that mutations that cause deregulated nuclear export of the protein could lead to tumorigenesis. PMID:11782423

  15. Virtual reality adaptive stimulation of limbic networks in the mental readiness training.

    PubMed

    Cosić, Kresimir; Popović, Sinisa; Kostović, Ivica; Judas, Milos

    2010-01-01

    A significant proportion of severe psychological problems in recent large-scale peacekeeping operations underscores the importance of effective methods for strengthening the stress resilience. Virtual reality (VR) adaptive stimulation, based on the estimation of the participant's emotional state from physiological signals, may enhance the mental readiness training (MRT). Understanding neurobiological mechanisms by which the MRT based on VR adaptive stimulation can affect the resilience to stress is important for practical application in the stress resilience management. After the delivery of a traumatic audio-visual stimulus in the VR, the cascade of events occurs in the brain, which evokes various physiological manifestations. In addition to the "limbic" emotional and visceral brain circuitry, other large-scale sensory, cognitive, and memory brain networks participate with less known impact in this physiological response. The MRT based on VR adaptive stimulation may strengthen the stress resilience through targeted brain-body interactions. Integrated interdisciplinary efforts, which would integrate the brain imaging and the proposed approach, may contribute to clarifying the neurobiological foundation of the resilience to stress.

  16. Soil nitrogen dynamics within profiles of a managed moist temperate forest chronosequence consistent with long-term harvesting-induced losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellman, Lisa; Kumar, Sanjeev; Diochon, Amanda

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates whether clear-cut forest harvesting leads to alterations in the decadal-scale biogeochemical nitrogen (N) cycles of moist temperate forest ecosystems. Using a harvested temperate red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) forest chronosequence in Nova Scotia, Canada, representing <1 to >80 year old postharvest conditions, alongside a reference old-growth (125+ year old) site with no documented history of disturbance, we examine harvesting-related changes in soil N pools and fluxes. Specifically, we quantify soil N storage with depth and age across the forest chronosequence, examine changes in physical fractions and δ15N of soil N through depth and time, and quantify gross soil N transformation rates through depth and time using a 15N isotope dilution technique. Our findings point to a large loss of total N in the soil pool, particularly within the deep soil (>20 cm) and organomineral fractions. A pulse of available mineralized N (as ammonium) was observed following harvesting (mean residence time (MRT) > 6 days), but its MRT dropped to <1 day 80 years following harvesting, in contrast to the MRT of 2-3 days observed in the reference old-growth forest site. These mineralization patterns coupled with inferred leaching losses to groundwater are consistent with storage estimates that suggest soil N may not reaccrue for almost a century following this disturbance.

  17. The Use of Point-of-Decision Prompts to Increase Stair Climbing in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Robert Alan; Haaland, Benjamin Adam; Leung, Carol; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a significant contributor to worldwide mortality and morbidity associated with non-communicable diseases. An excellent avenue to incorporate lifestyle physical activity into regular routine is to encourage the use of stairs during daily commutes. We evaluated the effectiveness of point-of-decision prompts (PODPs) in promoting the use of stairs instead of the escalators in a Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) station. We measured the number of stair climbers before the PODPs were put up, during the 4 weeks that they were in use, and 2 weeks after they were removed. Measurements at a no intervention control site were additionally taken. The use of stair-riser banners was associated with an increase in the number of people using the stairs by a factor of 1.49 (95% CI 1.34–1.64). After the banners were removed, the number of stair climbers at the experimental station dropped to slightly below baseline levels. The Singapore MRT serves a diverse multi-ethnic population with an average daily ridership of over 2 million and 88 stations island-wide. An increase of physical activity among these MRT commuters would have a large impact at the population level. Our findings can be translated into part of the national strategy to encourage an active lifestyle in Singaporeans. PMID:23296208

  18. On the Evolution From Micrometer-Scale Inhomogeneity to Global Overheated Structure During the Intense Joule Heating of a z-Pinch Rod

    DOE PAGES

    Awe, T. J.; Yu, E. P.; Yates, K. C.; ...

    2017-02-21

    Ultrafast optical microscopy of metal z-pinch rods pulsed with megaampere current is contributing new data and critical insight into what provides the fundamental seed for the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. A two-frame near infrared/visible intensified-charge-coupled device gated imager with 2-ns temporal resolution and 3-μm spatial resolution captured emissions from the nonuniformly Joule heated surfaces of ultrasmooth aluminum (Al) rods. Nonuniform surface emissions are consistently first observed from discrete, 10-μm scale, subelectronvolt spots. Aluminum 6061 alloy, with micrometer-scale nonmetallic resistive inclusions, forms several times more spots than 99.999% pure Al 5N; 5-10 ns later, azimuthally stretched elliptical spots and distinct strata (40-100more » μm wide by 10 μm tall) are observed on Al 6061, but not on Al 5N. In such overheat strata, aligned parallel to the magnetic field, we find that they are highly effective seeds for MRT instability growth. Our data give credence to the hypothesis that early nonuniform Joule heating, such as the electrothermal instability, may provide the dominant seed for MRT.« less

  19. Observations of ETI under dielectric-overcoated aluminum pulsed to hundreds of Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Trevor; Bauer, Bruno; Fuelling, Stephan; Yates, Kevin; Awe, Thomas; Yelton, Graham

    2016-10-01

    MagLIF is an inertial confinement concept that takes advantage of relaxed fusion criteria due to premagnetized and preheated fuel. The drive surface is particularly susceptible to highly azimuthally correlated magneto-Rayleigh Taylor (MRT) instabilities, which section the liner wall and compromise confinement. This degree of azimuthal correlation is not due to residual lathe machining or surface roughness and a growing body of evidence suggest electrothermal instabilities (ETI) seed the MRT instability and allow for levels of azimuthal correlation that have been observed experimentally. Implementation of dielectric coatings on Sandia's Z accelerator has reduced MRT amplitudes by at least a factor of ten, which simulations suggest is due to mass tamping of the ETI. However, neither ETI nor its theorized suppression via an applied dielectric overcoat has been experimentally observed on a thick wire. We will report on experimental observations of ETI on the surface of 500 um radius aluminum rods with a 70 um parylene-N overcoat pulsed with 1 MA in 100 ns. This work was funded in part by Sandia's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program (Project No. 178661).

  20. Characterization of surface and ground water δ18O seasonal variation and its use for estimating groundwater residence times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Schuster, Paul; Kendall, Carol; Reddy, Micaela B.

    2006-01-01

    18O is an ideal tracer for characterizing hydrological processes because it can be reliably measured in several watershed hydrological compartments. Here, we present multiyear isotopic data, i.e. 18O variations (δ18O), for precipitation inputs, surface water and groundwater in the Shingobee River Headwaters Area (SRHA), a well-instrumented research catchment in north-central Minnesota. SRHA surface waters exhibit δ18O seasonal variations similar to those of groundwaters, and seasonal δ18O variations plotted versus time fit seasonal sine functions. These seasonal δ18O variations were interpreted to estimate surface water and groundwater mean residence times (MRTs) at sampling locations near topographically closed-basin lakes. MRT variations of about 1 to 16 years have been estimated over an area covering about 9 km2 from the basin boundary to the most downgradient well. Estimated MRT error (±0·3 to ±0·7 years) is small for short MRTs and is much larger (±10 years) for a well with an MRT (16 years) near the limit of the method. Groundwater transit time estimates based on Darcy's law, tritium content, and the seasonal δ18O amplitude approach appear to be consistent within the limits of each method. The results from this study suggest that use of the δ18O seasonal variation method to determine MRTs can help assess groundwater recharge areas in small headwaters catchments.

  1. Characterization of surface and ground water δ18O seasonal variation and its use for estimating groundwater residence times

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Schuster, Paul F.; Kendall, Carol; Reddy, Micaela B.

    2006-01-01

    18O is an ideal tracer for characterizing hydrological processes because it can be reliably measured in several watershed hydrological compartments. Here, we present multiyear isotopic data, i.e. 18O variations (δ18O), for precipitation inputs, surface water and groundwater in the Shingobee River Headwaters Area (SRHA), a well-instrumented research catchment in north-central Minnesota. SRHA surface waters exhibit δ18O seasonal variations similar to those of groundwaters, and seasonal δ18O variations plotted versus time fit seasonal sine functions. These seasonal δ18O variations were interpreted to estimate surface water and groundwater mean residence times (MRTs) at sampling locations near topographically closed-basin lakes. MRT variations of about 1 to 16 years have been estimated over an area covering about 9 km2 from the basin boundary to the most downgradient well. Estimated MRT error (±0·3 to ±0·7 years) is small for short MRTs and is much larger (±10 years) for a well with an MRT (16 years) near the limit of the method. Groundwater transit time estimates based on Darcy's law, tritium content, and the seasonal δ18O amplitude approach appear to be consistent within the limits of each method. The results from this study suggest that use of the δ18O seasonal variation method to determine MRTs can help assess groundwater recharge areas in small headwaters catchments.

  2. Media multitasking and behavioral measures of sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Thomson, David R; Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S A; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In a series of four studies, self-reported media multitasking (using the media multitasking index; MMI) and general sustained-attention ability, through performance on three sustained-attention tasks: the metronome response task (MRT), the sustained-attention-to-response task (SART), and a vigilance task (here, a modified version of the SART). In Study 1, we found that higher reports of media multitasking were associated with increased response variability (i.e., poor performance) on the MRT. However, in Study 2, no association between reported media multitasking and performance on the SART was observed. These findings were replicated in Studies 3a and 3b, in which we again assessed the relation between media multitasking and performance on both the MRT and SART in two large online samples. Finally, in Study 4, using a large online sample, we tested whether media multitasking was associated with performance on a vigilance task. Although standard vigilance decrements were observed in both sensitivity (A') and response times, media multitasking was not associated with the size of these decrements, nor was media multitasking associated with overall performance, in terms of either sensitivity or response times. Taken together, the results of the studies reported here failed to demonstrate a relation between habitual engagement in media multitasking in everyday life and a general deficit in sustained-attention processes.

  3. MRI temperature and velocity measurements in a fluid layer with heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, S.; Métivier, C.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT) is an innovative technique which can provide 2D and 3D temperature measurements using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Despite the powerful advantages of MRT, this technique is sparcely developed and used in the engineering sciences. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to measure temperatures with MRI in a fluid layer submitted to heat transfer. By imposing a vertical temperature gradient, we study the temperature fields in both conductive and convective regimes. The temperature fields are obtained by measuring the transverse relaxation time T_2 in glycerol, a Newtonian fluid. The MRT protocol is described in detail and the results are presented. We show that for a conductive regime, temperature measurements are in very good agreement with the theoretical profile. In the convective regime, when comparing the temperature and velocity fields obtained by MRI, we get an excellent agreement in terms of flow structure. Temperature uncertainties are found to be less than 1°C for all our results.

  4. Effect of variation in active route timeout and my route timeout on the performance of AODV-ETX protocol in mobile adhoc network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, A.; Widyawan; Najib, W.; Hartono, R.; Hartatik

    2018-03-01

    Mobile adhoc network (MANET) consists of nodes that are independent. A node can communicate each other without the presence of network infrastructure. A node can act as a transmitter and receiver as well as a router. This research has been variation in active route timeout and my route timeout on the performance of AODV-ETX protocol in MANET. The AODV-ETX protocol is the AODV protocol that uses the ETX metric. Performance testing is done on the static node topology with 5 m x 5 m node grid model where the distance between nodes is 100 m and node topology that consists of 25 nodes moves randomly with a moving speed of 1.38 m/s in an area of 1500 m x 300 m. From the test result, on the static node, AODV protocol-ETX shows optimal performance at a value MRT and ART of 10 s and 15 s, but showed a stable performance in the value of MRT and ART ≥60 s, while in randomly moved node topology shows stable performance in the value of MRT and ART ≥80 s.

  5. Nonequilibrium scheme for computing the flux of the convection-diffusion equation in the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zhenhua; Zhao, T S

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a local nonequilibrium scheme for computing the flux of the convection-diffusion equation with a source term in the framework of the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Both the Chapman-Enskog analysis and the numerical results show that, at the diffusive scaling, the present nonequilibrium scheme has a second-order convergence rate in space. A comparison between the nonequilibrium scheme and the conventional second-order central-difference scheme indicates that, although both schemes have a second-order convergence rate in space, the present nonequilibrium scheme is more accurate than the central-difference scheme. In addition, the flux computation rendered by the present scheme also preserves the parallel computation feature of the LBM, making the scheme more efficient than conventional finite-difference schemes in the study of large-scale problems. Finally, a comparison between the single-relaxation-time model and the MRT model is also conducted, and the results show that the MRT model is more accurate than the single-relaxation-time model, both in solving the convection-diffusion equation and in computing the flux.

  6. Models describing metronidazole pharmacokinetics in relation to hemodynamics in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Tomasz; Pasławska, Urszula; Poźniak, Błażej; Świtała, Marcin

    2017-06-01

    Linking haemodynamic (HD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters provides much insight into interrelations between circulatory system and drug disposition. This effect is particularly pronounced in rapidly growing animals. Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) are tightly linked with the animal's age and correlate with the increasing body weight (BW). The aim of this study was to establish and validate the relations between BW, HD and chosen PK parameters of metronidazole (MTZ) and its metabolite - hydroxymetronidazole (MTZ-OH) in growing turkeys. The study was carried out on broiler turkeys (BUT-9, n=26). All individuals were subjected to single dose PK studies four times, that is when the mean BW in the group reached: 1.4 (group A); 2.7 (group B); 5.5 (group C); 10.7kg (group D). Some PK parameters normalized with regard to HR were found to take constant values in all the age groups under investigation. CO↔1/MRT, SV↔1/MRT and SV↔MRT model was validated with regard to both metabolite and drug PK. This study proposed a model for the analysis of the relations HD↔BW and HD↔PK. Models developed in this study provide empirical evidence that HD affect the PK of MTZ and MTZ-OH in a different fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Specific DNA binding of a potential transcriptional regulator, inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase-related protein VII, to the promoter region of a methyl coenzyme m reductase I-encoding operon retrieved from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus strain DeltaH.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, Naoya; Enoki, Miho; Sato, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kohei; Matsui, Toru; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2008-10-01

    Two methyl coenzyme M reductases (MCRs) encoded by the mcr and mrt operons of the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus DeltaH are expressed in response to H(2) availability. In the present study, cis elements and trans-acting factors responsible for the gene expression of MCRs were investigated by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and affinity particle purification. A survey of their operator regions by EMSA with protein extracts from mrt-expressing cultures restricted them to 46- and 41-bp-long mcr and mrt upstream regions, respectively. Affinity particle purification of DNA-binding proteins conjugated with putative operator regions resulted in the retrieval of a protein attributed to IMP dehydrogenase-related protein VII (IMPDH VII). IMPDH VII is predicted to have a winged helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and two cystathionine beta-synthase domains, and it has been suspected to be an energy-sensing module. EMSA with oligonucleotide probes with unusual sequences showed that the binding site of IMPDH VII mostly overlaps the factor B-responsible element-TATA box of the mcr operon. The results presented here suggest that IMPDH VII encoded by MTH126 is a plausible candidate for the transcriptional regulator of the mcr operon in this methanogen.

  8. The unexpected discovery of Brucella abortus Buck 19 vaccine in goats from Ecuador underlines the importance of biosecurity measures.

    PubMed

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Berkvens, Dirk; Barzallo-Rivadeneira, Daniela; Angulo-Cruz, Alexandra; González-Andrade, Pablo; Minda-Aluisa, Elizabeth; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar; Saegerman, Claude

    2017-03-01

    Very few, mostly old, and only preliminary serological studies of brucellosis in goats exist in Ecuador. In order to assess the current epidemiological situation, we performed a cross-sectional serological study in the goat populations of Carchi (n = 160 animals), Pichincha (n = 224 animals), and Loja provinces (n = 2024 animals). Only two positive serological results (RB negative and SAT-EDTA ≥400 IU/ml) were obtained in lactating goats from the same farm in Quito (Pichincha province). Additionally, milk was sampled from 220 animals in Pichincha province. The present study indicates a low apparent prevalence in Pichincha province and absence in Carchi and Loja provinces. A total of 25 positive milk ring tests (MRT) were obtained in Pichincha province yielding a prevalence of MRT of 11.16%. Subsequent culture was performed on the positive MRT samples. All results were negative, apart from a single sample, obtained from a serologically positive goat in Quito, that was positive for Brucella abortus strain 19 (B19). Several hypotheses are forwarded concerning this unexpected result. The most likely hypothesis is the possible accidental use of a needle, previously used for vaccination of cattle with the said vaccine, for the administration of drug treatment to the goat. This hypothesis underlines the necessity of biosecurity measures to prevent this type of accidents.

  9. Mechanical and Histological Effects of Resorbable Blasting Media Surface Treatment on the Initial Stability of Orthodontic Mini-Implants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of resorbable blasting media (RBM) treatment on early stability of orthodontic mini-implants by mechanical, histomorphometric, and histological analyses. Methods. Ninety-six (64 for mechanical study and 32 for histological study and histomorphometric analysis) titanium orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) with machined (machined group) or RBM-treated (CaP) surface (RBM group) were implanted in the tibiae of 24 rabbits. Maximum initial torque (MIT) was measured during insertion, and maximum removal torque (MRT) and removal angular momentum (RAM) were measured at 2 and 4 weeks after implantation. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area (BA) were analyzed at 4 weeks after implantation. Results. RBM group exhibited significantly lower MIT and significantly higher MRT and RAM at 2 weeks than machined group. No significant difference in MRT, RAM, and BIC between the two groups was noted at 4 weeks, although BA was significantly higher in RBM group than in machined group. RBM group showed little bone resorption, whereas machined group showed new bone formation after bone resorption. Conclusions. RBM surface treatment can provide early stability of OMIs around 2 weeks after insertion, whereas stability of machined surface OMIs may decrease in early stages because of bone resorption, although it can subsequently recover by new bone apposition. PMID:26942200

  10. You Should Be the Specialist! Weak Mental Rotation Performance in Aviation Security Screeners - Reduced Performance Level in Aviation Security with No Gender Effect.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Jenny K; Suchan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed.

  11. Conceptualization and validation of an open-source closed-loop deep brain stimulation system in rat

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hemmings; Ghekiere, Hartwin; Beeckmans, Dorien; Tambuyzer, Tim; van Kuyck, Kris; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Nuttin, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Conventional deep brain stimulation (DBS) applies constant electrical stimulation to specific brain regions to treat neurological disorders. Closed-loop DBS with real-time feedback is gaining attention in recent years, after proved more effective than conventional DBS in terms of pathological symptom control clinically. Here we demonstrate the conceptualization and validation of a closed-loop DBS system using open-source hardware. We used hippocampal theta oscillations as system input, and electrical stimulation in the mesencephalic reticular formation (mRt) as controller output. It is well documented that hippocampal theta oscillations are highly related to locomotion, while electrical stimulation in the mRt induces freezing. We used an Arduino open-source microcontroller between input and output sources. This allowed us to use hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) to steer electrical stimulation in the mRt. Our results showed that closed-loop DBS significantly suppressed locomotion compared to no stimulation, and required on average only 56% of the stimulation used in open-loop DBS to reach similar effects. The main advantages of open-source hardware include wide selection and availability, high customizability, and affordability. Our open-source closed-loop DBS system is effective, and warrants further research using open-source hardware for closed-loop neuromodulation. PMID:25897892

  12. You Should Be the Specialist! Weak Mental Rotation Performance in Aviation Security Screeners – Reduced Performance Level in Aviation Security with No Gender Effect

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Jenny K.; Suchan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed. PMID:27014142

  13. The key to success in elite athletes? Explicit and implicit motor learning in youth elite and non-elite soccer players.

    PubMed

    Verburgh, L; Scherder, E J A; van Lange, P A M; Oosterlaan, J

    2016-09-01

    In sports, fast and accurate execution of movements is required. It has been shown that implicitly learned movements might be less vulnerable than explicitly learned movements to stressful and fast changing circumstances that exist at the elite sports level. The present study provides insight in explicit and implicit motor learning in youth soccer players with different expertise levels. Twenty-seven youth elite soccer players and 25 non-elite soccer players (aged 10-12) performed a serial reaction time task (SRTT). In the SRTT, one of the sequences must be learned explicitly, the other was implicitly learned. No main effect of group was found for implicit and explicit learning on mean reaction time (MRT) and accuracy. However, for MRT, an interaction was found between learning condition, learning phase and group. Analyses showed no group effects for the explicit learning condition, but youth elite soccer players showed better learning in the implicit learning condition. In particular, during implicit motor learning youth elite soccer showed faster MRTs in the early learning phase and earlier reached asymptote performance in terms of MRT. Present findings may be important for sports because children with superior implicit learning abilities in early learning phases may be able to learn more (durable) motor skills in a shorter time period as compared to other children.

  14. Instability growth for magnetized liner inertial fusion seeded by electro-thermal, electro-choric, and material strength effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pecover, J. D.; Chittenden, J. P.

    A critical limitation of magnetically imploded systems such as magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] is the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability which primarily disrupts the outer surface of the liner. MagLIF-relevant experiments have showed large amplitude multi-mode MRT instability growth growing from surface roughness [McBride et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 135004 (2012)], which is only reproduced by 3D simulations using our MHD code Gorgon when an artificially azimuthally correlated initialisation is added. We have shown that the missing azimuthal correlation could be provided by a combination of the electro-thermal instability (ETI) and anmore » “electro-choric” instability (ECI); describing, respectively, the tendency of current to correlate azimuthally early in time due to temperature dependent Ohmic heating; and an amplification of the ETI driven by density dependent resistivity around vapourisation. We developed and implemented a material strength model in Gorgon to improve simulation of the solid phase of liner implosions which, when applied to simulations exhibiting the ETI and ECI, gave a significant increase in wavelength and amplitude. Full circumference simulations of the MRT instability provided a significant improvement on previous randomly initialised results and approached agreement with experiment.« less

  15. Enhancing Understanding of Magnetized High Energy Density Plasmas from Solid Liner Implosions Using Fluid Modeling with Kinetic Closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masti, Robert; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; King, Jacob; Stoltz, Peter; Hansen, David; Held, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Recent results from experiments and simulations of magnetically driven pulsed power liners have explored the role of early-time electrothermal instability in the evolution of the MRT (magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor) instability. Understanding the development of these instabilities can lead to potential stabilization mechanisms; thereby providing a significant role in the success of fusion concepts such as MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion). For MagLIF the MRT instability is the most detrimental instability toward achieving fusion energy production. Experiments of high-energy density plasmas from wire-array implosions have shown the requirement for more advanced physics modeling than that of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The overall focus of this project is on using a multi-fluid extended-MHD model with kinetic closures for thermal conductivity, resistivity, and viscosity. The extended-MHD model has been updated to include the SESAME equation-of-state tables and numerical benchmarks with this implementation will be presented. Simulations of MRT growth and evolution for MagLIF-relevant parameters will be presented using this extended-MHD model with the SESAME equation-of-state tables. This work is supported by the Department of Energy Office of Science under Grant Number DE-SC0016515.

  16. Present and projected future mean radiant temperature for three European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorsson, Sofia; Rayner, David; Lindberg, Fredrik; Monteiro, Ana; Katzschner, Lutz; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Campe, Sabrina; Katzschner, Antje; Konarska, Janina; Onomura, Shiho; Velho, Sara; Holmer, Björn

    2017-09-01

    Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, T mrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, T a , increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on T mrt. The number of days with high T mrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto. The use of street trees to reduce daytime radiant heat load was analyzed using hot spots to identify where trees could be most beneficial. Hot spots, although varying in intensity and frequency, were generally confined to near sunlit southeast-southwest facing walls, in northeast corner of courtyards, and in open spaces in all three cities. By adding trees in these spaces, the radiant heat load can be reduced, especially in spaces with no or few trees. A set of design principles for reducing the radiant heat load is outlined based on these findings and existing literature.

  17. Retention time of feed particles and liquids in the stomachs and intestines of dairy cows. Direct measurement and calculations based on faecal collection.

    PubMed

    Mambrini, M; Peyraud, J L

    1997-01-01

    To validate a method for analysing indigestible marker excretion patterns in terms of digesta passage, the mean retention time (MRT) of long hay, ground hay and concentrate, marked, respectively, with thulium, ytterbium and dysprosium was measured in the total digestive tract (TMRT) and in the stomachs (SMRT) of four cows fed on a diet of hay in the long form (17.7 kg DM/day). The MRT of the particulate and liquid phases in the intestines was obtained after faecal particles labelled by Europium and Chromium EDTA were pulse dosed through the duodenal cannula. Following test meals, total faecal collection and spot sampling of duodenal digesta were performed at fixed intervals. TMRT were 51.7, 45.6, 40.6 h and SMRT were 39.5, 31.9 and 28.0 h, respectively, for hay, ground hay and concentrate. The MRT of the liquids in the rumen (8.7 h) was shorter than the SMRT of particles but there was no differential passage between liquids and particles after the duodenum. Intestinal MRT averaged 11 h and was partitioned into 7.5 and 3.5, respectively, for MRT in the tubular sections and the caecum-proximal colon. The compartmental analysis of the faecal patterns of markers given during a test meal gives the following results. The time associated with the descending part of faecal kinetics (respectively, 25.3 and 22.9 h for hay and concentrate) is directly related to the escape of feed particles from the rumen. The delay of first appearance of markers mostly reflects transit in the post duodenal tubular sections for the concentrate. The time associated with the ascending part (respectively, 16.9 and 9.4 h for hay and concentrate) represents the time required to reduce the size of the forage particles (7 h according to the difference between TMRT of long and ground hay direct measurements) and caecal mixing (3.5 h) as well as other compartments or processes that are not clearly identified.

  18. Real-life use of budesonide/formoterol in clinical practice: a 12-month follow-up assessment in a multi-national study of asthma patients established on single-inhaler maintenance and reliever therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ställberg, Björn; Naya, Ian; Ekelund, Jan; Eckerwall, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy (MRT) has been demonstrated in phase III clinical studies, but limited data are available in a real-life setting. We examined the pattern of maintenance and as-needed inhaler use in routine clinical practice among patients with asthma receiving budesonide/formoterol MRT (NCT00505388). Methods: This 12-month European observational study enrolled patients prescribed budesonide/formoterol MRT and grouped them based on regimen: 80/4.5 µg one inhalation twice daily (b.i.d.); 160/4.5 µg one inhalation b.i.d.; 160/4.5 µg two inhalations b.i.d. (all plus as needed). Patient data were collected daily using an interactive voice- or web-response system. The primary outcome measure was total number of budesonide/formoterol inhalations/day. Results: Overall, 4,581 patients were included (64% female; mean age 48.4 years; regimen: 80/4.5 µg, n = 119; 160/4.5 µg, n = 3,106; 2 × 160/4.5 µg, n = 1,355). Mean (median) total numbers of budesonide/formoterol inhalations/day were 2.48 (2.11), 2.53 (2.14), and 4.27 (4.05) for 80/4.5 µg b.i.d., 160/4.5 µg b.i.d., and 2 × 160/4.5 µg b.i.d., respectively; corresponding mean (median) number of as-needed inhalations/day were 0.68 (0.17), 0.73 (0.26), and 1.08 (0.45), respectively. As-needed budesonide/formoterol use was generally low with a mean of 61 – 66% of reliever-free days; over 4 reliever inhalations/day occurred on a mean of 0.4 – 2.5% of days for all budesonide/formoterol MRT regimens. Conclusions: In routine clinical practice, all budesonide/formoterol MRT regimens were associated with a high proportion of reliever-free days and low incidence of high reliever-use days, indicating acceptable levels of asthma control with this symptom-adjusted controller regimen. PMID:25907171

  19. Real-life use of budesonide/formoterol in clinical practice: a 12-month follow-up assessment in a multi-national study of asthma patients established on single-inhaler maintenance and reliever therapy.

    PubMed

    Ställberg, Björn; Naya, Ian; Ekelund, Jan; Eckerwall, Göran

    2015-06-01

    The efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy (MRT) has been demonstrated in phase III clinical studies, but limited data are available in a real-life setting. We examined the pattern of maintenance and as-needed inhaler use in routine clinical practice among patients with asthma receiving budesonide/formoterol MRT (NCT00505388). This 12-month European observational study enrolled patients prescribed budesonide/formoterol MRT and grouped them based on regimen: 80/4.5 μg one inhalation twice daily (b.i.d.); 160/4.5 μg one inhalation b.i.d.; 160/4.5 μg two inhalations b.i.d. (all plus as needed). Patient data were collected daily using an interactive voice- or web-response system. The primary outcome measure was total number of budesonide/formoterol inhalations/day. Overall, 4,581 patients were included (64% female; mean age 48.4 years; regimen: 80/4.5 μg, n = 119; 160/4.5 μg, n = 3,106; 2 x 160/4.5 μg, n = 1,355). Mean (median) total numbers of budesonide/formoterol inhalations/day were 2.48 (2.11), 2.53 (2.14), and 4.27 (4.05) for 80/4.5 μg b.i.d., 160/4.5 μg b.i.d., and 2 x 160/4.5 μg b.i.d., respectively; corresponding mean (median) number of as-needed inhalations/day were 0.68 (0.17), 0.73 (0.26), and 1.08 (0.45), respectively. As-needed budesonide/formoterol use was generally low with a mean of 61 - 66% of reliever-free days; over 4 reliever inhalations/day occurred on a mean of 0.4 - 2.5% of days for all budesonide/formoterol MRT regimens. Inroutine clinical practice, all budesonide/formoterol MRT regimens were associated with a high proportion of reliever-free days and low incidence of high reliever-use days, indicating acceptable levels of asthma control with this symptom-adjusted controller regimen.

  20. The development and characterization of a first generation carbon nanotube x-ray based microbeam radiation therapy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadsell, Michael John, Jr.

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new type of cancer treatment currently being studied at scattered synchrotron sites throughout the world. It has been shown to be capable of ablating aggressive brain tumors in rats while almost completely sparing the surrounding normal tissue. This promising technique has yet to find its way to the clinic, however, because the radiobiological mechanisms behind its efficacy are still largely unknown. This is partly due to the lack of a compact device that could facilitate more large scale research. The challenges inherent to creating a compact device lie within the structure of MRT, which uses parallel arrays of ultra high-dose, orthovoltage, microplanar beams on the order of 100mum thick and separated by four to ten times their width. Because of focal spot limitations, current commercial orthovoltage devices are simply not capable of creating such arrays at dose rates high enough for effective treatment while maintaining the microbeam pattern necessary to retain the high therapeutic ratio of the technique. Therefore, the development of a compact MRT device using carbon nanotube (CNT) cathode based X-ray technology is presented here. CNT cathodes have been shown to be capable of creating novel focal spot arrays on a single anode while being robust enough for long-term use in X-ray tubes. Using these cathodes, an X-ray tube with a single focal line has been created for the delivery of MRT dose distributions in radiobiological studies on small animals. In this work, the development process and final design of this specialized device will be detailed, along with the optimization and stabilization of its use for small animal studies. In addition, a detailed characterization of its final capabilities will be given; including a comprehensive measurement of its X-ray focal line dimensions, a description and evaluation of its collimator alignment and microbeam dimensions, and a full-scale phantom-based quantification of its dosimetric

  1. Secondary Breast Cancer Risk by Radiation Volume in Women With Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Jessica L.; Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia; Connors, Joseph M.

    Purpose: To determine whether the risk of secondary breast cancer (SBC) is reduced in women with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with smaller field radiation therapy (SFRT) versus mantle field radiation therapy (MRT). Methods and Materials: We used the BC Cancer Agency (BCCA) Lymphoid Cancer Database to identify female patients treated for HL between January 1961 and December 2009. Radiation therapy volumes were categorized as MRT or SFRT, which included involved field, involved site, or involved nodal radiation therapy. SBC risk estimates were compared using competing risk analysis and Fine and Gray multivariable model: MRT ± chemotherapy, SFRT ± chemotherapy, or chemotherapy-only. Results: Of 734 eligible patients,more » 75% of the living patients have been followed up for more than 10 years, SBC has developed in 54, and 15 have died of breast cancer. The 20-year estimated risks (competing risk cumulative incidence) for SBC differed significantly: MRT 7.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4%-11.5%), SFRT 3.1% (95% CI 1.0%-7.7%), and chemotherapy-only 2.2% (95% CI 1.0%-4.8%) (P=.01). Using a Fine and Gray model to control for death and patients lost to follow-up, MRT was associated with a higher risk of SBC (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.9; 95% CI 1.4%-6.0%; P=.004) compared with chemotherapy-only and with SFRT (HR = 3.3; 95% CI 1.3%-8.4%; P=.01). SFRT was not associated with a greater risk of SBC compared with chemotherapy-only (HR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.28%-2.66%; P=.80). Conclusion: This study confirms that large-volume MRT is associated with a markedly increased risk of SBC; however, more modern small-volume RT is not associated with a greater risk of SBC than chemotherapy alone.« less

  2. Verknüpfung von DQ-Indikatoren mit KPIs und Auswirkungen auf das Return on Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frank

    Häufig ist nicht klar, welche Beziehungen zwischen Datenqualitätsindikatoren (DQI, Definition folgt weiter unten) und Key Performance Indicators (KPI, s. Abschnitt 1.3 für weitere Details) eines Unternehmens oder einer Organisation bestehen. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb von Bedeutung, da die Kenntnis dieser Beziehungen maßgeblich die Ausprägung eines Datenqualitätsprojekts beeinflusst. Sie ist als Entscheidungsgrundlage unabdingbar und gibt Antworten auf folgende Fragen: Was kostet unserem Unternehmen/unserer Organisation1 schlechte Datenqualität? Können wir uns das leisten?

  3. Strukturen und Geschäftsmodelle eines neuen Energiemarkts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildebrath, Bernhard

    Die Energiewende fördert nicht nur technologische, sondern auch organisatorische und kommerzielle Innovationen. Die Strukturen und Geschäftsmodelle eines neuen Energiemarktes entwickeln sich bereits. Im Spagat zwischen Versuch und Irrtum werden sie völlig neue Lösungen für eine altbekannte Forderung schaffen: Strom soll preiswert, sicher und umweltverträglich sein. Der nachstehende Artikel präsentiert dafür - teils zugespitzte - Überlegungen zu den Strukturen und Geschäftsmodellen eines neuen Energiemarkts.

  4. Analytische Geometrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemnitz, Arnfried

    Der Grundgedanke der Analytischen Geometrie besteht darin, dass geometrische Untersuchungen mit rechnerischen Mitteln geführt werden. Geometrische Objekte werden dabei durch Gleichungen beschrieben und mit algebraischen Methoden untersucht. Behandelt werden folgende Themen: Koordinatensysteme: Kartesisches Koordinatensystem der Ebene und des Raumes, Polarkoordinatensystem der Ebene, Zusammenhang zwischen kartesischen und Polarkoordinaten; Geraden: Geradengleichungen, Abstände von Geraden; Kreise: Kreisgleichungen, Kreisberechnungen; Kugeln; Kegelschnitte; Ellipsen; Hyperbeln; Parabeln; Anwendungen von Kegelschnitten aus Technik und Mathematik; Vektoren: Definitionen, Addition, Multiplikation, Komponentendarstellung in der Ebene und im Raum, Skalarprodukt, Vektorprodukt. Zu den einzelnen Themenkreisen sind Beispiele aufgeführt. Wichtige Regeln und Gesetze sind durch Umrandung besonders kenntlich gemacht.

