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Sample records for kostyrko tibor alt

  1. [Tibor Péterfi, the founder of micromanipulation].

    PubMed

    Donáth, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    Tibor Péterfi (1883-1953) was an eminent and internationally renowned biologist. He made great advances in the field of experimental physiology focusing his cytological research on microscopic examination of living cells. For this task, he created a tool named micromanipulator basing the development of microsurgery and that of cell surgery as well. His histological and cytological researches took their beginning first in Kolozsvár/Cluj (then Hungary, now Romania), where he worked as an assistant of professor István Apáthy then in Budapest where he spent fruitful years under the tutorship of professor Mihály Lenhossék. His scientific career however was broken by the political persecution which followed the fall of the communist revolution in 1919. He emigrated and spent the following decades in Prague, in Jena, in Berlin and in Cambridge. The apogee however of his scientific career proved to be the period he spent in Istanbul as a guest professor of the local university. He returned home only after the war already mortally ill. His illness did not allow him to continue his activity any more. Present article evaluates Tibor Péterfi's scientific achievements based mostly on recent archival researches.

  2. Founder of systems chemistry and foundational theoretical biologist: Tibor Gánti (1933-2009).

    PubMed

    Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-09-21

    With his chemoton theory theoretical biologist and chemical engineer Tibor Gánti was one of the most outstanding intellects behind systems chemistry and the at the foundations of theoretical biology. A brief review of his oeuvre is presented. This essay introduces a special issue dedicated to his memory. PMID:25957522

  3. Educational Insights of the Economist: Tibor Scitovsky on Education, Production and Creative Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades education is increasingly perceived as an instrument for generating economic growth and enhancing production. Unexpectedly, however, many prominent economists, throughout history, have rejected this view of education. This article examines the grounds on which Tibor Scitovsky, who was one of the leading economists of twentieth…

  4. Founder of systems chemistry and foundational theoretical biologist: Tibor Gánti (1933-2009).

    PubMed

    Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-09-21

    With his chemoton theory theoretical biologist and chemical engineer Tibor Gánti was one of the most outstanding intellects behind systems chemistry and the at the foundations of theoretical biology. A brief review of his oeuvre is presented. This essay introduces a special issue dedicated to his memory.

  5. ALT/Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.; Conarro, Ryan; Upshaw, Allison; Makol, Suzanne; Kelin, Daniel A., II; Redman, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Stories in the "ALT/Space" section of each issue of "Teaching Artist Journal" illustrate and document a wide variety of topics surrounding the work of teaching artists while simultaneously revealing some larger truths about what it means to be an artist who teaches. This particular section focuses on the process and realities…

  6. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  7. [The photographic archive of the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística and Tibor Jablonszky's view of female labor].

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Vera Lucia Cortes

    2013-03-01

    Shining a light on the photographic archive of geographic missions assigned to do reconnaissance of the country's territory, sponsored by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the article describes the conditions under which this archive was compiled and how it can serve as a historical source. It addresses the presentation of images and the range of topics and places found in Tibor Jablonszky's work as far as the representations that this photographer constructed of female labor in Brazil during the 1950s and 1960s, from the viewpoint of a photographer working for a government agency.

  8. Faraday diagnostics for ALT-3

    SciTech Connect

    Oro, David M; Tabaka, Leonard J

    2011-01-13

    ALT-3 and R-Damage are experiments to be executed in collaboration between LANL and VNIIEF personnel. They are planned to be fielded in Sarov, Russia at VNIIEF. Both experiments employ Russian explosively driven pulse-power systems to generate a pulse of electrical current that is used to drive the experiment. The current pulse will be measured with Faraday-rotation fiber-optic loops. Using this well known technique, the change in the current enclosed by the loops is determined by measuring the change in the magnetic field integrated along the fiber-optic loop by detecting the Faraday rotation of linearly polarized light traveling through the fiber. The amount of polarization rotation of the light is related to the integrated magnetic field and therefore the enclosed current (Ampere's law) through the Verdet constant which for the optical-fibers used in this experiment has been determined to within 1 %. The presentation describes how the technique will be employed in the ALT-3 experiment.

  9. ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, Jeffrey R; Atchison, Walter L.; Holtkamp, David; Oro, David M.; Reinovsky, Robert E.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Tabaka, Leonard J.

    2012-06-11

    The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

  10. Effects of BRCA2 deficiency on telomere recombination in non-ALT and ALT cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that BRCA2 affects telomere maintenance. Interestingly, anti cancer treatments that involve BRCA2 and telomerase individually are currently being explored. In the light of the above recent studies their combinatorial targeting may be justified in the development of future treatments. In order to investigate effects of BRCA2 that can be explored for this combinatorial targeting we focused on the analysis of recombination rates at telomeres by monitoring T-SCEs (Telomere Sister Chromatid Exchanges). Results We observed a significant increase in T-SCE frequencies in four BRCA2 defective human cell lines thus suggesting that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. To test this hypothesis further we analyzed T-SCE frequencies in a set of Chinese hamster cell lines with or without functional BRCA2. Our results indicate that introduction of functional BRCA2 normalizes frequencies of T-SCEs thus supporting the notion that BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres. Given that ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres) positive cells maintain telomeres by recombination we investigated the effect of BRCA2 depletion in these cells. Our results show that this depletion causes a dramatic reduction in T-SCE frequencies in ALT positive cells, but not in non-ALT cells. Conclusion BRCA2 suppresses recombination at telomeres in cells that maintain them by conventional mechanisms. Furthermore, BRCA2 depletion in ALT positive cells reduces high levels of T-SCEs normally found in these cells. Our results could be potentially important for refining telomerase-based anti-cancer therapies. PMID:22152194

  11. Association of ALT and the metabolic syndrome among Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Ugalde-Casas, Patricia A; Lam-Franco, Lorena; Bustamante-Careaga, Humberto; Serrano-González, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Norma G; Martínez, Ubaldo

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is emerging as a component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS); Hispanics being particularly predisposed. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is considered a marker of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associations between ALT elevations and MetS in normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexican children and adolescents, since data in Mexico is scarce. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percentage body fat, blood pressure, glucose, lipid profiles, ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in 236, 6-12yo normal-weight, overweight and obese Mexicans from eight public schools. The results showed that elevated ALT (>40 IU/L) was found in 17.7% of the obese and overweight population, with no gender difference. The prevalence of elevated ALT increased linearly across BMI categories (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group (95%CI 0.0-€“8.0) to 22.4% for the obese one (95%CI 16.2-€“30.2). AST/ALT ratio <1 also increased linearly, as did the prevalence of MetS (p = 0.001), from 0.0% for the normal-weight group to 40.3% for the obese one. The prevalence of MetS was strongly associated with elevated ALT (p = 0.002), 50% in the elevated ALT group (95%CI 34.1-€“65.9) and 24.1% in the normal ALT one (95%CI 18.1-€“31.3). There was also a strong association between MetS and an AST/ALT ratio <1. WC was the best predictor of elevated ALT (AOR = 7.13). Pearson correlation showed that MetS components were significantly correlated with elevated ALT. Therefore elevated ALT levels were highly prevalent and strongly associated with MetS in Mexican children, it should be screened in overweight and obese children.

  12. PISCES and ALT-II: Juelich PSI papers

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Hirooka, Y.; LaBombard, B.; Moyer, R.; Goebel, D.M.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Corbett, W.J.; Lehmer, R.; Ra, Y.; Tynan, G.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Hardkte, A.; Kohlhaas, W.; Wolf, G.; Vandenplas, P.; Messian, M.; Van Oost, G.; Weynants, R.; Franconi, E.; Miyahara, A.; Sagara, A.; Gauster, W.B.; Koski, J.A.; McGrath, R.T.; Watkins, J.G.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1988-08-01

    This publication comprises papers from the PISCES and ALT-II Programs at UCLA which were presented at the International Plasma Surface Interactions Meeting held in Juelich, FRG, on May 2-6, 1988. A list of publications from the PISCES and ALT-II contained in this report are: Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES; Erosion and redeposition behavior of selected NET-candidate materials under high-flux hydrogen, deuterium plasma bombardment in PISCES; Presheath profiles in simulated tokamak edge plasmas; Boundary asymmetries and plasma flow to the ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter; ALT-II toroidal belt pump limiter performance in TEXTOR; and An in-situ spectroscopic erosion yield measurement with applications to sputtering and surface morphology alterations.

