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Sample records for kostyrko tibor alt

  1. [Tibor Péterfi, the founder of micromanipulation].

    PubMed

    Donáth, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Tibor Péterfi (1883-1953) was an eminent and internationally renowned biologist. He made great advances in the field of experimental physiology focusing his cytological research on microscopic examination of living cells. For this task, he created a tool named micromanipulator basing the development of microsurgery and that of cell surgery as well. His histological and cytological researches took their beginning first in Kolozsvár/Cluj (then Hungary, now Romania), where he worked as an assistant of professor István Apáthy then in Budapest where he spent fruitful years under the tutorship of professor Mihály Lenhossék. His scientific career however was broken by the political persecution which followed the fall of the communist revolution in 1919. He emigrated and spent the following decades in Prague, in Jena, in Berlin and in Cambridge. The apogee however of his scientific career proved to be the period he spent in Istanbul as a guest professor of the local university. He returned home only after the war already mortally ill. His illness did not allow him to continue his activity any more. Present article evaluates Tibor Péterfi's scientific achievements based mostly on recent archival researches.

  2. Educational Insights of the Economist: Tibor Scitovsky on Education, Production and Creative Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades education is increasingly perceived as an instrument for generating economic growth and enhancing production. Unexpectedly, however, many prominent economists, throughout history, have rejected this view of education. This article examines the grounds on which Tibor Scitovsky, who was one of the leading economists of twentieth…

  3. Educational Insights of the Economist: Tibor Scitovsky on Education, Production and Creative Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades education is increasingly perceived as an instrument for generating economic growth and enhancing production. Unexpectedly, however, many prominent economists, throughout history, have rejected this view of education. This article examines the grounds on which Tibor Scitovsky, who was one of the leading economists of twentieth…

  4. Founder of systems chemistry and foundational theoretical biologist: Tibor Gánti (1933-2009).

    PubMed

    Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-09-21

    With his chemoton theory theoretical biologist and chemical engineer Tibor Gánti was one of the most outstanding intellects behind systems chemistry and the at the foundations of theoretical biology. A brief review of his oeuvre is presented. This essay introduces a special issue dedicated to his memory. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Tibor Gánti and Robert Rosen: Contrasting approaches to the same problem.

    PubMed

    Cornish-Bowden, Athel

    2015-09-21

    Of the various theories of life that appeared in the second half of the 20th century the chemoton of Tibor Gánti and the (M,R)-systems of Robert Rosen are among the most important, of which the former is rooted in chemical engineering and the latter is highly abstract. Despite apparent differences, in part due to very different ways of presenting them, these two approaches share some important characteristics: both are "closed to efficient causation", which means that they require nothing from their environment, and in particular not catalysts, apart from "food", or chemical species that allow for the production of energy. On the other hand Rosen insisted that a living organism cannot be regarded as a machine, whereas Gánti explicitly discussed its mechanical nature, and the enclosing boundary is explicitly created by the system itself in the chemoton, but is (at best) simply implicit in (M,R)-systems.

  6. ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to help recognize heart or muscle injury. ALT values are often compared to the results of other tests such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) , total protein , and bilirubin to help determine which form of liver disease is present. ALT is often used to monitor the treatment ...

  7. ALT/Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.; Conarro, Ryan; Upshaw, Allison; Makol, Suzanne; Kelin, Daniel A., II; Redman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Stories in the "ALT/Space" section of each issue of "Teaching Artist Journal" illustrate and document a wide variety of topics surrounding the work of teaching artists while simultaneously revealing some larger truths about what it means to be an artist who teaches. This particular section focuses on the process and realities…

  8. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  9. ASA (ALT) Design, Develop, Deliver, Dominate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Technology (ASA(ALT)) and the Principal Military Deputy to the ASA(ALT) ASA(ALT) Credo ASA(ALT) Overview Deputy for Acquisition and Systems...the people we serve and the communities we depend upon for support. ASA(ALT) Credo Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics and

  10. [The photographic archive of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística and Tibor Jablonszky's view of female labor].

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Vera Lucia Cortes

    2013-03-01

    Shining a light on the photographic archive of geographic missions assigned to do reconnaissance of the country's territory, sponsored by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the article describes the conditions under which this archive was compiled and how it can serve as a historical source. It addresses the presentation of images and the range of topics and places found in Tibor Jablonszky's work as far as the representations that this photographer constructed of female labor in Brazil during the 1950s and 1960s, from the viewpoint of a photographer working for a government agency.

  11. ALT-114 and ALT-118 Alternative Approaches to NIST ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2016, US EPA approved two separate alternatives (ALT 114 and ALT 118) for the preparation and certification of Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) and Mercury (Hg) cylinder reference gas standards that can serve as EPA Protocol gases where EPA Protocol are required, but unavailable. The alternatives were necessary due to the unavailability of NIST reference materials (SRM, NTRM, CRM or RGM) or VSL reference materials (VSL PRM or VSL CRM), reference materials identified in EPA’s Green Book as necessary to establish the traceability of EPA protocol gases. ALT 114 and ALT 118 provides a pathway for gas vendors to prepare and certify traceable gas cylinder standards for use in certifying Hg and HCl CEMS. In this presentation, EPA will describe the mechanics and requirements of the performance-based approach, provide an update on the availability of these gas standards and also discuss the potential for producing and certifying gas standards for other compounds using this approach. This presentation discusses the importance of NIST-traceable reference gases relative to regulatory source compliance emissions monitoring. Specifically this presentation discusses 2 new approaches for making necessary reference gases available in the absence of NIST reference materials. Moreover, these approaches provide an alternative approach to rapidly make available new reference gases for additional HAPS regulatory compliance emissions measurement and monitoring.

  12. Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3

    SciTech Connect

    Oro, David M; Tabaka, Leonard J

    2011-01-13

    ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

  13. An innovative alt-alt telescope for small observatories and amateur astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Basso, S.; Canestrari, R.; Conconi, P.; Fugazza, D.; Ghigo, M.; Landoni, M.; Pareschi, G.; Spanó, P.; Tomelleri, R.; Zerbi, F. M.

    2012-09-01

    This paper want to show an innovative amateur oriented telescope with an unconventional alt-alt conguration. The goal is to make a telescope with good optical quality reducing production costs by adopting a gimbal based mounting to develop an alt-alt conguration suitable for a telescope. Reduce costs while preserving the optical quality is a necessary condition to allow small groups of amateur astronomers, schools and cultural clubs, with reduced economic resources, to acquire an astronomical instrument that encourages learning and advancing astrophysical knowledge. This unconventional mechanism for the realization of a telescope alt-alt provides signicant advantages. The traditional rotary motors coupled with expensive precision bearings are replaced with two simple linear actuators coupled to a properly preloaded gimbal joint and the cell becomes the primary structure of the telescope. A second advantage would be secured by mechanical simplicity evident in the easy portability of the instrument. The frame alt-alt has some limitations on the horizon pointing but does not show the zenith blind spot of the alt-az mount. A dedicated alt-alt pointing and tracking model is under development to be compatible with commercial telescope softwares and with the proposed new mounting.

  14. ALT-114 and ALT-118 Alternative Approaches to NIST-Traceable Reference Gases

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2016, US EPA approved two separate alternatives (ALT 114 and ALT 118) for the preparation and certification of Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) and Mercury (Hg) cylinder reference gas standards that can serve as EPA Protocol gases where EPA Protocol are required, but unavailable. The a...

  15. Paralogous ALT1 and ALT2 Retention and Diversification Have Generated Catalytically Active and Inactive Aminotransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Peñalosa-Ruiz, Georgina; Aranda, Cristina; Ongay-Larios, Laura; Colon, Maritrini; Quezada, Hector; Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background Gene duplication and the subsequent divergence of paralogous pairs play a central role in the evolution of novel gene functions. S. cerevisiae possesses two paralogous genes (ALT1/ALT2) which presumably encode alanine aminotransferases. It has been previously shown that Alt1 encodes an alanine aminotransferase, involved in alanine metabolism; however the physiological role of Alt2 is not known. Here we investigate whether ALT2 encodes an active alanine aminotransferase. Principal Findings Our results show that although ALT1 and ALT2 encode 65% identical proteins, only Alt1 displays alanine aminotransferase activity; in contrast ALT2 encodes a catalytically inert protein. ALT1 and ALT2 expression is modulated by Nrg1 and by the intracellular alanine pool. ALT1 is alanine-induced showing a regulatory profile of a gene encoding an enzyme involved in amino acid catabolism, in agreement with the fact that Alt1 is the sole pathway for alanine catabolism present in S. cerevisiae. Conversely, ALT2 expression is alanine-repressed, indicating a role in alanine biosynthesis, although the encoded-protein has no alanine aminotransferase enzymatic activity. In the ancestral-like yeast L. kluyveri, the alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the presence of alanine than in the presence of ammonium, suggesting that as for ALT1, LkALT1 expression could be alanine-induced. ALT2 retention poses the questions of whether the encoded protein plays a particular function, and if this function was present in the ancestral gene. It could be hypotesized that ALT2 diverged after duplication, through neo-functionalization or that ALT2 function was present in the ancestral gene, with a yet undiscovered function. Conclusions ALT1 and ALT2 divergence has resulted in delegation of alanine aminotransferase activity to Alt1. These genes display opposed regulatory profiles: ALT1 is alanine-induced, while ALT2 is alanine repressed. Both genes are negatively regulated by the Nrg1

  16. ALT-3 target design and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-12

    ALT-3 is an experiment being designed in collaboration between Russian VNIIEF scientists and LANL that aims to conduct high velocity material experiments to measure shock velocities and pressures near 1 TPa. The DEMG (Disck Explosive Magnetic Generator) is used to drive> 60MA currents to accelerate an aluminum liner to speeds in excess of 20 km/s. 1-D and 2-D simulations of the aluminum target are presented with information on the free surface velocity profile, the state of the target, and the shock velocity in the target. 2-D simulations are presented showing the different targets available as well as a scenario with a perturbed liner impacter.

  17. ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Jeffrey R; Atchison, Walter L.; Holtkamp, David; Oro, David M.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Tabaka, Leonard J.

    2012-06-11

    The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

  18. ALT-I pump limiter experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Campbell, G.A.; Leung, W.K.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Wolf, G.H.; Thomas, G.J.; Pontau, A.E.; Hsu, W.

    1987-09-01

    Results from the ALT-I pump limiter experiments in TEXTOR are presented. ALT-I has demonstrated control of the plasma density in a high recycling tokamak by pumping up to 15% of the core efflux. The closed pump limiter designs with restricted entrance geometries to reduce the backflow of neutral gas to the plasma remove over 50% of the ion flux incident on the collection slot. Up to 80% of the entrance ion flux is removed when the edge electron temperature is less than 10 eV and plasma-neutral gas interactions are minimized inside the limiter. Results from a 3-D Monte Carlo neutral gas transport code agree closely with these experimental results. The compound curvature of the head is found to distribute the heat over the surface as predicted in the original designs. Impurity removal experiments demonstrate that significant helium exhaust can be achieved with a pump limiter. During ohmic heating in TEXTOR, the energy and particle confinement times are proportional to the line averaged core density. With ICRH auxiliary heating, tau/sub E/ follow L-mode scaling independent of particle removal by the pump limiter. Pump limiter operation does not directly modify the SOL plasma density and electron temperature, but controls the core plasma density by changing the global recycling at the boundary. The global particle confinement, the particle flux to the limiter, and the edge electron temperature follow the changes in the core density and auxiliary heating power. 25 refs.

  19. Layout modification for library cell Alt-PSM composability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ke; Hu, Jiang; Cheng, Mosong

    2004-05-01

    In sub-wavelength lithography, light field Alt-PSM (Alternating Phase Shifting Mask) is an essential technology for poly layer printability. In a standard cell based design, the problem of obtaining Alt-PSM compliance for an individual cell layout has been solved well [3]. However, placing Alt-PSM compliant cells together can not guarantee Alt-PSM compliance of the entire chip/block layout due to phase interactions among adjacent cells. A simple solution to this Alt-PSM composability problem is to wrap blank area around each cell, which is very inefficient on chip area usage. In this paper, we formulate the composability problem as a graph model and propose a polynomial time optimal algorithm to achieve Alt-PSM composability with the least impact on cell layout.

  20. Association of ALT and the metabolic syndrome among Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Ugalde-Casas, Patricia A; Lam-Franco, Lorena; Bustamante-Careaga, Humberto; Serrano-González, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Norma G; Martínez, Ubaldo

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS); Hispanics being particularly predisposed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is considered a marker of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associations between ALT elevations and MetS in normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexican children and adolescents, since data in Mexico is scarce. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage body fat, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profiles, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in 236, 6-12yo normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexicans from eight public schools. The results showed that elevated ALT (>40 IU/L) was found in 17.7% of the obese and overweight population, with no gender difference. The prevalence of elevated ALT increased linearly across BMI categories (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group (95%CI 0.0-€“8.0) to 22.4% for the obese one (95%CI 16.2-€“30.2). AST/ALT ratio <1 also increased linearly, as did the prevalence of MetS (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group to 40.3% for the obese one. The prevalence of MetS was strongly associated with elevated ALT (p = 0.002), 50% in the elevated ALT group (95%CI 34.1-€“65.9) and 24.1% in the normal ALT one (95%CI 18.1-€“31.3). There was also a strong association between MetS and an AST/ALT ratio <1. WC was the best predictor of elevated ALT (AOR = 7.13). Pearson correlation showed that MetS components were significantly correlated with elevated ALT. Therefore elevated ALT levels were highly prevalent and strongly associated with MetS in Mexican children, it should be screened in overweight and obese children.

  1. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.; Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H.; Noda, N.

    1994-08-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

  2. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Julich will be completed in the spring of 1994. The upgrade will extend the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating systems are also scheduled to be upgraded so that eventually a total of 8.0 MW auxiliary heating will be available through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles on the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test - II (ALT-II) were designed for 5-second operation with a total heating power of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto ALT-II by more than 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for ALT-II had to be redesigned in order to increase their thermal inertia and, thereby, avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. The armor tile thermal inertia had been increase primarily by expanding the radial thickness of the tiles from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in radial tile dimension will reduce the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The final armor tile design was a compromise between increasing the power handling capability and reducing the particle exhaust efficiency of ALT-II. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could only be avoided by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time.

  3. Orbiter 'Enterprise' turns and banks during second ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' makes a turn and bank maneuver during the second free flight of the Shuttle Apporach and Landing Tests (ALTs) conducted on September 13, 1977 at Dryden Flight Research Center in Southern California. The 'Enterprise' separated form the NASA 747 carrier aircraft and after a five-minute, 28-second unpowered flight landed on a runway below. Astronauts Joe H. Engle, and Richard H. Truly were the crew of the 'Enterprise.' The ALT free flights are designed to verify Orbiter subsonic airworthiness, integrated systems operations and pilot-guided approach and landing capability and satisfying prerequisites to automatic flight control and navigation mode.

  4. Development of the alt Mutant of Pisum sativum L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei Wen; Proebsting, William M.; Potter, Sandra W.; Daley, Larry S.; Potter, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The alt (albina-terminalis) mutant of Pisum sativum L. germinates normally, produces several nodes, and then above a sharp transition produces 2 to 3 bleached nodes, ceases growth, and eventually dies. Green nodes have normal chlorophyll content, absorption spectra, photosynthetic rates, and ultrastructure. In bleaching tissues, the chloroplasts degenerate rapidly, followed by extensive disruption and loss of the remaining cytoplasm and organelles. Application of tissue extracts of normal genotypes of pea, corn, and bean stimulates apical development of alt. The resulting tissues have essentially normal structure and function. Application of thiamine, thiamine monophosphate, and thiamine pyrophosphate also stimulate normal apical development at concentrations of 1 micromolar and above. Partial characterization of the stimulus from pea seed extracts is consistent with thiamine as the active factor. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:16665809

  5. Understanding and Targeting the ALT Pathway in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    by ectopic expression of ESCO2. PLoS One 4, e6936 (2009). 35. Leung, J. W. et al. Alpha thalassemia/ mental retardation syndrome X-linked gene...identified mutations and loss of ATRX protein as being hallmarks of ALT- immortalized cell lines and tumors. Our efforts to understand the mechanism...by which loss of ATRX facilitates telomere recombination have uncovered a novel role for this protein in promoting telomere cohesion. Furthermore

  6. Army AL&T, July-September 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army AL&T, July - September 2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Army Acquisition, Logistics & Technology (AT&L...9900 Belvoir Road Suite 101,Fort Belvoir,VA,22060-5567 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS

  7. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL

  8. Quick look analysis of an emergency separation for ALT captive-inert flight 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.; Seale, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Emergency separation capability for the landing configuration of ALT Captive Inert Flight Number One was investigated. The quick look analysis confirms emergency separation capability under nominal conditions for the ALT landing configuration. The recommended emergency separation procedure under those conditions is not applicable to all ALT configurations.

  9. Army AL&T, October-December 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    provides new knowledge and understanding to solve Army-unique problems as well as novel approaches to solve prob- lems with broad and, at times, un- foreseen...metric used to assess tech- nology maturity. The TRL approach was originally established by NASA and adopted by DOD to measure technology maturity...A_ALT_Oct-Dec 2007_V10_CC.qxp 9/25/2007 11:16 PM Page 18 biological mechanisms for the develop- ment of revolutionary approaches to ad- vanced

  10. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  11. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  12. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  13. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  14. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  15. A pre-marketing ALT signal predicts post-marketing liver safety.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Cynthia A; Suzuki, Ayako; Papay, Julie I; Yuen, Nancy A; Ames, Michael; Hunt, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Drug induced liver injury during drug development is evidenced by a higher incidence of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations in treated versus placebo populations and termed an "ALT signal". We sought to quantify whether an ALT signal in pre-marketing clinical trials predicted post-marketing hepatotoxicity. Incidence of ALT elevations (ALT ≥ 3 times upper limits normal [× ULN]) for drug and placebo of new chemical entities and approved drugs associated with hepatotoxicity was calculated using the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Post-marketing liver safety events were identified using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). The association of FDA AERS signal score (EB05 ≥ 2) and excess risk of pre-marketing ALT elevation (difference in incidence of ALT ≥ 3× ULN in treated versus placebo) was examined. An ALT signal of ≥ 1.2% was significantly associated with a post-marketing liver safety signal (p ≤ 0.013) and a 71.4% positive predictive value. An absent ALT signal was associated with a high likelihood of post-marketing liver safety; negative predictive value of 89.7%. Daily drug dose information improved the prediction of post-marketing liver safety. A cut-off of 1.2% increase in ALT ≥ 3× ULN in treated versus placebo groups provides an easily calculated method for predicting post-marketing liver safety.

  16. Maximization of orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed, mission planning, mission analysis and software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The determination of the separation initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle) that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeed is considered. Optimum altitude airspeed profiles are generated for each orbiter incidence angle and tailcone configuration. Results show that the highest separation altitude does not result in the highest altitude at ALT interface airspeed. The altitude attainable at ALT interface airspeed should therefore be considered in the selection of the initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle). Without violating any known constraints, the incidence angles that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeeds are 7.0 deg for ALT free flight 1 and 5.5 deg for ALT free flight 6.

  17. Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

  18. Hepatic ALT isoenzymes are elevated in gluconeogenic conditions including diabetes and suppressed by insulin at the protein level

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Kun; Zhong, Shao; Xie, Keming; Yu, Daozhan; Yang, Rongze; Gong, Da-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Alanine transaminase (ALT) plays an important role in gluconeogenesis by converting alanine into pyruvate for glucose production. Early studies have shown that ALT activities are upregulated in gluconeogenic conditions and may be implicated in the development of diabetes. Since ALT consists of two isoforms, ALT1 and ALT2, with distinctive subcellular and tissue distributions, whether and how they are regulated are largely unknown. In this study, we found that both ALT isoforms in the liver were increased in diabetic GK rats and during fasting. However in ob/ob mice, only ALT2, but not ALT1, protein levels were elevated and the increase of ALT2 is correlated with that of ALT activity. We further demonstrated that, in vitro, both ALT1 and ALT2 were induced by glucocorticoid dexamethasone but suppressed by insulin in Fao hepatoma cells. Finally, we showed that the over-expression of ALT1 and ALT2 in Fao cells directly increased glucose output. Correctively, we have revealed the similarity and difference in the regulation of ALT isoforms in gluconeogenic conditions at the protein level, supporting that ALT isoenzymes play an important role in glucose metabolism and may be implicated the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:25865565

  19. ALT-711 decreases cardiovascular stiffness and has potential in diabetes, hypertension and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Doggrell, S A

    2001-05-01

    Vascular and/or myocardial stiffness is a major problem in ageing, diabetes, hypertension and heart failure. The development of the stiffness is partly due to the formation of glucose-dependent cross-links in the collagen. ALT-711 cleaves these cross-links. In aged-rhesus monkeys, ALT-711 decreases vascular stiffness and this effect is reversible. ALT-711 also decreases myocardial stiffness in the monkeys but this effect is not reversible in 39 weeks. ALT-711 has potential in the treatment of the stiffness associated with diabetes, hypertension and heart failure.

  20. Neutral transport in the ALT-I limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C.D.; Heifetz, D.B.; Post, D.E.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1983-10-01

    The behavior of neutral atoms and molecules in the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I has been investigated with the aid of the 2-D Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS. The code incorporates the full set of relevant collision processes (atomic and molecular), and it has a standard wall model which includes fast-neutral reflection and molecular desorption. The limiter was modeled with a 2-D geometry, which included corrections for 3-D effects. Among the quantities predicted by the code which are directly relevant to experiment include the neutral pressure within the plenum and along the duct leading into the plenum, the gettering rates, and the heat flux to the walls of the duct. These have been calculated for a variety of plasma parameters in the inlet, and the behavior with respect to variations of the duct widths has been studied. Because of the presence of the long duct separating the entrance chamber from the plenum, a high probability of ionization generally results, suggesting that a calculation allowing the plasma to adjust to the neutral sources might show a large amount of recycling.

  1. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  2. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-02-16

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.

  3. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-08-31

    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85-90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch.

  4. Preliminary design analysis of the ALT-II limiter for TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Kempka, S.M.; Romig, A.D. Jr.; Smith, M.F.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.; Conn, R.W.; Grotz, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Installation of a large toroidal belt pump limiter, Advanced Limiter Test II (ALT-II), on the TEXTOR tokamak at Juelich, FRG is anticipated for early 1986. This paper discusses the preliminary mechanical design and materials considerations undertaken as part of the feasibility study phase for ALT-II.

  5. Some Features of "Alt" Texts Associated with Images in Web Pages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craven, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This paper extends a series on summaries of Web objects, in this case, the alt attribute of image files. Method: Data were logged from 1894 pages from Yahoo!'s random page service and 4703 pages from the Google directory; an img tag was extracted randomly from each where present; its alt attribute, if any, was recorded; and the…

  6. Characterisation of a flavonoid ligand of the fungal protein Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Silva-Navas, Javier; Ramírez-Castillejo, Carmen; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Barber, Domingo; Pozo, Juan C.; Melendi, Pablo G.; Pacios, Luis F.; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Spores of pathogenic fungi are virtually ubiquitous and cause human disease and severe losses in crops. The endophytic fungi Alternaria species produce host-selective phytotoxins. Alt a 1 is a strongly allergenic protein found in A. alternata that causes severe asthma. Despite the well-established pathogenicity of Alt a 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action and physiological function remain largely unknown. To gain insight into the role played by this protein in the pathogenicity of the fungus, we studied production of Alt a 1 and its activity in spores. We found that Alt a 1 accumulates inside spores and that its release with a ligand is pH-dependent, with optimum production in the 5.0–6.5 interval. The Alt a 1 ligand was identified as a methylated flavonoid that inhibits plant root growth and detoxifies reactive oxygen species. We also found that Alt a 1 changes its oligomerization state depending on the pH of the surrounding medium and that these changes facilitate the release of the ligand. Based on these results, we propose that release of Alt a 1 should be a pathogenic target in approaches used to block plant defenses and consequently to favor fungal entry into the plant. PMID:27633190

  7. Variant repeats are interspersed throughout the telomeres and recruit nuclear receptors in ALT cells

    PubMed Central

    Conomos, Dimitri; Stutz, Michael D.; Hills, Mark; Neumann, Axel A.; Bryan, Tracy M.

    2012-01-01

    Telomeres in cells that use the recombination-mediated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway elicit a DNA damage response that is partly independent of telomere length. We therefore investigated whether ALT telomeres contain structural abnormalities that contribute to ALT activity. Here we used next generation sequencing to analyze the DNA content of ALT telomeres. We discovered that variant repeats were interspersed throughout the telomeres of ALT cells. We found that the C-type (TCAGGG) variant repeat predominated and created a high-affinity binding site for the nuclear receptors COUP-TF2 and TR4. Nuclear receptors were directly recruited to telomeres and ALT-associated characteristics were induced after incorporation of the C-type variant repeat by a mutant telomerase. We propose that the presence of variant repeats throughout ALT telomeres results from recombination-mediated telomere replication and spreading of variant repeats from the proximal regions of the telomeres and that the consequent binding of nuclear receptors alters the architecture of telomeres to facilitate further recombination. PMID:23229897

  8. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  9. Post-test navigation data analysis techniques for the shuttle ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Postflight test analysis data processing techniques for shuttle approach and landing tests (ALT) navigation data are defined. Postfight test processor requirements are described along with operational and design requirements, data input requirements, and software test requirements. The postflight test data processing is described based on the natural test sequence: quick-look analysis, postflight navigation processing, and error isolation processing. Emphasis is placed on the tradeoffs that must remain open and subject to analysis until final definition is achieved in the shuttle data processing system and the overall ALT plan. A development plan for the implementation of the ALT postflight test navigation data processing system is presented. Conclusions are presented.

  10. The Role of ATRX in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, João P.; Santos, Gustavo; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are responsible for protecting chromosome ends in order to prevent the loss of coding DNA. Their maintenance is required for achieving immortality by neoplastic cells and can occur by upregulation of the telomerase enzyme or through a homologous recombination-associated process, the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are not fully understood, although cellular origin may favor one of the other mechanisms that have been found thus far in mutual exclusivity. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation and maintenance: a unifying frequent feature of tumors that acquire this phenotype are the recurrent mutations of the Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X-Linked (ATRX) or Death-Domain Associated Protein (DAXX) genes. This review summarizes the established criteria about this phenotype: its prevalence, theoretical molecular mechanisms and relation with ATRX, DAXX and other proteins (directly or indirectly interacting and resulting in the ALT phenotype). PMID:27657132

  11. The Role of ATRX in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Amorim, João P; Santos, Gustavo; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula

    2016-09-19

    Telomeres are responsible for protecting chromosome ends in order to prevent the loss of coding DNA. Their maintenance is required for achieving immortality by neoplastic cells and can occur by upregulation of the telomerase enzyme or through a homologous recombination-associated process, the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are not fully understood, although cellular origin may favor one of the other mechanisms that have been found thus far in mutual exclusivity. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation and maintenance: a unifying frequent feature of tumors that acquire this phenotype are the recurrent mutations of the Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X-Linked (ATRX) or Death-Domain Associated Protein (DAXX) genes. This review summarizes the established criteria about this phenotype: its prevalence, theoretical molecular mechanisms and relation with ATRX, DAXX and other proteins (directly or indirectly interacting and resulting in the ALT phenotype).

  12. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Neil C; Corbett, Ian J; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  13. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Devoe, Neil C.; Corbett, Ian J.; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  14. The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. | ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL.

  15. AltTrans: transcript pattern variants annotated for both alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Le Texier, Vincent; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Kumanduri, Vasudev; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Lopez, Fabrice; Gautheret, Daniel; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

    2006-03-23

    The three major mechanisms that regulate transcript formation involve the selection of alternative sites for transcription start (TS), splicing, and polyadenylation. Currently there are efforts that collect data & annotation individually for each of these variants. It is important to take an integrated view of these data sets and to derive a data set of alternate transcripts along with consolidated annotation. We have been developing in the past computational pipelines that generate value-added data at genome-scale on individual variant types; these include AltSplice on splicing and AltPAS on polyadenylation. We now extend these pipelines and integrate the resultant data sets to facilitate an integrated view of the contributions from splicing and polyadenylation in the formation of transcript variants. The AltSplice pipeline examines gene-transcript alignments and delineates alternative splice events and splice patterns; this pipeline is extended as AltTrans to delineate isoform transcript patterns for each of which both introns/exons and 'terminating' polyA site are delineated; EST/mRNA sequences that qualify the transcript pattern confirm both the underlying splicing and polyadenylation. The AltPAS pipeline examines gene-transcript alignments and delineates all potential polyA sites irrespective of underlying splicing patterns. Resultant polyA sites from both AltTrans and AltPAS are merged. The generated database reports data on alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation and the resultant alternate transcript patterns; the basal data is annotated for various biological features. The data (named as integrated AltTrans data) generated for both the organisms of human and mouse is made available through the Alternate Transcript Diversity web site at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/atd/. The reported data set presents alternate transcript patterns that are annotated for both alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation. Results based on current transcriptome data

  16. AltTrans: Transcript pattern variants annotated for both alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Le Texier, Vincent; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Kumanduri, Vasudev; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Lopez, Fabrice; Gautheret, Daniel; Thanaraj, Thangavel Alphonse

    2006-01-01

    Background The three major mechanisms that regulate transcript formation involve the selection of alternative sites for transcription start (TS), splicing, and polyadenylation. Currently there are efforts that collect data & annotation individually for each of these variants. It is important to take an integrated view of these data sets and to derive a data set of alternate transcripts along with consolidated annotation. We have been developing in the past computational pipelines that generate value-added data at genome-scale on individual variant types; these include AltSplice on splicing and AltPAS on polyadenylation. We now extend these pipelines and integrate the resultant data sets to facilitate an integrated view of the contributions from splicing and polyadenylation in the formation of transcript variants. Description The AltSplice pipeline examines gene-transcript alignments and delineates alternative splice events and splice patterns; this pipeline is extended as AltTrans to delineate isoform transcript patterns for each of which both introns/exons and 'terminating' polyA site are delineated; EST/mRNA sequences that qualify the transcript pattern confirm both the underlying splicing and polyadenylation. The AltPAS pipeline examines gene-transcript alignments and delineates all potential polyA sites irrespective of underlying splicing patterns. Resultant polyA sites from both AltTrans and AltPAS are merged. The generated database reports data on alternative splicing, alternative polyadenylation and the resultant alternate transcript patterns; the basal data is annotated for various biological features. The data (named as integrated AltTrans data) generated for both the organisms of human and mouse is made available through the Alternate Transcript Diversity web site at . Conclusion The reported data set presents alternate transcript patterns that are annotated for both alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation. Results based on current

  17. The 'donations for decreased ALT (D4D)' prosocial behavior incentive scheme for NAFLD patients.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Yoshio; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Tanaka, Saiyu; Taketani, Hiroyoshi; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Nishimura, Tekeshi; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Yasui, Kohichiroh; Minami, Masahito; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2014-12-01

    Physicians often experience difficulties in motivating patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to undergo lifestyle changes. The aim of this study is to examine whether 'Donations for Decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT)' (D4D) prosocial behavior incentive can serve as an effective intrinsic motivational factor in comparison with conventional dietary and exercise intervention alone for NAFLD patients. Twenty-five NAFLD patients with elevated ALT were randomly assigned to a control group that received conventional dietary and exercise intervention alone, or a donation group whereby, as an incentive, we would make a monetary donation to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) based on the decrease in their ALT levels achieved over 12 weeks, in addition to receiving control intervention. In a donation group, we would donate US$1 to the WFP for every 1 IU/l of decrease in their ALT levels. There were no differences of pre-treatment clinical characteristics between the two groups. Significant reductions of ALT levels were achieved only in a donation group, although post-treatment ALT levels were not different between the two groups. These patients raised a total of $316 for the WFP. Promoting patients' intrinsic motivation by incorporating 'D4D' prosocial behavior incentive into conventional dietary and exercise intervention may provide a means to improve NAFLD. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A role for monoubiquitinated FANCD2 at telomeres in ALT cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiang; Zhang, Fan; Barrett, Briana; Ren, Keqin; Andreassen, Paul R

    2009-04-01

    Both Fanconi anemia (FA) and telomere dysfunction are associated with chromosome instability and an increased risk of cancer. Because of these similarities, we have investigated whether there is a relationship between the FA protein, FANCD2 and telomeres. We find that FANCD2 nuclear foci colocalize with telomeres and PML bodies in immortalized telomerase-negative cells. These cells maintain telomeres by alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). In contrast, FANCD2 does not colocalize with telomeres or PML bodies in cells which express telomerase. Using a siRNA approach we find that FANCA and FANCL, which are components of the FA nuclear core complex, regulate FANCD2 monoubiquitination and the telomeric localization of FANCD2 in ALT cells. Transient depletion of FANCD2, or FANCA, results in a dramatic loss of detectable telomeres in ALT cells but not in telomerase-expressing cells. Furthermore, telomere loss following depletion of these proteins in ALT cells is associated with decreased homologous recombination between telomeres (T-SCE). Thus, the FA pathway has a novel function in ALT telomere maintenance related to DNA repair. ALT telomere maintenance is therefore one mechanism by which monoubiquitinated FANCD2 may promote genetic stability.

  19. Determination of Alt a 1 (Alternaria alternata) in poultry farms and a sawmill using ELISA.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2010-03-01

    Farm and sawmill workers are exposed to high levels of allergenic fungi, such as Alternaria alternata, which are associated with respiratory diseases and asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration of Alt a 1, a major allergen of A. alternata, in indoor dust samples collected in poultry farms and a sawmill using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay. A total of 45 dust samples were collected in poultry farms (30) and the sawmill (15) in Zagreb County (Croatia). The Alt a 1 allergen was detected in all dust samples (100%) collected in three poultry farms. The levels of Alt a 1 were in the range of 0.1-14 microg/g, and the median value was 0.37 microg/g. About 86% of dust samples contained Alt a 1 in the range of 0.1-1.0 microg/g. In the sawmill, no detectable level of Alt a 1 was found (limit of detection =0.12 microg/g). This study has shown that occupational exposure to Alt a 1 allergen in poultry farms deserves monitoring.

  20. Tailcone on orbiter altitude attainable at the maximum ALT interface airspeed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    A preflight analysis performed for verification of the ALT mated vehicle incidence angle which maximizes the post separation altitude attainment by the orbiter at the maximum approach and landing test (ALT) interface airspeed (300 KEAS) is discussed. In the analysis, altitude versus airspeed profiles are generated for each of the three incidence angles that include and bound the recommended incidence angle for both the forward and the aft cg tailcone on orbiter configurations. Results show that the recommended incidence angles maximize the orbiter post separation altitude attainable within an acceptable tradeoff between separation clearance capability and orbiter structural constraints. Within constraints, the incidence angle that maximizes the orbiter altitude at the maximum ALT interface airspeed for both the forward and aft cg orbiter tailcone on configurations is 6.0 deg. The requirement for a parametric analysis of orbiter altitude attainable at the maximum ALT interface airspeed is stated along with the specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to determine orbiter altitude attainable at the maximum ALT interface airspeed.

  1. Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

  2. Comparison of Histologic Characteristics of Chinese Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Persistently Normal or Mildly Elevated ALT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Xue, Li; Yan, Rong; Zhou, Yin; Wang, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Mei-Juan; Hai-Jun Huang

    2013-01-01

    Liver disease can develop in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) who seldom undergo liver biopsy. We aimed to determine histologic characteristics of a large cohort of Chinese CHB patients undergoing liver biopsy and to evaluate the utility of ALT and HBV DNA values at the time of biopsy in predicting liver disease in this population. This prospective study enrolled 230 treatment-naïve patients with persistently normal or mildly elevated ALT. All patients had a liver biopsy. ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and HBV DNA levels were some of the other parameters measured. Using Scheuer's classification, significant histology was defined as stage ≧2 fibrosis and/or stage 1 fibrosis plus≧ grade 2 inflammation. Liver disease was observed in 34.4% and 61.8% of patients with normal ALT and mildly elevated ALT, respectively. Patients with mildly elevated ALT levels had significantly more events, including liver disease, elevated AST, and moderate to severe inflammation and liver fibrosis, than patients with normal ALT (all P≤0.005). A total of 107 patients (46.5%) had liver disease and 123 (53.5%) did not. PLT and ALT were significantly associated with liver disease (both P<0.001). Patients with elevated ALT, lower platelet count and HBV DNA < 7 log10copies/mL may have histologically significant changes associated with liver disease. Multivariate analysis showed that PLT and HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with liver disease in patients with normal ALT while gender and HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with liver disease in patients with mildly elevated ALT. Assessing liver damage via biopsy in patients with normal or mildly elevated ALT may help to identify those who would benefit from antiviral therapy. PMID:24260428

  3. Environmental Stress Induces Trinucleotide Repeat Mutagenesis in Human Cells by Alt-Nonhomologous End Joining Repair.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2016-07-31

    Multiple pathways modulate the dynamic mutability of trinucleotide repeats (TNRs), which are implicated in neurodegenerative disease and evolution. Recently, we reported that environmental stresses induce TNR mutagenesis via stress responses and rereplication, with more than 50% of mutants carrying deletions or insertions-molecular signatures of DNA double-strand break repair. We now show that knockdown of alt-nonhomologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) components-XRCC1, LIG3, and PARP1-suppresses stress-induced TNR mutagenesis, in contrast to the components of homologous recombination and NHEJ, which have no effect. Thus, alt-NHEJ, which contributes to genetic mutability in cancer cells, also plays a novel role in environmental stress-induced TNR mutagenesis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Space shuttle engineering and operations support. Separation operational limits for ALT free flights 1 through 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The orbiter/SCA separation operational limits for the current target conditions of ALT free flights 1 through 5 are analyzed. The separation operational limits are used to verify that no separation design constraints are violated. The operational limits represent the acceptable dispersions in attainment of separation target conditions which assure safe separation. Safe separation is based on satisfying all specified separation design criteria except orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed. Separation operational limits are defined for each of the five orbiter tailcones on ALT free flight missions based upon preflight aerodynamics. The effect of carrier pilot steering compensation due to off-nominal flight conditions is determined to be within the separation operational limits.

  5. Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-02

    Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of Alt-PSM structure for 45nm node ArF immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Takashi; Mesuda, Kei; Toyama, Nobuhito; Morikawa, Yasutaka; Mohri, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Naoya

    2005-11-01

    Alternating Aperture Phase Shifting Mask (Alt-APSM) has been expected as one of the practical techniques for 45nm node ArF lithography. We have already discussed and proposed the Single trench with undercut (UC) and bias structure is the primary candidate for 65nm node Alt-APSM structure. In fact, we have selected this structure as a standard in production for 65nm node Alt-PSM. For the 45nm node, according to the design shrinkage, mask rule such as MRC which specify minimum chrome CD between 0 and pi degree apertures and etc. is getting tighter. So, we need to consider about single trench with no undercut and bias structure. Such two types of structure are the candidates for 45nm node Alt-APSM. Exposure conditions will be considered as 0.9 or higher NA and the immersion technology as well. In this work, we will discuss about 45nm node Alt-PSM structure in terms of lithographic performance by using 3D rigorous optical simulation software. Two types of structure, single trench with UC and bias, and single trench with No UC and bias are compared. We examined the following items to find optimum Alt-PSM structure, 0/pi space bias to minimize CD difference at the wafer, quartz depth to optimize effective phase and optical proximity correction (OPC) to adjust printed line CD in through pitch condition. Wafer printing performance will be evaluated by the stability of line CD and 0-pi CD difference, contrast, NILS, phase angles, MEEF, ED-window and gate position shift.

  7. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) Detection Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing-Jiu; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Im, Hyung-Soon; Yarimaga, Oktay; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2006-01-01

    The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) in serum can help people diagnose body tissues especially the heart and the liver are injured or not. This article provides a comprehensive review of research activities that concentrate on AST/GOT and ALT/GPT detection techniques due to their clinical importance. The detection techniques include colorimetric, spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, chromatography, fluorescence and UV absorbance, radiochemical, and electrochemical techniques. We devote the most attention on experimental principle. In some methods a few representative devices and important conclusions are presented.

  8. AltText: A Showcase of User Centred Design in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asjes, Kathleen

    In the information processing chain many documents are produced that are inaccessible to the reading impaired. The altText project aims to increase the accessibility of this content by: a) raising awareness among content providers about content adaption; b) allowing content providers to deliver content in a way that suits the needs of the information receiver; c) developing an online service that converts written text into several accessible formats (Braille, synthetic speech, large print or DaisyXML). The name of this service is the altText conversion portal. The paper argues that user centred innovation will be crucial to the success of this project.

  9. Approach & Landing Test (ALT) - Shuttle Free-Flight (FF)-2 - New Release - DFRC, CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-09-13

    S77-28137 (13 Sept 1977) --- The Orbiter 101 "Enterprise" soars above the NASA 747 carrier aircraft during the second free flight of the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALTs) conducted on September 13, 1977 at Dryden Flight Research Center in Southern California. Astronauts Joe H. Engle, and Richard H. Truly were the crew of the "Enterprise." The ALT free flights are designed to verify Orbiter subsonic airworthiness, integrated systems operations and pilot-guided approach and landing capability and satisfying prerequisites to automatic flight control and navigation mode.

  10. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  11. [Reconstruction of soft tissue defect of the sole using an ALT flap].

    PubMed

    Kovács, István; Lóderer, Zoltán; Bognár, Gábor; Jánó, Zoltán; Németh, Róbert; Bognár, Gábor; Nagy, Attila

    2010-12-01

    Soft tissue defect of the sole is usually a quite challenging problem. In this case report the most frequently used reconstructive options of this problem are reviewed paying particular attention for the well applicable and reliable types. An ALT graft as a free flap to the sole offers a good possibility for coverage, which is resistant enough to mechanic strains.

  12. The Basis of Aluminum Tolerance Encoded by the Alt3 Locus of Rye

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to cope with drought and nutrient stresses by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al tolerant. At the Alt3 Al tolerance locus on rye ...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  17. On the Trajectories of the Predetermined ALT Model: What Are We Really Modeling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongerling, Joran; Hamaker, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    This article shows that the mean and covariance structure of the predetermined autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) model are very flexible. As a result, the shape of the modeled growth curve can be quite different from what one might expect at first glance. This is illustrated with several numerical examples that show that, for example, a…

  18. An approximation of the Cioslowski-Mixon bond order indexes using the AlteQ approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmina, Elena; Grishina, Maria A.; Potemkin, Vladimir A.

    2013-09-01

    Fast and reliable prediction of bond orders in organic systems based upon experimentally measured quantities can be performed using electron density features at bond critical points (J Am Chem Soc 105:5061-5068, 1983; J Phys Org Chem 16:133-141, 2003; Acta Cryst B 61:418-428, 2005; Acta Cryst B 63:142-150, 2007). These features are outcomes of low-temperature high-resolution X-ray diffraction experiments. However, a time-consuming procedure of gaining these quantities makes the prediction limited. In the present work we have employed an empirical approach AlteQ (J Comput Aided Mol Des 22:489-505, 2008) for evaluation of electron density properties. This approach uses a simple exponential function derived from comparison of electron density, gained from high-resolution X-ray crystallography, and distance to atomic nucleus what allows calculating density distribution in time-saving manner and gives results which are very close to experimental ones. As input data AlteQ accepts atomic coordinates of isolated molecules or molecular ensembles (for instance, protein-protein complexes or complexes of small molecules with proteins, etc.). Using AlteQ characteristics we have developed regression models predicting Cioslowski-Mixon bond order (CMBO) indexes (J Am Chem Soc 113(42):4142-4145, 1991). The models are characterized by high correlation coefficients lying in the range from 0.844 to 0.988 dependently on the type of covalent bond, thereby providing a bonding quantification that is in reasonable agreement with that obtained by orbital theory. Comparative analysis of CMBOs approximated using topological properties of AlteQ and experimental electron densities has shown that the models can be used for fast determination of bond orders directly from X-ray crystallography data and confirmed that AlteQ characteristics can replace experimental ones with satisfactory extent of accuracy.

  19. Life and cancer without telomerase: ALT and other strategies for making sure ends (don't) meet.

    PubMed

    Apte, Manasi S; Cooper, Julia Promisel

    2017-02-01

    While most cancer cells rely on telomerase expression/re-activation for linear chromosome maintenance and sustained proliferation, a significant population of cancers (10-15%) employs telomerase-independent strategies, collectively dubbed Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT). Most ALT cells relax the usual role of telomeres as inhibitors of local homologous recombination while maintaining the ability of telomeres to prohibit local non-homologous end joining reactions. Here we review current concepts surrounding how ALT telomeres achieve this new balance via alterations in chromatin landscape, DNA damage repair processes and handling of telomeric transcription. We also discuss telomerase independent end maintenance strategies utilized by other organisms, including fruitflies and yeasts, to draw parallels and contrasts and highlight additional modes, beyond ALT, that may be available to telomerase-minus cancers. We conclude by commenting on promises and challenges in the development of effective anti-ALT cancer therapies.

  20. Biomaterial properties evaluation of poly(vinyl acetate- alt-maleic anhydride)/chitosan nanocapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raţă, Delia Mihaela; Popa, Marcel; Chailan, Jean-François; Zamfir, Carmen Lăcrămioara; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara

    2014-08-01

    Nanocapsules with diameter around 100 nm based on a natural polymer (chitosan) and a synthetic polymer poly(vinyl acetate- alt-maleic anhydride) [poly(MAVA)] by interfacial condensation method were prepared. The present study proposes a new type of biocompatible nanocapsules based on poly(vinyl acetate- alt-maleic anhydride-chitosan) (MCS) able to become a reliable support for inclusion and release of drugs. The spherical shape of the nanocapsules was evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. Nanocapsules presented a good Norfloxacin loading and release capacity. Haemocompatibility tests have demonstrated that the nanocapsules present a low toxicity and a good compatibility with sanguine medium. The biocompatibility properties of the nanocapsules after their intraperitoneal administration in rats were evidenced by histopathological examination of different organs (brain, liver, kidney, and lung). The results are encouraging and the nanocapsules can be used as controlled drug delivery systems.

  1. The larval specific lymphatic filarial ALT-2: induction of protection using protein or DNA vaccination.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Sabarinathan; Kumar, Mishra Pankaj; Rami, Reddy Maryada Venkata; Chinnaiah, Harinath Basker; Nutman, Thomas; Kaliraj, Perumal; McCarthy, James

    2004-01-01

    Genes from the infective stage of lymphatic filarial parasites expressed at the time of host invasion have been identified as potential vaccine candidates. By screening an L3 cDNA library with sera from uninfected longstanding residents of an area endemic for onchocerciasis, so-called "endemic normals" (EN), we have cloned and characterized one such gene termed the abundant larval transcript two (ALT-2). The stage specificity of ALT-2 gene transcription and protein synthesis was confirmed by PCR using genespecific primers, and by western blot analysis of protein extracts from various stages of the parasite life cycle using specific antisera. Significant differences in antibody response to the recombinant ALT-2 were observed in endemic populations with differing clinical manifestations of lymphatic filariasis with an antibody response present in sera from 18 of 25 (72%) EN subjects compared to 9 of 25 (36%) with subclinical microfilaracmia (MF) and 14 of 25 (52%) of those with chronic lymphatic obstruction (CP) (P=0.01 for comparison of EN to CP or to MF). This differential responsiveness suggests that the protective immunity postulated to account for their uninfected status might be associated with a response to this protein. When the utility of ALT-2 as a vaccine candidate was tested in a murine model using either recombinant protein or a DNA vaccine construct, statistically significant protection was observed when compared to a control filarial gene product expressed across all stages of the parasite lifecycle (SXP-1; P=0.02 for protein and P=0.01 for the DNA vaccine) or compared to adjuvant alone. This level of protection indicates that this vaccine is a promising candidate for further development.

  2. Detection of TTV in peripheral blood cells from patients with altered ALT and AST levels.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jaqueline Carvalho; Nasser, Thiago Franco; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Carneiro, Juliana Laino do Val; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2008-04-01

    This work analyzes the prevalence of TTV DNA in peripheral blood cells from patients with hepatic alterations and healthy blood donors and measures levels of sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, phosphatase alkaline, total and direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in certain randomly selected patients. DNA samples from 111 individuals were evaluated. They were divided into two groups, "A" (study) and "B" (control), including 54 patients with liver enzyme alterations (ALT/AST) presenting non-B-non-C hepatitis and 57 blood donors, respectively. TTV DNA was determined by nested PCR. Certain products of the second-round PCR were sequenced. Serum biochemical assay was performed and disclosed TTV in 31.48% (17/54) of patients in group A and 5.26% (3/57) in the control group B. TTV prevalence was significantly higher in patients with liver disease than in healthy donors. In group A, sodium, potassium, urea, creatinine, phosphatase alkaline, total and direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were analyzed in certain randomly selected patients and no significant difference in biochemical levels (p>0.05) was found when TTV infected and noninfected individuals were compared. Knowledge related to TTV has rapidly increased, but many fundamental aspects remain unclear. This led us to question the role of TTV and doubt remains as to whether or not it is just a commensal virus. Further studies are necessary to confirm and extend these findings.

  3. Telomeric overhang length determines structural dynamics and accessibility to telomerase and ALT associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Helen; Kreig, Alex; Calvert, Jacob; Lormand, Justin; Kwon, Yongho; Daley, James M.; Sung, Patrick; Opresko, Patricia L.; Myong, Sua

    2014-01-01

    The G-rich single stranded DNA at the 3′ end of human telomeres can self-fold into G-quaduplex (GQ). However, telomere lengthening by telomerase or the recombination-based alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) mechanism requires protein loading on the overhang. Using single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy we discovered that lengthening the telomeric overhang also increased the rate of dynamic exchanges between structural conformations. Overhangs with five to seven TTAGGG repeats, compared to four repeats, showed much greater dynamics and accessibility to telomerase binding and activity, and loading of the ALT-associated proteins RAD51, WRN and BLM. Although the eight repeats are highly dynamic, they can fold into two GQs, which limited protein accessibility. In contrast, the telomere-specific protein, POT1 is unique in that it binds independently of repeat number. Our results suggest that the telomeric overhang length and dynamics may contribute to the regulation of telomere extension via telomerase action and the ALT mechanism. PMID:24836024

  4. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold; Thomas, Drennan; Williams, Ryan

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.