  5. Der Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Organisation eines Unternehmens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Wolfram M.

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet mit großen Schritten voran. Dies wirkt sich nicht nur auf die Gesellschaft im Grundsatz, sondern auch auf das Verhalten der Kunden aus. Neue Kommunikationswege beschleunigen die Interaktion zwischen Unternehmen und Verbraucher. Im Vergleich mit großen Internetfirmen werden etablierte Dienstleistungsunternehmen - vom Energieversorger bis zu Versicherungen - stark unter Druck gesetzt, sich noch intensiver mit dem Kundenservice auseinanderzusetzen. Dies wird nur möglich sein, wenn sich die Organisationen entsprechend positionieren und sich frühzeitig auf die Veränderungen einstellen. Hieraus ergeben sich mehr Chancen als Risiken, zumal es nicht nur neue Prozesse, sondern auch neue Berufsbilder geben wird.

  6. Grundlagen der Nachrichtenübertragung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Die Nachrichtentechnik hat die Aufgabe, Nachrichten auszutauschen. Nachrichten sind z. B. Fragen, Beobachtungen und Befehle. Unter dem Begriff Nachrichtenübertragung wird hier die elektrische Nachrichtenübertragung verstanden, denn zur Übermittlung von Nachrichten werden Spannungen und Ströme sowie elektrische und magnetische Felder eingesetzt. Die Übertragung beginnt mit der Nachrichtenquelle, die die Nachrichten aussendet, und endet mit der Nachrichtensenke, die sie empfängt. Zwischen beiden liegt das elektrische Nachrichtenübertragungssystem, dessen Funktionseinheiten dargestellt sind und erläutert werden.

  7. „Überholen ohne einzuholen“ Die Entwicklung von Technologien für übermorgen in Kernenergie und Mikroelektronik der DDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkleit, Gerhard

    Dem nuklearen Patt zwischen Ostblock und westlichem Staatenbündnis ist es nach weitgehend übereinstimmender Auffassung von Politik und Wissenschaft zu danken, dass der "Kalte Krieg" in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts nicht zum weltumfassenden Flächenbrand eskalierte. An der raschen Herstellung dieses Patts waren zwei Dresdner Physiker maßgeblich beteiligt, deren einer im Manhattan-Projekt in den USA gearbeitet hatte und später in England der Spionage für die Sowjetunion und des Verrats des Know-how der Atombombe überführt wurde.

  8. Threshold groundwater ages and young water fractions estimated from 3H, 3He, and 14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, James; Jasechko, Scott

    2016-04-01

    It is widely recognized that a water sample taken from a running stream is not described by a single age, but rather by a distribution of ages. It is less widely recognized that the same principle holds true for groundwaters, as indicated by the commonly observed discordances between model ages obtained from different tracers (e.g., 3H vs 14C) in the same sample. Water age distributions are often characterized by their mean residence times (MRT's). However, MRT estimates are highly uncertain because they depend on the shape of the assumed residence time distribution (in particular on the thickness of the long-time tail), which is difficult or impossible to constrain with data. Furthermore, because MRT's are typically nonlinear functions of age tracer concentrations, they are subject to aggregation bias. That is, MRT estimates derived from a mixture of waters with different ages (and thus different tracer concentrations) will systematically underestimate the mixture's true mean age. Here, building on recent work with stable isotope tracers in surface waters [1-3], we present a new framework for using 3H, 3He and 14C to characterize groundwater age distributions. Rather than describing groundwater age distributions by their MRT, we characterize them by the fraction of the distribution that is younger or older than a threshold age. The threshold age that separates "young" from "old" water depends on the characteristics of the specific tracer, including its history of atmospheric inputs. Our approach depends only on whether a given slice of the age distribution is younger or older than the threshold age, but not on how much younger or older it is. Thus our approach is insensitive to the tails of the age distribution, and is therefore relatively unaffected by uncertainty in the distribution's shape. Here we show that concentrations of 3H, 3He, and 14C are almost linearly related to the fractions of water that are younger or older than specified threshold ages. These

  9. Sugars in soil: Review of sources, contents, fate and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Sugars are the most abundant organic compounds in the biosphere because they are monomers of all polysaccharides. We summarized the results of the last 40 years on sources, content and fate of sugars in soil and discussed their main functions in soil. We especially focused on uptake and utilization of sugars by microorganisms as this is by far the dominating process of sugars transformation in soil. Two databases have been created and analyzed. The 1st database was focused on the contents of cellulose, non-cellulose, hot water and cold water extractable sugars in soils (348 data from 32 studies). This database was also used to determine the primary (plant derived) and secondary (microbially and soil organic matter (SOM) derived) sources of carbohydrates in soil. The galactose+mannose/arabinose+xylose (GM/AX) ratio was calculated to analyze the origin of sugars in soil. The 2nd database was focused on the fate of sugar C in soil (734 data pairs from 32 studies), and only the papers used 13C or 14C labelled sugars were included. All data to the fate were analyzed and presented in dynamics. This allowed to calculate: 1) maximal rate of glucose-C decomposition, 2) mean residence time (MRT) of C of the initially applied sugars, 3) MRT of glucose-C incorporated into microbial biomass (MB) and SOM pools. Content of hexoses was 3-4 times higher than that of pentoses for both cellulose and non-cellulose sugars, because hexoses have two sources in soil: plants and microorganisms. The GM/AX ratio revealed higher contribution of hexoses in forest (ratio was 1.5) than in cropland and grassland soils (ratio was 0.7-1), reflecting high input of hexoses with forest litter. The MRT of sugars in soil solution was much less than 30 minutes. Based on the experiments with 13C or 14C labelled glucose, the maximal rate of glucose C decomposition in microbial biomass was ˜ 1min-1. Considering this rate, the glucose input from plants and content of sugar C in soil, we estimated that only

  10. Experiences with Testing the Largest Ground System NASA Has Ever Built

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehtonen, Ken; Messerly, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In the 1980s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) embarked upon a major Earth-focused program called Mission to Planet Earth. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was selected to manage and develop a key component - the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS consisted of four major missions designed to monitor the Earth. The missions included 4 spacecraft. Terra (launched December 1999), Aqua (launched May 2002), ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite, launched January 2003), and Aura (scheduled for launch January 2004). The purpose of these missions was to provide support for NASA s long-term research effort for determining how human-induced and natural changes affect our global environment. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a globally distributed, large-scale scientific system, was built to support EOS. Its primary function is to capture, collect, process, and distribute the most voluminous set of remotely sensed scientific data to date estimated to be 350 Gbytes per day. The EOSDIS is composed of a diverse set of elements with functional capabilities that require the implementation of a complex set of computers, high-speed networks, mission-unique equipment, and associated Information Technology (IT) software along with mission-specific software. All missions are constrained by schedule, budget, and staffing resources, and rigorous testing has been shown to be critical to the success of each mission. This paper addresses the challenges associated with the planning, test definition. resource scheduling, execution, and discrepancy reporting involved in the mission readiness testing of a ground system on the scale of EOSDIS. The size and complexity of the mission systems supporting the Aqua flight operations, for example, combined with the limited resources available, prompted the project to challenge the prevailing testing culture. The resulting success of the Aqua Mission Readiness Testing (MRT) program was due in no

  11. Thermal comfort of pedestrians in an urban street canyon is affected by increasing albedo of building walls.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunjung; Mayer, Helmut

    2018-03-12

    Numerical simulations based on the ENVI-met model were carried out for an E-W street canyon in the city of Stuttgart (Southwest Germany) to analyse the effect of increased albedo of building walls on outdoor human thermal comfort. It was quantified by air temperature (T a ), mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The simulations were conducted on 4 August 2003 as a heat wave day that represents a typical scenario for future summer weather in Central Europe. The simulation results presented for 13 CET and averaged over the period 10-16 CET are focused on pedestrians on both sidewalks. For the initial situation, i.e. albedo of 0.2, human heat stress indicated by mean PET is by 26% lower on the N-facing than on the S-facing sidewalk, while this reduction amounts to 42% for mean T mrt . Mean T a does not show any spatial differentiation. The systematic albedo increment by 0.2 from 0.2 to 0.8 leads to a linear increase of outdoor human heat stress in terms of T mrt and PET. For both variables, this increase is more pronounced on the N-facing than on the S-facing sidewalk. Mean relative T a shows the tendency of a minimal increase with rising albedo. The results were achieved for the usual standardised human-biometeorological reference person. Its substitution by two other types of male and female pedestrians, respectively, which are statistically characteristic of human conditions in Germany, does not reveal any significant change in the results.

  12. Synchrotron X-ray microbeam dosimetry with a 20 micrometre resolution scintillator fibre-optic dosimeter.

    PubMed

    Archer, James; Li, Enbang; Petasecca, Marco; Stevenson, Andrew; Livingstone, Jayde; Dipuglia, Andrew; Davis, Jeremy; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Lerch, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. External beam radiation therapy is one of the most important modalities for the treatment of cancers. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a novel pre-clinical therapy that uses highly spatially fractionated X-ray beams to target tumours, allowing doses much higher than conventional radiotherapies to be delivered. A dosimeter with a high spatial resolution is required to provide the appropriate quality assurance for MRT. This work presents a plastic scintillator fibre optic dosimeter with a one-dimensional spatial resolution of 20 µm, an improvement on the dosimeter with a resolution of 50 µm that was demonstrated in previous work. The ability of this probe to resolve microbeams of width 50 µm has been demonstrated. The major limitations of this method were identified, most notably the low-light signal resulting from the small sensitive volume, which made valley dose measurements very challenging. A titanium-based reflective paint was used as a coating on the probe to improve the light collection, but a possible effect of the high-Z material on the probes water-equivalence has been identified. The effect of the reflective paint was a 28.5 ± 4.6% increase in the total light collected; it did not affect the shape of the depth-dose profile, nor did it explain an over-response observed when used to probe at low depths, when compared with an ionization chamber. With improvements to the data acquisition, this probe design has the potential to provide a water-equivalent, inexpensive dosimetry tool for MRT.

  13. [Effects of sanguisorba tannins and saponins compatibility on pharmacokinetic parameters of catechin, epicatechin and ziyuglycoside Ⅰ in rats].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yong-Ai; Yang, Ming

    2016-10-01

    To study the effects of sanguisorba tannins and saponins compatibility at different proportions [tannins-saponins (1∶1) and tannins-saponins(8∶1)] after intragastric administration (50 mg•kg⁻¹) on pharmacokinetic parameters of catechin, epicatechin and ziyuglycoside Ⅰ in rats by using pharmacokinetic techniques and methods. Kinetica 5.0 software was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters. The results showed that the specificity, linearity, recovery rate, precision and stability of the established detection method were in line with the test requirements. When the sanguisorba tannins and eaponins were combined at the rate of 1∶1, Vd and CL of catechin and epicatechin were increased significantly(P<0.05); MRT was significantly shortened(P<0.05); Cmax and AUC were significantly reduced(P<0.05). When the sanguisorba tannins and saponins were combined at the rate of 8∶1, Vd and CL of catechin and epicatechin were significantly reduced(P<0.05); MRT was significantly prolonged(P<0.05); Cmax and AUC were increased significantly(P<0.05). In addition, with the increase in proportion of sanguisorba tannins in the compatibility, Cmax and AUC of ziyuglycoside Ⅰ were increased significantly(P<0.05); Vd and CL were significantly reduced(P<0.05), Tmax was obviously lagging behind, and MRT was also significantly prolonged(P<0.05). In our present study, catechin, epicatechin and ziyuglycoside Ⅰ showed good pharmacokinetic behavior in rats when sanguisorba tannins and saponins were combined at the rate of 8∶1 in compatibility, which could be used as a reference for the proportion in sanguisorba tannins and saponins compatibility. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Characterization and quantification of cerebral edema induced by synchrotron x-ray microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serduc, Raphaël; van de Looij, Yohan; Francony, Gilles; Verdonck, Olivier; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Laissue, Jean; Farion, Régine; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Siegbahn, Erik Albert; Bravin, Alberto; Prezado, Yolanda; Segebarth, Christoph; Rémy, Chantal; Lahrech, Hana

    2008-03-01

    Cerebral edema is one of the main acute complications arising after irradiation of brain tumors. Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), an innovative experimental radiotherapy technique using spatially fractionated synchrotron x-rays, has been shown to spare radiosensitive tissues such as mammal brains. The aim of this study was to determine if cerebral edema occurs after MRT using diffusion-weighted MRI and microgravimetry. Prone Swiss nude mice's heads were positioned horizontally in the synchrotron x-ray beam and the upper part of the left hemisphere was irradiated in the antero-posterior direction by an array of 18 planar microbeams (25 mm wide, on-center spacing 211 mm, height 4 mm, entrance dose 312 Gy or 1000 Gy). An apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured at 7 T 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after irradiation. Eventually, the cerebral water content (CWC) was determined by microgravimetry. The ADC and CWC in the irradiated (312 Gy or 1000 Gy) and in the contralateral non-irradiated hemispheres were not significantly different at all measurement times, with two exceptions: (1) a 9% ADC decrease (p < 0.05) was observed in the irradiated cortex 1 day after exposure to 312 Gy, (2) a 0.7% increase (p < 0.05) in the CWC was measured in the irradiated hemispheres 1 day after exposure to 1000 Gy. The results demonstrate the presence of a minor and transient cellular edema (ADC decrease) at 1 day after a 312 Gy exposure, without a significant CWC increase. One day after a 1000 Gy exposure, the CWC increased, while the ADC remained unchanged and may reflect the simultaneous presence of cellular and vasogenic edema. Both types of edema disappear within a week after microbeam exposure which may confirm the normal tissue sparing effect of MRT. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org

  15. Thiolated quaternary ammonium-chitosan conjugates for enhanced precorneal retention, transcorneal permeation and intraocular absorption of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Zambito, Ylenia; Di Colo, Giacomo

    2010-06-01

    Previously, a quaternary ammonium (N(+))-chitosan (Ch) conjugate (N(+)(60)-Ch) characterized by short pendant chains, made of 1.7+/-0.1 adjacent diethyl-dimethylene-ammonium groups, substituted onto the primary amino group of the chitosan repeating units (degree of substitution, 59.2+/-4.5%) was used to synthesize a multifunctional non-cytotoxic thiomer (N(+)(60)-Ch-SH(5)), carrying 4.5+/-0.7% thiol-bearing 3-mercaptopropionamide besides quaternary ammonium groups. The present work was aimed at evaluating the potential of N(+)(60)-Ch-SH(5) and N(+)(60)-Ch as bioactive excipients for dexamethasone (DMS) eyedrops. The DMS permeability across excised rabbit cornea was enhanced over the control value by the thiomer and the parent polymer to about the same extent (3.8 vs. 4.1 times). The mean precorneal retention time and AUC in the aqueous of DMS instilled in rabbit eyes via eyedrops were enhanced by the thiomer (MRT=77.96+/-3.57 min, AUC=33.19+/-6.96 microg ml(-1) min) more than the parent polymer (MRT=65.74+/-4.91 min, AUC=21.48+/-3.81 microg ml(-1) min) over the control (MRT=5.07+/-0.25 min, AUC=6.25+/-0.65 microg ml(-1) min). The quaternary ammonium ions were responsible for both permeabilization of corneal epithelium and polymer adhesion to precorneal mucus, while the thiols increased the latter. This synergistic action is the basis of the higher thiomer bioactivity in vivo. A good ocular tolerability of the chitosan derivatives resulted from in vivo experiments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple Realities and Hybrid Objects: A Creative Approach of Schizophrenic Delusion

    PubMed Central

    Cermolacce, Michel; Despax, Katherine; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Naudin, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Delusion is usually considered in DSM 5 as a false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality, but the issue of delusion raises crucial concerns, especially that of a possible (or absent) continuity between delusional and normal experiences, and the understanding of delusional experience. In the present study, we first aim to consider delusion from a perspectivist angle, according to the Multiple Reality Theory (MRT). In this model inherited from Alfred Schütz and recently addressed by Gallagher, we are not confronting one reality only, but several (such as the reality of everyday life, of imaginary life, of work, of delusion, etc.). In other terms, the MRT states that our own experience is not drawing its meaning from one reality identified as the outer reality but rather from a multiplicity of realities, each with their own logic and style. Two clinical cases illustrate how the Multiple Realities Theory (MRT) may help address the reality of delusion. Everyday reality and the reality of delusion may be articulated under a few conditions, such as compossibility [i.e., Double Book-Keeping (DBK), in Bleulerian terms] or flexibility. There are indeed possible bridges between them. Possible links with neuroscience or psychoanalysis are evoked. As the subject is confronting different realities, so do the objects among and toward which a subject is evolving. We call such objects Hybrid Objects (HO) due to their multiple belonging. They can operate as shifters, i.e., as some functional operators letting one switch from one reality to another. In the final section, we will emphasize how delusion flexibility, as a dynamic interaction between Multiple Realities, may offer psychotherapeutic possibilities within some reality shared with others, entailing relocation of the present subjects in regained access to some flexibility via Multiple Realities and perspectivism. PMID:29487553

  17. Real-time process monitoring in a semi-continuous fluid-bed dryer - microwave resonance technology versus near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Peters, Johanna; Teske, Andreas; Taute, Wolfgang; Döscher, Claas; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2018-02-15

    The trend towards continuous manufacturing in the pharmaceutical industry is associated with an increasing demand for advanced control strategies. It is a mandatory requirement to obtain reliable real-time information on critical quality attributes (CQA) during every process step as the decision on diversion of material needs to be performed fast and automatically. Where possible, production equipment should provide redundant systems for in-process control (IPC) measurements to ensure continuous process monitoring even if one of the systems is not available. In this paper, two methods for real-time monitoring of granule moisture in a semi-continuous fluid-bed drying unit are compared. While near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has already proven to be a suitable process analytical technology (PAT) tool for moisture measurements in fluid-bed applications, microwave resonance technology (MRT) showed difficulties to monitor moistures above 8% until recently. The results indicate, that the newly developed MRT sensor operating at four resonances is capable to compete with NIR spectroscopy. While NIR spectra were preprocessed by mean centering and first derivative before application of partial least squares (PLS) regression to build predictive models (RMSEP = 0.20%), microwave moisture values of two resonances sufficed to build a statistically close multiple linear regression (MLR) model (RMSEP = 0.07%) for moisture prediction. Thereby, it could be verified that moisture monitoring by MRT sensor systems could be a valuable alternative to NIR spectroscopy or could be used as a redundant system providing great ease of application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quorum-dependent transfer of the opine-catabolic plasmid pAoF64/95 is regulated by a novel mechanism involving inhibition of the TraR antiactivator TraM.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Margaret E; Asenstorfer, Robert E; Tate, Max E; Farrand, Stephen K

    2018-04-10

    We previously described a plasmid of Agrobacterium spp., pAoF64/95, in which the quorum-sensing system that controls conjugative transfer is induced by the opine mannopine. We also showed that the quorum-sensing regulators TraR, TraM, and TraI function similarly to their counterparts in other repABC plasmids. However, traR, unlike its counterpart on Ti plasmids, is monocistronic and not located in an operon that is inducible by the conjugative opine. Here, we report that both traR and traM are expressed constitutively and not regulated by growth with mannopine. We report two additional regulatory genes, mrtR and tmsP, that are involved in a novel mechanism of control of TraR activity. Both genes are located in the distantly linked region of pAoF64/95 encoding mannopine utilization. MrtR, in the absence of mannopine, represses the four-gene mocC operon as well as tmsP, which is the distal gene of the eight-gene motA operon. As judged by a bacterial two-hybrid analysis, TmsP, which shows amino acid sequence relatedness with the TraM-binding domain of TraR, interacts with the antiactivator. We propose a model in which mannopine, acting through the repressor MrtR, induces expression of TmsP which then titrates the levels of TraM thereby freeing TraR to activate the tra regulon. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years.

    PubMed

    Kayihan, Gürhan; Özkan, Ali; Köklü, Yusuf; Eyuboğlu, Ender; Akça, Firat; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT) using different formulae. Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST). VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993), Cureton et al. (1995) and Kline et al. (1987) for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982) for the 20-MST. The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000). The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p < 0.001), 0.486 (p < 0.001) and 0.608 (p < 0.001), respectively. The highest correlation coefficient was between the VO2max estimated by the 20-MST and Cureton's equation. Similarly, the highest correlation coefficient (r = -0.779) was between the 1-mile run time and the VO2max estimated by Cureton's equation. When analysing more vigorous exercise than sub-maximal exercise, we suggest that Cureton's equation be used to predict the VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in large numbers of healthy individuals with high VO2max. This research compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  20. Two-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Method for Advective-Diffusive-Reactive Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z.; Hilpert, M.

    2016-12-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been applied to study a wide range of reactive transport in porous and fractured media. The single-relaxation-time (SRT) LBM, employing single relaxation time, is the most popular LBM due to its simplicity of understanding and implementation. Nevertheless, the SRT LBM may suffer from numerical instability for small value of the relaxation time. By contrast, the multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) LBM, employing multiple relaxation times, can improve the numerical stability through tuning the multiple relaxation times, but the complexity of implementing this method restricts its applications. The two-relaxation-time (TRT) LBM, which employs two relaxation times, combines the advantages of SRT and MRT LBMs. The TRT LBM can produce simulations with better accuracy and stability than the SRT one, and is easier to implement than the MRT one. This work evaluated the numerical accuracy and stability of the TRT method by comparing the simulation results with analytical solutions of Gaussian hill transport and Taylor dispersion under different advective velocities. The accuracy generally increased with the tunable relaxation time τ, and the stability first increased and then decreased as τ increased, showing an optimal TRT method emerging the best numerical stability. The free selection of τ enabled the TRT LBM to simulate the Gaussian hill transport and Taylor dispersion under relatively high advective velocity, under which the SRT LBM suffered from numerical instability. Finally, the TRT method was applied to study the contaminant degradation by chemotactic microorganisms in porous media, which acted as a reprehensive of reactive transport in this study, and well predicted the evolution of microorganisms and degradation of contaminants for different transport scenarios. To sum up, the TRT LBM produced simulation results with good accuracy and stability for various advective-diffusive-reactive transport through tuning the relaxation

  1. Predicting invertebrate assemblage composition from harvesting pressure and environmental characteristics on tropical reef flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, H.; Dumas, P.; Ponton, D.; Ferraris, J.

    2012-03-01

    Invertebrates represent an essential component of coral reef ecosystems; they are ecologically important and a major resource, but their assemblages remain largely unknown, particularly on Pacific islands. Understanding their distribution and building predictive models of community composition as a function of environmental variables therefore constitutes a key issue for resource management. The goal of this study was to define and classify the main environmental factors influencing tropical invertebrate distributions in New Caledonian reef flats and to test the resulting predictive model. Invertebrate assemblages were sampled by visual counting during 2 years and 2 seasons, then coupled to different environmental conditions (habitat composition, hydrodynamics and sediment characteristics) and harvesting status (MPA vs. non-MPA and islets vs. coastal flats). Environmental conditions were described by a principal component analysis (PCA), and contributing variables were selected. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) was used to test the effects of different factors (status, flat, year and season) on the invertebrate assemblage composition. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were then used to hierarchically classify the effects of environmental and harvesting variables. MRT model explained at least 60% of the variation in structure of invertebrate communities. Results highlighted the influence of status (MPA vs. non-MPA) and location (islet vs. coastal flat), followed by habitat composition, organic matter content, hydrodynamics and sampling year. Predicted assemblages defined by indicator families were very different for each environment-exploitation scenario and correctly matched a calibration data matrix. Predictions from MRT including both environmental variables and harvesting pressure can be useful for management of invertebrates in coral reef environments.

  2. Interactive effects of sex hormones and gender stereotypes on cognitive sex differences--a psychobiosocial approach.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Markus; Schoofs, Daniela; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Jordan, Kirsten

    2009-04-01

    Biological and social factors have been shown to affect cognitive sex differences. For example, several studies have found that sex hormones have activating effects on sex-sensitive tasks. On the other hand, it has been shown that gender stereotypes can influence the cognitive performance of (gender-) stereotyped individuals. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of both factors. The present study investigated the interaction between sex hormones and gender stereotypes within a psychobiosocial approach. One hundred and fourteen participants (59 women) performed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tasks, including mental rotation, verbal fluency, and perceptual speed. Saliva samples were taken immediately after cognitive testing. Levels of testosterone (T) were analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay (LIA). To activate gender stereotypes, a questionnaire was applied to the experimental group that referred to the cognitive tasks used. The control group received an identical questionnaire but with a gender-neutral content. As expected, significant sex differences favouring males and females appeared for mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks, respectively. The results revealed no sex difference in perceptual speed. The male superiority in the Revised Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Tests (MRT-3D) was mainly driven by the stereotype-active group. No significant sex difference in MRT-3D appeared in the control group. The MRT-3D was also the task in which a strong gender-stereotype favouring males was present for both males and females. Interestingly, T levels of the stereotype-activated group were 60% higher than that of male controls. The results suggest that sex hormones mediate the effects of gender stereotypes on specific cognitive abilities.

  3. Pharmacokinetics study of ferulic acid in rats after oral administration of γ-oryzanol under combined use of Tween 80 by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y; Cai, L; He, S; Zhang, Z

    2014-01-01

    γ-oryzanol (OZ) is a rich source of commercially-important bioactive phytochemicals, most of them of interest in nutrition, pharmacy and cosmetics. However, the poor solubility of OZ limited the use. In the paper, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) analysis was conducted to analysis the solubilization of OZ under combined use of Tween 80 in vitro. In addition, to further confirm the solubilizing effect of Tween 80, a pharmacokinetic study of ferulic acid (FA) in rats after oral administration of OZ 100 mg/kg under combined use of Tween 80 though LCMS/MS was carried out. Solubility enhancement as high as 100-fold is achieved using 1% Tween 80 in vitro. Following oral administration of OZ-Tween 80 100 mg/kg, the values of Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-∞, T1/2Ka and MRT0-∞ were 46.667 ± 39.328, 129.498 ± 27.025, 63738.28 ± 599, 14.274 ± 7.309 and 859.592 ± 108.780 respectively. The values of T1/2Ka, AUC0-∞, MRT0-t, and Tmax showed up to increase 16%, 58%, 44% and 47% while Cmax and CL/F decreased 22% and 12%, respectively. The decreased Cmax value indicated that Tween 80 can hardly enhance the absorption of FA in rats. However, T1/2Ka and Tmax values showed that the absorption of FA was extended, which resulted the increased values of AUC0-∞ and MRT0-∞. Our results reveal that Tween 80 improves solubility of OZ in vitro and could enhance the bioavailability of OZ by extending its absorption and elimination.

  4. [Analysis of actions taken by medical rescue teams in the Polish Emergency Medical Servies system. Is the model of division into specialistad basic teams reasonable?].

    PubMed

    Guła, Przemysław; Wejnarski, Arkadiusz; Moryto, Remigiusz; Gałazkowski, Robert; Swiezewski, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    The Polish Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system is based on two types of medical rescue teams (MRT): specialist (S)--with system doctors and basic (B)--only paramedics. The aim of this study is to assess the reasonability of dividing medical rescue teams into specialist and basic. The retrospective analysis of medical cards of rescue activities performed during 21,896 interventions by medical rescue teams, 15,877 of which--by basic medical rescue teams (B MRT) and 6,019--by specialist medical rescue teams (S MRT). The procedures executed by both types of teams were compared. In the analysed group of dispatches, 56.4% were unrelated to medical emergencies. Simultaneously, 52.7% of code 1 interventions and 59.2% of code 2 interventions did not result in transporting the patient to the hospital. The qualification of S teams' dispatches is characterised by a higher number of assigned codes 1 (53.2% vs. 15.9%). It is worth emphasising that the procedures that can be applied exclusively by system doctors do not exceed 1% of interventions. Moreover, the number of the actions performed in medical emergencies in the secured region by the S team that is dispatched as the first one is comparable to that performed by B teams. The low need for usinq S teams'aid by B teams (0.92% of the interventions) was also indicated. This study points to the necessity to discuss the implementation of straightforward principles of call qualification and the optimisation of the system doctors' role in prehospital activities.

  5. Effects of season and nitrogen supply on the partitioning of recently fixed carbon in understory vegetation using a 13CO2 pulse labeling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasselquist, Niles; Metcalfe, Daniel; Högberg, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation research in boreal forests has traditionally been focused on trees, with little attention given to understory vegetation. However, understory vegetation has been identified as a key driver for the functioning of boreal forests and may play an important role in the amount of carbon (C) that is entering and leaving these forested ecosystems. We conducted a large-scale 13C pulse labeling experiment to better understand how recently fixed C is allocated in the understory vegetation characteristic of boreal forests. We used transparent plastic chambers to pulse label the understory vegetation with enriched 13CO2 in the early (June) and late (August) growing seasons. This study was also replicated across a nitrogen (N) fertilization treatment to better understand the effects of N availability on C allocation patterns. We present data on the amount of 13C label found in different components of the understory vegetation (i.e. leaves, stems, lichens, mosses, rhizomes and fine roots) as well as CO2 efflux. Additionally, we provide estimates of C residence time (MRT) among the different components and examine how MRT of C is affected by seasonality and N availability. Seasonality had a large effect on how recently fixed C is allocated in understory vegetation, whereas N fertilization influenced the MRT of C in the different components of ericaceous vegetation. Moreover, there was a general trend that N additions increased the amount of 13C in CO2 efflux compared to the amount of 13C in biomass, suggesting that N fertilization may lead to an increase in the utilization of recently fixed C, whereas N-limitation promotes the storage of recently fixed C.

  6. Thermal comfort of pedestrians in an urban street canyon is affected by increasing albedo of building walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunjung; Mayer, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    Numerical simulations based on the ENVI-met model were carried out for an E-W street canyon in the city of Stuttgart (Southwest Germany) to analyse the effect of increased albedo of building walls on outdoor human thermal comfort. It was quantified by air temperature (T a ), mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The simulations were conducted on 4 August 2003 as a heat wave day that represents a typical scenario for future summer weather in Central Europe. The simulation results presented for 13 CET and averaged over the period 10-16 CET are focused on pedestrians on both sidewalks. For the initial situation, i.e. albedo of 0.2, human heat stress indicated by mean PET is by 26% lower on the N-facing than on the S-facing sidewalk, while this reduction amounts to 42% for mean T mrt . Mean T a does not show any spatial differentiation. The systematic albedo increment by 0.2 from 0.2 to 0.8 leads to a linear increase of outdoor human heat stress in terms of T mrt and PET. For both variables, this increase is more pronounced on the N-facing than on the S-facing sidewalk. Mean relative T a shows the tendency of a minimal increase with rising albedo. The results were achieved for the usual standardised human-biometeorological reference person. Its substitution by two other types of male and female pedestrians, respectively, which are statistically characteristic of human conditions in Germany, does not reveal any significant change in the results.

  7. How does dietary particle size affect carnivore gastrointestinal transit: A dog model.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, A; Hesta, M; Tibosch, S; Wanke, C; Clauss, M; Janssens, G P J

    2018-04-01

    The effect of dietary particle size on gastrointestinal transit in carnivores has not been studied and might offer more insight into their digestive physiology. This study evaluated the effect of two dietary particle sizes (fine = 7.8 mm vs. coarse = 13 mm) of chunked day-old chicks on transit parameters in dogs. Six beagle dogs were fed both dietary treatments in a crossover design of 7 days with transit testing on the fifth day. Transit parameters were assessed using two markers, that is a wireless motility capsule (IntelliCap ® ) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ). Dietary particle size did not affect gastric emptying time (GRT), small bowel transit time (SBTT), colonic transit time (CTT) and total transit time (aTTT) of the capsule (p > .05). There was no effect of dietary particle size on TiO 2 mean retention time (MRT) (p > .05). The time of last TiO 2 excretion (MaxRT) differed (p = .013) between diets, being later for the coarse diet. Both MRT (R = 0.617, p = .032) and MaxRT (R = 0.814; p = .001) were positively correlated to aTTT. The ratio MRT/aTTT tended towards a difference between diets (p = .059) with the coarse diet exceeding fine diet values. Results show that the difference between capsule measurements and TiO 2 is larger for the fine than the coarse diet suggesting that the capsule becomes more accurate when dietary particle size approaches marker size. Dietary particle size might have affected transit parameters but differences are too small to claim major physiological consequences. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Factors related to child maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Liao, Junlin; Heard, Jason; Kealey, Lyn; Kealey, Gerald; Oral, Resmiye

    2014-01-01

    The underpinnings of maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries are necessary to discern as detection and prevention rest on a clear delineation of factors associated with maltreatment. Inaccurate identification of child victims can result in perpetuation of the maltreatment and its attendant neuropsychological sequela. The authors sought to determine factors associated with maltreatment in children presenting with burn injuries, which would guide the burn team in assessing the likelihood of maltreatment. All consenting children admitted with burn injuries were surveyed regarding their injury mechanism and current sociodemographic status. Suspicious injuries were referred by the burn team to the multidisciplinary review team (MRT). The MRT reported injuries with signs of physical abuse, supervision neglect, neglect of other basic needs, or sexual abuse. These children constituted the cases in our study. Variables related to maltreatment were entered into stepwise logistic regression to identify independent predicting variables. P< .05 was considered significant. MRT identified 16 children (24%) admitted with burn injuries with suspicions of maltreatment. Risk factors related to suspicions of maltreatment included: young age, large burns, tap water injury, immersion lines, delay in care, absence of a two-parent family (unconventional family structure), young parents, inconsistent history, and injury pattern. In this single-center prospective study, the authors identified several factors that, when present in injuries with initial suspicion of maltreatment, should trigger a child maltreatment workup. Burn clinicians have an important role as advocates for children and their families. It is important to continue to further the knowledge of maltreatment detection and prevention among children presenting with burn injuries.

  9. Daytime relapse of the mean radiant temperature based on the six-directional method under unobstructed solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kántor, Noémi; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the knowledge about the capabilities of the popular "six-directional method" describing the radiation fields outdoors. In Taiwan, measurements were carried out with three orthogonally placed net radiometers to determine the mean radiant temperature (T(mrt)). The short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the six perpendicular directions were recorded in the daylight hours of 12 days. During unobstructed direct irradiation, a specific daytime relapse was found in the temporal course of the T(mrt) values referring to the reference shapes of a standing man and also of a sphere. This relapse can be related to the short-wave fluxes reaching the body from the lateral directions. Through deeper analysis, an instrumental shortcoming of the six-directional technique was discovered. The pyranometer pairs of the same net radiometer have a 10-15-min long "blind spot" when the sun beams are nearly perpendicular to them. The blind-spot period is supposed to be shorter with steeper solar azimuth curve on the daylight period. This means that the locations with lower geographical latitude, and the summertime measurements, are affected less by this instrumental problem. A methodological shortcoming of the six-directional technique was also demonstrated. Namely, the sum of the short-wave flux densities from the lateral directions is sensitive to the orientation of the radiometers, and therefore by deviating from the original directions, the T(mrt) decrease on clear sunny days will occur in different times and will be different in extent.