  13. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL

  14. Initial ALT-I pump limiter studies on TEXOR

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Whitley, J.B.; McDonald, J.M.; Watson, R.D.; Gauster, W.B.; Campbell, G.A.; Goebel, D.M.

    1984-05-01

    The ALT-I pump limiter has been used to control the fueling and recycling characteristics of TEXTOR during stable, reproducible tokamak discharges. The module has been operated in three modes: (1) Normal Limiter, with no particle collection, (2) Particle Scoop, with a maximum approx. 2 x 10/sup -3/ torr pressure rise in the 700 liter unpumped collection chamber, and (3) Pump Limiter, with up to approx. 10,000 1/s pumping speed and particle removal rates of up to 6 x 10/sup 20//s. In a comparison of operation in modes (1) and (3) using identical gas fueling programs, the total core electron number decreased by as much as 50%. The effective TEXTOR particle confinement time, tau/sub p/* = tau/sub p//(1-R), was decreased by a similar ratio. Within the throat region, during typical operation, electron densities and temperatures were 6 x 10/sup 11/ to 2 x 10/sup 12//cm/sup 3/ and 15 to 30 eV. These conditions are representative of an operating regime in which there is high reionization of neutrals, but no change in incoming plasma parameters in the throat region. Energetic particles near the deflector plate were observed. During a gradual insertion of TiC-coated ALT-I beyond the stainless steel TEXTOR main limiters, the density of Ti in the plasma increased to a level similar to those of Cr and Fe. The gas injection fueling efficiency while puffing hydrogen directly into the plasma at the pump limiter tangency point was measured to be > 0.9. These results are discussed in conjunction with measurements of particle flows within ALT-I and other plasma diagnostics to characterize pump limiter operation on TEXTOR.

  15. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  16. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R{sup 1})(R{sup 2})Si--C{triple_bond}C--(R{sup 3})(R{sup 4})Si--CH{double_bond}CH--]{sub n}--, wherein n{>=}2; and each R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, R{sup 3}, and R{sup 4} is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  17. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1995-10-10

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH.dbd.CH--].sub .n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  18. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Yi Pang.

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: -[-(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si-C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si-CH[double bond]CH-][sub n]-, wherein n[>=]2; each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  19. Detailed design specification for the ALT Shuttle Information Extraction Subsystem (SIES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clouette, G. L.; Fitzpatrick, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) shuttle information extraction system (SIES) is described in terms of general requirements and system characteristics output products and processing options, output products and data sources, and system data flow. The ALT SIES is a data reduction system designed to satisfy certain data processing requirements for the ALT phase of the space shuttle program. The specific ALT SIES data processing requirements are stated in the data reduction complex approach and landing test data processing requirements. In general, ALT SIES must produce time correlated data products as a result of standardized data reduction or special purpose analytical processes. The main characteristics of ALT SIES are: (1) the system operates in a batch (non-interactive) mode; (2) the processing is table driven; (3) it is data base oriented; (4) it has simple operating procedures; and (5) it requires a minimum of run time information.

  20. Maximization of orbiter altitude at ALT interface airspeed, mission planning, mission analysis and software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The determination of the separation initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle) that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeed is considered. Optimum altitude airspeed profiles are generated for each orbiter incidence angle and tailcone configuration. Results show that the highest separation altitude does not result in the highest altitude at ALT interface airspeed. The altitude attainable at ALT interface airspeed should therefore be considered in the selection of the initial conditions (i.e. incidence angle). Without violating any known constraints, the incidence angles that maximize orbiter altitude at the ALT interface airspeeds are 7.0 deg for ALT free flight 1 and 5.5 deg for ALT free flight 6.

  1. Ethanol ingestion in two infants under 2 months old: a previously unreported cause of ALTE.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Taylor; Levine, Michael; Knox, Oma; Claudius, Ilene

    2013-02-01

    The differential diagnosis for the infant presenting with an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is broad. Toxic ingestions are a relatively uncommon cause of an ALTE, although several over-the-counter, prescription, and illicit drugs have been implicated. We present 2 cases of ethanol intoxication in infants as a previously unreported cause of an ALTE. Additionally, serial ethanol levels for these patients offer novel insight into the pharmacokinetics of ethanol metabolism in infants. Ethanol ingestion may be an underrecognized cause of an ALTE and should be considered if the history or physical examination is suggestive. PMID:23319534

  2. Neutral transport in the ALT-I limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C.D.; Heifetz, D.B.; Post, D.E.; Malinowski, M.E.

    1983-10-01

    The behavior of neutral atoms and molecules in the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I has been investigated with the aid of the 2-D Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS. The code incorporates the full set of relevant collision processes (atomic and molecular), and it has a standard wall model which includes fast-neutral reflection and molecular desorption. The limiter was modeled with a 2-D geometry, which included corrections for 3-D effects. Among the quantities predicted by the code which are directly relevant to experiment include the neutral pressure within the plenum and along the duct leading into the plenum, the gettering rates, and the heat flux to the walls of the duct. These have been calculated for a variety of plasma parameters in the inlet, and the behavior with respect to variations of the duct widths has been studied. Because of the presence of the long duct separating the entrance chamber from the plenum, a high probability of ionization generally results, suggesting that a calculation allowing the plasma to adjust to the neutral sources might show a large amount of recycling.

  3. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-02-16

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.

  4. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  5. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  6. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-01-01

    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85-90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch. PMID:27578458

  7. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu

    2016-01-01

    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85–90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch. PMID:27578458

  8. Telomerase suppresses formation of ALT-associated single-stranded telomeric C-circles.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Matthew J; Pascarelli, Kara M; Merkel, Anna S; Lazar, Alexander J; von Mehren, Margaret; Lev, Dina; Broccoli, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    Telomere maintenance is an essential characteristic of cancer cells, most commonly achieved by activation of telomerase. Telomeres can also be maintained by a recombination-based mechanism, alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Cells using ALT are characterized by the presence of ALT-associated promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies (APB), long, heterogeneously sized telomeres, extrachromosomal telomeric circular DNA, and elevated telomeric recombination. Consistent with other reports, we found that liposarcomas containing APBs, but lacking telomerase expression, always contained C-rich circles (C-circles), and these C-circles were never present in the absence of APBs, indicating a tight link between these features in ALT cells. However, a rare subgroup of tumors showing evidence of telomere maintenance by both telomerase and ALT did not contain C-circles. To test the hypothesis that telomerase expression disrupts the tight link between APBs and C-circles, we used ALT cell lines that were engineered to express telomerase. Introduction of telomerase activity in these ALT cells resulted in, on average, shorter telomeres with retention of APBs. However, at high passage, the level of C-circles was significantly reduced, which was paralleled by a switch from C-strand overhangs to G-strand overhangs. We propose that by extending critically short telomeres in these cells, telomerase is disrupting a key step in the ALT pathway necessary for production and/or maintenance of C-circles.

  9. Characterisation of a flavonoid ligand of the fungal protein Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Silva-Navas, Javier; Ramírez-Castillejo, Carmen; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Barber, Domingo; Pozo, Juan C.; Melendi, Pablo G.; Pacios, Luis F.; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Spores of pathogenic fungi are virtually ubiquitous and cause human disease and severe losses in crops. The endophytic fungi Alternaria species produce host-selective phytotoxins. Alt a 1 is a strongly allergenic protein found in A. alternata that causes severe asthma. Despite the well-established pathogenicity of Alt a 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action and physiological function remain largely unknown. To gain insight into the role played by this protein in the pathogenicity of the fungus, we studied production of Alt a 1 and its activity in spores. We found that Alt a 1 accumulates inside spores and that its release with a ligand is pH-dependent, with optimum production in the 5.0–6.5 interval. The Alt a 1 ligand was identified as a methylated flavonoid that inhibits plant root growth and detoxifies reactive oxygen species. We also found that Alt a 1 changes its oligomerization state depending on the pH of the surrounding medium and that these changes facilitate the release of the ligand. Based on these results, we propose that release of Alt a 1 should be a pathogenic target in approaches used to block plant defenses and consequently to favor fungal entry into the plant. PMID:27633190

  10. PPAR{alpha} regulates the hepatotoxic biomarker alanine aminotransferase (ALT1) gene expression in human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Thulin, Petra; Rafter, Ingalill; Stockling, Kenneth; Tomkiewicz, Celine; Norjavaara, Ensio; Aggerbeck, Martine; Hellmold, Heike; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Andersson, Ulf; Cotgreave, Ian; Glinghammar, Bjoern

    2008-08-15

    In this work, we investigated a potential mechanism behind the observation of increased aminotransferase levels in a phase I clinical trial using a lipid-lowering drug, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, AZD4619. In healthy volunteers treated with AZD4619, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated without an increase in other markers for liver injury. These increases in serum aminotransferases have previously been reported in some patients receiving another PPAR{alpha} agonist, fenofibrate. In subsequent in vitro studies, we observed increased expression of ALT1 protein and mRNA in human hepatocytes after treatment with fenofibric acid. The PPAR effect on ALT1 expression was shown to act through a direct transcriptional mechanism involving at least one PPAR response element (PPRE) in the proximal ALT1 promoter, while no effect of fenofibrate and AZD4619 was observed on the ALT2 promoter. Binding of PPARs to the PPRE located at - 574 bp from the transcriptional start site was confirmed on both synthetic oligonucleotides and DNA in hepatocytes. These data show that intracellular ALT expression is regulated by PPAR agonists and that this mechanism might contribute to increased ALT activity in serum.