  5. HIF3A DNA Methylation Is Associated with Childhood Obesity and ALT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Song, Jieyun; Yang, Yide; Zhang, Yining; Wang, Haijun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms associated so far with body mass index (BMI) can explain only 1.18–1.45% of observed variation in BMI. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, could contribute to explain part of the missing heritability, and two epigenetic genome-wide analysis studies (EWAS) have reported that Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3 Alpha Subunit (HIF3A) methylation was associated with BMI or BMI change. We therefore assessed whether the HIF3A methylation is associated with obesity and other obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children. The subjects included 110 severe obese cases aged 7–17y and 110 normal-weight controls matched by age and gender for measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the HIF3A gene locus using the Sequenom’s MassARRAY system. We observed significantly higher methylation levels in obese children than in controls at positions 46801642 and 46801699 in HIF3A gene (P<0.05), and found positive associations between methylation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels adjusted by gender, age and BMI at the position 46801699 (r = 0.226, P = 0.007). These results suggest that HIF3A DNA methylation is associated with childhood obesity, and has a BMI-independent association with ALT. The results provide evidence for identifying epigenetic factors of elivated ALT and may be useful for risk assessment and personalized medicine of liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PMID:26717317

  6. HIF3A DNA Methylation Is Associated with Childhood Obesity and ALT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Song, Jieyun; Yang, Yide; Zhang, Yining; Wang, Haijun; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms associated so far with body mass index (BMI) can explain only 1.18-1.45% of observed variation in BMI. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications, especially DNA methylation, could contribute to explain part of the missing heritability, and two epigenetic genome-wide analysis studies (EWAS) have reported that Hypoxia Inducible Factor 3 Alpha Subunit (HIF3A) methylation was associated with BMI or BMI change. We therefore assessed whether the HIF3A methylation is associated with obesity and other obesity-related phenotypes in Chinese children. The subjects included 110 severe obese cases aged 7-17y and 110 normal-weight controls matched by age and gender for measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the HIF3A gene locus using the Sequenom's MassARRAY system. We observed significantly higher methylation levels in obese children than in controls at positions 46801642 and 46801699 in HIF3A gene (P<0.05), and found positive associations between methylation and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels adjusted by gender, age and BMI at the position 46801699 (r = 0.226, P = 0.007). These results suggest that HIF3A DNA methylation is associated with childhood obesity, and has a BMI-independent association with ALT. The results provide evidence for identifying epigenetic factors of elivated ALT and may be useful for risk assessment and personalized medicine of liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

  7. Development of PCR-based codominant markers flanking the Alt3 gene in rye.

    PubMed

    Miftahudin; Scoles, G J; Gustafson, J P

    2004-04-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is considered to be a major problem for crop growth and production on acid soils. The ability of crops to overcome Al toxicity varies among crop species and cultivars. Rye (Secale cereale L.) is the most Al-tolerant species among the Triticeae. Our previous study showed that Al tolerance in a rye F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was controlled by a single gene designated as the aluminum tolerance (Alt3) gene on chromosome 4RL. Based on the DNA sequence of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) BAC clone suspected to be syntenic to the Alt3 gene region, we developed two PCR-based codominant markers flanking the gene. These two markers, a sequence-tagged site (STS) marker and a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker, each flanked the Alt3 gene at an approximate distance of 0.4 cM and can be used to facilitate high-resolution mapping of the gene. The markers might also be used for marker-assisted selection in rye or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) breeding programs to obtain Al-tolerant lines and (or) cultivars.

  8. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; ...

    2015-11-11

    Here, we compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., View the MathML sourcep↑p→→hX, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p↑p→→hX. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p↑p→hX is dominatedmore » not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. As a result, given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.« less

  9. The Alt-Az Initiative for Lightweight Research Telescopes: Scientific Research Programs and Engineering Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.

    2009-05-01

    The Alt-Az Initiative is a catalyst for the development of low cost, lightweight, modest aperture (2 meters and less) alt-az research telescopes. Such telescopes, especially when automated and networked, can be cost-effective tools for dedicated research programs including low and high resolution fiber fed spectroscopy as well as optical, near infrared, and high speed photometry. To date, six two-day workshops and two full conferences have been held. Nearly a dozen technical initiatives have been completed or are underway. These include optical designs, lightweight mirrors, active primary mirror controls, and direct drive motors and controllers. One low cost, lightweight, technical demonstration telescope with lightweight mirrors, a lightweight structure, and direct drives has been completed. Future technical initiatives and technical demonstration telescopes are outlined. A 39-chapter book, Galileo's Legacy: Small Telescopes and Astronomical Research, based on these meetings, initiatives, and the demonstration telescope, is in final editing. A web site, www.AltAzInitiative.org provides details, references, and links.

  10. Therapeutic effect of combination of alagebrium (ALT-711) and sildenafil on erectile function in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, N; Sagdic, G; Sanli, A; Ciftcioglu, A; Bassorgun, I; Baykal, A; Usta, M F

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the relationship between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and erectile dysfunction (ED) has been reported. The present study aimed to investigate whether a combination of an AGE cross-link breaker (alagebrium/ALT-711) and sildenafil could enhance the erectile capacity in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Additionally, we assessed the effect of that treatment option on some molecules that have been suggested to have crucial roles in AGE-related ED pathways. Four groups of animals were utilized: (1) age-matched control rats, (2) STZ-induced diabetic rats (40 mg kg(-1) i.p.), (3) STZ rats+sildenafil (5 mg kg(-1) p.o.), (4) STZ rats treated with a combination of sildenafil (5 mg kg(-1) p.o)+alagebrium/ALT-711 (10 mg kg(-1) p.o.) for the final 1 month of the 2 months of diabetes period. At 2 months after i.p. injection of STZ, all animals underwent cavernosal nerve stimulation (CNS) to assess erectile function. Penile tissue AGEs, MDA (malondialdehyde), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) (ELISA), endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) (western blot), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (immunohistochemistry) and apoptosis (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling) analyses were performed in all groups of rats. STZ diabetic rats had a significant decrease in erectile function as determined by the peak intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and total ICP (area under the erectile curve) after CNS when compared with control rats (P<0.05). The increase in both ICP and area under the erectile curve of STZ diabetic rats treated with a combination of sildenafil+alagebrium/ALT-711 as well as in STZ diabetic rats treated with sildenafil alone was significantly greater than STZ diabetic rats. Additionally, combination treatment decreased AGE, MDA, iNOS, NF-κB, MAP kinase and apoptosis levels, whereas it preserved cGMP contents in diabetic penile tissue

  11. RNaseH1 regulates TERRA-telomeric DNA hybrids and telomere maintenance in ALT tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rajika; Lee, Yongwoo; Wischnewski, Harry; Brun, Catherine M; Schwarz, Tobias; Azzalin, Claus M

    2014-10-21

    A fraction of cancer cells maintain telomeres through the telomerase-independent, 'Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres' (ALT) pathway. ALT relies on homologous recombination (HR) between telomeric sequences; yet, what makes ALT telomeres recombinogenic remains unclear. Here we show that the RNA endonuclease RNaseH1 regulates the levels of RNA-DNA hybrids between telomeric DNA and the long noncoding RNA TERRA, and is a key mediator of telomere maintenance in ALT cells. RNaseH1 associated to telomeres specifically in ALT cells and its depletion led to telomeric hybrid accumulation, exposure of single-stranded telomeric DNA, activation of replication protein A at telomeres and abrupt telomere excision. Conversely, overexpression of RNaseH1 weakened the recombinogenic nature of ALT telomeres and led to telomere shortening. Altering cellular RNaseH1 levels did not perturb telomere homoeostasis in telomerase-positive cells. RNaseH1 maintains regulated levels of telomeric RNA-DNA hybrids at ALT telomeres to trigger HR without compromising telomere integrity too severely.

  12. Targeting the aluminum tolerance gene Alt3 region in rye, using rice/rye micro-colinearity.

    PubMed

    Miftahudin; Chikmawati, T; Ross, K; Scoles, G J; Gustafson, J P

    2005-03-01

    Characterization and manipulation of aluminum (Al) tolerance genes offers a solution to Al toxicity problems in crop cultivation on acid soil, which composes approximately 40% of all arable land. By exploiting the rice (Oryza sativa L.)/rye (Secale cereale L.) syntenic relationship, the potential for map-based cloning of genes controlling Al tolerance in rye (the most Al-tolerant cereal) was explored. An attempt to clone an Al tolerance gene (Alt3) from rye was initiated by using DNA markers flanking the rye Alt3 gene, from many cereals. Two rice-derived, PCR-based markers flanking the Alt3 gene, B1 and B4, were used to screen 1,123 plants of a rye F2 population segregating for Alt3. Fifteen recombinant plants were identified. Four additional RFLP markers developed from rice genes/putative genes, spanning 10 kb of a 160-kb rice BAC, were mapped to the Alt3 region. Two rice markers flanked the Alt3 locus at a distance of 0.05 cM, while two others co-segregated with it. The rice/rye micro-colinearity worked very well to delineate and map the Alt3 gene region in rye. A rye fragment suspected to be part of the Alt3 candidate gene was identified, but at this level, the rye/rice microsynteny relationship broke down. Because of sequence differences between rice and rye and the complexity of the rye sequence, we have been unable to clone a full-length candidate gene in rye. Further attempts to clone a full-length rye Alt3 candidate gene will necessitate the creation of a rye large-insert library.

  13. Comparison of the super agonist complex, ALT-803, to IL-15 as cancer immunotherapeutics in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M.; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C.; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B.; Jeng, Emily K.; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a potent stimulant of CD8+ T and NK cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL-15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL-15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL-15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL-15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL-15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared to IL-15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well-tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4+, and CD8+ memory T cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFN-γ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans. PMID:26511282

  14. Dorsal foot resurfacing using free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap in children.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek A; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed M; Saleh, Waleed Riad; Ragheb, Yasser Farouk; El-Refai, Omar; El Fahar, Mohammed Hassan Ali

    2013-05-01

    Very limited literature described the use of the free anterolateral thigh (ALT) among other flaps for pediatric lower limb reconstruction. The aim of this study is to present our experience using the free ALT flap for reconstruction of soft tissue defects over the dorsum of the foot and ankle in children. The study included 42 children aged 2.5-13 years with a mean of 6.18 years. Three children had crush injuries while the rest were victims of run over car accidents. All of the flaps were vascularized by at least two perforators; 88.23% were musculocutaneous and 11.77 were septocutaneous perforators. All flaps were raised in a subfascial plane. Initial thinning was performed in five flaps and 35% required subsequent debulking. Mean Flap surface area was 117.11 cm(2). The recipient arteries were the anterior tibial artery in 38 cases and posterior tibial artery in four cases. Venous anastomosis was performed to one vena commitant and in nine cases the long saphenous vein was additionally used. Mean ischemia time of the flap was 2 hours while total operative time averaged 6.3 hours. About 41% of donor sites were closed primarily while 59% required skin grafting. Primary flap survival rate was 92.8% (39/42 cases). Three flaps showed venous congestion. After venous reanastomosis, two flaps showed partial loss and one flap was lost completely. Post-operative hospital stay averaged 7.5 days. The free ALT flap could be as safe, reliable, and aesthetically appealing option for foot/ankle resurfacing in children after traumatic soft tissue loss.

  15. Factors underlying the association of body mass index with serum ALT in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Qin, Xian-hui; Li, Jian-ping; Cui, Yi-min; Liu, Ze-yuan; Zhao, Zhi-gang; Ge, Jun-bo; Guan, De-ming; Hu, Jian; Wang, Yan-ni; Zhang, Fu-min; Xu, Xin; Xu, Xi-ping; Huo, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: High body mass index (BMI) is considered as the most important risk factor for elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration. This study examined an array of factors, including waist circumference (WC) and folate deficiency, which may mediate the association of BMI with serum ALT concentration in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 378 patients with mild or moderate hypertension and without known hepatic diseases were recruited from five hospitals in Harbin, Shanghai, Beijing, Xi’an, and Nanjing. Results: Of the 360 hypertensive patients with complete data in our final analysis, 13.6% had high ALT concentrations (>40 IU/L). Factors including BMI, WC, triglyceride level, and folate concentration were associated with ALT concentration in univariate analysis. Consistently higher prevalence rates of elevated ALT were observed in subjects with lower folate concentrations (≥12 vs. <12 nmol/L, 9.9% vs. 17.8%, P=0.03), with higher BMI (≥28 vs. <28 kg/m2, 21.5% vs. 11.4%, P=0.02) or higher WC (≥90 vs. <90 cm, 18.5% vs. 10.0%, P=0.02). However, in multivariate analysis, the association between BMI and ALT concentration disappeared (P=0.802 in males and 0.369 in females), while WC in females (P<0.001) and folate concentration (P=0.036 in males and 0.044 in females) remained as significant predictors for ALT concentration. Conclusions: This multicenter study demonstrated that WC and low folate concentration were important factors underlying the association between BMI and ALT concentrations in Chinese hypertensive adults without known hepatic diseases. PMID:23897794

  16. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, P<0.001), and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046–0.0143, P<0.001). Conclusions The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  17. Low ALT blood levels predict long-term all-cause mortality among adults. A historical prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ramaty, E; Maor, E; Peltz-Sinvani, N; Brom, A; Grinfeld, A; Kivity, S; Segev, S; Sidi, Y; Kessler, T; Sela, B A; Segal, G

    2014-12-01

    Increased blood levels of alanine amino transferase (ALT, also known as SGPT; serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) serve as a marker of liver injury by various mechanisms. Less is known about the clinical implications associated with low-normal ALT levels. Previous studies showed low ALT levels to be associated with poor long-term outcomes among elderlies, serving as a biomarker for increased incidence of frailty and subsequent risk of mortality. However, it has not been determined yet whether low-normal ALT values might be predictive of frailty and mortality in younger, middle-aged adults. We conducted a historical prospective cohort analysis. A total of 23,506 adults with ALT levels within the normal range, at the mean age of 48 ± 11 years, participating in an annual screening program for preventive medicine, were followed-up for a median period of 8.5 years during which 638 died. Low-normal ALT values (serum ALT activity <17IU/L) were found to be predictive for increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR=1.6; 95% CI 1.34-1.92; p<0.001). Statistically significant correlation was demonstrated even after applying a multifactorial model correction for age, gender, eGFR, low albumin, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. We suggest that low-normal ALT values may serve as an independent predictive marker for increased long-term mortality in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Choi, Eunhee; Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn Zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40-70 years, who participated from 2005-2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008-2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422-0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124-0.337, P<0.001), and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046-0.0143, P<0.001). The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome.

  19. Serum ALT levels as a surrogate marker for serum HBV DNA levels in HBeAg-negative pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sangfelt, Per; Von Sydow, Madeleine; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Weiland, Ola; Lindh, Gudrun; Fischler, Björn; Lindgren, Susanne; Reichard, Olle

    2004-01-01

    In Stockholm, Sweden, the majority of pregnant women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) negative. Newborns to HBeAg positive mothers receive vaccination and hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg). Newborns to HBeAg negative mothers receive vaccine and HBIg only if the mothers have elevated ALT levels. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate ALT levels as a surrogate marker for HBV DNA levels in HBeAg negative carrier mothers. Altogether 8947 pregnant women were screened for HBV markers from 1999 to 2001 at the Virology Department, Karolinska Hospital. Among mothers screened 192 tested positive for HBsAg (2.2%). 13 of these samples could not be retrieved. Of the remaining 179 sera, 8 (4%) tested positive for HBeAg and 171 (95.5%) were HBeAg negative. Among the HBeAg negative mothers, 9 had HBV DNA levels > 10(5) copies/ml, and of these 7 had normal ALT levels indicating low sensitivity of an elevated ALT level as a surrogate marker for high HBV DNA level. Furthermore, no correlation was found between ALT and HBV DNA levels. Hence, it is concluded that the use of ALT as a surrogate marker for high viral replication in HBeAg negative mothers could be questioned.

  20. Telomere extension by telomerase and ALT generates variant repeats by mechanistically distinct processes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Michael; Hills, Mark; Conomos, Dimitri; Stutz, Michael D.; Dagg, Rebecca A.; Lau, Loretta M.S.; Reddel, Roger R.; Pickett, Hilda A.

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are terminal repetitive DNA sequences on chromosomes, and are considered to comprise almost exclusively hexameric TTAGGG repeats. We have evaluated telomere sequence content in human cells using whole-genome sequencing followed by telomere read extraction in a panel of mortal cell strains and immortal cell lines. We identified a wide range of telomere variant repeats in human cells, and found evidence that variant repeats are generated by mechanistically distinct processes during telomerase- and ALT-mediated telomere lengthening. Telomerase-mediated telomere extension resulted in biased repeat synthesis of variant repeats that differed from the canonical sequence at positions 1 and 3, but not at positions 2, 4, 5 or 6. This indicates that telomerase is most likely an error-prone reverse transcriptase that misincorporates nucleotides at specific positions on the telomerase RNA template. In contrast, cell lines that use the ALT pathway contained a large range of variant repeats that varied greatly between lines. This is consistent with variant repeats spreading from proximal telomeric regions throughout telomeres in a stochastic manner by recombination-mediated templating of DNA synthesis. The presence of unexpectedly large numbers of variant repeats in cells utilizing either telomere maintenance mechanism suggests a conserved role for variant sequences at human telomeres. PMID:24225324

  1. Transient ALT activation protects human primary cells from chromosome instability induced by low chronic oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Coluzzi, Elisa; Buonsante, Rossella; Leone, Stefano; Asmar, Anthony J.; Miller, Kelley L.; Cimini, Daniela; Sgura, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Cells are often subjected to the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of both intracellular metabolism and exposure to exogenous factors. ROS-dependent oxidative stress can induce 8-oxodG within the GGG triplet found in the G-rich human telomeric sequence (TTAGGG), making telomeres highly susceptible to ROS-induced oxidative damage. Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect the ends of linear chromosomes and their dysfunction is believed to affect a wide range of cellular and/or organismal processes. Acute oxidative stress was shown to affect telomere integrity, but how prolonged low level oxidative stress, which may be more physiologically relevant, affects telomeres is still poorly investigated. Here, we explored this issue by chronically exposing human primary fibroblasts to a low dose of hydrogen peroxide. We observed fluctuating changes in telomere length and fluctuations in the rates of chromosome instability phenotypes, such that when telomeres shortened, chromosome instability increased and when telomeres lengthened, chromosome instability decreased. We found that telomere length fluctuation is associated with transient activation of an alternative lengthening of telomere (ALT) pathway, but found no evidence of cell death, impaired proliferation, or cell cycle arrest, suggesting that ALT activation may prevent oxidative damage from reaching levels that threaten cell survival. PMID:28240303

  2. Cardiovascular and renal effects of a collagen cross-link breaker (ALT 711) in adult and aged spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Susic, Dinko; Varagic, Jasmina; Ahn, Jwari; Frohlich, Edward D

    2004-04-01

    Increased formation of advanced glycosylation end-products on body proteins is a consequence of aging and leads to exaggerated collagen cross-linking eventually increasing cardiovascular stiffness. This study reports our initial inquires into the cardiovascular and renal effects of a cross-link breaker (ALT-711) in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The first experiment, in 45-week-old SHR, showed that (among four doses) the dose of 1 mg/kg/d of ALT-711 given for 4 months was most effective in reducing left ventricular and aortic mass indexes. ALT-711 also reduced left ventricular hydroxyproline concentration (5.8 +/- 0.2 v 5.1 +/- 0.3 mg/g in controls, P < .05); however, it did not affect systemic or regional hemodynamics. In older SHR, ALT-711 (1 mg/kg/d) reduced (P < .05) systolic pressure (tail-cuff) (from 203 +/- 3 mm Hg at outset to 187 +/- 3 mm Hg at 8 weeks). Systolic pressure remained unchanged in placebo-treated rats. In addition, left ventricular index (3.09 +/- 0.10 v 3.44 +/- 0.05 mg/g) and aortic mass index (1.54 +/- 0.04 v 1.74 +/- 0.05 mg/mm) were reduced by ALT-711. In the third experiment, 1-year-old SHR were given vehicle or ALT-711 (1 mg/kg/d) or placebo until natural death. After 3 months, ALT-711 markedly reduced urinary protein excretion (74.5 +/- 8.6 v 135.4 +/- 11.8 mg/24 h). Echocardiographic studies, performed at the outset and after 3 and 6 months, revealed two changed indexes. Left ventricular end-diastolic diameter increased more in control than in ALT rats, whereas E-wave deceleration time decreased more in control than in ALT rats. Therapy with ALT-711 exerted beneficial cardiovascular and renal effects in aged SHR, improving systolic pressure, left ventricular mass, geometry, and hydroxyproline content while reducing urinary protein excretion.

  3. AGE-breaker ALT-711 plus insulin could restore erectile function in streptozocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Tian, Wenjie; Uwais, Zaid; Li, Guangyong; Li, Huixi; Guan, Ruili; Gao, Zhezhu; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2014-06-01

    The interaction between advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and its receptors for AGEs (RAGEs) elicits oxidative stress and mediates the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). ALT-711, an AGE cross-link breaker, has the therapeutic potential for ED but has been less intensively investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an AGEs breaker 3-phenacyl-4,5-dimethylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) plus insulin on erectile function in streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Fifty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into five groups: normal control (C), diabetic (D), insulin-treated diabetic (D + I), ALT-711-treated diabetic (D + ALT-711) and insulin plus ALT-711-treated diabetic (D + I + ALT-711) rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ. Eight weeks after induction of diabetes, ALT-711 was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Two to six units of intermediate-acting insulin were utilized to achieve normal levels of glycemic control. After treatment for 6 weeks, erectile function was determined via measurement of intracavernous pressures (ICPs) following electrostimulation of the cavernous nerve. The deposition of AGEs, expression of RAGEs, superoxide dismutase activity, and lipid peroxidation were measured. We also evaluated penile histological changes such as smooth muscle contents, endothelial cells contents, and apoptotic activity. The main outcome measures were the ratio of ICP/mean arterial pressure (MAP), penile endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, AGE and RAGE expression, malondialdehyde concentration, SOD activity, and apoptosis index. Diabetic rats demonstrated significantly reduced ICP/MAP ratio, penile endothelial cells, smooth muscles cells, increased AGEs and RAGE expression, and increased apoptosis. Insulin and ALT-711 monotherapy partially restored erectile function and histological changes. However, the

  4. An assessment of racial differences in the upper limits of normal ALT levels in children and the effect of obesity on elevated values.

    PubMed

    Kliethermes, S; Ma, M; Purtell, C; Balasubramanian, N; Gonzalez, B; Layden, T J; Cotler, S J

    2017-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and poses important public health issues for children. Racial differences in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among children have not been described. This study aimed to identify racial differences in upper limit normal (ULN) ALT levels and evaluate the effect of obesity on elevated levels in children without other metabolic risk factors. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and clinical data from the Loyola University Health System were used to determine ULN ALT by race and gender. Quantile regression was used to evaluate the impact of obesity on elevated ALT and to identify potential risk factors for ALT above the ULN. Upper limit normal (ULN) ALT was approximately 28.0 and 21.0-24.0 U/L for boys and girls, respectively. No significant difference in ULN ALT across race was observed. Obesity was significantly associated with elevated ALT; obese children with elevated ALT had values 10 U/L higher than normal-weight children. Racial differences in ALT levels among adults are not evident in children. Obesity, in the absence of metabolic risk factors and other causes of liver disease, is associated with elevated ALT, providing evidence against the concept of healthy obesity in children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  5. The advanced glycation end product-lowering agent ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of thiamine diphosphokinase.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Martina; Leech, Dale; Horne, Stacey; Steele, Megan L; Forbes, Josephine; Rahmadi, Anton; Griffith, Renate; Münch, Gerald

    2011-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in age-related diseases, including the complications of diabetes and chronic renal impairment with arterial stiffening. Alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) is an AGE-lowering agent with beneficial effects in renal structural and functional parameters in diabetes, decreased diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, and age-related myocardial stiffening. ALT-711 exhibits a structural homology to thiamine, and it was suggested to interfere with thiamine metabolism. Thiamine is converted to thiamine diphosphate (TDP) by thiamine diphosphokinase (TDPK). TDP is a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase. A decreased activity of these enzymes due to TDP deficiency results in disorders such as beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether ALT-711 is an inhibitor of TDPK. Molecular modeling studies showed that ALT-711 fits into the thiamine-binding pocket of TDPK, and there are three interactions between the thiazolium ring and the enzyme, as well as parallel stacking between the phenyl ring and the indole ring of Trp222B. Enzyme kinetic experiments also showed that ALT-711 dose-dependently decreased TDPK activity with K(i)s, calculated by different experiments and fitting models ranging from 0.88 to 1.09 mM. Fitting of the kinetic data favored mixed-mode inhibition with a major role for competitive inhibition. In summary, our results suggest that ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of TDPK, but is unlikely to interfere with thiamine metabolism at therapeutic concentrations. However, when new AGE-crosslink breakers based on thiamine are designed, care should be taken that they do not act as more potent competitive inhibitors than ALT-711.

  6. The major Alternaria alternata allergen, Alt a 1: A reliable and specific marker of fungal contamination in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M F; Uriel, N; Teifoori, F; Postigo, I; Suñén, E; Martínez, J

    2017-09-18

    The ubiquitously present spores of Alternaria alternata can spoil a wide variety of foodstuffs, including a variety of fruits belonging to the Citrus genus. The major allergenic protein of A. alternata, Alt a 1, is a species-specific molecular marker that has been strongly associated with allergenicity and phytopathogenicity of this fungal species. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of the detection of Alt a 1 as a reliable indicator of A. alternata contamination in citrus fruits. To accomplish this aim, sixty oranges were artificially infected with a spore suspension of A. alternata. Internal fruit material was collected at different incubation times (one, two and three weeks after the fungal inoculation) and used for both total RNA extraction and protein extraction. Alt a 1 detection was then performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using Alt a 1 specific primers and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The experimental model presented in this work was effective to simulate the typical Alternaria black rot phenotype and its progression. Although both PCR and ELISA techniques have been successfully carried out for detecting Alt a 1 allergen in A. alternata infected oranges, the PCR method was found to be more sensitive than ELISA. Nevertheless, ELISA results were highly valuable to demonstrate that considerable amounts of Alt a 1 are produced during A. alternata fruit infection process, corroborating the recently proposed hypothesis that this protein plays a role in the pathogenicity and virulence of Alternaria species. Such evidence suggests that the detection of Alt a 1 by PCR-based assay may be used as a specific indicator of the presence of pathogenic and allergenic fungal species, A. alternata, in fruits. This knowledge can be employed to control the fungal infection and mitigate agricultural losses as well as human exposure to A. alternata allergens and toxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of elevated alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) among US adolescents and associated factors: NHANES 1999-2004

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Abigail; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2007-01-01

    Background & aims Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of liver disease in children and adolescents. The majority of studies of NAFLD in children have been in select populations of the clinically obese. Study aims were to estimate the prevalence of elevated alanine-aminotransferase (ALT, as a marker of NAFLD) in a general contemporary adolescent population and to identify leading risk factors for ALT elevation (> 30 U/L). Methods We analysed data of adolescent participants (age 12-19, N=5586) in NHANES 1999-2004, a representative sample of the civilian non-institutionalized U.S population. Results The prevalence of elevated ALT (>30 U/L) was 7∙4% among white adolescents, 11∙5%, among Mexican Americans, and 6∙0%, among black adolescents. It was prevalent in 12∙4% of males compared to 3∙5% of females. Multivariable associations with elevated ALT were found for sex (OR male versus female = 7∙7, 95%CI: 3∙9, 15∙1), ethnicity (OR black versus white=0∙6, 95%CI: 0∙3, 1∙3; OR Mexican American versus white=1∙6, 95%CI: 1∙0, 2∙6), waist circumference (OR per 1 SD=1∙4, 95%CI: 1∙0, 2∙0), and fasting insulin (OR per 1 SD=1∙ 6, 95%CI: 1∙ 2, 2∙ 1). Age, C-reactive protein and triglycerides were also positively, and socio-economic position inversely associated with elevated ALT. The magnitude of associations with ALT was similar across ethnic groups. Conclusions ALT is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance even in a young population. These characteristics could be utilized to identify adolescents who may benefit from screening for NAFLD, offering an opportunity to prevent disease progression at an early age. PMID:18054554

  8. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked.

  9. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  10. [Impact analysis of shuxuetong injection on abnormal changes of ALT based on generalized boosted models propensity score weighting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Yi, Dan-Hui; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Dai, Yi; Zhi, Ying-Jie; Zhuang, Yan; Yang, Hu

    2013-09-01

    To estimate treatment effects of Shuxuetong injection on abnormal changes on ALT index, that is, to explore whether the Shuxuetong injection harms liver function in clinical settings and to provide clinical guidance for its safe application. Clinical information of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections is gathered from hospital information system (HIS) of eighteen general hospitals. This is a retrospective cohort study, using abnormal changes in ALT index as an outcome. A large number of confounding biases are taken into account through the generalized boosted models (GBM) and multiple logistic regression model (MLRM) to estimate the treatment effects of Shuxuetong injections on abnormal changes in ALT index and to explore possible influencing factors. The advantages and process of application of GBM has been demonstrated with examples which eliminate the biases from most confounding variables between groups. This serves to modify the estimation of treatment effects of Shuxuetong injection on ALT index making the results more reliable. Based on large scale clinical observational data from HIS database, significant effects of Shuxuetong injection on abnormal changes in ALT have not been found.

  11. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  12. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  13. Intrachain versus interchain electron transport in poly(fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole): a quantum-chemical insight.

    PubMed

    Van Vooren, Antoine; Kim, Ji-Seon; Cornil, Jérôme

    2008-05-16

    Poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) [F8BT], displays very different charge-transport properties for holes versus electrons when comparing annealed and pristine thin films and transport parallel (intrachain) and perpendicular (interchain) to the polymer axes. The present theoretical contribution focuses on the electron-transport properties of F8BT chains and compares the efficiency of intrachain versus interchain transport in the hopping regime. The theoretical results rationalize significantly lowered electron mobility in annealed F8BT thin films and the smaller mobility anisotropy (mu( parallel)/mu( perpendicular)) measured for electrons in aligned films (i.e. 5-7 compared to 10-15 for holes).

  14. Segmental dynamics of polyethylene-alt-propylene studied by NMR spin echo techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozovoi, A.; Mattea, C.; Hofmann, M.; Saalwaechter, K.; Fatkullin, N.; Stapf, S.

    2017-06-01

    Segmental dynamics of a highly entangled melt of linear polyethylene-alt-propylene with a molecular weight of 200 kDa was studied with a novel proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach based upon 1H → 2H isotope dilution as applied to a solid-echo build-up function ISE(t), which is constructed from the NMR spin echo signals arising from the Hahn echo (HE) and two variations of the solid-echo pulse sequence. The isotope dilution enables the separation of inter- and intramolecular contributions to this function and allows one to extract the segmental mean-squared displacements in the millisecond time range, which is hardly accessible by other experimental methods. The proposed technique in combination with time-temperature superposition yields information about segmental translation in polyethylene-alt-propylene over 6 decades in time from 10-6 s up to 1 s. The time dependence of the mean-squared displacement obtained in this time range clearly shows three regimes of power law with exponents, which are in good agreement with the tube-reptation model predictions for the Rouse model, incoherent reptation and coherent reptation regimes. The results at short times coincide with the fast-field cycling relaxometry and neutron spin echo data, yet, significantly extending the probed time range. Furthermore, the obtained data are verified as well by the use of the dipolar-correlation effect on the Hahn echo, which was developed before by the co-authors. At the same time, the amplitude ratio of the intermolecular part of the proton dynamic dipole-dipole correlation function over the intramolecular part obtained from the experimental data is not in agreement with the predictions of the tube-reptation model for the regimes of incoherent and coherent reptation.

  15. Prevention and reversal of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice treated with alagebrium (ALT-711).

    PubMed

    Peppa, Melpomeni; Brem, Harold; Cai, Weijing; Zhang, Jiang-Gang; Basgen, John; Li, Zhu; Vlassara, Helen; Uribarri, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    Alagebrium (ALT-711) has been shown to improve renal dysfunction in animal models of diabetes. To test its effects in diabetic nephropathy (DN), ALT-711 was administered (1 mg/kg daily i.p.) to 9-week-old female db/db mice (n = 15, group A1) for 3 weeks and to 3-month-old (n = 15, group A2), 7-month-old (n = 7, group A3), and 12-month-old (n = 5, group A4) female db/db mice for 12 weeks, while a similar number of diabetic and nondiabetic mice were used as controls. The epsilonN-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels in serum, urine, skin, and kidney tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The renal morphometric parameters were assessed by electron and light microscopy. By the 3rd week of treatment, the serum CML level decreased by 41%, and the urinary CML concentration increased by 138% from baseline, while the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was lower (p < 0.05) in diabetic and nondiabetic group A1 mice. After 3 months of treatment, serum, skin, and kidney CML levels and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were lower (p < 0.05) and the urinary CML levels higher (p < 0.05) in treated group A2, A3, and A4 animals compared with groups which received phosphate-buffered saline, with a similar pattern observed in nondiabetic mice. The renal morphological parameters characteristic of DN decreased in treated compared with untreated mice. Alagebrium may prevent, delay, and/or reverse established DN in db/db mice by reducing the systemic advanced glycation end product pools and facilitating the urinary excretion of advanced glycation end products. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Increased frequency of HLA DR13 in hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal ALT levels.

    PubMed

    Kuzushita, N; Hayashi, N; Katayama, K; Hiramatsu, N; Yasumaru, M; Murata, H; Shimizu, Y; Yamazaki, T; Fushimi, H; Kotoh, K; Kasahara, A; Fusamoto, H; Kamada, T

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between human leukocyte antigen DR allele distribution and the degree of liver cell injury of hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers in Japan. The subjects, 68 HCV carriers, were divided into two groups according to the laboratory data and liver histology. Those in the asymptomatic carrier group (n = 19) had normal ALT levels persistently for 8-153 months (mean 25.7 months) and were diagnosed histologically as normal liver, nonspecific reactive hepatitis or chronic persistent hepatitis. Those in the chronic active hepatitis group (n = 49) had elevated ALT levels and were diagnosed histologically with chronic active hepatitis. The human leukocyte antigen DR alleles of all subjects were defined using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The expression of human leukocyte antigen class I antigen and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on the hepatocyte membrane were also examined in 14 patients from each group using an indirect immunohistochemical method. The frequency of DR13 (42.1%) in the asymptomatic carrier group was significantly higher (Pc < 0.003) than that of the chronic active hepatitis group (4.1%). There were no significant differences for the other DR alleles. The frequencies of expression of human leukocyte antigen class I antigen and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on the hepatocyte membrane of the asymptomatic carrier group were significantly less than those of the chronic hepatitis group (64% vs. 100% P < 0.05, 29% vs. 71% P < 0.05, respectively), although there was no significant difference in the serum HCV-RNA titer between the two groups (10(6.4 +/- 1.1) vs. 10(6.5 +/- 0.7) copies/mL). These results demonstrate that the cellular immune response of the asymptomatic carrier group is less activated than the response of the chronic active hepatitis group and that HLA DR13 may be closely associated with this low activity of hepatitis among HCV carriers.

  17. Telomere-based crisis: functional differences between telomerase activation and ALT in tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sandy; Khoo, Christine M.; Naylor, Maria L.; Maser, Richard S.; DePinho, Ronald A.

    2003-01-01

    Telomerase activation is a common feature of most advanced human cancers and is postulated to restore genomic stability to a level permissive for cell viability and tumor progression. Here, we used genetically defined transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cultures derived from late generation mTerc−/− Ink4a/Arf−/− mice to explore more directly how telomere-based crisis relates to the evolution of cancer cell genomes and to tumor biology. An exhaustive serial analysis of cytogenetic profiles over extensive passage in culture revealed that the emergence of chromosomal fusions (including dicentrics) coincided with onset of deletions and complex nonreciprocal translocations (NRTs), whereas mTerc-transduced cultures maintained intact chromosomes and stable genomes. Despite a high degree of telomere dysfunction and genomic instability, transformed late passage mTerc−/− Ink4a/Arf−/− cultures retained the capacity to form subcutaneous tumors in immunocompromised mice. However, even moderate levels of telomere dysfunction completely abrogated the capacity of these cells to form lung metastases after tail-vein injection, whereas mTerc reconstitution alone conferred robust metastatic activity in these cells. Finally, serial subcutaneous tumor formation using late passage transformed mTerc−/− Ink4a/Arf−/− cultures revealed clear evidence of telomerase-independent alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Significantly, despite a marked increase in telomere reserve, cells derived from the ALT+ subcutaneous tumors were unable to generate lung metastases, indicating in vivo functional differences in these principal mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Together, these results are consistent with the model that although telomere dysfunction provokes chromosomal aberrations that initiate carcinogenesis, telomerase-mediated telomere maintenance enables such initiated cells to efficiently achieve a fully malignant endpoint, including metastasis. PMID

  18. Orthologous Allergens and Diagnostic Utility of Major Allergen Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Antonio; Alcover, Javier; Rodríguez, David; Palacios, Ricardo; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hypersensitivity to fungi is associated with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. For some fungi, such as Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), the symptoms of asthma are persistent, increasing disease severity and the risk of fatal outcomes. There are a large number of species of fungi but knowledge of them remains limited. This, together with the difficulties in obtaining adequate standardized extracts, means that there remain significant challenges in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy associated with fungi. The type of indoor fungi related to asthma/allergy varies according to geographic, climatic, and seasonal factors, making their study difficult. The aim of this study was to determine hypersensitivity to indoor fungi in a population from Cuenca, Spain. Methods Thirty-five patients with symptoms compatible with rhinitis or asthma who showed clear worsening of their symptoms in their homes or workplace were included. In vivo and in vitro tests were made with a battery of fungal allergens, including the species isolated in the home or workplace. Results Ulocladium botrytis (U. botrytis) and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. These species showed very high concordance in skin tests, specific IgE, and histamine release. The allergen Alt a 1, which was recognized in all patients, was detected in A. alternata, U. botrytis, and Stemphylium botryosum (S. botryosum). Conclusions U. botrytis and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. Alt a 1 was recognized in all patients and may be considered a non-species-specific allergen that could be used as a diagnostic source of sensitization to some species of the Pleosporaceae family. PMID:27334781

  19. A Human Long Non-Coding RNA ALT1 Controls the Cell Cycle of Vascular Endothelial Cells Via ACE2 and Cyclin D1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Wang, Rui; Ma, Jie-Yi; Wang, Mian; Cui, Jin; Wu, Wei-Bin; Liu, Rui-Ming; Zhang, Chun-Xiang; Li, Wen; Wang, Shen-Ming

    2017-10-05

    ALT1 is a novel long non-coding RNA derived from the alternatively spliced transcript of the deleted in lymphocytic leukemia 2 (DLEU2). To date, ALT1 biological roles in human vascular endothelial cells have not been reported. ALT1 was knocked down by siRNAs. Cell proliferation was analyzed by cck-8. The existence and sequence of human ALT1 were identified by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The interaction between lncRNA and proteins was analyzed by RNA-Protein pull down assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry analysis. ALT1 was expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The expression of ALT1 was significantly downregulated in contact-inhibited HUVECs and in hypoxia-induced, growth-arrested HUVECs. Knocking down of ALT1 inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. We observed that angiotensin converting enzyme Ⅱ(ACE2) was a direct target gene of ALT1. Knocking-down of ALT1 or its target gene ACE2 could efficiently decrease the expression of cyclin D1 via the enhanced ubiquitination and degradation, in which HIF-1α and protein von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL) might be involved. The results suggested the human long non-coding RNA ALT1 is a novel regulator for cell cycle of HUVECs via ACE2 and cyclin D1 pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The 'Führerschule' in Alt Rehse: A character school for the physicians of National Socialist Germany.

    PubMed

    Hansson, N; Maiboum, T; Nilsson, P M

    2011-12-01

    This contribution traces the international contacts and impact of the leader school for German doctors ('Führerschule der deutschen Arzteschaft') in Alt Rehse 1935-1943 through studies of a visitors' book and of biographies.We suggest that the 'Föhrerschule', an institution providing political and ideological education for health professionals, interested non-German physicians to a larger extent than earlier described. This paper also highlights a few examples of non-German physicians who, for various reasons, visited the 'Führerschule' in Alt Rehse.

  1. Approach & Landing Test (ALT) - Shuttle Free-Flight (FF)-2 - New Release - Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-09-13

    S77-28136 (13 Sept 1977) --- The Orbiter 101 "Enterprise" is seen separating from the NASA 747 carrier aircraft during the second free flight of the Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALTs) conducted on September 13, 1977 at Dryden Flight Research Center in Southern California. Astronauts Joe H. Engle, and Richard H. Truly were the crew of the "Enterprise." The ALT free flights are designed to verify Orbiter subsonic airworthiness, integrated systems operations and pilot-guided approach and landing capability and satisfying prerequisites to automatic flight control and navigation mode.

  2. ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia body (APB) detection as a reproducible tool to assess alternative lengthening of telomere stability in liposarcomas.

    PubMed

    Venturini, L; Erdas, R; Costa, A; Gronchi, A; Pilotti, S; Zaffaroni, N; Daidone, Mg

    2008-03-01

    Most cancers maintain telomeres by activating telomerase, but a significant minority, mainly of mesenchymal origin, utilize an alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism. We previously showed the presence of ALT, as detected by ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) by combined promyelocytic leukaemia immunofluorescence and telomere fluorescence-in situ hybridization, in approximately 25% of frozen specimens obtained from adult patient liposarcomas and proved that ALT negatively affects patient prognosis. In the present study, we assessed the reproducibility of APB detection on frozen versus formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from the same liposarcoma specimens and investigated the eventual stability of ALT in 103 different lesions from 40 adult patients followed during their disease. Irrespective of liposarcoma subtype, we (1) confirmed the presence of ALT in 21.4% of tumours; (2) demonstrated the reliability of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia body detection in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections (with qualitative concordance between matched frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples in 29/30 specimens, and high quantitative agreement, as indicated by a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.85); and (3) suggested the stability of ALT status during disease evolution, since the ALT mechanism was never acquired in the 29 patients with initially ALT-negative lesions and lost over time in only two of 11 patients with initially ALT-positive liposarcomas. In conclusion, these results confirm the possibility of investigating the ALT mechanism in archival specimens to obtain biologically relevant information on liposarcoma progression, even when the primary lesion is not available.

  3. ALT1, a Snf2 family chromatin remodeling ATPase, negatively regulates alkaline tolerance through enhanced defense against oxidative stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Wang, Ruci; Wang, Juan; Hua, Kai; Wang, Yueming; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Shanguo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline salt stress adversely affects rice growth, productivity and grain quality. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. We characterized here an alkaline tolerant mutant, alt1 in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that alt1 harbors a mutation in a chromatin remodeling ATPase gene. ALT1-RNAi transgenic plants under different genetic background mimicked the alt1 phenotype, exhibiting tolerance to alkaline stress in a transcript dosage-dependent manner. The predicted ALT1 protein belonged to the Ris1 subgroup of the Snf2 family and was localized in the nucleus, and transcription of ALT1 was transiently suppressed after alkaline treatment. Although the absorption of several metal ions maintained well in the mutant under alkaline stress, expression level of the genes involved in metal ions homeostasis was not altered in the alt1 mutant. Classification of differentially expressed abiotic stress related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis, found that the majority (50/78) were involved in ROS production, ROS scavenging, and DNA repair. This finding was further confirmed by that alt1 exhibited lower levels of H2O2 under alkaline stress and tolerance to methyl viologen treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that ALT1 negatively functions in alkaline tolerance mainly through the defense against oxidative damage, and provide a potential two-step strategy for improving the tolerance of rice plants to alkaline stress.

  4. ALT1, a Snf2 Family Chromatin Remodeling ATPase, Negatively Regulates Alkaline Tolerance through Enhanced Defense against Oxidative Stress in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mingxin; Wang, Ruci; Wang, Juan; Hua, Kai; Wang, Yueming; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Shanguo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline salt stress adversely affects rice growth, productivity and grain quality. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. We characterized here an alkaline tolerant mutant, alt1 in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that alt1 harbors a mutation in a chromatin remodeling ATPase gene. ALT1-RNAi transgenic plants under different genetic background mimicked the alt1 phenotype, exhibiting tolerance to alkaline stress in a transcript dosage-dependent manner. The predicted ALT1 protein belonged to the Ris1 subgroup of the Snf2 family and was localized in the nucleus, and transcription of ALT1 was transiently suppressed after alkaline treatment. Although the absorption of several metal ions maintained well in the mutant under alkaline stress, expression level of the genes involved in metal ions homeostasis was not altered in the alt1 mutant. Classification of differentially expressed abiotic stress related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis, found that the majority (50/78) were involved in ROS production, ROS scavenging, and DNA repair. This finding was further confirmed by that alt1 exhibited lower levels of H2O2 under alkaline stress and tolerance to methyl viologen treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that ALT1 negatively functions in alkaline tolerance mainly through the defense against oxidative damage, and provide a potential two-step strategy for improving the tolerance of rice plants to alkaline stress. PMID:25473841

  5. Perspectives on English Education in the Japanese Public School System: The Views of Foreign Assistant Language Teachers (ALTs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaki, Yuki

    2008-01-01

    Public school students in Japan must take English as a required subject for three years in junior high school and for three more years in senior high school. In spite of the amount of classroom time invested, and in spite of the available learning support services, the foreign Assistant Language Teacher (ALT) system included, the English…

  6. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  7. The effect of IFN-based therapies on the short-term dynamics of alt in HCV-infected patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, R. M.; Talal, A. H.; Layden, J. E.; Powers, K. A.; Layden, T. J.; Perelson, Alan S.,

    2002-01-01

    IFN therapy of HCV-infection has been shown to reduce production of virus from infected cells, but its effect on hepatocytes is less well understood. One indicator of liver damage is ALT, which has been used as an associated diagnostic for HCV infection.

  8. Alagebrium (ALT-711) improves the anti-hypertensive efficacy of nifedipine in diabetic-hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; He, Kunlun; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xianfa; Cui, Hao; Zhong, Wu; Li, Song; Wang, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Combining drugs with complementary mechanisms of action may contribute to improved hypertension control in diabetic patients. Advanced glycation end-product (AGE) breakers, a new class of candidate drugs targeting aging-related cardiovascular dysfunction, may be useful as novel adjuvant agents to improve the efficacy of diabetic hypertension (DH) treatment. This study evaluated the effects of alagebrium (ALT-711), an AGE breaker, combined with nifedipine, a Ca(2+) channel blocker, in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced DH. Compared with monotherapy, combination treatment significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure values, increased the pulse pressure, and decreased the coefficient of variation of the systolic blood pressure. Plasma biochemistry indicated that the concentrations of prostacyclin and nitric oxide were increased. Gene expression analysis showed significantly decreased prepro-endothelin-1expression in the aorta. These results reveal that alagebrium significantly improves the anti-hypertensive actions of nifedipine in a rat model of DH and suggest its potential use in the successful control of clinical DH.

  9. Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2009-11-04

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  10. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  11. "Control-alt-delete": rebooting solutions for the E-waste problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Stevels, Ab

    2015-06-16

    A number of efforts have been launched to solve the global electronic waste (e-waste) problem. The efficiency of e-waste recycling is subject to variable national legislation, technical capacity, consumer participation, and even detoxification. E-waste management activities result in procedural irregularities and risk disparities across national boundaries. We review these variables to reveal opportunities for research and policy to reduce the risks from accumulating e-waste and ineffective recycling. Full regulation and consumer participation should be controlled and reinforced to improve local e-waste system. Aiming at standardizing best practice, we alter and identify modular recycling process and infrastructure in eco-industrial parks that will be expectantly effective in countries and regions to handle the similar e-waste stream. Toxicity can be deleted through material substitution and detoxification during the life cycle of electronics. Based on the idea of "Control-Alt-Delete", four patterns of the way forward for global e-waste recycling are proposed to meet a variety of local situations.

  12. Morphological control of calcium oxalate particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiaguo; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Bei; Zhao, Xiujian

    2004-10-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) particles exhibiting different shapes and phase structures were fabricated by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium oxalate with calcium chloride in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA) as a crystal modifier at room temperature. The as-obtained products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of reaction conditions including pH, [Ca2+]/[C2O42-] ratio and concentration of PSMA and CaC2O4 on the crystal forms and morphologies of the as-obtained calcium oxalate were investigated. The results show that various crystal morphologies of calcium oxalate, such as parallelograms, plates, spheres, bipyramids etc. can be obtained depending on the experimental conditions. Higher polymer concentration favors formation of the metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. Lower pH is beneficial to the formation of plate-like CaOx crystals. Especially, the monodispersed parallelogram-like CaOx crystals can be produced by PSMA as an additive at pH 2. PSMA may act as a good inhibitor for urolithiasis since it induces the formation of COD and reduces the particle size of CaOx. This research may provide new insight into the morphological control of CaOx particles and the prevention of urolithiasis.

  13. The LTDP ALTS Project: Contributing to the Continued Understanding and Exploitation of the ATSR Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Hannah; Done, Fay; Casadio, Stefano; Mackin, Stephen; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Castelli, Elisa

    2016-08-01

    The long time-series of observations made by the Along Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSR) missions represents a valuable resource for a wide range of research and EO applications.With the advent of ESA's Long-TermData Preservation (LTDP) programme, thought has turned to the preservation and improved understanding of such long time-series, to support their continued exploitation in both existing and new areas of research, bringing the possibility of improving the existing data set and to inform and contribute towards future missions. For this reason, the 'Long Term Stability of the ATSR Instrument Series: SWIR Calibration, Cloud Masking and SAA' project, commonly known as the ATSR Long Term Stability (or ALTS) project, is designed to explore the key characteristics of the data set and new and innovative ways of enhancing and exploiting it.Work has focussed on: A new approach to the assessment of Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) channel calibration.; Developmentof a new method for Total Column Water Vapour (TCWV) retrieval.; Study of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA).; Radiative Transfer (RT) modelling for ATSR.; Providing AATSR observations with their location in the original instrument grid.; Strategies for the retrieval and archiving of historical ATSR documentation.; Study of TCWV retrieval over land; Development of new methods for cloud masking This paper provides an overview of these activities and illustrates the importance of preserving and understanding 'old' data for continued use in the future.

  14. The influence of magnesium on the activity of some enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP) and lead content in some tissues.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Tatjana; Vujanovic, Dragana

    2002-12-01

    Many authors in different studies have reported the antagonism between Mg and Pb. Our previous results suggested that oral Mg treatment have better effect on investigation biochemical parameters (protoporphyrins, aminolevulinic acid--ALA and d-aminolevulinic dehydratase ALA-D) used in evaluating Pb intoxication, then CaNa2EDTA, chelation agents, currently used in therapy of Pb intoxication. The toxic effect of Pb induced considerably modifies the activity of many other enzymes. In this work we have examined the influence of Mg (as alternative therapy of Pb poisoning) on enzymes activity--biochemical markers for general health conditions--aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in condition of lead intoxication. Many studies showed disturbances of activity ALT, AST and ALP. The aim of this study was to confirm positive effects of Mg intake in condition of such intoxication at the level on activity of investigated enzymes. The experiment was performed on 45 male Wister rats, divided in three groups. I--control group; II--group treated daily for 30 days with 100 mg Pb, per kg body weight and next 60 without Pb treatment (spontaneous detoxication); III group--the same treatment as II group for the first 30 days, but next 60 days rats were treated orally with 40 mg Mg/kg body weight. Activity of AST and ALT was significant increased in condition of Pb poisoning, but ALP activity was significant reduced. Influence of excessive oral Mg treatment was positive: decrease of AST activity and ALT activity, which was probably in correlation with significant elimination of Pb from liver and increase of ALT enzyme activity at the normal level.