  10. Improved outcome of 131I-mIBG treatment through combination with external beam radiotherapy in the SK-N-SH mouse model of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Corroyer-Dulmont, Aurélien; Falzone, Nadia; Kersemans, Veerle; Thompson, James; Allen, Danny P; Able, Sarah; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Malcolm, Javian; Kinchesh, Paul; Hill, Mark A; Vojnovic, Boris; Smart, Sean C; Gaze, Mark N; Vallis, Katherine A

    2017-09-01

    To assess the efficacy of different schedules for combining external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with molecular radiotherapy (MRT) using 131 I-mIBG in the management of neuroblastoma. BALB/c nu/nu mice bearing SK-N-SH neuroblastoma xenografts were assigned to five treatment groups: 131 I-mIBG 24h after EBRT, EBRT 6days after 131 I-mIBG, EBRT alone, 131 I-mIBG alone and control (untreated). A total of 56 mice were assigned to 3 studies. Study 1: Vessel permeability was evaluated using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI (n=3). Study 2: Tumour uptake of 131 I-mIBG in excised lesions was evaluated by γ-counting and autoradiography (n=28). Study 3: Tumour volume was assessed by longitudinal MR imaging and survival was analysed (n=25). Tumour dosimetry was performed using Monte Carlo simulations of absorbed fractions with the radiation transport code PENELOPE. Given alone, both 131 I-mIBG and EBRT resulted in a seven-day delay in tumour regrowth. Following EBRT, vessel permeability was evaluated by DCE-MRI and showed an increase at 24h post irradiation that correlated with an increase in 131 I-mIBG tumour uptake, absorbed dose and overall survival in the case of combined treatment. Similarly, EBRT administered seven days after MRT to coincide with tumour regrowth, significantly decreased the tumour volume and increased overall survival. This study demonstrates that combining EBRT and MRT has an enhanced therapeutic effect and emphasizes the importance of treatment scheduling according to pathophysiological criteria such as tumour vessel permeability and tumour growth kinetics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects of liposomal hydromorphone suitable for perioperative use in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    KuKanich, Butch; Schmidt, Brynn; Heath, Timothy D.; Brown, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to evaluate the pharmacokinetic, behavioral, and motor effects of a liposomal preparation of hydromorphone hydrochloride (LE-hydro) in rhesus monkeys. We administered either 2 mg/kg of LE-hydro (n=8) subcutaneous (s.c.) or 0.1 mg/kg of standard pharmaceutical hydromorphone HCl (hydro) preparation either intravenous (i.v.; n=4) or s.c. (n=5). Materials and methods Serial blood samples were drawn after injection and analyzed for serum hydro concentration by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Following s.c. injection of 0.1 mg/kg hydro or 2 mg/kg LE-hydro, behavioral evaluations were conducted in groups of rhesus monkeys (n=10/group) in the presence of a compatible stimulus animal and motor skills were also evaluated (n=10/group). The motor skills test consisted of removing a food reward (carrot ring) from either a straight peg (simple task) or a curved peg (difficult task). Results LE-hydro (MRT0-INF = 105.9 h) demonstrated extended-release pharmacokinetics compared to hydro when administered by either i.v. (MRT0-INF =1.1 h) or s.c. (MRT0-INF =1.3 h) routes. Hydro did not affect motor performance of the simpler task, but the monkeys’ performance deteriorated on the more difficult task at 0.5 and 1 h after injection. LE-hydro had no effect on motor skills in either the simpler or more difficult task. Conclusions The results of these studies indicate that LE-hydro has a pharmacokinetic and behavioral side effects profile consistent with an analgesic that could be tested for surgical use in animals. Our studies also expand the use of rhesus monkeys as a translational behavioral pharmacodynamics model for testing extended-release opioid medication. PMID:21404039

  12. Pharmacokinetics of diclofenac and its interaction with enrofloxacin in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rahal, Anu; Kumar, Amit; Ahmad, A H; Malik, J K

    2008-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of diclofenac was investigated in sheep given diclofenac alone (1mgkg(-1), i.v. or i.m.) and in combination with enrofloxacin (5mgkg(-1), i.v.). The plasma concentration-time data following i.v. administration of diclofenac was best described by a two compartment open pharmacokinetic model. The elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)), area under concentration-time-curve (AUC), volume of distribution (Vd(area)), mean residence time (MRT) and total body clearance (Cl(B)) were 1.03+/-0.18h, 12.17+/-1.98microg h ml(-1), 0.14+/-0.02Lkg(-1), 1.36+/-0.16h and 0.10+/-0.02Lkg(-1)h(-1), respectively. Following i.m. administration of diclofenac alone and in conjunction with enrofloxacin, the plasma concentration-time data best fitted to a one compartment open model. The t(1/2beta), AUC, Vd(area), MRT and Cl(B) were 1.33+/-0.10h, 7.32+/-1.01microg h mL(-1), 0.13+/-0.01Lkg(-1) and 0.07+/-0.01Lkg(-1)h(-1), respectively. Co-administration of enrofloxacin did not affect Vd(area) and MRT but absorption rate constant (K(a)), beta, t1/2Ka, t1/2beta, AUC, AUMC, Cl(B) and bioavailability (F) were significantly increased. This may be due to direct inhibition of cytochrome P(450) isozymes by enrofloxacin. A dose of 1.4mgkg(-1) of diclofenac administered every 6h may be appropriate for use in sheep.

  13. Surgical simulation tasks challenge visual working memory and visual-spatial ability differently.

    PubMed

    Schlickum, Marcus; Hedman, Leif; Enochsson, Lars; Henningsohn, Lars; Kjellin, Ann; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2011-04-01

    New strategies for selection and training of physicians are emerging. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between visual-spatial ability and visual working memory with surgical simulator performance. The aim of this study was to perform a detailed analysis on how these abilities are associated with metrics in simulator performance with different task content. The hypothesis is that the importance of visual-spatial ability and visual working memory varies with different task contents. Twenty-five medical students participated in the study that involved testing visual-spatial ability using the MRT-A test and visual working memory using the RoboMemo computer program. Subjects were also trained and tested for performance in three different surgical simulators. The scores from the psychometric tests and the performance metrics were then correlated using multivariate analysis. MRT-A score correlated significantly with the performance metrics Efficiency of screening (p = 0.006) and Total time (p = 0.01) in the GI Mentor II task and Total score (p = 0.02) in the MIST-VR simulator task. In the Uro Mentor task, both the MRT-A score and the visual working memory 3-D cube test score as presented in the RoboMemo program (p = 0.02) correlated with Total score (p = 0.004). In this study we have shown that some differences exist regarding the impact of visual abilities and task content on simulator performance. When designing future cognitive training programs and testing regimes, one might have to consider that the design must be adjusted in accordance with the specific surgical task to be trained in mind.

  14. Fiber-optic dosimeters for radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enbang; Archer, James

    2017-10-01

    According to the figures provided by the World Health Organization, cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 8.8 million deaths in 2015. Radiation therapy, which uses x-rays to destroy or injure cancer cells, has become one of the most important modalities to treat the primary cancer or advanced cancer. The newly developed microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), which uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of x-ray microbeams (typically 50 μm wide and separated by 400 μm) produced by synchrotron sources, represents a new paradigm in radiotherapy and has shown great promise in pre-clinical studies on different animal models. Measurements of the absorbed dose distribution of microbeams are vitally important for clinical acceptance of MRT and for developing quality assurance systems for MRT, hence are a challenging and important task for radiation dosimetry. On the other hand, during the traditional LINAC based radiotherapy and breast cancer brachytherapy, skin dose measurements and treatment planning also require a high spatial resolution, tissue equivalent, on-line dosimeter that is both economical and highly reliable. Such a dosimeter currently does not exist and remains a challenge in the development of radiation dosimetry. High resolution, water equivalent, optical and passive x-ray dosimeters have been developed and constructed by using plastic scintillators and optical fibers. The dosimeters have peak edge-on spatial resolutions ranging from 50 to 500 microns in one dimension, with a 10 micron resolution dosimeter under development. The developed fiber-optic dosimeters have been test with both LINAC and synchrotron x-ray beams. This work demonstrates that water-equivalent and high spatial resolution radiation detection can be achieved with scintillators and optical fiber systems. Among other advantages, the developed fiber-optic probes are also passive, energy independent, and radiation hard.

  15. A point kernel algorithm for microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debus, Charlotte; Oelfke, Uwe; Bartzsch, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a treatment approach in radiation therapy where the treatment field is spatially fractionated into arrays of a few tens of micrometre wide planar beams of unusually high peak doses separated by low dose regions of several hundred micrometre width. In preclinical studies, this treatment approach has proven to spare normal tissue more effectively than conventional radiation therapy, while being equally efficient in tumour control. So far dose calculations in MRT, a prerequisite for future clinical applications are based on Monte Carlo simulations. However, they are computationally expensive, since scoring volumes have to be small. In this article a kernel based dose calculation algorithm is presented that splits the calculation into photon and electron mediated energy transport, and performs the calculation of peak and valley doses in typical MRT treatment fields within a few minutes. Kernels are analytically calculated depending on the energy spectrum and material composition. In various homogeneous materials peak, valley doses and microbeam profiles are calculated and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. For a microbeam exposure of an anthropomorphic head phantom calculated dose values are compared to measurements and Monte Carlo calculations. Except for regions close to material interfaces calculated peak dose values match Monte Carlo results within 4% and valley dose values within 8% deviation. No significant differences are observed between profiles calculated by the kernel algorithm and Monte Carlo simulations. Measurements in the head phantom agree within 4% in the peak and within 10% in the valley region. The presented algorithm is attached to the treatment planning platform VIRTUOS. It was and is used for dose calculations in preclinical and pet-clinical trials at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European synchrotron radiation facility in Grenoble, France.

  16. Speech intelligibility in noise using throat and acoustic microphones.

    PubMed

    Acker-Mills, Barbara E; Houtsma, Adrianus J M; Ahroon, William A

    2006-01-01

    Helicopter cockpits are very noisy and this noise must be reduced for effective communication. The standard U.S. Army aviation helmet is equipped with a noise-canceling acoustic microphone, but some ambient noise still is transmitted. Throat microphones are not sensitive to air molecule vibrations and thus, transmittal of ambient noise is reduced. It is possible that throat microphones could enhance speech communication in helicopters, but speech intelligibility with the devices must first be assessed. In the current study, speech intelligibility of signals generated by an acoustic microphone, a throat microphone, and by the combined output of the two microphones was assessed using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Stimulus words were recorded in a reverberant chamber with ambient broadband noise intensity at 90 and 106 dBA. Listeners completed the MRT task in the same settings, thus simulating the typical environment of a rotary-wing aircraft. Results show that speech intelligibility is significantly worse for the throat microphone (average percent correct = 55.97) than for the acoustic microphone (average percent correct = 69.70), particularly for the higher noise level. In addition, no benefit is gained by simultaneously using both microphones. A follow-up experiment evaluated different consonants using the Diagnostic Rhyme Test and replicated the MRT results. The current results show that intelligibility using throat microphones is poorer than with the use of boom microphones in noisy and in quiet environments. Therefore, throat microphones are not recommended for use in any situation where fast and accurate speech intelligibility is essential.

  17. Implantate für den Bandscheibenersatz (Stand 1993)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathey, Michael; Wintermantel, Erich

    Die Bandscheiben sind besonders betroffen von Fehlhaltungen und -stellungen der Wirbelsäule. Sie unterliegen als grösstes zusammenhängendes, nicht vaskularisiertes Gewebe im Menschen, statisch und dynamisch extrem belastet, besonders der Alterung. Um die teilweise sehr starken Schmerzen bei Bandscheibenschädigungen zu lindern, ist eine Operation vielfach die einzige Hilfe. Bei dieser Operation (Nukleotomie) entfernt man das aus der Bandscheibe ausgetretene Gewebe des Gallertkerns (nucleus pulposus), welches durch Druck auf die Nervenstränge im Bereich der Wirbelsäule die Beschwerden (Ischias-Schmerz) verursacht hat. Nach der Entfernung des Gallertkerns werden die auftretenden Kräfte bei veränderter Biomechanik übertragen. Dabei erhalten die Zwischenwirbelgelenke (Facettengelenke) eine erheblich grössere Flächenpressung als dies bei intakter Bandscheibe der Fall war. Die höhere Flächenpressung kommt durch die Verringerung des Abstandes zwischen den oberen und unteren Deckplatten der benachbarten Wirbelkörper zustande, zwischen denen sich der Gallertkern befand. Durch geeignetes Training der Rückenmuskulatur kann eine Stabilisierung des operierten Bandscheibensegmentes erreicht werden, jedoch ist es eine klinische Erfahrung, dass die meisten Patienten, die momentan durch die Operation schmerzfrei geworden sind, keine adäquate zusätzliche sportliche Betätigung auf sich nehmen.

  18. Tinea capitis: Erregerspektrum und Epidemiologie im zeitlichen Wandel.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Wiebke; Lempert, Sigrid; Goebeler, Matthias; Kolb-Mäurer, Annette

    2016-08-01

    Die Tinea capitis ist die häufigste Dermatomykose des Kindesalters. Das Erregerprofil zeigt unterschiedliche geographische Verteilungsmuster und variiert im Laufe der Zeit. Zwischen 1990-2014 an der Würzburger Universitätsklinik für Dermatologie erhobene Daten von 150 Patienten mit mykologisch gesicherter Tinea capitis wurden hinsichtlich Alter, Geschlecht und Erregerspektrum analysiert und über zwei Zeiträume von jeweils 12,5 Jahren miteinander verglichen. Obwohl eine Tinea capitis am häufigsten bei Kindern der Altersgruppe zwischen 0 und 5 Jahren diagnostiziert wurde, lag der Anteil betroffener Erwachsener mit 16 % höher als bislang berichtet. Der zoophile Dermatophyt Microsporum canis konnte am häufigsten als Erreger der Tinea capitis identifiziert werden, jedoch war ein Anstieg von Infektionen mit den anthropophilen Pilzen Trichophyton tonsurans und Trichophyton rubrum zu verzeichnen. Tendenziell sank der Anteil zoophiler im Verhältnis zu den anthropophilen Erregern. Im zeitlichen Verlauf zeigte sich eine zunehmende Heterogenität des Erregerspektrums: Dermatophyten wie Trichophyton soudanense und Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton anamorph von Arthroderma benhamiae sowie Trichophyton schoenleinii und Microsporum audouinii konnten erstmalig bzw. nach langer Zeit wieder erneut isoliert werden. Wenngleich Microsporum-canis-Infektionen noch dominieren, sind zunehmend anthropophile Erreger nachzuweisen. Angesichts des unerwartet hohen Anteils von Erwachsenen sollte eine Tinea capitis in allen Altersgruppen differenzialdiagnostisch in Betracht gezogen werden. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Sinogliatin, a First-in-Class Glucokinase Activator, by Integrating Allometric Scaling, In Vitro to In Vivo Exploration and Steady-State Concentration-Mean Residence Time Methods: Mechanistic Understanding of its Pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Song, Ling; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Ji; Ren, Shuang; Chen, Li; Liu, Dongyang; Chen, Xijing; Hu, Pei

    2018-04-06

    The objective of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for sinogliatin (HMS-5552, dorzagliatin) by integrating allometric scaling (AS), in vitro to in vivo exploration (IVIVE), and steady-state concentration-mean residence time (C ss -MRT) methods and to provide mechanistic insight into its pharmacokinetic properties in humans. Human major pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using AS, IVIVE, and C ss -MRT methods with available preclinical in vitro and in vivo data to understand sinogliatin drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) characteristics and underlying mechanisms. On this basis, an initial mechanistic PBPK model of sinogliatin was developed. The initial PBPK model was verified using observed data from a single ascending dose (SAD) study and further optimized with various strategies. The final model was validated by simulating sinogliatin pharmacokinetics under a fed condition. The validated model was applied to support a clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) study design and to evaluate the effects of intrinsic (hepatic cirrhosis, genetic) factors on drug exposure. The two-species scaling method using rat and dog data (TS- rat,dog ) was the best AS method in predicting human systemic clearance in the central compartment (CL). The IVIVE method confirmed that sinogliatin was predominantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The C ss -MRT method suggested dog pharmacokinetic profiles were more similar to human pharmacokinetic profiles. The estimated CL using the AS and IVIVE approaches was within 1.5-fold of that observed. The C ss -MRT method in dogs also provided acceptable prediction of human pharmacokinetic characteristics. For the PBPK approach, the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the simulated maximum concentration (C max ), CL, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of sinogliatin were within those observed and the 90% CI of simulated time to C max (t max ) was closed to that

  20. The influence of hepatic transport on the distribution volumes and mean residence time of drug in the body and the accuracy of estimating these parameters by the traditional pharmacokinetic calculations.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2011-11-01

    The influence of hepatic uptake and efflux, which includes passive diffusion and transporter-mediated component, on drug distribution volumes [steady-state volume of distribution (V(ss)) and terminal volume of distribution (V(β))], mean residence time (MRT), clearance, and terminal half-life is considered using a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. To account for hepatic uptake, liver is treated as two-compartmental unit with drug transfer from extracellular water into hepatocytes. The exactly calculated distribution volumes and MRT are compared with that obtained by the traditional equations based on the assumption of central elimination. It was found that V(ss) may increase more than 10-fold and V(β) more than 100-fold due to the contribution of transporter-mediated uptake. The terminal half-life may be substantially shortened (more than 100-fold) due to transporters. It may also decrease significantly due to the increase of intrinsic hepatic clearance (CL(int)), whereas hepatic clearance has already reached saturation (and stays close to the possible maximum value). It is shown that in case of transporter-mediated uptake of compound into hepatocytes, in the absence of efflux and passive diffusion (unidirectional uptake), hepatic clearance is independent of CL(int) and is determined by hepatic blood flow and uptake rate constant. The effects of transporter-mediated uptake are mostly pronounced for hydrophilic acidic compounds and moderately lipophilic neutral compounds. For basic compounds and lipophilic neutral compounds the change of distribution volumes due to transporters is rather unlikely. It was found that the traditional equations provide very accurate values of V(ss), V(β), and MRT in the absence of transporter action even for very low rates of passive diffusion. On the other hand, the traditional equations fail to provide the correct values of these parameters when the increase of distribution volumes due to transporters takes

  1. Micrometer-resolved film dosimetry using a microscope in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bartzsch, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.bartzsch@icr.ac.uk; Oelfke, Uwe; Lott, Johanna

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a still preclinical tumor therapy approach that uses arrays of a few tens of micrometer wide parallel beams separated by a few 100 μm. The production, measurement, and planning of such radiation fields are a challenge up to now. Here, the authors investigate the feasibility of radiochromic film dosimetry in combination with a microscopic readout as a tool to validate peak and valley doses in MRT, which is an important requirement for a future clinical application of the therapy. Methods: Gafchromic{sup ®} HD-810 and HD-V2 films are exposed to MRT fields at the biomedicalmore » beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and are afterward scanned with a microscope. The measured dose is compared with Monte Carlo calculations. Image analysis tools and film handling protocols are developed that allow accurate and reproducible dosimetry. The performance of HD-810 and HD-V2 films is compared and a detailed analysis of the resolution, noise, and energy dependence is carried out. Measurement uncertainties are identified and analyzed. Results: The dose was measured with a resolution of 5 × 1000 μm{sup 2} and an accuracy of 5% in the peak and between 10% and 15% in the valley region. As main causes for dosimetry uncertainties, statistical noise, film inhomogeneities, and calibration errors were identified. Calibration errors strongly increase at low doses and exceeded 3% for doses below 50 and 70 Gy for HD-V2 and HD-810 films, respectively. While the grain size of both film types is approximately 2 μm, the statistical noise in HD-V2 is much higher than in HD-810 films. However, HD-810 films show a higher energy dependence at low photon energies. Conclusions: Both film types are appropriate for dosimetry in MRT and the microscope is superior to the microdensitometer used before at the ESRF with respect to resolution and reproducibility. However, a very careful analysis of the image data is required

  2. Weighted Inequalities and Degenerate Elliptic Partial Differential Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    The analysis also applies to higher order equations. The basic method is due to N. Meyers and A. blcrat ( HYE ] (U-l). The equations considered are...220 14. MONITORING aGENCY NAME A AODRESS(lldI1n.Mhnt &m COnt* won * 011066) 1S. SECURITY CLASS. (of h1 rpMRt) UNCLASSIFIED I1. DECL ASSI FICATION...20550 Research Triangle Park North Carolina 27709 ,B. KEY WORDS (C@Wth mu Mgo, *do it Ma0oMr O IdMf& y Nok ftwb.) degenerate equation, elliptic partial

  3. Elaboration over a Discourse Facilitates Retrieval in Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Melissa; Hofmeister, Philip; Kutas, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’) leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions), processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators), one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’). The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican/Democrat}had voted for…’) contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’) or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’). We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times) for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’), where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich and West, 1989), providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a) greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b) richer/more highly structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe the

  4. Nature of Short Li...H-C Contact Interactions in Organolithium Compounds and Its Implication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-15

    LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OF REPORT OF THIS PAGE I OF ABSTRACT Unclassified 1 Unclassified Unclassified UL NSN 75403-01-2t^,5500 Standard Formn 296 (Rev 2-89...Pm NS it 1 ~. OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH Contract N00014-90-J-1159 R&T Code 413n007 Technical Report No. 14 Nature of Shtt Lliwlio Contact Interactions...Implication HL1-AH- 3 C, 1 .o 10o M0)" Juan J. Novoa-t and Myung-Hwan Whangbo HIU-H-CHI Ce, 510 00 (043" sCalaalated with the 64t++G bsis et mrt the gee

  5. Methodology, and the Statistician’s Responsibility for BOTH Accuracy and Relevance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    John W. Tukey is also Associate Executive Director- Research , Beel Telephone Laboratories . I ! u I». Ktv UBS fSSSi m m!mSi S5 i wtiwrii S...eoNmokkiNO erriet NAM AND ACOHCM Office of Naval Research (Code «»36) Arlington, VA 22217 Z^lp&wlliMCTioiii -./ r^ aCII>l«Mrt CATALÖO...558» ir SS3 mSSm ~~~’ level or change, least squares, fit PLUS residuals, Phillips curve, patch maps, standardization ■A AMTRACT

  6. Elaboration over a Discourse Facilitates Retrieval in Sentence Processing.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Melissa; Hofmeister, Philip; Kutas, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions ('Texas cattle rancher' vs. 'rancher') leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions), processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators), one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., 'The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president'). The final sentence (e.g., 'The senator who the {Republican/Democrat}had voted for…') contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with 'Republican') or the One-Cue referent (with 'Democrat'). We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times) for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region ('had voted for'), where readers could understand that 'The senator' is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich and West, 1989), providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a) greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b) richer/more highly structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe the predicted interaction between ART/MRT

  7. Short communication: Comparison of 3 solid digesta passage markers in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the usefulness of acid-detergent fiber-bound (15)N [acid detergent insoluble (ADI)-(15)N] as a solid digesta passage marker in dairy cows compared with chromium (Cr) and ytterbium (Yb) (as labeled fiber or forage, respectively). Intrinsically (ADI-(15)N) or extrinsically (Cr, Yb) labeled alfalfa hay was pulse-dosed intraruminally to 7 lactating dairy cows. Following marker administration, spot fecal samples were collected for up to 72 h for marker analyses. Urine and milk samples were also collected and analyzed for Yb and Cr. Fecal marker excretion data were processed using 2-compartment mathematical age-dependent/age-independent (Gn→G1) models. The rate of passage of the marker in the first, age-dependent compartment tended to be slower for Yb compared with Cr and ADI-(15)N, which resulted in a trend for longer mean retention time (MRT) in this compartment when Yb was used as a marker (19.0 h) compared with Cr and ADI-(15)N (14.5 and 13.9h, respectively). The rate constant of marker disappearance for the second or age-independent compartment tended to be greater for Yb compared with Cr and ADI-(15)N, which led to a shorter MRT of Yb in this compartment (15.6) versus ADI-(15)N (32.1) and Cr (24.8h). The cumulative MRT was greater for ADI-(15)N versus Cr and Yb (46.0, 39.3, and 34.4h, respectively). Total MRT of marker tended to be greater for ADI-(15)N than for Yb (46.6 vs. 36.6h, respectively). Urine and milk analyses data suggested no measurable losses of Yb along the digestive tract, but about 0.79% of Cr dosed intraruminally was secreted or excreted in milk and urine in the 48-h period following marker administration. Collectively, this study confirmed previous observations that ADI-(15)N can be used reliably as a solid digesta passage marker for ruminants, producing pre-duodenal and total-tract retention times similar to that of Cr-labeled fiber. Retention time in the age-independent compartment was underestimated when Yb was used as

  8. New investigations of technical rhodium and iridium catalysts in homogeneous phase employing para-hydrogen induced polarization.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Torsten; Ratajczyk, Tomasz; Dillenberger, Sonja; Xu, Yeping; Grünberg, Anna; Breitzke, Hergen; Bommerich, Ute; Trantzschel, Thomas; Bernarding, Johannes; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2011-09-01

    It is shown that the para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) phenomenon in homogenous solution containing the substrate styrene is also observable employing simple inorganic systems of the form MCl(3)·xH(2)O (M=Rh, Ir) as catalyst. Such observation confirms that already very simple metal complexes enable the creation of PHIP signal enhancement in solution. This opens up new pathways to increase the sensitivity of NMR and MRT by PHIP enhancement using cost-effective catalysts and will be essential for further mechanistic studies of simple transition metal systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiplex-Ready Technology for mid-throughput genotyping of molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Julien; Hayden, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Screening molecular markers across large populations in breeding programs is generally time consuming and expensive. The Multiplex-Ready Technology (MRT) (Hayden et al., BMC genomics 9:80, 2008) was created to optimize polymorphism screening and genotyping using standardized PCR reaction conditions. The flexibility of this method maximizes the number of markers (up to 24 markers SSR or SNP, ideally small PCR product <500 bp and highly polymorphic) by using fluorescent dye (VIC, FAM, NED, and PET) and a semiautomated DNA fragment analyzer (ABI3730) capillary electrophoresis for large numbers of DNA samples (96 or 384 samples).

  10. The Road To The Objective Force. Armaments for the Army Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-18

    Vehicle Fire Support Vehicle •TOW 2B Anti-Tank Capability Under Armor •Detection of NBC Hazards Mortar Carrier •Dismounted M121 120mm MRT Initially...engaged from under armor M6 Launchers (x4) Staring Array Thermal Sight Height reduction for air transport Day Camera Target Acq Sight Armament Remote...PM BCT ANTI-TANK GUIDED MISSILE VEHICLE • TOWII • ITAS (Raytheon) - 2 Missiles • IBAS Day Camera • Missile is Remotely Fired Under Armor • M6 Smoke

  11. Grid therapy using high definition multileaf collimators: realizing benefits of the bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Peng, Valery; Suchowerska, Natalka; Rogers, Linda; Claridge Mackonis, Elizabeth; Oakes, Samantha; McKenzie, David R

    2017-08-01

    In microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), parallel arrays of high-intensity synchrotron x-ray beams achieve normal tissue sparing without compromising tumor control. Grid-therapy using clinical linacs has spatial modulation on a larger scale and achieves promising results for palliative treatments of bulky tumors. The availability of high definition multileaf collimators (HDMLCs) with 2.5 mm leaves provides an opportunity for grid-therapy to more closely approach MRT. However, challenges to the wider implementation of grid-therapy remain because spatial modulation of the target volume runs counter to current radiotherapy practice and mechanisms for the beneficial effects of MRT are not fully understood. Without more knowledge of cell dose responses, a quantitative basis for planning treatments is difficult. The aim of this study is to determine if therapeutic benefits of MRT can be achieved using a linac with HDMLCs and if so, to develop a predictive model to support treatment planning. HD120-MLCs of a Varian Novalis TX TM were used to generate grid patterns of 2.5 and 5.0 mm spacing, which were characterized dosimetrically using Gafchromic TM EBT3 film. Clonogenic survival of normal (HUVEC) and cancer (NCI-H460, HCC-1954) cell lines following irradiation under the grid and open fields using a 6 MV photon beam were compared in-vitro for the same average dose. Relative to an open field, survival of normal cells in a 2.5 mm striped field was the same, while the survival of both cancer cell lines was significantly lower. A mathematical model was developed to incorporate dose gradients of the spatial modulation into the standard linear quadratic model. Our new bystander extended LQ model assumes spatial gradients drive the diffusion of soluble factors that influence survival through bystander effects, successfully predicting the experimental results that show an increased therapeutic ratio. Our results challenge conventional radiotherapy practice and propose that

  12. WE-AB-BRB-12: Nanoscintillator Fiber-Optic Detector System for Microbeam Radiation Therapy Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, J; Dooley, J; Chang, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is an experimental radiation therapy that has demonstrated a higher therapeutic ratio than conventional radiation therapy in animal studies. There are several roadblocks in translating the promising treatment technology to clinical application, one of which is the lack of a real-time, high-resolution dosimeter. Current clinical radiation detectors have poor spatial resolution and, as such, are unsuitable for measuring microbeams with submillimeter-scale widths. Although GafChromic film has high spatial resolution, it lacks the real-time dosimetry capability necessary for MRT preclinical research and potential clinical use. In this work we have demonstrated the feasibility of using amore » nanoscintillator fiber-optic detector (nanoFOD) system for real-time MRT dosimetry. Methods: A microplanar beam array is generated using a x-ray research irradiator and a custom-made, microbeam-forming collimator. The newest generation nanoFOD has an effective size of 70 µm in the measurement direction and was calibrated against a kV ion chamber (RadCal Accu-Pro) in open field geometry. We have written a computer script that performs automatic data collection with immediate background subtraction. A computer-controlled detector positioning stage is used to precisely measure the microbeam peak dose and beam profile by translating the stage during data collection. We test the new generation nanoFOD system, with increased active scintillation volume, against the previous generation system. Both raw and processed data are time-stamped and recorded to enable future post-processing. Results: The real-time microbeam dosimetry system worked as expected. The new generation dosimeter has approximately double the active volume compared to the previous generation resulting in over 900% increase in signal. The active volume of the dosimeter still provided the spatial resolution that meets the Nyquist criterion for our microbeam widths. Conclusion

  13. 640x480 PtSi Stirling-cooled camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Thomas S.; Esposito, Benjamin J.; Davis, Timothy J.; Coyle, Peter J.; Feder, Howard L.; Gilmartin, Harvey R.; Levine, Peter A.; Sauer, Donald J.; Shallcross, Frank V.; Demers, P. L.; Smalser, P. J.; Tower, John R.

    1992-09-01

    A Stirling cooled 3 - 5 micron camera system has been developed. The camera employs a monolithic 640 X 480 PtSi-MOS focal plane array. The camera system achieves an NEDT equals 0.10 K at 30 Hz frame rate with f/1.5 optics (300 K background). At a spatial frequency of 0.02 cycles/mRAD the vertical and horizontal Minimum Resolvable Temperature are in the range of MRT equals 0.03 K (f/1.5 optics, 300 K background). The MOS focal plane array achieves a resolution of 480 TV lines per picture height independent of background level and position within the frame.

  14. [Correlation study of physical and biologic parameters to acute radiation pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-hai; Li, Zhi-ping; Chen, Xiao-mei; Liu, Xiao-jing; Wu, Wen-chao; Xu, Yong; Li, Ping; Zhang, Jin-tao; Zeng, Hui

    2008-09-01

    To study the relationship between the level of plasma transform growth factor-betal (TGF-betal), interleukin-6 (IL-6), thrombomodulin (TM) dose-volume factors and acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP). Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy and chemotherapy were applied to 27 lung cancer patients, 15 esophageal carcinoma, and 1 thymoma patients. 19 patients received adjuvant radiochemotherapy, and 25 patients received concurrent radio-chemotherapy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect the serum IL-6, TGF-betal and TM levels of patients before radiotherapy (B-RT) and at 30 Gy(M-RT). ARP was graded according to NCI common toxicity criteria (CTCAE v 3.0), Grade 2 or more ARP was taken as the main end point. The relationship between the levels of serum TGF-betal, IL-6, TM, parameters of lung function and dose-volume factors, and the incidence rate of ARP were analyzed. Mean lung dose (MLD) and the Vx were considered as the dose-volume factors. Among 44 patients, 15 of them had ARP. 9 got grade 2 ARP and 6 had grade 3. After received a dose of 30 Gy, TGF-betal value in M-RT was (396 +/- 338) and (866 +/- 270) pg/mL in non-ARP and ARP group (P = 0.000). The ARP incidence rate in <60 and > or =60 age group were 46.15% (12/26) and 16.67% (3/18) (P = 0.042), and 45.45% (15/33), 0% (0/11) (P = 0.017) in had smoking history and nonsmoking history group, respectively. 1 out of 13 patients (7.69%) who had increased M-RT TM value suffered of ARP, while 14 out of 31 patients (45.16%) whose M-RT TM value lower than pr-RT suffered of ARP (P = 0.044). The results of multivariate analysis implied that the MLD and the value of TGF-betal in M-RT were associated with severe ARP. TGF-beta1 and MLD are significant indicators of ARP. FEV1 actual value/predicted value% might have predicting effect for the severity of ARP.