  11. Characterisation of a flavonoid ligand of the fungal protein Alt a 1.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Silva-Navas, Javier; Ramírez-Castillejo, Carmen; Cubells-Baeza, Nuria; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Barber, Domingo; Pozo, Juan C; Melendi, Pablo G; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Spores of pathogenic fungi are virtually ubiquitous and cause human disease and severe losses in crops. The endophytic fungi Alternaria species produce host-selective phytotoxins. Alt a 1 is a strongly allergenic protein found in A. alternata that causes severe asthma. Despite the well-established pathogenicity of Alt a 1, the molecular mechanisms underlying its action and physiological function remain largely unknown. To gain insight into the role played by this protein in the pathogenicity of the fungus, we studied production of Alt a 1 and its activity in spores. We found that Alt a 1 accumulates inside spores and that its release with a ligand is pH-dependent, with optimum production in the 5.0-6.5 interval. The Alt a 1 ligand was identified as a methylated flavonoid that inhibits plant root growth and detoxifies reactive oxygen species. We also found that Alt a 1 changes its oligomerization state depending on the pH of the surrounding medium and that these changes facilitate the release of the ligand. Based on these results, we propose that release of Alt a 1 should be a pathogenic target in approaches used to block plant defenses and consequently to favor fungal entry into the plant. PMID:27633190

  12. The AST/ALT (De-Ritis) ratio

    PubMed Central

    Rief, Peter; Pichler, Martin; Raggam, Reinhard; Hafner, Franz; Gerger, Armin; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Gary, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aspartat aminotransferase (AST)/alanin aminotransferase (ALT) (De-Ritis) ratio (AAR) is an easily applicable blood test. An elevated AAR on the one hand has been associated with an increase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD on the other hand is associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and diabetes. As the AAR is also elevated in case of muscular damage, we investigated AAR and its association with critical limb ischemia (CLI) in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients. In our cross-sectional study, we included 1782 PAOD patients treated at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Patients with chronic alcohol consumption (>20 g/day) were excluded. AAR was calculated and the cohort was categorized into tertiles according to the AAR. An optimal cut-off value for the continuous AAR was calculated by applying a receiver operating curve analysis to discriminate between CLI and non-CLI. In our cohort, occurrence of CLI significantly increased with an elevation in AAR. As an optimal cut-off value, an AAR of 1.67 (sensitivity 34.1%, specificity 81.0%) was identified. Two groups were categorized, 1st group containing 1385 patients (AAR < 1.67) and a 2nd group with 397 patients (AAR > 1.67). CLI was more frequent in AAR > 1.67 patients (166 [41.9%]) compared to AAR < 1.67 patients (329 [23.8%]) (P < 0.001), as was prior myocardial infarction (28 [7.1%] vs 54 [3.9%], P = 0.01). Regarding inflammatory parameters, C-reactive protein (median 8.1 mg/L [2.9–28.23] vs median 4.3 mg/L [2.0–11.5]) and fibrinogen (median 427.5 mg/dL [344.25–530.0] vs 388.0 mg/dL [327.0–493.0]) also significantly differed in the 2 patient groups (both P < 0.001). Finally, an AAR > 1.67 was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–2.3) for CLI even after adjustment for other well-established vascular risk factors. An increased AAR is significantly

  13. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans. PMID:26511282

  14. Comparison of the Superagonist Complex, ALT-803, to IL15 as Cancer Immunotherapeutics in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Rhode, Peter R; Egan, Jack O; Xu, Wenxin; Hong, Hao; Webb, Gabriela M; Chen, Xiaoyue; Liu, Bai; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Wen, Jinghai; You, Lijing; Kong, Lin; Edwards, Ana C; Han, Kaiping; Shi, Sixiang; Alter, Sarah; Sacha, Jonah B; Jeng, Emily K; Cai, Weibo; Wong, Hing C

    2016-01-01

    IL15, a potent stimulant of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, is a promising cancer immunotherapeutic. ALT-803 is a complex of an IL15 superagonist mutant and a dimeric IL15 receptor αSu/Fc fusion protein that was found to exhibit enhanced biologic activity in vivo, with a substantially longer serum half-life than recombinant IL15. A single intravenous dose of ALT-803, but not IL15, eliminated well-established tumors and prolonged survival of mice bearing multiple myeloma. In this study, we extended these findings to demonstrate the superior antitumor activity of ALT-803 over IL15 in mice bearing subcutaneous B16F10 melanoma tumors and CT26 colon carcinoma metastases. Tissue biodistribution studies in mice also showed much greater retention of ALT-803 in the lymphoid organs compared with IL15, consistent with its highly potent immunostimulatory and antitumor activities in vivo. Weekly dosing with 1 mg/kg ALT-803 in C57BL/6 mice was well tolerated, yet capable of increasing peripheral blood lymphocyte, neutrophil, and monocyte counts by >8-fold. ALT-803 dose-dependent stimulation of immune cell infiltration into the lymphoid organs was also observed. Similarly, cynomolgus monkeys treated weekly with ALT-803 showed dose-dependent increases of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, including NK, CD4(+), and CD8(+) memory T-cell subsets. In vitro studies demonstrated ALT-803-mediated stimulation of mouse and human immune cell proliferation and IFNγ production without inducing a broad-based release of other proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., cytokine storm). Based on these results, a weekly dosing regimen of ALT-803 has been implemented in multiple clinical studies to evaluate the dose required for effective immune cell stimulation in humans.

  15. Post-test navigation data analysis techniques for the shuttle ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Postflight test analysis data processing techniques for shuttle approach and landing tests (ALT) navigation data are defined. Postfight test processor requirements are described along with operational and design requirements, data input requirements, and software test requirements. The postflight test data processing is described based on the natural test sequence: quick-look analysis, postflight navigation processing, and error isolation processing. Emphasis is placed on the tradeoffs that must remain open and subject to analysis until final definition is achieved in the shuttle data processing system and the overall ALT plan. A development plan for the implementation of the ALT postflight test navigation data processing system is presented. Conclusions are presented.

  16. The Role of ATRX in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Amorim, João P; Santos, Gustavo; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are responsible for protecting chromosome ends in order to prevent the loss of coding DNA. Their maintenance is required for achieving immortality by neoplastic cells and can occur by upregulation of the telomerase enzyme or through a homologous recombination-associated process, the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are not fully understood, although cellular origin may favor one of the other mechanisms that have been found thus far in mutual exclusivity. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation and maintenance: a unifying frequent feature of tumors that acquire this phenotype are the recurrent mutations of the Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X-Linked (ATRX) or Death-Domain Associated Protein (DAXX) genes. This review summarizes the established criteria about this phenotype: its prevalence, theoretical molecular mechanisms and relation with ATRX, DAXX and other proteins (directly or indirectly interacting and resulting in the ALT phenotype). PMID:27657132

  17. The Role of ATRX in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Amorim, João P; Santos, Gustavo; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are responsible for protecting chromosome ends in order to prevent the loss of coding DNA. Their maintenance is required for achieving immortality by neoplastic cells and can occur by upregulation of the telomerase enzyme or through a homologous recombination-associated process, the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are not fully understood, although cellular origin may favor one of the other mechanisms that have been found thus far in mutual exclusivity. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation and maintenance: a unifying frequent feature of tumors that acquire this phenotype are the recurrent mutations of the Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X-Linked (ATRX) or Death-Domain Associated Protein (DAXX) genes. This review summarizes the established criteria about this phenotype: its prevalence, theoretical molecular mechanisms and relation with ATRX, DAXX and other proteins (directly or indirectly interacting and resulting in the ALT phenotype).