  15. New pediatric percentiles of liver enzyme serum levels (ALT, AST, GGT): Effects of age, sex, BMI and pubertal stage.

    PubMed

    Bussler, Sarah; Vogel, Mandy; Pietzner, Diana; Harms, Kristian; Buzek, Theresa; Penke, Melanie; Händel, Norman; Körner, Antje; Baumann, Ulrich; Kiess, Wieland; Flemming, Gunter

    2017-09-19

    The present study aims to clarify the effects of sex, age, BMI and puberty on transaminase serum levels in children and adolescents and to provide new age- and sex-related percentiles for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Venous blood and anthropometric data were collected from 4,126 cases. Excluded were cases of participants with potential hepatotoxic medication, with evidence of potential illness at the time of blood sampling and non-normal BMI (BMI < 10(th) or > 90(th) ). The resulting data (N = 3,131 cases) were used for the calculations of ALT, AST, and GGT percentiles. Age- and sex-related reference intervals were established by using an LMSP-type method. Serum levels of transaminases follow age-specific patterns and relate to the onset of puberty. This observation is more pronounced in girls than in boys. The ALT percentiles showed similar shaped patterns in both sexes. Multivariate regression confirmed significant effects of puberty and BMI-SDS (β = 2.21) on ALT. Surprisingly, AST serum levels were negatively influenced by age (β = -1.42) and BMI-SDS (β = -0.15). The GGT percentiles revealed significant sex-specific differences, correlated positively with age (β = 0.37) and showed significant association with BMI-SDS (β = 1.16). Current reference values of ALT, AST and GGT serum levels were calculated for children between 11 months and 16.0 years, using modern analytical and statistical methods. This study extends the current knowledge about transaminases by revealing influences of age, sex, BMI, and puberty on the serum concentrations of all three parameters and has for these parameters one of the largest sample sizes published so far. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  16. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard.

  17. Self-healing pH-sensitive poly[(methyl vinyl ether)-alt-(maleic acid)]-based supramolecular hydrogels formed by inclusion complexation between cyclodextrin and adamantane.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoe; Zhou, Naizhen; Zhang, Tianzhu; Hu, Wanjun; Gu, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Self-healing materials are of interest for drug delivery, cell and gene therapy, tissue engineering, and other biomedical applications. In this work, on the base of biocompatible polymer poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid) (P(MVE-alt-MA)), host polymer β-cyclodextrin-grafted P(MVE-alt-MA) (P(MVE-alt-MA)-g-β-CD) and guest polymer adamantane-grafted P(MVE-alt-MA) (P(MVE-alt-MA)-g-Ad) were first prepared. Then through taking advantage of the traditional host-guest interaction of β-cyclodextrin and adamantane, a novel self-healing pH-sensitive physical P(MVE-alt-MA)-g-β-CD/P(MVE-alt-MA)-g-Ad supramolecular hydrogels were obtained after simply mixing the aqueous solution of host polymer and guest polymer. This kind of supramolecular hydrogels not only possess pH-sensitivity, but also possess the ability to repair themselves after being damaged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simple synthesis of P(Cbz-alt-TBT) and PCDTBT by combining direct arylation with suzuki polycondensation of heteroaryl chlorides.

    PubMed

    Lombeck, Florian; Matsidik, Rukiya; Komber, Hartmut; Sommer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Direct arylation (DA) of 2-chlorothiophene and 2-chloro-3-hexylthiophene with 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole is used to synthesize 4,7-bis(5-chloro-2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (TBTCl2) and 4,7-bis(5-chloro-4-hexyl-2-thienyl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (DH-TBTCl2) in one step. Suitable conditions of the Suzuki polycondensations (SPC) of TBTCl2 and DH-TBTCl2 with the carbazole comonomer CbzPBE2 are established, furnishing PCDTBT and P(Cbz-alt-TBT) with high molecular weight and yield. Compared with control samples made from the corresponding dibromides, high-temperature NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy indicate similar properties for PCDTBT but an increased content of Cbz-Cbz homocouplings for P(Cbz-alt-TBT).

  19. Comparison Study II: Double Star Measurements Made Using an Equatorial Mounted Refractor and an Alt-Az Mounted Reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas G.; Coombs, Lee C.

    2012-07-01

    Eight double stars with separations between 13 and 48 arc seconds were studied. Their separations and position angles were measured using an equatorial mounted refractor and and alt-az mounted reflector. A 2x Barlow lens was used along with a Celestron Micro Guide eyepiece to magnify the separation. Comparison of the possible effect of magnitude difference on the separation and position angle measurements was investigated.

  20. Clinico-biochemical factors to early predict biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis: age, female gender, and ALT

    PubMed Central

    Zarnescu, NO; Costea, R; Zarnescu (Vasiliu), EC; Neagu, S

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Aims: Despite the existence of an easy tool to diagnose biliary tract disease as an etiology for acute pancreatitis (AP), the sensitivity of abdominal ultrasound is around 80%, which can be even lower in certain conditions. Methodology: We have retrospectively reviewed data of 146 patients admitted for acute pancreatitis between 1999 and 2013. Bivariate analysis for clinical and biochemical variables was performed with respect to etiology of AP (biliary versus non-biliary). Multivariate analysis was performed by using binary logistic regression. Results: There were 87 males (59.6%) and 59 females (40.4%), with a median age of 51. The etiology of acute pancreatitis was biliary in 71 patients (48.6%). Bivariate analysis found the following as significant association (p=0.001) with biliary pancreatitis: older age, female gender, and elevated AST, ALT. A binary logistic regression analysis identified as predictor factors for biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis: age OR = 1.031 (95% CI 1.004 - 1.059, p = 0.024), sex (female) OR = 2.34 (95% CI 1.022 - 5.359, p = 0.044) and ALT OR = 1.004 (95% CI 1.001 - 1.007, p =0.004). The two clinical scores included the three variables (A.S.ALT scores) in categorical format were generated and then checked with the ROC curves (areas under curve are 0.768 and 0.778). Conclusions: Age, female gender, and elevated ALT can help identifying cases with biliary etiology of acute pancreatitis. PMID:26664483

  1. The IL-15-based ALT-803 complex enhances FcγRIIIa-triggered NK cell responses and in vivo clearance of B cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Maximillian; Bai, Liu; Kong, Lin; Collins, Lynne I.; Schneider, Stephanie E.; Chen, Xiaoyue; Han, Kaiping; Jeng, Emily K.; Rhode, Peter R.; Leong, Jeffrey W.; Schappe, Timothy; Jewell, Brea A.; Keppel, Catherine R.; Shah, Keval; Hess, Brian; Romee, Rizwan; Piwnica-Worms, David R.; Cashen, Amanda F.; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Wong, Hing C.; Fehniger, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are an important immunotherapy for B cell lymphoma, and provide evidence that the immune system may be harnessed as an effective lymphoma treatment approach. ALT-803 is a super-agonist IL-15 mutant and IL-15Rα–Fc fusion complex that activates the IL-15 receptor constitutively expressed on NK cells. We hypothesized that ALT-803 would enhance anti-CD20 mAb-directed NK cell responses and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We tested this hypothesis by adding ALT-803 immunostimulation to anti-CD20 mAb triggering of NK cells in vitro and in vivo. Cell lines and primary human lymphoma cells were utilized as targets for primary human NK cells. Two complementary in vivo mouse models were used, which included human NK cell xenografts in NOD-SCID-γc−/− mice. REULTS We demonstrate that short-term ALT-803 stimulation significantly increased degranulation, IFN-γ production, and ADCC by human NK cells against B-cell lymphoma cell lines or primary follicular lymphoma cells. ALT-803 augmented cytotoxicity and the expression of granzyme B and perforin, providing one potential mechanism for this enhanced functionality. Moreover, in two distinct in vivo B cell lymphoma models, the addition of ALT-803 to anti-CD20 mAb therapy resulted in significantly reduced tumor cell burden and increased survival. Long-term ALT-803 stimulation of human NK cells induced proliferation and NK cell subset changes with preserved ADCC. CONCLUSIONS ALT-803 represents a novel immunostimulatory drug that enhances NK cell anti-lymphoma responses in vitro and in vivo, thereby supporting the clinical investigation of ALT-803 plus anti-CD20 mAbs in patients with indolent B cell lymphoma. PMID:26423796

  2. Association Mapping Provides Insights into the Origin and the Fine Structure of the Sorghum Aluminum Tolerance Locus, AltSB

    PubMed Central

    Caniato, Fernanda F.; Hamblin, Martha T.; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

    2014-01-01

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ∼6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al

  3. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB.

    PubMed

    Caniato, Fernanda F; Hamblin, Martha T; Guimaraes, Claudia T; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E; Kochian, Leon V; Magalhaes, Jurandir V

    2014-01-01

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ∼6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al

  4. A Styrene-alt-Maleic Acid Copolymer Is an Effective Inhibitor of R5 and X4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pirrone, Vanessa; Passic, Shendra; Wigdahl, Brian; Rando, Robert F.; Labib, Mohamed; Krebs, Fred C.

    2010-01-01

    An alternating copolymer of styrene and maleic acid (alt-PSMA) differs from other polyanionic antiviral agents in that the negative charges of alt-PSMA are provided by carboxylic acid groups instead of sulfate or sulfonate moieties. We hypothesized that alt-PSMA would have activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) comparable to other polyanions, such as the related compound, poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS). In assays using cell lines and primary immune cells, alt-PSMA was characterized by low cytotoxicity and effective inhibition of infection by HIV-1 BaL and IIIB as well as clinical isolates of subtypes A, B, and C. In mechanism of action assays, in which each compound was added to cells and subsequently removed prior to HIV-1 infection (“washout” assay), alt-PSMA caused no enhancement of infection, while PSS washout increased infection 70% above control levels. These studies demonstrate that alt-PSMA is an effective HIV-1 inhibitor with properties that warrant further investigation. PMID:20589074

  5. LIMITED ELEVATIONS IN ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUG-INDUCED SERUM ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT) LEVELS IN A COHORT OF NIGERIANS ON TREATMENT FOR PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND HIV INFECTION IN YENAGOA.

    PubMed

    Ikuabe, Peter Ogie; Ebuenyi, Ikenna Desmond; Harry, Tubonye Clement

    2015-01-01

    This study, undertaken in a major tertiary hospital in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was designed to examine the incidence of elevation in serum alanine aminotransference (ALT) in our patients who were on treatment for HIV/AIDS with some of them on antituberculosis drugs. Between January and December 2014, all admission records which include HIV status, Acid fast bacilli Status, Chest radiograph, CD4 cell count, degree of hepatotoxicity during antituberculosis drugs treatment according to WHO definition using clinical findings and ALT levels at baseline (ALTI) and at 4 weeks into treatment with antituberculosis drugs (ALT2) of all the patients on HAART with some on antituberculosis drugs were retrieved and retrospectively analyzed. Of the total of 707 patients on HAART, 80 were on both HAART and anti-tuberculosis treatment.There was a statistically significant correlation between ALT I levels in the PTB negative and PTB positive cohort at baseline χ2 10.725,d.f4,P = 0.030. After 4 weeks of antituberculosis treatment and HAART ALT2 level in expectedly, generally showed downward trend with no statistically significant correlation between PTB status and ALT2 (χ2 = 0.789, d.f2.P = 0.674) CONCLUSION: Anti-tuberculosis drug induced elevation in alanine amino transference is unexpectedly low in our patients on treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV infection. This is a key finding that requires further studies.

  6. An aldonolactonase AltA from Penicillium oxalicum mitigates the inhibition of β-glucosidase during lignocellulose biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shengjuan; Cao, Qing; Qin, Yuqi; Li, Xuezhi; Liu, Guodong; Qu, Yinbo

    2017-02-04

    Efficient deconstruction of lignocellulose is achieved by the synergistic action of various hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes. However, the aldonolactones generated by oxidative enzymes have inhibitory effects on some cellulolytic enzymes. In this work, D-glucono-1,5-lactone was shown to have a much stronger inhibitory effect than D-glucose and D-gluconate on β-glucosidase, a vital enzyme during cellulose degradation. AltA, a secreted enzyme from Penicillium oxalicum, was identified as an aldonolactonase which can catalyze the hydrolysis of D-glucono-1,5-lactone to D-gluconic acid. In the course of lignocellulose saccharification conducted by cellulases from P. oxalicum or Trichoderma reesei, supplementation of AltA was able to relieve the decrease of β-glucosidase activity obviously with a stimulation of glucose yield. This boosting effect disappeared when sodium azide and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were added to the saccharification system to inhibit the activities of oxidative enzymes. In summary, we describe the first heterologous expression of a fungal secreted aldonolactonase and its application as an efficient supplement of cellulolytic enzyme system for lignocellulose biodegradation.

  7. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-02-03

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)--a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  8. 'Arzteführerschule Alt-Rehse'--the main educational centre for promotion of Nazi medicine ideology in Germany during 1935 - 1943.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Peter M; Bergkvist, Göran; Peters, Anja; Köpp, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In Nazi Germany 1933-1945 the medical profession played an important role, not only within the health sector but also for ideological purposes. Some physicians committed criminal acts during the war, for example in concentration camps, and where later put on trial at the Nuremberg Trials in 1946-1947, some of them also sentenced to death. What is little known outside Germany is the existence of a specialised political leader school for physicians, dentists, midwives, pharmacists, and health officials at Alt-Rehse, a small village north of Berlin in the province of Mecklenburg, Northern Germany. Supported by historical documents it can be shown that the ideological training at Alt-Rehse was structured, politically effective, and well appreciated by the many attending students visiting the school. There is reason to believe that former Alt-Rehse students took part in Nazi criminal acts of war, but this is hard to prove as all documents were captured by the Russian Army at the end of the Second World War and have until now not been traced. Documents have shown that also many foreign visitors came to Alt-Rehse, from the UK, Sweden, Japan, and other countries during the pre-war years. The lessons from Alt-Rehse include how a totalitarian ideology can shape the professional role of health workers.

  9. AltMV TGB1 Nucleolar Localization Requires Homologous Interaction and Correlates with Cell Wall Localization Associated with Cell-to-Cell Movement.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jiryun; Nam, Moon; Bae, Hanhong; Lee, Cheolho; Lee, Bong-Chun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

    2013-12-01

    The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to form homologous interactions. The helicase domains of AltMV TGB1 were separately mutated to identify which regions are involved in homologous TGB1 interactions. The yeast two hybrid system and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) in planta were utilized to examine homologous interactions of the mutants. Helicase motif I of AltMV TGB1 was found to be critical to maintain homologous interactions. Mutations in the remaining helicase motifs did not inhibit TGB1 homologous interactions. In the absence of homologous interaction of TGB1, subcellular localization of helicase domain I mutants showed distinctively different patterns from that of WT TGB1. These results provide important information to study viral movement and replication of AltMV.

  10. The AGE-Breaker ALT-711 Restores High Blood Flow–Dependent Remodeling in Mesenteric Resistance Arteries in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Freidja, Mohamed L.; Tarhouni, Kahena; Toutain, Bertrand; Fassot, Céline; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases, but this is impaired in diabetes. We hypothesized that breaking advanced glycation end product (AGE) cross-links could improve remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats compared with lean Zucker (LZ) rats. Arteries, exposed to high (HF) or normal (NF) blood flow after alternate arterial ligation in vivo, were collected after 2 weeks. In LZ rats, HF artery diameter was larger than for NF vessels, but this was not the case in ZDF rats. Endothelium-mediated dilation in ZDF rats, which was lower than in LZ rats, was further decreased in HF arteries. Treatment of rats with the AGE-breaker 4,5-dimethyl-3-phenacylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) (3 mg/kg/day; 3 weeks) reversed diabetes-induced impairment of HF-dependent remodeling. ALT-711 also improved endothelium nitric oxide–dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. Reactive oxygen species reduction restored relaxation in ZDF rats but not in LZ or ALT-711–treated rats. AGEs were reduced in ALT-711–treated ZDF rats compared with ZDF rats. Metalloproteinase activity, necessary for HF-dependent remodeling, was reduced in ZDF rats compared with LZ rats and restored by ALT-711. Thus, targeting AGE cross-links may provide a therapeutic potential for overcoming microvascular complications in ischemic disorders occurring in diabetes. PMID:22415880

  11. The AGE-breaker ALT-711 restores high blood flow-dependent remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Freidja, Mohamed L; Tarhouni, Kahena; Toutain, Bertrand; Fassot, Céline; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases, but this is impaired in diabetes. We hypothesized that breaking advanced glycation end product (AGE) cross-links could improve remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats compared with lean Zucker (LZ) rats. Arteries, exposed to high (HF) or normal (NF) blood flow after alternate arterial ligation in vivo, were collected after 2 weeks. In LZ rats, HF artery diameter was larger than for NF vessels, but this was not the case in ZDF rats. Endothelium-mediated dilation in ZDF rats, which was lower than in LZ rats, was further decreased in HF arteries. Treatment of rats with the AGE-breaker 4,5-dimethyl-3-phenacylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) (3 mg/kg/day; 3 weeks) reversed diabetes-induced impairment of HF-dependent remodeling. ALT-711 also improved endothelium nitric oxide-dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. Reactive oxygen species reduction restored relaxation in ZDF rats but not in LZ or ALT-711-treated rats. AGEs were reduced in ALT-711-treated ZDF rats compared with ZDF rats. Metalloproteinase activity, necessary for HF-dependent remodeling, was reduced in ZDF rats compared with LZ rats and restored by ALT-711. Thus, targeting AGE cross-links may provide a therapeutic potential for overcoming microvascular complications in ischemic disorders occurring in diabetes.

  12. CHK1-driven histone H3.3 serine 31 phosphorylation is important for chromatin maintenance and cell survival in human ALT cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fiona T. M.; Chan, F. Lyn; R. McGhie, James D.; Udugama, Maheshi; Mayne, Lynne; Collas, Philippe; Mann, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Lee H.

    2015-01-01

    Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of H3.3S31ph is detected on the entire chromosome in ALT cells, attributable to an elevated CHK1 activity in these cells. Drug inhibition of CHK1 activity during mitosis and expression of mutant H3.3S31A in these ALT cells result in a decrease in H3.3S31ph levels accompanied with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX serine 139 on chromosome arms and at the telomeres. Furthermore, the inhibition of CHK1 activity in these cells also reduces cell viability. Our findings suggest a novel role of CHK1 as an H3.3S31 kinase, and that CHK1-mediated H3.3S31ph plays an important role in the maintenance of chromatin integrity and cell survival in ALT cancer cells. PMID:25690891

  13. Comparison of immunogenicity, protective efficacy of single and cocktail DNA vaccine of Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX) in mice.

    PubMed

    Anand, Setty Balakrishnan; Murugan, Vadivel; Prabhu, Prince Rajaiah; Anandharaman, Veerabhadran; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2008-08-01

    Although DNA vaccines have several advantages over conventional vaccines, antibody production and protection are often not adequate, particularly in single plasmid vaccine formulation. In the present study we evaluated the efficacy of a cocktail vaccine based on plasmids encoding larval (L3) stage-specific Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript (BmALT-2) and antioxidant detoxification enzyme B. malayi thioredoxin peroxidase (BmTPX) to induce antibodies, protective efficacy and cell-mediated immune response in mice. Mice immunized with cocktail DNA vaccines containing the pVAX ALT-2+TPX developed higher titers of anti-BmALT-2+TPX (1:5000) antibodies, compared to the mice immunized with single DNA vaccine of pVAX ALT-2 or pVAX TPX (1:2000). Correlating with this, the mice administered with cocktail vaccine induced up to 78% of cytotoxicity against B. malayi mf. This cytotoxicity was high compared to 34% induced by the pVAX-ALT2 or 37% by pVAX-TPX. Moreover, cocktail vaccination of mice resulted in significantly higher level of cellular proliferative response associated with raised levels of IFN-gamma that skewed towards Th1 type of response compared to vaccination using either of the components. Taken together, these data suggest that the combination of two or more antigens maybe an effective vaccine development strategy to improve protection and immunogenicity against human lymphatic filariasis.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2014-03-01

    A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

  15. The exogenous opioid peptides and DPPIV serum activity in infants with apnoea expressed as apparent life threatening events (ALTE).

    PubMed

    Wasilewska, Jolanta; Sienkiewicz-Szłapka, Edyta; Kuźbida, Ewa; Jarmołowska, Beata; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Kostyra, Elżbieta

    2011-06-01

    Casein-derived peptides have been suggested to play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In this study, we have determined the content of bovine β-casomorphin-7 (bBCM-7) and the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) in sera of infants with apparent life threatening events (ALTE syndromes, 'near miss SIDS'). We have found that the sera of some infants after an apnoea event contained more β-casomorphin-7 than that of the healthy infants in the same age. In all the children after an apnoea event, however, a lowered DPPIV was detected. We suspect that the low activity of that peptidase may be responsible for opioid-induced respiratory depression, induced by bBCM-7 in the general circulation.

  16. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J.

    2013-03-18

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  17. Chitosan: poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone- alt-itaconic anhydride) nanocapsules—a promising alternative for the lung cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raţă, Delia Mihaela; Chailan, Jean-François; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Costuleanu, Marcel; Popa, Marcel

    2015-07-01

    This study reports the preparation of novel polymeric nanocapsules based on a natural polymer, chitosan and a synthetic one, poly( N-vinylpyrrolidone- alt-itaconic anhydride) [(poly(NVPAI)] using an interfacial condensation technique. The infrared spectroscopy studies confirmed the crosslinking through the presence of amide bonds, formed between the two polymers chains. The diameter of nanocapsules was found in the range of 126-214 nm and it was determined by dynamic light scattering method. Morphological characterization demonstrated their nano size, the spherical shape of the nanocapsules and the formation of hollow particles. The nanocapsules presented good swelling capacity in aqueous solutions. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) loading and release capacity was studied, the processes being controlled by the drug diffusion through the polymeric membrane. The obtained results were encouraging, showing that 5-FU-loaded nanocapsules had 70 % higher apoptotic effect on A549 tumour cells than the drug in free state or mixed with the nanocapsules.

  18. Space shuttle engineering and operations support. ALT separation reference trajectories for tailcone on orbiter forward and aft CG configurations. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    A preflight analysis of the ALT separation reference trajectories for the tailcone on, forward, and aft cg orbiter configurations is documented. The ALT separation reference trajectories encompass the time from physical separation of the orbiter from the carrier to orbiter attainment of the maximum ALT interface airspeed. The trajectories include post separation roll maneuvers by both vehicles and are generated using the final preflight data base. The trajectories so generated satisfy all known separation design criteria and violate no known constraints. The requirement for this analysis is given along with the specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories. The results of the analytical approach are evaluated, and conclusions and recommendations are summarized.

  19. Computational study of pH-dependent oligomerization and ligand binding in Alt a 1, a highly allergenic protein with a unique fold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Bretones, Jorge; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Cubells, Nuria; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Pacios, Luis F.

    2016-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a highly allergenic protein from Alternaria fungi responsible for several respiratory diseases. Its crystal structure revealed a unique β-barrel fold that defines a new family exclusive to fungi and forms a symmetrical dimer in a butterfly-like shape as well as tetramers. Its biological function is as yet unknown but its localization in cell wall of Alternaria spores and its interactions in the onset of allergy reactions point to a function to transport ligands. However, at odds with binding features in β-barrel proteins, monomeric Alt a 1 seems unable to harbor ligands because the barrel is too narrow. Tetrameric Alt a 1 is able to bind the flavonoid quercetin, yet the stability of the aggregate and the own ligand binding are pH-dependent. At pH 6.5, which Alt a 1 would meet when secreted by spores in bronchial epithelium, tetramer-quercetin complex is stable. At pH 5.5, which Alt a 1 would meet in apoplast when infecting plants, the complex breaks down. By means of a combined computational study that includes docking calculations, empirical p Ka estimates, Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic potentials, and Molecular Dynamics simulations, we identified a putative binding site at the dimeric interface between subunits in tetramer. We propose an explanation on the pH-dependence of both oligomerization states and protein-ligand affinity of Alt a 1 in terms of electrostatic variations associated to distinct protonation states at different pHs. The uniqueness of this singular protein can thus be tracked in the combination of all these features.

  20. Therapeutic administration of IL-15 superagonist complex ALT-803 leads to long-term survival and durable antitumor immune response in a murine glioblastoma model.

    PubMed

    Mathios, Dimitrios; Park, Chul-Kee; Marcus, Warren D; Alter, Sarah; Rhode, Peter R; Jeng, Emily K; Wong, Hing C; Pardoll, Drew M; Lim, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary central nervous system malignancy with a poor prognosis in patients. Despite the need for better treatments against glioblastoma, very little progress has been made in discovering new therapies that exhibit superior survival benefit than the standard of care. Immunotherapy has been shown to be a promising treatment modality that could help improve clinical outcomes of glioblastoma patients by assisting the immune system to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor environment. Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a cytokine shown to activate several effector components of the immune system, may serve as an excellent immunotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Thus, we evaluated the efficacy of an IL-15 superagonist complex (IL-15N72D:IL-15RαSu-Fc; also known as ALT-803) in a murine GL261-luc glioblastoma model. We show that ALT-803, as a single treatment as well as in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody or stereotactic radiosurgery, exhibits a robust antitumor immune response resulting in a prolonged survival including complete remission in tumor bearing mice. In addition, ALT-803 treatment results in long-term immune memory against glioblastoma tumor rechallenge. Flow cytometric analysis of tumor infiltrating immune cells shows that ALT-803 leads to increased percentage of CD8+-cell infiltration, but not the NK cells, and IFN-γ production into the tumor microenvironment. Cell depletion studies, in accordance with the flow cytometric results, show that the ALT-803 therapeutic effect is dependent on CD4+ and CD8+ cells. These results provide a rationale for evaluating the therapeutic activity of ALT-803 against glioblastoma in the clinical setting.

  1. Orbiter altitude at ALT interface based on ALSES (Approach and Landing Shuttle Engineering Simulation) analyses. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    The details of the orbiter altitude attainable at the approach and landing tests (ALT) interface determined by the approach and landing shuttle engineering simulation (manned) were documented. The analysis culminated in the verification of the trends observed in a similar analysis performed previously on the space vehicle dynamics simulation (unmanned). Altitude variations attributable to pilot steering variability ranged between 492 ft higher to 383 ft lower. The requirement for this parametric analysis is first elaborated. The specifications, assumptions, and analytical approach used to determine the orbiter altitude at the ALT interface are then presented, followed by the results of the analytical approach and the conclusions and recommendations.

  2. AltMV TGB1 nucleolar localization requires homologous interaction and correlates with cell wall localization associated with cell-to-cell movement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to for...

  3. Regulation of hdm2 by stress-induced hdm2alt1 in tumor and nontumorigenic cell lines correlating with p53 stability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Chrisanne S; Liu, Yan; Yau, Amy; Westrick, Lindsay; Evans, Susan C

    2006-10-01

    Alternative and aberrant splicing of hdm2 occurs in tumor and normal tissues. However, the factors that induce these splice variants and whether they are translated to protein products in vivo is unknown, making it difficult to decipher which of these hdm2 transcripts have a normal physiologic function or contribute to carcinogenesis. We investigated the conditions that induce this post-transcriptional modification of hdm2 in tumor and nontumorigenic cell lines. We showed that UV and gamma radiation as well as cisplatin treatment induced alternative splicing of hdm2, which resulted in a single splice variant, hdm2(alt1), irrespective of the cell type. Interestingly, the mechanism of UV-induced splicing is independent of p53 status. Immunoanalysis revealed that, after UV radiation, HDM2(ALT1) protein was expressed and interacted with HDM2 that correlated to increased p53 protein levels and its accumulation in the nucleus, whereas HDM2 localized more to the cytoplasm with a decrease in its RNA and protein level. We propose that stress-induced HDM2(ALT1) regulates HDM2 at two levels, RNA and protein, further modulating the p53-HDM2 interaction or interactions of HDM2 with other cell cycle regulatory proteins. This kind of regulation may possibly restrict oncogenic functions of HDM2 and contribute to the many protective responses triggered by certain stress signals. Our data imply that HDM2(ALT1) possesses a normal physiologic function in damaged cells, perhaps facilitating cellular defense.

  4. Physical analysis of the complex rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 aluminium (aluminum) tolerance locus using a whole-genome BAC library of rye cv. Blanco.

    PubMed

    Shi, B-J; Gustafson, J P; Button, J; Miyazaki, J; Pallotta, M; Gustafson, N; Zhou, H; Langridge, P; Collins, N C

    2009-08-01

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Rye is highly tolerant of aluminum (Al) toxicity, and possesses a complex structure at the Alt4 Al tolerance locus not found at the corresponding locus in wheat. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies, and assess the library's suitability for investigating Al tolerance genes. The library provides 6 x genome coverage of the 8.1 Gb rye genome, has an average insert size of 131 kb, and contains only ~2% of empty or organelle-derived clones. Genetic analysis attributed the Al tolerance of Blanco to the Alt4 locus on the short arm of chromosome 7R, and revealed the presence of multiple allelic variants (haplotypes) of the Alt4 locus in the BAC library. BAC clones containing ALMT1 gene clusters from several Alt4 haplotypes were identified, and will provide useful starting points for exploring the basis for the structural variability and functional specialization of ALMT1 genes at this locus.

  5. Ethnobotany of the Alt Empordà region (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): plants used in human traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Parada, Montse; Carrió, Esperança; Bonet, Maria Angels; Vallès, Joan

    2009-07-30

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses from a tourist and industrialised region, where some degree of acculturation exists, so that there is urgency in recording such data. To collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in a north-eastern Iberian region (Alt Empordà, 1358 km(2), 129,160 inhabitants). We performed 101 semi-structured interviews with 178 informants (mean age 69; 71% women, 29% men), identified the plant taxa reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 518 species. Of these, 335, belonging to 80 botanical families, were claimed as medicinal. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (3581 out of 3643 use reports). Around 800 medicinal uses, concerning 200 species, have not, or have very rarely been cited as medicinal; of these, 32 uses of 30 species have been reported by three or more independent informants. The folk knowledge about medicinal plant use is still alive in the studied region, and a number of scarcely reported plant uses has been detected, some of them with promising phytotherapeutical applications.

  6. Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

  7. Dual-responsive poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) micelles as switchable emulsifiers.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chenglin; Liu, Na; Zheng, Junchao; Jiang, Jinqiang; Liu, Xiaoya

    2012-08-15

    Self-assembled polymeric micelles can be used as efficient particulate emulsifiers. To explore the relationship between micellar structure and emulsification performance, pH- and temperature-responsive self-assembled micelles were prepared and used as emulsifiers, based on a novel grafted polymer poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PSMA-g-PNIPAm). Structure of PSMA-g-PNIPAm micelles varies in response to pH and temperature changes and can be classified into four typical states, including shrunken, moderately swollen, extremely swollen, and inverted states, confirmed by a combination of electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and (1)H NMR. This structural variation plays a key role in the emulsification performance of PSMA-g-PNIPAm micelles, according to the emulsifying characteristics of the four typical PSMA-g-PNIPAm micelles as well as the micellar morphologies on the surface of oil droplets as observed by SEM. Emulsions stabilised by micelles with moderately swollen structure are especially stable compared with either the shrunken micelles or the extremely swollen micelles, because the moderately swollen micelles combine the advantages of solid particulate emulsifiers and polymeric surfactants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  9. Energy Level Tuning of Poly(phenylene-alt-dithienobenzothiadiazole)s for Low Photon Energy Loss Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Heuvel, Ruurd; van Franeker, Jacobus J; Janssen, René A J

    2017-03-01

    Six poly(phenylene-alt-dithienobenzothiadiazole)-based polymers have been synthesized for application in polymer-fullerene solar cells. Hydrogen, fluorine, or nitrile substitution on benzo-thiadiazole and alkoxy or ester substitution on the phenylene moiety are investigated to reduce the energy loss per converted photon. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 6.6% have been obtained. The best performance is found for the polymer-fullerene combination with distinct phase separation and crystalline domains. This improves the maximum external quantum efficiency for charge formation and collection to 66%. The resulting higher photocurrent compensates for the relatively large energy loss per photon (Eloss = 0.97 eV) in achieving a high PCE. By contrast, the poly-mer that provides a reduced energy loss (Eloss = 0.49 eV) gives a lower photocurrent and a reduced PCE of 1.8% because the external quantum efficiency of 17% is limited by a suboptimal morphology and a reduced driving force for charge transfer.

  10. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  11. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvási, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 (LDip=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, LEt=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum–tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 equilibrates with dimeric {(LDipN)AlTe(LEt)}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  12. Lymphocytes degranulation in liver in hepatitis C virus carriers is associated with IFNL4 polymorphisms and ALT levels.

    PubMed

    Jouvin-Marche, Evelyne; Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Thelu, Marie-Ange; Marche, Helene; Fugier, Emilie; Van Campenhout, Nicolas; Hoang, Xuan Su; Marlu, Alice; Sturm, Nathalie; Callanan, Mary; Leroy, Vincent; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Marche, Patrice N

    2014-06-15

    The polymorphisms of IFNL4 are strongly associated with both spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance and response to peg-IFN-α/ribavirin treatment. To further establish the biological effects of the IFNL4 and rs1297860 variations, we studied the activity of liver immune cells. Fresh liver samples were collected from HCV-infected patients before any treatment and from NASH patients as controls. Degranulation activity of each lymphocyte type was assessed by the surface expression of CD107a. IFNL4 polymorphisms and HCV genotypes were determined. In the liver, frequency of CD107a(+) immune cells was significantly higher in HCV patients compared to NASH patients. Higher degranulation activity was observed in lymphocytes of HCV patients with favorable IFNL4 genotypes compared to patients with unfavorable genotypes. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that serum ALT levels were dependent on both Metavir activity score and frequency of CD107a positive NKT cells. The high level of degranulation activity observed before treatment was associated with a high HCV RNA decline at the early stage of peg-IFN-α/ribavirin treatment in patients with favorable genotypes. These data underline that intrahepatic lymphocyte degranulation activity in HCV-infected patients is associated with IFNL4 polymorphisms and contributes to the clearance of HCV in patients with favorable genotypes under antiviral therapy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Magnaporthe oryzae Alt A 1-like protein MoHrip1 binds to the plant plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Liang, Yingbo; Dong, Yijie; Gao, Yuhan; Yang, Xiufen; Yuan, Jingjing; Qiu, Dewen

    2017-10-07

    MoHrip1, a protein isolated from Magnaporthe oryzae, belongs to the Alt A 1 (AA1) family. mohrip1 mRNA levels showed inducible expression throughout the infection process in rice. To determine the location of MoHrip1 in M. oryzae, a mohrip1-gfp mutant was generated. Fluorescence microscopy observations and western blotting analysis showed that MoHrip1 was both present in the secretome and abundant in the fungal cell wall. To obtain MoHrip1 protein, we carried out high-yield expression of MoHrip1 in Pichia pastoris. Treatment of tobacco plants with MoHrip1 induced the formation of necrosis, accumulation of reactive oxygen species and expression of several defense-related genes, as well as conferred disease resistance. By fusion to green fluorescent protein, we showed that MoHrip1 was able to bind to the tobacco and rice plant plasma membrane, causing rapid morphological changes at the cellular level, such as cell shrinkage and chloroplast disorganization. These findings indicate that MoHrip1 is a microbe-associated molecular pattern that is perceived by the plant immune system. This is the first study on an AA1 family protein that can bind to the plant plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, M K; Swanson, M C; Reed, C E; Yunginger, J W

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  15. Separator Membrane from Crosslinked Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-alt-Maleic Anhydride)

    PubMed Central

    Rohatgi, Charu Vashisth; Dutta, Naba K.; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report separator membranes from crosslinking of two polymers, such as poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) with an ionic polymer poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (PMVE-MA). Such interpolymer-networked systems were extensively used for biomedical and desalination applications but they were not examined for their potential use as membranes or separators for batteries. Therefore, the chemical interactions between these two polymers and the influence of such crosslinking on physicochemical properties of the membrane are systematically investigated through rheology and by critical gel point study. The hydrogen bonding and the chemical interaction between PMVE-MA and PVA resulted in highly cross-linked membranes. Effect of the molecular weight of PVA on the membrane properties was also examined. The developed membranes were extensively characterized by studying their physicochemical properties (water uptake, swelling ratio, and conductivity), thermal and electrochemical properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The DSC study shows the presence of a single Tg in the membranes indicating compatibility of the two polymers in flexible and transparent films. The membranes show good stability and ion conductivity suitable for separator applications. PMID:28347019

  16. Diluted Blood Reperfusion as a Model for Transplantation of Ischemic Rat Livers: ALT is a Direct Indicator of Viability

    PubMed Central

    Uygun, Korkut; Tolboom, Herman; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Basak; Sharma, Nripen; Yagi, Hiroshi; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Hertl, Martin; Berthiaume, François; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    Donors after Cardiac Death present a significant pool of untapped organs for transplantation, and use of machine perfusion strategies has been an active focus area in experimental transplantation. However, despite two decades of research, a gold standard is yet to emerge for machine perfusion systems and protocols. Whole blood reperfusion has been used as a surrogate for organ transplantation, especially as a model for the short-term response post transplantation, for optimization of perfusion systems. While it is known that there is a strong correlation between liver function in whole-blood reperfusion and survival, the exact nature of these correlations, and to what extent they can be considered as an indicator of viability for transplantation/recipient survival, remain unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that diluted whole-blood reperfusion can be used as a direct model for transplantation of ischemic rat liver grafts. Moreover, it was shown that recipient survival can be predicted based simply on the value of ALT during perfusion, and quantitative criteria of viability was developed for use in this animal model. These results indicate that in the rat model graft survival is highly correlated to hepatocellular damage. PMID:20832525

  17. Asymmetric poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) micelles: a system with starlike morphology and interactions.

    PubMed

    Laurati, M; Stellbrink, J; Lund, R; Willner, L; Zaccarelli, E; Richter, D

    2007-10-01

    We report on an experimental study of single particle properties and interactions of poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) starlike micelles. The starlike regime is achieved by an extremely asymmetric block ratio (1:20) and the number of arms (functionality) is changed by varying the composition of the solvent (the interfacial tension). Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data in the dilute regime can be modeled by assuming a constant density profile in the micellar core (compact core) and a starlike density profile in the corona (starlike shell). The starlike morphology of the corona is confirmed by a direct comparison with SANS measurements of dilute poly butadiene star solutions. Comparison of structure factors obtained by SANS measurements in the concentrated regime shows in addition that the interactions in the two systems are equivalent. Micellar structure factors at several packing fractions can be modeled by using the ultrasoft potential recently proposed for star polymers [Likos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4450 (1998)]. The experimental phase diagram of PEP-PEO micelles is quantitatively compared to theoretical expectations, finding good agreement for the location of the liquid-solid boundary and excellent agreement for the critical packing fraction where the liquid-to-bcc crystal transition takes place for f<70. The functionality, i.e., the coronal density, strongly influences the nature of the solid phase: for f<70 the system crystallizes into a bcc phase, high f>70 formation of amorphous arrested states prevents crystallization.

  18. Predictive value of serum ALT and T-cell receptor beta variable chain for HBeAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B patients during tenofovir treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiezuan; Yan, Dong; Guo, Renyong; Chen, Jiajia; Li, Yongtao; Fan, Jun; Fu, Xuyan; Yao, Xinsheng; Diao, Hongyan; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Effective antiviral therapy plays a key role in slowing the progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Identification of serum indices, including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression and seroconversion, will facilitate evaluation of the efficacy of antiviral therapy in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. The biochemical, serological, virological parameters, and the frequency of circulating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell (Treg) in 32 patients were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks during 96 weeks of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment. The relationship between the hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Treg and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels was analyzed, respectively. The molecular profiles of T-cell receptor beta variable chain (TRBV) were determined using gene melting spectral pattern. For the seroconverted 12 patients, ALT declined to normal levels by week 24 and remained at this level in subsequent treatment; moreover, the predictive cutoff value of ALT for HBeAg seroconversion (SC) was 41.5 U/L at week 24. The positive correlation between HBV DNA and Treg and ALT was significant in SC patients, but not in non-SC patients. Six TRBV families (BV3, BV11, BV12, BV14, BV20, and BV24) were predominantly expressed in SC patients at baseline. The decline of ALT could be used to predict HBeAg seroconversion for CHB patients during TDF treatment. In addition, the profile of Tregs and TRBVs may be associated with HBeAg seroconversion and could also be a potential indicator for predicting HBeAg SC and treatment outcome for CHB patients. PMID:28272219

  19. Predictive value of serum ALT and T-cell receptor beta variable chain for HBeAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B patients during tenofovir treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiezuan; Yan, Dong; Guo, Renyong; Chen, Jiajia; Li, Yongtao; Fan, Jun; Fu, Xuyan; Yao, Xinsheng; Diao, Hongyan; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-03-01

    Effective antiviral therapy plays a key role in slowing the progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Identification of serum indices, including hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression and seroconversion, will facilitate evaluation of the efficacy of antiviral therapy in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. The biochemical, serological, virological parameters, and the frequency of circulating CD4CD25 regulatory T cell (Treg) in 32 patients were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks during 96 weeks of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment. The relationship between the hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Treg and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels was analyzed, respectively. The molecular profiles of T-cell receptor beta variable chain (TRBV) were determined using gene melting spectral pattern. For the seroconverted 12 patients, ALT declined to normal levels by week 24 and remained at this level in subsequent treatment; moreover, the predictive cutoff value of ALT for HBeAg seroconversion (SC) was 41.5 U/L at week 24. The positive correlation between HBV DNA and Treg and ALT was significant in SC patients, but not in non-SC patients. Six TRBV families (BV3, BV11, BV12, BV14, BV20, and BV24) were predominantly expressed in SC patients at baseline. The decline of ALT could be used to predict HBeAg seroconversion for CHB patients during TDF treatment. In addition, the profile of Tregs and TRBVs may be associated with HBeAg seroconversion and could also be a potential indicator for predicting HBeAg SC and treatment outcome for CHB patients.

  20. Cooperative therapeutic anti-tumor effect of IL-15 agonist ALT-803 and co-targeting soluble NKG2D ligand sMIC

    PubMed Central

    Basher, Fahmin; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing; Wu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Shedding of the human NKG2D ligand MIC (MHC class I-chain-related molecule) from tumor cell surfaces correlates with progression of many epithelial cancers. Shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) enables tumor immune escape through multiple immune suppressive mechanisms, such as disturbing natural killer (NK) cell homeostatic maintenance, impairing NKG2D expression on NK cells and effector T cells, and facilitating the expansion of arginase I+ myeloid suppressor cells. Our recent study has demonstrated that sMIC is an effective cancer therapeutic target. Whether targeting tumor-derived sMIC would enhance current active immunotherapy is not known. Here, we determined the in vivo therapeutic effect of an antibody co-targeting sMIC with the immunostimulatory IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, using genetically engineered transplantable syngeneic sMIC+ tumor models. We demonstrate that combined therapy of a nonblocking antibody neutralizing sMIC and ALT-803 improved the survival of animals bearing sMIC+ tumors in comparison to monotherapy. We further demonstrate that the enhanced therapeutic effect with combined therapy is through concurrent augmentation of NK and CD8 T cell anti-tumor responses. In particular, expression of activation-induced surface molecules and increased functional potential by cytokine secretion are improved greatly by the administration of combined therapy. Depletion of NK cells abolished the cooperative therapeutic effect. Our findings suggest that administration of the sMIC-neutralizing antibody can enhance the anti-tumor effects of ALT-803. With ALT-803 currently in clinical trials to treat progressive solid tumors, the majority of which are sMIC+, our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other IL-15 agonists. PMID:26625316

  1. Improvement of ALT decay kinetics by all-oral HCV treatment: Role of NS5A inhibitors and differences with IFN-based regimens

    PubMed Central

    Cento, Valeria; Nguyen, Thi Huyen Tram; Di Carlo, Domenico; Biliotti, Elisa; Gianserra, Laura; Lenci, Ilaria; Di Paolo, Daniele; Calvaruso, Vincenza; Teti, Elisabetta; Cerrone, Maddalena; Romagnoli, Dante; Melis, Michela; Danieli, Elena; Menzaghi, Barbara; Polilli, Ennio; Siciliano, Massimo; Nicolini, Laura Ambra; Di Biagio, Antonio; Magni, Carlo Federico; Bolis, Matteo; Antonucci, Francesco Paolo; Di Maio, Velia Chiara; Alfieri, Roberta; Sarmati, Loredana; Casalino, Paolo; Bernardini, Sergio; Micheli, Valeria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Parruti, Giustino; Quirino, Tiziana; Puoti, Massimo; Babudieri, Sergio; D’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Andreoni, Massimo; Craxì, Antonio; Angelico, Mario; Pasquazzi, Caterina; Taliani, Gloria; Guedj, Jeremie; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Background Intracellular HCV-RNA reduction is a proposed mechanism of action of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), alternative to hepatocytes elimination by pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin (PR). We modeled ALT and HCV-RNA kinetics in cirrhotic patients treated with currently-used all-DAA combinations to evaluate their mode of action and cytotoxicity compared with telaprevir (TVR)+PR. Study design Mathematical modeling of ALT and HCV-RNA kinetics was performed in 111 HCV-1 cirrhotic patients, 81 treated with all-DAA regimens and 30 with TVR+PR. Kinetic-models and Cox-analysis were used to assess determinants of ALT-decay and normalization. Results HCV-RNA kinetics was biphasic, reflecting a mean effectiveness in blocking viral production >99.8%. The first-phase of viral-decline was faster in patients receiving NS5A-inhibitors compared to TVR+PR or sofosbuvir+simeprevir (p<0.001), reflecting higher efficacy in blocking assembly/secretion. The second-phase, noted δ and attributed to infected-cell loss, was faster in patients receiving TVR+PR or sofosbuvir+simeprevir compared to NS5A-inhibitors (0.27 vs 0.21 d-1, respectively, p = 0.0012). In contrast the rate of ALT-normalization, noted λ, was slower in patients receiving TVR+PR or sofosbuvir+simeprevir compared to NS5A-inhibitors (0.17 vs 0.27 d-1, respectively, p<0.001). There was no significant association between the second-phase of viral-decline and ALT normalization rate and, for a given level of viral reduction, ALT-normalization was more profound in patients receiving DAA, and NS5A in particular, than TVR+PR. Conclusions Our data support a process of HCV-clearance by all-DAA regimens potentiated by NS5A-inhibitor, and less relying upon hepatocyte death than IFN-containing regimens. This may underline a process of “cell-cure” by DAAs, leading to a fast improvement of liver homeostasis. PMID:28545127

  2. Predictors of treatment efficacy and ALT non-normalization with sofosbuvir/ribavirin therapy for patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takao; Tokumoto, Yoshio; Joko, Kouji; Michitaka, Kojiro; Horiike, Norio; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Tada, Fujimasa; Kisaka, Yoshiyasu; Nakanishi, Seiji; Nonaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Kazuhiko; Hirooka, Masashi; Abe, Masanori; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2017-09-01

    The tolerability and efficacy of sofosbuvir and ribavirin in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 were investigated under actual clinical conditions. A total of 208 patients with chronic HCV genotype 2 infection were treated with sofosbuvir 400 mg and ribavirin (weight-based dosing) for 12 weeks. Treatment discontinuation and sustained virological response 12 (SVR12) were evaluated. Moreover, factors associated with SVR12, hemoglobin decreasing to less than 10 g/dL during treatment, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) non-normalization after treatment were evaluated. In all patients, SVR12 responses were 96.1% (200/208). About 6 of 8 patients (3.8%) who did not achieve SVR12 were re-treatment patients, and eight patients who did not achieve SVR all had liver cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis also identified body mass index (OR = 0.79; P < 0.001), platelet count (OR = 0.88; P = 0.003), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (OR = 0.96; P = 0.007) as independent contributing factors associated with hemoglobin decreasing to less than 10 g/dL during treatment, and only Mac-2 Binding Protein Glycosylation isomer (M2BpGi) (OR = 2.46; P = 0.017) as an independent contributing factor associated with ALT non-normalization after treatment. Cirrhotic patients may have a relatively high rate of treatment failure. In patients whose M2BpGi levels are elevated, their ALT tended to not normalize after treatment completion. These patients who did not achieve normalization of ALT after sofosbuvir plus RBV treatment need more careful observation for emergence of hepatocellular carcinoma even after achievement of SVR. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Evaluation of CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers through molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Peiqing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-02-19

    Multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both used to evaluate the factors conclusive on the CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) homopolymer and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers. The ab initio calculated interaction energies of the candidate CO2-philic molecule models with CO2, including vinyl acetate dimer (VAc), dimethyl maleate (DMM), diethyl maleate (DEM), and dibutyl maleate (DBM), showed that VAc was the most CO2-philc segment. However, the cohesive energy density, solubility parameter, Flory-Huggins parameter, and radial distribution functions calculated by using the molecular dynamics simulations for the four polymer and polymer-CO2 systems indicated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. The corresponding polymers were synthesized by using free radical polymerization. The measurement of cloud point pressures of the four polymers in CO2 also demonstrated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. Although copolymerization of maleate, such as DEM or DBM, with PVAc reduced the polymer-CO2 interactions, the weakened polymer-polymer interaction increased the CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The polymer-polymer interaction had a significant influence on the CO2-philicity of the polymer. Reduction of the polymer-polymer interaction might be a promising strategy to prepare the high CO2-philic polymers on the premise that the strong polymer-CO2 interaction could be maintained.

  4. AST/ALT ratio is not useful in predicting the degree of fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Eminler, Ahmet Tarik; Ayyildiz, Talat; Irak, Kader; Kiyici, Murat; Gurel, Selim; Dolar, Enver; Gulten, Macit; Nak, Selim G

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive tests are primarily used for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. In clinical practice, serum aminotransferase levels, coagulation parameters, and platelet count have been used to predict whether or not a patient has cirrhosis. In addition, several studies have evaluated the accuracy of combinations (or ratios) of these measures. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between five noninvasive models [AST/ALT ratio (AAR), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), Bonacini cirrhosis discriminant score (CDS), age-platelet index (APind), and King's score] and the degree of hepatic fibrosis as determined by biopsy in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. A total of 380 patients with viral hepatitis (237 with chronic hepatitis B and 143 with chronic hepatitis C) who were seen at our clinic between January 2005 and January 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The degree of fibrosis was determined using the Ishak score. Patients with a fibrosis score of 0-2 were considered to have low fibrosis and those with a score between 3 and 6 were considered to have high fibrosis. Five noninvasive models were compared between the groups with low and high fibrosis. There were statistically significant differences between the hepatitis B and C patients with high and low fibrosis with respect to APind (4.49±2.35 vs. 2.41±1.84; P<0.001 in hepatitis B and 4.83±2.25 vs. 2.92±1.88; P<0.001 in hepatitis C), APRI (1.00±1.17 vs. 0.47±0.39; P<0.001 in hepatitis B and 1.01±1.01 vs. 0.41±0.29; P<0.001 in hepatitis C), CDS (4.53±1.90 vs. 3.58±1.30; P<0.001 in hepatitis B and 4.71±2.03 vs. 3.42±1.49; P<0.05 in hepatitis C), and King's score (24.31±3.14 vs. 7.65±6.70; P<0.001 in hepatitis B and 24.82±2.55 vs. 8.33±7.29; P<0.001 in hepatitis C). There were no significant differences in the AAR between the hepatitis B and C patients with high and low fibrosis (0.78±0.31 vs. 0.74±0.34; P=0.082 in hepatitis B

  5. Association between Plasmatic Ceramides Profile and AST/ALT Ratio: C14:0 Ceramide as Predictor of Hepatic Steatosis in Adolescents Independently of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Hernández, Jorge; Saldaña-Dávila, Gabriela E; Piña-Aguero, Mónica I; Núñez-García, Benjamín A; López-Alarcón, Mardia G

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association between plasma ceramides and hepatic steatosis (HS) in adolescents, independently of obesity. Ninety-four adolescents from two previous studies conducted and published by our crew were included. Study subjects were stratified in three groups: normal weight (n = 18), obesity (n = 34), and obesity + HS (n = 42). The presence of HS was defined when ALT/AST ratio was <1. Ceramides subspecies (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were determined by LC/MS. All ceramides correlated directly with ALT levels and inversely with ALT/AST ratio; the strongest correlation was observed among C14:0 ceramide (r = 0.41 and r = -0.54, resp.; P < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between cholesterol and all ceramides except for C24:1 ceramide. Interestingly ceramides C14:0, C18:0, and C24:1 correlated directly with both fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. For assessing HS, a cut-off point of 10.3 nmol/L for C14:0 ceramide reported a sensitivity of 92.7% and a specificity of 73.5% when normal weight and obesity groups (n = 52) were compared against obesity + HS group (n = 42). Positive and negative predictive values were 77.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Plasma ceramides are closely associated with hepatic steatosis in adolescents. C14:0 ceramide could be a novel biomarker of HS independently of obesity.