  15. Sentinel-Lymphknoten-Biopsie des Melanoms mittels Indocyaningrün und "FOVIS"-System.

    PubMed

    Göppner, Daniela; Nekwasil, Stephan; Jellestad, Anne; Sachse, Alexander; Schönborn, Karl-Heinz; Gollnick, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Der Nachweis metastatischer Infiltrate im Sentinel-Lymphkoten (SLN) gilt als wesentlicher prognostischer Faktor des Melanoms. Alternativ zur Farbstoffmethode mit Patentblau zum Goldstandard der SLN-Biopsie (SLNB) mittels Radiokolloid wird die fluoreszenzoptische Darstellung mit Hilfe von Indocyaningrün (ICG) und Nahinfrarot (NIR)-Kamerasystem kommuniziert. Im Vergleich zur konventionellen Methode wurde die Wertigkeit des ICG-/NIR-Verfahrens in Abhängigkeit vom Body-Mass-Index (BMI) des Patienten und der Konzentration von ICG bezüglich der Visualisierung des Lymphabstroms und des SLNs untersucht. An zehn Patienten wurde die SLNB mittels Technetium-99m, Patentblau und ICG durchgeführt. Die Fluoreszenz-Darstellung von Lymphbahnen und SLN erfolgte in Echtzeit mittels der NIR-Kameratechnik "FOVIS". Je nach erzielter Bildqualität wurde ICG in einer Dosis von 0,25 mg bis 2,5 mg intrakutan appliziert. Neun der zehn SLN wurden fluoreszenzoptisch identifiziert (90 %), alle zehn radioaktiv (100 %), nur acht (80 %) mittels ICG-Grünfärbung bzw. Patenblau-Markierung. Transdermal wurde ein SLN dargestellt (10 %). In Korrelation zum BMI waren höhere ICG-Mengen, bis zu 2,5 mg intrakutan absolut, in der Darstellung der Lymphbahnen von Vorteil. Die SLN-Fluoreszenzmarkierung mit dem ICG/NIR-Kamera-System "FOVIS" stellt eine sichere Alternative zur Farbstoffmethode mit Patentblau ergänzend zur Radiokolloidmethode mit Technetium-99m dar. Weitere Studien zur optimalen Dosierung von ICG und transdermalen Bildgebung in Relation zum BMI sind notwendig. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Kappa Opioid Receptor-Mediated Dysregulation of GABAergic Transmission in the Central Amygdala in Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kallupi, Marsida; Wee, Sunmee; Edwards, Scott; Whitfield, Tim W.; Oleata, Christopher S.; Luu, George; Schmeichel, Brooke E.; Koob, George F.; Roberto, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated an enhanced dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system following repeated cocaine exposure, but few reports have focused on neuroadaptations within the central amygdala (CeA). Methods We identified KOR-related physiological changes in the CeA following escalation of cocaine self-administration in rats. We used in vitro slice electrophysiological (intracellular and whole-cell recordings) methods to assess whether differential cocaine access in either 1h (short access, ShA) or 6h (long access, LgA) sessions induced plasticity at CeA GABAergic synapses, or altered the sensitivity of these synapses to KOR agonism (U50488) or antagonism (nor-BNI). We then determined the functional effects of CeA KOR blockade in cocaine-related behaviors. Results Baseline evoked GABAergic transmission was enhanced in the CeA from ShA and LgA rats compared to cocaine-naïve rats. Acute cocaine (1 uM) application significantly decreased GABA release in all groups (naïve, ShA, and LgA rats). Application of U50488 (1 uM) significantly decreased GABAergic transmission in the CeA from naïve rats, but increased it in LgA rats. Conversely, nor-BNI (200 nM) significantly increased GABAergic transmission in the CeA from naïve rats, but decreased it in LgA rats. Nor-BNI did not alter the acute cocaine-induced inhibition of GABAergic responses. Finally, CeA microinfusion of nor-BNI blocked cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and attenuated the heightened anxiety-like behavior observed during withdrawal from chronic cocaine exposure in the defensive burying paradigm. Conclusion Together these data demonstrate that CeA dynorphin/KOR systems are dysregulated following excessive cocaine exposure and suggest KOR antagonism as a viable therapeutic strategy for cocaine addiction. PMID:23751206

  17. Development of the striation and filament form of the electrothermal instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund; Awe, T. J.; Yelton, W. G.; McKenzie, B. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Bauer, B. S.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Fuelling, S.; Yates, K. C.; Shipley, G.

    2017-10-01

    Magnetically imploded liners have broad application to ICF, dynamic material property studies, and flux compression. An important consideration in liner performance is the electrothermal instability (ETI), an Ohmic heating instability that manifests in 2 ways: assuming vertical current flow, ETI forms hot, horizontal bands (striations) in metals, and vertical filaments in plasmas. Striations are especially relevant in that they can develop into density perturbations, which then couple to the dangerous magneto Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability during liner acceleration. Recent visible emission images of Ohmically heated rods show evidence of both the striation and filament form of ETI, suggesting several questions: (1) can simulation qualitatively reproduce the data? (2) If so, what seeds the striation ETI, and how does it transition to filaments? (3) Does the striation develop into a strong density perturbation, important for MRT? In this work, we use analytic theory and 3D MHD simulation to study how isolated resistive inclusions, embedded in a perfectly smooth rod and communicating through current redistribution, can be used to address the above questions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. DOE NNSA under contract DE-NA0003525.

  18. Mental object rotation in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Crucian, Gregory P; Barrett, Anna M; Burks, David W; Riestra, Alonso R; Roth, Heidi L; Schwartz, Ronald L; Triggs, William J; Bowers, Dawn; Friedman, William; Greer, Melvin; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2003-11-01

    Deficits in visual-spatial ability can be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and there are several possible reasons for these deficits. Dysfunction in frontal-striatal and/or frontal-parietal systems, associated with dopamine deficiency, might disrupt cognitive processes either supporting (e.g., working memory) or subserving visual-spatial computations. The goal of this study was to assess visual-spatial orientation ability in individuals with PD using the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), along with other measures of cognitive function. Non-demented men with PD were significantly less accurate on this test than matched control men. In contrast, women with PD performed similarly to matched control women, but both groups of women did not perform much better than chance. Further, mental rotation accuracy in men correlated with their executive skills involving mental processing and psychomotor speed. In women with PD, however, mental rotation accuracy correlated negatively with verbal memory, indicating that higher mental rotation performance was associated with lower ability in verbal memory. These results indicate that PD is associated with visual-spatial orientation deficits in men. Women with PD and control women both performed poorly on the MRT, possibly reflecting a floor effect. Although men and women with PD appear to engage different cognitive processes in this task, the reason for the sex difference remains to be elucidated.

  19. Hybrid dose calculation: a dose calculation algorithm for microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, Mattia; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Oelfke, Uwe; Wilkens, Jan J.; Bartzsch, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is still a preclinical approach in radiation oncology that uses planar micrometre wide beamlets with extremely high peak doses, separated by a few hundred micrometre wide low dose regions. Abundant preclinical evidence demonstrates that MRT spares normal tissue more effectively than conventional radiation therapy, at equivalent tumour control. In order to launch first clinical trials, accurate and efficient dose calculation methods are an inevitable prerequisite. In this work a hybrid dose calculation approach is presented that is based on a combination of Monte Carlo and kernel based dose calculation. In various examples the performance of the algorithm is compared to purely Monte Carlo and purely kernel based dose calculations. The accuracy of the developed algorithm is comparable to conventional pure Monte Carlo calculations. In particular for inhomogeneous materials the hybrid dose calculation algorithm out-performs purely convolution based dose calculation approaches. It is demonstrated that the hybrid algorithm can efficiently calculate even complicated pencil beam and cross firing beam geometries. The required calculation times are substantially lower than for pure Monte Carlo calculations.

  20. Building resilience.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2011-04-01

    Failure is a familiar trauma in life, but its effects on people differ widely. Some reel, recover, and move on with their lives; others get bogged down by anxiety, depression, and fear of the future. Seligman, who is known as the father of positive psychology, has spent three decades researching failure, helplessness, and optimism. He created a program at the University of Pennsylvania to help young adults and children overcome anxiety and depression, and has worked with colleagues from around the world to develop a program for teaching resilience. That program is being tested by the U.S. Army, an organization of 1.1 million people where trauma is more common and more severe than in any corporate setting. Nevertheless, businesspeo-ple can draw lessons from resilience training, particularly in times of failure and stagnation. The program is called Comprehensive Soldier Fitness, and it has three components: the Global Assessment Tool, a test for psychological fitness (administered to more than 900,000 soldiers to date); self-improvement courses following the test; and "master resilience training" (MRT) for drill sergeants. MRT focuses on enhancing mental toughness, highlighting and honing strengths, and fostering strong relationships-core competencies for any successful manager.

  1. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1999-07-01

    The project has switched focus this quarter from pilot plant operations to product testing. Last quarter extensive pilot plant work had occurred and testing objectives had been met. Also last quarter technology demonstrations were also performed for Potomac Electric Power, Virginia Power, and Wisconsin Electric. We had reported that groundbreaking for the PEPCo fly ash treatment facility was to begin in August. Recent conversations with the technology's licensee, Mineral Resource Technology, have resulted in changes. Long term contract negotiations between MRT and Potomac Electric Power have caused delays. Most recent estimates are that contract negotiations should be finished in August,more » detailed engineering is to begin in September, and groundbreaking to begin in early Spring. The commercialization of the technology is going forward, just not as fast as we or MRT had anticipated. As this is being written we have received inquiries from Plastics Technology Magazine about fly ash utilization in plastics. We are anticipating working with one of their editors to provide an upcoming article.« less

  2. Short-term volcano-tectonic earthquake forecasts based on a moving mean recurrence time algorithm: the El Hierro seismo-volcanic crisis experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Alicia; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Marrero, José M.; Ortiz, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Under certain conditions, volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes may pose significant hazards to people living in or near active volcanic regions, especially on volcanic islands; however, hazard arising from VT activity caused by localized volcanic sources is rarely addressed in the literature. The evolution of VT earthquakes resulting from a magmatic intrusion shows some orderly behaviour that may allow the occurrence and magnitude of major events to be forecast. Thus governmental decision makers can be supplied with warnings of the increased probability of larger-magnitude earthquakes on the short-term timescale. We present here a methodology for forecasting the occurrence of large-magnitude VT events during volcanic crises; it is based on a mean recurrence time (MRT) algorithm that translates the Gutenberg-Richter distribution parameter fluctuations into time windows of increased probability of a major VT earthquake. The MRT forecasting algorithm was developed after observing a repetitive pattern in the seismic swarm episodes occurring between July and November 2011 at El Hierro (Canary Islands). From then on, this methodology has been applied to the consecutive seismic crises registered at El Hierro, achieving a high success rate in the real-time forecasting, within 10-day time windows, of volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

  3. Two-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Method and its Application to Advective-Diffusive-Reactive Transport

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, Zhifeng; Yang, Xiaofan; Li, Siliang; ...

    2017-09-05

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based on single-relaxation-time (SRT) or multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operators is widely used in simulating flow and transport phenomena. The LBM based on two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision operators possesses strengths from the SRT and MRT LBMs, such as its simple implementation and good numerical stability, although tedious mathematical derivations and presentations of the TRT LBM hinder its application to a broad range of flow and transport phenomena. This paper describes the TRT LBM clearly and provides a pseudocode for easy implementation. Various transport phenomena were simulated using the TRT LBM to illustrate its applications in subsurface environments.more » These phenomena include advection-diffusion in uniform flow, Taylor dispersion in a pipe, solute transport in a packed column, reactive transport in uniform flow, and bacterial chemotaxis in porous media. Finally, the TRT LBM demonstrated good numerical performance in terms of accuracy and stability in predicting these transport phenomena. Therefore, the TRT LBM is a powerful tool to simulate various geophysical and biogeochemical processes in subsurface environments.« less

  4. Beamlines of the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy Facility at the Canadian Light Source - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysokinski, T. W.; Chapman, D.; Adams, G.; Renier, M.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.

    2013-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides a world class facility with unique synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the first experimental hutch: POE-2. The experimental methods available in POE-2 include: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT) and absorption imaging (projection and Computed Tomography (CT)). The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconductive 4.3 T wiggler, which can generate ~30 kW of radiative power and deliver dose as high as 3000 Gy/s required for MRT program. The optics in POE-1 hutch prepares either monochromatic or filtered white beam that is used in POE-2. The Double Crystal (DC), bent Laue monochromator will prepare a beam over 10 cm wide at sample point, while spanning an energy range appropriate for imaging studies of animals (20-100+ keV). The experimental hutch will have a flexible positioning system that can handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different cameras will be available with resolutions ranging from 4 μm to 150 μm. The latest update on the status of 05B1-1 bending magnet (BM) beamline, described in Part 1 [1], is also included.

  5. Multiple-relaxation-time color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model for simulating two-phase flows with high density ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba, Yan; Liu, Haihu; Li, Qing; Kang, Qinjun; Sun, Jinju

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we propose a color-gradient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating two-phase flows with high density ratio and high Reynolds number. The model applies a multirelaxation-time (MRT) collision operator to enhance the stability of the simulation. A source term, which is derived by the Chapman-Enskog analysis, is added into the MRT LB equation so that the Navier-Stokes equations can be exactly recovered. Also, a form of the equilibrium density distribution function is used to simplify the source term. To validate the proposed model, steady flows of a static droplet and the layered channel flow are first simulated with density ratios up to 1000. Small values of spurious velocities and interfacial tension errors are found in the static droplet test, and improved profiles of velocity are obtained by the present model in simulating channel flows. Then, two cases of unsteady flows, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and droplet splashing on a thin film, are simulated. In the former case, the density ratio of 3 and Reynolds numbers of 256 and 2048 are considered. The interface shapes and spike and bubble positions are in good agreement with the results of previous studies. In the latter case, the droplet spreading radius is found to obey the power law proposed in previous studies for the density ratio of 100 and Reynolds number up to 500.

  6. [Value influence of different compatibilities of main active parts in yangyintongnao granule on pharmacokinetics parameters in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by total amount statistic moment method].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Yang, Jiehong; Znang, Hengyi; Fu, Xuchun; Zhnag, Yuyan; Wan, Haitong

    2010-02-01

    To study the influence of the different combinations of the main active parts in Yangyintongnao granule on the pharmacokinetics parameters of the two active components--ligustrazine and puerarin using the method of total amount statistic moment for pharmacokinetics. Combinations were formed according to the dosages of the four active parts (alkaloid, flavone, saponin, naphtha) by orthogonal experiment L9 (3(4)). Blood concentrations of ligustrazine and puerarin were determinated by HPLC at different time. Zero rank moment (AUC) and one rank moment (MRT, mean residence time) of ligustrazine and puerarin have been worked out to calculate the total amount statistic moment parameters was analyzed of Yangyintongnao granule by the method of the total amount statistic moment. The influence of different compatibilities on the pharmacokinetics parameters was analyzed by orthogonal test. Flavone has the strongest effect than saponin on the total AUC. Ligustrazine has the strongest effect on the total MRT. Saponin has little effect on the two parameters, but naphtha has more effect on both of them. It indicates that naphtha may promote metabolism of ligustrazine and puerarin in rat. Total amount statistic moment parameters can be used to guide for compatibilities of TCM.

  7. Embryonic Stem Cell Specific “Master” Replication Origins at the Heart of the Loss of Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Julienne, Hanna; Audit, Benjamin; Arneodo, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the replication program during mammalian cell differentiation remains poorly understood. We performed an integrative analysis of eleven genome-wide epigenetic profiles at 100 kb resolution of Mean Replication Timing (MRT) data in six human cell lines. Compared to the organization in four chromatin states shared by the five somatic cell lines, embryonic stem cell (ESC) line H1 displays (i) a gene-poor but highly dynamic chromatin state (EC4) associated to histone variant H2AZ rather than a HP1-associated heterochromatin state (C4) and (ii) a mid-S accessible chromatin state with bivalent gene marks instead of a polycomb-repressed heterochromatin state. Plastic MRT regions (≲ 20% of the genome) are predominantly localized at the borders of U-shaped timing domains. Whereas somatic-specific U-domain borders are gene-dense GC-rich regions, 31.6% of H1-specific U-domain borders are early EC4 regions enriched in pluripotency transcription factors NANOG and OCT4 despite being GC poor and gene deserts. Silencing of these ESC-specific “master” replication initiation zones during differentiation corresponds to a loss of H2AZ and an enrichment in H3K9me3 mark characteristic of late replicating C4 heterochromatin. These results shed a new light on the epigenetically regulated global chromatin reorganization that underlies the loss of pluripotency and lineage commitment. PMID:25658386

  8. Gender issues in the use of virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Larson, P; Rizzo, A A; Buckwalter, J G; Van Rooyen, A; Kratz, K; Neumann, U; Kesselman, C; Thiebaux, M; Van Der Zaag, C

    1999-01-01

    Gender differences in cognitive and behavioral performance have been reported throughout the psychological literature. Consequently, gender differences should be considered and controlled for when cognitive research is conducted in virtual environments (VEs). These variables may include gender-related differences in cognitive performance, susceptibility for cybersickness, and the impact of sex hormones on cognition. Such issues are addressed in the context of a recent VE study of the visuospatial ability referred to as mental rotation. The Mental Rotation Test (MRT), a paper and pencil measure, has been shown to produce one of the largest gender differences in the cognitive literature. The outcomes of the MRT are in favor of males. However, results reported from a Virtual Reality Spatial Rotation (VRSR) test demonstrate no gender differences when subjects were able to manually manipulate the stimuli in a VE. Further analysis uncovers gender differences in the patterns of associations between verbal and spatial tasks and performance on VRSR. Results are discussed in terms of dimensionality factors and hemispheric lateralization.

  9. Girls in detail, boys in shape: gender differences when drawing cubes in depth.

    PubMed

    Lange-Küttner, C; Ebersbach, M

    2013-08-01

    The current study tested gender differences in the developmental transition from drawing cubes in two- versus three dimensions (3D), and investigated the underlying spatial abilities. Six- to nine-year-old children (N = 97) drew two occluding model cubes and solved several other spatial tasks. Girls more often unfolded the various sides of the cubes into a layout, also called diagrammatic cube drawing (object design detail). In girls, the best predictor for drawing the cubes was Mental Rotation Test (MRT) accuracy. In contrast, boys were more likely to preserve the optical appearance of the cube array. Their drawing in 3D was best predicted by MRT reaction time and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT). This confirmed boys' stronger focus on the contours of an object silhouette (object shape). It is discussed whether the two gender-specific approaches to drawing in three dimensions reflect two sides of the appearance-reality distinction in drawing, that is graphic syntax of object design features versus visual perception of projective space. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Two-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method and its application to advective-diffusive-reactive transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Yang, Xiaofan; Li, Siliang; Hilpert, Markus

    2017-11-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based on single-relaxation-time (SRT) or multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operators is widely used in simulating flow and transport phenomena. The LBM based on two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision operators possesses strengths from the SRT and MRT LBMs, such as its simple implementation and good numerical stability, although tedious mathematical derivations and presentations of the TRT LBM hinder its application to a broad range of flow and transport phenomena. This paper describes the TRT LBM clearly and provides a pseudocode for easy implementation. Various transport phenomena were simulated using the TRT LBM to illustrate its applications in subsurface environments. These phenomena include advection-diffusion in uniform flow, Taylor dispersion in a pipe, solute transport in a packed column, reactive transport in uniform flow, and bacterial chemotaxis in porous media. The TRT LBM demonstrated good numerical performance in terms of accuracy and stability in predicting these transport phenomena. Therefore, the TRT LBM is a powerful tool to simulate various geophysical and biogeochemical processes in subsurface environments.

  11. Dynamic T2-mapping during magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of bone marrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Looi, Thomas; Mougenot, Charles; Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; Sivaloganathan, Siv; Drake, James M.

    2012-11-01

    Focal bone tumor treatments include amputation, limb-sparing surgical excision with bone reconstruction, and high-dose external-beam radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an effective non-invasive thermotherapy for palliative management of bone metastases pain. MR thermometry (MRT) measures the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) of water molecules and produces accurate (<1°C) and dynamic (<5s) thermal maps in soft tissues. PRFS-MRT is ineffective in fatty tissues such as yellow bone marrow and, since accurate temperature measurements are required in the bone to ensure adequate thermal dose, MR-HIFU is not indicated for primary bone tumor treatments. Magnetic relaxation times are sensitive to lipid temperature and we hypothesize that bone marrow temperature can be determined accurately by measuring changes in T2, since T2 increases linearly in fat during heating. T2-mapping using dual echo times during a dynamic turbo spin-echo pulse sequence enabled rapid measurement of T2. Calibration of T2-based thermal maps involved heating the marrow in a bovine femur and simultaneously measuring T2 and temperature with a thermocouple. A positive T2 temperature dependence in bone marrow of 20 ms/°C was observed. Dynamic T2-mapping should enable accurate temperature monitoring during MR-HIFU treatment of bone marrow and shows promise for improving the safety and reducing the invasiveness of pediatric bone tumor treatments.

  12. Key factors of low carbon development strategy for sustainable transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaveewatanaseth, K.; Limjirakan, S.

    2018-02-01

    Cities become more vulnerable to climate change impacts causing by urbanization, economic growth, increasing of energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. People who live in the cities have already been affected from the impacts in terms of socioeconomic and environmental aspects. Sustainable transport plays the key role in CO2 mitigation and contributes positive impacts on sustainable development for the cities. Several studies in megacities both in developed and developing countries support that mass transit system is an important transportation mode in CO2 mitigation and sustainable transport development. This paper aims to study key factors of low carbon development strategy for sustainable transport. The Bangkok Mass Rapid Transit System (MRT) located in Bangkok was the study area. Data collection was using semi-structured in-depth interview protocol with thirty respondents consisting of six groups i.e. governmental agencies, the MRT operators, consulting companies, international organizations, non-profit organizations, and experts. The research findings highlighted the major factors and supplemental elements composing of institution and technical capacity, institutional framework, policy setting and process, and plan of implementation that would support more effective strategic process for low carbon development strategy (LCDS) for sustainable transport. The study would highly recommend on readiness of institution and technical capacities, stakeholder mapping, high-level decision- makers participation, and a clear direction of the governmental policies that are strongly needed in achieving the sustainable transport.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of R(-) and S(+) carprofen after administration of racemic carprofen in donkeys and horses.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Katrina L; Matthews, Nora S; Peck, Kenneth E; Burchfield, Melissa L; Bennett, Brad S; Taylor, Tex S

    2004-11-01

    To compare plasma disposition of the R(-) and S(+) enantiomers of carprofen after IV administration of a bolus dose to donkeys and horses. 5 clinically normal donkeys and 3 clinically normal horses. Blood samples were collected from all animals at time 0 (before) and at 10, 15, 20, 30, and 45 minutes and 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 24, 28, 32, and 48 hours after IV administration of a bolus of carprofen (0.7 mg/kg). Plasma was analyzed in triplicate via high-performance liquid chromatography to determine the concentrations of the carprofen enantiomers. A plasma concentrationtime curve for each donkey and horse was analyzed separately to estimate noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables. In donkeys and horses, the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) was greater for the R(-) carprofen enantiomer than it was for the S(+) carprofen enantiomer. For the R(-) carprofen enantiomer, the AUC and mean residence time (MRT) were significantly less and total body clearance (CIT) was significantly greater in horses, compared with donkeys. For the S(+) carprofen enantiomer, AUC and MRT were significantly less and CIT and apparent volume of distribution at steady state were significantly greater in horses, compared with donkeys. Results have suggested that the dosing intervals for carprofen that are used in horses may not be appropriate for use in donkeys.

  14. Spatial and Visual Reasoning: Do These Abilities Improve in First-Year Veterinary Medical Students Exposed to an Integrated Curriculum?

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, J Claudio; Chigerwe, Munashe; Ilkiw, Jan E; Youngblood, Patricia; Holladay, Steven D; Srivastava, Sakti

    Spatial visualization ability refers to the human cognitive ability to form, retrieve, and manipulate mental models of spatial nature. Visual reasoning ability has been linked to spatial ability. There is currently limited information about how entry-level spatial and visual reasoning abilities may predict veterinary anatomy performance or may be enhanced with progression through the veterinary anatomy content in an integrated curriculum. The present study made use of two tests that measure spatial ability and one test that measures visual reasoning ability in veterinary students: Guay's Visualization of Views Test, adapted version (GVVT), the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices Test, short form (RavenT). The tests were given to the entering class of veterinary students during their orientation week and at week 32 in the veterinary medical curriculum. Mean score on the MRT significantly increased from 15.2 to 20.1, and on the RavenT significantly increased from 7.5 to 8.8. When females only were evaluated, results were similar to the total class outcome; however, all three tests showed significant increases in mean scores. A positive correlation between the pre- and post-test scores was found for all three tests. The present results should be considered preliminary at best for associating anatomic learning in an integrated curriculum with spatial and visual reasoning abilities. Other components of the curriculum, for instance histology or physiology, could also influence the improved spatial visualization and visual reasoning test scores at week 32.

  15. Cognitive function and the emotional state of stroke patients on antihypertensive therapy.

    PubMed

    Starchina, Yu A; Parfenov, V A; Chazova, I E; Sinitsyn, V E; Pustovitova, T S; Kolos, I P; Ustyuzhanin, D V

    2007-01-01

    Combined antihypertensive therapy based on 2.5-5 mg of cilazapril (an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) to normalize arterial pressure (ABP) was studied in 22 patients (12 male, 10 female) aged 49-74 years (mean 63 +/- 7 years) with stroke (18 patients) or transient ischemic attacks (three patients). Magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) including perfusion studies, along with neuropsychological studies and assessment of emotional status (Beck depression inventory, Spielberger anxiety scale), were performed before and after treatment. After six months of treatment, patients showed normalization of ABP (systolic pressure decreased from 154.7 +/- 12 to 128 +/- 23 mmHg, diastolic from 90.3 +/- 9.6 to 79.4 +/- 23 mmHg). There were no side effects and no patient experienced stroke. MRT revealed no signs of new foci and there were no significant changes in brain blood flow. By the end of treatment, improvements in cognitive functions were noted on the Mini Mental State Examination, the 10-word memory test, the Boston naming test, or the Wisconsin card-sorting test, though there were no changes in the patients' emotional status.

  16. A study on the achievable data rate in massive MIMO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salh, Adeeb; Audah, Lukman; Shah, Nor Shahida M.; Hamzah, Shipun A.

    2017-09-01

    The achievable high data rates depend on the ability of massive multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) for the fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks, where the massive MIMO systems can support very high energy and spectral efficiencies. A major challenge in mobile broadband networks is how to support the throughput in the future 5G, where the highlight of 5G expected to provide high speed internet for every user. The performance massive MIMO system increase with linear minimum mean square error (MMSE), zero forcing (ZF) and maximum ratio transmission (MRT) when the number of antennas increases to infinity, by deriving the closed-form approximation for achievable data rate expressions. Meanwhile, the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be mitigated by using MMSE, ZF and MRT, which are used to suppress the inter-cell interference signals between neighboring cells. The achievable sum rate for MMSE is improved based on the distributed users inside cell, mitigated the inter-cell interference caused when send the same signal by other cells. By contrast, MMSE is better than ZF in perfect channel state information (CSI) for approximately 20% of the achievable sum rate.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of butafosfan after intravenous and intramuscular administration in piglets.

    PubMed

    Sun, F; Wang, J; Yang, S; Zhang, S; Shen, J; Xingyuan, C

    2017-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of butafosfan in piglets were investigated following intravenous and intramuscular administration at a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Plasma concentration-time data and relevant parameters were best described by noncompartmental analysis after intravenous and intramuscular injection. The data were analyzed through WinNolin 6.3 software. After intravenous administration, the mean pharmacokinetic parameters were determined as T 1/2λz of 3.30 h, Cl of 0.16 L kg/h, AUC of 64.49 ± 15.07 μg h/mL, V ss of 0.81 ± 0.44/kg, and MRT of 1.51 ± 0.27 h. Following intramuscular administration, the C max (28.11 μg/mL) was achieved at T max (0.31 h) with an absolute availability of 74.69%. Other major parameters including AUC and MRT were 48.29 ± 21.67 μg h/mL and 1.74 ± 0.29 h, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Two-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann Method and its Application to Advective-Diffusive-Reactive Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Zhifeng; Yang, Xiaofan; Li, Siliang

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) based on single-relaxation-time (SRT) or multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operators is widely used in simulating flow and transport phenomena. The LBM based on two-relaxation-time (TRT) collision operators possesses strengths from the SRT and MRT LBMs, such as its simple implementation and good numerical stability, although tedious mathematical derivations and presentations of the TRT LBM hinder its application to a broad range of flow and transport phenomena. This paper describes the TRT LBM clearly and provides a pseudocode for easy implementation. Various transport phenomena were simulated using the TRT LBM to illustrate its applications in subsurface environments.more » These phenomena include advection-diffusion in uniform flow, Taylor dispersion in a pipe, solute transport in a packed column, reactive transport in uniform flow, and bacterial chemotaxis in porous media. Finally, the TRT LBM demonstrated good numerical performance in terms of accuracy and stability in predicting these transport phenomena. Therefore, the TRT LBM is a powerful tool to simulate various geophysical and biogeochemical processes in subsurface environments.« less

  19. Sex and cultural differences in spatial performance between Japanese and North Americans.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Maiko; Spiers, Mary V

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Asians perform better than North Americans on spatial tasks but show smaller sex differences. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between long-term experience with a pictorial written language and spatial performance. It was hypothesized that native Japanese Kanji (a complex pictorial written language) educated adults would show smaller sex differences on spatial tasks than Japanese Americans or North Americans without Kanji education. A total of 80 young healthy participants (20 native Japanese speakers, 20 Japanese Americans-non Japanese speaking, and 40 North Americans-non Japanese speaking) completed the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT), the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and customized 2D and 3D spatial object location memory tests. As predicted, main effects revealed men performed better on the MRT and RCFT and women performed better on the spatial object location memory tests. Also, as predicted, native Japanese performed better on all tests than the other groups. In contrast to the other groups, native Japanese showed a decreased magnitude of sex differences on aspects of the RCFT (immediate and delayed recall) and no significant sex difference on the efficiency of the strategy used to copy and encode the RCFT figure. This study lends support to the idea that intensive experience over time with a pictorial written language (i.e., Japanese Kanji) may contribute to increased spatial performance on some spatial tasks as well as diminish sex differences in performance on tasks that most resemble Kanji.

  20. Identification of a novel homozygous TRAPPC9 gene mutation causing non-syndromic intellectual disability, speech disorder, and secondary microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Ansar A; Blaesius, Kathrin; Hu, Hao; Latif, Zahid; Picker-Minh, Sylvie; Khan, Muhammad N; Farooq, Sundas; Khan, Muzammil A; Kaindl, Angela M

    2017-12-01

    TRAPPC9 gene mutations have been linked recently to autosomal recessive mental retardation 13 (MRT13; MIM#613192) with only eight families reported world-wide. We assessed patients from two consanguineous pedigrees of Pakistani descent with non-syndromic intellectual disability and postnatal microcephaly through whole exome sequencing (WES) and cosegregation analysis. Here we report six further patients from two pedigrees with homozygous TRAPPC9 gene mutations, the novel nonsense mutation c.2065G>T (p.E689*) and the previously identified nonsense mutation c.1423C>T (p.R475*). We provide an overview of previously reported clinical features and highlight common symptoms and variability of MRT13. Common findings are intellectual disability and absent speech, and frequently microcephaly, motor delay and pathological findings on MRI including diminished cerebral white matter volume are present. Mutations in TRAPPC9 should be considered in non-syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability with severe speech disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Gender effects on mental rotation in pilots vs. nonpilots.

    PubMed

    Verde, Paola; Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Trivelloni, Pierandrea; Guariglia, Cecilia; Tomao, Enrico

    2013-07-01

    Mental rotation ability has an important role in human navigation and, together with other cognitive abilities such as processing speed, working memory, and attention, is crucial for aircraft navigation. In the human performance literature, mental rotation tasks have consistently yielded reports of gender differences favoring men. The aim of this study was to compare the gender difference measured in a specialized population of aviators vs. a matched population of nonpilots. : Studied were 41 pilots (20 men and 21 women) and 38 nonpilots (20 men and 18 women) matched for age and education. Pilots were stratified for flying hours. Participants performed a mental rotation task (MRT) in which accuracy and response time were recorded, and also completed sense-of-direction (SOD) and spatial cognitive styles self-evaluation scales. Men had significantly smaller response time in the MRT (men 279.6 +/- 147.0 s, women 401.6 +/- 361.3) and greater SOD (men's score 49.1 +/- 8.6, women's score 46.6 +/- 7.8), but these differences were absent among pilots. A positive relationship was also identified between pilots' response times and their flight hours. These data suggest that the effect of gender on the speed of cognitive spatial processing is absent in a population with aviation experience. Gender effects may be associated with a low spatial cognitive style, whereas in groups such as aviators, who are expected to have high spatial cognitive style, other factors such as experience may come into play.

  2. Mental rotation task in a pilot during and after pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, Laura; Verde, Paola; Bianchini, Filippo; Morgagni, Fabio; Guariglia, Cecilia; Strollo, Felice

    2013-10-01

    Discordant findings have been reported about the change in pregnant women's cognitive test performance. Visuo-spatial abilities, which are crucial in terrestrial/flight navigation, could be influenced by hormonal variations. A 32-yr-old Italian Air Force pilot underwent a 2-D Mental Rotation Task (MRT) and hormonal assessment in the second trimester of pregnancy and 1 yr after delivery. Her performance was compared with that of two nonpregnant groups of women: one with flying experience and the other without. Estradiol and progesterone were significantly higher in pregnancy compared with postpartum, while testosterone was almost unchanged. During pregnancy, we observed a significant difference in the subject's response time compared with pilots (she was slower) and nonpilots (she was faster). One year after delivery, her performance was still better than the nonpilot group and was almost the same as the pilot group. Our data are consistent with an effect of pregnancy on visuo-spatial ability that can last for some time after delivery, even with the early recovery of the hormonal levels. MRT smoothly changed in our subject, supporting previous findings that women who are experts in flight navigation are less sensitive to hormonal fluctuations. In this case, visuospatial ability requiring effortful processing underwent variations during pregnancy and postpartum. Further studies are needed in order to confirm our observations in a wider population.

  3. Exploratory Study on VO2 On-kinetics During Treadmill Walking in Women With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Keyser, Randall E.; Rus, Violeta; Mikdashi, Jamal A.; Handwerger, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if oxygen consumption (VO2) on-kinetics differed between groups of women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and sedentary but otherwise healthy controls. Design Exploratory case control study. Setting Medical school exercise physiology laboratory. Participants Convenience samples of 12 women with SLE and 10 sedentary but otherwise healthy controls. Intervention None. Main Outcome Measurements VO2 on-kinetics indices including time to steady state, rate constant, mean response time (MRT), transition constant, and oxygen deficit measured during bouts of treadmill walking at intensities of 3-METS and 5-METS. Results Time to steady state and oxygen deficit were increased and rate constant was decreased in the women with SLE compared to controls. At the 5-MET energy demand, the transition constant was lower and MRT was longer in the women with SLE than in the controls. For a comparable, relative energy expenditure that was slightly lower than the anaerobic threshold, the transition constant was higher in the controls than in the women with SLE. Conclusion VO2 on-kinetics was prolonged in the women with SLE. The prolongation was concomitant with an increase in oxygen deficit and may underlie performance fatigability in women with SLE. PMID:20801259

  4. Multiple-relaxation-time color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model for simulating two-phase flows with high density ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Ba, Yan; Liu, Haihu; Li, Qing

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, we propose a color-gradient lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for simulating two-phase flows with high density ratio and high Reynolds number. The model applies a multi-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator to enhance the stability of the simulation. A source term, which is derived by the Chapman-Enskog analysis, is added into the MRT LB equation so that the Navier-Stokes equations can be exactly recovered. Also, a new form of the equilibrium density distribution function is used to simplify the source term. To validate the proposed model, steady flows of a static droplet and the layered channel flow are first simulatedmore » with density ratios up to 1000. Small values of spurious velocities and interfacial tension errors are found in the static droplet test, and improved profiles of velocity are obtained by the present model in simulating channel flows. Then, two cases of unsteady flows, Rayleigh-Taylor instability and droplet splashing on a thin film, are simulated. In the former case, the density ratio of 3 and Reynolds numbers of 256 and 2048 are considered. The interface shapes and spike/bubble positions are in good agreement with the results of previous studies. In the latter case, the droplet spreading radius is found to obey the power law proposed in previous studies for the density ratio of 100 and Reynolds number up to 500.« less

  5. Reaction Time Variability Associated with Reading Skills in Poor Readers with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Denton, Carolyn A.; Vaughn, Aaron J.; Peugh, James; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Linkages between neuropsychological functioning (i.e., response inhibition, processing speed, reaction time variability) and word reading have been documented among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and children with Reading Disorders. However, associations between neuropsychological functioning and other aspects of reading (i.e., fluency, comprehension) have not been well-documented among children with comorbid ADHD and Reading Disorder. Method Children with ADHD and poor word reading (i.e., ≤25th percentile) completed a stop signal task (SST) and tests of word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. Multivariate multiple regression was conducted predicting the reading skills from SST variables [i.e., mean reaction time (MRT), reaction time standard deviation (SDRT), and stop signal reaction time (SSRT)]. Results SDRT predicted word reading, reading fluency, and reading comprehension. MRT and SSRT were not associated with any reading skill. After including word reading in models predicting reading fluency and reading comprehension, the effects of SDRT were minimized. Discussion Reaction time variability (i.e., SDRT) reflects impairments in information processing and failure to maintain executive control. The pattern of results from this study suggest SDRT exerts its effects on reading fluency and reading comprehension through its effect on word reading (i.e., decoding) and that this relation may be related to observed deficits in higher-level elements of reading. PMID:24528537

  6. Evolution of sausage and helical modes in magnetized thin-foil cylindrical liners driven by a Z-pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Lau, Y. Y.; Zhang, P.; Campbell, P. C.; Steiner, A. M.; Jordan, N. M.; McBride, R. D.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present experimental results on axially magnetized (Bz = 0.5 - 2.0 T), thin-foil (400 nm-thick) cylindrical liner-plasmas driven with ˜600 kA by the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-Pinch Experiments, which is a linear transformer driver at the University of Michigan. We show that: (1) the applied axial magnetic field, irrespective of its direction (e.g., parallel or anti-parallel to the flow of current), reduces the instability amplitude for pure magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes [defined as modes devoid of the acceleration-driven magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability]; (2) axially magnetized, imploding liners (where MHD modes couple to MRT) generate m = 1 or m = 2 helical modes that persist from the implosion to the subsequent explosion stage; (3) the merging of instability structures is a mechanism that enables the appearance of an exponential instability growth rate for a longer than expected time-period; and (4) an inverse cascade in both the axial and azimuthal wavenumbers, k and m, may be responsible for the final m = 2 helical structure observed in our experiments. These experiments are particularly relevant to the magnetized liner inertial fusion program pursued at Sandia National Laboratories, where helical instabilities have been observed.