  18. The Role of ATRX in the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, João P.; Santos, Gustavo; Vinagre, João; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are responsible for protecting chromosome ends in order to prevent the loss of coding DNA. Their maintenance is required for achieving immortality by neoplastic cells and can occur by upregulation of the telomerase enzyme or through a homologous recombination-associated process, the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The precise mechanisms that govern the activation of ALT or telomerase in tumor cells are not fully understood, although cellular origin may favor one of the other mechanisms that have been found thus far in mutual exclusivity. Specific mutational events influence ALT activation and maintenance: a unifying frequent feature of tumors that acquire this phenotype are the recurrent mutations of the Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X-Linked (ATRX) or Death-Domain Associated Protein (DAXX) genes. This review summarizes the established criteria about this phenotype: its prevalence, theoretical molecular mechanisms and relation with ATRX, DAXX and other proteins (directly or indirectly interacting and resulting in the ALT phenotype). PMID:27657132

  19. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Neil C; Corbett, Ian J; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  20. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites.

    PubMed

    Devoe, Neil C; Corbett, Ian J; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  1. Differential Evolutionary Selection and Natural Evolvability Observed in ALT Proteins of Human Filarial Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Devoe, Neil C.; Corbett, Ian J.; Barker, Linsey; Chang, Robert; Gudis, Polyxeni; Mullen, Nathan; Perez, Kailey; Raposo, Hugo; Scholz, John; May, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    The abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) protein is present in all members of the Filarioidea, and has been reported as a potential candidate antigen for a subunit vaccine against lymphatic filariasis. To assess the potential for vaccine escape or heterologous protection, we examined the evolutionary selection acting on ALT-2. The ratios of nonsynonymous (K(a)) to synonymous (K(s)) mutation frequencies (ω) were calculated for the alt-2 genes of the lymphatic filariasis agents Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti and the agents of river blindness and African eyeworm disease Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Two distinct Bayesian models of sequence evolution showed that ALT-2 of W. bancrofti and L. loa were under significant (P<0.05; P < 0.001) diversifying selection, while ALT-2 of B. malayi and O. volvulus were under neutral to stabilizing selection. Diversifying selection as measured by ω values was notably strongest on the region of ALT-2 encoding the signal peptide of L. loa and was elevated in the variable acidic domain of L. loa and W. bancrofti. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ALT-2 consensus sequences formed three clades: the first consisting of B. malayi, the second consisting of W. bancrofti, and the third containing both O. volvulus and L. loa. ALT-2 selection was therefore not predictable by phylogeny or pathology, as the two species parasitizing the eye were selected differently, as were the two species parasitizing the lymphatic system. The most immunogenic regions of L. loa and W. bancrofti ALT-2 sequence as modeled by antigenicity prediction analysis did not correspond with elevated levels of diversifying selection, and were not selected differently than predicted antigenic epitopes in B. malayi and O. volvulus. Measurements of ALT-2 evolvability made by χ2 analysis between alleles that were stable (O. volvulus and B. malayi) and those that were under diversifying selection (W. bancrofti and L. loa) indicated significant (P<0

  2. Alt a 15 is a new cross-reactive minor allergen of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Guisantes, J A; Fernández, J; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most common saprophytes worldwide that is clinically and epidemiologically associated with severe asthma. Therefore, the identification and characterization of all A. alternata allergens are of major clinical importance. This study describes a new cross-reactive A. alternata allergen that was officially named Alt a 15 by the official Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The complete coding region for Alt a 15 was amplified using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a 65-kDa fusion protein, and the protein sequence exhibits high homology with several important fungal allergens. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that IgE antibodies from A. alternata-sensitized patients (n=59) bound to rAlt a 15 with a prevalence of 10.2%. All patients who presented sIgE to rAlt a 15 were apparently poly-sensitized to A. alternata and C. lunata. The extensive cross-reactivity between A. alternata and C. lunata serine proteases was confirmed using immunoblotting inhibition assays. Overall, Alt a 15 is an important new cross-reactive allergen of A. alternata that explains some allergies to A. alternata without Alt a 1 sensitization and initial diagnostic errors for allergies to Alternaria. This molecule may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, the understanding, and the management of IgE-mediated fungal diseases.

  3. Alternaria alternata allergen, Alt a 1 - a unique, β-barrel protein dimer exclusively found in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Solberg, Robert; Demas, Matthew; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Pomés, Anna; Minor, Wladek

    2012-01-01

    Background Alternaria is one of the most common molds associated with allergic diseases and 80% of Alternaria-sensitive patients produce IgE antibodies to a major protein allergen, Alt a 1. The structure and function of Alt a 1 is unknown. Objective To obtain a high resolution structure of Alt a 1 by X-ray crystallography and to investigate structural relationships between Alt a 1 and other allergens and proteins reported in the Protein Data Bank. Methods X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of Alt a 1 using a custom-designed set of crystallization conditions. An initial Alt a 1 model was determined by the application of a Ta6Br122+ cluster and Single-wavelength Anomalous Diffraction. Bioinformatic analyses were used to compare the Alt a 1 sequence and structure with other proteins. Results Alt a 1 is a unique β-barrel comprising 11 β-strands and forms a ‘butterfly-like’ dimer linked by a single disulfide bond, with a large (1345Å2) dimer interface. Intramolecular disulfide bonds are conserved among Alt a 1 homologs. Currently, the Alt a 1 structure has no equivalent in the Protein Data Bank. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the structure is found exclusively in fungi. Four previously reported putative IgE binding peptides have been located on the Alt a 1 structure. Conclusions Alt a 1 has a unique, dimeric β-barrel structure that appears to define a new protein family with unknown function found exclusively in fungi. The location of IgE antibody binding epitopes is in agreement with the structural analysis of Alt a 1.The Alt a 1 structure will allow mechanistic structure/function studies and immunologic studies directed towards new forms of immunotherapy for Alternaria-sensitive allergic patients. PMID:22664167

  4. The genetic architecture of liver enzyme levels: GGT, ALT and AST.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Jenny H D A; de Moor, Marleen H M; de Geus, Eco J C; Lubke, Gitta H; Vink, Jacqueline M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-07-01

    High levels of liver enzymes GGT, ALT and AST are predictive of disease and all-cause mortality and can reflect liver injury, fatty liver and/or oxidative stress. Variation in GGT, ALT and AST levels is heritable. Moderation of the heritability of these liver enzymes by age and sex has not often been explored, and it is not clear to what extent non-additive genetic and shared environmental factors may play a role. To examine the genetic architecture of GGT, ALT and AST, plasma levels were assessed in a large sample of twins, their siblings, parents and spouses (N = 8,371; age range 18-90). For GGT and ALT, but not for AST, genetic structural equation modeling showed evidence for quantitative sex differences in the genetic architecture. There was no evidence for qualitative sex differences, i.e. the same genes were expressed in males and females. Both additive and non-additive genetic factors were important for GGT in females (total heritability h(2) 60 %) and AST in both sexes (total h(2) 43 %). The heritability of GGT in males and ALT for both sexes was due to additive effects only (GGT males 30 %; ALT males 40 %, females 22 %). Evidence emerged for shared environmental factors influencing GGT in the male offspring generation (variance explained 28 %). Thus, the same genes influence liver enzyme levels across sex and age, but their relative contribution to the variation in GGT and ALT differs in males and females and for GGT across age. Given adequate sample sizes these results suggest that genome-wide association studies may result in the detection of new susceptibility loci for liver enzyme levels when pooling results over sex and age. PMID:23580007

  5. Analysis of the survivability of the shuttle (ALT) fault-tolerant avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An extension of the Complementary-Analytic-Simulative Technique (CAST) is presented which is applicable to the Shuttle Data Processing Subsystem (DPS). A two step process was used. The first step provides models, both analytic and simulative, for analysis of the Approach-Landing Test (ALT) configuration. The ALT modeling and analysis are presented. Since CAST had already been shown to be multicomputer systems, the emphasis was placed on extending the CAST concept so it is applicable to computer systems including the multiplicity of input and output devices found in a real-time control system application. The DPS mission-critical survivability for a six-hour mission was determined to be 0.999863 for the Shuttle ALT baseline configuration. Thus it can be said that for ALT, the survivability is adequate. However, the fact that orbiting missions of up to 30 days are planned illustrates the necessity of extending the ALT work to be applicable to OFT and actual mission scenarios. The above analysis led to the evaluation of three selected options which identified two areas of possible improvement. These improvements would result from use of a recovery technique which combines roll ahead with memory copy, and increased TACAN fault detectability.