  6. Association between Plasmatic Ceramides Profile and AST/ALT Ratio: C14:0 Ceramide as Predictor of Hepatic Steatosis in Adolescents Independently of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña-Dávila, Gabriela E.; Piña-Aguero, Mónica I.; Núñez-García, Benjamín A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between plasma ceramides and hepatic steatosis (HS) in adolescents, independently of obesity. Materials and Methods Ninety-four adolescents from two previous studies conducted and published by our crew were included. Study subjects were stratified in three groups: normal weight (n = 18), obesity (n = 34), and obesity + HS (n = 42). The presence of HS was defined when ALT/AST ratio was <1. Ceramides subspecies (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were determined by LC/MS. Results All ceramides correlated directly with ALT levels and inversely with ALT/AST ratio; the strongest correlation was observed among C14:0 ceramide (r = 0.41 and r = −0.54, resp.; P < 0.001). Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between cholesterol and all ceramides except for C24:1 ceramide. Interestingly ceramides C14:0, C18:0, and C24:1 correlated directly with both fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. For assessing HS, a cut-off point of 10.3 nmol/L for C14:0 ceramide reported a sensitivity of 92.7% and a specificity of 73.5% when normal weight and obesity groups (n = 52) were compared against obesity + HS group (n = 42). Positive and negative predictive values were 77.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Conclusions Plasma ceramides are closely associated with hepatic steatosis in adolescents. C14:0 ceramide could be a novel biomarker of HS independently of obesity. PMID:28634575

  7. Attenuation of extracellular matrix accumulation in diabetic nephropathy by the advanced glycation end product cross-link breaker ALT-711 via a protein kinase C-alpha-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Thallas-Bonke, Vicki; Lindschau, Carsten; Rizkalla, Bishoy; Bach, Leon A; Boner, Geoffrey; Meier, Matthias; Haller, Hermann; Cooper, Mark E; Forbes, Josephine M

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in mediating protein kinase C (PKC) isoform expression in diabetic nephropathy. In vitro, vascular smooth muscle cells incubated in a high-glucose (25-mmol/l) medium demonstrated translocation and increased expression of PKC-alpha as compared with those from a low-glucose (5-mmol/l) environment. Coincubation with the cross-link breaker ALT-711 and, to a lesser extent, with aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of AGE formation, attenuated the increased expression and translocation of PKC-alpha. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomized to no treatment, treatment with ALT-711, or treatment with aminoguanidine. Diabetes induced increases in PKC-alpha as well as in the -betaI, -betaII, and -epsilon isoforms. Treatment with ALT-711 and aminoguanidine, which both attenuate renal AGE accumulation, abrogated these increases in PKC expression. However, translocation of phosphorylated PKC-alpha from the cytoplasm to the membrane was reduced only by ALT-711. ALT-711 treatment attenuated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the extracellular matrix proteins, fibronectin and laminin, in association with reduced albuminuria. Aminoguanidine had no effect on VEGF expression, although some reduction of fibronectin and laminin was observed. These findings implicate AGEs as important stimuli for the activation of PKC, particularly PKC-alpha, in the diabetic kidney, which can be directly inhibited by ALT-711.

  8. New use of an old drug: chloroquine reduces viral and ALT levels in HCV non-responders (a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial).

    PubMed

    Peymani, Payam; Yeganeh, Behzad; Sabour, Siamak; Geramizadeh, Bita; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Keyvani, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saied; Lankarani, Kamran B

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces autophagy, but the virus assimilates the autophagic response into its own life cycle. Chloroquine (CQ) is an autophagy inhibitor that is clinically used to treat malaria. The aims of this pilot clinical trial were to evaluate the therapeutic potential and short-term safety of CQ in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, who were unresponsive to a combination of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. Ten non-responders to previous antiviral treatment(s) were randomized to receive either CQ (150 mg daily for 8 weeks) or placebo, and were followed for 4 weeks after CQ therapy. HCV RNA load and plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were measured at baseline, week 4 (initial response), week 8 (end-of-treatment response), and at the end of 12 weeks. A significant decrease in HCV RNA after the treatments (week 8) was observed in all patients in the CQ group (P = 0.04). However, HCV RNA levels increased within 4 weeks after discontinuation of CQ treatment although they were still lower than baseline. In addition, the ALT normalized during treatment in the CQ group. However, this response was also lost after treatment cessation. This study provides preliminary evidence that CQ is possibly a safe treatment option for HCV non-responders.

  9. A Hypothetical Protein of Alteromonas macleodii AltDE1 (amad1_06475) Predicted to be a Cold-Shock Protein with RNA Chaperone Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oany, Arafat Rahman; Ahmad, Shah Adil Ishtiyaq; Kibria, KM Kaderi; Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Jyoti, Tahmina Pervin

    2014-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii AltDE1 is a deep sea protobacteria that is distinct from the surface isolates of the same species. This study was designed to elucidate the biological function of amad1_06475, a hypothetical protein of A. macleodii AltDE1. The 70 residues protein sequence showed considerable homology with cold-shock proteins (CSPs) and RNA chaperones from different organisms. Multiple sequence alignment further supported the presence of conserved csp domain on the protein sequence. The three-dimensional structure of the protein was also determined, and verified by PROCHECK, Verify3D, and QMEAN programs. The predicted structure contained five anti-parallel β-strands and RNA-binding motifs, which are characteristic features of prokaryotic CSPs. Finally, the binding of a thymidine-rich oligonucleotide and a single uracil molecule in the active site of the protein further strengthens our prediction about the function of amad1_06475 as a CSP and thereby acting as a RNA chaperone. The binding was performed by molecular docking tools and was compared with similar binding of 3PF5 (PDB) and 2HAX (PDB), major CSPs of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus caldolyticus, respectively. PMID:25574135

  10. Prevalence of elevated ALT values, HBsAg, and anti-HCV in the primary care setting and evaluation of guideline defined hepatitis risk scenarios.

    PubMed

    Wolffram, Ingmar; Petroff, David; Bätz, Olaf; Jedrysiak, Katrin; Kramer, Jan; Tenckhoff, Hannelore; Berg, Thomas; Wiegand, Johannes

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence data for hepatitis B and C and an evaluation of a guideline based screening in the primary care setting are not yet available. We therefore implemented a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening and developed guideline based screening strategies. HBsAg, anti-HCV, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were included in a routine check-up together with a questionnaire covering 16 guideline adapted risk scenarios. Significant risk factors were identified by stepwise logistic regression. 51 private practices screened 21,008 patients. The HBsAg, anti-HCV, and HCV-RNA prevalence was 0.52%, 0.95%, and 0.43%, respectively. Infections were previously unknown in 85% and 65% of HBsAg and anti-HCV positive individuals, respectively. Sexual risk factors were under-reported, while the following scenarios were significantly associated with viral infections (Odds ratio [95% confidence interval]). HBV: Immigration (4.4 [2.9, 6.7]), infection in household (2.5 [1.2, 4.5]), male gender (1.6 [1.1, 2.4]). Male immigrants had a 2.1% HBsAg prevalence and 80% were unaware of the infection. HCV: IV drug use (384 [233, 644]), blood transfusion before 1992 (5.3 [3.5, 7.9]), immigration (2.4 [1.5, 3.6]). Presence of either one of the HBV related guideline defined risk scenarios or elevated ALT identified 82% of previously undiagnosed patients. Presence of one of the three significant HCV risk factors or elevated ALT levels diagnosed 83% of unknown HCV-RNA positive cases by screening only 26% of the population. Undiagnosed hepatitis B and C infections frequently exist in the primary care setting. Easy to apply guideline defined risk scenarios help to diagnose previously unknown infections. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Explaining the Cyclic Voltammetry of a Poly(1,4-phenylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) Copolymer upon Oxidation by using Spectroscopic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Enengl, Christina; Enengl, Sandra; Bouguerra, Nassima; Havlicek, Marek; Neugebauer, Helmut; Egbe, Daniel A M

    2017-01-04

    Poly(1,4-phenylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (PPE-PPV) copolymers have attracted quite a lot of attention in the last few years for electronic device applications owing to their enhanced fluorescence. In this work, we focus on one particular PPE-PPV copolymer with dissymmetrically substituted 1,4-phenylene-ethynylene and symmetrically substituted 1,4-phenylene-vinylene building units. Six successively performed cyclic voltammograms are presented, measured during the oxidation reactions. As the oxidation onset of the electrochemical reaction shifts to lower potentials in each cycle, this behavior is elucidated by using spectroscopic techniques ranging from UV/Vis/near-IR to mid-IR including spin-resonance techniques. Hence, these findings help to explain some of the copolymer's most advantageous properties in terms of possible oxidation products. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesis and Luminescence of Yellow/Orange-Emitting Poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-l,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(l,3-phenylenevinylene)]s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Pang, Yi; Ding, Liming; Karasz, Frank E.; Smith, Philip R.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Soluble yellow/orange-emitting poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt- (1,3-phenylenevinylene)] derivatives (6) have been synthesized and characterized. These polymers contain oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) chromophores of equal conjugation length, which are linked to a m-phenylene unit. Optical comparison between 6 and its model compound 8 at room and low temperature reveals the similarity in their absorption and fluorescence band structures. The vibronic band structure of 6 is assigned with the aid of the spectroscopic data for 8 at low temperature. Polymers 6 are electroluminescent with emission lambda (sub max), at approximately 565 nm. By using the device configuration of ITO/PEDOT/6/Ca, the polymer exhibits an external EL efficiency as high as 0.46%.

  13. Synthesis of Cis,syndiotactic A-alt-B Copolymers from Two Enantiomerically Pure Trans -2,3-Disubstituted-5,6-Norbornenes

    DOE PAGES

    Jang, Eun Sil; John, Jeremy M.; Schrock, Richard R.

    2016-09-06

    Cis,syndiotactic A-alt-B copolymers, where A and B are two enantiomerically pure trans-2,3-disubstituted-5,6-norbornenes with “opposite” chiralities, can be prepared with stereogenic-at-metal initiators of the type M(NR)(CHR')(OR”)(pyrrolide). Formation of a high percentage of alternating AB copolymer linkages relies on an inversion of chirality at the metal with each propagating step and a relatively fast formation of an AB sequence as a consequence of a preferred diastereomeric relationship between the chirality at the metal and the chirality of the monomer. Finally, this approach to formation of an alternating AB copolymer contrasts dramatically with the principle of forming AB copolymers from achiral monomers andmore » catalysts.« less

  14. Synthesis and Luminescence of Yellow/Orange-Emitting Poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-l,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(l,3-phenylenevinylene)]s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Pang, Yi; Ding, Liming; Karasz, Frank E.; Smith, Philip R.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Soluble yellow/orange-emitting poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt- (1,3-phenylenevinylene)] derivatives (6) have been synthesized and characterized. These polymers contain oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) chromophores of equal conjugation length, which are linked to a m-phenylene unit. Optical comparison between 6 and its model compound 8 at room and low temperature reveals the similarity in their absorption and fluorescence band structures. The vibronic band structure of 6 is assigned with the aid of the spectroscopic data for 8 at low temperature. Polymers 6 are electroluminescent with emission lambda (sub max), at approximately 565 nm. By using the device configuration of ITO/PEDOT/6/Ca, the polymer exhibits an external EL efficiency as high as 0.46%.

  15. Scaling of thermally activated dissipation in epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" /> thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. H.

    1999-07-01

    We have measured the resistive transition of an epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> thin film in the case of applied field parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis up to 8 T, respectively. When the peak temperature Tp where dR/dT has a peak is defined as the critical temperature, we find that the dissipative resistivity can be well fitted by thermally activated flux motion below Tp in the presence of a magnetic field. Meanwhile, the field dependence of the peak temperature Tp follows the clean limit Ginzburg-Landau formula. The temperature T and field H dependences of the activation energy U can be described as the formula U = U0(1 - T/Tp)nH-icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/>, where n = 1.5 and icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.57 for H || ab and n = 1.4 and icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 0.62 for H || c, showing a 3D behaviour.

  16. Rhodium-coordinated poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) copolymer acting as photocatalyst for visible-light-powered NAD⁺/NADH reduction.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Kerstin T; Gasiorowski, Jacek; Egbe, Daniel Ayuk Mbi; Kollender, Jan Philipp; Himmelsbach, Markus; Hassel, Achim Walter; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar; Knör, Günther

    2014-09-10

    A 2,2'-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD(+)/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390-650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD(+). With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled.

  17. Sub-micronic capsules based on gelatin and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate) obtained by interfacial condensation with potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Iurea, Delia Mihaela; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Chailan, Jean-François; Carriere, Pascal; Popa, Marcel

    2013-06-01

    New sub-micronic capsules based on a copolymer of maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate and a natural polymer (gelatin) using an interfacial condensation method were obtained. Sub-micronic capsules were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, zeta-potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to some parameters of the synthesis reaction (polymer weight ratio, acetone/water ratio, surfactant concentration), the mean diameter of the sub-micronic capsules can be tuned from 200 to 760 nm. The sub-micronic capsules show a higher agglomeration tendency as the amount of gelatin in their composition increases. The swelling capacity in aqueous solutions is dependent on the composition and size of the sub-micronic capsules, decreasing with their diameter and gelatin composition. The drug loading and release capacity was studied using Penicillin G (sodium salt) (PG), and it has been proved that it is influenced by the sub-micronic capsules morphology induced by preparation parameters. Encapsulation and controlled release of small molecule were successfully carried out, demonstrating the potential biomedical applications of these new easily obtained sub-micronic capsules.

  18. Low threshold Amplified Spontaneous Emission properties in deep blue of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-dyil)-alt-p-phenylene] thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattante, Sandro; De Giorgi, Maria Luisa; Pasini, Mariacecilia; Anni, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Amongst the different optoelectronic applications of conjugated polymers, the development of new active materials for optically pumped organic lasers is still an open question particularly in the blue-near UV spectral range. We investigate the emission properties of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-dyil)- alt-p-phenylene] (PFP) neat films under nanosecond pump. We demonstrate that thanks to the introduction of a phenylene moiety between two fluorene units it is possible to obtain Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) with a lower threshold and a blue shifted wavelength with respect to poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO). We demonstrate efficient ASE with a minimum threshold as low as 23 μJcm-2 and a minimum ASE wavelength of 436 nm. A maximum net optical gain of about 26 cm-1 is measured at an excitation density of 0.23 mJcm-2. These results make the PFP a good active material for optically pumped deep blue organic lasers.

  19. ALT-GTS-Stem Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Thuan Nguyen

    2008-09-25

    In 2007, a study investigated options to manufacture stems utilizing methods that would replace crush form grinding while maintaining or improving quality at a comparative cost. Crush form grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. However, crush form grinding is a complex process with many variables affecting the final product. This study identified two potential methods that can be applied to stems. Profile grinding was investigated in 2007. This project continued in 2008 proving that single point turning on a multi-turret is an option with additional benefits. It is an economical way to meet floor space limitations for our KCRIMS mission.

  20. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver damage. Normal Results The normal range is: Male: 10 to 40 U/L Female: 7 to 35 U/L Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different samples. Talk to your ...

  1. jsc2014e078835_alt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-18

    Group photo representating past and present Multi-Media Services (MMS) photographer and videographers that have supported Zero-G Reduced Gravity Office operations throughout the year prior to the programs final flight on August 29, 2014. Photo Date: August 18, 2014. Location: Ellington Field - Hangar 990. Photographer: Robert Markowitz

  2. Alt-Az Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-01-01

    This grant funded about one third of the cost of the construction of a telescope with an aperture 1.8 meters in diameter to discover asteroids and comets and investigate the statistics of their populations and orbital distributions. This telescope has been built to the PI's specifications and installed in a dome on Kitt Peak mountain in Arizona. Funds for the dome and building were provided entirely by private sources. The dome building and telescope were dedicated in a ceremony at the site on June 7, 1997. The attached abstract describes the parameters of the telescope. The telescope is a new item of capital property. It is permanently located in University of Arizona building number 910 in the Steward Observatory compound on Kitt Peak mountain in the Tohono O'odham Nation, Arizona. fts property tag number is A252107. This grant did not include funds for the coma corrector lens, instrument derotator, CCD detector, detector electronics, or computers to acquire or process the data. It also did not include funds to operate the telescope or conduct research with it. Funds for these items and efforts are pending from NASA and other sources.

  3. The effect of alagebrium chloride (ALT-711), a novel glucose cross-link breaker, in the treatment of elderly patients with diastolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Little, William C; Zile, Michael R; Kitzman, Dalane W; Hundley, W Gregory; O'Brien, Terrence X; Degroof, Robert C

    2005-04-01

    Despite its high prevalence, optimal therapy for diastolic heart failure (DHF) has not been determined. Alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) is a novel compound that breaks glucose crosslinks and may improve ventricular and arterial compliance. A total of 23 patients, mean age 71 years, with stable DHF, ejection fraction (EF) >50%, were enrolled in a 16-week, open-label trial of alagebrium 420 mg per day. Assessments included: peak exercise oxygen consumption, aortic distensibility, and left ventricular EF and mass by magnetic resonance imaging, Doppler diastolic filling, and quality of life by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire. One patient discontinued treatment because of a myocardial infarction after 12 days of treatment, and a second died suddenly after 10 weeks of treatment. Thus 21 patients completed the study. Left ventricular mass was 124 +/- 35 g at baseline and decreased to 119 +/- 34 g at follow up ( P = .036). This was accompanied by a decrease in the ratio of Doppler early diastolic flow velocity to Doppler early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E') from 10.6 +/- 2.7 to 9.4 +/- 1.9 ( P = .076) and an increase in E' from 7.3 +/- 1.2 to 8.4 +/- 1.7 cm/s ( P = .045). The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure total score improved from 41 +/- 21 to 32 +/- 21 ( P = .01). There were no changes in EF (64 +/- 4% at baseline), blood pressure, peak exercise oxygen consumption, and aortic distensibility. Sixteen weeks of treatment with the glucose crosslink breaker, alagebrium, resulted in a decrease in left ventricular mass and improvements in left ventricular diastolic filling and quality of life in patient with DHF.

  4. Beam-target double-spin asymmetry A{LT} in charged pion production from deep inelastic scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target at 1.4

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Allada, K; Dutta, C; Katich, J; Qian, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y; Aniol, K; Annand, J R M; Averett, T; Benmokhtar, F; Bertozzi, W; Bradshaw, P C; Bosted, P; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Cates, G D; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; Chen, W; Chirapatpimol, K; Chudakov, E; Cisbani, E; Cornejo, J C; Cusanno, F; Dalton, M M; Deconinck, W; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deng, X; Deur, A; Ding, H; Dolph, P A M; Dutta, D; El Fassi, L; Frullani, S; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Guo, L; Hamilton, D; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Huang, M; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Jin, G; Jones, M K; Kelleher, A; Kim, W; Kolarkar, A; Korsch, W; Lerose, J J; Li, X; Li, Y; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Long, E; Lu, H-J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; McNulty, D; Meziani, Z-E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Narayan, A; Nelyubin, V; Norum, B; Oh, Y; Osipenko, M; Parno, D; Peng, J C; Phillips, S K; Posik, M; Puckett, A J R; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Ransome, R D; Riordan, S; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shahinyan, A; Shabestari, M H; Sirca, S; Stepanyan, S; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Tang, L-G; Tobias, A; Urciuoli, G M; Vilardi, I; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Ye, Y; Ye, Z; Yuan, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, B; Zheng, X; Zhu, L; Zhu, X; Zong, X

    2012-02-03

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry A{LT} for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized {3}He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16A{LT} asymmetries were extracted from the measured {3}He asymmetries and proton over {3}He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g{1T}{q} and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π{-} production on {3}He and the neutron, while our π{+} asymmetries are consistent with zero.

  5. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; ...

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 < x < 0.35 with 1.4 < Q2 < 2.7 GeV2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3Hemore » and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  6. Unusual broadening and splitting of the KALT="approx" />0 transverse-optical phonon in hcp Mg at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olijnyk, Helmut

    1999-08-01

    The transverse-optical icons/Journals/Common/Gamma" ALT="Gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/>-point phonon mode was studied in the stability range of hcp Mg up to 50 GPa by Raman spectroscopy. A positive frequency shift is observed with increasing pressure in good agreement with recent theoretical studies using the pseudo-potential method. Unexpected broadening and splitting of this mode occurs under pressure. The separation increases to 20 cm-1 at 50 GPa. Slight structural modifications, anharmonic effects or an unusual pressure-induced dispersion around the icons/Journals/Common/Gamma" ALT="Gamma" ALIGN="TOP"/>-point, not observed in other hcp metals so far, are suggested as possible explanations for the splitting.

  7. DFM in practice: results of a three way partnership between a leading fabless design house, foundry, and EDA company to implement alternating-phase shift mask (Alt-PSM) on a 90-nm FPGA chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Feng; Liu, Erick; Lin, Benjamin; Lin, Henry; Chacko, Manoj; Li, Xiaoyang; Lei, Wen-Kang; Ho, Jonathan; Wu, Xin

    2005-05-01

    At the sub 90nm nodes, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) such as optical proximity correction (OPC), phase-shifting masks (PSM), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) have become essential steps in the post-physical verification 'Mask Synthesis' process and a key component of design for manufacturing (DFM). Several studies have been conducted and the results have been published on the implication and application of the different types of RETs on mask printability and costs. More specifically, double-exposure-based, dark-field, alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) technology has received lot of attention with respect to the mask manufacturing challenges and its implementation into a production flow, despite its yield and critical dimension (CD) control superiority. Implementation of Alt-PSM generally requires phase compliance rules and proper phase topology in the layout and this has been successful for the technology node with these rules implemented. However, this may not be true for a matured, production process technology, in this case 90 nm. Especially, in the foundry-fabless business model where the foundry provides a standard set of design rules to its customers for a given process technology, and where not all the foundry customers require Alt-PSM in their tapeout flow. What follows is an in-depth review of the DFM challenges to each partner faced, its effect on the tapeout flow, and how design, manufacturing, and EDA teams worked together to resolve phase conflicts, tapeout the chip, and finally verify the silicon results in production.

  8. Effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified Alt a1 on AMP responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide and exhaled breath condensate pH: a randomized double blind study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little information is available on the effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway responsiveness and markers in exhaled air. The aims of this study were to assess the safety of immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 and its effect on airway responsiveness to direct and indirect bronchoconstrictor agents and markers in exhaled air. Methods This was a randomized double-blind trial. Subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without mild/moderate asthma sensitized to A alternata and who also had a positive skin prick test to Alt a1 were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 18) or purified natural Alt a1 (n = 22) subcutaneously for 12 months. Bronchial responsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and methacholine, exhaled nitric oxide (ENO), exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, and serum Alt a1-specific IgG4 antibodies were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Local and systemic adverse events were also registered. Results The mean (95% CI) allergen-specific IgG4 value for the active treatment group increased from 0.07 μg/mL (0.03-0.11) at baseline to 1.21 μg/mL (0.69-1.73, P < 0.001) at 6 months and to 1.62 μg/mL (1.02-2.22, P < 0.001) at 12 months of treatment. In the placebo group, IgG4 value increased nonsignificantly from 0.09 μg/mL (0.06-0.12) at baseline to 0.13 μg/mL (0.07-0.18) at 6 months and to 0.11 μg/mL (0.07-0.15) at 12 months of treatment. Changes in the active treatment group were significantly higher than in the placebo group both at 6 months (P < 0.001) and at 12 months of treatment (P < 0.0001). However, changes in AMP and methacholine responsiveness, ENO and EBC pH levels were not significantly different between treatment groups. The overall incidence of adverse events was comparable between the treatment groups. Conclusion Although allergen-specific immunotherapy with purified natural Alt a1 is well tolerated and induces an allergen-specific IgG4 response, treatment is not associated with

  9. Multifunctional electroactive electrospun nanofiber structures from water solution blends of PVA/ODA-MMT and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid): effects of Ag, organoclay, structural rearrangement and NaOH doping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Murat; Rzayev, Zakir M. O.; Bunyatova, Ulviya

    2016-06-01

    Novel multifunctional colloidal polymer nanofiber electrolytes were fabricated by green reactive electrospinning nanotechnology from various water solution/dispersed blends of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) as matrix polymer nanocomposite and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid) (poly(MAc-alt-AA) and/or its Ag-carrying complex as partner copolymers. Polymer nanofiber electrolytes were characterized using FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC, TGA-DTG), SEM, and electrical analysis methods. Effects of partner copolymers, organoclay, in situ generated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and annealing procedure on physical and chemical properties of polymer composite nanofibers were investigated. The electrical properties (resistance, conductivity, activation energy) of nanofibers with/without NaOH doping agent were also evaluated. This work presented a structural rearrangement of nanofiber mats by annealing via decarboxylation of anhydride units with the formation of new conjugated double bond sites onto partner copolymer main chains. It was also found that the semiconductor behaviors of nanofiber structures were essentially improved with increasing temperature and fraction of partner copolymers as well as presence of organoclay and AgNPs in nanofiber composite.

  10. Enhanced optophysical properties of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] via addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fuzi, Siti Aishah Ahmad Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali Abdulqader

    2015-09-25

    This work investigated the effect on 5 wt% addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption characteristics of Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT). Both materials were mixed using solution blending method and then spin coated onto ITO-coated glass substrate at 1000 rpm for 30s. The optical properties of the nanocomposite were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compares to pristine film, the absorption peak of the nanocomposite film improved and shifted to longer wavelength indicating reduction in the direct and indirect band gaps. Better optophysical properties of F8BT/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites is believed due to compatible band structures and efficient charge trapping effect displayed by the NPs.

  11. MT1-MMP Responsive Doxorubicin Conjugated Poly(lactic-co-glycolic Acid)/Poly(styrene-alt-maleic Anhydride) Core/Shell Microparticles for Intrahepatic Arterial Chemotherapy of Hepatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Davaa, Enkhzaya; Lee, Junghan; Jenjob, Ratchapol; Yang, Su-Geun

    2017-01-11

    In this study, we demonstrated that the MT1-MMP-responsive peptide (sequence: GPLPLRSWGLK) and doxorubicin-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid/poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) core/shell microparticles (PLGA/pSMA MPs) can be applied for intrahepatic arterial injection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PLGA/pSMA MPs were prepared with a capillary-focused microfluidic device. The particle size, observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), was around 22 ± 3 μm. MT1-MMP-responsive peptide and doxorubicin (DOX) were chemically conjugated with pSMA segments on the shell of MPs to form a PLGA/pSMA-peptide-DOX complex, resulting in high encapsulation efficiency (91.1%) and loading content (2.9%). DOX was released from PLGA/pSMA-peptide-DOX MPs in a pH-dependent manner (∼25% at pH 5.4 and ∼8% at pH 7.4) and accumulated significantly in an MT1-MMP-overexpressing Hep3B cell line. An in vivo intrahepatic injection study showed localization of MPs on the hepatic vessels and hepatic lobes up to 24 h after the injection without any shunting to the lung. Moreover, MPs efficiently inhibited tumor growth of Hep3B hepatic tumor xenografted mouse models. We expect that PLGA/pSMA-peptide-DOX MPs can be utilized as an effective intrahepatic drug delivery system for the treatment of HCC.

  12. Synthesis and Photophysical and Electroluminescent Properties of Poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s with Various Dissymmetric Substitution of Alkoxy Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a set of conjugated polymers, poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s (PPE–PPVs), with a dissymmetrical configuration (partial or total) of alkoxy side chains is reported. Five new polymers bearing octyloxy and/or octadecyloxy side chains at the phenylene–ethynylene and phenylene–vinylene segments, respectively, were obtained. Two symmetrical substituted polymers were used for comparison. Polymers with weight-average molecular weight, Mw, up to 430 000 g/mol and degree of polymerization between 17 and 322 were obtained by a Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons olefination polycondensation reaction of the respective luminophoric dialdehydes and bisphosphonates. As expected, identical conjugated backbones in all polymers results in very similar photophysical response in dilute solution, with high fluorescence quantum yields between 50% and 80%. In contrast, the thin film properties are dependent on the combinatorial effects of side chain configuration, molecular weight, and film thickness parameters, which are the basis of the resulting comparison and discussion. PMID:26877550

  13. Orientation of thin YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" />/YSZ films characterization by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. S.; Shen, Z. X.; Zhou, W. Z.; Xu, S. Y.; Ong, C. K.

    1999-05-01

    Micro-Raman scattering of thin YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films of various thicknesses, deposited by pulsed laser deposition on the yttrium-stabilized zirconia (001) substrates, was carried out at different scattering geometries. The fraction of c-axis orientation of the films was calculated from the intensity ratio of the O(2,3)-B1g and O(4)-Ag modes. It is shown that it is strongly dependent on the film thickness and the highest fraction of c-axis orientation occurs for film thickness around 80 nm. The lower c-axis fraction for thinner films was explained by the simultaneous growth of a- and c-axis-oriented grains at the interface region, while the lower c-axis fraction for thicker films was due to the faults and voids in the films. Several a- and b-axis in-plane orientations have been identified using polarized Raman spectra.

  14. Crew Training - Apollo 9 (Alt. Chamber) - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-01-01

    S68-55255 (6 Nov. 1968) --- Overhead view of Altitude Chamber "L" in the Kennedy Space Center's Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing a member of the Apollo 9 backup crew preparing to ingress the Apollo 9 spacecraft for egress test and simulated altitude run. The Apollo 9 backup crew consists of astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., Richard F. Gordon Jr., and Alan L. Bean.

  15. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  16. Cervical biopsy sampling variability in ALTS.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Daron G; Litaker, Mark S

    2011-04-01

    To determine histologic sampling variability among clinical center colposcopists and quality control reviewers in the Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. Clinical center colposcopists and quality control reviewers independently indicated need for biopsy, number of biopsies needed, and optimal biopsy location on customized computer software and digitized colposcopic images while examining subjects or monitoring colposcopists in the Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance/Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. Results were compared using percentages of agreement, κ statistics, McNemar, and paired t tests. Colposcopists and reviewers agreed whether a cervical biopsy was indicated for 2,631 (72.9%) of 3,610 evaluable subjects and 415 (91.6%) of 453 subjects with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse by histologic diagnosis. Only 3 of 41 colposcopists indicated 20% or greater of their biopsy sites to be more than 10 mm from reviewers' recommended sites. The mean of the greatest colposcopist-to-reviewer biopsy site distance was significantly greater than the mean maximum distance between reviewers' biopsy sites (14.9 vs 12.2 mm, p < .0001, respectively). Colposcopists indicated a significantly greater number of biopsy sites compared with consensus of reviewers (p < .0001). When cervical cancer precursors are present in women with minor cytologic abnormalities, most colposcopists obtain a biopsy. However, biopsy site placement can vary considerably. Only a minority of colposcopists sample significantly beyond recommended areas and less biopsy site variability occurs among experts.

  17. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an entire…

  18. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an entire…

  19. Pen and Pal are nucleotide-sugar dehydratases that convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and then to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc for CMP-pseudaminic acid synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-09

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP(+) and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc. Pal is NAD(+)-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4″-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity.

  20. Pen and Pal Are Nucleotide-Sugar Dehydratases That Convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-Deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and Then to UDP-4-Keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc for CMP-Pseudaminic Acid Synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis*♦

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP+ and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc. Pal is NAD+-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4″-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity. PMID:25414257

  1. Enhanced Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Combining ZnO Nanoparticles and Poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfeng; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ling; Qian, Lei; Yang, Ziyan; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yixing; Cao, Weiran

    2016-02-10

    A highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) has been successfully demonstrated by using a ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] (PFN) bilayer structure as an effective electron collecting layer. This ZnO/PFN bilayer structure is designed to combine the advantages of both ZnO and PFN, based on the performance comparison of ZnO-only, PFN-only, and ZnO/PFN bilayer devices in our work. ZnO NPs can serve as an efficient electron transport and buffer layer for reduced series resistance, while the PFN interlayer can improve the energy level alignment of devices through the formation of an interfacial dipole. With the enhanced electron extraction induced by the ZnO/PFN bilayer structure and PTB7:ICBA:PC71BM ternary system, the corresponding inverted PSC device shows a high PCE of 9.3%, which is more than a 15% improvement compared to the ZnO- or PFN-only devices.

  2. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  3. Understanding and Targeting the ALT Pathway in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    chromosomal C-circles. I also examined telomere recombination using the chromosome orientation FISH (CO- FISH ) assay, which allows detection of recombination...telomere recombination events, detectable as T-SCEs via the CO- FISH assay (Figure 4A). If ATRX functions in the Ku mediated pathway of HDR repression...telomeric probe. Both the bulk and telomeric chromatin show no obvious change in the MNase sensitivity or periodicity of the nucleosomal ladder after

  4. Army AL&T, April-June 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    fix for now. For a long -term solution, we need to talk with the AMEDD C& S [U.S. Army Medical Department Center and Schools]. The Army desperately needs...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S ) 12. DISTRIBUTION

  5. An RF link analysis of MSBLS during ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speir, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the microwave scanning beam landing system (MSBLS) ground station to orbiter radio frequency (RF) link was made to determine if the expected signal levels will be compatible with orbiter receiver capabilities. Of primary interest was whether or not loss of data will occur due to interference caused by the orbiter 101 nose boom which provides additional air data during the approach and landing test. The results of the analysis indicate that a small amount of data loss may occur due to the proximity of the MSBLS antennas and the nose boom. Tabulated data of antenna radiation patterns are given.

  6. TEST - SHUTTLE - MINI-APPROACH & LANDING TEST (ALT) - JSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-12-03

    Seen left to right is Art Arrow,Owen Morris, and John Kiker. This is an image in a series of photographs documenting a " mini "Approach and Landing Test conducted on the Bldg. 14 Antenna Test Range, using a 1/40th-scale model Orbiter and a model airplane. The test was flown to study Orbiter control characteristics and separation dynamics. Simulated Orbiter being dropped from 747. JSC, HOUSTON, TX. S75-33949 thru S75-33957

  7. The Art of ALT: Toward a More Accessible Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slatin, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to persuade friends and colleagues in the computers and writing community to do more to ensure that the Web pages (especially for classes) are accessible to people with disabilities. Raises this issue as a matter of some urgency in light of the surging interest in multimedia and visual rhetoric represented by this special issue. (SG)

  8. Army AL&T, October-December 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    a technologically advanced, environmentally friendly M855 Lead-Free Slug (LFS) 5.56mm cartridge — will greatly enhance shot-to- shot consistency...proved propellant and aerodynamics, reduced flash, and higher velocity. The M855 LFS, which will be in theater in 2009, is compatible with the M4...series weapon using current 5.56mm service ammunition (either M855 ball or M856 tracer). The munition’s main charge detonates upon reaching its target

  9. Army AL&T, January-March 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Propelled Grenade- 7 shaped charge weapon system provoke a similar, violent response from TNT- loaded 155mm projectiles . Over the years, there have been many...artillery projectile , this alliance is helping our warfighters accomplish their missions quickly and decisively while simultaneously streamlining the...PEO] — are doing well. In fact, they are in much better shape than when I arrived 6 years ago. Our world-class science and technology [S&T] com

  10. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  11. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  12. Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This video is an edited approach and landing of the Enterprise on Rogers Dry Lake. The air-to-air shot of the Space Shuttle at a few thousand feet above the lakebed, gives some idea of the steepness required for a Shuttle approach; also note the long pitot tube (an appendage used only for flight testing) extending from the Space Shuttle nose.

  13. Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) - Shuttle Enterprise 747 SCA takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This video begins with early morning shots of the Space Shuttle and the SCA being moved out of the shuttle mate-demate device, and follows the two vehicles as they taxi and take off from Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California.

  14. Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

  15. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  16. Durch Raum und Zeit reisen - Eine Theorie gibt Antworten auf alte Fragen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Im Rahmen der Relativitätstheorie, sei es die spezielle oder auch allgemeine, kommt man zwangsläufig auf die Fragestellung, ob Zeitreisen möglich sind oder nicht. Es gibt darüber sehr viele Veröffentlichungen, da dieses Thema offensichtlich viele Leute beschäftigt: Naturwissenschaftler, Philosophen, Filmautoren. Wir wollen hier nur einige grundlegende Fragestellungen aufgreifen: Kann man in die Zukunft reisen? Gibt es Reisen mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit? Wie sieht es aus mit Reisen in die Vergangenheit? Wir unterschieden dabei zwischen mathematischen, physikalischen und technischen Lösungen, die Zeitreisen entweder erlauben oder unmöglich machen.

  17. Exzellenz und Equity: Neue Bildungstheoretische Perspektiven FÜR ein Altes SPANNUNGSVERHÄLTNIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Margrit; Viehhauser, Martin

    2009-07-01

    EXCELLENCE AND EQUITY: APPLYING NEW PERSPECTIVES IN THE THEORY OF EDUCATION TO A TRADITIONALLY TENSE RELATIONSHIP - The majority of international assessments of school performance, as well as the international standards-based education reform focus on optimising the skills of children who perform poorly in school. This article, however, places the focus on the top␣performers ("excellence") and links this with the theory of equal opportunities ("equity"). The article follows two main lines of argument. The argument relating to the theory of education deems the achievement of equal opportunities and equity likely only if and when all children start from an equal position and are then allowed to develop unequally and appropriately, according to their individual talents. The second argument highlights the tense relationship between excellence and equity with regard to school children's varying home backgrounds, and asks how intellectual potential can best be discovered and encouraged. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the concept of accelerated learning, in differentiating between individuals within homogenous groups of learners, opens up a number of interesting perspectives and can ultimately redress the tense relationship between excellence and equity.

  18. Modeling and calibration of pointing errors with alt-az telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Long; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Jinlong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new model for improving the pointing accuracy of a telescope. The Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) convention was used to perform an error analysis of the telescope's kinematics. A kinematic model was used to relate pointing errors to mechanical errors and the parameters of the kinematic model were estimated with a statistical model fit using data from two large astronomical telescopes. The model illustrates the geometric errors caused by imprecision in manufacturing and assembly processes and their effects on the pointing accuracy of the telescope. A kinematic model relates pointing error to axis position when certain geometric errors are assumed to be present in a telescope. In the parameter estimation portion, the semi-parametric regression model was introduced to compensate for remaining nonlinear errors. The experimental results indicate that the proposed semi-parametric regression model eliminates both geometric and nonlinear errors, and that the telescope's pointing accuracy significantly improves after this calibration.

  19. Analysis of the creep behavior of silicon carbide whisker reinforced 2124 Al(T4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardone, V. C.; Strife, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of stress and temperature on the steady state creep rate of SiCw/2124 Al (T4) has been determined. The stress exponent for steady state creep of the composite is shown to increase from a value of 8.4 at 177 °C to a value of 21 at 288 °C. The activation energy for creep was determined to be 277 kJ/mol for testing in the temperature range from 149 to 204 °C and 431 kJ/mol for testing from 274 to 302 °C. These values are much greater than that for self-diffusion in aluminum. Such a severe temperature and stress dependence of the steady state creep rate is characteristic of precipitation and oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloys, where the creep behavior is explained by the particle strengthening contribution being a significant fraction of the applied creep stress. In contrast, the estimated particle strengthening for the composite is much less than the applied creep stresses. Alternate strengthening mechanisms are proposed to account for the observed creep behavior of the composite material, including the effect of temperature on the measured values of the stress exponent and activation energy for creep.

  20. Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

  1. Evaluation of poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-ethanol as enteric coating material.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiaolin; Sun, Chengdong; Tian, Hua; Zhao, Wenjun; Gao, Lin

    2008-03-20

    This study aims at evaluating the potential of SMA-ethanol as enteric coating polymer for erythromycin tablets. SMA-ethanol was synthesized and characterized for physicochemical properties, molecular weight and thermal analysis. Free films were prepared by adding different kinds and amounts of plasticizers, the film surface topography was determined by a SEM, the tensile strength, water vapor transmission rate and moisture absorption were also tested to choose the most promising film. DBP was proved to be the most suitable plasticizer with a best using amount of 20%, such polymer films had low vapor transmission rate and low moisture absorption which were very important to an enteric coating material. The polymer was further characterized for film coating by evaluating the release of erythromycin tablets in vitro, tablets coated with SMA-ethanol can satisfy the drug release requests of USP when the film weight gains were between 4 and 6%; tablets coated with both a subcoat and the polymer showed excellent gastro-resistance, less than 0.2% drug release occurred even with weight gains as less as 2% after 2h exposure to acid (pH 1), while over 90% drug release occurred in pH 6.8 sodium phosphate buffer within 45 min, regardless of weight gains of coating material, moreover, we confirmed that the application of a subcoat could decrease the amount of required coating polymer. In conclusion, the potential use of SMA-ethanol as enteric coating material was demonstrated.

  2. Skylab program earth resources experiment package. Volume 5: Sensor performance evaluation (S193 ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results are summarized of S193 altimeter sensor performance evaluation based on data presented to the sensor performance evaluation interim reports. The results of additional analyses of S193 altimeter performance are presented, and techniques used in sensor performance evaluation are described. Significant performance degradation identified during the Skylab missions and the performance achieved are described in terms of pertinent S193 altimeter parameters. The additional analyses include final performance analyses completed after submittal of the SL4 interim sensor performance evaluation reports, including completion of detailed analyses of basic performance parameters initiated during the interim report periods.

  3. [The thin ALT perforator flap for oropharyngeal robotic-assisted reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Qassemyar, Q; Aguilar, P; Temam, S; Kolb, F; Gorphe, P

    2017-02-01

    Since a few years, the transoral robotic surgery reduced the morbidity of oropharyngeal tumors excision. Large posterior tumors can now be removed without any scar visible on the face. In this context and to respect the thinness required for reconstructions at the junction of the upper aerodigestive tract, the free radial forearm flap still remains the solution of choice. However, if the transoral robotic surgery respects the anatomy and the aesthetics of patients at the visible and social area that represents the face, the forearm flap provides visible scars on the other region of social interaction that represents the upper limb. The aim of our work was to prove the feasibility and the benefits in terms of reducing sequelae when using a thin anterolateral perforator flap harvested above the plane of the superficial fascia. We present this new original method in detail and the advantages it offers to patients after surgery.

  4. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  5. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  6. Phase I Trial of Universal Donor NK Cell Therapy in Combination With ALT803

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-30

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Myeloproliferative Syndromes; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Colon Carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of Rectum; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Ewing's Sarcoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  7. On (Δm, I)-Statistical Convergence of Order α

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddine, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The idea of I-convergence of real sequences was introduced by Kostyrko et al., (2000/01) and also independently by Nuray and Ruckle (2000). In this paper, we introduce the concepts of (Δm, I)-statistical convergence of order α and strong (Δpm, I)-Cesàro summability of order α of real sequences and investigated their relationship. PMID:24688403

  8. Aggressive Neighborhood Watch or Unconventional Threat? The Hungarian Extreme Right-Wing Self-Defense Movements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    UNCONVENTIONAL THREAT? THE HUNGARIAN EXTREME RIGHT-WING SELF-DEFENSE MOVEMENTS by Tibor K. Sonkoly December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Nancy Roberts...WING SELF-DEFENSE MOVEMENTS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Tibor K. Sonkoly 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate...been a growing political and popular right-wing extremist movement in Hungary. According to the Athena Institute, an independent human-rights group

  9. Altération dans des sols de scories issues d'un atelier de fusion du plomb.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobanska, Sophie; Ledésert, Béatrice; Deneele, Dimitri; Laboudigue, Agnès

    2000-08-01

    A smelter located in northern France produces lead and zinc. Large amounts of metal bearing slag particles result from the process and constitute a main environmental problem. This work presents a characterization of the slag grains at the exit of the furnace and in the surrounding soils where they are frequently found. Their comparison shows an alteration in soils revealed by a strong increase of their porosity and a modification of their morphology. Chemical analyses indicate that Pb and Zn are released in the soils during the partial dissolution of the slag particles.

  10. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transpo...

  11. Surveillance of infants at risk of apparent life threatening events (ALTE) with the BBA bootee: a wearable multiparameter monitor.

    PubMed

    Rimet, Yves; Brusquet, Yves; Ronayette, Dominique; Dageville, Christian; Lubrano, Marc; Mallet, Eric; Rambaud, Caroline; Terlaud, Christian; Silve, Jerome; Lerda, Olivier; Netchiporouk, Larissa I; Weber, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    We report on the results of clinical evaluation of a newly developed system for wireless monitoring of pulse oximetry (SpO2), actimetry and position in infants. The sensors, electronics and the power supply were integrated into a specially designed infant shoe named BBA bootee. The comparative data collected in 71 babies yielded a mean (bias +/- SD) value of (-1.2 +/- 1.9) % for SpO2 and (-2 +/- 8) beats per minute for heart rate with regard to reference monitors. A reliable detection of infant's movements and prone position by an integrated 3-axes accelerometer has been validated by video observations. Combining the pulse oximetry and actimetry data, an algorithm is proposed to reduce the oximetry motion artifact and related false alarms. Ergonomics of the sensor-supporting garment is addressed.

  12. Relationship between Academic Learning Time in Physical Education (ALT-PE) and Skill Concepts Acquisition and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derri, Vassiliki; Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Vassiliadou, Olga; Tzetzis, George; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between time-related variables of the physical education lesson and skill concepts acquisition and retention. One hundred and four students aged 6.4 to 7.9 years, and their six physical educators participated. The motor behavior of thirty-six selected students was videotaped during a…

  13. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for enhanced stability and cellular internalization.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Almeida, Patrick V; Mäkilä, Ermei; Correia, Alexandra; Ferreira, Mónica P A; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-03-01

    Currently, developing a stable nanocarrier with high cellular internalization and low toxicity is a key bottleneck in nanomedicine. Here, we have developed a successful method to covalently conjugate poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE-MA) copolymer on the surface of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-functionalized thermally carbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (APSTCPSi NPs), forming a surface negatively charged nanovehicle with unique properties. This polymer conjugated NPs could modify surface smoothness, charge, and hydrophilicity of the developed NPs, leading to considerable improvement in the colloidal and plasma stabilities via enhanced suspensibility and charge repulsion. Furthermore, despite the surface negative charge of the polymer-conjugated NPs, the cellular internalization was increased in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results provide a proof-of-concept evidence that such polymer-based PSi nanocomposite can be extensively used as a promising candidate for intracellular drug delivery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Naphthalenediimide-alt-Fused Thiophene D-A Copolymers for the Application as Acceptor in All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lingwei; Yang, Yankang; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Liang; Bin, Haijun; Yang, YunXu; Li, Yongfang

    2016-10-06

    Three n-type alternating D-A copolymers based on a naphthalenediimide (NDI) acceptor (A) unit and three different donor (D) units with varied electron-donating strength including thiophene (P(NDI-T)), thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (P(NDI-TT)), and thieno[3,2-b;4,5-b]dithiophene (P(NDI-TDT)), were synthesized, for the application as acceptor materials in all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs). The effect of the donor units of thiophene, thienothiophene (TT) and thienodithiophene (TDT) on the physicochemical and photovoltaic properties of the n-type D-A copolymers was systematically investigated. It was found that the absorption spectrum is red-shifted and the energy band gap (Eg ) is reduced for the NDI-based D-A copolymers with increasing number of thiophene rings in the thiophene or fused thiophene donor units. All-PSCs were fabricated with the medium band gap conjugated polymer J51 (Eg of ca 1.9 eV) as polymer donor and the n-type D-A copolymers as acceptor. The power conversion efficiency reached 2.59 %, 3.70 % and 5.10 % for the all-PSCs with P(NDI-T), P(NDI-TT), and P(NDI-TDT) as acceptor, respectively. The results indicate that a larger conjugated fused molecular plane with more thiophene rings as donor units in the NDI-based D-A copolymers is beneficial to reduce the band gap, broaden the absorption and enhance the photovoltaic performance of n-type D-A copolymer acceptors.

  15. Orbiter/carrier separation for the ALT free flight no. 1 reference trajectories. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Details of the generation of the separation trajectories are discussed. The analysis culminated in definition of separation trajectories between physical separation and orbiter/carrier vortex clearance. Specifications, assumptions and analytical approach used to generate the separation trajectories are presented. Results of the analytical approach are evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized. Supporting references are listed.

  16. Depolymerizable Poly(O-vinyl carbamate-alt-sulfones) as Customizable Macromolecular Scaffolds for Mucosal Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kaushlendra; Castaño, Eduard Jimenez; Weidner, Andrew R; Yildirim, Adem; Goodwin, Andrew P

    2016-05-17

    Interest in stimulus responsive materials and polymers has grown over the years, having shown great promise in a diverse set of applications. For drug delivery, stimulus-responsive polymers have been shown to encapsulate therapeutic cargo such as small molecule drugs or proteins, deliver them to specific locations in the body, and release them so that they can induce a therapeutic effect in the patient. Most hydrolytically degradable polymers are synthesized via nucleophilic, anionic, or cationic polymerization, which generally requires protection of nucleophilic or protic side chains prior to polymerization. Here, we report the synthesis of novel, alternating copolymers of sulfur dioxide and O-vinyl carbamate monomers that boast excellent functional group tolerance and pH-dependent instability. Alternating copolymers were synthesized containing pendant functionalities such as alcohol, carboxylic acid, ester, and azide without deprotection or post-polymerization modification. The copolymers were then formulated via nanoprecipitation into polymer nanoparticles capable of encapsulating small molecule dyes. The polymer nanoparticles were found to degrade rapidly at pH > 6 and were stable even in highly acidic conditions. Based on this observation, a proof-of-concept study for mucosal delivery was performed in polymer nanoparticles entrapped in a mucus model. At pH 8 the diffusion of encapsulated dye was found to be similar to free dye, while at pH 5 the diffusion coefficient was an order of magnitude lower. Cell viability was retained at 200 µg/mL particles after 24 h incubation. These polymers thus show promise as highly customizable scaffolds for mucosal drug delivery.

  17. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - Slow Motion video of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  18. Women's labour and economic globalisation: a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development (Alt-WID).

    PubMed

    Barton, C; Nazombei, E

    2000-03-01

    This article describes the aims, methods, materials and topics used in a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development. The organization aims to bridge the gaps in analyzing human rights and economic justice in both North and South from a feminist perspective through a workshop. This workshop considers the varied roles that women play in the global economy and features a series of anecdotes to illustrate the diverse ways in which globalization affects women in all regions worldwide. The workshop runs for a minimum of 3 hours and is structured as follows: introduction; plenary: identifying the human rights of the women; small-group work, plenary: building a group analysis and discussion of alternatives to the existing policies; and individual and plenary evaluations. Furthermore, four anecdotes used at the workshop are presented. Among the outcomes of the workshop included the identification of the problem causes and development of strategies for action.