  7. The MODIS reprojection tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dwyer, John L.; Schmidt, Gail L.; Qu, J.J.; Gao, W.; Kafatos, M.; Murphy , R.E.; Salomonson, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The MODIS Reprojection Tool (MRT) is designed to help individuals work with MODIS Level-2G, Level-3, and Level-4 land data products. These products are referenced to a global tiling scheme in which each tile is approximately 10° latitude by 10° longitude and non-overlapping (Fig. 9.1). If desired, the user may reproject only selected portions of the product (spatial or parameter subsetting). The software may also be used to convert MODIS products to file formats (generic binary and GeoTIFF) that are more readily compatible with existing software packages. The MODIS land products distributed by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) are in the Hierarchical Data Format - Earth Observing System (HDF-EOS), developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign for the NASA EOS Program. Each HDF-EOS file is comprised of one or more science data sets (SDSs) corresponding to geophysical or biophysical parameters. Metadata are embedded in the HDF file as well as contained in a .met file that is associated with each HDF-EOS file. The MRT supports 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit integer data (both signed and unsigned), as well as 32-bit float data. The data type of the output is the same as the data type of each corresponding input SDS.

  8. Magnetic Helicities and Dynamo Action in Magneto-rotational Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.

    We examine the relationship between magnetic flux generation, taken as an indicator of large-scale dynamo action, and magnetic helicity, computed as an integral over the dynamo volume, in a simple dynamo. We consider dynamo action driven by magneto-rotational turbulence (MRT) within the shearing-box approximation. We consider magnetically open boundary conditions that allow a flux of helicity in or out of the computational domain. We circumvent the problem of the lack of gauge invariance in open domains by choosing a particular gauge—the winding gauge—that provides a natural interpretation in terms of the average winding number of pairwise field lines. We usemore » this gauge precisely to define and measure the helicity and the helicity flux for several realizations of dynamo action. We find in these cases that the system as a whole does not break reflectional symmetry and that the total helicity remains small even in cases when substantial magnetic flux is generated. We find no particular connection between the generation of magnetic flux and the helicity or the helicity flux through the boundaries. We suggest that this result may be due to the essentially nonlinear nature of the dynamo processes in MRT.« less

  9. Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions.

  10. Meta-analysis of Magnetic Marker Monitoring Data to Characterize the Movement of Single Unit Dosage Forms Though the Gastrointestinal Tract Under Fed and Fasting Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hénin, Emilie; Bergstrand, Martin; Weitschies, Werner; Karlsson, Mats O

    2016-03-01

    To develop a model predicting movement of non-disintegrating single unit dosage forms (or "tablet") through the gastrointestinal tract and characterizing the effect of food intake, based on Magnetic Marker Monitoring data, allowing real-time location of a magnetically labeled formulation. Five studies including 30 individuals in 94 occasions under 3 food status were considered. The mean residence time (MRT) of the tablet and the effect of food intake in proximal (PS) and distal stomach (DS), small intestine (SI), ascending (AC), transverse (TC) and descending colon (DC) were estimated using a Markov model for probabilities of movement. Under fasting conditions, tablet MRTs were 9.4 min in PS, 10.4 in DS, 246 in SI, 545 in AC, 135 in TC, and 286 in DC. A meal taken simultaneous to tablet intake prolonged tablet MRT to 99 min in PS and to 232 in DS; probability of gastric emptying increased of 89% each hour from 2.25 h after meal. The effect of a gastroileac reflex, caused by a secondary meal, accelerated the transit from terminal SI to AC. This model-based knowledge can be used as a part of mechanism-based models for drug absorption, applied for bottom-up predictions and/or top-down estimation.

  11. Evaluation of subjective thermal strain in different kitchen working environments using subjective judgment scales.

    PubMed

    Haruyama, Yasuo; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the subjective thermal strain of workers in kitchen working environments, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 991 workers in 126 kitchen facilities in Japan, using a self-reporting questionnaire survey and subjective judgment scales (SJS). The ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured in 10 kitchen facilities of the 126 kitchens. The association of SJS with the types of kitchen was estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of the 991 kitchen workers, 809 (81%) responded to the questionnaire survey. Compared with the electric kitchens, the proportion of workers who perceived the room temperature as hot to very hot was significantly higher, and the ambient temperature, MRT, and WBGT were significantly higher in the gas kitchens. Compared with the electric kitchens, workers in gas kitchens had a more than fivefold (males) and tenfold (females) higher SJS adjusted for confounding factors (male odds ratio (OR), 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-15.9; and female OR, 10.9; 95%CI, 3.89-30.5). Although SJS was affected by some confounding factors, our results suggest that workers in gas kitchens might be exposed to a higher heat strains than those in electric kitchens.

  12. Seasonal variations drive short-term dynamics and partitioning of recently assimilated carbon in the foliage of adult beech and pine.

    PubMed

    Desalme, Dorine; Priault, Pierrick; Gérant, Dominique; Dannoura, Masako; Maillard, Pascale; Plain, Caroline; Epron, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    13 CO 2 pulse-labelling experiments were performed in situ on adult beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and pines (Pinus pinaster) at different phenological stages to study seasonal and interspecific short-term dynamics and partitioning of recently assimilated carbon (C) in leaves. Polar fraction (PF, including soluble sugars, amino acids and organic acids) and starch were purified from foliage sampled during a 10-d chase period. C contents, isotopic compositions and 13 C dynamics parameters were determined in bulk foliage, PF and starch. Decrease in 13 C amount in bulk foliage followed a two-pool exponential model highlighting 13 C partitioning between 'mobile' and 'stable' pools, the relative proportion of the latter being maximal in beech leaves in May. Early in the growing season, new foliage acted as a strong C sink in both species, but although young leaves and needles were already photosynthesizing, the latter were still supplied with previous-year needle photosynthates 2 months after budburst. Mean 13 C residence times (MRT) were minimal in summer, indicating fast photosynthate export to supply perennial organ growth in both species. In late summer, MRT differed between senescing beech leaves and overwintering pine needles. Seasonal variations of 13 C partitioning and dynamics in field-grown tree foliage are closely linked to phenological differences between deciduous and evergreen trees. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Molecular investigation of mental retardation locus gene PRSS12 by linkage analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Zafar; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Ahmad, Jamil; Yousaf, Muhammad Zubair; Asif, Muhammad; Shah, Sajjad Ali

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of families having mental retardation in Pakistani population. We enrolled seven mentally retarded (MR) families with two or more affected individuals. Family history was taken to minimize the chances of other abnormalities. Pedigrees were drawn using the Cyrillic software (version 2.1). The structure of pedigrees shows that all the marriages are consanguineous and the families have recessive mode of inheritance. All the families were studied by linkage analysis to mental retardation locus (MRT1)/gene PRSS12. Three STR markers (D4S191, D4S2392, and D4S3024) in vicinity of mental retardation (MR) locus (MRT1)/gene PRSS12 were amplified on all the sample of each family by PCR. The PCR products were then genotyped on non denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The Haplotype were constructed to determine the pattern of inheritance and also to determine that a family was linked or unlinked to gene PRSS12. One out of the seven families was potentially linked to gene PRSS12, while the other six families remain unlinked. PMID:22090715

  14. Molecular investigation of mental retardation locus gene PRSS12 by linkage analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zafar; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Ahmad, Jamil; Yousaf, Muhammad Zubair; Asif, Muhammad; Shah, Sajjad Ali

    2011-05-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of families having mental retardation in Pakistani population. We enrolled seven mentally retarded (MR) families with two or more affected individuals. Family history was taken to minimize the chances of other abnormalities. Pedigrees were drawn using the Cyrillic software (version 2.1). The structure of pedigrees shows that all the marriages are consanguineous and the families have recessive mode of inheritance. All the families were studied by linkage analysis to mental retardation locus (MRT1)/gene PRSS12. Three STR markers (D4S191, D4S2392, and D4S3024) in vicinity of mental retardation (MR) locus (MRT1)/gene PRSS12 were amplified on all the sample of each family by PCR. The PCR products were then genotyped on non denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The Haplotype were constructed to determine the pattern of inheritance and also to determine that a family was linked or unlinked to gene PRSS12. One out of the seven families was potentially linked to gene PRSS12, while the other six families remain unlinked.

  15. Segmental intelligibility of synthetic speech produced by rule.

    PubMed

    Logan, J S; Greene, B G; Pisoni, D B

    1989-08-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation that employed the modified rhyme test (MRT) to measure the segmental intelligibility of synthetic speech generated automatically by rule. Synthetic speech produced by ten text-to-speech systems was studied and compared to natural speech. A variation of the standard MRT was also used to study the effects of response set size on perceptual confusions. Results indicated that the segmental intelligibility scores formed a continuum. Several systems displayed very high levels of performance that were close to or equal to scores obtained with natural speech; other systems displayed substantially worse performance compared to natural speech. The overall performance of the best system, DECtalk--Paul, was equivalent to the data obtained with natural speech for consonants in syllable-initial position. The findings from this study are discussed in terms of the use of a set of standardized procedures for measuring intelligibility of synthetic speech under controlled laboratory conditions. Recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions in which greater demands are made on the listener's processing resources is also considered. The wide range of intelligibility scores obtained in the present study demonstrates important differences in perception and suggests that not all synthetic speech is perceptually equivalent to the listener.

  16. Segmental intelligibility of synthetic speech produced by rule

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John S.; Greene, Beth G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation that employed the modified rhyme test (MRT) to measure the segmental intelligibility of synthetic speech generated automatically by rule. Synthetic speech produced by ten text-to-speech systems was studied and compared to natural speech. A variation of the standard MRT was also used to study the effects of response set size on perceptual confusions. Results indicated that the segmental intelligibility scores formed a continuum. Several systems displayed very high levels of performance that were close to or equal to scores obtained with natural speech; other systems displayed substantially worse performance compared to natural speech. The overall performance of the best system, DECtalk—Paul, was equivalent to the data obtained with natural speech for consonants in syllable-initial position. The findings from this study are discussed in terms of the use of a set of standardized procedures for measuring intelligibility of synthetic speech under controlled laboratory conditions. Recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions in which greater demands are made on the listener’s processing resources is also considered. The wide range of intelligibility scores obtained in the present study demonstrates important differences in perception and suggests that not all synthetic speech is perceptually equivalent to the listener. PMID:2527884

  17. SciTech Connect

    Awe, T. J., E-mail: tjawe@sandia.gov; Jennings, C. A.; McBride, R. D.

    Recent experiments at the Sandia National Laboratories Z Facility have, for the first time, studied the implosion dynamics of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) style liners that were pre-imposed with a uniform axial magnetic field. As reported [T. J. Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] when premagnetized with a 7 or 10 T axial field, these liners developed 3D-helix-like hydrodynamic instabilities; such instabilities starkly contrast with the azimuthally correlated magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities that have been consistently observed in many earlier non-premagnetized experiments. The helical structure persisted throughout the implosion, even though the azimuthal drive field greatly exceeded themore » expected axial field at the liner's outer wall for all but the earliest stages of the experiment. Whether this modified instability structure has practical importance for magneto-inertial fusion concepts depends primarily on whether the modified instability structure is more stable than standard azimuthally correlated MRT instabilities. In this manuscript, we discuss the evolution of the helix-like instability observed on premagnetized liners. While a first principles explanation of this observation remains elusive, recent 3D simulations suggest that if a small amplitude helical perturbation can be seeded on the liner's outer surface, no further influence from the axial field is required for the instability to grow.« less

  18. Biologically effective dose in fractionated molecular radiotherapy—application to treatment of neuroblastoma with 131I-mIBG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mínguez, Pablo; Gustafsson, Johan; Flux, Glenn; Sjögreen Gleisner, Katarina

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the biologically effective dose (BED) is investigated for fractionated molecular radiotherapy (MRT). A formula for the Lea-Catcheside G-factor is derived which takes the possibility of combinations of sub-lethal damage due to radiation from different administrations of activity into account. In contrast to the previous formula, the new G-factor has an explicit dependence on the time interval between administrations. The BED of tumour and liver is analysed in MRT of neuroblastoma with 131I-mIBG, following a common two-administration protocol with a mass-based activity prescription. A BED analysis is also made for modified schedules, when due to local regulations there is a maximum permitted activity for each administration. Modifications include both the simplistic approach of delivering this maximum permitted activity in each of the two administrations, and also the introduction of additional administrations while maintaining the protocol-prescribed total activity. For the cases studied with additional (i.e. more than two) administrations, BED of tumour and liver decreases at most 12% and 29%, respectively. The decrease in BED of the tumour is however modest compared to the two-administration schedule using the maximum permitted activity, where the decrease compared to the original schedule is 47%.

  19. Laryngeal electromyography: electrode guidance based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance tomography images of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Storck, Claudio; Gehrer, Raphael; Hofer, Michael; Neumayer, Bernhard; Stollberger, Rudolf; Schumacher, Ralf; Gugatschka, Markus; Friedrich, Gerhard; Wolfensberger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is an important tool for the assessment of laryngeal nerve and muscle functioning. The purpose of the study was to determine electrode insertion angle and insertion depth for the various laryngeal muscles. Twenty-three cadaver larynges were examined with magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and Materialize Interactive Medical Image Control System (Leuven, Belgium) 3-dimensional (3D) imaging software. Geometrical analysis was used to calculate the electrode insertion angles. All laryngeal muscles could be identified and 3D visualized on MRT scans. Although the insertion angles were the same in male and female larynges, the insertion depth was significantly larger in male than in female larynges (P<0.05). Of particular clinical importance is the fact that the electrode has to be directed lateral and upward for the thyroarytenoid muscle but lateral and downward for the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle (insertion point=midline lower border of the thyroid). This is the first study that analyzes electrode insertion angles and insertion depths for each laryngeal muscle using 3D imaging. We hope that the information gained from this study will help clinicians performing LEMG to localize the individual laryngeal muscles. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in animal models].

    PubMed

    Paprottka, P M; Zengel, P; Ingrisch, M; Cyran, C C; Eichhorn, M; Reiser, M F; Nikolaou, K; Clevert, D-A

    2011-06-01

    In the past the detection of tumor perfusion was achieved solely via invasive procedures, such as intravital microscopy or with the help of costly modalities, such as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) or the combined use of positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT). Ultrasound offers the non-invasive display of organs without usage of ionizing radiation and it is widely available. However, colour-coded ultrasound and power Doppler do not allow the detection of tumor microcirculation. The introduction of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) as well as new high-frequency ultrasound probes made it possible to detect and quantify tumor microcirculation with high resolution. CEUS has been used clinically on human beings for more than 10 years. During the last years different tumor models in experimental animals were used for the establishment of this new technique, e.g. in rats, hamsters and mice. CEUS allows the detection of functional parameters, such as the angiogenetic metabolic status of tissue pretreatment and posttreatment. Further research is required to solve the problems of absolute quantification of these perfusion parameters to allow the comparison of CEUS with other modalities (e.g. MRT and CT).

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Electrothermal Instability on Planar Foil Ablation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Adam; Patel, Sonal; Yager-Elorriaga, David; Jordan, Nicholas; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Lau, Y. Y.

    2014-10-01

    The electrothermal instability (ETI) is an important early-time physical effect on pulsed power foil ablation experiments due to its ability to seed the destructive magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. ETI occurs whenever electrical resistivity has temperature dependence; when resistivity increases with temperature, as with solid metal liners or foils, ETI forms striation structures perpendicular to current flow. These striations provide an initial perturbation for the MRT instability, which is the dominant late-time instability in planar foil ablations. The MAIZE linear transformer driver was used to drive current pulses of approximately 600 kA into 400 nm-thick aluminum foils in order to study ETI in planar geometry. Shadowgraph images of the aluminum plasmas were taken for multiple shots at various times within approximately 50 ns of current start. Fourier analysis extracted the approximate wavelengths of the instability structures on the plasma-vacuum interface. Surface metrology of pre-shot foils was performed to provide a comparison between surface roughness features and resulting plasma structure. This work was supported by US DoE. S.G. Patel and A.M. Steiner supported by NPSC funded by Sandia. D.A. Yager supported by NSF fellowship Grant # DGE 1256260.

  2. Clinical Application of Standardized Cognitive Assessment Using fMRI. I. Matrix Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Mark D.; Fong, Alina K.

    2008-01-01

    Functional MRI is increasingly recognized for its potential as a powerful new tool in clinical neuropsychology. This is likely due to the fact that, with some degree of innovation, it is possible to convert practically any familiar cognitive test into one that can be performed in the MRI scanning environment. However, like any assessment approach, meaningful interpretation of fMRI data for the purpose of patient evaluation crucially requires normative data derived from a sample of unimpaired persons, against which individual patients may be compared. Currently, no such normative data are available for any fMRI-based cognitive testing protocol. In this paper, we report the first of a series of fMRI-compatible cognitive assessment protocols, a matrix reasoning test (f-MRT), for which normative samples of functional activation have been collected from unimpaired control subjects and structured in a manner that makes individual patient evaluation possible in terms of familiar z-score distributions. Practical application of the f-MRT is demonstrated via a contrastive case-study of two individuals with cognitive impairment in which fMRI data identifies subtleties in patient deficits otherwise missed by conventional measures of performance. PMID:19641250

  3. The effects of golf training in patients with stroke: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schachten, Tobias; Jansen, Petra

    2015-05-01

    Stroke is the most common neurological disease and the primary cause of lifelong disability in industrialized countries. Because of this it is important to investigate any kind of successful therapy. From the 24 recruited stroke patients who were between 23 and 72 years old, 14 patients were separated either in a golf training group (EG), or a social communication meeting (CG). Both groups met for one hour sessions, twice a week, for ten weeks. All participants completed assessment tests before and after the experimental period: cognitive tests measuring attention (Go/No-Go task), visual-spatial memory (Block-Tapping test) and mental rotation performance (MRT); a balance test (Berg Balance Scale), and an emotional well-being test (CES-D-Scale). The results show that both groups improved in the CES Scale, the block-tapping test and the balance test. In addition, stroke patients who received a golf training showed a significant improvement in the MRT comparing to the control group (CG). It is indicated that golf training can improve visual imagery ability in stroke patients, even late after stroke.

  4. Effect of dimethicone (polysilane gel) on the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Presle, N; Lapicque, F; Gillet, P; Herrmann, M A; Bannwarth, B; Netter, P

    1998-06-01

    Since dimethicone may be employed to improve gastrointestinal tolerability of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), we studied its influence on the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen in subjects receiving a single oral dose of racemic ketoprofen. In a cross-over experimental design, 12 healthy fasting volunteers were given a single oral dose (100 mg) of racemic ketoprofen, administered with or without dimethicone. The kinetic parameters measured were area under the concentration (AUC), maximum peak plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach peak concentration (tmax), elimination half-life (t1/2), mean residence time (MRT) and urinary excretion for R and S enantiomers. Dimethicone reduced the peak concentration of both R and S ketoprofen by about 10% (P<0.05) and also induced a slight but non-significant increase in the mean time to achieve peak concentration. However, this treatment had no significant effect on the bioavailability and the elimination of R and S enantiomers, as shown by AUC, t1/2 and MRT values. The absorption patterns were equivalent for both ketoprofen isomers, since plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were similar. Nevertheless, the urinary recovery was significantly lower for R ketoprofen than for its antipode. The administration of dimethicone did not alter this stereoselectivity. The administration of dimethicone to alleviate the epigastralgic effects related to NSAIDs does not affect the efficacy of the treatment. Dimethicone did not significantly alter the bioavailability of ketoprofen, chosen as an example of an NSAID, especially that of the pharmacologically active S enantiomer.

  5. The effects of meteorological factors on the occurrence of Ganoderma sp. spores in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2011-03-01

    Ganoderma sp. is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we analysed fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland, and its dependence on meteorological conditions. Statistical models for the airborne spore concentrations of Ganoderma sp.—one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area—were developed. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004-2008 using a volumetric Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation, maximum and average wind speed, relative humidity and maximum, minimum, average and dew point temperatures. These data were used as the explaining variables. Due to the non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the applied modelling techniques were artificial neural networks (ANN) and mutlivariate regression trees (MRT). The obtained classification and MRT models predicted threshold conditions above which Ganoderma sp. appeared in the air. It turned out that dew point temperature was the main factor influencing the presence or absence of Ganoderma sp. spores. Further analysis of spore seasons revealed that the airborne fungal spore concentration depended only slightly on meteorological factors.

  6. Surface deformation induced by water pumping for construction of Mass Rapid Transportation in Taipei basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. C.; Wu, P. C.; Tung, H.; Tsai, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    In 1968, there were 2,200 wells in the Taipei Basin used for water supply to meet the requirement of high population density. The overuse of ground water lead to the land subsidence rate up to 5 cm/yr. Although the government had already begun to limit groundwater pumping since 1968, the groundwater in the Taipei Basin demonstrated temporary fluctuation induced by pumping water for large deep excavation site or engineering usage. The previous study based on precise leveling suggested that the surface deformation was highly associated with the recovery of water level. In 1989, widespread uplift dominated in Taipei basin due to the recovery of ground water Table. In this study, we use 37 high-resolution X-band COSMO-SkyMed radar images from May 2011 to April 2015 to characterize deformation pattern in the period of construction of Mass Rapid Transportation (MRT). We also use 30 wells and 380 benchmarks of precise leveling in Taipei basin to study the correlation of surface deformation and change of ground water table. The storability is roughly constant across most of the aquifer with values between 0.8 x 10-4 and 1.3 x 10-3. Moreover, the high water pumping in two major aquifers, Jignme and Wuku Foramtions, before the underground construction for MRT led to inflict surface deformation and no time delay observed for surface deformation during the water pumping. It implies that the poro-elastic effect dominates in major aquifers in Taipei basin.

  7. Medical Image Fusion Based on Feature Extraction and Sparse Representation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Gao; Zongxi, Song

    2017-01-01

    As a novel multiscale geometric analysis tool, sparse representation has shown many advantages over the conventional image representation methods. However, the standard sparse representation does not take intrinsic structure and its time complexity into consideration. In this paper, a new fusion mechanism for multimodal medical images based on sparse representation and decision map is proposed to deal with these problems simultaneously. Three decision maps are designed including structure information map (SM) and energy information map (EM) as well as structure and energy map (SEM) to make the results reserve more energy and edge information. SM contains the local structure feature captured by the Laplacian of a Gaussian (LOG) and EM contains the energy and energy distribution feature detected by the mean square deviation. The decision map is added to the normal sparse representation based method to improve the speed of the algorithm. Proposed approach also improves the quality of the fused results by enhancing the contrast and reserving more structure and energy information from the source images. The experiment results of 36 groups of CT/MR, MR-T1/MR-T2, and CT/PET images demonstrate that the method based on SR and SEM outperforms five state-of-the-art methods. PMID:28321246

  8. Assessment of rat optic nerve damage due to microbeam radiation therapy in the treatment of glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, A; Worobec, S; Schultke, E

    2008-01-01

    Glioblastomas are the most common and aggressive subtype of human primary brain tumors. Due to their uncontrolled cellular proliferation, intense invasion, and lack of apoptosis, they are extremely difficult to treat. Currently, different approaches such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy have been employed as possible treatments however thus far; these treatments are not curative. Currently, microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is being trialed in animal models of malignant brain tumors (rats) to aid in treatment. Some of the protocols tested have been shown to significantly increase survival rates. However, due to the high x-ray doses uses in MRT, the surrounding tissue of the targeted Glioblastomas may be irreversibly damaged. In previous studies, lens damage and clouding of the cornea have been observed in microbeam exposed eyes. However, to date no studies have assessed optic nerve damage. Therefore, this study examines the potential rat optic nerve damage following exposure to microbeam radiation therapy in the treatment of Glioblastomas. Although there appears to be no significant damage to the optic nerve, slight inflammation was observed within the extra ocular muscle.

  9. Precise measurement of renal filtration and vascular parameters using a two-compartment model for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the kidney gives realistic normal values.

    PubMed

    Tofts, Paul S; Cutajar, Marica; Mendichovszky, Iosif A; Peters, A Michael; Gordon, Isky

    2012-06-01

    To model the uptake phase of T(1)-weighted DCE-MRI data in normal kidneys and to demonstrate that the fitted physiological parameters correlate with published normal values. The model incorporates delay and broadening of the arterial vascular peak as it appears in the capillary bed, two distinct compartments for renal intravascular and extravascular Gd tracer, and uses a small-vessel haematocrit value of 24%. Four physiological parameters can be estimated: regional filtration K ( trans ) (ml min(-1) [ml tissue](-1)), perfusion F (ml min(-1) [100 ml tissue](-1)), blood volume v ( b ) (%) and mean residence time MRT (s). From these are found the filtration fraction (FF; %) and total GFR (ml min(-1)). Fifteen healthy volunteers were imaged twice using oblique coronal slices every 2.5 s to determine the reproducibility. Using parenchymal ROIs, group mean values for renal biomarkers all agreed with published values: K ( trans ): 0.25; F: 219; v ( b ): 34; MRT: 5.5; FF: 15; GFR: 115. Nominally cortical ROIs consistently underestimated total filtration (by ~50%). Reproducibility was 7-18%. Sensitivity analysis showed that these fitted parameters are most vulnerable to errors in the fixed parameters kidney T(1), flip angle, haematocrit and relaxivity. These renal biomarkers can potentially measure renal physiology in diagnosis and treatment. • Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can measure renal function. • Filtration and perfusion values in healthy volunteers agree with published normal values. • Precision measured in healthy volunteers is between 7 and 15%.

  10. Development of the electrothermal instability from resistive inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Edmund; Awe, T. J.; Bauer, B. S.; Yates, K. C.; Yelton, W. G.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Fuelling, S.; McKenzie, B. B.; Peterson, K. J.

    2016-10-01

    The magneto Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability limits the performance of all magnetically imploded systems. In the case of compressing metal liners, as in the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept, a dominant seed for MRT is believed to be the electrothermal instability (ETI). Here, linear theory predicts the most unstable mode manifests as horizontal (i.e. perpendicular to current flow) bands of heated and expanded metal. However, how do such bands, known as striations, actually develop from a smooth metal surface? Recent experiments on ETI evolution, performed at the University of Nevada, Reno, provide a possible answer: pre-shot characterization of aluminum rods show numerous resistive inclusions, several microns in diameter and distributed throughout the rod. In this work, we use 3D MHD simulation and analytic theory to explore how current redistribution around these isolated inclusions, combined with ETI, can lead to rapid formation of the global striation structures. Later in time, striations expand and form density perturbations much larger than the initial inclusion size. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the National Nuclear Security Administration under DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. [Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the myelodisplastic syndromes].

    PubMed

    León-Rodríguez, Eucario

    2005-01-01

    Myelodisplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal hematopoietic disorders, characterized by ineffective hemopoiesis resulting in single or multiple lineages and a high risk of conversion to acute leukemia. Currently, the only established therapy with curative potential for MDS is a hemopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Their results are determined by the type of MDS, age at the BMT and the score according to the international index. In the main studies the disease-free survival (DFS) were 35-43%, relapse 20 to 39% and transplantation-related mortality (TRM) 36-45%. HSCT offers best results in goods prognosis MDS (refractory anemia, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts) with DFS of 53-72% and 13% of relapse, in contrast with the advanced MDS (refractory anemia with blast in excess (AREB), AREB in transformation and secondary acute leukemia) where the DFS is about approximately 33%, the relapse 23-34% and MRT 37-60%. The HSCT from unrelated donor is an option for patients that do not an HLA-matched related donor, with a approximately 30% of DFS, but with a MRT up to 58%. The HSCT with regimens of low intensity (minitransplants) for aged patients are feasible but their efficacy has not yet been determined.

  12. Training spatial skills in men and women.

    PubMed

    Cherney, Isabelle D; Bersted, Kyle; Smetter, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that even short-term video game training may transfer to other cognitive tasks. With the popularity of the Nintendo Wii with women, more of them might be exposed to the games that will increase their mental rotation skills. Because performance on mental rotation tests (MRT) has been linked to math performance in women, and thus may ultimately contribute to the under representation of women in STEM fields, it is important to continue to explore ways to decrease or eliminate the robust sex difference in mental rotation. The present study of 30 men and 30 women provides additional evidence that women may benefit from short-term (1 hour) training on either a Nintendo Wii™ or GameCube console to increase their mental rotation skills. One hour of video game training not only increased women's MRT scores to a level similar to men's scores, but also produced greater average improvement for women, even when controlling for experiential factors such as spatial and masculine childhood activities that could contribute to the sex difference in spatial ability.

  13. The preclinical set-up at the ID17 biomedical beamline to achieve high local dose deposition using interlaced microbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Nemoz, C.; Brochard, Th; Berruyer, G.; Renier, M.; Pouyatos, B.; Serduc, R.

    2013-03-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses spatially a fractionated "white beam" (energies 50-350 keV) irradiation from a Synchrotron Source. The typical microbeams used at ID17 are 25-100μm-thick, spaced by 200-400μm, and carry extremely high dose rates (up to about 16 kGy/s). These microbeams are well tolerated by biological tissue, i.e. up to several hundred of Gy in the peaks. When valley doses, caused by Compton scattering in between two microbeams, remain within a dose regime similar to conventional RT, a superior tumour control can be achieved with MRT than with conventional RT. The normal tissue tolerance of these microscopically small beams is outstanding and well documented in the literature. The hypothesis of a differential effect in particular on the vasculature of normal versus tumoral tissue might best be proven by using large animal models with spontaneous tumors instead of small laboratory animals with transplantable tumors, an ongoing project on ID17. An alternative approach to deposit a high dose, while preserving the feature of the spatial separation of these microbeams outside the target has opened up new applications in preclinical research. The instrumentation of this method to produce such interlaced beams is presented with an outlook on the challenges to build a treatment platform for human patients. Dose measurements using Gafchromic films exposed in interlaced geometries with their steep profiles highlight the potential to deposit radiotoxic doses in the vicinity of radiosensitive tissues.

  14. Pharmacokinetic Effects of Cinnamic Acid, Amygdalin, Glycyrrhizic Acid and Liquiritin on Ephedra Alkaloids in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yinghong; Zheng, Mengkai; Chen, Yu-Lin; Chen, Jianzhen; He, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Ephedra alkaloids, including ephedrine (EP), pseudoephedrine (PEP) and methylephedrine (MEP), are sympathomimetic compounds with known toxicities but many Ephedra (Ephedrae herba) preparations, such as Ephedra decoction, have been clinically applied for centuries. In order to explore the possible detoxification mechanism of Ephedra alkaloids, four representative compounds in Ephedra decoction (cinnamic acid, amygdalin, glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin) were studied for their pharmacokinetic effects on Ephedra alkaloids in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were randomly divided into six groups, with six rats in each. Rats were treated orally with EP-PEP-MEP (20 mg/kg EP + 20 mg/kg PEP + 20 mg/kg MEP) and different combinations of cinnamic acid (3.03 mg/kg), amygdalin (56.97 mg/kg), glycyrrhizic acid (12.42 mg/kg), liquiritin (3.79 mg/kg) with EP-PEP-MEP, and 20 mg/kg EP + 20 mg/kg PEP + 20 mg/kg MEP + 3.03 mg/kg cinnamic acid + 56.97 mg/kg amygdalin + 12.42 mg/kg glycyrrhizic acid + 3.79 mg/kg liquiritin. Blood samples (0.5 mL) were taken from the orbital sinus venous plexus into heparinized tubes at 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min (6 rats per time point in each group) following single administration. The concentrations of Ephedra alkaloids in rat plasma were determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. Area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 360 min (AUC 0-t ) of EP, PEP and MEP were 666.99, 650.76 and 632.37 µg·min/mL, respectively. Maximum plasma concentration (C max ) of EP, PEP and MEP were 4.15, 4.08 and 3.59 μg/mL, respectively. Mean residence time (MRT) of EP, PEP and MEP were 197.00, 173.97 and 183.87 min, respectively, when the rats were treated with EP-PEP-MEP. Cinnamic acid increased the AUC 0-t of EP while decreased C max of EP, amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid increased C max and AUC 0-t of EP and PEP, while liquiritin decreased AUC 0-t of EP and PEP

  15. On the Correlations between the Particles in the EPR-Paradoxon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treder, H.-J.