  6. Telomeric DNA in ALT Cells Is Characterized by Free Telomeric Circles and Heterogeneous t-Loops

    PubMed Central

    Cesare, Anthony J.; Griffith, Jack D.

    2004-01-01

    A prerequisite for cellular immortalization in human cells is the elongation of telomeres through the upregulation of telomerase or by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. In this study, telomere structure in multiple ALT cell lines was examined by electron microscopy. Nuclei were isolated from GM847, GM847-Tert, and WI-38 VA13 ALT cells, psoralen photo-cross-linked in situ, and the telomere restriction fragments were purified by gel filtration chromatography. Examination of telomere-enriched fractions revealed frequent extrachromosomal circles, ranging from 0.7 to 56.8 kb. t-loops were also observed, with the loop portion ranging from 0.5 to 70.2 kb. The total length of the loop plus tail of the t-loops corresponded to the telomere restriction fragment length from the ALT cell lines as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The presence of extrachromosomal circles containing telomeric DNA was confirmed by two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These results show that extrachromosomal telomeric DNA circles are present in ALT nuclei and suggest a roll-and-spread mechanism of telomere elongation similar to that seen in previous observations of multiple yeast species. Results presented here also indicate that expression of telomerase in GM847 cells does not affect t-loop or extrachromosomal circle formation. PMID:15509797

  7. Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria.

  8. National blood requirement, serum ALT and hepatitis in Ethiopian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Zawde, D; Sisay, Y

    1991-10-01

    To appraise the national blood requirement and supply, and to determine the impact of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening on the blood supply, 407 random blood donor sera were tested for HBsAg, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and ALT activity. HBsAg and anti-HIV antibody were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using Hepanostica and Welcozyme kits, respectively. The Western Blot test was performed to confirm anti-HIV positive sera by the ELISA technique. ALT was determined by an automated photometer using ALAT kits and serologic testing for syphilis was done by the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. The amount of blood required in Ethiopia and the actual supply was calculated on the basis of the number and type of hospital beds in Addis Abeba and the amount of blood transfusions in units per hospital bed. The results showed that the combined donor and unit rejection rate was 34.6%. The annual blood requirement was 7 units for emergency and 4 units for nonemergency beds. The national blood requirement in 1989 was 64,350-80,000 units, but the supply met only a third of the requirement. The mean and 2SD cut off ALT levels were 28 and 69 IU/L, respectively. ALT was elevated in 9.1% of HBsAg positive but apparently healthy donors, while HBsAg screening eliminated 25% of those with elevated ALT activity. This data suggests that there is a serious blood shortage in Ethiopia and that the currently supplied blood is relatively unsafe in terms of hepatitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1659534

  9. ALTE and Feeding Intolerance as a Presentation of Double Aortic Arch

    PubMed Central

    Green Golan Mackintosh, Liza; Bynum, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Many children who are admitted to pediatric hospitals with the chief complaint of apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) are, in fact, well appearing by the time the inpatient medical team evaluates the patient. This presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe a case of a six-month-old full-term female presenting with an ALTE and found to have a double aortic arch, a congenital anomaly that usually presents with a more progressive onset of symptoms such as chronic cough, positional stridor, and feeding difficulties. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a broad differential in a patient presenting with findings of tracheoesophageal pathology on clinical exam. PMID:27722004

  10. AltText: A Showcase of User Centred Design in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asjes, Kathleen

    In the information processing chain many documents are produced that are inaccessible to the reading impaired. The altText project aims to increase the accessibility of this content by: a) raising awareness among content providers about content adaption; b) allowing content providers to deliver content in a way that suits the needs of the information receiver; c) developing an online service that converts written text into several accessible formats (Braille, synthetic speech, large print or DaisyXML). The name of this service is the altText conversion portal. The paper argues that user centred innovation will be crucial to the success of this project.

  11. The ASCUS/LSIL Triage Study for Cervical Cancer (ALTS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL. About three million women in the United States are diagnosed with ASCUS and LSIL each year. | ALTS was a clinical trial to find the best way to help women and their doctors decide what to do about the mildly abnormal and very common Pap test results known as ASCUS and LSIL.

  12. The Basis of Aluminum Tolerance Encoded by the Alt3 Locus of Rye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to cope with drought and nutrient stresses by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al tolerant. At the Alt3 Al tolerance locus on rye ...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1030 - Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alanine amino transferase (ALT/SGPT) test system. 862.1030 Section 862.1030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical...

  18. lambda altSF: a phage variant that acquired the ability to substitute specific sets of genes at high frequency.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, D; Tomich, P; Parsons, C; Olson, E; Deans, R; Flamm, E

    1981-01-01

    We report the isolation of lambda altSF, a variant of Escherichia coli phage lambda that substitutes sets of genes at high frequency. Two forms of the variant phage have been studied: lambda altSF lambda, which exhibits the immunity (repressor recognition) of phage lambda, and lambda altSF22, which exhibits the immunity of Salmonella phage P22. Lysates made from single plaques of lambda altSF lambda contain 10-30% phage of the P22 form. Similarly, lysates from single plaques of lambda altSF22 contain as much as 1% phage of the lambda form. Heteroduplex analyses reveal the following features of the lambda altSF chromosomes: (i) each form has the immunity genes appropriate to its immune phenotype, (ii) the substituted segments include genes involved in regulation and replication, and (iii) the alt phages have unusual additions and substitutions of DNA not normally found associated with either immunity region. In the case of lambda altSF lambda, there is a small insertion in the region of the cI gene. Because revertants that lose this inserted DNA concomitantly lose the ability to substitute, we conclude that the insertion plays a role in the substitution process. In the case of change from lambda altSF lambda to lambda altSF22, the substituting P22 genes are derived from the E. coli host. We have identified a set of Salmonella phage P22 genes in a standard nonlysogenic strain of E. coli K-12 that is apparently carried in a silent form. The reason for this lack of expression is not obvious, because this P22 material includes structural genes and associated promoters and is potentially active. When this set of genes substitutes for the analogous set of genetic material on the genome of lambda altSF lambda, the P22 genes are expressed in a normal manner. Images PMID:6454136

  19. Mre11 and Blm-Dependent Formation of ALT-Like Telomeres in Ku-Deficient Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Eun Young; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K; Lue, Neal F

    2015-10-01

    A subset of human cancer cells uses a specialized, aberrant recombination pathway known as ALT to maintain telomeres, which in these cells are characterized by complex aberrations including length heterogeneity, high levels of unpaired C-strand, and accumulation of extra-chromosomal telomere repeats (ECTR). These phenotypes have not been recapitulated in any standard budding or fission yeast mutant. We found that eliminating Ku70 or Ku80 in the yeast-like fungus Ustilago maydis results initially in all the characteristic telomere aberrations of ALT cancer cells, including C-circles, a highly specific marker of ALT. Subsequently the ku mutants experience permanent G2 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by loss of telomere repeats from chromosome ends and even more drastic accumulation of very short ECTRs (vsECTRs). The deletion of atr1 or chk1 rescued the lethality of the ku mutant, and "trapped" the telomere aberrations in the early ALT-like stage. Telomere abnormalities are telomerase-independent, but dramatically suppressed by deletion of mre11 or blm, suggesting major roles for these factors in the induction of the ALT pathway. In contrast, removal of other DNA damage response and repair factors such as Rad51 has disparate effects on the ALT phenotypes, suggesting that these factors process ALT intermediates or products. Notably, the antagonism of Ku and Mre11 in the induction of ALT is reminiscent of their roles in DSB resection, in which Blm is also known to play a key role. We suggest that an aberrant resection reaction may constitute an early trigger for ALT telomeres, and that the outcomes of ALT are distinct from DSB because of the unique telomere nucleoprotein structure.