  19. High pressure gas storage system consumable analyses for ALT flights free flight 1 and free flight 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Consumables analyses are presented for the high pressure gas storage oxygen (O2), and hydrogen (H2) reactant systems for orbiter vehicle 101 approach and landing tests, for two flights, free flight 1 and free flight 6 are given. The consumables analyses are based on average power data. The required system and mission data updates were made in order to perform the analyses, notably the thermal environment profiles of the reactant storage cylinders and the power profile for the Electrical power subsystem. No mission-dependent environment profiles were provided; therefore, nominal free flight mission profile was used to generate environment profiles for free flights 1 and 6.

  20. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - Slow Motion video of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Private Enterprise Education (11th, San Antonio, Texas, April 6-8,. 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Private Enterprise, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Papers in these proceedings are grouped under the following headings: addresses, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, free market economics, public policy, and economic education. Papers include "Economic Freedom and Private Enterprise" (Murray L. Weidenbaum); "Marxism and the Free, Capitalist Society" (Tibor R. Machan); "Knowledge,…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Private Enterprise Education (11th, San Antonio, Texas, April 6-8,. 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Private Enterprise, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Papers in these proceedings are grouped under the following headings: addresses, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, free market economics, public policy, and economic education. Papers include "Economic Freedom and Private Enterprise" (Murray L. Weidenbaum); "Marxism and the Free, Capitalist Society" (Tibor R. Machan); "Knowledge,…

  3. UV and γ-ray resistance of poly(N-methylmaleimide-alt-isobutene) and poly(diisopropyl fumarate) as transparent polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, Ryota; Furuta, Masakazu; Okamura, Haruyuki; Matsumoto, Akikazu

    2017-09-01

    UV and γ-ray resistance of transparent polymers obtained by radical polymerization of maleic and fumaric acid derivatives, i.e., an alternating copolymer of N-methylmaleimide and isobutene (PMI) and poly(diisopropyl fumarate) (PDiPF), was investigated. Transmittance in UV and visible regions of these polymers were examined after UV irradiation and compared with the results for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC) as conventional transparent polymers. The order of stability toward UV irradiation was PMMA≈PDiPF>PMI>>PC, deduced from changes in the transmittance of 380 nm light. Tensile mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, maximum strength, and elongation values of PMI, PDiPF, and PMMA were also investigated after UV and γ-radiation. UV irradiation induced the side chain scission of PMI and PDiPF via Norrish I type reaction as well as crosslinking by combination between formed polymer radicals, leading to deterioration in their optical and mechanical properties. γ-radiation induced significant changes in molecular weight and mechanical properties of the polymers. In conclusion, PMI exhibited unchanged mechanical properties and PDiPF maintained its high transparency under various irradiation conditions.

  4. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  5. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: ?NIST Traceability and Comparability?(And EPA ALT Methods for Hg and HCl )

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the tru...

  6. Hg0 and HgCl2 Reference Gas Standards: NIST Traceability and Comparability (And EPA ALT Methods for Hg and HCl )

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA and NIST have collaborated to establish the necessary procedures for establishing the required NIST traceability of commercially-provided Hg0 and HgCl2 reference generators. This presentation will discuss the approach of a joint EPA/NIST study to accurately quantify the tru...

  7. Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    della Corte, A.; Corato, V.; Di Zenobio, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Muzzi, L.; Polli, G. M.; Reccia, L.; Turtù, S.; Bruzzone, P.; Salpietro, E.; Vostner, A.

    2010-04-01

    One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb3Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance, especially in terms of degradation with electromagnetic loads. To extend this analysis to larger size Nb3Sn CICCs, we manufactured and tested, in the SULTAN facility, an ITER toroidal field (TF) cable, inserted into a thick stainless steel tube and then compacted to a high aspect ratio rectangular shape. Besides establishing a new record in Nb3Sn CICC performances for ITER TF type cables, the very good test results confirmed that the conductor properties improve not only by lowering the void fraction and raising the cable twist pitch, as already shown during the ITER TFPRO and the EDIPO test campaigns, but also by the proper optimization of the conductor shape with respect to the electromagnetic force distribution. The sample manufacturing steps, along with the main test results, are presented here.

  8. Improved protein-adsorption resistance of polyethersulfone membranes via surface segregation of ultrahigh molecular weight poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xu, Li; Du, Chun-Hui; Zhu, Bao-Ku; Xu, You-Yi

    2007-06-15

    A styrene-maleic anhydride (SMA) alternating copolymer with ultrahigh molecular weight (M(w)>10(6)) synthesized in super critical carbon dioxide (SC CO(2)) medium was used as hydrophilic polymeric additive in the preparation of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes. The PES/SMA blend membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation process. X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that the hydrolyzed SMA preferentially segregated to membrane-coagulant interface during membrane formation. For the PES/SMA blend membranes, no big change was observed in the cross-sectional structure and the mechanical properties were well maintained after SMA addition except that a thicker top layer was formed. The surface morphology analysis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the membrane surface roughness increased with the added SMA amount. The results of water contact angle, water absorbance measurements and static protein adsorption experiments revealed that the surface enrichment of SMA endowed PES/SMA blend membranes with significantly improved surface hydrophilicity and protein-adsorption resistance.

  9. Double-spin asymmetry ALT cos ϕS in semi-inclusive DIS at CLAS12 and EIC within the collinear framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Mao, Wenjuan; Lu, Zhun

    2016-10-01

    We study the longitudinal-transverse double-spin asymmetry with a cos ϕS modulation in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering for charged and neutral pion production. We consider the particular case in which the transverse momentum of the final-state hadron is integrated out. The corresponding asymmetry may be contributed by two parts: one is the convolution of the twist-3 distribution function gT(x ) and the unpolarized fragmentation function D1(z ); the other is related to the coupling of the transversity distribution function h1(x ) and the collinear twist-3 fragmentation function E ˜(z ). We take into account both contributions to predict the cos ϕS asymmetry at the kinematics of CLAS12 and a future Electron Ion Collider. We find that the asymmetry of pion production at CLAS12 is sizable, and E ˜(z ) can play an important role in the asymmetry in the large-z region.

  10. [Feeding disorders, ALTE syndrome, Sandifer syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease in the course of food hypersensitivity in 8-month old infant].

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Barbara; Mowszet, Krystyna; Iwańczak, Franciszek

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the occurrence of feeding disorders, atopic dermatitis, life-threatening symptoms, Sandifer syndrome, and gastroesophageal reflux disease in 8-month old infant in the course of food hypersensitivity. Used in the treatment of cow's milk protein hydrolysates with a considerable degree of hydrolysis, omeprazole, Cisapride. It was not until the introduction of elemental diet based on free amino acids resulted in the withdrawal of life-threatening child's symptoms.

  11. Clinical and Genetic Risk Prediction of Subsequent CNS Tumors in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the COG ALTE03N1 Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuexia; Sun, Can-Lan; Hageman, Lindsey; Smith, Kandice; Singh, Purnima; Desai, Sunil; Hawkins, Douglas S; Hudson, Melissa M; Mascarenhas, Leo; Neglia, Joseph P; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Ritchey, A Kim; Robison, Leslie L; Villaluna, Doojduen; Landier, Wendy; Bhatia, Smita

    2017-10-04

    Purpose Survivors of childhood cancer treated with cranial radiation therapy are at risk for subsequent CNS tumors. However, significant interindividual variability in risk suggests a role for genetic susceptibility and provides an opportunity to identify survivors of childhood cancer at increased risk for these tumors. Methods We curated candidate genetic variants from previously published studies in adult-onset primary CNS tumors and replicated these in survivors of childhood cancer with and without subsequent CNS tumors (82 participants and 228 matched controls). We developed prediction models to identify survivors at high or low risk for subsequent CNS tumors and validated these models in an independent matched case-control sample (25 participants and 54 controls). Results We demonstrated an association between six previously published single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs15869 [ BRCA2], rs1805389 [ LIG4], rs8079544 [ TP53], rs25489 [ XRCC1], rs1673041 [ POLD1], and rs11615 [ ERCC1]) and subsequent CNS tumors in survivors of childhood cancer. Including genetic variants in a Final Model containing age at primary cancer, sex, and cranial radiation therapy dose yielded an area under the curve of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.86), which was superior ( P = .002) to the Clinical Model (area under the curve, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.80). The prediction model was successfully validated. The sensitivity and specificity of predicting survivors of childhood cancer at highest or lowest risk of subsequent CNS tumors was 87.5% and 83.5%, respectively. Conclusion It is possible to identify survivors of childhood cancer at high or low risk for subsequent CNS tumors on the basis of genetic and clinical information. This information can be used to inform surveillance for early detection of subsequent CNS tumors.

  12. JPRS Report, East Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-30

    the nation’s destiny. Budapest, 18 Sep 1989 On behalf of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party: Rezso Nyers, Imre Pozsgay On behalf of the...Friends Dr Imre Boross and Istvan Prepeliczay for the Inde- pendent Smallholders, Agricultural Workers, and Bour- geois Party . Dr Tibor Fuzessy and Dr...Alternative Asso- ciation Dr Nandor Bugar for the Patriotic People’s Front Imre Nagy for the Alliance of Hungarian Democratic Youth Dr Sandor Sarkozi

  13. Space Shuttle Program Orbiter Approach and Landing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The orbiter approach and landing test (ALT) reports are published to provide senior NASA management with timely information on ALT program plans and accomplishments. The ALT reports will be comprised of this pre-ALT report, ALT pre-flight memoranda, and an ALT post-flight report following each flight. The purpose of this pre-ALT report is to provide an overview of the ALT program, describing the flight vehicles involved and summarizing the planned flights.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of PVA/ODA-MMT-poly(MA-alt-1-octadecene)-g-graphene oxide e-spun nanofiber electrolytes and their response to bone cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rzayev, Zakir M O; Salimi, Kouroush; Bunyatova, Ulviya; Acar, Selim; Salamov, Bahtiyar; Turk, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a new approach to fabrication and characterization of novel polymer nanofiber electrolytes from intercalated PVA/ODA-MMT nanocomposite as a matrix polymer and encapsulated graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with amphiphilic reactive copolymer as partner polymers using electrospinning method. The chemical and physical structures, surface morphology, thermal behaviors and electric conductivity of nanocomposites and nanofibers were investigated using analyses methods including FTIR, XRD, SEM, DSC-TGA and conductivity analysis. Significant improvements in nanofiber morphology and size distribution were observed when GO and reactive organoclay were incorporated as reinforcement fillers into various matrix/partner solution blends. The structural factors of matrix-partner polymer nanocomposite particles with higher zeta-potential play important roles in both chemical and physical interfacial interactions and phase separation processing and also lead to the formation of nanofibers with unique surface morphologies and good conductivities. The cytotoxic, necrotic and apoptotic effects of chosen nanofibers on osteocarcinoma cells were also investigated. These multifunctional, self-assembled, nanofibrous surfaces can serve as semi-conductive and bioactive platforms in various electrochemical and bio-engineering processes, as well as reactive matrices used for the immobilization of various biopolymer precursors.

  15. Altération en présence d'argile humide à 70°C de céramiques à base de Ti et Zr, de type Synroc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leturcq, Gilles; Berger, Gilles; Advocat, Thierry; Lacombe, Jacques; Vance, Eric

    1998-12-01

    The chemical durability of three zirconotitanate ceramics was quantified on contact with humid clay at 70°C. These materials are innovative candidates for the containment of fission products or long-lived actinides such as Np, Am and Pu. Synroc C containing molybdates is the only sample showing significant mass losses after nine months of interaction with humid clay. This may be due to a migration of Mo to the reaction interface. Mo was recovered in clay as calcium molybdate.

  16. ALT-C 95: Changing Education, Changing Technology. Conference Abstracts of the Association for Learning Technology Conference (2nd, Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom, September 11-13, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, David, Ed.

    This program for the 1995 Association for Learning Technology Conference summarizes the presentations of the discussions, demonstrations, workshops, and poster sessions. Abstracts of the following papers presented at the conference are included: "New Structures for Learning" (Patrick Allen & Kate Sankey); "Multiple System…

  17. Relationship between alcohol drinking and aspartate aminotransferase:alanine aminotransferase (AST:ALT) ratio, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and apolipoprotein A1 and B in the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Qi, Rong; Crabb, David W; Witzmann, Frank

    2010-03-01

    The misuse of alcohol, even at levels just above two drinks per day, is a public health problem, but identifying patients with this potentially unhealthy drinking is hindered by the lack of tests. Several blood tests, such as those testing for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) or mean corpuscular volume (MCV), are among the commonly used markers to identify very heavy drinking, but combinations of these markers have rarely been tested in lighter drinkers. We examined the relationship between alcohol drinking and the levels of these markers in a national population-based study composed primarily of lighter drinkers. Data were analyzed from 8,708 adult participants in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey after excluding subjects with iron overload; with hepatitis B and C; who were pregnant; and who were taking prescription drugs such as phenytoin (Dilantin), barbiturates, and hydroxyurea (Droxia and Hydrea). The relationship between the amount of alcohol drinking and GGT, aspartate aminotransferase:alanine aminotransferase ratio, MCV of erythrocytes, and apolipoprotein A1 and B were analyzed and adjusted for potential liver injury risk factors. The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol drinking (defined as consumption of more than two standard drinks per day) was 6.7%. Heavier drinkers tended to be younger and reported an average of 4.2 drinks per day. When tested alone or in combination, the sensitivity and positive predictive values for these blood tests were too low to be clinically useful in identifying the subjects in the heavier drinking category. In this large, national, population-based study, the markers of heavy drinking studied here, either alone or in combination, did not appear to be useful in identifying unhealthy drinking. More work is needed to find the novel marker(s) associated with risky alcohol drinking.

  18. Mobilité des terres rares au cours des altérations hydrothermales: l'exemple du granité de Serra Branca, Brésil central

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Coelho, Cristina; Botelho, Nilson F.; Roger, Guy

    1999-05-01

    The Middle Proterozoic granitic massif, in the Goiás Tin Province, is affected by pervasive post-magmatic hydrothermal alterations, chiefly by eastward, increasingly developed greisenization. Hydrothermal alteration results in strong mineralogical and chemical modifications of granite composition, but nevertheless the effect of fluid circulations is probably limited to a dilution of the initial REE content in magmatic rocks without any important fractionation, as suggested by the similarity between chondrite-normalized patterns for all rocks, from the less altered granite to the muscovite-topaz-bearing greisen.

  19. Enhanced deformation of limestone and sandstone in the presence of high alt="image" location="equation/jgrb15094-math-0002.gif" href="urn:x-wiley:01480227:media:jgrb15094:jgrb15094-math-0002"/> fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guen, Y.; Renard, F.; Hellmann, R.; Brosse, E.; Collombet, M.; Tisserand, D.; Gratier, J.-P.

    2007-05-01

    Geological repositories subject to the injection of large amounts of anthropogenic carbon dioxide will undergo chemical and mechanical instabilities for which there are currently little experimental data. This study reports on experiments where low and high ? (8 MPa) aqueous fluids were injected into natural rock samples. The experiments were performed in flow-through triaxial cells, where the vertical and confining stresses, temperature, and pressure and composition of the fluid were separately controlled and monitored. The axial vertical strains of two limestones and one sandstone were continuously measured during separate experiments for several months, with a strain rate resolution of 10-11 s-1. Fluids exiting the triaxial cells were continuously collected and their compositions analyzed. The high ? fluids induced an increase in strain rates of the limestones by up to a factor of 5, compared to the low ? fluids. Injection of high ? fluids into the sandstone resulted in deformation rates one order of magnitude smaller than the limestones. The creep accelerating effect of high ? fluids with respect to the limestones was mainly due to the acidification of the injected fluids, resulting in a significant increase in solubility and reaction kinetics of calcite. Compared to the limestones, the much weaker response of the sandstone was due to the much lower solubility and reactivity of quartz in high ? fluids. In general, all samples showed a positive correlation between fluid flow rate and strain rate. X-ray tomography results revealed significant increases in porosity at the inlet portion of each core; the porosity increases were dependent on the original lithological structure and composition. The overall deformation of the samples is interpreted in terms of simultaneous dissolution reactions in pore spaces and intergranular pressure solution creep.

  20. UV-Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical and in situ conductance studies of unusual stability of n- and p-doped poly(dimethyldioctylquaterthiophene-alt-oxadiazole) under high cathodic and anodic polarizations.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Z; Levi, M D; Salitra, G; Demadrille, R; Fisyuk, A; Zaban, A; Aurbach, D; Pron, A

    2008-02-21

    Combined CV studies and UV-Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical investigations revealed an unusual stability of the p- and n-doped PMOThOD in the wide potential window of 4 V. The n-doping process occurs in this polymer down to -2.7 V (vs. Ag/Ag+) in a non-destructive way with the characteristic development of the omega3 transition as a function of the doping level. In situ electronic transport studies revealed a high conductivity of the n-doped polymer which implies high mobility of the negatively charged carriers in the freshly doped PMOThOD film electrodes. An increase in the cathodic polarization, long-term cycling of the film electrodes, especially of higher thickness, results in a growing contribution of the negatively charged carriers trapping to the redox properties of the PMOThOD. The trapping of the charged carriers reduces gradually the electronic conductance of the PMOThOD film, but its effect on the redox-capacity of the film (in a typical scan rates range up to 50 mV s(-1)) is only minor.

  1. Das Licht am Ende des Tunnels: Motivationsstrukturen fur den Deutschunterricht Reflexionen uber ein altes und stets neues Problem (The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Structures for Motivating German Teaching. Reflections on an Old and Continually New Problem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Argues that despite the decline in enrollments in German at elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, there is reason to hope that interest can be invigorated. Suggests that there are easy instructional methods and materials for developing a new motivation in learning the language. (Author/VWL)

  2. Altération différentielle du granite en zone tropicale. Exemple de deux séquences étudiées au Cameroun (Afrique centrale)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguetnkam, Jean Pierre; Kamga, Richard; Villiéras, Frédéric; Ekodeck, Georges Emmanuel; Yvon, Jacques

    2008-07-01

    Two weathering sequences of granite, developed in two bioclimatic zones of Cameroon, have been studied by means of macroscopic and microscopic analyses, X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analyses, along with SEM and TEM observations. In the tropical rainforest of South Cameroon, characterized by half-orange hills, steep slopes, and good drainage, the weathering of granite leads to the neoformation of kaolinite and the formation of ferrallitic soil, made up of four horizons that display an acid pH and a SiO 2/Al 2O 3 ratio < 3. In the savannah tropical dry climate of the Extreme North, with lesser-grade slopes and slow water-flow conditions, the weathering of granite leads to the neoformation of beidellite and the formation of chromic vertisol made up of three horizons that display a basic pH and a SiO 2/Al 2O 3 ratio > 3. These results emphasize the influence of climate and local factors on clay minerals and soil formation in the intertropical regions.

  3. Das Licht am Ende des Tunnels: Motivationsstrukturen fur den Deutschunterricht Reflexionen uber ein altes und stets neues Problem (The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Structures for Motivating German Teaching. Reflections on an Old and Continually New Problem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Argues that despite the decline in enrollments in German at elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, there is reason to hope that interest can be invigorated. Suggests that there are easy instructional methods and materials for developing a new motivation in learning the language. (Author/VWL)

  4. ALT-C 95: Changing Education, Changing Technology. Conference Abstracts of the Association for Learning Technology Conference (2nd, Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom, September 11-13, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, David, Ed.

    This program for the 1995 Association for Learning Technology Conference summarizes the presentations of the discussions, demonstrations, workshops, and poster sessions. Abstracts of the following papers presented at the conference are included: "New Structures for Learning" (Patrick Allen & Kate Sankey); "Multiple System…

  5. Altérations dans la zone tropicale. Signification à travers les mécanismes anciens et/ou encore actuelsWeathering in tropical zone. Significance through ancient and still active mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahon, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    The microscopic study of the organization of soils and alterites reveals the direction of evolution and the genetic and historical relationship between their constitutive minerals and how, subsequently, geochemical processes could be visualized. If certain soils and alterites may be considered to be the products of recent weathering, others span a much longer time interval. These different aspects of the weathering mantle coexist in the same landscape, and this situation makes them difficult to distinguish. In other words, the weathering mantle that extends over most continental areas is a real patchwork in search for an equilibrium never reached. So, in lateritic weathering mantles, most of genetic and evolutive modelling reveals the complexity of geochemical processes and time scale required to their differentiation ranges from one to several million years. The weathering rates and ages of weathering profiles are discussed as a function of processes that run at the top and at the bottom of weathering mantles. To cite this article: D. Nahon, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  6. ALT-C 96: Integrating Technology into the Curriculum. Conference Programme and Abstracts of the Association for Learning Technology Conference (3rd, Glasgow, Scotland, September 16-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Shona, Ed.

    This program for the 1996 Association for Learning Technology Conference summarizes the poster sessions, discussions, workshops, and software demonstrations, and provides abstracts of the 38 papers presented. Topics covered by the papers include: hand-held technology for mathematics; modeling global warming; computer-mediated communications; Java;…

  7. An 18-yr long (1993-2011) snow and meteorological dataset from a mid-altitude mountain site (Col de Porte, France, 1325 m alt.) for driving and evaluating snowpack models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, S.; Lejeune, Y.; Lesaffre, B.; Panel, J.-M.; Poncet, D.; David, P.; Sudul, M.

    2012-07-01

    A quality-controlled snow and meteorological dataset spanning the period 1 August 1993-31 July 2011 is presented, originating from the experimental station Col de Porte (1325 m altitude, Chartreuse range, France). Emphasis is placed on meteorological data relevant to the observation and modelling of the seasonal snowpack. In-situ driving data, at the hourly resolution, consist of measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, windspeed, incoming short-wave and long-wave radiation, precipitation rate partitioned between snow- and rainfall, with a focus on the snow-dominated season. Meteorological data for the three summer months (generally from 10 June to 20 September), when the continuity of the field record is not warranted, are taken from a local meteorological reanalysis (SAFRAN), in order to provide a continuous and consistent gap-free record. Data relevant to snowpack properties are provided at the daily (snow depth, snow water equivalent, runoff and albedo) and hourly (snow depth, albedo, runoff, surface temperature, soil temperature) time resolution. Internal snowpack information is provided from weekly manual snowpit observations (mostly consisting in penetration resistance, snow type, snow temperature and density profiles) and from a hourly record of temperature and height of vertically free ''settling'' disks. This dataset has been partially used in the past to assist in developing snowpack models and is presented here comprehensively for the purpose of multi-year model performance assessment. The data is placed on the PANGAEA repository (http://dx.doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.774249) as well as on the public ftp server ftp://ftp-cnrm.meteo.fr/pub-cencdp/.

  8. A 18-yr long (1993-2011) snow and meteorological dataset from a mid-altitude mountain site (Col de Porte, France, 1325 m alt.) for driving and evaluating snowpack models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, S.; Lejeune, Y.; Lesaffre, B.; Panel, J.-M.; Poncet, D.; David, P.; Sudul, M.

    2012-02-01

    A quality-controlled snow and meteorological dataset spanning the period 1 August 1993-31 July 2011 is presented, originating from the experimental station Col de Porte (1325 m altitude, Chartreuse range, France). Emphasis is placed on meteorological data relevant to the observation and modelling of the seasonal snowpack. In-situ driving data, at the hourly resolution, consist in measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, incoming short-wave and long-wave radiation, precipitation rate partitioned between snow- and rainfall, with a focus on the snow-dominated season. Meteorological data for the three summer months (generally from 10 June to 20 September), when the continuity of the field record is not warranted, are taken from a local meteorological reanalysis (SAFRAN), in order to provide a continuous and consistent gap-free record. Evaluation data are provided at the daily (snow depth, snow water equivalent, runoff and albedo) and hourly (snow depth, albedo, runoff, surface temperature, soil temperature) time resolution. Internal snowpack information are provided from weekly manual snowpit observations (mostly consisting in penetration resistance, snow type, snow temperature and density profiles) and from a hourly record of temperature and height of vertically free "settling" disks. This dataset has been partially used in the past to assist in developing snowpack model and is presented here comprehensively for the purpose of multi-year model performance assessment. The data is placed on the PANGAEA repository (http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.774249) as well as on the public ftp server ftp://ftp-cnrm.meteo.fr/pub-cencdp/.

  9. The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust Part 1: Six refugees who fled.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bock, Julia; Hoenig, Leonard J; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    2016-01-01

    From the times of Moritz Kaposi, Hungarian Jewish physicians have significantly contributed to the development of dermatology. Part 1 of this special report highlights some of the early Jewish dermatologists in Hungary. It also tells the stories of five Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who fled anti-Semitism in Hungary, or other European countries, between 1920 and 1941: Frederick Reiss, Emery Kocsard, Stephen Rothman, Peter Flesch, and George Csonka. A sixth Hungarian dermatologist, Tibor Benedek, was persecuted by the Nazis, because he had a Jewish wife, forcing the couple to flee Germany. Part 2 will focus on the ordeal faced by Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who did not leave their homeland during World War II.

  10. 76 FR 59488 - Designation of Three Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    .... DOB Sep 1977; alt. DOB 1976; POB Madinah, Saudi Arabia; alt. POB Sangrar, Sindh Province, Pakistan; nationality Pakistan; alt. nationality Saudi Arabia (individual) . 3. SALIM, 'Abd al-Rahman Ould Muhammad...

  11. Evolutionary Diversification of Alanine Transaminases in Yeast: Catabolic Specialization and Biosynthetic Redundancy

    PubMed Central

    Escalera-Fanjul, Ximena; Campero-Basaldua, Carlos; Colón, Maritrini; González, James; Márquez, Dariel; González, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplication is one of the major evolutionary mechanisms providing raw material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae originated after an allopolyploidization event, which involved mating between two different ancestral yeast species. ScALT1 and ScALT2 codify proteins with 65% identity, which were proposed to be paralogous alanine transaminases. Further analysis of their physiological role showed that while ScALT1 encodes an alanine transaminase which constitutes the main pathway for alanine biosynthesis and the sole pathway for alanine catabolism, ScAlt2 does not display alanine transaminase activity and is not involved in alanine metabolism. Moreover, phylogenetic studies have suggested that ScALT1 and ScALT2 come from each one of the two parental strains which gave rise to the ancestral hybrid. The present work has been aimed to the understanding of the properties of the ancestral type Lacchancea kluyveri LkALT1 and Kluyveromyces lactis KlALT1, alanine transaminases in order to better understand the ScALT1 and ScALT2 evolutionary history. These ancestral -type species were chosen since they harbor ALT1 genes, which are related to ScALT2. Presented results show that, although LkALT1 and KlALT1 constitute ScALT1 orthologous genes, encoding alanine transaminases, both yeasts display LkAlt1 and KlAlt1 independent alanine transaminase activity and additional unidentified alanine biosynthetic and catabolic pathway(s). Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of null mutants uncovered the fact that KlAlt1 and LkAlt1 have an additional role, not related to alanine metabolism but is necessary to achieve wild type growth rate. Our study shows that the ancestral alanine transaminase function has been retained by the ScALT1 encoded enzyme, which has specialized its catabolic character, while losing the alanine independent role observed in the ancestral type enzymes. The fact that ScAlt2 conserves 64% identity with LkAlt1

  12. Evolutionary Diversification of Alanine Transaminases in Yeast: Catabolic Specialization and Biosynthetic Redundancy.

    PubMed

    Escalera-Fanjul, Ximena; Campero-Basaldua, Carlos; Colón, Maritrini; González, James; Márquez, Dariel; González, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Gene duplication is one of the major evolutionary mechanisms providing raw material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae originated after an allopolyploidization event, which involved mating between two different ancestral yeast species. ScALT1 and ScALT2 codify proteins with 65% identity, which were proposed to be paralogous alanine transaminases. Further analysis of their physiological role showed that while ScALT1 encodes an alanine transaminase which constitutes the main pathway for alanine biosynthesis and the sole pathway for alanine catabolism, ScAlt2 does not display alanine transaminase activity and is not involved in alanine metabolism. Moreover, phylogenetic studies have suggested that ScALT1 and ScALT2 come from each one of the two parental strains which gave rise to the ancestral hybrid. The present work has been aimed to the understanding of the properties of the ancestral type Lacchancea kluyveri LkALT1 and Kluyveromyces lactis KlALT1, alanine transaminases in order to better understand the ScALT1 and ScALT2 evolutionary history. These ancestral -type species were chosen since they harbor ALT1 genes, which are related to ScALT2. Presented results show that, although LkALT1 and KlALT1 constitute ScALT1 orthologous genes, encoding alanine transaminases, both yeasts display LkAlt1 and KlAlt1 independent alanine transaminase activity and additional unidentified alanine biosynthetic and catabolic pathway(s). Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of null mutants uncovered the fact that KlAlt1 and LkAlt1 have an additional role, not related to alanine metabolism but is necessary to achieve wild type growth rate. Our study shows that the ancestral alanine transaminase function has been retained by the ScALT1 encoded enzyme, which has specialized its catabolic character, while losing the alanine independent role observed in the ancestral type enzymes. The fact that ScAlt2 conserves 64% identity with LkAlt1

  13. 78 FR 21007 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 13348

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ..., Vladimir Abramovich); DOB 14 Dec 1947; alt. DOB 18 Oct 1946; nationality Ukraine; Passport 5280007248D... KI0861177 (Russia); alt. Passport 65118 (Bolivia); alt. Passport 90109052 (Israel) issued 26 Nov 1997; Owner... Ukraine; Passport AC251295 (Ukraine); alt. Passport KC024178 (Ukraine) (individual) . 8. REEVES-TAYLOR...

  14. Caenorhabditis elegans POT-2 telomere protein represses a mode of alternative lengthening of telomeres with normal telomere lengths

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chen; Shtessel, Ludmila; Brady, Megan M.; Ahmed, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    Canonical telomere repeats at chromosome termini can be maintained by a telomerase-independent pathway termed alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Human cancers that survive via ALT can exhibit long and heterogeneous telomeres, although many telomerase-negative tumors possess telomeres of normal length. Here, we report that Caenorhabditis elegans telomerase mutants that survived via ALT possessed either long or normal telomere lengths. Most ALT strains displayed end-to-end chromosome fusions, suggesting that critical telomere shortening occurred before or concomitant with ALT. ALT required the 9-1-1 DNA damage response complex and its clamp loader, HPR-17. Deficiency for the POT-2 telomere binding protein promoted ALT in telomerase mutants, overcame the requirement for the 9-1-1 complex in ALT, and promoted ALT with normal telomere lengths. We propose that telomerase-deficient human tumors with normal telomere lengths could represent a mode of ALT that is facilitated by telomere capping protein dysfunction. PMID:22547822

  15. Minéralogie et bilan de matière de l'altération supergène d'un basalte alcalin du Moyen Atlas MarocainMineralogy and geochemistry of supergene alteration of an alkali basalt from the Middle Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekayir, A.; El-Maâtaoui, M.

    2001-05-01

    In the Middle Atlas of Morocco, alkali basaltic flows record successive weathering phases during the Quaternary. In fresh basalt interior and intermediate external zones, the first weathering stage is characterised by glass dissolution and the formation of a Si-Al poorly-crystallised product. Advanced weathering phases are characterised by 10 Å halloysite, kaolinite and goethite, located within the primary minerals or as secondary products in fissures. Olivine and iddingsite are transformed into Si-rich goethite, plagioclase into halloysite and pyroxene into a mixture of halloysite + geothite. Dissolution of Ti-magnetite and ilmenite yielded Ti-rich products. In these conditions, the weathering of basalts and development of a soil matrix are accompanied by the elimination of certain chemical elements, such as Si, Ca, Na and K, and the concentration of Fe and Al. In the soil, clay minerals such as illite and vermiculite, do not have any genetic relationship with weathered basalt and were probably introduced externally.

  16. Results of an aerodynamic investigation of a space shuttle orbiter/747 carrier vehicle configuration to establish a free-stream data base for ALT separation investigations, utilizing a 0.0125-scale model (48-0/AX1318I-1) in the ARC 14-foot wind tunnel (CA23A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Force and moment data are presented which were obtained for each vehicle separately at a Mach number of 0.6, and for the mated orbiter/747 configuration at Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7. Orbiter angles of attack from 0 degrees to +12 degrees and 747/Carrier angles of attack from -3 degrees to +7 degrees were investigated at angles of sideslip of 0 degrees and -5 degrees. Model variables include orbiter elevon and rudder deflections, orbiter tail cone-on and off, various orbiter/747 attach structure configurations, 747 stabilizer and rudder deflections, and 747 CAM modification components-on and off. Photographs of test configurations are included.

  17. Originalité des mécanismes d'altération sur les vestiges archéologiques de Délos (Cyclades, Grèce)Originality of weathering mechanisms on the archaeological remains of Delos (Cyclades, Greece).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeannette, Daniel

    2000-05-01

    The pore structure analysis of the granites and calcarenites of Delos archaeological site (Cyclades) has allowed us to verify a usual weathering mechanism by capillary transfer and evaporation of solutions from the ground loaded with marine salts. Not applicable to marble, another weathering mechanism is proposed, involving the water fixation of marine salts deposited on the monuments by wind, their migration, then their crystallization in the subsurface of the marble. The small-scale analysis of the condition of exposure, taking into account the ancient degradations, allows us to understand the development of decay which was inexplicable using the previous methods.

  18. Alte Marchen?--alter Hut. Neue Marchen!--neuer Hut? 3 Moderne Marchen bearbeitet als Horspiele, mit Aufgaben und Ubungen (Old Fairy Tales?--Old Hat. New Fairy Tales!--New Hat? Three Modern Fairy Tales Presented in a Radio Play, with Activities and Drills).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kage, Michael

    Three German modern "fairy tales" are presented in a radio play format with exercises based on the tales. Detailed suggestions for the exercises and other class activities based on the manual are included. While serving as a comprehension exercise of the preceding text, the exercises and other activities recommended to accompany them depart from…

  19. Sur l'origine par altération du substratum schisteux de la minéralisation chlorurée des eaux d'une nappe côtière sous climat semi-aride (Chtouka-Massa, Maroc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimissa, Samira; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Bouchaou, Lhoussaine; Mudry, Jacques; Hsissou, Youssef

    2004-11-01

    The origin of chloride ions in groundwater from the Chtouka-Massa plain (Morocco) was studied by using chemical and isotopic analyses of water, and petrographic and chemical analyses of rocks. It appears that the schist formation, which forms the basement of the studied aquifer, is the main source of the high Cl - concentrations in groundwater. In these schists, chloride is, for a part, probably contained in biotites, and is released into groundwater through the weathering of these minerals. However, the exceptionally high chloride contents of these schists are difficult to explain if one does not assume that they also contain evaporitic-type minerals. To cite this article: S. Krimissa et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  20. The molecular and electronic structure of poly-[2,7-(benzo[2,1;3,4-b‧]dithiophene)-alt-2,2‧-(3,3‧-didodecyl-5,5‧-bithiophenyl)] (PBTT): A periodic DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Solís, A.; Bernal-Jaquez, R.; Zicovich-Wilson, C. M.

    2014-06-01

    We report the results of periodic DFT calculations on quasi-2D chains of PBTT. Geometry optimizations used GGA and hybrid functionals. Several polymer space groups were explored, P 2122 yielding the lowest unit cell energy. The band gap varies from 1.15 to 2.39 eV vs. exp 2.0 eV. The B3LYP and B3PW functionals yield the best agreement, GGA ones predicting too small band gaps. When empirical dispersion effects are added, a reorganization of the lateral dodecyl chains occurs and the conjugation of main polymer backbone is lost; however, these changes seem unphysical. Further experiments and calculations of the real 3D material are needed.

  1. Alternative lengthening of telomeres can be maintained by preferential elongation of lagging strands

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jaewon; Wright, Woodring E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomerase independent telomere maintenance mechanism that occurs in ∼15% of cancers. The potential mechanism of ALT is homology-directed telomere synthesis, but molecular mechanisms of how ALT maintains telomere length in human cancer is poorly understood. Here, we generated TERC (telomerase RNA) gene knockouts in telomerase positive cell lines that resulted in long-term surviving clones acquiring the ALT pathway but at a very low frequency. By comparing these ALT cells with parental telomerase positive cells, we observed that ALT cells possess excessively long telomeric overhangs derived from telomere elongation processes that mostly occur during S phase. ALT cells exhibited preferential elongation of the telomeric lagging strands, whereas telomerase positive cells exhibited similar elongation between leading and lagging strands. We propose that the ALT pathway preferentially occurs at telomeric lagging strands leading to heterogeneous telomere lengths observed in most ALT cancers. PMID:28082393

  2. KSC-04PD-2619

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the Delta Operations Center on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., Tibor Nagy, a Pratt & Whitney representative, Wendell Perez (back to camera) and Ed Wagner (right) prepare the Delta second stage nozzle for the Boeing Delta IV launch vehicle for installation. The Delta IV is scheduled to launch the GOES-N satellite in May 2005. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites are sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). GOESN is the first in the next series of GOES satellites, NP. The multimission GOES series N-P will be a vital contributor to weather, solar and space operations and science. The GOES N-P series will aid activities ranging from severe storm warnings to resource management and advances in science.

  3. KSC-04PD-2621

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At the Delta Operations Center on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., Tibor Nagy and Bob McMillan, at left, make the initial nozzle inspection of the Delta second stage nozzle for a Boeing Delta IV launch vehicle. The Delta IV is scheduled to launch the GOES-N satellite in May 2005. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites are sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). GOESN is the first in the next series of GOES satellites, NP. The multimission GOES series N-P will be a vital contributor to weather, solar and space operations and science. The GOES N-P series will aid activities ranging from severe storm warnings to resource management and advances in science.

  4. Letter of Appreciation to 2004 Journal of Optical Networking Reviewers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    The international scientific and engineering professions rely on the work of countless reviewers to ensure the quality of the research published in technical journals. Like all such journals, JON benefits from the tireless efforts of these volunteers. Below is a list of 2004 JON reviewers who have agreed to have their names published. We sincerely thank these reviewers, as well as those not listed, for their assistance to JON and praise them for their dedication to their profession. The system simply would not work without them. Charalambos Anastassiou Ivan Andonovic Nirwan Ansari Chris Bintjas Martin Birk Zoran Bojkovic Xiren Cao Yang Cao Calvin C.K. Chan Yongmao Chang Yang Chen Kwok-Wai Cheung Nim-Kwan Cheung Su Fong Chien Wilson Chu Yun Chung Tibor Cinkler Ignacio de Miguel Jiun S. Deng Jitender Deogun H.J.S. Dorren Mark Feuer Samrat Ganguly

  5. Impact of Camping on Soil Properties at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Tibor, Matthew A.

    2014-05-01

    Recreational activity at campsites can cause compaction and metal contamination of soils. This study compared the bulk densities, penetration resistance values, organic matter contents, and Zn, Mn, and Cu contents of soils sampled from zones of varying recreational activity within the campsites at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota, USA. The results of this study showed that there were statistically significant increases in the soil bulk densities and soil penetration resistance values compared to the controls. However, the low recreational intensity has not compacted the surface soils beyond an average of 1.36 g cm-3, which is not dense enough to hinder the root growth of the surrounding vegetation. There were no statistically significant differences between the soil organic matter content of the different activity zones at the 95% confidence interval. Zinc values were four orders of magnitude and Cu values three to four orders of magnitude below US EPA guideline limits. The EPA does not have guidelines for Mn, but Mn levels were lower than reported typical natural values for a nearby area. Therefore, metal contents were not high enough to be of concern. Taken together, these results were interpreted to indicate that the low-intensity camping activities that occur at Strawberry Lake campground have not had a significant negative impact on the soils found there. Additional information on this study can be found in Tibor and Brevik (2013). Reference Tibor, M.A., and E.C. Brevik. 2013. Anthropogenic Impacts on Campsite Soils at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota. Soil Horizons 54: doi:10.2136/sh13-06-0016.

  6. Recognizing Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living With IBS Relationships ... Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living With IBS Relationships ...

  7. 78 FR 10000 - Unblocking of Five (5) Individuals as Specially Designated Global Terrorists Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    .... DARWISH, Sulayman Khalid (a.k.a. ``ABU AL-GHADIYA''), Syria; DOB 1976; alt. DOB circa 1974; POB Outside Damascus, Syria; nationality Syria; Passport 3936712 (Syria); alt. Passport 11012 (Syria)...

  8. Impacted Wisdom Teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wisdom%20teeth&alt=sh. Accessed March 9, 2015. Toothache and infection. The Merck Manual Professional Edition. http:// ... dental_disorders/symptoms_of_dental_and_oral_disorders/toothache_and_infection.html?qt=Wisdom%20teeth&alt=sh. ...

  9. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decrease in kidney function. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) , alanine amino transferase (ALT) , aspartate amino transferase (AST) , and ... Test: Glucose Kidneys and Urinary Tract Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) Blood Test: Basic Metabolic ...

  10. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... related side effects. The hepatic function panel evaluates: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). This enzyme, found in the liver, ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) Blood Test: Aspartate Aminotransferase ( ...

  11. Radar Sounder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    over the shorter time period (resulting in a multilook SAR ) with the result that spatial resolution, the usual r~ason for using SAR techniques, degrades...Field - - - ALT 21. Sea Surface Topography - - - SAR , ALT 22. Ocean Waves (sea, swell, surf) V. Good Some V. Good SAR , ALT * with additional lower freq...OLS - Operational Line-scan System radiometer (4-6 GHz?) ALT - Altimeter •* good at low microwave SAR - Synthetic Aperture frequencies Radar + over

  12. Systematic Characterization of the Molecular Mechanisms That Regulate and Mediate Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Breast Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Dev 17: 615–628. 50. Kim ST, Xu B, Kastan MB (2002) Involvement of the cohesin protein, Smc1, in Atm - dependent and independent responses to DNA damage...telomerase in immortalized premalignant cells and in cancer cells induces a switch from telomerase activation to ALT, enabling the cells to escape therapy...limited molecular understanding of the mechanisms that induce ALT and that are involved in ALT activity. Importantly, ALT activity has been

  13. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... must file Customs Form (CF) 3461 or CF 3461 alternate (CF 3461 ALT) as appropriate, or electronic... paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section). In such case, a CF 3461 or CF 3461 ALT as appropriate, or electronic... must submit a copy of the CF 3461/CF 3461 ALT, adjusted to reflect the quantity of that...

  14. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus) naturally infects several ornamental plants. Differences were previously noted between systemic symptoms induced in Nicotiana benthamiana by different isolates of AltMV, and by four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP. Virus accumulation was enhance...

  15. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Access Home Alt+0 Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 Search Search the WHO .int site Submit Advanced search Navigation Home ... body – for example when text messaging, accessing the Internet, or using a “hands free” device – will therefore ...

  16. Alantolactone induces apoptosis, promotes STAT3 glutathionylation and enhances chemosensitivity of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells to doxorubicin via oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Maryam, Amara; Mehmood, Tahir; Zhang, He; Li, Yongming; Khan, Muhammad; Ma, Tonghui

    2017-07-24

    Alantolactone (ALT), a sesquiterpene lactone component of Inula helenium, has been reported to exert anticancer activity in various cancers. However, the cellular targets and underlying mechanism of anticancer activity of ALT in various cancers including lung cancer has not been fully defined. In the present study, we found that ALT effectively inhibits proliferation and triggers oxidative stress mediated-apoptosis in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells by inducing ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. This ALT-mediated apoptosis was inhibited by NAC while diamide potentiated it. Moreover, ALT effectively suppressed both constitutive and inducible STAT3 activation, inhibited its translocation into nucleus and decreased its DNA binding activity. Further mechanistic study revealed that ALT abrogated STAT3 activation by promoting STAT3 glutathionylation. ROS scavenger NAC reverted ALT-mediated STAT3 glutathionylation and inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. Finally, ALT enhanced chemosensitivity of A549 cells to doxorubicin and reversed doxorubicin resistance in A549/DR cells by inhibiting STAT3 activation and P-glycoprotein expression and increasing intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin. Suppression of STAT3 activation by targeting ROS metabolism with ALT thus discloses a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the biological activity of ALT. Taken together; ALT induces oxidative stress-dependent apoptosis, inhibits STAT3 activation and augments doxorubicin toxicity in A549 lung cancer cells. These findings provide an in-depth insight into the molecular mechanism of ALT in the treatment of lung cancer.

  17. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... must file Customs Form (CF) 3461 or CF 3461 alternate (CF 3461 ALT) as appropriate, or electronic... paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section). In such case, a CF 3461 or CF 3461 ALT as appropriate, or electronic... must submit a copy of the CF 3461/CF 3461 ALT, adjusted to reflect the quantity of that particular...

  18. Mid-Bay Islands Hydrodynamics and Sedimentation Modeling Study, Chesapeake Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    B3 Hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling with M2D ................. B7 Hydrodynamics...maximum current field, normal tide ............................... B6 Figure B6. Alt JI-7 M2D model grid...B7 Figure B7. Alt JI-7 maximum current field, NE33 ........................................ B9 Figure B8. Alt JI-7 M2D

  19. Sex and the Library. Confirmed by the Research: There is Sex in the Library [and] Alt.sex: Detour off the Information Highway [and] Sex in Public (Libraries): An Historical Sampler of What Every Librarian Should Know [and] Mission Position: Censorship in the Corporate Library [and] Hard Cases: Some Issues Concerning the First Amendment's Protection of Free Speech and Free Press [and] Subtle Censors: Collection Development in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracy, Pauletta Brown, Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Six articles address issues of censorship and sexuality in libraries. Highlights include: surveys of censorship in North Carolina, acceptable use policies for the Internet, perceptions of librarians' sexuality, the proprietary nature of corporate library holdings, contemporary views and interpretation of First Amendment rights, and collection…

  20. Effect of Caffeine-Containing Beverage Consumption on Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Hospital-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yachiyo; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Tamori, Akihiro; Enomoto, Masaru; Habu, Daiki; Iwai, Shuji; Uchida-Kobayashi, Sawako; Fujii, Hideki; Shiomi, Susumu; Kawada, Norifumi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To date, there have been no prospective studies examining the effect of coffee consumption on serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level among individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among patients with chronic HCV infection to assess an association between baseline coffee consumption and subsequent ALT levels for 12 months. Materials and Methods From 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2006, total 376 HCV-RNA positive patients were recruited. A baseline questionnaire elicited information on the frequency of coffee consumption and other caffeine-containing beverages. ALT level as a study outcome was followed through the patients’ medical records during 12 months. The association between baseline beverage consumption and subsequent ALT levels was evaluated separately among patients with baseline ALT levels within normal range (≤45 IU/L) and among those with higher ALT levels (>45 IU/L). Results Among 229 patients with baseline ALT levels within normal range, 186 (81%) retained normal ALT levels at 12 months after recruitment. Daily drinkers of filtered coffee were three times more likely to preserve a normal ALT level than non-drinkers (OR=2.74; P=0.037). However, decaffeinated coffee drinkers had a somewhat inverse effect for sustained normal ALT levels, with marginal significance (OR=0.26; P=0.076). In addition, among 147 patients with higher baseline ALT levels, 39 patients (27%) had ALT reductions of ≥20 IU/L at 12 months after recruitment. Daily drinkers of filtered coffee had a significantly increased OR for ALT reduction (OR=3.79; P=0.034). However, in decaffeinated coffee drinkers, OR could not be calculated because no patients had ALT reduction. Conclusion Among patients with chronic HCV infection, daily consumption of filtered coffee may have a beneficial effect on the stabilization of ALT levels. PMID:24349501

  1. Effect of caffeine-containing beverage consumption on serum alanine aminotransferase levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a hospital-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yachiyo; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Tamori, Akihiro; Enomoto, Masaru; Habu, Daiki; Iwai, Shuji; Uchida-Kobayashi, Sawako; Fujii, Hideki; Shiomi, Susumu; Kawada, Norifumi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    To date, there have been no prospective studies examining the effect of coffee consumption on serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level among individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among patients with chronic HCV infection to assess an association between baseline coffee consumption and subsequent ALT levels for 12 months. From 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2006, total 376 HCV-RNA positive patients were recruited. A baseline questionnaire elicited information on the frequency of coffee consumption and other caffeine-containing beverages. ALT level as a study outcome was followed through the patients' medical records during 12 months. The association between baseline beverage consumption and subsequent ALT levels was evaluated separately among patients with baseline ALT levels within normal range (≤45 IU/L) and among those with higher ALT levels (>45 IU/L). Among 229 patients with baseline ALT levels within normal range, 186 (81%) retained normal ALT levels at 12 months after recruitment. Daily drinkers of filtered coffee were three times more likely to preserve a normal ALT level than non-drinkers (OR=2.74; P=0.037). However, decaffeinated coffee drinkers had a somewhat inverse effect for sustained normal ALT levels, with marginal significance (OR=0.26; P=0.076). In addition, among 147 patients with higher baseline ALT levels, 39 patients (27%) had ALT reductions of ≥20 IU/L at 12 months after recruitment. Daily drinkers of filtered coffee had a significantly increased OR for ALT reduction (OR=3.79; P=0.034). However, in decaffeinated coffee drinkers, OR could not be calculated because no patients had ALT reduction. Among patients with chronic HCV infection, daily consumption of filtered coffee may have a beneficial effect on the stabilization of ALT levels.

  2. Evaluation of genetic variability within PrP genotyped sheep of endangered Italian Altamurana breed.

    PubMed

    Martemucci, Giovanni; Iamartino, Daniela; Blasi, Michele; Selvaggi, Maria; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been increased awareness of preservation and exploitation of endangered breeds for the maintenance of biodiversity, as well as the concern for diseases in sheep breeding. This study was carried out in native endangered Altamurana dairy sheep breed from Southern Italy. The Altamurana breed was considered as two populations (Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe), based on presumed cross-breed and remarkable differences in the PrP genotypes frequencies. The genetic diversity between the two Altamurana populations (Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe) was evaluated in comparison to three Italian dairy breeds through fourteen microsatellite markers. Both measures of genetic distance and the population structure analysis highlighted that the Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe sheep have a particular genetic background. The estimated fixation index (FST) and the genetic Nei's distances among the populations showed a higher level of genetic differentiation for Alt-Cav than Alt-Cra-Zoe. The Bayesian clustering analysis implemented in the STRUCTURE software showed clear and distinct clusters for the two Altamurana populations, confirming the hypothesis of Alt-Cav as a genetic group well differentiated from Alt-Cra-Zoe. Alt-Cav likely can be considered as belonging to the original strain of the Altamurana breed. This findings may be used to assist the programme for conservation and selection of scrapie resistance genotypes in endangered Altamurana sheep breed.

  3. Identification and full sequence of an isolate of Alternanthera mosaic potexvirus infecting Phlox stolonifera.

    PubMed

    Hammond, J; Reinsel, M D; Maroon-Lango, C J

    2006-03-01

    A potexvirus was isolated from creeping phlox (Phlox stolonifera) plants from a commercial nursery in Pennsylvania. The virus was serologically related to clover yellow mosaic virus, plantain virus X, potato virus X, and potato aucuba mosaic virus, and was most closely related to papaya mosaic virus (PapMV). The sequence of a PCR fragment obtained with potexvirus group-specific primers was distinct from that of PapMV; the coat protein (CP) gene and 3' untranslated region (UTR) were closely related to Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV), previously reported only from Australia. The host range was similar to that of the Australian isolate (AltMV-Au), and the phlox isolate reacted strongly with antiserum to AltMV-Au. The full sequence of the phlox isolate was more closely related to PapMV throughout the genome than to any potexvirus other than AltMV-Au, for which only the CP and 3'UTR sequences are available. The phlox isolate was therefore named AltMV-PA (for Pennsylvania), and the full 6607 nt sequence is presented(1). Additional AltMV isolates from creeping phlox (AltMV-BR and AltMV-SP) and trailing portulaca (Portulaca grandiflora; AltMV-Po) were also isolated, suggesting that AltMV may be widespread, and may have been mis-diagnosed in the past as PapMV. AltMV has the potential to spread to other ornamental crops.