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedanken-experiment does not imply non-local interactions or an action-at-a-distance.Contrary, the EPR proves the measurements at one particle does not have influences at canonical variables of the other particles if the quantum-mechanical commutation relations are true.But, the EPR implices correlations between the particles which come in by subjective knowledge. These correlations are a priori informations about the relative motion or, complementarily, about the motion of the center of mass. The impression of an action-at-a-distance is produced by the use of usual particle coordinates in the EPR-arrangements.The discussion of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen gedanken-experiment (EPR) has been going on over fifty years. EINSTEIN, PODOLSKY, and ROSEN formulated their famous paradox in 1935, and in the discussion between N. BOHR (1935, 1949) and A. EINSTEIN (1936, 1948); A. EINSTEIN (1948) made his point that the EPR implied an action-at-a-distance for quantum-mechanical particles (without obvious classical interactions). His argument is the starting point for the recent discussion about EPR and causality (see A. Aspect, 1981).Translated AbstractÜber die Korrelationen zwischen den Partikeln beim EPR-ParadoxonDas Gedankenexperiment von EINSTEIN, PODOLSKY und ROSEN über die anscheinend paradoxen Beziehungen zwischen beliebig weit entfernten Partikeln gemäß der quantenmechanischen Theorie der Messungen führt tatsächlich nicht auf nichtlokale Wechselwirkungen.Das Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon zeigt vielmehr, daß die Messung an einem Teilchen keinerlei Einfluß auf die Meßwerte an anderen Partikeln hat, wenn die quantenmechanischen Vertauschungsregeln erfüllt sind.Dagegen weist das Einstein-Podolsky-Rosensche Gedankenexperiment Korrelationen zwischen den Teilchen auf, die die Folge einer a-priori-Kenntnis über die Werte von Hamilton-Jacobischen Zwei-Partikeln-Koordinaten von

  16. Robuste Verzweigungserkennung von Gefäßen in CTA-Datensätzen zur modellbasierten Extraktion der Centerline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Thomas; Fritz, Dominik; Biermann, Christina; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Bei der Befundung und Visualisierung von Blutgefäßen ist deren Centerline von zentraler Bedeutung. Die Unterscheidung zwischen unverzweigten Abschnitten des Gefäßes und Verzweigungsbereichen ermöglicht den Einsatz spezialisierter und sehr effizienter Algorithmen zur modellbasierten Extraktion der Centerline. In diesem Artikel wird ein robustes Verfahren zur Verzweigungserkennung vorgestellt. Das Verfahren beruht auf einem Front-Propagation-Ansatz mit dynamisch angepassten Schwellwerten und einer anschließenden Clusteranalyse. Die vorgestellte Methode zur Verzweigungserkennung wurde als Komponente einer Architektur zur Extraktion der Centerline auf handannotierten Datensätzen getestet. Erste Ergebnisse sind sehr vielversprechend und ermöglichen auch bei pathologischen Gefäßen eine robuste Detektion von Gefäßverzweigungen.

  17. Smart Meter Rollout: Intelligente Messsysteme als Schnittstelle zum Kunden im Smart Grid und Smart Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vortanz, Karsten; Zayer, Peter

    Das Gesetz zur Digitalisierung der Energiewende ist verabschiedet. Ab 2017 sind moderne Messeinrichtungen (mME) und intelligente Messsysteme (iMSys) zu verbauen und zu betreiben. Der "deutsche Weg" für die Einführung von Smart Metern sieht einen stufenweisen Rollout sowie ein Höchstmaß an Informations- und Datensicherheit vor. Dabei spielen iMSys und mME eine wichtige Rolle bei der Neugestaltung der intelligenten Netze (Smart Grids) und des neuen Marktmodells (Smart Market). Dieser Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den neuen Gesetzen, den Marktrollen und ihren Aufgaben, Datenschutz und Datensicherheit, dem iMSys als sichere Lösung, dem sicheren Betrieb von Smart Meter Gateways, Smart Grid - Smart Market, dem Zusammenspiel zwischen reguliertem Bereich und Markt, den Einsatzbereichen der iMSys sowie den Auswirkungen auf Prozesse und Systeme und gibt Handlungsempfehlungen.

  18. Biogeochemische Stoffkreisläufe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüggemann, Nicolas; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    Der Klimawandel wirkt sich auf biogeochemische Stoffkreisläufe aus. So kann davon ausgegangen werden, dass sich die ökosystemaren Kohlenstoff- und Stickstoffflüsse zwischen Biosphäre, Atmosphäre und Hydrosphäre zukünftig deutlich verändern werden, mit positiven wie auch negativen Rückkopplungseffekten auf den Klimawandel. Der Schwerpunkt dieses Kapitels liegt auf wenig intensiv bis nicht genutzten terrestrischen Ökosystemen, da intensiv landwirtschaftlich genutzte Systeme deutlich stärker von Nutzung und Management beeinflusst werden, als durch den Klimawandel. Die zu erwartenden Veränderungen für die einzelnen betroffenen terrestrischen Ökosysteme werden, soweit möglich, nach Faktoren getrennt dargestellt. Im Fokus stehen Wälder, Moore und Küstengebiete.

  19. Unfallaufnahme und Datenerhebung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brösdorf, Klaus-Dieter; Moser, Andreas; Burg, Jürgen

    Unfälle ereignen sich in unterschiedlichen Schweregraden. Man unterscheidet zwischen Unfälle mit nur Sachschaden und in Unfälle mit Personenschaden. Gemäß Statistik [1] machten in Deutschland im Jahr 2005 Unfälle mit Personenschaden (336.619) etwa 15 % der Gesamtanzahl der polizeilich erfassten Unfälle (2.253.992) aus. In den amtlichen Statistiken sind nur polizeilich erfasste Unfälle enthalten. Eine größere Zahl von Unfällen, insbesondere leichtere Unfälle, wird offensichtlich polizeilich nicht gemeldet. Mit den Daten der Versicherungswirtschaft wird die Anzahl der Kfz-Schäden pro Jahr in Deutschland mit 8.673.000 angegeben [2].

  20. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften¬Jahrgang 1987/88 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 87/88¬Aktive Galaxien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, Hans

    Die Aktivität von Galaxien ist eine relativ seltene und offenbar kurzlebige Erscheinung, die sich vor allem durch eine verstärkte Abstrahlung, oft über das ganze Spektrum hinweg, vom Röntgen- bis zum Radiobereich, bemerkbar macht. Dabei wird auf neue Befunde an Infrarotgalaxien eingegangen, die dafür sprechen, daß die gravitative Wechselwirkung zwischen Galaxien eine wesentliche Rolle spielt. Das Buch ist eine zusammenfassende Darstellung des heutigen Kenntnisstandes über "Aktive Galaxien", ein Thema, das gegenwärtig im Zentrum des astronomischen Interesses und der aktuellen Forschung steht. Nach einem Überblick über die seit längerem bekannten Phänomene und die Probleme ihrer Deutung wird auf neue, am Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie mit den Teleskopen der Calar Alto Sternwarte (Südspanien) gewonnene, Ergebnisse eingegangen.

  1. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften> " Jahrgang 1987/88 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 87/88 " Aktive Galaxien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, Hans

    Die Aktivität von Galaxien ist eine relativ seltene und offenbar kurzlebige Erscheinung, die sich vor allem durch eine verstärkte Abstrahlung, oft über das ganze Spektrum hinweg, vom Röntgen- bis zum Radiobereich, bemerkbar macht. Dabei wird auf neue Befunde an Infrarotgalaxien eingegangen, die dafür sprechen, daß die gravitative Wechselwirkung zwischen Galaxien eine wesentliche Rolle spielt. Das Buch ist eine zusammenfassende Darstellung des heutigen Kenntnisstandes über "Aktive Galaxien", ein Thema, das gegenwärtig im Zentrum des astronomischen Interesses und der aktuellen Forschung steht. Nach einem Überblick über die seit längerem bekannten Phänomene und die Probleme ihrer Deutung wird auf neue, am Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie mit den Teleskopen der Calar Alto Sternwarte (Südspanien) gewonnene, Ergebnisse eingegangen.

  2. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  3. Victor F. Weisskopf (1908 - 2002): Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2002-11-01

    Universal gebildete und interessierte Menschen sind selten geworden in unserer Zeit. Victor F. Weisskopf war einer von ihnen. Sein geistiger Horizont umfasste nicht nur sein eigentliches Fachgebiet, die Physik, wo er sich durch fundamentale Arbeiten in den Bereichen der Quantenfeldtheorie, der Kern- und Elementarteilchenphysik hervortat. Daneben bildeten Kunst und Musik sowie ein außergewöhnliches Engagement in sozialen und politischen Angelegenheiten die Eckpunkte seines Lebens. Der Einsatz für die Verständigung zwischen den Machtblöcken während des Kalten Krieges war für ihn ebenso selbstverständlich wie das Bedürfnis, die neuen Ideen der Physik einem breiten Publikum nahe zu bringen. Die Wissenschaft erschien ihm als das geeignete Mittel, um zum Wohle der Menschheit zu wirken.

  4. AMANDA and D0 as a Test Environment for the LHC Computing Grid (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Harenberg, Torsten

    2005-08-01

    Die Suche nach den Grundbausteinen der Materie und nach den Kräften, die zwischen ihnen wirken, ist das Forschungsgebiet der Hochenergiephysik. Mit immer größer werdenden Teilchenbeschleunigern erreicht man immer tiefer gehende Erkenntnisse und dringt dabei in Energiebereiche vor, wie sie kurz nach dem Urknall herrschten. Im Moment ist das Tevatron am Fermilab der energ piereichste Teilchenbeschleuniger der Welt mit einer Schwerpunktsenergie von √s = 1, 96 TeV. Um die bei diesen hohen Energien entstehende Anzahl von Teilchen zu messen, sind auch immer höher auflösende Detektoren nötig. Dem wurde dadurch Rechnung getragen, dass mit der Steigerung der Schwerpunktsenergie am Tevatron auch diemore » Detektoren DØ und CDF1) teilweise erneuert wurden.« less

  5. Rückwärtsintegration - Zu den Verhältnissen Gymnasium, Hochschule und Arbeitswelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Gerhard; Heppner, Winfried; Focht, Eva

    In seiner 2007 erschienen Sammlung von Vorträgen und Essays beschäftigt sich Wolfgang Frühwald, mit der Frage "Wieviel Wissen brauchen wir?“ [1] Die Kernproblematik moderner Wissenschaft und Forschung sieht der Autor, emeritierter Ordinarius für Neuere Deutsche Literaturwissenschaft und von 1992 bis 1997 Präsident der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, einerseits in der zunehmenden Spezialisierung der Wissenschaftsbereiche, andererseits in der Gefahr der Abkoppelung der Naturwissenschaften von den Geisteswissenschaften. Wiederholt plädiert er dafür, über der rasanten Entwicklung beispielsweise in der Biologie und Physik, die historische, gesellschaftliche und besonders die ethische Dimension der Forschung nicht zu übersehen und fordert eine übergeordnete Theorie der Wissenschaft, die nur im Dialog zwischen den einzelnen Fachgebieten zu entwickeln sei.

  6. Die Struktur von schlankem Materialfluss mit Lean Production Kanban und Innovationen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Wolf-Michael

    In der Literatur wird Materialfluss überwiegend in Spezialdisziplinen betrachtet, etwa der Steuerungslogik, der Logistiktechnik oder dem Supply Chain Management. Ein charakterisierendes Merkmal des Materialflusses ist jedoch, dass er sich aus vielfältigen Einzelbausteinen zusammensetzt, die alle harmonisch abgestimmt sein müssen. Die maximal erreichbare Effizienz wird nicht durch Höchstleistungen in dem einen oder anderen Spezialthema bestimmt, sondern durch das schwächste Glied im gesamten komplexen Netzwerk. Den Schnittstellen zwischen den betroffenen Fachbereichen in einem Unternehmen kommt hier eine ganz besondere Bedeutung zu: Erst ein harmonischer Einklang ermöglicht hohe Effektivität. Dies setzt umfassendes Verständnis für interdisziplinäre Notwendigkeiten, ein hohes Maß an Abstimmung mit den operativen Prozessen und letztlich einen einvernehmlichen Umgang und den Respekt vor den Problemstellungen des Anderen voraus.

  7. Effects of strains, strain crosses and environments on additive genetic and phenotypic variances in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Noor, R R; Barker, J S; Kinghorn, B P

    1993-01-12

    Varianzen der Thoraxlänge von Drosophila melanogaster in reinen und synthetischen Herkünften wurde in zwei verschiedenen Umwelten überprüft. Zwei reine Herkünfte von verschiedenen Gegenden (Melboune und Townsville) wurden zusammen mit drei zwischen ihnen gebildeten synthetischen Populationen untersucht. Unterschiede in Thoraxlänge zwischen Melbourne- und Townsvilleherkünften, Genotypumweltinteraktionen und Heterosis in Kreuzungen zwischen diesen Populationen zeigen, daß sie sich genetisch unterscheiden. Die geographische Trennung kann also Unterschiede in der mittleren Thoraxlänge zur Folge haben, wobei unterschiedliche Selektionsgeschichte in beiden Gegenden und Drift dies verursachen können. Bis zur 35. Generation gab es in keinem Labormilieu einen Hinweis auf eine Reduktion der Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Populationen. Die genetische Differenz der Herkünfte erhält sich daher auch unter neuen Umweltverhältnissen über viele Generationen. Die Schwankung in Heterosis für Thoraxlänge ist möglicherweise durch Schwankungen in der Verlustrate günstiger epistatischer Interaktionswirkungen in Kreuzungsgenotypen zusammen mit natürlichen Selektionswirkungen verursacht. V(p) war durch Umweltbedingungen signifikant beeinflußt und höher in schlechtem als in gutem Milieu. Der hohe Wert in schlechtem Milieu ist wahrscheinlich auf nicht-additiv-genetische Varianz zurückzuführen. V(p) wurde auch signifikant durch Herkunft beeinflußt und Werte in synthetischen Linien waren höher Linien in beiden Milieus. Additive und umweltbedingte Varianzen waren über Linie, Generationen und Umwelt relativ stabil. 1993 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake Kinetics During Exercise in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Emerson Filipino; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti; Barral, Marselha Marques; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mário

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) have lower exercise tolerance, but the impact on oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics is unknown. This study evaluated VO2 kinetics during and after a constant load submaximal exercise in SCH. Methods: The study included 19 women with SCH (thyrotropin (TSH)=6.87±2.88 μIU/mL, free thyroxine (fT4)=0.97±0.15 ng/dL) and 19 controls (TSH=2.29±0.86 μIU/mL, T4=0.99±0.11 ng/dL) aged between 20 and 55 years. Ergospirometry exercise testing was performed for six minutes with a constant load of 50 W, followed by six minutes of passive recovery. The VO2 kinetics was quantified by the mean response time (MRT), which is the exponential time constant and approximates the time needed to reach 63% of change in VO2 (ΔVO2). The O2 deficit—energy supplied by anaerobic metabolism at the onset of exercise—and O2 debit—extra energy demand during the recovery period—were calculated by the formula MRT×ΔVO2. Values are mean±standard deviation. Results: In the rest-exercise transition, patients with SCH showed slower VO2 kinetics (MRT=47±8 sec vs. 40±6 sec, p=0.004) and a higher oxygen deficit (580±102 mL vs. 477±95 mL, p=0.003) than controls respectively. In the exercise-recovery transition, patients with SCH also showed slower VO2 kinetics (MRT=54±6 sec vs. 44±6 sec, p=0.001) and a higher oxygen debit (679±105 mL vs. 572±104 mL, p=0.003). The VO2 kinetics showed a significant correlation with TSH (p<0.05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that women with SCH have the slowest VO2 kinetics in the onset and recovery of a constant-load submaximal exercise and highlights that this impairment is already manifest in the early stage of the disease. PMID:24512502

  9. Human Genome Replication Proceeds through Four Chromatin States

    PubMed Central

    Julienne, Hanna; Zoufir, Azedine; Audit, Benjamin; Arneodo, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Advances in genomic studies have led to significant progress in understanding the epigenetically controlled interplay between chromatin structure and nuclear functions. Epigenetic modifications were shown to play a key role in transcription regulation and genome activity during development and differentiation or in response to the environment. Paradoxically, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the initiation and the maintenance of the spatio-temporal replication program in higher eukaryotes, and in particular their links to epigenetic modifications, still remain elusive. By integrative analysis of the genome-wide distributions of thirteen epigenetic marks in the human cell line K562, at the 100 kb resolution of corresponding mean replication timing (MRT) data, we identify four major groups of chromatin marks with shared features. These states have different MRT, namely from early to late replicating, replication proceeds though a transcriptionally active euchromatin state (C1), a repressive type of chromatin (C2) associated with polycomb complexes, a silent state (C3) not enriched in any available marks, and a gene poor HP1-associated heterochromatin state (C4). When mapping these chromatin states inside the megabase-sized U-domains (U-shaped MRT profile) covering about 50% of the human genome, we reveal that the associated replication fork polarity gradient corresponds to a directional path across the four chromatin states, from C1 at U-domains borders followed by C2, C3 and C4 at centers. Analysis of the other genome half is consistent with early and late replication loci occurring in separate compartments, the former correspond to gene-rich, high-GC domains of intermingled chromatin states C1 and C2, whereas the latter correspond to gene-poor, low-GC domains of alternating chromatin states C3 and C4 or long C4 domains. This new segmentation sheds a new light on the epigenetic regulation of the spatio-temporal replication program in human and provides a

  10. [Simultaneous determination of daphnetin, daphnoretin, daphneticin in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS and its application in pharmacokinetic study].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Yi-Li-Ge-Qi; Cao, Sa-Li; Lin, Long-Fei; Fu, Jing; Dong, Xiao-Xu; Yang, Chun-Jing; Zhang, Miao; Ni, Jian

    2017-05-01

    To establish HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of daphnetin, daphnoretin, and daphneticin in rat plasma after oral and intravenous administration of Daphne giraldii extract, and then use them in the calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters. Six sprague-dawley rats received intragastric administration of D. giraldii extract (daphnetin, daphnoretin and daphneticin were 88.40, 3.24 and 4.28 mg•kg⁻¹, respectively). Their drug plasma concentration was determined by LC-MS/MS with schisandrin as an internal standard to draw plasma concentration-time curve. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by Kinetica 4.4. The results showed that the linear range was 5-1 000 μg•L⁻¹ for daphnetin, daphnoretin and daphneticin, and the method ological test showed conformance to the requirements.The intraday and inter-day variable coefficients (RSD) were both less than 15.0%, indicating that both of legitimate precise and accuracy were consistent with the analysis requirements of biological samples. For daphnetin, the pharmacokinetic parameters Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-t, T1/2 and MRT were 4 h, 858.96 μg•L⁻¹, 10 566.4 μg•L⁻¹•h, 5.19 h and 9.43 h, respectively. For daphnoretin, the pharmacokinetic parameters Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-t, T1/2 and MRT were 2.92 h, 178.00 μg•L⁻¹, 905.89 μg•L⁻¹•h, 3.50 h and 6.95 h, respectively. For daphneticin, the pharmacokinetic parameters Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-t, T1/2 and MRT were 2 h, 36.67 μg•L⁻¹, 355.11 μg•L⁻¹•h, 4.95 h and 8.27 h, respectively. The LC-MS/MS analysis method established in this study was proved to be so accurate and sensitive that it can be applied to the pharmacokinetic study of daphnetin, daphnoretin and daphneticin. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. On the accuracy of estimation of basic pharmacokinetic parameters by the traditional noncompartmental equations and the prediction of the steady-state volume of distribution in obese patients based upon data derived from normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2011-06-01

    The steady-state and terminal volumes of distribution, as well as the mean residence time of drug in the body (V(ss), V(β), and MRT) are the common pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using the drug plasma concentration-time profile C(p) (t) following intravenous (i.v. bolus or constant rate infusion) drug administration. These calculations are valid for the linear pharmacokinetic system with central elimination (i.e., elimination rate being proportional to drug concentration in plasma). Formally, the assumption of central elimination is not normally met because the rate of drug elimination is proportional to the unbound drug concentration at elimination site, although equilibration between systemic circulation and the site of clearance for majority of small molecule drugs is fast. Thus, the assumption of central elimination is practically quite adequate. It appears reasonable to estimate the extent of possible errors in determination of these pharmacokinetic parameters due to the absence of central elimination. The comparison of V(ss), V(β), and MRT calculated by exact equations and the commonly used ones was made considering a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. It was found that if the drug plasma concentration profile is detected accurately, determination of drug distribution volumes and MRT using the traditional noncompartmental calculations of these parameters from C(p) (t) yields the values very close to that obtained from exact equations. Though in practice, the accurate measurement of C(p) (t), especially its terminal phase, may not always be possible. This is particularly applicable for obtaining the distribution volumes of lipophilic compounds in obese subjects, when the possibility of late terminal phase at low drug concentration is quite likely, specifically for compounds with high clearance. An accurate determination of V(ss) is much needed in clinical practice because it is critical for the proper selection of drug treatment

  12. Composition and digestive tract retention time of ruminal particles with functional specific gravity greater or less than 1.02.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Ahvenjarvi, S; McAllister, T A; Huhtanen, P

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine composition, particle size distribution, and in vivo kinetics of ruminal particles having functional specific gravity (FSG) greater or less than FSG of particles found in the omasum and reticulum of lactating dairy cows. Particles from the reticulum and the omasal had FSG of 1.03 and 1.02, respectively. Particles from ruminal contents with FSG higher (HP) or lower (LP) than 1.02 were isolated and labeled with Er or Dy, respectively. Four ruminally cannulated, lactating Ayrshire dairy cows were fed all-grass silage (AS) or 54% grass silage:46% concentrate (SC) diets in a cross-over design trial and used to study chemical composition and ruminal and total tract kinetics of HP and LP. Labeled particles were pulse dosed into the rumen of the cows and disappearance of the markers from ruminal HP and LP pools and excretion in feces was monitored for 72 and 120 h, respectively. Fecal marker excretion data were fitted using two-compartment mathematical age-dependent/age-independent (Gn-->G1) models. Inclusion of concentrate in the diet (SC) increased (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of dietary DM, OM and N. Digestibility of fiber fractions, NDF and ADF, was lower (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) for SC compared with AS. The heavy particles had higher (P < 0.01) indigestible NDF and lower (P < 0.01) N concentration than LP. Particles from the HP pool passed from the rumen more rapidly (P < 0.01) than particles from LP (0.044 and 0.019 h(-1), respectively). Diet had no effect on particle rate of disappearance or pool size in the rumen. Across diets, pool size of LP was consistently larger (P < 0.05) than that of HP. Diet had no effect on total tract mean retention time (MRT) of LP or HP. Total tract MRT of LP was greater (P < 0.05) than MRT of HP (59.6 vs. 49.0 h, respectively). Results from this study support the hypothesis that functional specific gravity is an important factor determining the rate of outflow

  13. Is Moderate Intensity Cycling Sufficient to Induce Cardiorespiratory and Biomechanical Modifications of Subsequent Running?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Joel A; Dawber, James P; Lepers, Romuald; Brown, Marc; Stapley, Paul J

    2017-04-01

    Walsh, JA, Dawber, JP, Lepers, R, Brown, M, and Stapley, PJ. Is moderate intensity cycling sufficient to induce cardiorespiratory and biomechanical modifications of subsequent running? J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1078-1086, 2017-This study sought to determine whether prior moderate intensity cycling is sufficient to influence the cardiorespiratory and biomechanical responses during subsequent running. Cardiorespiratory and biomechanical variables measured after moderate intensity cycling were compared with control running at the same intensity. Eight highly trained, competitive triathletes completed 2 separate exercise tests; (a) a 10-minute control run (no prior cycling) and, (b) a 30-minute transition run (TR) (preceded by 20-minute of variable cadence cycling, i.e., run versus cycle-run). Respiratory, breathing frequency (fb), heart rate (HR), cost of running (Cr), rate constant, stride length, and stride frequency variables were recorded, normalized, and quantified at the mean response time (MRT), third minute, 10th minute (steady state), and overall for the control run (CR) and TR. Cost of running increased (p ≤ 0.05) at all respective times during the TR. The V[Combining Dot Above]E/V[Combining Dot Above]CO2 and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly (p < 0.01) elevated at the MRT and 10th minute of the TR. Furthermore, overall mean increases were recorded for Cr, V[Combining Dot Above]E, V[Combining Dot Above]E/V[Combining Dot Above]CO2, RER, fb (p < 0.01), and HR (p ≤ 0.05) during the TR. Rate constant values for oxygen uptake were significantly different between CR and TR (0.48 ± 0.04 vs. 0.89 ± 0.15; p < 0.01). Stride length decreased across all recorded points during the TR (p ≤ 0.05) and stride frequency increased at the MRT and 3 minutes (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that at moderate intensity, prior cycling influences the cardiorespiratory response during subsequent running. Furthermore, prior cycling seems to have a sustained

  14. Stabilization of glucose-C in microbial cell membranes (PLFA) and cell walls (amino sugars) evaluated by 13C-labelling in a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Microorganisms control carbon (C) cycle and strongly contribute to formation of soil organic matter. Strong differences in the turnover of microbial groups and cellular compounds complicate the assessment of their contribution to microbial food webs and C sequestration in soil in situ. The uptake and incorporation of 13C labeled glucose by microbial groups were traced during 50 days after the labeling under field conditions. 13C was analysed: i) in the cytosolic pool by chloroform fumigation extraction, ii) in cell membranes by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), iii) in cell walls by amino sugars, and iv) remaining in bulk soil. This allowed tracing C in microbial groups as well as cellular compounds. Mean residence times (MRT) of C in PLFA and the cytosol were 47 and 150 days, respectively. Such long cytosol MRT depends on its heterogeneous composition, which includes high and low molecular weight organics. Amino sugars were mainly originated from microbial residues and thus, observation periods higher than 1 year are required for estimation of their MRT. Relative 13C incorporation (13C portion in total pool C) was the highest for PLFAs (~1.5% at day 3), whereas 13C content of the cytosol and amino sugars was one and two orders of magnitude less, respectively. Relative 13C incorporation into amino sugars of living microorganisms showed only 0.57% on day 3. Therefore, the turnover of cell membrane components is two times faster than that of cell walls, even in living microorganisms. Both PLFAs and amino sugars showed that glucose C was preferentially used by bacteria. 13C incorporation into bacterial cell walls and membranes decreased with time, but increased or remained constant for fungi, reflecting faster turnover of bacteria than fungi. Consequently, bacteria contribute more to the decomposition of low molecular weight organics, whereas fungi consume bacterial products or necromass and contribute more to long-term C stabilisation. Thus, tracing of 13C in cellular

  15. Mineral control of soil carbon storage with reforestation of abandoned pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Spiotta, E.; Silver, W. L.; Swanston, C. W.; Torn, M. S.; Burton, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    We applied CP MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy and radiocarbon modeling to soil C density fractions to track changes in the quality and turnover of C with forest regrowth on former pasturelands. Our results showed that inter-aggregate, unattached particulate organic C (free light fraction) and C located inside soil aggregates (occluded light fraction) represent distinct soil C pools. The signal intensity of the O-alkyl region, representing cellulose, decreased with mineral-association, while alkyl C, attributed to waxy compounds and microbially resynthesized lipids, increased from the free to the occluded light fractions. The alkyl/O-alkyl ratio changed consistently with changes in C-to-N and δ15N across different land cover types, and thus appears to be a reliable index of humification. In contrast to cellulose, proteins, lipids and lignin did not show any consistent trends, suggesting different controls on their decomposition. Greater variability in the chemical makeup of the occluded light fraction suggests that it represents material in different stages of decay. Mean residence times (MRT) of the free light C were significantly shorter (4.3 ± 0.5 yrs) than for the occluded fraction (7.3 ± 0.8 yrs). The occluded fraction in active pastures and secondary forests in the earliest stage of succession had shorter MRT than in primary forests and older secondary forests, which would be explained by lower aggregate stability and faster cycling rates in disturbed versus undisturbed soils. The mineral associated C in the disturbed soils had slower cycling C (MRT = 98.9 ± 10.6 yrs) than the undisturbed sites (65.8 ± 2.1 yrs), most likely due to a preferential loss of labile C in the first. Incorporation of C into soil aggregates afforded some protection from decomposition, but the main mechanism of stabilization was direct mineral association. As the sorptive capacity of a soil is dependent on its mineral composition, it appears that the Oxisols at our sites have reached

  16. In Situ Persistence and Migration of Biochar Carbon and Its Impact on Native Carbon Emission in Contrasting Soils under Managed Temperate Pastures

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Fang, Yunying; Boersma, Mark; Collins, Damian; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Macdonald, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is an important component of the global soil carbon (C) pool, but its fate, persistence, and loss dynamics in contrasting soils and environments under planted field conditions are poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, a 13C-labelled biochar, as a surrogate material for PyC, produced from Eucalyptus saligna by slow pyrolysis (450°C; δ13C -36.7‰) was surface (0−10 cm) applied in C3 dominated temperate pasture systems across Arenosol, Cambisol and Ferralsol. The results show a low proportion of the applied biochar-C mineralised over 12 months in a relatively clay- and C-poor Arenosol (i.e., 2.0% loss via mineralisation), followed by a clay- and C-rich Cambisol (4.6%), and clay-, C- and earthworm-rich Ferralsol (7.0%). The biochar-C mean residence time (MRT), estimated by different models, varied between 44−1079 (Arenosol), 18−172 (Cambisol), and 11−29 (Ferralsol) years, with the shorter MRT estimated by a one-pool exponential and the longer MRT by an infinite-pool power or a two-pool exponential model. The two-pool model was best fitted to biochar-C mineralisation. The biochar-C recovery in the 12−30 cm soil layer varied from between 1.2% (Arenosol), 2.5−2.7% (Cambisol) and 13.8−15.7% (Ferralsol) of the applied biochar-C after 8−12 months. There was a further migration of biochar-C below the 50-cm depth in the Arenosol, as the combined biochar-C recovery in the mineralised pool and soil profile (up to 30 or 50 cm) was 82%, in contrast to 101% in the Cambisol and 104% in the Ferralsol after 12 months. These results indicate that the downward migration of biochar-C was greatest in the Arenosol (cf. Cambisol and Ferralsol). Cumulative CO2-C emission from native soil-plant sources was lower (p <0.10) in the biochar-amended vs. non-amended Ferralsol. This field-based study shows that the downward migration of biochar-C exceeded its loss via mineralisation in the Arenosol and Ferralsol, but not in the Cambisol. It is thus

  17. Distinct Litter Stabilization Dynamics Pathways for Decomposition of Pine Needle and Fine Root Within Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mambelli, S.; Filley, T. R.; Bird, J.; Dawson, T.; Torn, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition of litter imparts a strong control on the initial rates of microbial decay but it is unclear how plant chemistry influences the ultimate stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) and the nature of the products stabilized. We determined the concentration and 13C enrichment of lignin phenols and substituted fatty acids (SFA) in SOM fractions from an experiment in which 13C- and 15N-labeled needles or fine roots were added to the mineral soil in a Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. 1.5 y after litter addition, we analyzed bulk soil (< 2 mm), free light fraction (LF, mean residence time (MRT) ~5 y) and alkali/acid insoluble humin (MRT ~270 y) fractions. Needles contained nearly 2 and 3x the lignin and SFA content per organic carbon unit as did roots. Lignin and SFA decreased from the free LF to the bulk soil to the humin fraction; and molecular properties were more similar within a SOM fraction regardless of the litter source. However, LF and humin from the root addition contained more lignin than from the needle addition. Based upon the relative movement of litter-derived 13C and 15N into SOM fractions during 1.5 y, it was proposed that the 13C accumulation in the humin fraction for needles was derived from high C/N, needle-derived biopolymer molecular fragments that are surficially associated with particles. In contrast, the root-derived material entering SOM fractions was much lower in C/N and was likely from microbial by-products. Consistent with this hypothesis, both lignin and SFA in the LF and humin fractions amended with enriched needles were highly enriched (+ 30-60 permil) with respect to the SOM fractions from soils amended with roots. These differences were large even considering the lower concentration of SFA and lignin in root material. Although the chemistry and MRT of LF and humin were dramatically different, the extent of 13C-enrichment among lignin and SFA were comparable for the needle

  18. In Situ Persistence and Migration of Biochar Carbon and Its Impact on Native Carbon Emission in Contrasting Soils under Managed Temperate Pastures.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Fang, Yunying; Boersma, Mark; Collins, Damian; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Macdonald, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) is an important component of the global soil carbon (C) pool, but its fate, persistence, and loss dynamics in contrasting soils and environments under planted field conditions are poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, a 13C-labelled biochar, as a surrogate material for PyC, produced from Eucalyptus saligna by slow pyrolysis (450°C; δ13C -36.7‰) was surface (0-10 cm) applied in C3 dominated temperate pasture systems across Arenosol, Cambisol and Ferralsol. The results show a low proportion of the applied biochar-C mineralised over 12 months in a relatively clay- and C-poor Arenosol (i.e., 2.0% loss via mineralisation), followed by a clay- and C-rich Cambisol (4.6%), and clay-, C- and earthworm-rich Ferralsol (7.0%). The biochar-C mean residence time (MRT), estimated by different models, varied between 44-1079 (Arenosol), 18-172 (Cambisol), and 11-29 (Ferralsol) years, with the shorter MRT estimated by a one-pool exponential and the longer MRT by an infinite-pool power or a two-pool exponential model. The two-pool model was best fitted to biochar-C mineralisation. The biochar-C recovery in the 12-30 cm soil layer varied from between 1.2% (Arenosol), 2.5-2.7% (Cambisol) and 13.8-15.7% (Ferralsol) of the applied biochar-C after 8-12 months. There was a further migration of biochar-C below the 50-cm depth in the Arenosol, as the combined biochar-C recovery in the mineralised pool and soil profile (up to 30 or 50 cm) was 82%, in contrast to 101% in the Cambisol and 104% in the Ferralsol after 12 months. These results indicate that the downward migration of biochar-C was greatest in the Arenosol (cf. Cambisol and Ferralsol). Cumulative CO2-C emission from native soil-plant sources was lower (p <0.10) in the biochar-amended vs. non-amended Ferralsol. This field-based study shows that the downward migration of biochar-C exceeded its loss via mineralisation in the Arenosol and Ferralsol, but not in the Cambisol. It is thus important to

  19. Response time variability under slow and fast-incentive conditions in children with ASD, ADHD and ASD+ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tye, Charlotte; Johnson, Katherine A; Kelly, Simon P; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna; Ashwood, Karen L; Azadi, Bahare; Bolton, Patrick; McLoughlin, Gráinne

    2016-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show significant behavioural and genetic overlap. Both ADHD and ASD are characterised by poor performance on a range of cognitive tasks. In particular, increased response time variability (RTV) is a promising indicator of risk for both ADHD and ASD. However, it is not clear whether different indices of RTV and changes to RTV according to task conditions are able to discriminate between the two disorders. Children with ASD (n = 19), ADHD (n = 18), ASD + ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing controls (TDC; n = 26) performed a four-choice RT task with slow-baseline and fast-incentive conditions. Performance was characterised by mean RT (MRT), standard deviation of RT (SD-RT), coefficient of variation (CV) and ex-Gaussian distribution measures of Mu, Sigma and Tau. In the slow-baseline condition, categorical diagnoses and trait measures converged to indicate that children with ADHD-only and ASD + ADHD demonstrated increased MRT, SD-RT, CV and Tau compared to TDC and ASD-only. Importantly, greater improvement in MRT, SD-RT and Tau was demonstrated in ADHD and ASD + ADHD from slow-baseline to fast-incentive conditions compared to TDC and ASD-only. Slower and more variable RTs are markers of ADHD compared to ASD and typically developing controls during slow and less rewarding conditions. Energetic factors and rewards improve task performance to a greater extent in children with ADHD compared to children with ASD. These findings suggest that RTV can be distinguished in ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD based on the indices of variability used and the conditions in which they are elicited. Further work identifying neural processes underlying increased RTV is warranted, in order to elucidate disorder-specific and disorder-convergent aetiological pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for

  20. Pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics during exercise in subclinical hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Francisco Zacaron; Coelho, Emerson Filipino; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti; Barral, Marselha Marques; Teixeira, Patrícia de Fátima Dos Santos; Vaisman, Mário

    2014-06-01

    Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) have lower exercise tolerance, but the impact on oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics is unknown. This study evaluated VO2 kinetics during and after a constant load submaximal exercise in SCH. The study included 19 women with SCH (thyrotropin (TSH)=6.87±2.88 μIU/mL, free thyroxine (fT4)=0.97±0.15 ng/dL) and 19 controls (TSH=2.29±0.86 μIU/mL, T4=0.99±0.11 ng/dL) aged between 20 and 55 years. Ergospirometry exercise testing was performed for six minutes with a constant load of 50 W, followed by six minutes of passive recovery. The VO2 kinetics was quantified by the mean response time (MRT), which is the exponential time constant and approximates the time needed to reach 63% of change in VO2 (ΔVO2). The O2 deficit-energy supplied by anaerobic metabolism at the onset of exercise-and O2 debit-extra energy demand during the recovery period-were calculated by the formula MRT×ΔVO2. Values are mean±standard deviation. In the rest-exercise transition, patients with SCH showed slower VO2 kinetics (MRT=47±8 sec vs. 40±6 sec, p=0.004) and a higher oxygen deficit (580±102 mL vs. 477±95 mL, p=0.003) than controls respectively. In the exercise-recovery transition, patients with SCH also showed slower VO2 kinetics (MRT=54±6 sec vs. 44±6 sec, p=0.001) and a higher oxygen debit (679±105 mL vs. 572±104 mL, p=0.003). The VO2 kinetics showed a significant correlation with TSH (p<0.05). This study demonstrates that women with SCH have the slowest VO2 kinetics in the onset and recovery of a constant-load submaximal exercise and highlights that this impairment is already manifest in the early stage of the disease.