  20. AltPSM contact hole application at DRAM 4xnm nodes with dry 193nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noelscher, Christoph; Henkel, Thomas; Jauzion-Graverolle, Franck; Hennig, Mario; Morgana, Nicolo; Schlief, Ralph; Moukara, Molela; Koehle, Roderick; Neubauer, Ralf

    2008-03-01

    To avoid expensive immersion lithography and to further use existing dry tools for critical contact layer lithography at 4Xnm DRAM nodes the application of altPSM is investigated and compared to attPSM. Simulations and experiments with several test masks showed that by use of altPSM with suitable 0°/180° coloring and assist placement 30nm smaller contacts can be resolved through pitch with sufficient process windows (PW). This holds for arrays of contacts with variable lengths through short and long side pitches. A further benefit is the lower mask error enhancement factor (MEEF). Nevertheless 3D mask errors (ME) consume benefits in the PW and the assist placement and coloring of the main features (MF) put some constraints on the chip design. An altPSM compatible 4Xnm full-chip layout was realized without loss of chip area. Mask making showed very convincing results with respect to CDU, etch depth uniformity and defectiveness. The printed intra-field CD uniformity was comparable to attPSM despite the smaller target CDs. Room for improvement is identified in OPC accuracy and in automatic assist placement and sizing.

  1. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses onmore » capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.« less

  2. Twist-3 fragmentation effects for ALT in light hadron production from proton-proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Pitonyak, D.; Takagi, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the contribution from the twist-3 fragmentation function for light hadron production in collisions between transversely and longitudinally polarized protons, i.e., p↑ p → → h X, which can cause a double-spin asymmetry (DSA) ALT. This is a naïve T-even twist-3 observable that we analyze in collinear factorization using both Feynman gauge and lightcone gauge as well as give a general proof of color gauge invariance. So far only twist-3 effects in the transversely polarized proton have been studied for ALT in p↑ p → → h X. However, there are indications that the naïve T-odd transverse single-spin asymmetry (SSA) AN in p↑ p → h X is dominated not by such distribution effects but rather by a fragmentation mechanism. Therefore, one may expect similarly that the fragmentation contribution is important for ALT. Given possible plans at RHIC to measure this observable, it is timely to provide a calculation of this term.

  3. ALT-I pump limiter experiments with ICRF heating on TEXTOR. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, W.K.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H.; Thomas, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    The ALT-I (Advanced Limiter Test-I) was installed on TEXTOR to benchmark the ability of a pump limiter as an efficient particle collector and to determine the physics of pump limiter operation. Experiments continue to show its capability of removing particles from the plasma edge under different operating conditions. In this paper we report first experimental results using ALT-I in conjunction with high power ICRF heating. The particle removal rate increases as the edge flux and density increase during the ICRF pulse. For a head geometry that collects flux from both electron and ion drift sides, the plasma temperature rise is asymmetric with electron temperature on the electron side increasing more than on the ion side during the ICRF pulse. When ALT-I is the major limiter, the particle fluxes on both sides increase by about the same factor and the particle flux on the ion side is always larger, by a factor of 1.5 to 2 than on the electron side during both ohmic and ICRF periods. The degradation of particle confinement inferred from Langmuir probe measurement is more than a factor of two at a maximum achieved power of 2 MW.

  4. Spermine-alt-poly(ethylene glycol) polyspermine as a safe and efficient aerosol gene carrier for lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Kyoung; Cho, Chong-Su; Cho, Myung-Haing; Jiang, Hu-Lin

    2014-07-01

    The clinical success of gene therapy critically depends upon the safety and efficiency of delivery system used. Although polyethylenimine (PEI) has been commonly used as an efficient cationic polymeric gene carrier due to its high transfection efficiency, its cytotoxicity and nondegradability limit the polymer's therapeutic applications in clinical trials. In this study, biocompatible polyspermine based on spermine (SPE) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) diacrylate (SPE-alt-PEG) was synthesized using a Michael-type addition reaction, and its ability as an alternative gene carrier for lung cancer therapy was evaluated. SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine was complexed with plasmid DNA, and the resulting complexes were characterized by particle size and surface charge by dynamic light scattering, complex formation and DNA protection ability by gel retardation, and complex shape by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. The SPE-alt-PEG copolymer showed low cytotoxicity, and SPE-alt-PEG/DNA complexes showed efficacious transfection efficiency compared with 25 kDa PEI (PEI 25K). Also SPE-alt-PEG/GFP complexes were efficiently transferred into the lungs after aerosol administration without toxicity, and delivery of Pdcd4 gene as a therapeutic gene with SPE-alt-PEG polyspermine greatly reduced tumor size as well as tumor numbers in K-ras(LA1) lung cancer model mice compared relative to the effect observed for PEI 25K. These results suggest that SPE-alt-PEG has potential as a gene carrier for lung cancer gene therapy. PMID:23929634

  5. Incremental Predictive Value of Serum AST-to-ALT Ratio for Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The ARIRANG Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Song Vogue; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Youn zoo; Koh, Sang Baek; Huh, Ji Hye; Chang, Yoosoo; Sung, Ki-Chul; Kim, Jang Young

    2016-01-01

    Aims The ratio of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is of great interest as a possible novel marker of metabolic syndrome. However, longitudinal studies emphasizing the incremental predictive value of the AST-to-ALT ratio in diagnosing individuals at higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome are very scarce. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the AST-to-ALT ratio as an incremental predictor of new onset metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort study. Material and Methods The population-based cohort study included 2276 adults (903 men and 1373 women) aged 40–70 years, who participated from 2005–2008 (baseline) without metabolic syndrome and were followed up from 2008–2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome. Serum concentrations of AST and ALT were determined by enzymatic methods. Results During an average follow-up period of 2.6-years, 395 individuals (17.4%) developed metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable adjusted model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for new onset of metabolic syndrome, comparing the fourth quartile to the first quartile of the AST-to-ALT ratio, was 0.598 (0.422–0.853). The AST-to-ALT ratio also improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting new cases of metabolic syndrome (0.715 vs. 0.732, P = 0.004). The net reclassification improvement of prediction models including the AST-to-ALT ratio was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.124–0.337, P<0.001), and the integrated discrimination improvement was 0.0094 (95% CI: 0.0046–0.0143, P<0.001). Conclusions The AST-to-ALT ratio independently predicted the future development of metabolic syndrome and had incremental predictive value for incident metabolic syndrome. PMID:27560931

  6. Outcomes following pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction with the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap.

    PubMed

    Ho, M W; Houghton, L; Gillmartin, E; Jackson, S R; Lancaster, J; Jones, T M; Blackburn, T K; Homer, J J; Loughran, S; Ascott, F M; Shaw, R J

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of pharyngolaryngectomy for advanced laryngeal carcinoma reconstructed with the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap. Thirteen patients had primary surgery and adjuvant treatment (radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy), and two had salvage surgery. Thirteen had stage III or IV disease, and eight had cervical nodal extracapsular spread. In this series all the flaps survived, and at median follow-up of 14.5 months (range 3.7-31.2), 12 of the 15 patients were alive. One patient developed a chronic pharyngocutaneous fistula, and five required repeat balloon dilatations for late pharyngeal strictures. Six patients enjoyed restoration of full oral intake, seven were able to take a soft diet, and two were dependent on feeding by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Four patients developed adequate tracheo-oesophageal speech, and one successfully developed oesophageal speech. In this series many of the surgical problems associated with pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction were addressed successfully by the ALT, but late dysphagia remained troublesome in an appreciable minority. While adjuvant radiotherapy could have contributed to this, future innovations will focus on the reduction of late strictures. PMID:21055852

  7. The advanced glycation end product-lowering agent ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of thiamine diphosphokinase.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Martina; Leech, Dale; Horne, Stacey; Steele, Megan L; Forbes, Josephine; Rahmadi, Anton; Griffith, Renate; Münch, Gerald

    2011-08-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in age-related diseases, including the complications of diabetes and chronic renal impairment with arterial stiffening. Alagebrium chloride (ALT-711) is an AGE-lowering agent with beneficial effects in renal structural and functional parameters in diabetes, decreased diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis, and age-related myocardial stiffening. ALT-711 exhibits a structural homology to thiamine, and it was suggested to interfere with thiamine metabolism. Thiamine is converted to thiamine diphosphate (TDP) by thiamine diphosphokinase (TDPK). TDP is a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase. A decreased activity of these enzymes due to TDP deficiency results in disorders such as beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Therefore, we investigated whether ALT-711 is an inhibitor of TDPK. Molecular modeling studies showed that ALT-711 fits into the thiamine-binding pocket of TDPK, and there are three interactions between the thiazolium ring and the enzyme, as well as parallel stacking between the phenyl ring and the indole ring of Trp222B. Enzyme kinetic experiments also showed that ALT-711 dose-dependently decreased TDPK activity with K(i)s, calculated by different experiments and fitting models ranging from 0.88 to 1.09 mM. Fitting of the kinetic data favored mixed-mode inhibition with a major role for competitive inhibition. In summary, our results suggest that ALT-711 is a low-affinity inhibitor of TDPK, but is unlikely to interfere with thiamine metabolism at therapeutic concentrations. However, when new AGE-crosslink breakers based on thiamine are designed, care should be taken that they do not act as more potent competitive inhibitors than ALT-711. PMID:21612515

  8. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  9. Twist-3 effect from the longitudinally polarized proton for ALT in hadron production from pp collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Yuji; Pitonyak, Daniel; Yoshida, Shinsuke

    2016-08-01

    We compute the contribution from the longitudinally polarized proton to the twist-3 double-spin asymmetry ALT in inclusive (light) hadron production from proton-proton collisions, i.e., p↑ p → → h X. We show that using the relevant QCD equation-of-motion relation and Lorentz invariance relation allows one to eliminate the twist-3 quark-gluon correlator (associated with the longitudinally polarized proton) in favor of one-variable twist-3 quark distributions and the (twist-2) transversity parton density. Including this result with the twist-3 pieces associated with the transversely polarized proton and unpolarized final-state hadron (which have already been calculated in the literature), we now have the complete leading-order cross section for this process.