  4. Alternative lengthening of telomeres does exist in various canine sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Kreilmeier, Theresa; Sampl, Sandra; Deloria, Abigail J; Walter, Ingrid; Reifinger, Martin; Hauck, Marlene; Borst, Luke B; Holzmann, Klaus; Kleiter, Miriam

    2017-03-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM) found in some human tumors such as sarcomas. Canine tumors are not characterized for ALT and the study aim was to identify if the ALT phenotype exists in canine sarcomas. Sixty-four canine sarcoma samples (20 snap-frozen, 44 FFPE) as well as six canine sarcoma cell lines were screened for ALT by C-circle assay. ALT was further evaluated by measuring telomere length via qPCR and telomere restriction-fragments including pulsed-field electrophoresis. ALT-associated proteins were validated by immunohistochemistry. Further, telomerase activity (TA) and gene expression were analyzed by TRAP and qPCR. DNA from 20 human neuroblastomas and 8 sarcoma cell lines served as comparative controls. ALT was detected in 9.4% (6/64) canine sarcomas including aggressive subtypes as hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma. C-circle levels were comparable with human ALT-positive controls. All ALT tumors demonstrated loss of ATRX expression and 5/6 showed strong p53 expression. TA was detected in 93% (14/15) snap-frozen samples including a sarcoma with ALT activity. This tumor showed long heterogeneous telomeres, and a high level of colocalization of DAXX with telomeres. One sarcoma was ALT and TA negative. All canine and human sarcoma cell lines were ALT negative. In this study, we demonstrated that canine sarcomas use ALT. As in humans, ALT was identified in aggressive sarcomas subtypes and coexisted with TA in one tumor. Overall, canine sarcomas seem to share many similarities with their human counterparts and appear an attractive model for comparative telomere research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Napier, Christine E.; Huschtscha, Lily I.; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R.; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Reddel, Roger R.

    2015-01-01

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here that knockout or knockdown of ATRX in mortal cells or immortal telomerase-positive cells is insufficient to activate ALT. Notably, however, in SV40-transformed mortal fibroblasts ATRX loss results in either a significant increase in the proportion of cell lines activating ALT (instead of telomerase) or in a significant decrease in the time prior to ALT activation. These data indicate that loss of ATRX function cooperates with one or more as-yet unidentified genetic or epigenetic alterations to activate ALT. Moreover, transient ATRX expression in ALT-positive/ATRX-negative cells represses ALT activity. These data provide the first direct, functional evidence that ATRX represses ALT. PMID:26001292

  6. A Micro-Platinum Wire Biosensor for Fast and Selective Detection of Alanine Aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Tran Nguyen Thanh; Tseng, Tina T.-C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a miniaturized biosensor based on permselective polymer layers (overoxidized polypyrrole (Ppy) and Nafion®) modified and enzyme (glutamate oxidase (GlutOx)) immobilized micro-platinum wire electrode for the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was fabricated. The proposed ALT biosensor was measured electrochemically by constant potential amperometry at +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The ALT biosensor provides fast response time (~5 s) and superior selectivity towards ALT against both negatively and positively charged species (e.g., ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA), respectively). The detection range of the ALT biosensor is found to be 10–900 U/L which covers the range of normal ALT levels presented in the serum and the detection limit and sensitivity are found to be 8.48 U/L and 0.059 nA/(U/L·mm2) (N = 10), respectively. We also found that one-day storage of the ALT biosensor at −20 °C right after the sensor being fabricated can enhance the sensor sensitivity (1.74 times higher than that of the sensor stored at 4 °C). The ALT biosensor is stable after eight weeks of storage at −20 °C. The sensor was tested in spiked ALT samples (ALT activities: 20, 200, 400, and 900 U/L) and reasonable recoveries (70%~107%) were obtained. PMID:27240366

  7. Withaferin-A kills cancer cells with and without telomerase: chemical, computational and experimental evidences

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Katiyar, Shashank P; Sundar, Durai; Kaul, Zeenia; Miyako, Eijiro; Zhang, Zhenya; Kaul, Sunil C; Reddel, Roger R; Wadhwa, Renu

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of telomere length is the most consistent attribute of cancer cells. Tightly connected to their capacity to overcome replicative mortality, it is achieved either by activation of telomerase or an Alternative mechanism of Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT). Disruption of either of these mechanisms has been shown to induce DNA damage signalling leading to senescence or apoptosis. Telomerase inhibitors are considered as potential anticancer drugs but are ineffective for ALT cancers (~15% of all cancers). Withaferin-A (Wi-A), a major constituent of the medicinal plant, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), has been shown to exert anti-tumour activity. However, its effect on either telomerase or ALT mechanisms has not been investigated. Here, by using isogenic cancer cells with/without telomerase, we found that Wi-A caused stronger cytotoxicity to ALT cells. It was associated with inhibition of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, an established marker of ALT. Comparative analyses of telomerase positive and ALT cells revealed that Wi-A caused stronger telomere dysfunction and upregulation of DNA damage response in ALT cells. Molecular computational and experimental analyses revealed that Wi-A led to Myc-Mad mediated transcriptional suppression of NBS-1, an MRN complex protein that is an essential component of the ALT mechanism. The results suggest that Wi-A could be a new candidate drug for ALT cancers. PMID:28425984

  8. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α transactivates the mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase gene in the kidney of Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Salgado, María C; Metón, Isidoro; Anemaet, Ida G; González, J Diego; Fernández, Felipe; Baanante, Isabel V

    2012-02-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) plays an important role in amino acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. The preference of carnivorous fish for protein amino acids instead of carbohydrates as a source of energy lead us to study the transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial ALT (mALT) gene and to characterize the enzyme kinetics and modulation of mALT expression in the kidney of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) under different nutritional and hormonal conditions. 5'-Deletion analysis of mALT promoter in transiently transfected HEK293 cells, site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays allowed us to identify HNF4α as a new factor involved in the transcriptional regulation of mALT expression. Quantitative RT-PCR assays showed that starvation and the administration of streptozotocin (STZ) decreased HNF4α levels in the kidney of S. aurata, leading to the downregulation of mALT transcription. Analysis of the tissue distribution showed that kidney, liver, and intestine were the tissues with higher mALT and HNF4α expression. Kinetic analysis indicates that mALT enzyme is more efficient in catalyzing the conversion of L: -alanine to pyruvate than the reverse reaction. From these results, we conclude that HNF4α transactivates the mALT promoter and that the low levels of mALT expression found in the kidney of starved and STZ-treated fish result from a decreased expression of HNF4α. Our findings suggest that the mALT isoenzyme plays a major role in oxidazing dietary amino acids, and points to ALT as a target for a biotechnological action to spare protein and optimize the use of dietary nutrients for fish culture.

  9. Effect of argon laser trabeculoplasty on the rate of filtering surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Lynch, M.G.

    1986-03-01

    We examined the impact of argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) on the overall rate of filtering surgery on a resident service. From 1981 through 1984, 121 eyes underwent ALT for treatment of uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma despite maximum tolerated medical therapy. Mean intraocular pressure decreased from 27 +/- 4 mmHg to 20 +/- 5 mmHg (median follow-up, 9 months). From 1978 through 1981, the mean annual rate of filtering surgery was 16. Only one filtering procedure was performed in 1982, the first full year of ALT use. However, 15 filtering procedures were performed in 1983 and 18 were performed in 1984. Despite a large number of apparently effective ALT treatments and despite an overall reduction in outpatient visits of 20%, the rate of filtering surgery has returned to the pre-ALT level. This suggests that ALT may be effective in delaying the need for surgery, but in many cases it probably does not prevent surgery.

  10. [Post-transfusion hepatitis iin Chile: the reference parameters].

    PubMed

    Ibarra, H; Riedemann, S; Gómez, J C; Reinhardt, G; Hochstein-Mintzel, V; Froesner, G

    1990-02-01

    Most cases of post-transfusion hepatitis correspond to infection by non-A non-B virus. Indirect test (ALT elevation, anti-HBc titers) have been used to detect the presence of this virus. We screened 692 blood donors and health personnel, measuring anti-HBc (n = 572), HBs antigen (340), and ALT serum levels (190). Positive results were obtained for anti-HBc in 1.7% and HBs in 0%. ALT levels were 25 +/- 12 u/l in males and 18 +/- 14 in females (p < 0.01). ALT levels above 45 u/l were found in 6% of subjects. ALT levels were not related to anti-HBc positiveness nor to alcohol intake. The possible risk of posttransfusion hepatitis related to increased ALT levels remains to be clarified by specific markers.

  11. Changes of liver enzymes and triglyceride during the menopausal transition in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Sumika; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Kasai, Kana; Keyama, Kaoru; Kato, Takeshi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    We examined detailed changes in liver enzymes as surrogate markers for metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) during the menopausal transition and the associations of liver enzymes with lipid profiles related to risk of metabolic syndrome and endocrinological hormones. We divided 393 women into seven stages by menstrual regularity, follicle-stimulating hormone level and years since menopause. Serum levels of alanine aminotranferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase, lipid parameters, glucose, and endocrinological hormones were measured. Both levels of AST and ALT increased towards early post-menopause. AST remained high in late post-menopause but ALT decreased. The AST/ALT ratio decreased towards late menopausal transition and very early post-menopause and increased thereafter. This ratio was negatively correlated with triglyceride. Significant changes in ALT and AST/ALT ratio during the menopausal transition, which were associated with triglyceride, might be involved in the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD in Japanese women.

  12. Detection of alternative lengthening of telomeres by telomere quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Loretta M. S.; Dagg, Rebecca A.; Henson, Jeremy D.; Au, Amy Y. M.; Royds, Janice A.; Reddel, Roger R.

    2013-01-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is one of the two known telomere length maintenance mechanisms that are essential for the unlimited proliferation potential of cancer cells. Existing methods for detecting ALT in tumors require substantial amounts of tumor material and are labor intensive, making it difficult to study prevalence and prognostic significance of ALT in large tumor cohorts. Here, we present a novel strategy utilizing telomere quantitative PCR to diagnose ALT. The protocol is more rapid than conventional methods and scrutinizes two distinct characteristics of ALT cells concurrently: long telomeres and the presence of C-circles (partially double-stranded circles of telomeric C-strand DNA). Requiring only 30 ng of genomic DNA, this protocol will facilitate large-scale studies of ALT in tumors and can be readily adopted by clinical laboratories. PMID:22923525

  13. Determination of Alanine Aminotransferase with an Electrochemical Nano Ir-C Biosensor for the Screening of Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Chang-Jung; Wang, Joanne H.; Dai, Liming; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2011-01-01

    Alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), is an enzyme that normally resides in serum and body tissues, especially in the liver. It is released into the serum as a result of tissue injury; hence the concentration of ALT in the serum may be increased with acute damage to hepatic cells. A single use, disposable biosensor, comprising iridium nano-particle as catalyst dispersed on carbon paste, has been developed for the determination of ALT concentration. The biosensor is based on quantifying H2O2 concentration produced by a serial of ALT enzymatic reactions. It operates well at room temperature in different physiological fluids: phosphate buffer, calf serum and human serum for ALT concentration of 0–544 ng/mL. Experimental results in human serum are compared to those obtained by spectrophotometric assays with excellent agreement. Therefore, the Ir/C biosensor shows good relationship on the dilution of concentrated ALT clinical applications. PMID:25586923

  14. Transitioning the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) to Operational Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    descending by car to La Paz , Bolivia (3800 m; average PB = 487 mmHg) to continue acclimatizing at a lower altitude over three nights (ALT2-ALT4). On ALT4...Francesco Zaratti, Laboratorio de Fisica de la Atmosfera, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, La Paz , Bolivia. We also want to express our appreciation to...and at 5260 m atop Mt Chacaltaya near La Paz , Bolivia. The study was performed according to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the

  15. Diurnal variation in serum alanine aminotransferase activity in the US population.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Constance E; Everhart, James E

    2013-02-01

    Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity has been reported to be greater in the afternoon than the early morning, but data are scarce. We examined diurnal variation of ALT in a national population-based sample. Participants in the 1999 to 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were randomly assigned to morning (AM; n = 4474 adolescents, 11,235 adults) or afternoon/evening (PM; n = 4887 adolescents, 11,735 adults) examinations. We examined ALT distributions graphically and compared both geometric mean ALT and the prevalence of elevated ALT, defined as >31 IU/L for adolescent boys, >24 IU/L for adolescent girls, >43 IU/L for adult men, and >30 IU/L for adult women, between AM and PM examination groups. The examination groups were similar with the exception in the AM group of a longer fasting time and slightly higher prevalence of diabetes among adolescents and viral hepatitis B among adult women. ALT distributions were similar between examination sessions among the 4 groups. Among adolescents and men, neither mean ALT nor prevalence of abnormal ALT differed by examination group. Among women, mean ALT was statistically significant, but minimally higher in the PM group (19.6 IU/L) than the AM group (19.1 IU/L; P = 0.009). Among 1 subgroup, women with chronic viral hepatitis, there was a higher prevalence of abnormal ALT in the PM group (P = 0.018 in unadjusted analysis). Adjusting for liver injury risk factors had little effect on the difference in mean ALT. In general, clinically significant diurnal variation in ALT activity was not found in the US population.

  16. Irreducible tensor phenomenology for pd→3Heπ+π-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, G.; Deepak, P. N.

    2000-03-01

    A phenomenology based on the irreducible tensor formalism is developed for the reaction pdicons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> 3 Heicons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> + icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> - , to study incisively the P-wave dominance noticed in the recent kinematically complete experiment at c.m. excess energy of 70 MeV at the MOMO facility.

  17. Effects of argon laser trabeculoplasty in the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial.

    PubMed

    Heijl, Anders; Peters, Dorothea; Leske, M Cristina; Bengtsson, Boel

    2011-11-01

    To analyze reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) by argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) in the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial and factors influencing the effect of such treatment. Cohort study based on 127 patients from the treatment group of the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial, a randomized clinical trial. Patients randomized to the treatment arm of the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial received a standard treatment protocol (topical betaxolol hydrochloride followed by 360-degree ALT) and then were followed up prospectively at 3-month intervals for up to 8 years. One eye per patient was included in the analyses. We investigated the relationship between IOP before ALT and subsequent IOP reduction and other factors that might have influenced the effect of ALT, including stage of the disease, trabecular pigmentation, presence of exfoliation syndrome, and treating surgeon. The mean ± standard deviation IOP before ALT and after betaxolol treatment was 18.1 ± 3.9 mm Hg, and the mean ± standard deviation short-term IOP reduction 3 months after ALT was 2.8 ± 3.9 mm Hg (12.6 ± 20.5%). The IOP before ALT strongly affected IOP reduction (P < .001); each 3-mm Hg higher IOP before ALT value was associated with an additional mean IOP reduction of approximately 2 mm Hg. The treating surgeons also had a significant impact on IOP reduction (P = 0.001), with mean values ranging from 5.8 to -1.3 mm Hg. In this cohort, which included many patients with low IOP levels, IOP before ALT markedly influenced the IOP reduction induced by ALT, seen as a much larger decrease in eyes with higher IOP before ALT. The treating surgeon also had a significant impact on ALT outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rate-dependent force, intracellular calcium, and action potential voltage alternans are modulated by sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of thin filament regulation in human heart failure: A myocyte modeling study.

    PubMed

    Zile, Melanie A; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-01-01

    Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies heart failure patients at risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias at near-resting heart rates (<110 beats per minute). Since pressure alternans occurs simultaneously with MTWA and has a higher signal to noise ratio, it may be a better predictor of arrhythmia, although the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between force alternans (FORCE-ALT), the cellular manifestation of pressure alternans, and action potential voltage alternans (APV-ALT), the cellular driver of MTWA. Our goal was to uncover the mechanisms linking APV-ALT and FORCE-ALT in failing human myocytes and to investigate how the link between those alternans was affected by pacing rate and by physiological conditions such as sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters. To achieve this, a mechanically-based, strongly coupled human electromechanical myocyte model was constructed. Reducing the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake current (Iup) to 27% was incorporated to simulate abnormal calcium handling in human heart failure. Mechanical remodeling was incorporated to simulate altered thin filament activation and crossbridge (XB) cycling rates. A dynamical pacing protocol was used to investigate the development of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i), voltage, and active force alternans at different pacing rates. FORCE-ALT only occurred in simulations incorporating reduced Iup, demonstrating that alternans in the intracellular calcium concentration (CA-ALT) induced FORCE-ALT. The magnitude of FORCE-ALT was found to be largest at clinically relevant pacing rates (<110 bpm), where APV-ALT was smallest. We found that the magnitudes of FORCE-ALT, CA-ALT and APV-ALT were altered by heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters and sarcomere length due to the presence of myofilament feedback. These findings provide important insight into the relationship between heart

  19. Systematic Characterization of the Molecular Mechanisms That Regulate and Mediate Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Breast Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    instability is largely dampened, resulting in a rearranged but now relatively stable karyotype [43,44]. We asked whether ALT similarly stabilizes the...ATRX Loss and Genome Instability in ALT PLoS Genetics | www.plosgenetics.org 7 July 2012 | Volume 8 | Issue 7 | e1002772 Figure 3. Abnormal karyotypes in...ALT lines. Representative metaphases from 5 cell lines showing subtetraploid karyotype with high number of rearranged chromosomes (up to 60

  20. Pedicled fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap for the reconstruction of a large postoncologic abdominal wall resection defect: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nthumba, Peter; Barasa, Jack; Cavadas, Pedro C; Landin, Luis

    2012-02-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has been used to cover defects between the proximal third of the leg and lower abdomen, and with modification, may cover epigastric defects. We used the ALT flap to cover a full-thickness defect of over half the anterior abdominal wall. We conclude that abdominal wall defects of large sizes can be successfully reconstructed using an appropriately designed ALT flap; a simple, single-stage effective reconstruction.

  1. Rate-dependent force, intracellular calcium, and action potential voltage alternans are modulated by sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of thin filament regulation in human heart failure: A myocyte modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Zile, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies heart failure patients at risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias at near-resting heart rates (<110 beats per minute). Since pressure alternans occurs simultaneously with MTWA and has a higher signal to noise ratio, it may be a better predictor of arrhythmia, although the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between force alternans (FORCE-ALT), the cellular manifestation of pressure alternans, and APV-ALT, the cellular driver of MTWA. Our goal was to uncover the mechanisms linking APV-ALT and FORCE-ALT in failing human myocytes and to investigate how the link between those alternans was affected by pacing rate and by physiological conditions such as sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters. To achieve this, a mechanically-based, strongly coupled human electromechanical myocyte model was constructed. Reducing the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake current (Iup) to 27% was incorporated to simulate abnormal calcium handling in human heart failure. Mechanical remodeling was incorporated to simulate altered thin filament activation and crossbridge (XB) cycling rates. A dynamical pacing protocol was used to investigate the development of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i), voltage, and active force alternans at different pacing rates. FORCE-ALT only occurred in simulations incorporating reduced Iup, demonstrating that alternans in the intracellular calcium concentration (CA-ALT) induced FORCE-ALT. The magnitude of FORCE-ALT was found to be largest at clinically relevant pacing rates (<110 bpm), where APV-ALT was smallest. We found that the magnitudes of FORCE-ALT, CA-ALT and APV-ALT were altered by heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters and sarcomere length due to the presence of myofilament feedback. These findings provide important insight into the relationship between heart-failure-induced electrical and mechanical

  2. Previously Identified Deficiencies Not Corrected in the General Fund Enterprise Business System Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    Army implements GFEBS. No-year appropriations never close and must be migrated because they may never “ brownout .”3 ASA (AL&T) Did Not Develop and...for GFEBS implementation and address data migration from “ brownout ” systems. ASA (AL&T) did not develop and implement procedures to ensure that...to its needs. We made the original recommendation so that ASA (AL&T) 3 Brownout refers to the

  3. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Predicts Site of Origin in Neuroendocrine Tumor Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Dogeas, Epameinondas; Karagkounis, Georgios; Heaphy, Christopher M; Hirose, Kenzo; Pawlik, Timothy M; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Meeker, Alan; Hruban, Ralph H; Cameron, John L; Choti, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The determination of the primary tumor origin in patients with neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NELM) can pose a considerable management challenge. Recent studies have shown that the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is prevalent in some human tumors, including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET), and can be useful in predicting tumor biology. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the use of ALT as a biomarker in patients with NELM, in particular to predict the site of origin of metastases. METHODS Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed using tumor tissue from NELM patients undergoing liver resection between 1998 and 2010. These included 43 PanNET and 47 gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. The TMAs were tested for ALT using telomere-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization. The association between ALT positivity and clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes was investigated. RESULTS Alternative lengthening of telomeres was positive (ALT+) in 26 (29%) of the 90 tumors included in the TMAs. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were ALT+ in 56% of patients, compared with only 4% ALT+ among gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors (p < 0.001). The specificity of ALT for detecting pancreatic origin was 96% and the positive predictive value was 92%, and sensitivity was 56% and the negative predictive value was 70%. Additionally, ALT was associated with the pattern of metastatic disease: ALT + NELM were more likely to have oligometastases (p = 0.001) and less likely to be bilateral in distribution (p = 0.05) than were ALT tumors. In addition, ALT was associated with improved prognosis in the PanNET patient population. CONCLUSIONS Alternative lengthening of telomeres was found to be a useful biomarker in patients with NELM. This marker can be helpful in guiding therapy by identifying the site of origin in patients in whom the primary site is unknown. PMID:24655849

  4. An Investigation Into the Feasibility of Using a Modern Gravity Gradient Instrument for Passive Aircraft Navigation and Terrain Avoidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Noise Spectral Density (E/(Hz^1/2)) = ’); filename1=input(’Input Filename for GGI Signals (use . mat ... extension): ’,’s’); filename3=input(’Input...Filename for True Map (use . mat extension):... ’,’s’); 51 alt=mean2(Z)+alt; % Height above average terrain calc alt_EGM96=alt+mean2(Z); %% Computer Earth ’s...sim_time); % used 120s in thesis runs movefile(’filename2. mat ’,filename1) 286 movefile(’filename4. mat ’,filename3) Listing A.2: % This function reads

  5. Inverse relationship of the anterolateral and anteromedial thigh flap perforator anatomy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peirong

    2014-09-01

    When anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforators are inadequate, exploration of the contralateral thigh or a new flap may be required. If the anteromedial thigh (AMT) perforators were useable in these instances, harvest could proceed from a single donor site. The purposes of this study were to define the AMT perforator anatomy and examine the relationships between the AMT and ALT perforators. A total of 100 consecutive thighs were explored. The ALT and AMT perforator size and number were documented. The relationship between ALT and AMT size and number was examined using Fisher exact test, logistic regression, and linear regression. The main blood supply to the AMT flap was the rectus femoris branch (RFB) off the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoris artery. AMT perforators were only present in 51% of the thighs and most likely a single perforator near the midpoint and 3.2 cm medial to the line connecting the anterior superior iliac spine and the patella (perforator B location). Patients with one or fewer ALT perforators had fourfold increased chance of an AMT perforator. Patients with small or no ALT perforators usually had a large AMT perforator. After assigning numeric values to perforators based on size, lower ALT perforator scores were significantly related to higher AMT scores. The RFB is the main vascular pedicle of the AMT flap. There is an inverse relationship between size and number of ALT and AMT perforators: when ALT perforators are inadequate, AMT perforators are typically useable. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. ACAR, A Decision Support System to Optimize the Allocation of Combat and Airlift Resources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    main period TOTAL alt o output t ype 1 2 3 4 alt g graph C-5 90.90909 18.09917 18.08271 18.06628 145.1572 C-17 0 19.75 19.74012 19.58811 59.07823 C-141...a main menu alt o output OUTSIZE alt g graph period TOTAL ac type 1 2 3 4 C-5 90.90909 18.09917 18.08271 18.06628 145.1572 C-I? 100 19.75 19.74012

  7. Inhibition study of alanine aminotransferase enzyme using sequential online capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lina; Chen, Yuanfang; Yang, Li

    2014-12-15

    We report the study of several inhibitors on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme using sequential online capillary electrophoresis (CE) assay. Using metal ions (Na(+) and Mg(2+)) as example inhibitors, we show that evolution of the ALT inhibition reaction can be achieved by automatically and simultaneously monitoring the substrate consumption and product formation as a function of reaction time. The inhibition mechanism and kinetic constants of ALT inhibition with succinic acid and two traditional Chinese medicines were derived from the sequential online CE assay. Our study could provide valuable information about the inhibition reactions of ALT enzyme.

  8. FANCD2 limits BLM-dependent telomere instability in the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway.

    PubMed

    Root, Heather; Larsen, Andrew; Komosa, Martin; Al-Azri, Fakhriya; Li, Ren; Bazett-Jones, David P; Stephen Meyn, M

    2016-08-01

    Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome are genomic instability syndromes caused by mutations in proteins that participate in overlapping DNA repair and replication pathways. Here, we show that the monoubiquitinated form of the Fanconi Anemia protein FANCD2 acts in opposition to the BLM DNA helicase to restrain telomere replication and recombination in human cells that utilize the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway. ALT relies on exchanges of telomeric DNA to maintain telomeres, a process that we show FANCD2 suppresses. Depletion of FANCD2 results in a hyper-ALT phenotype, including an increase in extrachromosomal telomeric repeat DNAs, putative recombinational byproducts that we show exist as intertwined complexes forming the nucleic acid component of ALT-associated PML bodies. Increases in telomeric DNA are suppressed by loss of BLM but not RAD51, occur without parallel upregulation of shelterin proteins TRF1 and TRF2, and are associated with increased frequencies of deprotected and fragile telomeres. Inactivation of the FA pathway does not trigger ALT, as FANCD2 depleted telomerase positive cells do not acquire ALT-like phenotypes. We observe frequent fragile telomeres in ALT cells, suggesting that telomere sequences are prone to replication problems. We propose that, in ALT cells, FANCD2 promotes intramolecular resolution of stalled replication forks in telomeric DNA while BLM facilitates their resection and subsequent involvement in the intermolecular exchanges that drive ALT. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Dynamics of Active Layer Depth across Alaskan Tundra Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Zhang, X.; Song, X.; Xu, X.

    2016-12-01

    The thickness of the active layer, near-surface layer of Earth material above permafrost undergoing seasonal freezing and thawing, is of considerable importance in high-latitude environments because most physical, chemical, and biological processes in the permafrost region take place within it. The dynamics of active layer thickness (ALT) result from a combination of various factors including heat transfer, soil water content, soil texture, root density, stem density, moss layer thickness, organic layer thickness, etc. However, the magnitude and controls of ALT in the permafrost region remain uncertain. The purpose of this study is to improve our understanding of the dynamics of ALT across Alaskan tundra ecosystems and their controls at multiple scales, ranging from plots to entire Alaska. This study compiled a comprehensive dataset of ALT at site and regional scales across the Alaskan tundra ecosystems, and further analyzed ALT dynamics and their hierarchical controls. We found that air temperature played a predominant role on the seasonality of ALT, regulated by other physical and chemical factors including soil texture, moisture, and root density. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis confirmed the predominant role of physical controls (dominated by heat and soil properties), followed by chemical and biological factors. Then a simple empirical model was developed to reconstruct the ALT across the Alaska. The comparisons against field observational data show that the method used in this study is robust; the reconstructed time-series ALT across Alaska provides a valuable dataset source for understanding ALT and validating large-scale ecosystem models.

  10. High Accuracy Potential Energy Surface, Dipole Moment Surface, Rovibrational Energies and Line List Calculations for ^{14}NH_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Phillip; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Polyansky, Oleg; Kyuberis, Aleksandra; Ovsyannikov, Roman I.; Zobov, Nikolay Fedorovich; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    We present a new spectroscopic potential energy surface (PES) for ^{14}NH_3, produced by refining a high accuracy ab initio PES to experimental energy levels taken predominantly from MARVEL. The PES reproduces 1722 matched J=0-8 experimental energies with a root-mean-square error of 0.035 cm-1 under 6000 cm^{-1} and 0.059 under 7200 cm^{-1}. In conjunction with a new DMS calculated using multi reference configuration interaction (MRCI) and H=aug-cc-pVQZ, N=aug-cc-pWCVQZ basis sets, an infrared (IR) line list has been computed which is suitable for use up to 2000 K. The line list is used to assign experimental lines in the 7500 - 10,500 cm^{-1} region and previously unassigned lines in HITRAN in the 6000-7000 cm^{-1} region. Oleg L. Polyansky, Roman I. Ovsyannikov, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Lorenzo Lodi, Jonathan Tennyson, Andrey Yachmenev, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Nikolai F. Zobov, J. Mol. Spec., 327 (2016) 21-30 Afaf R. Al Derzia, Tibor Furtenbacher, Jonathan Tennyson, Sergei N. Yurchenko, Attila G. Császár, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans., 161 (2015) 117-130

  11. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

  12. DNA Damage Response Factors from Diverse Pathways, Including DNA Crosslink Repair, Mediate Alternative End Joining

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sean M.; Yanez, Diana A.; Stark, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

  13. Statin-related aminotransferase elevation according to baseline aminotransferases level in real practice in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-S; Lee, S H; Kim, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Lee, H; Yim, H W; Kim, S-H; Choi, I-Y; Yoon, K-H; Kim, J H

    2016-06-01

    Higher rate of statin-related hepatotoxicity has been reported for Koreans than for Westerners. Moreover, statin-related aminotransferase elevation for those who show borderline levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) (≤×3 of UNL) at baseline has not been fully investigated. Post-statin changes AST/ALT levels during the first year for 21 233 Korean outpatients at two large academic teaching hospitals from January 2009 to December 2013 were analysed using electronic health record data. The date of the first statin prescription was set as baseline. We also performed a comparative analysis of statin-related AST/ALT elevations according to the type of statin, followed by an analysis of clinical risk factors. The progression rate to abnormal AST/ALT values [>×3 the upper normal limit (UNL)] was significantly higher (2·4-16% vs. 0·3-1·7%, P < 0·001) in subjects with borderline (>×1, but ≤×3 of UNL) compared with normal AST/ALT values at baseline. Those with normal baseline AST/ALT did not show significantly different progression rate between different statin medications (P = 0·801). However, patients taking pitavastatin (HR = 0·76, P = 0·657) were least likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT, whereas those taking fluvastatin (HR = 2·96, P = 0·029) were the most likely to develop abnormal AST/ALT compared with atorvastatin for patients who were with baseline borderline AST/ALT. However, given the small sample sizes and the observational nature of our study, these need further study. It is advisable to regularly monitor AST/ALT levels even in patients with AST/ALT increases >×1. Future studies should aim to determine the possible risk factors for each specific statin type by analysing various confounding variables. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Influence of gender, race, and ethnicity on suspected fatty liver in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; McGreal, Nancy; Deutsch, Reena; Finegold, Milton J; Lavine, Joel E

    2005-05-01

    Fatty liver is a common cause of liver disease in children. However, the epidemiology of pediatric fatty liver is limited to single-center case series of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Obesity and insulin resistance are major established risk factors for NAFLD. The role of gender, race, and ethnicity on the prevalence of fatty liver in obese children is unknown. We recruited obese 12th-grade participants from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health in California, Louisiana, Minnesota, and Texas. Serum samples were collected at school when the participants were well. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was measured by kinetic enzymatic assay, and ALT >40 U/L was defined as abnormal. Causes of abnormal ALT other than NAFLD were excluded by serum testing. A total of 127 obese students (73 female, 54 male) had a mean BMI of 35.2 kg/m2. Unexplained ALT elevation was present in 23% of participants overall. The mean ALT for participants with normal values was 28 U/L and for participants with an abnormal ALT was 56 U/L. Abnormal ALT was significantly more prevalent in boys (44%) than in girls (7%). The prevalence of abnormal ALT differed significantly by race and ethnicity (Hispanic: 36%; white: 22%; black: 14%). Serum ALT value was significantly predicted by the combination of gender, race/ethnicity, and BMI. After controlling for gender and BMI, Hispanic ethnicity significantly predicted greater ALT than black race. In a national, school-based sample of obese adolescents, boys were 6 times more likely than girls to have an unexplained elevated ALT. Given that participants were well and causes of chronic liver disease were excluded, we speculate that obese adolescent boys have an increased prevalence of fatty liver compared with obese adolescent girls. This population-based study also supports the hypothesis that NAFLD is more common in Hispanic adolescents. These findings have implications for both disease screening and studies of fatty liver

  15. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

    2013-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination.

  16. Prevalence of elevated alanine transaminase in Australia and its relationship to metabolic risk factors: A cross-sectional study of 9,447 people.

    PubMed

    Mahady, Suzanne E; Gale, Joanne; Macaskill, Petra; Craig, Jonathan C; George, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) is a strong predictor of metabolic syndrome, but there are few data from the Australian population. We aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated ALT and association with metabolic risk factors. In this cross-sectional study including adult participants (N = 9,447) from a nationwide, population-based survey, we assessed the prevalence of elevated ALT [defined as ≥ 40 IU/L (men) and ≥ 30 IU/L (women) as baseline, and ALT as ≥ 30 IU/L (men) and ≥ 19 IU/L (women) as lower threshold], distribution of metabolic risk factors, and independent predictors of elevated ALT in logistic regression models. Analyses were weighted to the population with population weights. Elevated ALT levels were found in 11.2% of the Australian population. People with elevated ALT were younger (43 vs 46 yrs) with more truncal adiposity (100 vs 91 cm), higher pro-atherogenic lipids and glucose and exercised less (120 vs 160 min per week, P < 0.05 for all analyses). Regression analyses indicated that younger age, male sex, diabetes, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, and waist circumference were independent predictors of elevated ALT. The population attributable fraction of elevated ALT due to truncal obesity was estimated at 47%. These data demonstrate a high prevalence of elevated ALT in the general population that is closely associated with metabolic risk factors. Individuals with elevated ALT should be evaluated for co-existent metabolic disorders. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Abdominal obesity validates the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yueh, Chen-Yu; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Sung, Yi-Ting; Lee, Li-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To examine how elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) could be associated with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on a mass health examination. The odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus were compared between people with and without abdominal obesity, together with and without elevated ALT levels. 5499 people were included in this study. Two hundred fifty two (4.6%) fulfilled the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with 178 (3.2%) undiagnosed before. Metabolic syndrome was vigorously associated with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus (12.4% vs. 1.4% and 9.0% vs. 0.9%), but elevated ALT alone was not. However, coexisting with obesity, elevated ALTs were robustly associated with diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. For the incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus, in comparison to non-obese people with normal ALT (1.7%, OR = 1), obese people especially with elevated ALT levels had significantly higher ORs (obese with ALT ≤ 40 U/L: 4.7%, OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.08-2.77, P 0.023; ALT 41-80 U/L: 6.8%, OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.20-3.55, P 0.009; ALT 81-120 U/L: 8.8%, OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.38-6.84, P 0.006; ALT > 120 U/L: 18.2%, OR 7.44, 95% CI 3.04-18.18, P < 0.001). Abdominal obesity validates the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase and diabetes mellitus and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. People with abdominal obesity, especially with coexisting elevated ALT levels should be screened for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

  18. Apparent life-threatening event in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee Joung

    2016-01-01

    An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as the combination of clinical presentations such as apnea, marked change in skin and muscle tone, gagging, or choking. It is a frightening event, and it predominantly occurs during infancy at a mean age of 1–3 months. The causes of ALTE are categorized into problems that are: gastrointestinal (50%), neurological (30%), respiratory (20%), cardiovascular (5%), metabolic and endocrine (2%–5%), or others such as child abuse. Up to 50% of ALTEs are idiopathic, where the cause cannot be diagnosed. Infants with an ALTE are often asymptomatic at hospital and there is no standard workup protocol for ALTE. Therefore, a detailed initial history and physical examination are important to determine the extent of the medical evaluation and treatment. Regardless of the cause of an ALTE, all infants with an ALTE should require hospitalization and continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring and evaluation for at least 24 hours. The natural course of ALTEs has seemed benign, and the outcome is generally associated with the affected infants' underlying disease. In conclusion, systemic diagnostic evaluation and adequate treatment increases the survival and quality of life for most affected infants. PMID:27721838

  19. Update of Aircraft Profile Data for the Integrated Noise Model Computer Program. Volume 2. Appendix A: Aircraft Takeoff and Landing Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    FLAP START END START END SEG. THRST R/C GRADNO. ALT ALT SPEED SPEED LNGTH (FT) (FT) (KCAS) (FT) (LB) (FPM) 1 TKOFF 10 0 0 16 154 3846 42125 0 0.000002...RELEASE (FT) (FT) (KTAS) (LB) --------------------------- -------- -------- ------ POINT 1 0 0 16 48167 POINT 2 3846 0 154 42125 POINT 3 8050 1000 157

  20. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 679 - BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI 4 Figure 4 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... hours, A.l.t. September 1 of the current fishing year through 1200 hours, A.l.t. March 1 of...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 679 - BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI 4 Figure 4 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... hours, A.l.t. September 1 of the current fishing year through 1200 hours, A.l.t. March 1 of...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 679 - BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false BSAI Herring Savings Areas in the BSAI 4 Figure 4 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... hours, A.l.t. September 1 of the current fishing year through 1200 hours, A.l.t. March 1 of...

  3. Insights into Alternanthera mosaic virus TGB3 functions: Interactions with Nicotiana benthamiana PsbO correlate with chloroplast vesiculation and veinal necrosis caused by TGB3 overexpression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein is involved in viral movement. AltMV TGB3 subcellular localization was previously shown to be distinct from that of Potato virus X (PVX) TGB3, and a chloroplast binding domain identified; veinal necrosis and chloroplast vesiculati...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Alternanthera mosaic virus, Isolated from Achyranthes bidentata in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Yusa, Akira; Nishida, Shuko; Tanno, Kazuyuki; Keima, Takuya; Nijo, Takamichi; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) infecting Achyranthes bidentata was first detected in Asia, and the complete genome sequence (6,604 nucleotides) was determined. Sequence identity analysis and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that this isolate is the most phylogenetically distant AltMV isolate worldwide. PMID:26988034

  5. NEW METABOLITES FROM THE MICROBIAL OXIDATION OF FLUORINATED AROMATIC COMPOUNDS. (R826113)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    m-Bromo-alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>,alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>,Prevalence and predictors of alanine aminotransferase elevation among normal weight, overweight and obese youth in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maura; Flores, Yvonne N; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Denova-Gutiérrez, Edgar; Salmeron, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among a sample of normal weight, overweight and obese youth from two urban populations in Central Mexico. Baseline data from 1262 youth aged 8-19 years who participated in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study from March 2004 to April 2006 were reviewed, including 680 girls and 582 boys, with a total of 83 participants with elevated ALT level (>40 U/L). Information was obtained from self-administered questionnaires, anthropometric results and clinical measurements. Associations of interest were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 3.8% of girls and 9.8% of boys had elevated ALT levels. Elevated ALT was observed in 28.9% of the obese and 14.2% of the overweight participants. Metabolic syndrome (MS) occurred in 6.1% of the study population and those with MS had a high percentage of elevated ALT (14.5% of girls and 40.0% of boys, respectively). Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were also associated with a greater risk of elevated ALT. Obesity and certain metabolic risk factors are important predictors for elevated ALT. Screening for ALT levels in obese youth could help to identify those at risk and reduce the possibility of future liver diseases. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  6. Influence of Asymptomatic Pneumonia on the Response to Hemorrhage and Resuscitation in Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine kinase (CK), amylase and lactate (Vitros Chemistry System...CK. Creatinine increased at 15 min in both groups and remained elevated throughout the study. Mean total protein, amylase and ALT decreased similarly

  7. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  8. Antifungal Wound Penetration of Amphotericin and Voriconazole in Combat-related Injuries: Case Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-15

    AST/ALT (IU/L) 193/59 211/318 61/72 INR 1.4 1.4 1.2 Dose interval: 24 hours for L-AmB, 12 hours for voriconazole. Abd, abdomen; AST, aspartate...aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; calc, calcaneus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; INR , international normalized ratio; RUE, right

  9. Neural correlate of autistic-like traits and a common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yuki; Suga, Motomu; Tochigi, Mamoru; Abe, Osamu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Liu, Xiaoxi; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    Sub-clinical autistic-like traits (ALTs) are continuously distributed in the general population and genetically linked to autism. Although identifying the neurogenetic backgrounds of ALTs might enhance our ability to identify those of autism, they are largely unstudied. Here, we have examined the neuroanatomical basis of ALTs and their association with the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs2254298A, a known risk allele for autism in Asian populations which has also been implicated in limbic–paralimbic brain structures. First, we extracted a four-factor structure of ALTs, as measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, including ‘prosociality’, ‘communication’, ‘details/patterns’ and ‘imagination’ in 135 neurotypical adults (79 men, 56 women) to reduce the genetic heterogeneity of ALTs. Then, in the same population, voxel-based morphometry revealed that lower ‘prosociality’, which indicates strong ALTs, was significantly correlated to smaller regional grey matter volume in the right insula in males. Males with lower ‘prosociality’ also had less interregional structural coupling between the right insula and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, males with OXTR rs2254298A had significantly smaller grey matter volume in the right insula. These results show that decreased volume of the insula is a neuroanatomical correlate of ALTs and a potential intermediate phenotype linking ALTs with OXTR in male subjects. PMID:23946005

  10. THE BINDING OF COCAINE TO CYCLODEXTRINS. (R826653)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Cocaine binds into alt="small beta, Greek" border=0>-cyclodextrin, but not detectably into alt="small alpha, Greek" border=...

  11. Variability in alternanthera mosaic virus isolates from different hosts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have determined the complete genome sequences of Alternanthera mosaic virus phlox isolate PA (AltMV-PA) and four infectious clone variants derived from AltMV-SP, as well as partial sequences of other isolates from various types of phlox, and from portulaca, nandina, and cineraria. Phylogenetic co...

  12. Physiological Self-Regulation and Information Processing in Infancy: Cardiac Vagal Tone and Habituation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Suess, Patricia E.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the role of physiological self-regulation (cardiac vagal tone) in information processing (habituation) in infants. Found that decreases in vagal tone consistently related to habituation efficiency at 2 and 5 months. Within- and between- age suppression of vagal tone predicted accumulated looking time (ALT), but ALT did not predict…

  13. 78 FR 30242 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE..., Alaska local time (A.l.t.), May 18, 2013, through 1200 hours, A.l.t., July 1, 2013. FOR FURTHER... vessels participating in the cooperative fishery in the Rockfish Program for the Central GOA. After the...

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis A viral RNA and antibodies among Chinese blood donors.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Su, N; Lin, F Z; Ma, L; Wang, H J; Rong, X; Dai, Y D; Li, J; Jian, Z W; Tang, L H; Xiao, W; Li, C Q

    2015-12-09

    Like other developing countries, China was reported to have a relatively high seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A antibodies (anti-HAV). However, no studies have evaluated the prevalence of anti-HAV and HAV RNA among voluntary blood donors with or without elevated serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Anti-HAV antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was carried out for detection of HAV RNA. In the current study, we analyzed a total of 450 serum samples with elevated ALT levels (≥40 U/L) and 278 serum samples with non-elevated ALT levels. Seroprevalence rates of anti-HAV were 51.6% in donors with elevated ALT and 41.4% in donors with non-elevated ALT; however, none of the samples was positive for HAV RNA. The results of our study showed lower seroprevalence rates of anti-HAV in blood donors (irrespective of ALT levels) than those in published data on Chinese populations. Although donors with elevated ALT had statistically higher prevalence rates of anti- HAV than did those with non-elevated ALT, none of the serum samples had detectable levels of the active virus. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the transmission of hepatitis A by blood transfusion will occur rarely.

  15. 75 FR 20672 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., Yassin; a.k.a. CALI, Yasiin Baynax), Rinkeby, Stockholm, Sweden; Mogadishu, Somalia; DOB circa 1966; nationality Somalia; alt. nationality Sweden (individual) 6. GARAAD, Mohamed Abdi (a.k.a. GARAAD, Mohamud... Muhammad Khalaf; a.k.a. SONGALE, Fuad), Mogadishu, Somalia; nationality Somalia; alt. nationality...

  16. NEW METABOLITES FROM THE MICROBIAL OXIDATION OF FLUORINATED AROMATIC COMPOUNDS. (R826113)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    m-Bromo-alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>,alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>,Image Classification for Web Genre Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    default Haar face cascades (created by Raine Lienhart) that came pre-packaged with OpenCV . Landscape detection, on the other hand, is vastly...and training set [3] EXPERIMENTATION To test the OpenCV face Haar cascades (frontalface_default, frontalface_alt, and frontalface_alt2), we

  17. Secondary Item Procurement Lead Time Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Data File ( MDF ). This marks the end of ALT. Segments of time excluded from ALT are: - The period between the date the ROP is reached and the date the...Outlook Valve Manufacturing Association Directory Wall Street Journal Welding Design and Fabrication Magazine 53 * . - -. - . -..-. = . -. - . -% - =r

  18. Developing an Alternanthera mosaic virus vector for efficient clonging of Whitefly cDNA RNAi to screen gene function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; genus Potexvirus) is distinguished from the type member of the genus, Potato virus X by features of viral movement and variation within triple gene block protein 1 (TGB1). AltMV TGB1 variants TGB1L88 and TGB1P88 confer strong and weak silencing suppression, respect...

  1. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--National Alternative High School Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    1999-01-01

    The Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), which monitors six categories of health risk behaviors among youth and young adults. The 1998 ALT-YRBS measured priority health risk behaviors among students at alternative high schools. It used a three-stage…

  2. 75 FR 77044 - Blocking of Specially Designated National Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ..., Felicien (a.k.a. IRAKEZA, Fred); DOB 1967; POB Murama, Kinyinya, Rubungo, Kigali, Rwanda; nationality Rwanda; Lt. Col. (individual) 2. ZIMURINDA, Innocent; DOB 1 Sep 1972; alt. DOB 1975; POB Ngungu, Masisi... District (Northern Province), Rwanda; alt. POB Nyakinama, Ruhengeri, Rwanda; FDLR President; FDLR 2nd...

  3. The Education and Training of Learning Technologists: A Competences Approach (Report to IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technologies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Kinshuk; Koper, Rob; Okamoto, Toshio; Spector, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The educational and training requirements of Advanced Learning Technology (ALT) need to engage with curricula that reflect the varied requirements of the workplace and of society. Students have a range of interests and ambitions in ALT which the instructional process has to accommodate and support. With these considerations in mind the IEEE…

  4. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... through an authorized electronic data interchange system, manifest information relating to the shipment... must file Customs Form (CF) 3461 or CF 3461 alternate (CF 3461 ALT) as appropriate, or electronic... paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section). In such case, a CF 3461 or CF 3461 ALT as appropriate, or...

  5. 19 CFR 141.57 - Single entry for split shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... through an authorized electronic data interchange system, manifest information relating to the shipment... must file Customs Form (CF) 3461 or CF 3461 alternate (CF 3461 ALT) as appropriate, or electronic... paragraph (g)(2)(ii) of this section). In such case, a CF 3461 or CF 3461 ALT as appropriate, or...

  6. THE BINDING OF COCAINE TO CYCLODEXTRINS. (R826653)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Cocaine binds into alt="small beta, Greek" border=0>-cyclodextrin, but not detectably into alt="small alpha, Greek" border=...

  7. The Education and Training of Learning Technologists: A Competences Approach (Report to IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technologies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Kinshuk; Koper, Rob; Okamoto, Toshio; Spector, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The educational and training requirements of Advanced Learning Technology (ALT) need to engage with curricula that reflect the varied requirements of the workplace and of society. Students have a range of interests and ambitions in ALT which the instructional process has to accommodate and support. With these considerations in mind the IEEE…

  8. The Movement and Storage of Pipe and Shapes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    ie ld , WA 98642, Alt . Wayne Bostad (206) 887-4666 (President) FAX (206) 887-3822 TCM JAPAN Toyo Umpanki Co. M. Takahashi Ltd. TCM Building 1-15-5...682-6361 Alt . FAX (215) 682-4781 R. P. Bowers Andrew Dietrich ELWELL-PARKER ELECTRIC COMPANY 4205 St. Clair Ave. Sheldon K. Towson , Charles Herron

  9. Direct Observation of Academic Learning Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rich

    1987-01-01

    Classroom variables associated with academic learning time (ALT)--instructional time, on-task behavior, and student success rate--are positively related to student achievement. Guidelines and forms are provided for teachers and supervisors to gather objective and usable information on these ALT components through direct classroom observation…

  10. 76 FR 9073 - Designation of Two Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...; alt. DOB 1 Jan 1972; nationality Afghanistan; National ID No. 281020505755 (Kuwait); Passport OR801168 (Afghanistan) issued 28 Feb 2006 expires 27 Feb 2011; alt. Passport 4117921 (Pakistan) issued 9 Sep 2008... ur Rahman), Sarana Zadran Village, Paktia, Afghanistan; Peshawar, Pakistan; Near Dirgha...

  11. 50 CFR 679.80 - Initial allocation of rockfish QS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Rockfish entry level fishery—longline gear vessels. Fishing by vessels participating in the longline gear portion of the rockfish entry level fishery is authorized from 0001 hours, A.l.t., January 1 through 1200 hours, A.l.t., November 15. (ii) Rockfish entry level fishery—trawl vessels. Fishing by...

  12. Effects of Computer-Based Early-Reading Academic Learning Time on Early-Reading Achievement: A Dose-Response Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuston, Edward Benjamin Hull

    2010-01-01

    Academic learning time (ALT) has long had the theoretical underpinnings sufficient to claim a causal relationship with academic achievement, but to this point empirical evidence has been lacking. This dearth of evidence has existed primarily due to difficulties associated with operationalizing ALT in traditional educational settings. Recent…

  13. Absence of Ligamentum Teres in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Li, TianYou; Zhang, MinGang; Wang, HengBing; Wang, YanZhou

    2015-01-01

    Ligamentum teres is hypertrophied and should be resected in developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We have observed a relatively high prevalence of absence of ligamentum teres (ALT) in severe DDH. The purpose of this study was to determine: (1) the percentage of ALT in DDH; (2) the risk factors correlating with ALT; and (3) the pathologic characteristics of DDH with ALT. In 2012, 123 patients were hospitalized for open reduction of DDH. Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed. The distribution of ALT was discerned. The risk factors correlating with ALT were analyzed. The pathologic changes of the DDH with ALT were observed. For the 123 patients, there were 14 males and 109 females with a mean age of 2.2±1.7 years old. Forty-one cases were diagnosed with bilateral DDH, and 27 of them had open reduction for both hips. Thus, 150 hips were included. According to the Tonnis grading, there were 1 grade I, 43 II, 67 III, and 39 IV patients. During operation, the ligamentum teres was confirmed absent in 24 patients (28 hips, 18.67%), 22 of the hips with ALT was Tonnis grade IV (78.57%). It was present in the other 99 patients (122 hips). The difference of ALT among different grade (χ2=43.959, P=0.000) and different age (χ2=10.748, P=0.008) showed statistical significance, respectively. Logistic regression revealed only grading was the correlation factor of ALT (P=0.000). Pathologically, the femoral head was extremely small. The cartilage surface showed erosion-like change. The acetabulum was also diminutive but could match the femoral head well. At our institution, 18.67% of DDH needing open reduction was combined with ALT. The degree of dislocation was the only correlation factor of ALT. If the Tonnis grade was high, the hip was often associated with ALT. This study defines the prevalence of ALT and its risk factor in DDH, which will help to better understand the imaging, pathologic findings, and clinical outcome of DDH.