  1. Assessment of the heterogeneous ruminal fiber pool and development of a mathematical approach for predicting the mean retention time of feeds in goats.

    PubMed

    Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate ruminal fiber stratification and to develop a mathematical approach for predicting the mean retention time (MRT) of forage and concentrates in goats. A dataset from 3 studies was used that contained information regarding fiber and lignin intake as well as ruminal content and the kinetics of fiber passage for forage and concentrates. The kinetic information was obtained through pulse dose and the fecal concentration measurement of forage and concentrate markers in the same animals that were used to measure ruminal content. The evaluation of heterogeneous fiber pools in the rumen was performed using the Lucas' test assumptions, and the marker excretion profiles were interpreted using a model known in the literature as GNG1. The GNG1 model assumes an age-dependent fractional rate for the transfer of particles from the raft to the escapable pool in the rumen (λ(r); h(-1)) and an age-independent fractional rate for the escape of particles from the escapable pool to the remaining parts of the stomach (k(e); h(-1)). The equations used to predict the MRT for forage and concentrate fiber were developed using stepwise regression. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the relationships between the dependent and independent variables and between forage and concentrate passage rates. The Lucas' test yields goodness-of-fit estimates for NDF analysis; however, the homogeneous fiber pool approach could not be applied because a positive intercept (P < 0.05) was identified for lignin ruminal content. The stepwise regression model for MRT estimation had an approximate coefficient of determination and a root mean square error (RMSE) for forage of 0.53 and 9.78 h, respectively, and for concentrate of 0.49 and 5.86 h, respectively. The sensitivity analysis yielded a mean rate of passage (k(p)) value for forage of 0.0322 h(-1) (0.0158 to 0.0556 h(-1)) with 99% confidence interval. For the

  2. Modeling nonstructural carbohydrate reserve dynamics in forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. D.; Keenan, T. F.; Carbone, M. S.; Czimczik, C. I.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Murakami, P.; Schaberg, P.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the factors influencing the availability of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) reserves is essential for predicting the resilience of forests to climate change and environmental stress. However, carbon allocation processes remain poorly understood and many models either ignore NSC reserves, or use simple and untested representations of NSC allocation and pool dynamics. Using model-data fusion techniques, we combined a parsimonious model of forest ecosystem carbon cycling with novel field sampling and laboratory analyses of NSCs. Simulations were conducted for an evergreen conifer forest and a deciduous broadleaf forest in New England. We used radiocarbon methods based on the 14C "bomb spike" to estimate the age of NSC reserves, and used this to constrain the mean residence time of modeled NSCs. We used additional data, including tower-measured fluxes of CO2, soil and biomass carbon stocks, woody biomass increment, and leaf area index and litterfall, to further constrain the model's parameters and initial conditions. Three years of field measurements indicate that stemwood NSCs are highly dynamic on seasonal time scales. The modeled seasonal dynamics conform to expectations (accumulated in the growing season, depleted in the dormant season) but are inconsistent with the observational data (total stemwood NSC concentrations higher in March than November, lower in August than June). We interpret this contradiction to suggest that stemwood concentrations provide an incomplete picture of the whole-tree NSC budget. A two-pool model structure that accounted for both "fast" (active pool, MRT ≈1 y) and "slow" (passive pool, MRT ≥ 20 y) cycling reserves (1) gives reasonable estimates of the size and MRT of the total NSC pool; (2) greatly improves model predictions of interannual variability in woody biomass increment, compared to zero- or one-pool structures used in the majority of existing models; (3) provides a mechanism by which observations of a one

  3. In vitro-in vivo evaluation of in situ gelling and thermosensitive ketoprofen liquid suppositories.

    PubMed

    Ozgüney, Işık; Kardhiqi, Anita; Yıldız, Gülbeyaz; Ertan, Gökhan

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the release and pharmacokinetic profiles of ketoprofen (KP) from developed thermosensitive and mucoadhesive liquid suppositories. Thermosensitive liquid suppositories were prepared using KP, poloxamer 407 (P 407), poloxamer 188 (P 188) and various amounts of different mucoadhesive polymers. In vitro release studies was monitored by the USP XXVI paddle method. The results thus obtained were evaluated kinetically and mechanism of release was analyzed. Identification of poloxamer gel localization in vivo was conducted using white male rabbits by adding 1 % methylene blue. For in vivo studies, twenty-four white male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. The rabbits in each group were administered with liquid suppository F1 [P407/P188/KP (4/20/2.5 %)], F5 [P407/P188/KP/C (4/20/2.5/0.8 %)] or conventional suppository (F-C) into the rectum. The plasma concentration of KP was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). C max, AUC, MRT and T max were evaluated. The release of KP was variously affected by the mucoadhesive polymers. In vitro release studies showed that Carbopol 934 P(C) has significant effect on release rate among the mucoadhesive polymers. When the formulations were evaluated kinetically, different kinetic models were obtained. Formulation F6 [P407/P188/KP/C (4/20/2.5/1.6 %)] which contains the highest C concentration and very high viscosity, shows a significantly better fit with Higuchi kinetic model. n value of this formulation was also found approximately 0.5. n exponent results of the other formulations showed that KP might be released from the suppositories by non-Fickian diffusion. Identification of poloxamer gel localization in vivo showed that the suppositories remain in the rectum without leakage after administration. With regard to the results of in vivo studies, the AUC6→14 values of KP in liquid suppository containing C are significantly higher than those in

  4. Using a Math Pre-Test in a Large General Education Geoscience Course: How Effective?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    Teaching large (150 or more students) General Education Geoscience courses presents many challenges, but one of the most important is how to effectively incorporate quantitative literacy. Many students are math phobic, and will run to General Education courses that minimize quantitative aspects. I will present results from one approach that we have used successfully for at least two years: a math pre-test. Our General Education Geoscience course has no prerequisites other than admission to the University, and is designed for first and second year non-science students. Fortunately, with limited exceptions, all entering students at the University of Arizona take a Math Readiness Test (MRT) for math placement. With the cooperation of the Mathematics Department, we have used old MRT exams to selectively use questions that are of the highest utility for the course material `understanding graphs, linear equations and extrapolations, scientific notation and large numbers, word problems, and scaling/unit conversions. We administer the exam in the first discussion section. Students receive full credit for a `serious effort', and we score the exam. In recent semesters the percentage of correct answers has varied from just under 50% to nearly 90% on individual questions. The pre-test has several important benefits. First, it lets students know clearly up front that there will be mathematics in the class. Second, it lets students know the range of skills expected to be successful. Third, because the average score is between 70-80% it gives students confidence that they can do the math in the course. Fourth, we contact all students who score less than 50%, and offer help, including referral to tutoring service in Mathematics. Feedback from students has been positive. Unfortunately, when we compared scores on the math pre-test to final grades in the course, we found essentially no correlation. We are exploring a number of possible explanations. We are also seeing if our math pre

  5. Prognostic factors of arthroscopic pull-out repair for a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hong-Kyo; Koh, Yong-Gon; Kim, Yong-Chan; Park, Young-Sik; Jo, Seung-Bae; Kwon, Sae-Kwang

    2012-05-01

    Repair of a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus (MRT) decreases peak contact pressure by restoring hoop tension and is expected to prevent progression to osteoarthritis. The purposes of this study were (1) to report the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of arthroscopic pull-out repair of the MRT and (2) to identify prognostic factors of poor outcome. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fifty-one patients (47 women, 4 men) who underwent arthroscopic pull-out repair of the MRT by a single surgeon were enrolled. Mean follow-up after surgery was 33 months (range, 24-44 months). To identify factors affecting final outcome, patient-specific factors, such as gender, age, body mass index, meniscus extrusion, extrusion increase, subchondral edema, degree of varus alignment (<5° or >5°), and cartilage status in the medial compartment (Outerbridge grade 1 or 2 lesion vs grade 3 or 4 lesion), were investigated. Final clinical outcomes were determined using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and patient satisfaction scores, American Knee Society (AKS) scores, and Lysholm scores, and MRI outcomes were determined by evaluating meniscus extrusion and articular cartilage status. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify variables that independently affected clinical and MRI-determined outcomes. All clinical outcome measures significantly improved after surgery. Patients with Outerbridge grade 3 or 4 chondral lesions had poorer results than those with grade 1 or 2 lesions in terms of AKS function and Lysholm scores. Patients with varus alignment of >5° had poorer results than those with varus alignment of <5° in terms of VAS satisfaction, AKS function, and Lysholm scores. Mean meniscus extrusion increased from 3.6 mm preoperatively to 5.0 mm postoperatively. Chondral lesions progressed in 3 (9.7%) of 31 patients. Preoperative meniscus extrusion was found to be positively correlated with final extrusion. At a mean follow-up of 33 months

  6. Higher bioavailability of doxycycline in broiler chickens with a novel in-feed pharmaceutical formulation.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lilia; Zermeño, Juan; Alcalá, Yazmín; Sumano, Héctor

    2017-08-01

    Bioavailability of a new, long-acting (LA) pharmaceutical preparation for administering doxycycline as in-feed medication to broiler chickens was compared to the standard in-feed administration of doxycycline. A commercial poultry house harboring Ross-308 broiler chickens, weighing 450 g, was divided into 7 sections as follows: doxy-FOLA group (n = 6,000 chickens divided into 3 replicates) medicated with 10% doxycyline, long-acting pellets at a dose of 400 g of doxycycline HCl/ton of food, resulting in a calculated dose of 48 mg/kg for 5 d; doxy-ref group (n = 6,000, divided into 3 replicates) medicated as for doxy-FOLA, but using a 20% commercial preparation of doxycycline. A third group of 300 broiler chickens (divided into 3 replicates), received a single IV dose of 48 mg/kg from a 2.4% solution of doxycycline HCl under ketamine anesthesia. Blood samples were obtained at designated times, serum was harvested, and doxycycline concentrations determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioavailability values were 156% and 227% on d 1 and 5 for doxy-FOLA and 13% and 23% for doxy-ref, on the same days. Mean residence time (MRT) and elimination half-life (T½β) were statistically different (P < 0.05) in doxy-FOLA group as compared to doxy-ref group (MRT: 26 h and 5.2 h; and T½β: 18 h vs 3 h, on the first day for doxy-FOLA and doxy-ref, respectively). Based on 3 levels of bacterial sensitivity of E. coli derived from a small survey carried out (i.e., 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 μg/mL) and considering pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios required for this time-dependent antibacterial drug, it is possible to postulate that doxy-FOLA outstrips the reference preparation maintaining higher and more prolonged serum concentrations of doxycycline and consequently complying better with PK/PD ratios regarded as optimal for this drug. The advantages of using doxy-FOLA in poultry medicine include a more comprehensive use of the active principle

  7. Toxicokinetics of the broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hüyük, R; Eraslan, G

    2017-02-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine single-dose toxicokinetics of deltamethrin, a broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide, for treatment of broiler chickens. 2. Twenty male broiler chickens were used. Animals were divided into two groups, each comprising 10 animals. An intravenous dose of 0.75 mg of deltamethrin/kg body weight was given intravenously to the first group and the same dose (0.75 mg/kg body weight) was administered by intracrop by gavage to the second group. Blood samples were also collected at specified intervals. 3. Serum deltamethrin levels were measured via micro-electron capture detection with gas chromatography equipment. According to the serum deltamethrin level-time curve, deltamethrin tended to distribute according to a two-compartment open model. 4. The half-life at β phase (t 1/2 β ), mean residence time (MRT) and area under the concentration time curve in 0-∞ (AUC 0→∞ ) values after intravenous application of deltamethrin were 4.00 ± 0.76 h, 4.65 ± 0.75 h and 702.27 ± 236.07 ng h/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the absorption half-life (t 1/2a ), maximal concentration in serum after intracrop administration (C max ), time needed to reach C max (t max ), t 1/2 β , MRT and AUC 0→∞ values after intracrop application of deltamethrin were determined to be 0.18 ± 0.06 h, 19.65 ± 4.58 ng/ml, 0.70 ± 0.10 h, 7.27 ± 1.36 h, 10.46 ± 1.84 h and 153.33 ± 30.83 ng h/ml, respectively. The bioavailability of deltamethrin was 21.83%. 5. It was concluded that deltamethrin was rapidly but incompletely absorbed after intracrop administration and bioavailability was at a low level. The t 1/2 β and MRT of the deltamethrin were short for both intracrop and intravenous applications, and the risk of toxic and residual effects of deltamethrin is therefore limited.

  8. Formal methods in the design of Ada 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guaspari, David

    1995-01-01

    Formal, mathematical methods are most useful when applied early in the design and implementation of a software system--that, at least, is the familiar refrain. I will report on a modest effort to apply formal methods at the earliest possible stage, namely, in the design of the Ada 95 programming language itself. This talk is an 'experience report' that provides brief case studies illustrating the kinds of problems we worked on, how we approached them, and the extent (if any) to which the results proved useful. It also derives some lessons and suggestions for those undertaking future projects of this kind. Ada 95 is the first revision of the standard for the Ada programming language. The revision began in 1988, when the Ada Joint Programming Office first asked the Ada Board to recommend a plan for revising the Ada standard. The first step in the revision was to solicit criticisms of Ada 83. A set of requirements for the new language standard, based on those criticisms, was published in 1990. A small design team, the Mapping Revision Team (MRT), became exclusively responsible for revising the language standard to satisfy those requirements. The MRT, from Intermetrics, is led by S. Tucker Taft. The work of the MRT was regularly subject to independent review and criticism by a committee of distinguished Reviewers and by several advisory teams--for example, the two User/Implementor teams, each consisting of an industrial user (attempting to make significant use of the new language on a realistic application) and a compiler vendor (undertaking, experimentally, to modify its current implementation in order to provide the necessary new features). One novel decision established the Language Precision Team (LPT), which investigated language proposals from a mathematical point of view. The LPT applied formal mathematical analysis to help improve the design of Ada 95 (e.g., by clarifying the language proposals) and to help promote its acceptance (e.g., by identifying a

  9. Effectiveness of different methods for delivering tailored nutrition education to low income, ethnically diverse adults

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Kim M; Risica, Patricia M; Strolla, Leslie O; Fournier, Leanne; Kirtania, Usree; Upegui, David; Zhao, Julie; George, Tiffiney; Acharyya, Suddhasatta

    2009-01-01

    Background Computer-tailored written nutrition interventions have been shown to be more effective than non-tailored materials in changing diet, but continued research is needed. Your Healthy Life/Su Vida Saludable (YHL-SVS) was an intervention study with low income, ethnically diverse, English and Spanish-speaking participants to determine which methods of delivering tailored written nutrition materials were most effective in lowering fat and increasing fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake. Methods YHL-SVS was a randomized controlled trial with four experimental conditions: 1) Nontailored (NT) comparison group; 2) Single Tailored (ST) packet; 3) Multiple Tailored (MT) packet mailed in four installments; 4) Multiple Re-Tailored (MRT) MT packets re-tailored between mailings via brief phone surveys. A baseline telephone survey collected information for tailoring as well as evaluation. Follow-up evaluation surveys were collected 4- and 7-months later. Primary outcomes included F&V intake and fat related behaviors. Descriptive statistics, paired t-test and ANOVA were used to examine the effectiveness of different methods of delivering tailored nutrition information. Results Both the ST and MT groups reported significantly higher F&V intake at 4-months than the NT and MRT groups. At 7 months, only the MT group still had significantly higher F&V intake compared to the NT group. For changes in fat-related behaviors, both the MT and MRT groups showed more change than NT at 4 months, but at 7 months, while these differences persisted, they were no longer statistically significant. There was a significant interaction of experimental group by education for change in F&V intake (P = .0085) with the lowest educational group demonstrating the most change. Conclusion In this study, tailored interventions were more effective than non-tailored interventions in improving the short-term dietary behaviors of low income, ethnically diverse participants. Delivery of information in multiple

  10. [Comparative efficiency of nootropic drugs in complex treatment of patients with remote consequences of closed craniocereberal trauma].

    PubMed

    Hliebova, O S; Tkachenko, O V

    2008-01-01

    Main data of the research were data obtained after a complex treatment of 120 persons with late consequences of closed craniocereberal trauma (CCRCT). The treatment included administration of one of nootropic agents (noophen, aminolon or entropil), magnesium sulfate, group B vitamins. All patients have passed a complex examination: specially developed questionnaire, anamnesis gathering, neurologic status, neuropsychological status with the use of multiple-aspect scales and questionnaires, examination of fundus of eye, rheoencephalography, echoencephalography, brain MRT. Results of a complex examination proved positive effect of the use of nootropic agents, in particular noophen, entropil and aminolon in complex treatment of late consequences of closed craniocereberal trauma. For optimisation of the use of nootropic agents in the treatment of late consequences of closed craniocereberal trauma it is recommended to consider features of influence of nootropic agents on certain clinical aspects of the disease.

  11. [Application of nootropic agents in complex treatment of patients with concussion of the brain].

    PubMed

    Tkachev, A V

    2007-01-01

    65 patients with a mild craniocereberal trauma have been observed. Medical examination included among general clinical methods the following methods: KT (MRT) of the brain, oculist examination including the observation of eye fundus. For objectification of a patient' complaints the authors used orientation and Galvestona's amnesia tests, feeling scale (psychological test), the table to determine the level of memory. Tests have been carried out on the first, tenth and thirty day of the treatment. Patients of the first group received in a complex treatment -pramistar, patients of the second group - piracetam. Patients of both groups noted considerable improvement during a complex treatment (disappearance of headache, dizziness and nausea) and at the same time patients receiving pramistar had better restoration of orientation and feeling. Pramistar was also more effective in patients with amnesia.

  12. Quantitative Analyse und Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion und somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht und damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet und mithilfe von Diagrammen und Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke und 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.

  13. Transport properties of nonelectrolyte liquid mixtures—IV. Viscosity coefficients for benzene, perdeuterobenzene, hexafluorobenzene, and an equimolar mixture of benzene + hexafluorobenzene from 25 to 100°c at pressures up to the freezing pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymond, J. H.; Robertson, J.; Isdale, J. D.

    1981-09-01

    Viscosity coefficient measurements made with an estimated accuracy of ±2% using a self-centering falling body viscometer are reported for benzene, perdeuterobenzene, hexafluorobenzene and an equimolar mixture of benzene + hexafluorobenzene at 25, 50, 75 and 100°C at pressures up to the freezing pressure. The data for each liquid at different temperatures and pressures are correlated very satisfactorily by a graphical method based on plots of 9.118×107 ηV 2/3/(MRT)1/2 versus logV, and are reproduced to within the experimental uncertainty by a free-volume form of equation. Application of the empirical Grunberg and Nissan equation to the mixture viscosity coefficient data shows that the characteristic constant G is practically temperature- and pressure-independent for this system.

  14. [Axonopathy in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, peripheral diffuse and local motor neuropathies and motor neuron disease].

    PubMed

    Merkulov, Iu A; Merkulova, D M; Iosifova, O A; Zavalishin, I A

    2010-01-01

    Two hundreds and seventy-six patients including 43 patients with multiple sclerosis, 24 - with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), 144 - with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), 27 - with motor multifocal neuropathy (MMN), 38 - with lateral amyotrophic sclerosis (LAS) have been examined. Symptoms of axonal degeneration, manifested in denervation phenomena in both clinical and instrumental studies (electromyography, transcranial magnetic stimulation, MRT), were revealed in all groups of patients. The formation of excitation conduction blocks is an universal pathophysiological mechanism of the axonopathy development in AIDP, CIDP, MMN and LAS. Symptoms of axonopathy and peripheral demyelinization in patients with multiple sclerosis and LAS suggest the possibility of transformation of immunopathological process from the central nervous system to the peripheral one.

  15. Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or

  16. Lattice Boltzmann Method for Spacecraft Propellant Slosh Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Powers, Joseph F.; Yang, Hong Q

    2015-01-01

    A scalable computational approach to the simulation of propellant tank sloshing dynamics in microgravity is presented. In this work, we use the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) to approximate the behavior of two-phase, single-component isothermal flows at very low Bond numbers. Through the use of a non-ideal gas equation of state and a modified multiple relaxation time (MRT) collision operator, the proposed method can simulate thermodynamically consistent phase transitions at temperatures and density ratios consistent with typical spacecraft cryogenic propellants, for example, liquid oxygen. Determination of the tank forces and moments is based upon a novel approach that relies on the global momentum conservation of the closed fluid domain, and a parametric wall wetting model allows tuning of the free surface contact angle. Development of the interface is implicit and no interface tracking approach is required. A numerical example illustrates the method's application to prediction of bulk fluid behavior during a spacecraft ullage settling maneuver.

  17. Assessing Bus Performance Rating in Kajang, Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norhisham, S.; Ismail, A.; Sidek, L. M.; Borhan, M. N.; Zaini, N.; Yen, A. T. G.

    2018-04-01

    The Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (TCQSM) was chosen based on the review with four manuals and guidelines for the method will be applied. Six (6) attributes, namely Hours of Service, Passenger Load, Transit Auto Travel Time, Service Frequency, Punctuality Performance and Service Coverage were chosen for evaluation.[6][7][8]. A total of three (3) operators with seven (7) routes were identified in Kajang. Based on the final results, the Quality of Service (QOS) findings was rated as D, which was regarded as minimum or satisfactory. Most stakeholders’ recommendations were: for the operators to provide information on bus scheduling and have accurate information for the passengers. It was suggested that in future this study can be extended to all routes and could be repeated after the opening of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations in Kajang, so as to provide a comparison and better evaluation of the public buses in Kajang.

  18. Dose distribution of a 125 keV mean energy microplanar x-ray beam for basic studies on microbeam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yumiko; Torikoshi, Masami; Suzuki, Masao; Umetani, Keiji; Imai, Yasuhiko; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto

    2008-07-01

    A multislit collimator was designed and fabricated for basic studies on microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) with an x-ray energy of about 100 keV. It consists of 30 slits that are 25 microm high, 30 mm wide, and 5 mm thick in the beam direction. The slits were made of 25 microm-thick polyimide sheets that were separated by 175 microm-thick tungsten sheets. The authors measured the dose distribution of a single microbeam with a mean energy of 125 keV by a scanning slit method using a phosphor coupled to a charge coupled device camera and found that the ratios of the dose at the center of a microbeam to that at midpositions to adjacent slits were 1050 and 760 for each side of the microbeam. This dose distribution was well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS.

  19. Dose distribution of a 125 keV mean energy microplanar x-ray beam for basic studies on microbeam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Yumiko; Torikoshi, Masami; Suzuki, Masao

    A multislit collimator was designed and fabricated for basic studies on microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) with an x-ray energy of about 100 keV. It consists of 30 slits that are 25 {mu}m high, 30 mm wide, and 5 mm thick in the beam direction. The slits were made of 25 {mu}m-thick polyimide sheets that were separated by 175 {mu}m-thick tungsten sheets. The authors measured the dose distribution of a single microbeam with a mean energy of 125 keV by a scanning slit method using a phosphor coupled to a charge coupled device camera and found that the ratios of themore » dose at the center of a microbeam to that at midpositions to adjacent slits were 1050 and 760 for each side of the microbeam. This dose distribution was well reproduced by the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS.« less

  20. Immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianhua; Han, Haifeng; Shi, Baochang; Guo, Zhaoli

    2012-01-01

    As an alterative version of the lattice Boltzmann models, the multiple relaxation time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann model introduces much less numerical boundary slip than the single relaxation time (SRT) lattice Boltzmann model if some special relationship between the relaxation time parameters is chosen. On the other hand, most current versions of the immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method, which was first introduced by Feng and improved by many other authors, suffer from numerical boundary slip as has been investigated by Le and Zhang. To reduce such a numerical boundary slip, an immerse boundary lattice Boltzmann model based on multiple relaxation times is proposed in this paper. A special formula is given between two relaxation time parameters in the model. A rigorous analysis and the numerical experiments carried out show that the numerical boundary slip reduces dramatically by using the present model compared to the single-relaxation-time-based model.

  1. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life‐threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  2. Monopole Element at the Center of a Circular Groundplane of Arbitrary Radius. Volume 2. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    ocM’T-o — o-iMin-o M*riiM/)«rNn« fMD -OO^O^MD<iino*nJ-JJO’*niMI)IDo(HDi>«.flriiot>o^rijNiD<r«i’-H zoo — JJSMI- rM»n-oomr)»o — m — — N — CM — i>ini>nj...o-o-orj-iNrxOO-o-oa) fta )CMOOft•o->rv«0𔃺-inn(0>fODnwoinin-.^)Oftino-ininj)o--o K<rry-<^ODoa)**mrtN«^naiooor)*(D^,NO’^inr>«^orvor)-H’OrvinN...C SUBROUTINE QMM * SUBROUTINE QMM<AK,DKD,DKW,CDKD,SDKD,CDK,SDK,TK. IWZ,NPH. Zll> IMPLICIT REAL*8 <A-H>,(P-Z) C0MPLEX*16 FDM, FMD

  3. Lagtime of river systems to changes in pollutant load on the catchment: a regional scale assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żurek, Anna J.; Różański, Kazimierz; Witczak, Stanisław

    2017-04-01

    Transport of conservative contaminants through groundwater systems (e.g. nitrate under oxidized conditions) is significantly delayed when compared to movement of those contaminants through surface water compartments. Characteristic time scales of groundwater movement may easily reach tens or hundreds of years. This results in large lagtimes of contaminant transport in the subsurface. These lagtimes are particularly important when response of river basins to measures aimed at recovery of good groundwater status is considered. Incorporating lagtime principles into water quality regulations may result in more realistic expectations when such policies are designed and implemented. The lagtime of contaminant transport in the subsurface with respect to transport through surface and near-surface (drainage) runoff can be separated into two components: (i) the delay associated with travel time of water (and contaminants) through the unsaturated zone, and (ii) the delay linked to time scales of groundwater flow, from the recharge area down to the discharge zone (river). Thus, the travel time of water through unsaturated and saturated zones can be considered a quantitative measure of the lagtime. Lagtime in the unsaturated zone on the territory of Poland was assessed on the basis of the existing Groundwater Vulnerability Map of Poland (GVMP) (Witczak et al., 2007; 2011). The adopted approach relies on MRT (Mean Residence Time) of water in the strata separating the saturated aquifer from the land surface, as an integrated vulnerability index. In the framework of GVMP, the MRT is calculated as turnover time of the infiltrating water in the vadose zone. The piston-flow type of water movement through the unsaturated zone is considered. The lagtime in the saturated zone (Tsat) can be approximated by travel time of water, flowing along the local hydraulic gradient to the closest river. The lagtime of river systems with respect to changes in pollutant load on the catchment is a sum

  4. Measurement Uncertainty Budget of the PMV Thermal Comfort Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekici, Can

    2016-05-01

    Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV) equation is the result of the combined quantitative effects of the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air velocity, humidity activity level and clothing thermal resistance. PMV is a mathematical model of thermal comfort which was developed by Fanger. The uncertainty budget of the PMV equation was developed according to GUM in this study. An example is given for the uncertainty model of PMV in the exemplification section of the study. Sensitivity coefficients were derived from the PMV equation. Uncertainty budgets can be seen in the tables. A mathematical model of the sensitivity coefficients of Ta, hc, T_{mrt}, T_{cl}, and Pa is given in this study. And the uncertainty budgets for hc, T_{cl}, and Pa are given in this study.

  5. Lattice Boltzmann simulations of immiscible displacement process with large viscosity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Parthib; Schaefer, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Immiscible displacement is a key physical mechanism involved in enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration processes. This multiphase flow phenomenon involves a complex interplay of viscous, capillary, inertial and wettability effects. The lattice Boltzmann (LB) method is an accurate and efficient technique for modeling and simulating multiphase/multicomponent flows especially in complex flow configurations and media. In this presentation we present numerical simulation results of displacement process in thin long channels. The results are based on a new psuedo-potential multicomponent LB model with multiple relaxation time collision (MRT) model and explicit forcing scheme. We demonstrate that the proposed model is capable of accurately simulating the displacement process involving fluids with a wider range of viscosity ratios (>100) and which also leads to viscosity-independent interfacial tension and reduction of some important numerical artifacts.

  6. Nucleate boiling performance evaluation of cavities at mesoscale level

    DOE PAGES

    Mu, Yu-Tong; Chen, Li; He, Ya-Ling; ...

    2016-09-29

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer (NBHT) from enhanced structures is an effective way to dissipate high heat flux. Here, a 3D multi-relaxation-time (MRT) phase-change lattice Boltzmann method in conjunction with conjugated heat transfer treatment is proposed and then applied to the study of cavities behaviours for nucleation on roughened surfaces for an entire ebullition cycle without introducing any artificial disturbance. The bubble departure diameter, departure frequency and total boiling heat transfer rate are also explored. We demonstrate that the cavity shapes show significant influence on the features of NBHT. The total heat transfer rate increases with the cavity mouth and cavitymore » base area while decreases with the increase in cavity bottom wall thickness. The cavity with low wetting can enhance the heat transfer and improve the bubble release frequency.« less

  7. Roof sprinkling system sweats down A/C costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    This article describes a roof spray system which enhances the energy efficiency of a building's HVAC system at a nominal cost in relationship to the benefits it yields. Roof spray cooling is based on the fact that water, when it evaporates, absorbs large amounts of heat. The evaporation of one gallon of water will dissipate about 8500 BTU's of heat; and three fallons of water evaporated over one hour's time offers the same cooling capacity as a two-ton airconditioner operated over the same period. By intermittently spraying its surface with water, a direct evaporative cooling system allows a roof tomore » sweat away the sun's radiant heat, cooling an un-airconditioned building from 10 to 12 degrees mrt and reducing summer electric costs by 25%.« less

  8. Perception of synthetic speech produced automatically by rule: Intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems.

    PubMed

    Greene, Beth G; Logan, John S; Pisoni, David B

    1986-03-01

    We present the results of studies designed to measure the segmental intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems and a natural speech control, using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Results indicated that the voices tested could be grouped into four categories: natural speech, high-quality synthetic speech, moderate-quality synthetic speech, and low-quality synthetic speech. The overall performance of the best synthesis system, DECtalk-Paul, was equivalent to natural speech only in terms of performance on initial consonants. The findings are discussed in terms of recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions. Suggestions for future research on improving the quality of synthetic speech are also considered.

  9. Perception of synthetic speech produced automatically by rule: Intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems

    PubMed Central

    GREENE, BETH G.; LOGAN, JOHN S.; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of studies designed to measure the segmental intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems and a natural speech control, using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Results indicated that the voices tested could be grouped into four categories: natural speech, high-quality synthetic speech, moderate-quality synthetic speech, and low-quality synthetic speech. The overall performance of the best synthesis system, DECtalk-Paul, was equivalent to natural speech only in terms of performance on initial consonants. The findings are discussed in terms of recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions. Suggestions for future research on improving the quality of synthetic speech are also considered. PMID:23225916

  10. Sedimentological and geochronological evidences of anthropogenic impacts on river basins in the Northern Latium coastal area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    In this work we aimed to compare sedimentological and geochronological data from three sediment core samples (MIG50, MRT50, and GRT50) taken in the Northern Latium (Italy) coastal area, at -50 m depth, to data regarding rainfall, river flows and the land use in the three most important hydrographic basins (Mignone, Marta and Fiora) and in the coastal area. Different trends of sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) are detected in the three cores: a strongly increasing trend was identified in MIG50 and MRT50 cores while GRT50 doesn't show significant variation. Data from the sedimentological analysis of GRT50 core identify a progressive decrease in the sandy component, which declined from about 30% to the current level of 7% over the last 36 years, while MRT50 and MIG50 cores (mainly composed by pelitic fraction > 95%) showed slight variations of textural ratio between silt and clay. According to the general decrease of pluviometric trend observed in Italy, related to teleconnection pattern tendency (NAO), the statistical analysis of rain identified significative decrease only in the Fiora river basin, whereas in the other two locations the decrease was not as significant. Regarding the Fiora river flow, a significative decreasing trend of average flow is detected, while the flood regime remained unaffected over the past 30 years. The analysis of the land use shows that the human activities are increased of 6-10% over the available time steps (1990 - 2006) in Fiora and Mignone river basins, while the Marta river basin has a strong human impact since 1990 highligting more than 80% of artificial soil covering. The largest variation is observed on the Fiora basin (10%) where the antrhopic activities have expanded to an area of about 85 Km2. Moreover, in the last ten years a large beach nourishment in 2004 (570000 m3) and dredging activities in the early second half of 2000s (1000000 m3 moved) were performed in Marina di Tarquinia beach and in front of the Torrevaldaliga

  11. The pharmacokinetic characters of simvastatin after co-administration with Shexiang Baoxin Pill in healthy volunteers' plasma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianfei; Jiang, Peng; Peng, Chengcheng; Li, Min; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-07-15

    To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a tranditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of simvastatin in healthy volunteers' plasma, a quantitative method was developed using an Agilent G6410A rapid performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. The established method was rapid with high extraction recovery and successfully applied for the determination of simvastatin in plasma of 16 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that the MRT(0-∞), T1/2 and Tmax value of simvastatin were significantly decreased, while the AUC(0-t) and Cmax values of smivastatin were increased by SBP. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the metabolism parameters of simvastatin could be affected by SBP and the potential drug-drug interaction should be noted in the future clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid urbanization and the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukmana, D.

    2018-03-01

    Not only is Jakarta the largest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia, it is the also one of the most dynamic, though beset with most of the urban problems experienced in twenty-first century Southeast Asia. Batavia, colonial capital of the Netherland Indies in the first half of the 20th century was a small urban area of approximately 150,000 residents. In the second half, Batavia became Jakarta, the 28 million megacity capital of independent Indonesia. Among many urban problems, one major problem plagued Jakarta in the last two decades is traffic congestions. This paper discusses the extent to which rapid urbanization in Jakarta has contributed to the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta. The development of MRT could be viable solutions to alleviate the acute traffic jams in Jakarta. Jakarta will need to implement other innovative sustainable transportation policies including promoting active live through more walking and bicycling, carpool matching services, shuttle services, telecommuting and downzoning in downtown areas.