  10. Progress report on pump limiter developments for the TEXTOR tokamak: ALT-I

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Campbell, G.A.; Doyle, B.L.; Finken, F.H.; Gauster, W.B.; Guthrie, S.E.; Malinowski, M.E.; Ver Berkmoes, A.A.; Watson, R.D.; Whitley, J.B.

    1984-09-01

    A collaborative program is underway to field a comprehensive pump limiter experimental program on TEXTOR: Advanced Limiter Test-I (ALT-I). Either of two interchangeable limiter modules may be attached to an insertion/rotation mechanism to direct particles to the about1 m/sup 3/ pumping chamber. Pumping is provided primarily by a solid getter assembly at about20,000 1/sec. Variation of geometric dimensions and gas puffing in the modules will allow the study of plasma and neutral interaction in differing recycle regimes. Multiple diagnostic systems are incorporated into the pump limiter design for use in conjunction with TEXTOR plasma diagnostics. Initial experiments are scheduled for December 1983.

  11. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.tbd.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n-- , wherein n.gtoreq.2; and each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  12. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process densifying porous silicon-carbide bodies

    DOEpatents

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Pang, Y.

    1994-05-17

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R[sup 1])(R[sup 2])Si--C[triple bond]C-(R[sup 3])(R[sup 4])Si--CH[double bond]CH--][sub n]--, wherein n[>=]2; and each R[sup 1], R[sup 2], R[sup 3], and R[sup 4] is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  13. Orthologous Allergens and Diagnostic Utility of Major Allergen Alt a 1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Antonio; Alcover, Javier; Rodríguez, David; Palacios, Ricardo; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hypersensitivity to fungi is associated with rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. For some fungi, such as Alternaria alternata (A. alternata), the symptoms of asthma are persistent, increasing disease severity and the risk of fatal outcomes. There are a large number of species of fungi but knowledge of them remains limited. This, together with the difficulties in obtaining adequate standardized extracts, means that there remain significant challenges in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergy associated with fungi. The type of indoor fungi related to asthma/allergy varies according to geographic, climatic, and seasonal factors, making their study difficult. The aim of this study was to determine hypersensitivity to indoor fungi in a population from Cuenca, Spain. Methods Thirty-five patients with symptoms compatible with rhinitis or asthma who showed clear worsening of their symptoms in their homes or workplace were included. In vivo and in vitro tests were made with a battery of fungal allergens, including the species isolated in the home or workplace. Results Ulocladium botrytis (U. botrytis) and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. These species showed very high concordance in skin tests, specific IgE, and histamine release. The allergen Alt a 1, which was recognized in all patients, was detected in A. alternata, U. botrytis, and Stemphylium botryosum (S. botryosum). Conclusions U. botrytis and A. alternata were the most representative species as a source of home sensitization. Alt a 1 was recognized in all patients and may be considered a non-species-specific allergen that could be used as a diagnostic source of sensitization to some species of the Pleosporaceae family. PMID:27334781

  14. ALT1, a Snf2 family chromatin remodeling ATPase, negatively regulates alkaline tolerance through enhanced defense against oxidative stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingxin; Wang, Ruci; Wang, Juan; Hua, Kai; Wang, Yueming; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Yao, Shanguo

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline salt stress adversely affects rice growth, productivity and grain quality. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains elusive. We characterized here an alkaline tolerant mutant, alt1 in rice. Map-based cloning revealed that alt1 harbors a mutation in a chromatin remodeling ATPase gene. ALT1-RNAi transgenic plants under different genetic background mimicked the alt1 phenotype, exhibiting tolerance to alkaline stress in a transcript dosage-dependent manner. The predicted ALT1 protein belonged to the Ris1 subgroup of the Snf2 family and was localized in the nucleus, and transcription of ALT1 was transiently suppressed after alkaline treatment. Although the absorption of several metal ions maintained well in the mutant under alkaline stress, expression level of the genes involved in metal ions homeostasis was not altered in the alt1 mutant. Classification of differentially expressed abiotic stress related genes, as revealed by microarray analysis, found that the majority (50/78) were involved in ROS production, ROS scavenging, and DNA repair. This finding was further confirmed by that alt1 exhibited lower levels of H2O2 under alkaline stress and tolerance to methyl viologen treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that ALT1 negatively functions in alkaline tolerance mainly through the defense against oxidative damage, and provide a potential two-step strategy for improving the tolerance of rice plants to alkaline stress. PMID:25473841

  15. Open-loop signal tracking of AltBOC-Modulated GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creekmore, Paul F.

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as the United States' GPS and Europe's upcoming Galileo system provide unique signals-of-opportunity for atmospheric sounding. When a planetary atmosphere occults a radio-frequency (RF) signal, its physical properties cause measurable changes in the signal. Therefore, at any time we can track a GNSS signal that is propagating along a path that intersects the atmosphere, we can measure various properties of the atmosphere along that path. Researchers have successfully demonstrated this radio occultation (RO) technique with GPS signals, and the National Research Council has recommended widespread deployment of RO receivers on future Earth-observing satellites. In the coming years, Europe's new Galileo navigation system's deployment will double the number of GNSS satellites in orbit. An RO receiver that can track both GPS and Galileo signals will be able to observe roughly twice as many RO events, doubling its measurement density in space and time for minimal additional cost. Additionally, open-loop (OL) signal tracking has proven to be an effective method for tracking occulted signals through low altitudes where strong refractivity gradients often overwhelm traditional closed-loop (CL) trackers. The OL method predicts the character of the signal ahead of time and measures the prediction error upon arrival of the actual signal. In contrast, the CL method relies on error feedback to fully characterize the signal in real time. This thesis provides an overview of the Galileo GNSS and its AltBOC-modulated E5 signal, introduces and compares several AltBOC tracking discriminators and develops two prototype RO receivers for E5 employing an open-loop signal tracking approach to decrease the minimum altitude at which we can observe RO events. The Galileo constellation does not yet exist, so it is not possible to test a fully representative RO receiver. To provide initial validation of the E5 OL tracking algorithms, these

  16. An ALMT1 gene cluster controlling aluminium (aluminum) tolerance at the Alt4 locus of rye (Secale cereale L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminium toxicity is a major problem in agriculture worldwide. Among the cultivated triticeae, rye (Secale cereale L.) is one of the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of Al-tolerance for improvement of wheat. The Alt4 Al-tolerance locus of rye contains a cluster of genes...