  14. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    DOE PAGES

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; ...

    2016-05-18

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but themore » strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.« less

  15. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-05-18

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but the strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.

  16. Structure and properties of virions and virus-like particles derived from the coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Donchenko, Ekaterina K; Pechnikova, Evgeniya V; Mishyna, Maryia Yu; Manukhova, Tatiana I; Sokolova, Olga S; Nikitin, Nikolai A; Atabekov, Joseph G; Karpova, Olga V

    2017-01-01

    Plant viruses and their virus-like particles (VLPs) have a lot of advantages for biotechnological applications including complete safety for humans. Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) is a potentially promising object for design of novel materials. The 3D structures of AltMV virions and its VLPs were obtained by single particle EM at ~13Å resolution. The comparison of the reconstructions and a trypsin treatment revealed that AltMV CPs possesses a different fold in the presence (virions) and absence of viral RNA (VLPs). For the first time, the structure of morphologically similar virions and virus-like particles based on the coat protein of a helical filamentous plant virus is shown to be different. Despite this, both AltMV virions and VLPs are stable in a wide range of conditions. To provide a large amount of AltMV for biotechnology usage the isolation procedure was modified.

  17. Antibiotic lock therapy: review of technique and logistical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections is a simple strategy in theory, yet its real-world application may be delayed or avoided due to technical questions and/or logistical challenges. This review focuses on these latter aspects of ALT, including preparation information for a variety of antibiotic lock solutions (ie, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, folate antagonists, glycopeptides, glycylcyclines, lipopeptides, oxazolidinones, polymyxins, and tetracyclines) and common clinical issues surrounding ALT administration. Detailed data regarding concentrations, additives, stability/compatibility, and dwell times are summarized. Logistical challenges such as lock preparation procedures, use of additives (eg, heparin, citrate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), timing of initiation and therapy duration, optimal dwell time and catheter accessibility, and risks of ALT are also described. Development of local protocols is recommended in order to avoid these potential barriers and encourage utilization of ALT where appropriate. PMID:25548523

  18. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-05-18

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but the strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.

  19. Alanine aminotransferase and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-38).

    PubMed

    Deetman, Petronella E; Alkhalaf, Alaa; Landman, Gijs W D; Groenier, Klaas H; Kootstra-Ros, Jenny E; Navis, Gerjan; Bilo, Henk J G; Kleefstra, Nanne; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2015-08-01

    Combined data suggest a bimodal association of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with mortality in the general population. Little is known about the association of ALT with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. We therefore investigated the association of ALT with all-cause, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. A prospective study was performed in patients with type 2 diabetes, treated in primary care, participating in the Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study. Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the associations of log2 -transformed baseline ALT with all-cause, cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. In 1187 patients with type 2 diabetes (67 ± 12 years, 45% female), ALT levels were 11 (8-16) U/L. During median follow-up for 11.1 (6.1-14.0) years, 553 (47%) patients died, with 238 (20%) attributable to cardiovascular causes. Overall, ALT was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.92), independently of potential confounders. This was less attributable to cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.72-1.05), than to noncardiovascular mortality (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.65-0.90). Despite the overall inverse association of ALT with mortality, it appeared that a bimodal association with all-cause mortality was present with increasing risk for levels of ALT above normal (P = 0.003). In patients with type 2 diabetes, low levels of ALT are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, in particular noncardiovascular mortality, compared to normal levels of ALT, while risk again starts to increase when levels are above normal. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  20. Coexistence of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres and Telomerase in hTERT-Transfected GM847 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Perrem, Kilian; Colgin, Lorel M.; Neumann, Axel A.; Yeager, Thomas R.; Reddel, Roger R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been shown previously that some immortalized human cells maintain their telomeres in the absence of significant levels of telomerase activity by a mechanism referred to as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Cells utilizing ALT have telomeres of very heterogeneous length, ranging from very short to very long. Here we report the effect of telomerase expression in the ALT cell line GM847. Expression of exogenous hTERT in GM847 (GM847/hTERT) cells resulted in lengthening of the shortest telomeres; this is the first evidence that expression of hTERT in ALT cells can induce telomerase that is active at the telomere. However, rapid fluctuation in telomere length still occurred in the GM847/hTERT cells after more than 100 population doublings. Very long telomeres and ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies continued to be generated, indicating that telomerase activity induced by exogenous hTERT did not abolish the ALT mechanism. In contrast, when the GM847 cell line was fused with two different telomerase-positive tumor cell lines, the ALT phenotype was repressed in each case. These hybrid cells were telomerase positive, and the telomeres decreased in length, very rapidly at first and then at the rate seen in telomerase-negative normal cells. Additionally, ALT-associated PML bodies disappeared. After the telomeres had shortened sufficiently, they were maintained at a stable length by telomerase. Together these data indicate that the telomerase-positive cells contain a factor that represses the ALT mechanism but that this factor is unlikely to be telomerase. Further, the transfection data indicate that ALT and telomerase can coexist in the same cells. PMID:11359895

  1. The Association of Low Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Activity With Mortality in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Constance E.; Everhart, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, an important marker of liver injury, has been associated inconsistently with higher mortality. We evaluated whether persons with nonelevated ALT levels are the most appropriate comparison group by examining the relationships of low ALT with mortality and body composition in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In NHANES 1988–1994, the mortality risk of persons in ALT deciles 1, 2, 3, and 10 was compared with that of persons in deciles 4–9 (mortality was relatively flat across these deciles) over an 18-year period (through 2006) among 14,950 viral-hepatitis-negative adults. In NHANES 1999–2006, low ALT was evaluated in association with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry body composition measures among 15,028 adults. Multivariate-adjusted mortality was higher for decile 1 (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24, 1.63), decile 2 (HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.53), and decile 3 (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.50) and nonsignificantly higher for decile 10 (HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.61) than for deciles 4–9. Adjusted appendicular lean mass was decreased among the lowest ALT deciles. In the US population, low ALT was associated with higher mortality risk, possibly attributable to decreased appendicular lean mass. For mortality studies of elevated ALT levels, the most appropriate comparison group is persons in the middle range of ALT rather than all persons with nonelevated ALT. PMID:24071009

  2. Alemtuzumab induction in kidney transplantation: clinical results and impact on T-regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Morales, J; Bono, M R; Fierro, A; Iñiguez, R; Zehnder, C; Rosemblatt, M; Calabran, L; Herzog, C; Benavente, D; Aguiló, J; Pefaur, J; Alba, A; Ferrario, M; Simon, W; Contreras, L; Buckel, E

    2008-11-01

    Alemtuzumab (ALT), a humanized monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody, was introduced in solid organ transplantation as an induction agent. ALT associated with anticalcineurins has provided a low incidence of acute rejection episodes (ARE) and potential tolerogenic properties. We analyzed the clinical outcomes and effects on peripheral Treg of renal transplant recipients treated with ALT. Six-month data on kidney alone or kidney combined with pancreas or liver patients treated with ALT and tacrolimus (TAC) in standard doses were compared with those on renal transplant recipients of similar demography who were not treated with ALT. We evaluated patient and graft survivals, ARE incidence, hematological parameters, renal function, adverse events, and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells in peripheral blood. Demographics of recipients, donors, and transplants were similar in both groups. Mean HLA mismatch was slightly greater among ALT-treated patients (3.5 vs 2.5). No combined transplantation was performed in the ALT-untreated group. Patient and graft survivals were 100% without rejection or serious infections in both groups. ALT-treated recipients showed anemia and leukopenia in 3 patients as well as severe lymphopenia in 5 recipients, who partially recovered on day 90. Final mean plasma creatinine was 1.4 mg/dL, while calculated creatinine clearance was approximately 65 mL/min in both groups. Mean Treg cell percentage was higher among ALT-treated recipients than the comparative group or healthy controls (P < .05). In conclusion, renal transplantation results obtained using ALT with rigorous immunosuppressive therapy were excellent; serious adverse events and acute rejection were absent. The effect of the increased proportion of Treg cells must be evaluated with longer observation.

  3. New Viral Vector for Superproduction of Epitopes of Vaccine Proteins in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tyulkina, L.G.; Skurat, E.V.; Frolova, O.Yu.; Komarova, T.V.; Karger, E.M.; Atabekov, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    The novel viral vectors PVX-CP AltMV and PVXdt-CP AltMV are superexpressors of the capsid protein (CP). These viral vectors were constructed on the basis of the potato virus X (PVX) genome andAlternantheramosaic virus (AltMV) CP gene. The expression, based on the hybrid viral vectors, is genetically safe, since the systemic transport and formation of infective viral particles are blocked. CP AltMV can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in the absence of genomic RNA. The vectors can be used for the presentation of foreign peptides (including epitopes of human pathogens) on the surface of the VLP. The N-terminal extracellular domain (M2e) of the influenza virus A M2 protein and its truncated variant (ΔM2e) were used as model heterologous peptides for the construction of the chimeric CP AltMV. Chimeric CP AltMV retains its ability to self-assemble into VLP. The epitopes of the M2 influenza virus protein were not eliminated during the process of accumulation, polymerization and purification of chimeric VLP AltMV, providing evidence of the stability of chimeric VLP with C-terminal heterologous epitopes. It appears that VLP produced by the vectors PVX-CP AltMV and PVXdt-CP AltMV can be used in the field of biotechnology for the presentation of the epitopes of vaccine proteins on their surfaces. The chimeric VLP AltMV with the presented foreign epitopes can be used as candidate vaccines. PMID:22649706

  4. Gender differences in healthy ranges for serum alanine aminotransferase levels in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Poustchi, Hossein; George, Jacob; Esmaili, Saeed; Esna-Ashari, Farzaneh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Sepanlou, Sadaf Ghajarieh; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2011-01-01

    There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity among adolescents who subsequently are at increased risk for the development of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is the most frequently used test for screening these individuals, but no age and gender-specific upper limits of normal (ULN) based on healthy population data in children are available. The objective of the present study was to define ULN for ALT in healthy children in order to use this as a tool for case finding. A total of 975 school children (aged 7-18 years) were included in the study cohort. Highly significant correlations (all p<0.001) were noted between ALT values and measures of BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. In order to define the population with no risk factors, we excluded subjects having abnormal values for factors that correlated with ALT. This population comprised 186 boys and 185 girls. In boys, median serum ALT levels were 16 IU/L and 9, 11, 18, and 30 IU/L for the 5th, 25th, 75th, and 95th percentiles. In girls, median serum ALT was 13, and 7, 9, 16, and 21 IU/L for the 5th, 25th, 75th, and 95th percentiles, respectively. The ULNs for ALT were 30 IU/L and 21 IU/L for boys and girls respectively. We found a linear relationship between age and ALT in females (p<0.001) but not in males. By multiple logistic regression, independent predictors of an elevated ALT included the BMI, waist hip ratio and levels of serum total cholesterol. In females, age was an additional inverse predictor. In children and adolescents, these normal limits for ALT should be applied. Those with persistent elevations should be investigated further.

  5. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both the serum uric acid (SUA) level and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are related to metabolic syndrome. However, the association between SUA and elevated ALT has not been elucidated in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and elevated ALT in the general population of China; Methods: A total of 11,572 adults (≥35 years of age) participated in this survey. Elevated ALT was defined as >40 U/L. SUA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥6.0 mg/dL in females was defined as hyperuricemia. SUA within the reference range was divided into quartiles, and its associations with elevated ALT were evaluated by logistic regressions; Results: A total of 7.4% participants had elevated ALT. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.9% in males and 7.3% in females. There was a significantly positive dose-response association between SUA levels and the prevalence of elevated ALT. After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive relationship for elevated ALT was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.032, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.443–2.861 for men; OR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.221–3.425 for women, both p < 0.05). Within the reference range, the association between SUA and elevated ALT persisted in the fourth quartile (OR: 1.467, 95% CI: 1.063–2.025 for men; OR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.146–2.585 for women, both p < 0.05); Conclusions: Our results indicated that an increased SUA level, even within the reference range, was independently associated with elevated ALT in Chinese adults. PMID:27563918

  6. Serum alanine aminotransferase is correlated with hematocrit in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Snitker, Soren; Ryan, Kathleen A; Yang, Rongze; Mitchell, Braxton D; Shuldiner, Alan R; Zhu, Dalong; Gong, Da-Wei

    2012-05-01

    Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity is a widely-used surrogate marker for liver injury. However, mild elevation of serum ALT is frequently observed in apparently healthy individuals, making it sometimes challenging to interpret whether this laboratory abnormality is medically benign or serious. To obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing ALT levels, we examined the relation between ALT and a number of anthropometric and biochemistry measurements in humans. We assessed the associations of ALT with hematocrit (HCT) in 1,200 apparently healthy adults from an Amish population. Multivariate analyses were carried out to determine whether observed associations were independent of other factors known to modulate ALT and HCT, including body mass index (BMI) and sex. The correlation detected in the Amish was then replicated in an independent population sample (N = 9,842) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. ALT levels were positively correlated with HCT (r = 0.33, p < 0.0001) in both Amish and NHANES III. The magnitude of association was unchanged after adjustment for BMI, but was reduced by age/sex adjustment to r = 0.18 (p < 0.0001) and r = 0.17 (p < 0.0001) in the Amish and NHANES populations, respectively. HCT accounts for about 3% of the population variation in ALT, which is smaller than the contributions of gender and BMI, but larger than individual blood pressure and cholesterol components. We observed a correlation between ALT and HCT, suggesting that HCT may be a newly identified modulator of ALT in humans.

  7. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels decrease further with carbohydrate than fat restriction in insulin-resistant adults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Marno Celeste; Abbasi, Fahim; Lamendola, Cindy; Carter, Susan; McLaughlin, Tracey Lynn

    2007-05-01

    Although weight loss interventions have been shown to reduce steatosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the impact of dietary macronutrient composition is unknown. We assessed the effect on serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations of two hypocaloric diets varying in amounts of carbohydrate and fat in obese insulin-resistant individuals, a population at high risk for NAFLD. Post hoc analysis of ALT concentrations was performed in 52 obese subjects with normal baseline values and insulin resistance, as quantified by the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) test, who were randomized to hypocaloric diets containing either 60% carbohydrate/25% fat or 40% carbohydrate/45% fat (15% protein) for 16 weeks. The primary end point was change in ALT, which was evaluated according to diet, weight loss, SSPG, and daylong insulin concentrations. Although both diets resulted in significant decreases in weight and SSPG, daylong insulin, and serum ALT concentrations, the 40% carbohydrate diet resulted in greater decreases in SSPG (P < 0.04), circulating insulin (P < 0.01), and ALT (9.5 +/- 9.4 vs. 4.2 +/- 8.3 units/l; P < 0.04) concentrations. ALT changes correlated with improvement in insulin sensitivity (P = 0.04) and daylong insulin (P < 0.01). Individuals with ALT concentrations above the proposed upper limits experienced significant declines in ALT, unlike those with lower ALT levels. In a population at high risk for NAFLD, a hypocaloric diet moderately lower in carbohydrate decreased serum ALT concentrations to a greater degree than a higher-carbohydrate/low-fat diet, despite equal weight loss. This may result from a relatively greater decline in daylong insulin concentrations. Further research with histological end points is needed to further explore this finding.

  8. Dose-Response Relationship between Alanine Aminotransferase Levels within the Reference Interval and Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peipei; Chen, Qicai; Chen, Lili; Zhang, Pengpeng; Xiao, Juan; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels is a biomarker for metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the relationship has not been fully investigated within the reference interval of ALT levels. Our objective was to explore the relationship between serum ALT levels within the reference interval and MS in Chinese adults. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 16028 adults, who attended routine health check-ups at Shengli Oilfield Central Hospital from January 2006 to March 2012. The reference interval of serum ALT level was defined as less than 40 U/L. Logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline were used to evaluate the association of ALT with MS. Results The prevalence of MS in the total population was 13.7% (6.4% for females and 18.4% for males). Multiple logistic regression showed that ALT levels were positively associated with MS after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The odds ratio of MS in the top quartile was 4.830 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.980–7.829] in females and 3.168 (95% CI: 2.649–3.790) in males, compared with the ALT levels in the bottom quartile. The restricted cubic spline models revealed a positive non-linear dose-response relationship between ALT levels and the risk of MS in women (p for nonlinearity was 0.0327), but a positive linear dose-response relationship in men (p for nonlinearity was 0.0659). Conclusion Serum ALT levels within the reference interval are positively associated with MS in a dose-response manner. Elevated ALT levels, even within the reference interval, may reflect early dysmetabolic changes. PMID:27873509

  9. Spatial variability of active layer thickness detected by ground-penetrating radar in the Qilian Mountains, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bin; Gruber, Stephan; Zhang, Tingjun; Li, Lili; Peng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Kang; Zheng, Lei; Shao, Wanwan; Guo, Hong

    2017-03-01

    The active layer plays a key role in geomorphic, hydrologic, and biogeochemical processes in permafrost regions. We conducted a systematic investigation of active layer thickness (ALT) in northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau by using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) with 100 and 200 MHz antennas. We used mechanical probing, pit, and soil temperature profiles for evaluating ALT derived from GPR. The results showed that GPR is competent for detecting ALT, and the error was ±0.08 m at common midpoint co-located sites. Considerable spatial variability of ALT owing to variation in elevation, peat thickness, and slope aspect was found. The mean ALT was 1.32 ± 0.29 m with a range from 0.81 to 2.1 m in Eboling Mountain. In Yeniu Gou, mean ALT was 2.72 ± 0.88 m and varied from 1.07 m on the north-facing slope to 4.86 m around the area near the lower boundary of permafrost. ALT in peat decreased with increasing elevation at rates of -1.31 m/km (Eboling Mountain) and -2.1 m/km (Yeniu Gou), and in mineral soil in Yeniu Gou, the rate changed to -4.18 m/km. At the same elevation, ALT on the south-facing slope was about 0.8 m thicker than that on the north-facing slopes, while the difference was only 0.18 m in peat-covered area. Within a 100 m2 area with a local elevation difference of 0.8 m, ALT varied from 0.68 m to 1.25 m. Both field monitoring and modeling studies on spatial ALT variations require rethinking of the current strategy and comprehensive design.

  10. Special Issue: Tenth International Congress on Numerical Methods in Laminar and Turbulent Flow. Issue Edited by Esteban Saatdjian.Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My Profile

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    Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 735-895(15 April 1999)

    Preface

    Tenth international congress on numerical methods in laminar and turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamuro, Takaji; Yoshino, Masato; Ogino, Fumimaru

    1999-04-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the fifteen-velocity model is applied to simulations of isothermal flows in a three-dimensional porous structure. A periodic boundary condition with a pressure difference at the inlet and outlet is presented. Flow characteristics at a pore scale and pressure drops through the porous structure are calculated for various Reynolds numbers. It is found that at high Reynolds numbers, unsteady vortices appear behind bodies and the flow field becomes time-dependent. Calculated pressure drops through the structure are compared with well-known empirical equations based on experimental data. The results agree well with the Blake-Kozeny equation for low Reynolds numbers and with the Ergun equation for high Reynolds numbers. Copyright

  11. Volume 51, Issue 7-8Copyright © 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimSave Title to My Profile

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    Volume 51, Issue 7-8, Pages 639-896(July 2003)

    Preface

    Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, O.

    2003-07-01

    We briefly review a possible scheme for getting the known QCD scaling laws within string theory. In particular, we consider amplitudes for exclusive scattering of hadrons at large momentum transfer and hadronic form factors.

  12. Volume 10, Issue 11-12© 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag Berlin GmbH, Fed. Rep. of GermanySave Title to My Profile

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    Volume 10, Issue 11-12, Pages 887-984(November 2001)

    Original Paper

    Imaging of atomic orbitals with the Atomic Force Microscope - experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessibl, F. J.; Bielefeldt, H.; Hembacher, S.; Mannhart, J.

    2001-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a mechanical profiling technique that allows to image surfaces with atomic resolution. Recent progress in reducing the noise of this technique has led to a resolution level where previously undetectable symmetries of the images of single atoms are observed. These symmetries are related to the nature of the interatomic forces. The Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface is studied by AFM with various tips and AFM images are simulated with chemical and electrostatic model forces. The calculation of images from the tip-sample forces is explained in detail and the implications of the imaging parameters are discussed. Because the structure of the Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface is known very well, the shape of the adatom images is used to determine the tip structure. The observability of atomic orbitals by AFM and scanning tunneling microscopy is discussed.

  13. Special Issue: Tenth International Conference on Finite Elements in Fluids, Tucson, Arizona.Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My Profile

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    Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-406(15 September 1999)

    Preface

    Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oden, J. T.; Prudhomme, S.

    1999-09-01

    We present a new approach to deliver reliable approximations of the norm of the residuals resulting from finite element solutions to the Stokes and Oseen equations. The method is based upon a global solve in a bubble space using iterative techniques. This provides an alternative to the classical equilibrated element residual methods for which it is necessary to construct proper boundary conditions for each local problem. The method is first used to develop a global a posteriori error estimator. It is then applied in a strategy to control the numerical error in specific outputs or quantities of interest which are functions of the solutions to the Stokes and Oseen equations. Copyright

  14. Special Issue: Very large eddy simulation. Issue Edited by Dimitris Drikakis.Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My Profile

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    Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 763-864(30 July 2002)

    Research Article

    Embedded turbulence model in numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drikakis, D.

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the use of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws as an embedded turbulence modelling approach. Different Godunov-type schemes are utilized in computations of Burgers' turbulence and a two-dimensional mixing layer. The schemes include a total variation diminishing, characteristic-based scheme which is developed in this paper using the flux limiter approach. The embedded turbulence modelling property of the above methods is demonstrated through coarsely resolved large eddy simulations with and without subgrid scale models. Copyright

  15. Determinants of serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in hepatitis C-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Peter; Duan, Zhigang; Kramer, Jennifer; Davila, Jessica A; Tyson, Gia L; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2012-04-01

    Little information is available about what factors determine serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) (eg, demographic, virologic, or clinical features) among individuals who do not develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This information might improve AFP-based algorithms for HCC detection. We examined data from patients in the national Veterans' Affairs Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Clinical Case Registry who received at least 1 AFP test (258,275 AFP tests in 76,357 patients; 1.9% developed HCC). We constructed hierarchical multivariate models of AFP levels. Potential predictors of AFP values included patients' sex, race, cirrhosis status, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, HCV genotype, level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) within 30 days before the AFP test, time to diagnosis of HCC, and time elapsed from the HCV index date. Significant determinants for increased levels of AFP included presence of cirrhosis, higher MELD scores, and increased levels of ALT. AFP levels were also affected by the interaction between ALT levels and the presence and time to development of HCC. Among patients who did not have HCC, the AFP level increased with the level of ALT; the AFP values in the presence of ALT 37-56 U/L, ALT 57-92 U/L, or ALT >92 U/L were 16%, 35%, and 68% higher, respectively, than AFP values at ALT 0-36 U/L. However, patients who developed HCC within 30 days of receiving the AFP test had a lower rate of increase in AFP with each higher category of ALT level, with increases of 31%, 39%, and 37% for the same respective ALT categories. In patients with chronic HCV infection, AFP and ALT values correlate; however, among patients with HCC, levels of AFP increase disproportionately to or unaccompanied by increases in levels of ALT. The prognostic and diagnostic value of AFP levels might be increased by adjusting for ALT values. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and biocompatibility of alternating block polyurethanes based on PLA and PEG.

    PubMed

    Mei, Tingzhen; Zhu, Yonghe; Ma, Tongcui; He, Tao; Li, Linjing; Wei, Chiju; Xu, Kaitian

    2014-09-01

    A series of alternating block polyurethanes (abbreviated as PULA-alt-PEG) and random block polyurethanes (abbreviated as PULA-ran-PEG) based on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were synthesized. The differences of PULA-alt/ran-PEG chemical structure, molecular weight, distribution, thermal properties, mechanical properties and static contact angle were systematically investigated. The PULA-alt/ran-PEG polyurethanes exhibited low T(g) (-47.3 ∼ -34.4°C), wide mechanical properties (stress σ(t): 4.6-32.6 MPa, modulus E: 11.4-323.9 MPa and strain ε: 468-1530%) and low water contact angle (35.4-51.4°). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that PULA-alt-PEG film displays rougher and more patterned surface morphology than PULA-ran-PEG does, due to more regular structures of PULA-alt-PEG. Hydrolytic degradation shows that degradation rate of random block polyurethane series PULA-ran-PEG is higher than the alternating counterpart PULA-alt-PEG. PLA segment degradation is faster than urethane linkage and PEG segment almost does not degrade in the buffer solution. Platelet adhesion study showed that all the polyurethanes possess excellent hemocompatibility. The cell culture assay revealed that PULA-alt/ran-PEG polyurethanes were cell inert and unfavorable for the attachment of rat glial cell due to the hydrophilic characters of the materials.

  17. Phosphorylation inhibits DNA-binding of alternatively spliced aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator

    SciTech Connect

    Kewley, Robyn J. . E-mail: rkewley@csu.edu.au; Whitelaw, Murray L.

    2005-12-09

    The basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM homology (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) is a key component of various pathways which induce the transcription of cytochrome P450 and hypoxia response genes. ARNT can be alternatively spliced to express Alt ARNT, containing an additional 15 amino acids immediately N-terminal to the DNA-binding basic region. Here, we show that ARNT and Alt ARNT proteins are differentially phosphorylated by protein kinase CKII in vitro. Phosphorylation had an inhibitory effect on DNA-binding to an E-box probe by Alt ARNT, but not ARNT, homodimers. This inhibitory phosphorylation occurs through Ser77. Moreover, a point mutant, Alt ARNT S77A, shows increased activity on an E-box reporter gene, consistent with Ser77 being a regulatory site in vivo. In contrast, DNA binding by an Alt ARNT/dioxin receptor heterodimer to the xenobiotic response element is not inhibited by phosphorylation with CKII, nor does Alt ARNT S77A behave differently from wild type Alt ARNT in the context of a dioxin receptor heterodimer.

  18. Clinical outcomes of antimicrobial lock solutions used in a treatment modality: a retrospective case series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Gerrald, Katherine R; Moran, Robert R

    2010-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial lock therapy (ALT) may be considered as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) when catheter removal is not a favorable option. Objective To evaluate the outcomes associated with ALT as adjunctive treatment of CRBSI. Methods This was a 24-month retrospective case series analysis evaluating patients treated for more than 24 hours with ALT. The primary outcome was blood culture sterilization for 30 days posttherapy. The impact of ALT duration and time to initiation on central venous catheter (CVC) salvage were evaluated. Logistic regression modeled the association between ALT and sterilization rates, with a prespecified level of significance (α) of 0.1. Results Twenty-six cases were included in data analysis. Patients included ranged from 5 months to 82 years of age; 77% of patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition or chemotherapy. The majority of patients received vancomycin, daptomycin, or gentamicin combined with heparin in a lock solution. Blood culture sterilization was achieved in 69.2% of cases, and sterilization plus CVC retention was achieved in 11 cases (42.3%). Longer durations of ALT (≥9 days) were significantly correlated with blood culture sterilization (odds ratio = 1.367, P = 0.077). Conclusion ALT used as an adjunct to systemic therapy for adequate duration in CRBSI can achieve CVC sterilization and retainment without subsequent infectious complications. PMID:22291495

  19. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres: Recurrent Cytogenetic Aberrations and Chromosome Stability under Extreme Telomere Dysfunction12

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Despoina; Chiourea, Maria; Raftopoulou, Christina; Gagos, Sarantis

    2013-01-01

    Human tumors using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) exert high rates of telomere dysfunction. Numerical chromosomal aberrations are very frequent, and structural rearrangements are widely scattered among the genome. This challenging context allows the study of telomere dysfunction-driven chromosomal instability in neoplasia (CIN) in a massive scale. We used molecular cytogenetics to achieve detailed karyotyping in 10 human ALT neoplastic cell lines. We identified 518 clonal recombinant chromosomes affected by 649 structural rearrangements. While all human chromosomes were involved in random or clonal, terminal, or pericentromeric rearrangements and were capable to undergo telomere healing at broken ends, a differential recombinatorial propensity of specific genomic regions was noted. We show that ALT cells undergo epigenetic modifications rendering polycentric chromosomes functionally monocentric, and because of increased terminal recombinogenicity, they generate clonal recombinant chromosomes with interstitial telomeric repeats. Losses of chromosomes 13, X, and 22, gains of 2, 3, 5, and 20, and translocation/deletion events involving several common chromosomal fragile sites (CFSs) were recurrent. Long-term reconstitution of telomerase activity in ALT cells reduced significantly the rates of random ongoing telomeric and pericentromeric CIN. However, the contribution of CFS in overall CIN remained unaffected, suggesting that in ALT cells whole-genome replication stress is not suppressed by telomerase activation. Our results provide novel insights into ALT-driven CIN, unveiling in parallel specific genomic sites that may harbor genes critical for ALT cancerous cell growth. PMID:24339742

  20. Clinical features of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels.

    PubMed

    Uto, Hirofumi; Mawatari, Seiich; Kumagai, Kotaro; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2012-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic hepatitis, which frequently leads to hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a biomarker of hepatocyte injury and is associated with the progression of hepatic fibrosis. Advanced hepatic fibrosis also predisposes HCV carriers to a risk of HCC. In contrast, some cases with persistent HCV infection have normal ALT levels that persist for a long time, and these HCV carriers have no or mild hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. These HCV carriers are defined as persistent normal ALT (PNALT) cases and their risk of HCC is low compared to HCV carriers with abnormal ALT. However, there are various definitions of normal ALT and PNALT, and advanced hepatic fibrosis may be missed without a liver biopsy. In addition, there is also a risk of ALT elevation in HCV carriers with PNALT, which increases the risk of progression to hepatic fibrosis and HCC. Most HCV carriers with PNALT have asymptomatic or nonspecific symptoms. HCV carriers with PNALT are also considered to be responsive to interferon-based treatment. Thus, assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important in HCV carriers, and the eradication of HCV infection is more likely in HCV carriers with evidence of hepatic fibrosis, regardless of their ALT levels.

  1. Algorithmic approach to lower abdominal, perineal, and groin reconstruction using anterolateral thigh flaps.

    PubMed

    Zelken, Jonathan A; AlDeek, Nidal F; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Chang, Nai-Jen; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Hung

    2016-02-01

    Lower abdominal, perineal, and groin (LAPG) reconstruction may be performed in a single stage. Anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps are preferred here and taken as fasciocutaneous (ALT-FC), myocutaneous (ALT-MC), or vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC) flaps. We aim to present the results of reconstruction from a series of patients and guide flap selection with an algorithmic approach to LAPG reconstruction that optimizes outcomes and minimizes morbidity. Lower abdomen, groin, perineum, vulva, vagina, scrotum, and bladder wounds reconstructed in 22 patients using ALT flaps between 2000 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. Five ALT-FC, eight ALT-MC, and nine VL-MC flaps were performed. All flaps survived. Venous congestion occurred in three VL-MC flaps from mechanical cause. Wound infection occurred in six cases. Urinary leak occurred in three cases of bladder reconstruction. One patient died from congestive heart failure. The ALT flap is time tested and dependably addresses most LAPG defects; flap variations are suited for niche defects. We propose a novel algorithm to guide reconstructive decision-making. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of ventromedial and lateral hypothalamic stimulation on chemically-induced liver injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, M.; Shimazu, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of hypothalamic stimulation on experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCL/sub 4/) or dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) were studied in rats, by measuring plasma alanine amino-transferase (ALT) activity as an index of acute liver injury. Electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VHM) in CCl/sub 4/-treated rats caused a marked increase in plasma ALT activity, accompanied by a significant decrease in ALT activity in the liver, although CCl4 treatment alone had no significant effect on plasma ALT activity. A similar effect of VHM stimulation on plasma ALT activity was observed in rats treated with DMN, another hepatotoxic chemical. No such exaggerated effect of VMH stimulation on plasma ALT activity was observed after stimulation of the lateral hypothalamic area (LH). Surgical sympathetic denervation of the liver greatly suppressed the increase in plasma ALT activity after CCl/sub 4/ injection and VMH stimulation. Measurement of regional blood flow indicated that VMH stimulation did not produce a significant change in blood flow to the liver. These results suggest that the VMH is involved in the progress of chemically-induced liver injury through activation of the sympathetic nerve, possibly by affecting liver metabolism more than the blood flow change to the liver.

  3. A comparison of free anterolateral thigh and latissimus dorsi flaps in soft tissue reconstruction of extensive defects in the head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Horn, Dominik; Jonas, Rene; Engel, Michael; Freier, Kolja; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Freudlsperger, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Tailoring the most suitable reconstructive approach to each patient remains challenging especially in the head and neck region. To compare the applicability of the latissimus dorsi (LD) and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap, we retrospectively analyzed patients who had reconstruction of extensive and/or bulky composite tissue defects in the head and neck area. We performed 85 free tissue transfers (44 LD and 41 ALT flaps). LD mean flap surface was 115.8 cm(2). ALT mean flap surface was 67.0 cm(2). Pedicle length ranged from 8 to 16 cm in LD and 11-16 cm in ALT flaps. The survival rate was 93% in ALT and 91% in LD flaps. Donor site morbidity occurred in 5% (ALT) and 7% (LD). A Two-team-approach was possible in 24% of the LD group, whereas all ALT flaps were raised in a Two-team-approach. Both flaps present excellent opportunities for the reconstruction of extensive and/or bulky defects. They largely meet the requirements of an ideal soft tissue flap in terms of versatility, skin texture and tissue stock. Both flaps can be raised with a double skin paddle. The advantages and disadvantages of each flap have to be weighed up against each other and both flaps should be in the repertoire of every microvascular surgeon.

  4. Active-layer thickness estimation from X-band SAR backscatter intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widhalm, Barbara; Bartsch, Annett; Leibman, Marina; Khomutov, Artem

    2017-02-01

    The active layer above the permafrost, which seasonally thaws during summer, is an important parameter for monitoring the state of permafrost. Its thickness is typically measured locally, but a range of methods which utilize information from satellite data exist. Mostly, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from optical satellite data is used as a proxy. The applicability has been demonstrated mostly for shallow depths of active-layer thickness (ALT) below approximately 70 cm. Some permafrost areas including central Yamal are, however, characterized by larger ALT. Surface properties including vegetation structure are also represented by microwave backscatter intensity. So far, the potential of such data for estimating ALT has not been explored. We therefore investigated the relationship between ALT and X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) backscatter of TerraSAR-X (averages for 10 × 10 m window) in order to examine the possibility of delineating ALT with continuous and larger spatial coverage in this area and compare it to the already-established method of using NDVI from Landsat (30 m). Our results show that the mutual dependency of ALT and TerraSAR-X backscatter on land cover types suggests a connection of both parameters. A range of 5 dB can be observed for an ALT range of 100 cm (40-140 cm), and an R2 of 0.66 has been determined over the calibration sites. An increase of ALT with increasing backscatter can be determined. The root mean square error (RMSE) over a comparably heterogeneous validation site with maximum ALT of > 150 cm is 20 cm. Deviations are larger for measurement locations with mixed vegetation types (especially partial coverage by cryptogam crust) with respect to the spatial resolution of the satellite data.

  5. PrP genotype frequencies and risk evaluation for scrapie in dairy sheep breeds from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Martemucci, Giovanni; Iamartino, Daniela; Blasi, Michele; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Concerns regarding scrapie in sheep breeding have increased in the last few decades. The present study was carried out in dairy sheep breeds from southern Italy. In order to find breeding animals resistant to scrapie, the PrP genes of 1,205 animals from entire flocks of dairy native Apulian Leccese and Altamurana breeds, and Sicilian Comisana breed, were analysed for polymorphisms at codons 136, 154, and 171 related to scrapie resistance/susceptibility. The Altamurana breed was considered as two populations (Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe), based on presumed cross-breeding. A total of five alleles and ten different genotypes were found. The ARQ allele was predominant for all breeds followed by ARR, the most resistant allele to scrapie, which was highly prevalent in Comisana (50%) and in native Alt-Cav (42.4%). The VRQ allele, associated with the highest susceptibility to scrapie, was detected at not negligeable levels in allocthonous Comisana (3.5%), at a low frequency (0.2%) in native Leccese and Alt-Cra-Zoe, while it was absent in Alt-Cav. The frequencies of PrP genotypes with a very low susceptibility risk to scrapie (R1) was higher in Comisana and Alt-Cav. The most susceptible genotype, ARQ/VRQ, was found only in Comisana. Within the Altamurana breed, there were notable differences between Alt-Cav and Alt-Cra-Zoe sheep. The Alt-Cav was characterised by the absence of VRQ and AHQ alleles and by the higher frequency of the ARR/ARR genotype (18.7%). Breeding programs, mainly in endangered breeds such as Altamurana, should be conducted gradually, combining resistance to scrapie, maintenance of genetic variability, and production.

  6. The Genetic Overlap of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic-like Traits: an Investigation of Individual Symptom Scales and Cognitive markers.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rebecca; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Ronald, Angelica; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) frequently co-occur. However, due to previous exclusionary diagnostic criteria, little is known about the underlying causes of this covariation. Twin studies assessing ADHD symptoms and autistic-like traits (ALTs) suggest substantial genetic overlap, but have largely failed to take into account the genetic heterogeneity of symptom subscales. This study aimed to clarify the phenotypic and genetic relations between ADHD and ASD by distinguishing between symptom subscales that characterise the two disorders. Moreover, we aimed to investigate whether ADHD-related cognitive impairments show a relationship with ALT symptom subscales; and whether potential shared cognitive impairments underlie the genetic risk shared between the ADHD and ALT symptoms. Multivariate structural equation modelling was conducted on a population-based sample of 1312 twins aged 7-10. Social-communication ALTs correlated moderately with both ADHD symptom domains (phenotypic correlations around 0.30) and showed substantial genetic overlap with both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity (genetic correlation = 0.52 and 0.44, respectively). In addition to previously reported associations with ADHD traits, reaction time variability (RTV) showed significant phenotypic (0.18) and genetic (0.32) association with social-communication ALTs. RTV captured a significant proportion (24 %) of the genetic influences shared between inattention and social-communication ALTs. Our findings suggest that social-communication ALTs underlie the previously observed phenotypic and genetic covariation between ALTs and ADHD symptoms. RTV is not specific to ADHD symptoms, but is also associated with social-communication ALTs and can, in part, contribute to an explanation of the co-occurrence of ASD and ADHD.

  7. ImmunoPET of Tissue Factor in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hao; Zhang, Yin; Nayak, Tapas R.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Wong, Hing C.; Liu, Bai; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    Upregulation of tissue factor (TF) expression leads to increased patient morbidity and mortality in many solid tumor types. The goal of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging of TF expression in pancreatic cancer. Methods ALT-836, a chimeric anti-human TF monoclonal antibody, was conjugated to 2-S-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1, 4, 7-triazacyclononane-1, 4, 7-triacetic acid (p-SCN-Bn-NOTA) and labeled with 64Cu. To compare the TF binding affinity of ALT-836 and NOTA-ALT-836, flow cytometry analysis was performed in three pancreatic cancer cell lines with different expression level of TF (from low to high: PANC-1, ASPC-1, and BXPC-3). PET imaging, biodistribution, blocking, and histology studies were performed on pancreatic tumor-bearing mice to evaluate the ability and specificity of 64Cu-NOTA-ALT-836 to target TF in vivo. Results There was no difference in TF binding affinity between ALT-836 and NOTA-ALT-836. 64Cu-labeling was achieved with high yield and specific activity. Serial PET imaging revealed that the uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-ALT-836 in BXPC-3 tumors (high TF expression) was 5.7 ± 0.5, 10.3 ± 0.5, and 16.5 ± 2.6 %ID/g at 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection respectively (n = 4), significantly higher than that in the PANC-1 and ASPC-1 tumors. Biodistribution data as measured by gamma counting were consistent with the PET findings. Blocking experiments and histology further confirmed the TF specificity of 64Cu-NOTA-ALT-836. Conclusion Herein we report the first successful PET imaging of TF expression. Persistent and TF-specific uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-ALT-836 was observed in pancreatic cancer models. PMID:22988057

  8. Trends in glaucoma surgery incidence and reimbursement for physician services in the Medicare population from 1995 to 1998.

    PubMed

    Paikal, David; Yu, Fei; Coleman, Anne L

    2002-07-01

    To better understand the relationship between glaucoma management and economic incentives, we examined the volume and the reimbursement of argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) and trabeculectomy in a 5% random sample of the Medicare population from 1995 to 1998. Retrospective cohort study. Subjects in a 5% random sample of the Medicare population who had ALT and trabeculectomy from 1995 to 1998. Using the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) Physician/Supplier Part-B files for a 5% random sample of the Medicare population, we identified all subjects who had ALT and trabeculectomy from 1995 to 1998. Descriptive summaries (the number of surgeries and the mean and the standard deviation of reimbursement per surgery) were calculated for each year. Analysis of variance was used to test for differences in reimbursement per surgery across years. Chi-square tests were used to assess any associations between the changing numbers of ALTs and trabeculectomies over the study period and both age and race. We assessed the number of ALTs and trabeculectomies and the allowed charges for each surgery in the 5% random sample of the Medicare population from 1995 to 1998. The volume of both ALTs and trabeculectomies declined during the study period. Reimbursement per surgery for both ALT and trabeculectomy varied significantly across years (P < 0.001). Significant associations were found between the changing number of ALTs and both age and race. Changing numbers of ALT and trabeculectomy seem unrelated to reimbursement rates. Rather, these changes are more likely driven by new developments in the clinical management of glaucoma, among other factors.

  9. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in Iranian healthy blood donor men.

    PubMed

    Khedmat, Hossein; Fallahian, Farahnaz; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Attarchi, Zohre; Alaeddini, Farshid; Holisaz, Mohammad Taghi; Pourali, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Shahin; Zarei, Nasrin

    2007-02-14

    To determine serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, and to assess their correlation with demographic and clinical findings in healthy blood donors. This cross-sectional study was performed in 934 male blood donors, aged 18 to 68 years, who consecutively attended Tehran blood transfusion service in 2006. All participants were seronegative for HBV or HCV infections, non alcohol users, and all underwent a standard interview and anthropometric tests. Clinical and biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, and GGT activities were determined. Patients taking drugs known to cause hepatic fat deposition were excluded. For AST, ALT, and GGT variables, we used 33.33 and 66.66 percentiles, so that each of them was divided into three tertiles. Mean AST, ALT, and GGT activities were 25.26 +/- 12.58 U/L (normal range 5-35 U/L), 33.13 +/- 22.98 (normal range 5-35 U/L), and 25.11 +/- 18.32 (normal range 6-37 U/L), respectively. By univariate analyses, there were significant associations between increasing AST, ALT, or GGT tertiles and age, body weight, body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences (P<0.05). By multiple linear regression analyses, ALT was found to be positively correlated with dyslipidemia (B=6.988, P=0.038), whereas ALT and AST were negatively correlated with age. AST, ALT, and GGT levels had positive correlation with family history of liver disease (B=15.763, P<0.001), (B=32.345, P<0.001), (B=24.415, P<0.001), respectively. Although we did not determine the cutoffs of the upper normal limits for AST, ALT, and GGT levels, we would suggest screening asymptomatic patients with dyslipidemia and also subjects with a family history of liver disease.

  10. An Out-of-frame Overlapping Reading Frame in the Ataxin-1 Coding Sequence Encodes a Novel Ataxin-1 Interacting Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, Danny; Lapointe, Catherine; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Tremblay, Guillaume; Motard, Julie; Roucou, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 is an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia associated with the expansion of a polyglutamine tract within the ataxin-1 (ATXN1) protein. Recent studies suggest that understanding the normal function of ATXN1 in cellular processes is essential to decipher the pathogenesis mechanisms in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. We found an alternative translation initiation ATG codon in the +3 reading frame of human ATXN1 starting 30 nucleotides downstream of the initiation codon for ATXN1 and ending at nucleotide 587. This novel overlapping open reading frame (ORF) encodes a 21-kDa polypeptide termed Alt-ATXN1 (Alternative ATXN1) with a completely different amino acid sequence from ATXN1. We introduced a hemagglutinin tag in-frame with Alt-ATXN1 in ATXN1 cDNA and showed in cell culture the co-expression of both ATXN1 and Alt-ATXN1. Remarkably, Alt-ATXN1 colocalized and interacted with ATXN1 in nuclear inclusions. In contrast, in the absence of ATXN1 expression, Alt-ATXN1 displays a homogenous nucleoplasmic distribution. Alt-ATXN1 interacts with poly(A)+ RNA, and its nuclear localization is dependent on RNA transcription. Polyclonal antibodies raised against Alt-ATXN1 confirmed the expression of Alt-ATXN1 in human cerebellum expressing ATXN1. These results demonstrate that human ATXN1 gene is a dual coding sequence and that ATXN1 interacts with and controls the subcellular distribution of Alt-ATXN1. PMID:23760502

  11. The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Thierry, Aaron; Charman, Dan J; Wolfe, Stephen A; Hartley, Iain P; Murton, Julian B; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-09-01

    Carbon release from thawing permafrost soils could significantly exacerbate global warming as the active-layer deepens, exposing more carbon to decay. Plant community and soil properties provide a major control on this by influencing the maximum depth of thaw each summer (active-layer thickness; ALT), but a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of plant and soil characteristics, and their interactions in determine ALTs, is currently lacking. To address this, we undertook an extensive survey of multiple vegetation and edaphic characteristics and ALTs across multiple plots in four field sites within boreal forest in the discontinuous permafrost zone (NWT, Canada). Our sites included mature black spruce, burned black spruce and paper birch, allowing us to determine vegetation and edaphic drivers that emerge as the most important and broadly applicable across these key vegetation and disturbance gradients, as well as providing insight into site-specific differences. Across sites, the most important vegetation characteristics limiting thaw (shallower ALTs) were tree leaf area index (LAI), moss layer thickness and understory LAI in that order. Thicker soil organic layers also reduced ALTs, though were less influential than moss thickness. Surface moisture (0-6 cm) promoted increased ALTs, whereas deeper soil moisture (11-16 cm) acted to modify the impact of the vegetation, in particular increasing the importance of understory or tree canopy shading in reducing thaw. These direct and indirect effects of moisture indicate that future changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration may have large influences on ALTs. Our work also suggests that forest fires cause greater ALTs by simultaneously decreasing multiple ecosystem characteristics which otherwise protect permafrost. Given that vegetation and edaphic characteristics have such clear and large influences on ALTs, our data provide a key benchmark against which to evaluate process models used to predict

  12. Specific Antibodies for the Detection of Alternaria Allergens and the Identification of Cross-Reactive Antigens in Other Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Twaroch, Teresa E.; Curin, Mirela; Sterflinger, Katja; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Background The mould Alternaria alternata is an important source of respiratory allergens. A. alternata extracts show great variations regarding allergenic potency. The aim of this study was to generate antibody probes specific for important Alternaria allergens and to use them to study allergen expression, depending on different culture conditions, as well as to search for cross-reactive allergens in other mould species. Methods Synthetic peptides from antigenic regions of A. alternata allergens (Alt a 1, Alt a 2, Alt a 3, Alt a 6 and Alt a 8) were used to raise highly specific rabbit antibodies. These antibodies and IgE from allergic patients were used to detect allergens by immunoblotting in extracts of 4 A. alternata strains grown under varying culturing conditions, in commercial skin-prick extracts and in closely (Cladosporium herbarum and Aureobasidium pullulans) or distantly related (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum) mould species. Results There was a wide variation of expression of the individual A. Alternata allergens, depending on the strain and culture conditions, but the antibody probes allowed us to distinguish strains and culture conditions with low and high allergen expression. In the commercial skin-prick solutions, varying levels of Alt a 1 were found, but no other allergens were detectable. Alt a 1 was identified as species-specific A. Alternata allergen, whereas Alt a 3, 6- and Alt a 8-cross-reactive antigens were found in C. herbarum and/or A. pullulans. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Peptide-specific antibodies are useful to analyze diagnostic and therapeutic mould extracts, to study the presence of A. Alternata allergens in biological samples and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other mould species. PMID:27780168

  13. Pre-expanded Anterolateral Thigh Perforator Flap for Phalloplasty.

    PubMed

    D'Arpa, Salvatore; Colebunders, Britt; Stillaert, Filip; Monstrey, Stan

    2017-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap for phalloplasty is gaining popularity because it avoids the well-known scars of the radial forearm flap. However, scars are not eliminated, just moved to a different location, the thigh, that can for some patients be of great sexual value. Preexpansion of the ALT flap allows primary donor site closure, thus avoiding not only the unsightly appearance of a skin grafted ALT donor site, but also the skin graft donor site scar. Preoperative perforator location by means of computed tomography angiography allows safe expander placement through 2 small remote incisions.

  14. FDA Announces Changes to Sunscreen Labels | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"1830","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Photo of a person squeezing suntan lotion onto their hand","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":false,"field_folder[und]":"76"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Photo of a person squeezing suntan lotion onto their hand","height":"107","width":"150","style":"width: 150px; height: 107px; float: left;","class":"image-style-none media-element file-default","data-delta":"1"},"field_deltas":{"1":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Photo of a person |

  15. Effect of hypohydration and altitude exposure on aerobic exercise performance and acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Muza, Stephen R; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Sils, Ingrid V; Fulco, Charles S; Kenefick, Robert W; Beidleman, Beth A; Sawka, Michael N

    2010-12-01

    Hypoxia often causes body water deficits (hypohydration, HYPO); however, the effects of HYPO on aerobic exercise performance and prevalence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at high altitude (ALT) have not been reported. We hypothesized that 1) HYPO and ALT would each degrade aerobic performance relative to sea level (SL)-euhydrated (EUH) conditions, and combining HYPO and ALT would further degrade performance more than one stressor alone; and 2) HYPO would increase the prevalence and severity of AMS symptoms. Seven lowlander men (25 ± 7 yr old; 82 ± 11 kg; mean ± SD) completed four separate experimental trials. Trials were 1) SL-EUH, 2) SL-HYPO, 3) ALT-EUH, and 4) ALT-HYPO. In HYPO, subjects were dehydrated by 4% of body mass. Subjects maintained hydration status overnight and the following morning entered a hypobaric chamber (at SL or 3,048 m, 27°C) where they completed 30 min of submaximal exercise immediately followed by a 30-min performance time trial (TT). AMS was measured with the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire-Cerebral Score (AMS-C) and the Lake Louise Scoring System (LLS). The percent change in TT performance, relative to SL-EUH, was -19 ± 12% (334 ± 64 to 278 ± 87 kJ), -11 ± 10% (334 ± 64 to 293 ± 33 kJ), and -34 ± 22% (334 ± 64 to 227 ± 95 kJ), for SL-HYPO, ALT-EUH, and ALT-HYPO, respectively. AMS symptom prevalence was 2/7 subjects at ALT-EUH for AMS-C and LLS and 5/7 and 4/7 at ALT-HYPO for AMS-C and LLS, respectively. The AMS-C symptom severity score (AMS-C score) tended to increase from ALT-EUH to ALT-HYPO but was not significant (P = 0.07). In conclusion, hypohydration at 3,048 m 1) degrades aerobic performance in an additive manner with that induced by ALT; and 2) did not appear to increase the prevalence/severity of AMS symptoms.