  13. Synthesis and pharmacokinetic property improvement of deuterated plinabulin 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianchun; Cheng, Hejuan; Sun, Tianwen; Wang, Shixiao; Ding, Zhongpeng; Dou, Guifang; Meng, Zhiyun; Guan, Huashi; Li, Wenbao

    2017-04-01

    Plinabulin, a potent microtubule-targeting agent, is derived from marine natural diketopiperazine `phenylahistin'. To develop novel plinabulin analogue that could display better pharmacokinetic properties and less side effects, deuterated plinabulin 9 was synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In comparison with plinabulin, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies indicated that the deuterated derivative 9 could alter blood circulation behavior obviously, which was proved by increased area under the plasma concentration- time curve (AUC0-∞), reduced clearance (CL), and prolonged total body mean residence time (MRT). The derivative 9 also has higher inhibition rates against BxPC-3, Jurkat and A-431 tumor cell lines as compared with its prototype plinabulin. Therefore, the deuterated compound 9 might be developed as a potential agent for different cancer treatments.

  14. In-line moisture monitoring in fluidized bed granulation using a novel multi-resonance microwave sensor.

    PubMed

    Peters, Johanna; Bartscher, Kathrin; Döscher, Claas; Taute, Wolfgang; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Microwave resonance technology (MRT) is known as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for moisture measurements in fluid-bed granulation. It offers a great potential for wet granulation processes even where the suitability of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is limited, e.g. colored granules, large variations in bulk density. However, previous sensor systems operating around a single resonance frequency showed limitations above approx. 7.5% granule moisture. This paper describes the application of a novel sensor working with four resonance frequencies. In-line data of all four resonance frequencies were collected and further processed. Based on calculation of density-independent microwave moisture values multiple linear regression (MLR) models using Karl-Fischer titration (KF) as well as loss on drying (LOD) as reference methods were build. Rapid, reliable in-process moisture control (RMSEP≤0.5%) even at higher moisture contents was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Building a Middle-Range Theory of Adaptive Spirituality.

    PubMed

    Dobratz, Marjorie C

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a Roy adaptation model based- research abstraction, the findings of which were synthesized into a middle-range theory (MRT) of adaptive spirituality. The published literature yielded 21 empirical studies that investigated religion/spirituality. Quantitative results supported the influence of spirituality on quality of life, psychosocial adjustment, well-being, adaptive coping, and the self-concept mode. Qualitative findings showed the importance of spiritual expressions, values, and beliefs in adapting to chronic illness, bereavement, death, and other life transitions. These findings were abstracted into six theoretical statements, a conceptual definition of adaptive spirituality, and three hypotheses for future testing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. A Review of Imaging Techniques for Plant Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Given the rapid development of plant genomic technologies, a lack of access to plant phenotyping capabilities limits our ability to dissect the genetics of quantitative traits. Effective, high-throughput phenotyping platforms have recently been developed to solve this problem. In high-throughput phenotyping platforms, a variety of imaging methodologies are being used to collect data for quantitative studies of complex traits related to the growth, yield and adaptation to biotic or abiotic stress (disease, insects, drought and salinity). These imaging techniques include visible imaging (machine vision), imaging spectroscopy (multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing), thermal infrared imaging, fluorescence imaging, 3D imaging and tomographic imaging (MRT, PET and CT). This paper presents a brief review on these imaging techniques and their applications in plant phenotyping. The features used to apply these imaging techniques to plant phenotyping are described and discussed in this review. PMID:25347588

  17. Product Stochastic Measures, Multiple Stochastic Integrals and Their Extensions to Nuclear Space Valued Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    8217 - - - .-. ’ - - ’. : - . L - • • - . " -" 21 where the supremum is taken over all finite partitions (A.) of Aointo dis - joint sets Ac C A 0and all...1 Afm (t) = Z aT 1A (t) • j=lJ j n then from (2.3.2) and the definition of sv( e Xi;A) i n 2 ni,": II~~1f A / mr(t-- di * X. (t) II Hen = II j~ l a’m...n and -fT fd 12 M(. Ci 2 Et 11 11 (lf(C k))e = lim ED iml j1 l 4 n = lir exp( fn f 2 di ) = exp(f f2d) < L.n -Ko T UTT. i= l which shows (a). Let 1,E2

  18. Lattice Boltzmann Method for Spacecraft Propellant Slosh Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Powers, Joseph F.; Yang, Hong Q.

    2015-01-01

    A scalable computational approach to the simulation of propellant tank sloshing dynamics in microgravity is presented. In this work, we use the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) to approximate the behavior of two-phase, single-component isothermal flows at very low Bond numbers. Through the use of a non-ideal gas equation of state and a modified multiple relaxation time (MRT) collision operator, the proposed method can simulate thermodynamically consistent phase transitions at temperatures and density ratios consistent with typical spacecraft cryogenic propellants, for example, liquid oxygen. Determination of the tank forces and moments relies upon the global momentum conservation of the fluid domain, and a parametric wall wetting model allows tuning of the free surface contact angle. Development of the interface is implicit and no interface tracking approach is required. Numerical examples illustrate the method's application to predicting bulk fluid motion including lateral propellant slosh in low-g conditions.

  19. Simulation on Thermocapillary-Driven Drop Coalescence by Hybrid Lattice Boltzmann Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Haiqiong; Zeng, Zhong; Zhang, Liangqi; Yokota, Yuui; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid two-phase model, incorporating lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and finite difference method (FDM), was developed to investigate the coalescence of two drops during their thermocapillary migration. The lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-relaxation-time (MRT) collision model was applied to solve the flow field for incompressible binary fluids, and the method was implemented in an axisymmetric form. The deformation of the drop interface was captured with the phase-field theory, and the continuum surface force model (CSF) was adopted to introduce the surface tension, which depends on the temperature. Both phase-field equation and the energy equation were solved with the finite difference method. The effects of Marangoni number and Capillary numbers on the drop's motion and coalescence were investigated.

  20. Design of liposomal colloidal systems for ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Ehab I.; El-Anazi, Magda H.; El-Bagory, Ibrahim M.; Bayomi, Mohsen A.

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmic drug bioavailability is limited due to protective mechanisms of the eye which require the design of a system to enhance ocular delivery. In this study several liposomal formulations containing ciprofloxacin (CPX) have been formulated using reverse phase evaporation technique with final dispersion of pH 7.4. Different types of phospholipids including Phosphatidylcholine, Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were utilized. The effect of formulation factors such as type of phospholipid, cholesterol content, incorporation of positively charging inducing agents and ultrasonication on the properties of the liposomal vesicles was studied. Bioavailability of selected liposomal formulations in rabbit eye aqueous humor has been investigated and compared with that of commercially available CPX eye drops (Ciprocin®). Pharmacokinetic parameters including Cmax, Tmax, elimination rate constant, t1/2, MRT and AUC0–∞, were determined. The investigated formulations showed more than three folds of improvement in CPX ocular bioavailability compared with the commercial product. PMID:25061409

  1. Observation and correction of transient cavitation-induced PRFS thermometry artifacts during radiofrequency ablation, using simultaneous ultrasound/MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Viallon, Magalie; Terraz, Sylvain; Roland, Joerg; Dumont, Erik; Becker, Christoph D; Salomir, Rares

    2010-04-01

    MR thermometry based on the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) is the most commonly used method for the monitoring of thermal therapies. As the chemical shift of water protons is temperature dependent, the local temperature variation (relative to an initial baseline) may be calculated from time-dependent phase changes in gradient-echo (GRE) MR images. Dynamic phase shift in GRE images is also produced by time-dependent changes in the magnetic bulk susceptibility of tissue. Gas bubbles (known as "white cavitation") are frequently visualized near the RF electrode in ultrasonography-guided radio frequency ablation (RFA). This study aimed to investigate RFA-induced cavitation's effects by using simultaneous ultrasonography and MRI, to both visualize the cavitation and quantify the subsequent magnetic susceptibility-mediated errors in concurrent PRFS MR-thermometry (MRT) as well as to propose a first-order correction for the latter errors. RF heating in saline gels and in ex vivo tissues was performed with MR-compatible bipolar and monopolar electrodes inside a 1.5 T MR clinical scanner. Ultrasonography simultaneous to PRFS MRT was achieved using a MR-compatible phased-array ultrasonic transducer. PRFS MRT was performed interleaved in three orthogonal planes and compared to measurements from fluoroptic sensors, under low and, respectively, high RFA power levels. Control experiments were performed to isolate the main source of errors in standard PRFS thermometry. Ultrasonography, MRI and digital camera pictures clearly demonstrated generation of bubbles every time when operating the radio frequency equipment at therapeutic powers (> or = 30 W). Simultaneous bimodal (ultrasonography and MRI) monitoring of high power RF heating demonstrated a correlation between the onset of the PRFS-thermometry errors and the appearance of bubbles around the applicator. In an ex vivo study using a bipolar RF electrode under low power level (5 W), the MR measured temperature curves

  2. How few and far between? Examining the effects of probe rate on self-reported mind wandering

    PubMed Central

    Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Levene, Merrick; Smilek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the temporal rate at which thought probes are presented affects the likelihood that people will report periods of mind wandering. To evaluate this possibility, we had participants complete a sustained-attention task (the Metronome Response Task; MRT) during which we intermittently presented thought probes. Critically, we varied the average time between probes (i.e., probe rate) across participants, allowing us to examine the relation between probe rate and mind-wandering rate. We observed a positive relation between these variables, indicating that people are more likely to report mind wandering as the time between probes increases. We discuss the methodological implications of this finding in the context of the mind-wandering literature, and suggest that researchers include a range of probe rates in future work to provide more insight into this methodological issue. PMID:23882239

  3. Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Zangari, Andrea; Zaini, Johan; Gulìa, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor development. PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR (P-F) fusion state has important implications in the pathogenesis and biology of RMS, and different genes alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of P-F negative and embryonal RMS, which are the subsets of tumors most frequently affecting the bladder. These genes include p53, MEF2, MYOG, Ptch1, Gli1, Gli3, Myf5, MyoD1, NF1, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, FGFR4, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, FBXW7, IGF1R, PDGFRA, ERBB2/4, MET, BCOR. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) usually shows SMARCB1/INI1 alterations. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocations are the most frequently associated alterations in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Few genes alterations in urothelial neoplasms have been reported in the paediatric population, which are mainly related to deletion of p16/lnk4, overexpression of CK20 and overexpression of p53. Here, we reviewed available literature to identify genes associated to bladder malignancies in children and discussed their possible relationships with these tumors. PMID:27013922

  4. Comparison of mechanical and biological properties of zirconia and titanium alloy orthodontic micro-implants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hae Won; Park, Young Seok; Chung, Shin Hye; Jung, Min Ho; Moon, Won; Rhee, Sang Hoon

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the initial stability as insertion and removal torque and the clinical applicability of novel orthodontic zirconia micro-implants made using a powder injection molding (PIM) technique with those parameters in conventional titanium micro-implants. Sixty zirconia and 60 titanium micro-implants of similar design (diameter, 1.6 mm; length, 8.0 mm) were inserted perpendicularly in solid polyurethane foam with varying densities of 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf), 30 pcf, and 40 pcf. Primary stability was measured as maximum insertion torque (MIT) and maximum removal torque (MRT). To investigate clinical applicability, compressive and tensile forces were recorded at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 mm displacement of the implants at angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, 30°, and 40°. The biocompatibility of zirconia micro-implants was assessed via an experimental animal study. There were no statistically significant differences between zirconia micro-implants and titanium alloy implants with regard to MIT, MRT, or the amount of movement in the angulated lateral displacement test. As angulation increased, the mean compressive and tensile forces required to displace both types of micro-implants increased substantially at all distances. The average bone-to-implant contact ratio of prototype zirconia micro-implants was 56.88 ± 6.72%. Zirconia micro-implants showed initial stability and clinical applicability for diverse orthodontic treatments comparable to that of titanium micro-implants under compressive and tensile forces.

  5. Indocyanine Green Clearance Varies as a Function of N-Acetylcysteine Treatment in a Murine Model of Acetaminophen Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Milesi-Hallé, Alessandra; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M.; Brown, Aliza; McCullough, Sandra S.; Letzig, Lynda; Hinson, Jack A.; James, Laura P.

    2011-01-01

    Standard assays to assess acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in animal models include determination of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) levels and examination of histopathology of liver sections. However, these assays do not reflect the functional capacity of the injured liver. To examine a functional marker of liver injury, the pharmacokinetics of indocyanine green (ICG) were examined in mice treated with APAP, saline, or APAP followed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. Male B6C3F1 mice were administered APAP (200 mg/kg IP) or saline. Two additional groups of mice received APAP followed by NAC at 1 or 4 h after APAP. At 24 h, mice were injected with ICG (10 mg/kg IV) and serial blood samples (0, 2, 10, 30, 50 and 75 min) were obtained for determination of serum ICG concentrations and ALT. Mouse livers were removed for measurement of APAP protein adducts and examination of histopathology. Toxicity (ALT values and histology) was significantly increased above saline treated mice in the APAP and APAP/NAC 4 h mice. Mice treated with APAP/NAC 1 h had complete protection from toxicity. APAP protein adducts were increased in all APAP treated groups and were highest in the APAP/NAC 1 h group. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ICG demonstrated that the total body clearance (ClT) of ICG was significantly decreased and the mean residence time (MRT) was significantly increased in the APAP mice compared to the saline mice. Mice treated with NAC at 1 h had ClT and MRT values similar to those of saline treated mice. Conversely, mice that received NAC at 4 h had a similar ICG pharmacokinetic profile to that of the APAP only mice. Prompt treatment with NAC prevented loss of functional activity while late treatment with NAC offered no improvement in ICG clearance at 24 h. ICG clearance in mice with APAP toxicity can be utilized in future studies testing the effects of novel treatments for APAP toxicity. PMID:21145883

  6. An operational MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm at high spatial resolution, and its application over a complex urban region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Man Sing; Nichol, Janet E.; Lee, Kwon Ho

    2011-03-01

    Aerosol retrieval algorithms for the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been developed to estimate aerosol and microphysical properties of the atmosphere, which help to address aerosol climatic issues at global scale. However, higher spatial resolution aerosol products for urban areas have not been well-researched mainly due to the difficulty of differentiating aerosols from bright surfaces in urban areas. Here, an aerosol retrieval algorithm using the MODIS 500-m resolution bands is described, to retrieve aerosol properties over Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region. The rationale of our technique is to first estimate the aerosol reflectances by decomposing the top-of-atmosphere reflectances from surface reflectances and Rayleigh path reflectances. For the determination of surface reflectances, a Minimum Reflectance Technique (MRT) is used, and MRT images are computed for different seasons. For conversion of aerosol reflectance to aerosol optical thickness (AOT), comprehensive Look Up Tables specific to the local region are constructed, which consider aerosol properties and sun-viewing geometry in the radiative transfer calculations. Four local aerosol types, namely coastal urban, polluted urban, dust, and heavy pollution, were derived using cluster analysis on 3 years of AERONET measurements in Hong Kong. The resulting 500 m AOT images were found to be highly correlated with ground measurements from the AERONET (r2 = 0.767) and Microtops II sunphotometers (r2 = 0.760) in Hong Kong. This study further demonstrates the application of the fine resolution AOT images for monitoring inter-urban and intra-urban aerosol distributions and the influence of trans-boundary flows. These applications include characterization of spatial patterns of AOT within the city, and detection of regional biomass burning sources.

  7. Hydrogen-limited growth of hyperthermophilic methanogens at deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Ver Eecke, Helene C; Butterfield, David A; Huber, Julie A; Lilley, Marvin D; Olson, Eric J; Roe, Kevin K; Evans, Leigh J; Merkel, Alexandr Y; Cantin, Holly V; Holden, James F

    2012-08-21

    Microbial productivity at hydrothermal vents is among the highest found anywhere in the deep ocean, but constraints on microbial growth and metabolism at vents are lacking. We used a combination of cultivation, molecular, and geochemical tools to verify pure culture H(2) threshold measurements for hyperthermophilic methanogenesis in low-temperature hydrothermal fluids from Axial Volcano and Endeavour Segment in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Two Methanocaldococcus strains from Axial and Methanocaldococcus jannaschii showed similar Monod growth kinetics when grown in a bioreactor at varying H(2) concentrations. Their H(2) half-saturation value was 66 μM, and growth ceased below 17-23 μM H(2), 10-fold lower than previously predicted. By comparison, measured H(2) and CH(4) concentrations in fluids suggest that there was generally sufficient H(2) for Methanocaldococcus growth at Axial but not at Endeavour. Fluids from one vent at Axial (Marker 113) had anomalously high CH(4) concentrations and contained various thermal classes of methanogens based on cultivation and mcrA/mrtA analyses. At Endeavour, methanogens were largely undetectable in fluid samples based on cultivation and molecular screens, although abundances of hyperthermophilic heterotrophs were relatively high. Where present, Methanocaldococcus genes were the predominant mcrA/mrtA sequences recovered and comprised ∼0.2-6% of the total archaeal community. Field and coculture data suggest that H(2) limitation may be partly ameliorated by H(2) syntrophy with hyperthermophilic heterotrophs. These data support our estimated H(2) threshold for hyperthermophilic methanogenesis at vents and highlight the need for coupled laboratory and field measurements to constrain microbial distribution and biogeochemical impacts in the deep sea.

  8. Modelling thermal comfort of visitors at urban squares in hot and arid climate using NN-ARX soft computing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariminia, Shahab; Motamedi, Shervin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Piri, Jamshid; Mohammadi, Kasra; Hashim, Roslan; Roy, Chandrabhushan; Petković, Dalibor; Bonakdari, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Visitors utilize the urban space based on their thermal perception and thermal environment. The thermal adaptation engages the user's behavioural, physiological and psychological aspects. These aspects play critical roles in user's ability to assess the thermal environments. Previous studies have rarely addressed the effects of identified factors such as gender, age and locality on outdoor thermal comfort, particularly in hot, dry climate. This study investigated the thermal comfort of visitors at two city squares in Iran based on their demographics as well as the role of thermal environment. Assessing the thermal comfort required taking physical measurement and questionnaire survey. In this study, a non-linear model known as the neural network autoregressive with exogenous input (NN-ARX) was employed. Five indices of physiological equivalent temperature (PET), predicted mean vote (PMV), standard effective temperature (SET), thermal sensation votes (TSVs) and mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) were trained and tested using the NN-ARX. Then, the results were compared to the artificial neural network (ANN) and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The findings showed the superiority of the NN-ARX over the ANN and the ANFIS. For the NN-ARX model, the statistical indicators of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were 0.53 and 0.36 for the PET, 1.28 and 0.71 for the PMV, 2.59 and 1.99 for the SET, 0.29 and 0.08 for the TSV and finally 0.19 and 0.04 for the T mrt.

  9. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M.; Inscoe, Christy R.; Hadsell, Michael J.; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z.; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors.

  10. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube X-ray source array

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M; Inscoe, Christy R; Hadsell, Michael J; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based X-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board X-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 μm measured directly from the histology (537 μm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors. PMID:24556798

  11. Pharmacokinetic interaction of flecainide and paroxetine in relation to the CYP2D6*10 allele in healthy Korean subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyoung Soo; Cho, Joo-Youn; Jang, In-Jin; Kim, Bo-Hyung; Kim, JaeWoo; Jeon, Ji-Young; Tae, Yu-Mi; Yi, SoJeong; Eum, SoYoung; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT The only existing study of CYP2D6*10-associated alterations in flecainide pharmacokinetics was retrospective. Paroxetine has been known as a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS This study reports that the extent of drug interaction between flecainide and paroxetine is influenced by the CYP2D6*10 allele in healthy subjects, which is frequent in Asians. AIMS The objectives were to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics of flecainide, and also on the extent of drug interaction with paroxetine as a CYP2D6 inhibitor after a single oral administration in healthy subjects. METHODS An open-label, two-period, single-sequence, cross-over study was performed in 21 healthy Korean male volunteers (seven for CYP2D6*1/*1 or *1/*2, group 1; seven for CYP2D6*1/*10, group 2; seven for CYP2D6*10/*10 or *10/*36, group 3). Subjects were administered 200 mg of flecainide on day 1. After a 7-day wash-out period, subjects were administered 20 mg of paroxetine from day 8 to 14, and 200 mg of flecainide on day 15. Blood sampling was performed up to 72 h after flecainide administration. RESULTS Terminal elimination half-life and mean residence time (MRT) were significantly different among three genotype groups after a single oral administration of flecainide (P = 0.021, 0.011, respectively). Area under the concentration–time curve, terminal elimination half-life and MRT increased significantly after paroxetine co-administration only in groups 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS This study reports that the extent of drug interaction between flecainide and paroxetine is influenced by the CYP2D6*10 allele in healthy subjects, which is frequent in Asians. PMID:18754843

  12. Improved normal tissue protection by proton and X-ray microchannels compared to homogeneous field irradiation.

    PubMed

    Girst, S; Marx, C; Bräuer-Krisch, E; Bravin, A; Bartzsch, S; Oelfke, U; Greubel, C; Reindl, J; Siebenwirth, C; Zlobinskaya, O; Multhoff, G; Dollinger, G; Schmid, T E; Wilkens, J J

    2015-09-01

    The risk of developing normal tissue injuries often limits the radiation dose that can be applied to the tumour in radiation therapy. Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), a spatially fractionated photon radiotherapy is currently tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) to improve normal tissue protection. MRT utilizes an array of microscopically thin and nearly parallel X-ray beams that are generated by a synchrotron. At the ion microprobe SNAKE in Munich focused proton microbeams ("proton microchannels") are studied to improve normal tissue protection. Here, we comparatively investigate microbeam/microchannel irradiations with sub-millimetre X-ray versus proton beams to minimize the risk of normal tissue damage in a human skin model, in vitro. Skin tissues were irradiated with a mean dose of 2 Gy over the irradiated area either with parallel synchrotron-generated X-ray beams at the ESRF or with 20 MeV protons at SNAKE using four different irradiation modes: homogeneous field, parallel lines and microchannel applications using two different channel sizes. Normal tissue viability as determined in an MTT test was significantly higher after proton or X-ray microchannel irradiation compared to a homogeneous field irradiation. In line with these findings genetic damage, as determined by the measurement of micronuclei in keratinocytes, was significantly reduced after proton or X-ray microchannel compared to a homogeneous field irradiation. Our data show that skin irradiation using either X-ray or proton microchannels maintain a higher cell viability and DNA integrity compared to a homogeneous irradiation, and thus might improve normal tissue protection after radiation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple oral dosing of ketoconazole influences pharmacokinetics of quinidine after intravenous and oral administration in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Kuroha, M; Shirai, Y; Shimoda, M

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of multiple oral dosing of ketoconazole (KTZ) on pharmacokinetics of quinidine (QN), a CYP3A substrate with low hepatic clearance, after i.v. and oral administration in beagle dogs. Four dogs were given p.o. KTZ for 20 days (200 mg, b.i.d.). QN was administered either i.v. (1 mg/kg) or p.o. (100 mg) 10 and 20 days before the KTZ treatment and 10 and 20 days after start of KTZ treatment. Multiple oral dosing of KTZ decreased significantly alpha and beta, whereas increased t(1/2beta), V(1), and k(a). The KTZ treatment also decreased significantly both total body clearance (Cl(tot)) and oral clearance (Cl(oral)). No significant change in bioavailability was observed in the presence of KTZ. Co-administration of KTZ increased C(max) of QN to about 1.5-fold. Mean resident time after i.v. administration (MRT(i.v.)), and after oral administration (MRT(p.o.)) of QN were prolonged to about twofold, whereas mean absorption time (MAT) was decreased to 50%. Volume of distribution at steady state (V(d(ss))) of QN was unchanged in the presence of KTZ. These alterations may be because of a decrease in metabolism of QN by inhibition of KTZ on hepatic CYP3A activity. In conclusion, multiple oral dosing of KTZ affected largely pharmacokinetics of QN after i.v. and oral administration in beagle dogs. Therefore, KTZ at a clinical dosing regimen may markedly change the pharmacokinetics of drugs primarily metabolized by CYP3A with low hepatic clearance in dogs. In clinical use, much attention should be paid to concomitant administration of KTZ with the drug when given either p.o. or i.v.

  14. Screening of potential genes contributing to the macrocycle drug resistance of C. albicans via microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Jian; Xi, Zhiqin; Qiao, Zusha; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Yan; Ji, Ying; Feng, Wenli

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential genes involved in drug resistance of Candida albicans (C. albicans) by performing microarray analysis. The gene expression profile of GSE65396 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, including a control, 15-min and 45-min macrocyclic compound RF59-treated group with three repeats for each. Following preprocessing using RAM, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened using the Limma package. Subsequently, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways of these genes were analyzed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Based on interactions estimated by the Search Tool for Retrieval of Interacting Gene, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was visualized using Cytoscape. Subnetwork analysis was performed using ReactomeFI. A total of 154 upregulated and 27 downregulated DEGs were identified in the 15-min treated group, compared with the control, and 235 upregulated and 233 downregulated DEGs were identified in the 45-min treated group, compared with the control. The upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in the ribosome pathway. Based on the PPI network, PRP5, RCL1, NOP13, NOP4 and MRT4 were the top five nodes in the 15-min treated comparison. GIS2, URA3, NOP58, ELP3 and PLP7 were the top five nodes in the 45-min treated comparison, and its subnetwork was significantly enriched in the ribosome pathway. The macrocyclic compound RF59 had a notable effect on the ribosome and its associated pathways of C. albicans. RCL1, NOP4, MRT4, GIS2 and NOP58 may be important in RF59-resistance. PMID:28944888

  15. γ-H2AX as a Marker for Dose Deposition in the Brain of Wistar Rats after Synchrotron Microbeam Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Palomo, Cristian; Mothersill, Carmel; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Laissue, Jean; Seymour, Colin; Schültke, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Synchrotron radiation has shown high therapeutic potential in small animal models of malignant brain tumours. However, more studies are needed to understand the radiobiological effects caused by the delivery of high doses of spatially fractionated x-rays in tissue. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of the γ-H2AX antibody as a marker for dose deposition in the brain of rats after synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT). Methods Normal and tumour-bearing Wistar rats were exposed to 35, 70 or 350 Gy of MRT to their right cerebral hemisphere. The brains were extracted either at 4 or 8 hours after irradiation and immediately placed in formalin. Sections of paraffin-embedded tissue were incubated with anti γ-H2AX primary antibody. Results While the presence of the C6 glioma does not seem to modulate the formation of γ-H2AX in normal tissue, the irradiation dose and the recovery versus time are the most important factors affecting the development of γ-H2AX foci. Our results also suggest that doses of 350 Gy can trigger the release of bystander signals that significantly amplify the DNA damage caused by radiation and that the γ-H2AX biomarker does not only represent DNA damage produced by radiation, but also damage caused by bystander effects. Conclusion In conclusion, we suggest that the γ-H2AX foci should be used as biomarker for targeted and non-targeted DNA damage after synchrotron radiation rather than a tool to measure the actual physical doses. PMID:25799425

  16. Rectal Cancer: Mucinous Carcinoma on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indicates Poor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oberholzer, Katja, E-mail: oberholz@radiologie.klinik.uni-mainz.de; Menig, Matthias; Kreft, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To assess response of locally advanced rectal carcinoma to chemoradiation with regard to mucinous status and local tumor invasion found at pretherapeutic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: A total of 88 patients were included in this prospective study of patients with advanced mrT3 and mrT4 carcinomas. Carcinomas were categorized by MRI as mucinous (mucin proportion >50% within the tumor volume), and as nonmucinous. Patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation consisting of 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) and 5-fluorouracil on Days 1 to 5 and Days 29 to 33. Therapy response was assessed by comparing pretherapeutic MRI with histopathology of surgicalmore » specimens (minimum distance between outer tumor edge and circumferential resection margin = CRM, T, and N category). Results: A mucinous carcinoma was found in 21 of 88 patients. Pretherapeutic mrCRM was 0 mm (median) in the mucinous and nonmucinous group. Of the 88 patients, 83 underwent surgery with tumor resection. The ypCRM (mm) at histopathology was significantly lower in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (p {<=} 0.001). Positive resection margins (ypCRM {<=} 1 mm) were found more frequently in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous ones (p {<=} 0.001). Treatment had less effect on local tumor stage in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (for T downsizing, p = 0.012; for N downstaging, p = 0.007). Disease progression was observed only in patients with mucinous carcinomas (n = 5). Conclusion: Mucinous status at pretherapeutic MRI was associated with a noticeably worse response to chemoradiation and should be assessed by MRI in addition to local tumor staging to estimate response to treatment before it is initiated.« less

  17. [Chitosan-coated ophthalmic submicro emulsion for pilocarpine nitrate].

    PubMed

    Wei, Jun; He, Hong-Liang; Zheng, Chun-Li; Zhu, Jia-Bi

    2011-08-01

    The study is to design chitosan-coated pilocarpine nitrate submicro emulsion (CS-PN/SE) for the development of a novel mucoadhesive submicro emulsion, aiming to prolong the precorneal retention time and improve the ocular absorption. CS-PN/SE was fabricated in two steps: firstly, pilocarpine nitrate submicro emulsion (PN/SE) was prepared by high-speed shear with medium chain triglycerides (MCT) as oil phase and Tween 80 as the main emulsifier, and then incubated with chitosan (CS) acetic solution. The preparation process was optimized by central composite design-response surface methodology. Besides the particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and micromorphology were investigated, CS-PN/SE's precorneal residence properties and miotic effect were especially studied using New Zealand rabbits as the animal model. When CS-PN/SE was administered topically to rabbit eyes, the ocular clearance and the mean resident time (MRT) of pilocarpine nitrate were found to be dramatically improved (P < 0.05) compared with PN/SE and pilocarpine nitrate solution (PNs), since the K(CS-PN/SE) was declined to 0.006 4 +/- 0.000 3 min(-1) while MRT was prolonged up to 155.4 min. Pharmacodynamics results showed that the maximum miosis of CS-PN/SE was as high as 46.3%, while the miotic response lasted 480 min which is 255 min and 105 min longer than that of PNs and PN/SE, respectively. A larger area under the miotic percentage vs time curve (AUC) of CS-PN/SE was exhibited which is 1.6 folds and 1.2 folds as much as that of PNs and PN/SE, respectively (P < 0.05). Therefore, CS-PN/SE could enhance the duration of action and ocular bioavailability by improving the precorneal residence and ocular absorption significantly.

  18. A comparison of the effect of forage type and level of feeding on the digestibility and gastrointestinal mean retention time of dry forages given to cattle, sheep, ponies and donkeys.

    PubMed

    Pearson, R A; Archibald, R F; Muirhead, R H

    2006-01-01

    Four cattle, sheep, ponies and donkeys were fed dehydrated lucerne, early-cut hay, later-cut hay or barley straw in a Latin square-based design for four periods of 35 d. In the first sub-period animals were fed the diets ad libitum (1-21 d) and in the second sub-period they were fed the same diet restricted to 0.75 of ad libitum intake (days 22-35). Measurements of forage intake, apparent digestibilities and gastrointestinal mean retention times (MRT) were made in the last 7 d of each sub-period. Differences between species in voluntary DM intake (VDMI; g/kg live weight (LW)(0.75) and g/LW) were greatest on the lucerne and least on barley straw. Cattle VDMI (g/kg LW(0.75)) compared with intake of the other species was > ponies > sheep > donkeys on lucerne. On barley straw VDMI (g/kg LW(0.75)) of cattle compared with intake of the other species was = donkey = ponies > sheep. VDMI of hays were intermediate between the lucerne and straw forages. Apparent digestibilities of DM, organic matter (OM), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and acid-detergent fibre (ADF) of the lucerne and hays were higher in the ruminants than in the equids. Effect of feeding level was not significant. Gastrointestinal MRT was shorter in the equids than in the ruminants. On straw diets donkeys showed similar apparent digestibilities of feed components to those of the cattle, whilst apparent digestibility of the straw diet by the ponies was lowest. Results are discussed in relation to evolutionary differences in feeding and digestion strategy associated with fore- or hind-gut fermentation in ruminants and equids.

  19. Male-typical visuospatial functioning in gynephilic girls with gender dysphoria - organizational and activational effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sarah M; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Veltman, Dick J; Klink, Daniel T; Bakker, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Sex differences in performance and regional brain activity during mental rotation have been reported repeatedly and reflect organizational and activational effects of sex hormones. We investigated whether adolescent girls with gender dysphoria (GD), before and after 10 months of testosterone treatment, showed male-typical brain activity during a mental rotation task (MRT). Girls with GD underwent fMRI while performing the MRT twice: when receiving medication to suppress their endogenous sex hormones before onset of testosterone treatment, and 10 months later during testosterone treatment. Two age-matched control groups participated twice as well. We included 21 girls with GD, 20 male controls and 21 female controls in our study. In the absence of any group differences in performance, control girls showed significantly increased activation in frontal brain areas compared with control boys ( p FWE = 0.012). Girls with GD before testosterone treatment differed significantly in frontal brain activation from the control girls ( p FWE = 0.034), suggesting a masculinization of brain structures associated with visuospatial cognitive functions. After 10 months of testosterone treatment, girls with GD, similar to the control boys, showed increases in brain activation in areas implicated in mental rotation. Since all girls with GD identified as gynephilic, their resemblance in spatial cognition with the control boys, who were also gynephilic, may have been related to their shared sexual orientation rather than their shared gender identity. We did not account for menstrual cycle phase or contraceptive use in our analyses. Our findings suggest atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in natal girls with GD and provide new evidence for organizational and activational effects of testosterone on visuospatial cognitive functioning.

  20. Comparative pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine and bupivacaine in nonpregnant and pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Santos, A C; Arthur, G R; Lehning, E J; Finster, M

    1997-07-01

    We determined the pharmacokinetics and protein binding of ropivacaine and bupivacaine after intravenous administration to nonpregnant and pregnant sheep. All animals were in good condition throughout the study. The highest mean total serum drug concentrations were found at the end of infusion. For both drugs, pregnancy was associated with lower volumes of distribution during the terminal phase of drug elimination (V(d)beta) and steady state (V(d)ss), as well as with a lower total body clearance (CL). The relationship between V(d)beta and CL was such that the elimination half-life (T(1/2)beta) was not altered. There were also differences between the two drugs. In all animals, the distribution half-life (T(1/2)alpha), T(1/2)beta, volume of central compartment (V(c)), V(d)beta, V(d)ss, and mean residence times (MRT) were greater and CL lower for bupivacaine than ropivacaine. For both drugs, protein binding was concentration-dependent and greater in pregnant ewes. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine and bupivacaine are altered by ovine pregnancy in a similar way. If these data are applicable to humans, an unintended intravascular injection of either drug could be expected to result in higher total serum concentrations in the pregnant than in the nonpregnant patient, but drug levels would decline at similar rates in both groups of individuals. However, differences between the two drugs, particularly in T(1/2)beta and MRT, may make ropivacaine preferable for use in obstetric anesthesia.