  16. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  17. Histological features and HLA class II alleles in hepatitis C virus chronically infected patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase levels.

    PubMed

    Renou, C; Halfon, P; Pol, S; Cacoub, P; Jouve, E; Bronowicki, J P; Arpurt, J P; Rifflet, H; Picon, M; Causse, X; Canva, V; Denis, J; Tran, A; Bourliére, M; Ouzan, D; Pariente, A; Dantin, S; Alric, L; Cartier, V; Reville, M; Caillat-Zucman, S

    2002-10-01

    A significant proportion of individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Although data are controversial, such patients usually have weaker histological damage and a lower progression rate of fibrosis. The aims of this study were: (1) to compare demographic, virological, and histological parameters of HCV patients with normal ALT values with those of HCV patients with elevated ALT levels; and (2) to determine whether HLA class II alleles contribute to the persistence of normal ALT levels in HCV patients. Eighty three patients with chronic HCV infection and persistently normal ALT values (group 1) and 233 patients with chronic HCV infection and elevated ALT levels (group 2) were studied. Histological features were expressed using Knodell and Metavir scores. HLA DRB1* and DQB1* genotyping was performed using hybridisation with sequence specific oligonucleotides after genomic amplification. The kappa2 and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare discrete variables and phenotype frequencies between the two groups, and Wilcoxon's test was used for continuous variables. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine which variables predicted normal ALT values. ALT levels were correlated with the severity of liver damage. In group 1, 93% of patients had an F0 or F1 Metavir index of fibrosis compared with 47% of patients in group 2 (p<0.001). A longer duration of infection (p<0.001) and increased DRB1*11 phenotype frequency (pc=0.03) were observed among patients with normal ALT. The two groups did not differ with regard to the mode of contamination or viral genotype. After logistic regression, young age (p=0.0008), female sex (p=0.01), long duration of infection (p=0.0001), and HLA DRB1*11 (p=0.050) were more strongly associated with persistence of normal ALT. Our study confirms that patients with chronic hepatitis C and normal ALT levels have less severe liver disease than those

  18. Nakedness and curvature strength of a shell-focusing singularity in spherically symmetric spacetime with vanishing radial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomohiro; Nakao, Ken-ichi; Iguchi, Hideo

    1999-08-01

    It was shown recently that the metric functions which describe a spherically symmetric spacetime with vanishing radial pressure can be explicitly integrated. We investigate the nakedness and curvature strength of the shell-focusing singularity in that spacetime. If the singularity is naked, the relation between the circumferential radius and the Misner-Sharp mass is given by Ricons/Journals/Common/approx" ALT="approx" ALIGN="TOP"/>2y0micons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> with (1/3)ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/>1 along the first radial null geodesic from the singularity. The icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> is closely related to the curvature strength of the naked singularity. For example, for the outgoing or ingoing null geodesic, if the strong curvature condition (SCC) of Tipler holds, then icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> must be equal to 1. We define the `gravity-dominance condition' (GDC) for a geodesic. If GDC is satisfied for the null geodesic, both SCC and the limiting focusing condition (LFC) of Królak holds for icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 1 and y0icons/Journals/Common/ne" ALT="ne" ALIGN="TOP"/>1, not SCC but only LFC holds for 1/2 icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/><1, and neither holds for (1/3)ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/>< 1/2 , for the null geodesic. On the other hand, if GDC is satisfied for the timelike geodesic r = 0, both SCC and LFC are satisfied for the timelike geodesic, irrespective of the value of icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/>. Several examples are also discussed.

  19. Transaminase Activity Predicts Survival in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Yukinori; Takemoto, Norihiko; Yasui, Toshimichi; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Uno, Atsuhiko; Miyabe, Haruka; Ashida, Naoki; Shimizu, Kotaro; Nakahara, Susumu; Hanamoto, Atshushi; Fukusumi, Takahito; Michiba, Takahiro; Cho, Hironori; Yamamoto, Masashi; Inohara, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Various serum biomarkers have been developed for predicting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) prognosis. However, none of them have been proven to be clinically significant. A recent study reported that the ratio of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) to alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) had a prognostic effect on non-metastatic cancers. This study aimed to examine the effect of the AST/ALT ratio on the survival of patients with HNSCC. Clinical data of 356 patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC were collected. The effect of the AST/ALT ratio on overall survival was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Moreover, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to divide the patients into groups on the basis of the clinical stage and AST/ALT ratio. The prognostic ability of this grouping was validated using an independent data set (N = 167). The AST/ALT ratio ranged from 0.42 to 4.30 (median, 1.42) and was a prognostic factor for overall survival that was independent of age, primary sites, and tumor stage (hazard ratio: 1.36, confidence interval: 1.08−1.68, P = 0.010). RPA divided patients with stage IVA into the following two subgroups: high AST/ALT (≥2.3) and low AST/ALT (<2.3) subgroups. The 5-year survival rate for patients with stage III, stage IVA with a low AST/ALT ratio, stage IVA with a high AST/ALT ratio, and stage IVB were 64.8%, 49.2%, 28.6%, and 33.3%, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared with the low AST/ALT group, the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 2.17 for high AST/ALT group (confidence interval: 1.02–.22 P = 0.045). The AST/ALT ratio was demonstrated to be a prognostic factor of HNSCC. The ratio subdivided patients with stage IVA into low- and high-risk groups. Moreover, intensified treatment for the high-risk group may be considered. PMID:27732629

  20. Enhancement of luminescence intensity induced by 1.06 µm excitation in InAs/GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurenko, D. A.; Scherbakov, A. V.; Akimov, A. V.; Kent, A. J.; Henini, M.

    1999-12-01

    We study the effect of additional below bandgap optical excitation icons/Journals/Common/hbar" ALT="hbar" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/omega" ALT="omega" ALIGN="TOP"/>1 = 1.17 eV (icons/Journals/Common/lambda" ALT="lambda" ALIGN="TOP"/> = 1.06 µm) on the photoluminescence of self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots. We observe a relative increase of the photoluminescence intensity by up to 40%. The analysis of the experimental results is based on a model where a carrier is released from a deep trap as a result of a photoionization process.

  1. Self-organized ordering of Si1-xGex nanoscale islands studied by grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidbauer, M.; Wiebach, Th; Raidt, H.; Hanke, M.; Köhler, R.; Wawra, H.

    1999-05-01

    Highly regular islands of strained Si1-xGex have been grown on Si (001) by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). The islands themselves are {111}-faceted truncated pyramids with a narrow base-width size distribution and coherent behaviour. In this study we report on the state of lateral ordering within a single layer of Si1-xGex islands. Grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) was used to investigate the ordering as a function of island coverage. At very low island coverage the array behaves like a two-dimensional liquid exhibiting an increased number of island dimers which orient along the island base diagonal icons/Journals/Common/langle" ALT="langle" ALIGN="TOP"/>100icons/Journals/Common/rangle" ALT="rangle" ALIGN="TOP"/>. On increasing the coverage these dimers develop into extended chains of islands oriented along icons/Journals/Common/langle" ALT="langle" ALIGN="TOP"/>100icons/Journals/Common/rangle" ALT="rangle" ALIGN="TOP"/>. At high coverage there is strong ordering along both the icons/Journals/Common/langle" ALT="langle" ALIGN="TOP"/>100icons/Journals/Common/rangle" ALT="rangle" ALIGN="TOP"/> and the icons/Journals/Common/langle" ALT="langle" ALIGN="TOP"/>110icons/Journals/Common/rangle" ALT="rangle" ALIGN="TOP"/> directions. The self-organised ordering can be explained by two possible mechanisms: (i) that the observed ordering is driven by the anisotropy of the elastic constants where short-range order along the soft icons/Journals/Common/langle" ALT="langle" ALIGN="TOP"/>100icons/Journals/Common/rangle" ALT="rangle" ALIGN="TOP"/> directions is expected, and (ii) that there is an underlying two-dimensional ripple pattern in the wetting layer aligned along the icons/Journals/Common/langle" ALT="langle" ALIGN="TOP"/>100icons/Journals/Common/rangle" ALT="rangle" ALIGN="TOP"/> directions. At later stages of growth this pattern transforms into pseudomorphic islands.

  2. Monte Carlo studies of d = 2 Ising strips with long-range boundary fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, E. V.; Binder, K.; Paul, W.

    2000-03-01

    A two-dimensional Ising model with nearest-neighbour ferromagnetic exchange confined in a strip of width L between two parallel boundaries is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. `Free' boundaries are considered with unchanged exchange interactions at the boundary but long-range boundary fields of the form H (n ) = +/- h [n -3 - (L - n + 1) -3 ], where n = 1, 2, ... ,L labels the rows across the strip. In the case of competing fields and Licons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/> , the system exhibits a critical wetting transition of a similar type as in the well studied case of short-range boundary fields. At finite L , this wetting transition is replaced by a (rounded) interface localization-delocalization transition at Tc (h , L ). The order parameter profiles and correlation function Gicons/Journals/Common/parallel" ALT="parallel" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (n , r ), where r is a coordinate parallel to the boundaries of the strip, are analysed in detail. It is argued that for T icons/Journals/Common/ge" ALT="ge" ALIGN="TOP"/> Tc (h , L ) the order parameter profile is essentially a linear variation across the strip, i.e. the width w varies as wicons/Journals/Common/propto" ALT="propto" ALIGN="TOP"/> L , unlike the case in d = 3 where wicons/Journals/Common/propto" ALT="propto" ALIGN="TOP"/> L 1/2 is the short-range case and wicons/Journals/Common/propto" ALT="propto" ALIGN="TOP"/> lnL in the case of the n -3 boundary potential holds. The parallel correlation length icons/Journals/Common/xi" ALT="xi" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/parallel" ALT="parallel" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> scales as icons/Journals/Common/xi" ALT="xi" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/parallel" ALT="parallel" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> icons/Journals/Common/propto" ALT="propto" ALIGN="TOP"/> L 2 as for the short-range case. In addition to this case of competing boundary fields, also the case where both boundaries are sources of fields of the same

  3. Evaluation of lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides of different epitopic structures in the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of brucellosis in small ruminants and cattle.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Marín, C; Aragón, V; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1998-11-01

    Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis have surface lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides carrying B. melitensis-type (M) and B. abortus-type (A) epitopes as well as common (C) epitopes present in all smooth Brucella biotypes. Crude lipopolysaccharides, hydrolytic O polysaccharides, and native hapten polysaccharides of MC or AC specificity were evaluated in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with polyclonal, monoclonal, or protein G conjugates by using sera from cattle, sheep, and goats infected with AC, MC, or AMC Brucella biotypes. Regardless of the antigen, the levels of antibodies were lower in goats than in sheep and highest in cattle. The diagnostic performance of the assay was not affected by the absence of lipid A-core epitopes, the presence of contaminating outer membrane proteins, the AC or MC epitopic structure of the absorbed antigen, or the conjugate used. Moreover, with sera from cattle vaccinated with B. abortus S19 (AC) or from sheep and goats vaccinated with B. melitensis Rev 1 (MC), AC and MC antigens showed similar levels of reactivity. The results show that antibodies to the C epitopes largely dominate in infection, and this is consistent with the existence of multiple overlapping C epitopes (V. Weynants, D. Gilson, A. Cloeckaert, A. Tibor, P. A. Denoel, F. Godfroid, J. N. Limet, and J.-J. Letesson, Infect. Immun. 65:1939-1943, 1997) rather than with one or two C epitopes. It is concluded that, by adaptation to the corresponding antibody levels, brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats can be diagnosed by immunosorbent assay with a single combination of conjugate and antigen.

  4. Order in the Nothing: Autopoiesis and the Organizational Characterization of the Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bich, Leonardo; Damiano, Luisa

    An approach which has the purpose to catch what characterizes the specificity of a living system, pointing out what makes it different with respect to physical and artificial systems, needs to find a new point of view — new descriptive modalities. In particular it needs to be able to describe not only the single processes which can be observed in an organism, but what integrates them in a unitary system. In order to do so, it is necessary to consider a higher level of description which takes into consideration the relations between these processes, that is the organization rather than the structure of the system. Once on this level of analysis we can focus on an abstract relational order that does not belong to the individual components and does not show itself as a pattern, but is realized and maintained in the continuous flux of processes of transformation of the constituents. Using Tibor Ganti's words we call it "Order in the Nothing". In order to explain this approach we analyse the historical path that generated the distinction between organization and structure and produced its most mature theoretical expression in the autopoietic biology of Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela. We then briefly analyse Robert Rosen's (M,R)-Systems, a formal model conceptually built with the aim to catch the organization of living beings, and which can be considered coherent with the autopoietic theory. In conclusion we will propose some remarks on these relational descriptions, pointing out their limits and their possible developments with respect to the structural thermodynamical description.

  5. Evaluation to the effect of B2O3-La2O3-SrO-Na2O-Al2O3 bonding agent on Ti6Al4V-porcelain bonding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C Q; Wu, S Q; Lu, Y J; Gan, Y L; Guo, S; Lin, J J; Huang, T T; Lin, J X

    2016-10-01

    Low-fusing bonding agents have been widely applied in Ti-ceramics restorations. As an important category, borate bonding agents have great potentials in increasing Ti-porcelain bonding. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of borate bonding agent with addition of Na2O and Al2O3 on Ti6Al4V-porcelain bonding. The thermal properties of borate bonding agent, such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization peak temperature (Tp), were investigated to establish the sintering process. And the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was to evaluate the matching effect of porcelain to Ti6Al4V. The bond strength was analyzed by the three point bending test. The microscopic morphology of the borate bonding agent surface after sintering, the interface of Ti-borate bonding agent-porcelain, and the fracture mode after porcelains fracture, were studied to assess the influence of borate bonding agent on Ti6Al4V-ceramics. With the addition of Na2O and Al2O3, the porcelain residues were observed increased indication on the Ti6Al4V surface after porcelain fracture and the bond strength was acquired the maximum (49.45MPa) in the bonding agent composition of 75.70B2O3-5.92La2O3-11.84SrO-4.67Na2O-1.87Al2O3. Those results suggest that borate bonding agent is an effective way to improve the Ti6Al4V-ceramics bond strength. And the addition of Na2O and Al2O3 strengthen this effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Lipopolysaccharides and Polysaccharides of Different Epitopic Structures in the Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Brucellosis in Small Ruminants and Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Urmeneta, B.; Marín, C.; Aragón, V.; Blasco, J. M.; Díaz, R.; Moriyón, I.

    1998-01-01

    Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis have surface lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides carrying B. melitensis-type (M) and B. abortus-type (A) epitopes as well as common (C) epitopes present in all smooth Brucella biotypes. Crude lipopolysaccharides, hydrolytic O polysaccharides, and native hapten polysaccharides of MC or AC specificity were evaluated in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with polyclonal, monoclonal, or protein G conjugates by using sera from cattle, sheep, and goats infected with AC, MC, or AMC Brucella biotypes. Regardless of the antigen, the levels of antibodies were lower in goats than in sheep and highest in cattle. The diagnostic performance of the assay was not affected by the absence of lipid A-core epitopes, the presence of contaminating outer membrane proteins, the AC or MC epitopic structure of the absorbed antigen, or the conjugate used. Moreover, with sera from cattle vaccinated with B. abortus S19 (AC) or from sheep and goats vaccinated with B. melitensis Rev 1 (MC), AC and MC antigens showed similar levels of reactivity. The results show that antibodies to the C epitopes largely dominate in infection, and this is consistent with the existence of multiple overlapping C epitopes (V. Weynants, D. Gilson, A. Cloeckaert, A. Tibor, P. A. Denoel, F. Godfroid, J. N. Limet, and J.-J. Letesson, Infect. Immun. 65:1939–1943, 1997) rather than with one or two C epitopes. It is concluded that, by adaptation to the corresponding antibody levels, brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats can be diagnosed by immunosorbent assay with a single combination of conjugate and antigen. PMID:9801329

  7. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, Peter C.; Gordon, N. Ross; Simmons, Kevin L.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an "authentic lung tissue" or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  8. GTE_PEMTA_P3B Parameters 10

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-02-19

    ... Latitude Longitude Dew Point Temperature Static Air Pressure Surface Temp. Partial Pressure Water/Ice Specific ... Relative Humidity Pressure alt True air speed Static temp Wind speed Wind direction Total temp Cabin pressure ...

  9. Emotional Intelligence and its Effect on Pharmacists and Pharmacy Students with Autistic-like Traits

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Yuji; Koyama, Toshihiro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Sendo, Toshiaki; Fujimori, Maiko; Kataoka, Hitomi; Hayashibara, Chinatsu; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Yamada, Norihito

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To measure whether Emotional intelligence (EI) would minimize the negative association between autistic-like traits (ALT) and empathic behavior and enhance the positive association between ALT and psychological distress. Methods. Our sample population included 823 hospital pharmacists belonging to a district society, and 378 pharmacy students. Analyses were performed to examine relationships between scores on the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EQS), Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), and General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ). Results. Complete answers were obtained from 373 pharmacists, and 341 students. EQS partially intervened the associations between AQ and JSE and between AQ and GHQ. Conclusion. EI partially intervened the relationships between ALT and empathy, and between ALT and mental health, both of which are necessary for optimal pharmaceutical practice. PMID:28630515

  10. Advanced Limiter Test-II Program to field a toroidal belt pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak. Progress report, FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.

    1985-12-31

    During the first quarter, the UCLA members of the ALT-II team worked primarily on the development of the experimental program plan and the diagnostics selection, and on the data acquisition system. These programs are discussed in this report.

  11. Advanced Limiter Test-II Program to field a toroidal belt pump limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the first quarter, the UCLA members of the ALT-II team worked primarily on the development of the experimental program plan and the diagnostics selection, and on the data acquisition system. These programs are discussed in this report.

  12. Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Alt...

  13. 78 FR 11174 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Gas Chromatography. ALT-097 Method 25A- Bypass flare Use GC and GC Determination exhaust back-flush of... Chromatography. Source owners or operators should review the specific broadly applicable alternative method...

  14. 75 FR 9645 - Additional Designations of Individuals and Entities Pursuant to Section 804(b) of the Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ....), Avenida de la Revolution 7, Zumpimito, Carr. Apatzingan y Articulo 27, Uruapan, Michoacan 60190, Mexico... HUERTA, Arnoldo; a.k.a. LOPEZ RUEDA, Jose Arnoldo; a.k.a. MODELO); DOB 15 Dec 1969; alt. DOB 27 Dec 1969...

  15. REGULATORY ASPECTS AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB's) are an emerging, alternative in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combine subsurface fluid flow management with a passive chemical treatment zone. Removal of contaminants from the groundwater plume is achieved by alt...

  16. ARC-1943-A93-0074-5

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1943-05-19

    Navy Naval Air Station Moffett Field Public works Serial 1514 - Contract NOy-5604, Earl W. Heple & J.H. Pomeroy contractors NAS Moffett Field: Aerial view of new Hangar2 & Hangar 3 construction at alt 200 ft from north end.

  17. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 73. Read More Acute kidney failure Acute pancreatitis Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test ALP - blood test Burns Cardiac catheterization Enzyme Heart attack Hemolytic anemia Hepatic Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver ...

  18. Alternative lengthening of telomeres: remodeling the telomere architecture.

    PubMed

    Conomos, Dimitri; Pickett, Hilda A; Reddel, Roger R

    2013-01-01

    To escape from the normal limits on proliferative potential, cancer cells must employ a means to counteract the gradual telomere attrition that accompanies semi-conservative DNA replication. While the majority of human cancers do this by up-regulating telomerase enzyme activity, most of the remainder use a homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation known as alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Many molecular details of the ALT pathway are unknown, and even less is known regarding the mechanisms by which this pathway is activated. Here, we review current findings about telomere structure in ALT cells, including DNA sequence, shelterin content, and heterochromatic state. We speculate that remodeling of the telomere architecture may contribute to the emergence and maintenance of the ALT phenotype.

  19. OXIDATIVE STRESS MEDIATES AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE-INDUCED ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Insight into the mechanism(s) by which ambient air particulate matter (PM) mediates adverse health effects is needed to provide biological plausibility to epidemiological studies demonstrating associations between PM exposure and increased morbidity and mortality. Alt...

  20. PERFORMANCE MONITORING OF PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB's) are an emerging, alternative in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combine subsurface fluid flow management with a passive chemical treatment zone. Removal of contaminants from the groundwater plume is achieved by alt...

  1. INTRODUCTION TO PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR GROUND WATER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB's) are an emerging, alternative in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combine subsurface fluid flow management with a passive chemical treatment zone. Removal of contaminants from the groundwater plume is achieved by alt...

  2. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB's) are an emerging, alternative in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combine subsurface fluid flow management with a passive chemical treatment zone. Removal of contaminants from the groundwater plume is achieved by alt...

  3. PRB REGULATORY ASPECTS AND IMPLEMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB's) are an emerging, alternative in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combine subsurface fluid flow management with a passive chemical treatment zone. Removal of contaminants from the groundwater plume is achieved by alt...

  4. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB's) are an emerging, alternative in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combine subsurface fluid flow management with a passive chemical treatment zone. Removal of contaminants from the groundwater plume is achieved by alt...

  5. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIERS FOR GROUND WATER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRB's) are an emerging, alternative in-situ approach for remediating groundwater contamination that combine subsurface fluid flow management with a passive chemical treatment zone. Removal of contaminants from the groundwater plume is achieved by alt...

  6. The Application of Mechanical Clamps to Portsmouth Connectors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-23

    Resistance Readings ..... .............. .64 TABLE 12 - ALT SUMM!ARY - POLYURETHANE CONNECTORS Resis- ance Readings ..... .............. .65 v7 ft...34 FIGURE 17 Pressure Tank Pressure Fittings . ........ . 37 vi I THE APPLICATION OF MECHANICAL CLAMPS TO PORTSMOUTH CONNECTORS BACKGROUN )D This

  7. Frequency modulation system test procedure shuttle task 501 approach and landing test configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D.

    1976-01-01

    Shuttle Task 501 is an in-line task to test the performance and compatibility of radiofrequency links between the SSO and ground, and relay via a satellite. Under Shuttle Task 501 approach and landing test (ALT) phase only a limited portion of the communication and tracking (C&T) equipment is to be tested. The principal item to be tested is a frequency modulated (FM) data link. To test this RF link, an ALT FM System was designed, constructed, and the console wiring verified. A step-by-step procedure to be used to perform the ALT FM system is presented. The ALT FM system test is to be performed prior to delivery of the equipment to the Electronic Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL).

  8. 75 FR 7593 - Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... dilute sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide. ALT-053 Method 29-- Sources subject to 40 Use 0.4 percent... 63, subpart sampling line for Determination of ZZZZ, National carbon monoxide Nitrogen Oxides...

  9. Optimization of an Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Liver Model: Clearance Studies with 7-Ethoxycoumarin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated trout livers were perfused using methods designed to preserve tissue viability and function. Liver performance was evaluated by measuring O2 consumption (VO2), vascular resistance, K+ leakage, glucose flux, lactate flux, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, and meta...

  10. EX VIVIO DETECTION OF KINASE AND PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITIES IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL BIOPSIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification involved in every aspect cellular function. Levels of protein phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine are regulated by the opposing activities of kinases and phosphatases, the expression of which can be alt...

  11. Frequency of hepatitis C viral RNA in anti-hepatitis C virus non- reactive blood donors with raised alanine aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadir; Ahmed, Syed Azhar; Moinuddin; Hoch, Susan Fisher; Chotani, Rashid A

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the frequency of HCV RNA in anti-HCV non-reactive blood donors with raised alanine amino transferase (ALT). The study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Haematology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, in collaboration with Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt, Karachi. The demographic data of blood donors was recorded, and anti-HCV, HBsAg and HIV were screened. Four hundred consecutive donors with raised ALT above the reference range were included in study. HCV RNA RT-PCR was performed on 5 sample minipools using Bio-Rad Real time PCR equipment. HCV RNA was detected in 1/400 (0.25%) blood donors. Finding of raised ALT in blood donors warrants further investigations. In case, if raised ALT is unexplained presence of HCV RNA may be suspected.

  12. Detecting chaos from time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaofeng, Gong; Lai, C. H.

    2000-02-01

    In this paper, an entirely data-based method to detect chaos from the time series is developed by introducing icons/Journals/Common/epsilon" ALT="epsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> p -neighbour points (the p -steps icons/Journals/Common/epsilon" ALT="epsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> -neighbour points). We demonstrate that for deterministic chaotic systems, there exists a linear relationship between the logarithm of the average number of icons/Journals/Common/epsilon" ALT="epsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> p -neighbour points, lnn p ,icons/Journals/Common/epsilon" ALT="epsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> , and the time step, p . The coefficient can be related to the KS entropy of the system. The effects of the embedding dimension and noise are also discussed.

  13. The Seebeck coefficient of monocrystalline α-SiC and polycrystalline β-SiC measured at 300-533 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Ageel, N.; Aslam, M.; Ager, R.; Rimai, L.

    2000-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient of polycrystalline icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> -SiC films deposited on quartz substrates by laser ablation and of commercially available icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> -SiC wafers is reported in a temperature range of 300-533 K for the first time. The Seebeck emf of icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> -SiC substrates and icons/Journals/Common/beta" ALT="beta" ALIGN="TOP"/> -SiC samples ranges between -9 µV °C-1 and -108 µV °C-1 which is higher than that of commercial Pt thermocouples.

  14. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, P.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.

    1993-11-30

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an ``authentic lung tissue`` or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  15. Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Alt...

  16. EX VIVIO DETECTION OF KINASE AND PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITIES IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL BIOPSIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification involved in every aspect cellular function. Levels of protein phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine are regulated by the opposing activities of kinases and phosphatases, the expression of which can be alt...

  17. The role of strong phase shift masks in Intel's DFM infrastructure development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Richard; Singh, Vivek; Borodovsky, Yan

    2010-03-01

    Intel has reported on three separate styles and applications of strong phase shift masks (PSMs) over the last decade including alt-PSM for gate patterning, alt-PSM with assist features for contact patterning and Pixelated Phase Masks (PPMs) for metal layer patterning. Each had a prominent role in Intel's Design For Manufacturing (DFM) infrastructure development in terms of design rules and DFM tooling. By gradually inserting design rule changes for alt-PSM for gate patterning starting from the 130nm technology node, density and design impact were minimally effected. Alt-PSM for contact layer required development of complex methods of SRAF placement and coloring while also forcing advances in phase shift mask manufacturing infrastructure. Pixelated phase masks for metal patterning when combined with Inverse Lithography Techniques (ILTs) were successful in supporting a high level of flexibility for metal design rules including multiple feature sizes, pitches and two-dimension content.

  18. AMA Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver/Kidney Microsomal Antibody , ALP , ALT , Liver Panel , Smooth Muscle Antibody , ANA All content on Lab Tests ... PBC) . Other tests that may be ordered include: Smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) Alkaline phosphatase ( ...

  19. 75 FR 23847 - Blocking of Specially Designated National Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., Democratic Republic of the; DOB 1973; POB Nord-Kivu, DRC; alt. POB Rwanda; nationality Congo, Democratic.... MUTEBUZI, Jules), Rwanda; DOB 6 Jul 1960; POB South Kivu, DRC; nationality Congo, Democratic Republic...

  20. A WATERSHED-LEVEL APPROACH TO STUDY THE PUTATIVE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LANDUSE CHANGE AND SURFACE WATER FLOW ALTERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inter-generationally prudent management of watershed resources will require attention to the interdependence between shifting landuse distributions and their effects on watershed hydrology. Development and increased proportion of impervious surface area has been found to alte lan...

  1. Functional assessment: Free thin anterolateral thigh flap versus free radial forearm reconstruction for hemiglossectomy defects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mingxing; Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Tang, Enyi; Wang, Yujia

    2015-11-01

    To compare free thin anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap with free radial forearm (FRF) flap in the reconstruction of hemiglossectomy defects, and to introduce our methods and experience in the tongue reconstruction with free thin ALT flap. The clinicopathologic data of 46 tongue carcinoma cases hospitalized from December 2009 to April 2014 were obtained from Nangjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University. All the subjects were evaluated for the articulation and the swallowing function 3 months after the surgery. Among these 46 patients, 12 patients underwent tongue reconstruction after hemiglossectomy with ALT flap; 34 patients underwent tongue reconstruction with FRF flap. The differences in the incidence of vascular crisis, the speech and the swallowing function between two groups were not significant (P > 0.05). Thin ALT flap could be one of the ideal flaps for hemiglossectomy defect reconstruction with its versatility in design, long pedicle with a suitable vessel diameter, and the neglectable donor site morbidity.

  2. OXIDATIVE STRESS MEDIATES AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE-INDUCED ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Insight into the mechanism(s) by which ambient air particulate matter (PM) mediates adverse health effects is needed to provide biological plausibility to epidemiological studies demonstrating associations between PM exposure and increased morbidity and mortality. Alt...

  3. A WATERSHED-LEVEL APPROACH TO STUDY THE PUTATIVE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LANDUSE CHANGE AND SURFACE WATER FLOW ALTERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inter-generationally prudent management of watershed resources will require attention to the interdependence between shifting landuse distributions and their effects on watershed hydrology. Development and increased proportion of impervious surface area has been found to alte lan...

  4. Optimization of an Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Liver Model: Clearance Studies with 7-Ethoxycoumarin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated trout livers were perfused using methods designed to preserve tissue viability and function. Liver performance was evaluated by measuring O2 consumption (VO2), vascular resistance, K+ leakage, glucose flux, lactate flux, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, and meta...

  5. Factors Predicting HBsAg Seroclearance and Alanine Transaminase Elevation in HBeAg-Negative Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients with Persistently Normal Liver Function

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Tai-Long; Wang, Jing-Houng; Kee, Kwong-Ming; Chen, Chien-Hung; Hung, Chao-Hung; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Background A certain proportion of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with persistently normal alanine transaminase (ALT) levels have significant fibrosis. Using liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan®) and laboratory data, including serum ALT, quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg), and HBV DNA, we attempted to predict the natural histories of these patients. Methods Non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal ALT were followed up prospectively with the end points of HBsAg seroclearance and ALT elevation above the upper limit of normal. The factors that were predictive of the end points were identified. Results A total of 235 patients with an average age of 48.1 +/- 10.7 years were followed up for 7 years. Eight patients (3.4%) lost HBsAg, and 15 patients (6.4%) experienced ALT elevation. The overall cumulative HBsAg seroclearances were 0.4%, 1.3% and 2.3% at years 1, 3 and 5, respectively. Regarding HBsAg seroclearance, the qHBsAg (< 30 IU/ml) cutoff resulted in a hazard ratio (HR) of 19.6 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.2–166.7 (P = 0.008). The baseline ALT level (odd ratio (OR) 1.075, 95% CI 1.020–1.132, P = 0.006) and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (3.7, 1.1–12.4, P = 0.032) were associated with ALT elevation. Limited to men, the baseline liver stiffness (1.6, 1.0–2.5, P = 0.031) and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (10.4, 2.1–52.4, P = 0.004) were factors that were independently associated with ALT elevation. Conclusion A low qHBsAg level predicted HBsAg clearance. Baseline ALT and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml were independent predictive factors for ALT elevation. Among the men, the independent predictive factors for ALT elevation were qHBsAg and liver stiffness. PMID:27935953

  6. Altrenogest treatment during late pregnancy did not reduce colostrum yield in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Foisnet, A; Farmer, C; David, C; Quesnel, H

    2010-05-01

    The decrease in circulating concentrations of progesterone is the lactogenic trigger in many species. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an orally active progestogen, altrenogest, administered in late gestation, on lactogenesis in sows. Gilts were treated with altrenogest (20 mg/d) from d 109 to 112 of gestation (ALT112, n = 6) or d 113 (ALT113, n = 8) or were not treated (control, n = 9). Colostrum production, estimated from the BW gains of the piglets, was measured during 24 h starting at the onset of parturition. Colostrum samples were collected at the onset of parturition until 48 h later. Jugular blood samples were taken from d -8 prepartum until d 3 postpartum. Altrenogest treatment extended the gestation length of ALT113 sows in comparison with control sows (116.3 vs. 114.7 d; P < 0.05). Litter size and litter weight at birth did not differ between groups (P > 0.1). Estimated colostrum yield was not reduced in altrenogest-treated sows compared with control sows (4.20 kg) and tended to be greater in ALT112 (4.73 kg) than in ALT113 sows (3.74 kg; P = 0.09). Altrenogest reduced endogenous progesterone concentrations during the 2 d prepartum in ALT113 relative to control sows (P < 0.05), likely because luteolysis occurred earlier in relation to parturition in ALT113 sows. Altrenogest reduced estradiol-17beta concentrations during the 2 d prepartum in ALT113 (P < 0.05) and ALT112 (P < 0.1) sows. Altrenogest treatment did not influence the timing of the prepartum peak of prolactin in relation to parturition. The ALT113 sows had lesser (P < 0.05) concentrations of lactose in plasma and a lesser Na:K ratio in colostrum after parturition than Control and ALT112 sows, indicating that the junctions between their mammary epithelial cells were tighter. Concentrations of colostral IgG in sows that received altrenogest tended to be less than in control sows (P = 0.08). In conclusion, altrenogest administered from d 109 to 112 or 113 of pregnancy

  7. Elevations in markers of liver injury and risk of type 2 diabetes: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Anthony J G; Williams, Ken; Festa, Andreas; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Kempf, Judy; Zinman, Bernard; Haffner, Steven M

    2004-10-01

    A limited number of studies have reported associations of markers of liver injury, including elevated concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), with prospective risk of type 2 diabetes. However, only one study has adjusted for a detailed measure of insulin sensitivity (insulin sensitivity index [S(i)]), which is important given associations of obesity and S(i) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our objective was to investigate the associations of elevated AST and ALT with incident type 2 diabetes among 906 participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study who were nondiabetic at baseline. S(i) and acute insulin response (AIR) were measured directly from the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test among black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white participants aged 40-69 years. After 5.2 years, 148 individuals had developed type 2 diabetes. Baseline AST and ALT were positively correlated with fasting insulin (r = 0.22 and r = 0.35, respectively), waist circumference (r = 0.18 and r = 0.34), and fasting glucose (r = 0.13 and r = 0.29) and inversely with S(i) (r = -0.18 and r = -0.30; all P < 0.0001). In separate logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, clinical center, and alcohol consumption, participants in the highest quartiles (Q4) of AST and ALT were at significantly increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes compared with those in the lowest three quartiles (Q1-Q3): AST: odds ratio (OR) 1.73 (95% CI 1.17-2.57); ALT: OR 2.32 (1.36-3.75). After further adjustment for smoking, waist circumference, triglyceride, HDL, impaired glucose tolerance, S(i), and AIR, both AST and ALT remained significantly associated with incident type 2 diabetes: AST, Q4 vs. Q1-Q3: OR 1.98 (1.23-3.17); ALT, Q4 vs. Q1-Q3: OR 2.00 (1.22-3.28). There were no interactions of sex, ethnicity, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, or S(i) with AST or ALT in the prediction of type 2 diabetes. When

  8. Complex Association between Alanine Aminotransferase Activity and Mortality in General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Que, Shuping; Wang, Linlin; Qin, Xue

    2014-01-01

    Objective Controversy exists in using alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity for predicting long-term survival. Therefore, this research study investigated the association between ALT activity and mortality through a systematic review and meta-analysis of previous prospective studies. Methods Electronic literature databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), were searched for relevant prospective observational studies (published before Dec 30, 2013) on the association between baseline ALT activity and ensuing all-cause/disease-specific mortality. Information on nationality, sample size, participant characteristics, follow-up duration, comparison, outcome assessment, hazard ratios (HRs) and adjusted covariates was extracted. Pooled HRs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were separately calculated for categorical risk estimates (highest vs. lowest ALT categories) and continuous risk estimates (per 5 U/l of ALT increment) in subgroups separated by age (<70/≥70 years). Results A total of twelve prospective cohort studies, totaling 206,678 participants and 16,249 deaths, were identified and analyzed. In the younger age group, the pooled HR for mortality related to liver-disease was about 1.24 (95% CI: 1.23–1.25) per 5 U/l of ALT increment. The dose-response HRs of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) disease-related mortality, and cancer-related mortality were 0.91 (0.88–0.94), 0.91 (0.85–0.96), 0.92 (0.86–0.98) respectively per 5 U/l of ALT elevation, with insignificant heterogeneity in the older population. There was an approximate decrease of 4‰ observed on HRs of all-cause, CV-related, and cancer-related mortality followed with one year's increment through meta-regression (all P<0.05). Conclusions The ALT-mortality association was inconsistent and seems particularly susceptible to age after synthesizing the previous prospective studies. In terms of the age, ALT activity was more valuable in

  9. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Primary Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Is Associated with Aggressive Clinical Behavior and Poor Survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Young; Brosnan-Cashman, Jacqueline A; An, Soyeon; Kim, Sung Joo; Song, Ki-Byung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ju; Hwang, Dae Wook; Meeker, Alan K; Yu, Eunsil; Kim, Song Cheol; Hruban, Ralph H; Heaphy, Christopher M; Hong, Seung-Mo

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), a telomerase-independent telomere maintenance mechanism, is strongly associated with ATRX and DAXX alterations and occurs frequently in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET).Experimental Design: In a Korean cohort of 269 surgically resected primary PanNETs and 19 sporadic microadenomas, ALT status and nuclear ATRX and DAXX protein expression were assessed and compared with clinicopathologic factors.Results: In PanNETs, ALT or loss of ATRX/DAXX nuclear expression was observed in 20.8% and 19.3%, respectively, whereas microadenomas were not altered. ALT-positive PanNETs displayed a significantly higher grade, size, and pT classification (all, P < 0.001). ALT also strongly correlated with lymphovascular (P < 0.001) and perineural invasion (P = 0.001) and the presence of lymph node (P < 0.001) and distant metastases (P = 0.002). Furthermore, patients with ALT-positive primary PanNETs had a shorter recurrence-free survival [HR = 3.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.83-6.27; P < 0.001]. Interestingly, when limiting to patients with distant metastases, those with ALT-positive primary tumors had significantly better overall survival (HR = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.08-0.68; P = 0.008). Similarly, tumors with loss of ATRX/DAXX expression were significantly associated with ALT (P < 0.001), aggressive clinical behavior, and reduced recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001). However, similar to ALT, when limiting to patients with distant metastases, loss of ATRX/DAXX expression was associated with better overall survival (P = 0.003).Conclusions: Both primary ALT-positive and ATRX/DAXX-negative PanNETs are independently associated with aggressive clinicopathologic behavior and displayed reduced recurrence-free survival. In contrast, ALT activation and loss of ATRX/DAXX are both associated with better overall survival in patients with metastases. Therefore, these biomarkers may be used as prognostic markers depending on the context of

  10. Complex association between alanine aminotransferase activity and mortality in general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhengtao; Ning, Huaijun; Que, Shuping; Wang, Linlin; Qin, Xue; Peng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Controversy exists in using alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity for predicting long-term survival. Therefore, this research study investigated the association between ALT activity and mortality through a systematic review and meta-analysis of previous prospective studies. Electronic literature databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), were searched for relevant prospective observational studies (published before Dec 30, 2013) on the association between baseline ALT activity and ensuing all-cause/disease-specific mortality. Information on nationality, sample size, participant characteristics, follow-up duration, comparison, outcome assessment, hazard ratios (HRs) and adjusted covariates was extracted. Pooled HRs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were separately calculated for categorical risk estimates (highest vs. lowest ALT categories) and continuous risk estimates (per 5 U/l of ALT increment) in subgroups separated by age (<70/≥ 70 years). A total of twelve prospective cohort studies, totaling 206,678 participants and 16,249 deaths, were identified and analyzed. In the younger age group, the pooled HR for mortality related to liver-disease was about 1.24 (95% CI: 1.23-1.25) per 5 U/l of ALT increment. The dose-response HRs of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) disease-related mortality, and cancer-related mortality were 0.91 (0.88-0.94), 0.91 (0.85-0.96), 0.92 (0.86-0.98) respectively per 5 U/l of ALT elevation, with insignificant heterogeneity in the older population. There was an approximate decrease of 4‰ observed on HRs of all-cause, CV-related, and cancer-related mortality followed with one year's increment through meta-regression (all P<0.05). The ALT-mortality association was inconsistent and seems particularly susceptible to age after synthesizing the previous prospective studies. In terms of the age, ALT activity was more valuable in predicting mortality in the older population

  11. Extrapolating active layer thickness measurements across Arctic polygonal terrain using LiDAR and NDVI data sets.

    PubMed

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Rowland, Joel C; Hubbard, Susan S; Brumby, Steven P; Liljedahl, Anna K; Wainwright, Haruko; Wilson, Cathy J; Altmann, Garrett L; Dafflon, Baptiste; Peterson, John; Ulrich, Craig; Tweedie, Craig E; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2014-08-01

    Landscape attributes that vary with microtopography, such as active layer thickness (ALT), are labor intensive and difficult to document effectively through in situ methods at kilometer spatial extents, thus rendering remotely sensed methods desirable. Spatially explicit estimates of ALT can provide critically needed data for parameterization, initialization, and evaluation of Arctic terrestrial models. In this work, we demonstrate a new approach using high-resolution remotely sensed data for estimating centimeter-scale ALT in a 5 km(2) area of ice-wedge polygon terrain in Barrow, Alaska. We use a simple regression-based, machine learning data-fusion algorithm that uses topographic and spectral metrics derived from multisensor data (LiDAR and WorldView-2) to estimate ALT (2 m spatial resolution) across the study area. Comparison of the ALT estimates with ground-based measurements, indicates the accuracy (r(2) = 0.76, RMSE ±4.4 cm) of the approach. While it is generally accepted that broad climatic variability associated with increasing air temperature will govern the regional averages of ALT, consistent with prior studies, our findings using high-resolution LiDAR and WorldView-2 data, show that smaller-scale variability in ALT is controlled by local eco-hydro-geomorphic factors. This work demonstrates a path forward for mapping ALT at high spatial resolution and across sufficiently large regions for improved understanding and predictions of coupled dynamics among permafrost, hydrology, and land-surface processes from readily available remote sensing data.

  12. Novel in Vitro Modification of Bone for an Allograft with Improved Toughness Osteoconductivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    sections with thickness of 110 ± 15 µm using a circular diamond saw (South Bay, San Diego) under constant water irrigation to prevent heat damage to the...week period of incubation at 37 °C. The three ribose containing treatment groups (GLY, GLY+CaCl2, GLY+ALT) are substantially acidified in 14 days... acidified quickly turning into a mild acid in two weeks. In order to further refine and validate the dosage and duration of ALT treatment for

  13. Effects of Three Watchstanding Schedules on Submariner Physiology, Performance and Mood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-10

    performance or be subjected to water immersion. The actigraphy data were reduced using the Cole-Kripke sleep scoring algorithm (Cole et al., 1992) to...categorize each recorded epoch into sleep and awake periods. We acquired actigraphy data to estimate the sleep patterns of the participants while they...Recovery (Mar >> Alt, Sub; Sub >> Alt; *p < 0.05). Activity Data from actigraphy were used to track the participant’s sleep patterns in the

  14. Economic Analysis Procedures for ADP,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Alternatives A and B are: PV(Alt. A) = .954($215) + 3.616($100) = $567 PV(Alt. B) = 3.616($145) = $ 524 Alternative B is now less costly than alternative A. Since...Results of the three tests are described below. P- 17 r. PWa i- W - co %D O i m 00 I - %.0J -4 co c ’IT a) n W c mn kv N -4 LN a) m OD Nr I-. co 4c

  15. Regulation of Metastasis and DNA Damage Resistance Pathways by Transposable Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    7. Cho NW, Dilley RL, Lampson MA, Greenberg RA: Interchromosomal Homology Searches Drive Directional ALT Telomere Movement and Synapsis. Cell 159(1...108-121, October 2014. Highlighted in Cell 2014, Arnoult N and Karlseder J. ALT Telomeres Borrow from Meiosis to Get Moving. 8. Sawyer SL, Tian L...China Nov, 2013 " Telomere Dynamics and Cancer" New York University School of Medicine, NY, NY Nov, 2013 "Nuclear architecture and DNA repair" NIH

  16. Monosynaptic excitatory inputs to spinal lamina I anterolateral-tract-projecting neurons from neighbouring lamina I neurons.

    PubMed

    Luz, Liliana L; Szucs, Peter; Pinho, Raquel; Safronov, Boris V

    2010-11-15

    Spinal lamina I receives nociceptive primary afferent input to project through diverse ascending pathways, including the anterolateral tract (ALT). Large projection neurons (PNs) form only a few per cent of the cell population in this layer, and little is known about their local input from other lamina I neurons. We combined single-cell imaging in the isolated spinal cord, paired recordings, 3-D reconstructions of biocytin-labelled neurons and computer simulations to study the monosynaptic input to large ALT-PNs from neighbouring (somata separated by less than 80 μm) large lamina I neurons. All 11 connections identified were excitatory. We have found that an axon of a presynaptic neuron forms multiple synapses on an ALT-PN, and both Ca(2+)-permeable and Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptors are involved in transmission. The monosynaptic EPSC latencies (1-12 ms) are determined by both post- and presynaptic factors. The postsynaptic delay, resulting from the electrotonic EPSC propagation in the dendrites of an ALT-PN, could be 4 ms at most. The presynaptic delay, caused by the spike propagation in a narrow highly branched axon of a local-circuit neuron, can be about 10 ms for neighbouring ALT-PNs and longer for more distant neurons. In many cases, the EPSPs evoked by release from a lamina I neuron were sufficient to elicit a spike in an ALT-PN. Our data show that ALT-PNs can receive input from both lamina I local-circuit neurons and other ALT-PNs. We suggest that lamina I is a functionally interconnected layer. The intralaminar network described here can amplify the overall output from the principal spinal nociceptive projection area.

  17. Orbiter 'Enterprise' rides 'piggy-back' atop NASA 747 carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' sits in a piggyback configuration atop NASA 905, a 747 carrier aircraft, prior to takeoff on the fifth and final Approach and Landing Test (ALT) free flight mission from Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). Astronauts Fred W. Haise, Jr., commander, and C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot, later controlled the Orbiter during its two-mintue, one-second free flight and its landing - the first on a hard surface in the ALT series - at Edwards Air Force Base.

  18. Repolarization Alternans and Ventricular Arrhythmia in a Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Tsai, Chia-Ti; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Shu-Chien; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lai, Ling-Ping; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2015-12-11

    Ventricular arrhythmia is an important cause of late death in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). By using an rTOF canine model, we investigated the role of repolarization alternans and its electrophysiological mechanisms. Six dogs received right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) transannular patch, pulmonary valve destruction, and right bundle branch ablation to simulate rTOF. After 1 year, we performed high-resolution dual-voltage and calcium optical mapping to record action potentials and calcium transients on the excised right ventricular outflow tract wedges. Another 6 dogs without operation served as control. The rTOF group was more susceptible to action potential duration alternans (APD-ALT) and spatially discordant APD-ALT than control (threshold for APD-ALT: 516±36 vs 343±36 ms; P=0.017; threshold for discordant APD-ALT: 387±30 vs 310±14 ms; P=0.046). We detected 2 episodes of ventricular tachycardia in the rTOF group, but none in the control. Expressions of Kv4.3 and KChIP2 decreased in the rTOF group. Expression of connexin 43 also decreased in the rTOF group with a corresponding decrease of conduction velocity and might contribute to spatially discordant APD-ALT. We also found distinct electrophysiological features of the RVOT, including biphasic relationship between magnitude of APD-ALT and pacing cycle length, uncoupling of APD-ALT, and calcium transients alternans, and shortened APD, but unchanged, APD restitution in rTOF. We demonstrated novel electrophysiological properties of the RVOT. In an rTOF model, the RVOT exhibits increased susceptibility to temporal and spatially discordant APD-ALT, which was not totally dependent on calcium transient alternans. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism is associated with elevated alanine transaminase levels in Mexican Indigenous and Mestizo populations.

    PubMed

    Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Menjivar, Marta; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahúm; Cárdenas, Vanessa; Bañuelos-Moreno, Manuel; Flores, Yvonne N; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2014-07-01

    The patatin like phospholipase domain-containing (PNPLA3) I148M variant is the strongest genetic factor associated with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in different populations, particularly in Hispanics who have the highest 148M risk allele frequency reported to date. It has been suggested that Indigenous ancestry is associated with higher ALT levels in Mexicans. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo individuals, and to examine its association with serum ALT levels. The study included a total of 1624 Mexican individuals: 919 Indigenous subjects from five different native groups and 705 Mexican Mestizo individuals (141 cases with ALT levels ≥ 40 U/L and 564 controls with ALT <40 U/L). The I148M polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan assays. The frequency of elevated ALT levels in Indigenous populations was 18.7%, and varied according to obesity status: 14.4% in normal weight, 19.9% in overweight and 24.5% in obese individuals. The Mexican indigenous populations showed the highest reported frequency of the PNPLA3 148M risk allele (mean 0.73). The M148M genotype was significantly associated with elevated ALT levels in indigenous individuals (OR = 3.15, 95 % CI 1.91-5.20; P = 7.1 × 10(-6)) and this association was confirmed in Mexican Mestizos (OR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.50-3.33; P = 8.1 × 10(-5)). This is the first study reporting the association between M148M genotype and elevated ALT levels in Indigenous Mexican populations. The 148M allele risk may be considered an important risk factor for liver damage in Mexican indigenous and Mestizo populations.

  20. Serum alanine aminotransferase elevation during 10 days of acetaminophen administration in non-drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Heard, Kennon J.; Green, Jody L.; Dart, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Asymptomatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations have been detected with acetaminophen use at the maximum daily dose of 4 grams/day (g/d) for more than 3 consecutive days in subjects with and without concurrent ethanol use. The purpose of this study is to describe the changes in serum ALT activity in non-drinkers treated with acetaminophen for 10 days. Methods Study Objective to describe the change in serum ALT in non-drinkers administered acetaminophen for 10 days. Study Design: Prospective, single arm trial. Setting: Outpatients. Interventions: Acetaminophen 4 g/day starting on day study day 1. Measurements: Serum ALT, total billirubin and international normalized ratio (INR) were measured on study day 0, 4, 7, 9, 11 and 14. Main Results Twenty four subjects completed the trial. Median ALT increased from 24 IU/L at day 0 to 39 IU/L by day 7, remained elevated through day 11 (38 IU/L) and began to trend down by day 14 (35 IU/L). The increase in ALT during the study was statistically significant (p= 0.0002). Sixty-six percent of subjects had an ALT above the upper limits of normal at day 11; the largest elevation was 3.8 the upper limits of normal. No subject developed symptoms of liver injury or had an elevation in INR or serum bilirubin. Conclusions Daily use of acetaminophen at the daily maximum dose of 4 g/day for 10 days causes asymptomatic ALT elevations in subjects who do not consume ethanol. PMID:20653358