  17. Isolation and expression of a cDNA clone encoding an Alternaria alternata Alt a 1 subunit.

    PubMed

    De Vouge, M W; Thaker, A J; Curran, I H; Zhang, L; Muradia, G; Rode, H; Vijay, H M

    1996-12-01

    Alternaria alternata is recognized as an important source of fungal aeroallergens. Alt a 1, the major allergen of this mold, is a dimer of disulfide-linked subunits that migrate in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions at apparent M(r)s of 14,500 and 16,000. IgE antibodies to this protein are present in the sera of >90% of A. alternata-sensitive individuals. Previous studies from this laboratory showed that the N-termini twenty amino acids of the purified subunits are nearly identical. We now report the isolation of clones from an A. alternata (strain 34-016) cDNA library constructed in lambda(gt)11, using rabbit IgG antiserum against partially purified Alt a 1. One of nineteen clones selected from screens totalling 305,000 pfu (rb51) was sequenced, and determined to harbor an insert of 660 bp. An in-frame open reading frame within the cloned insert encodes a peptide of M(r) 16,960 that bears no significant homology to known allergens or proteins. The size of the rb51 transcript was determined to be approximately 0.7 kb by Northern analysis of A. alternata total RNA. The largely hydrophobic N-terminal region of the peptide contains an alpha-helical domain and other features characteristic of membrane targeting or secretory signals. The peptide sequence downstream of this region matches previously sequenced Alt a 1 N-terminal from two independent sources at 17 of 20, and 24 of 26 positions. Recombinant Alt a 1 expressed as a secreted protein in Pichia pastoris exists as a dimer in conditioned medium, as shown by immunoblotting under nonreducing conditions. Recombinant Alt a 1, like the natural allergen in A. alternata extracts, is also reactive with serum IgE from A. alternata-sensitive individuals.

  18. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  19. Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer micelles in squalane.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S; Lodge, Timothy P

    2009-10-22

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R(h), and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R(c), the equivalent hard sphere radius, R(hs), and an estimate of the aggregation number, N(agg). In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  20. "Control-alt-delete": rebooting solutions for the E-waste problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai; Chen, Mengjun; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Stevels, Ab

    2015-06-16

    A number of efforts have been launched to solve the global electronic waste (e-waste) problem. The efficiency of e-waste recycling is subject to variable national legislation, technical capacity, consumer participation, and even detoxification. E-waste management activities result in procedural irregularities and risk disparities across national boundaries. We review these variables to reveal opportunities for research and policy to reduce the risks from accumulating e-waste and ineffective recycling. Full regulation and consumer participation should be controlled and reinforced to improve local e-waste system. Aiming at standardizing best practice, we alter and identify modular recycling process and infrastructure in eco-industrial parks that will be expectantly effective in countries and regions to handle the similar e-waste stream. Toxicity can be deleted through material substitution and detoxification during the life cycle of electronics. Based on the idea of "Control-Alt-Delete", four patterns of the way forward for global e-waste recycling are proposed to meet a variety of local situations.

  1. Structure of Poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) Diblock Copolymer Micelles in Squalane

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2009-11-04

    The temperature dependence of the micellar structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (SEP) diblock copolymers in squalane, a highly selective solvent for the PEP blocks, has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Four SEP diblock copolymers were prepared by sequential anionic polymerization of styrene and isoprene, followed by hydrogenation of the isoprene blocks, to yield SEP(17-73), SEP(26-66), SEP(36-69), and SEP(42-60), where the numbers indicate block molecular weights in kDa. All four polymers formed well-defined spherical micelles. In dilute solution, DLS provided the temperature-dependent mean hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, and its distribution, while detailed fitting of the SAXS profiles gave the core radius, R{sub c}, the equivalent hard sphere radius, R{sub hs}, and an estimate of the aggregation number, N{sub agg}. In general, the micelles became smaller as the critical micelle temperature (CMT) was approached, which was well above the glass transition of the core block. As concentration increased the micelles packed onto body centered cubic lattices for all four copolymers, which underwent order-disorder transitions upon heating near the dilute solution CMTs. The results are discussed in terms of current understanding of block copolymer solution self-assembly, and particular attention is paid to the issue of equilibration, given the high glass transition temperature of the core block.

  2. [Investigation of the relationship between serum nitric oxide levels, HBV-DNA and ALT levels in chronic hepatitis B patients].

    PubMed

    Sener, Asli Gamze; Kirdar, Sevin; Serter, Mukadder; Afşar, Ilhan; Demir, Ece Mine; Ceylan, Cengiz; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that increased nitric oxide (NO) production by the hepatocytes during chronic inflammatory processes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum levels of NOx (nitrite + nitrate) with the viral load and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. A total of 93 CHB patients (67 male, 26 female; mean age: 47.3 +/- 10.9 years) and 53 healthy control subjects (17 male, 36 female; mean age: 58.6 +/- 2.1 years) followed-up during 2006-2007 period were included to the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers, viral load and ALT levels were studied by chemiluminescence method (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, USA), by real-time polimerase chain reaction (PCR) (ABI PRISM 7700, Applied Biosystem, CA), and by Aeroset System (Abbott Laboratories, USA), respectively. NOx levels were determined by a method which was based on the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by cadmium. Mean levels of ALT and HBV-DNA of the patients were found as 98.7 +/- 138.4 IU/I and 1.6 x 10(9) +/- 4.0 x 10(9) copies/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of mean levels of NOx in patient and control groups, the difference was found statistically significant (30.6 +/- 21.7 micromol/l and 23.7 +/- 5.2 micromol/l, respectively; p< 0.05). In view of the relationship between the parameters, a positive correlation was detected between viral load and ALT levels (r= 0.768; p< 0.001), besides the significant correlations between NOx and viral load, and NOx and ALT (r= 0.346, p= 0.001 and r= 0.314, p= 0.002, respectively). As a result, although the NOx levels in chronic hepatitis patients were found higher than those in the control group, and significant correlations were detected between NO, viral load and ALT, the exact role of NO in the disease pathogenesis and outcome needs to be studied further at cellular level. PMID:19334384

  3. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard.

  4. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  5. Association Mapping Provides Insights into the Origin and the Fine Structure of the Sorghum Aluminum Tolerance Locus, AltSB

    PubMed Central

    Caniato, Fernanda F.; Hamblin, Martha T.; Guimaraes, Claudia T.; Zhang, Zhiwu; Schaffert, Robert E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Magalhaes, Jurandir V.

    2014-01-01

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ∼6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al

  6. Alt-Az telescope control system standardization attempt: case study of the TT1 (Toppo Telescope #1) control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Dario; Brescia, Massimo; Spirito, Gianfranco

    1998-05-01

    The TT1 is a 1.54 m Alt-Az telescope designed and built by the Technology Working Group of the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Naples, Italy. The standardization process is of course one of the fundamental requirements for telescope control system design and development, well considered in the TT1 design. In this paper we present the approach used to identify a control system applicable to medium-size Alt-Az telescope. The TT1 control system architecture is based on a distributed working flow and it is PC-based, i.e. organized in several interconnected standard PCs and standard fast communication protocol. Every PC is based on the 'dedicated processing unit' concept and it makes real time own tasks independently by other units. Also, the extremely reduced communication flow between PCs, and the internal organization based on the preference given to software rather than hardware solutions, makes its control system extremely reliable, easily reconfigurable and upgradable, obsolescence deprived and independent from any hardware choice.

  7. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)--a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  8. CHK1-driven histone H3.3 serine 31 phosphorylation is important for chromatin maintenance and cell survival in human ALT cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fiona T M; Chan, F Lyn; R McGhie, James D; Udugama, Maheshi; Mayne, Lynne; Collas, Philippe; Mann, Jeffrey R; Wong, Lee H

    2015-03-11

    Human ALT cancers show high mutation rates in ATRX and DAXX. Although it is well known that the absence of ATRX/DAXX disrupts H3.3 deposition at heterochromatin, its impact on H3.3 deposition and post-translational modification in the global genome remains unclear. Here, we explore the dynamics of phosphorylated H3.3 serine 31 (H3.3S31ph) in human ALT cancer cells. While H3.3S31ph is found only at pericentric satellite DNA repeats during mitosis in most somatic human cells, a high level of H3.3S31ph is detected on the entire chromosome in ALT cells, attributable to an elevated CHK1 activity in these cells. Drug inhibition of CHK1 activity during mitosis and expression of mutant H3.3S31A in these ALT cells result in a decrease in H3.3S31ph levels accompanied with increased levels of phosphorylated H2AX serine 139 on chromosome arms and at the telomeres. Furthermore, the inhibition of CHK1 activity in these cells also reduces cell viability. Our findings suggest a novel role of CHK1 as an H3.3S31 kinase, and that CHK1-mediated H3.3S31ph plays an important role in the maintenance of chromatin integrity and cell survival in ALT cancer cells. PMID:25690891

  9. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] for nerve regeneration scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi-Xia; Yi, Ji-Ling; Xie, Li-Juan; Yan, Qiong-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2014-03-01

    A novel nerve repairing material poly [LA-co-(Glc-alt-Lys)] (PLGL) was synthesized. The viability and growth of Schwann cells (SCs) co-cultured with poly (D, Llactic acid) (PDLLA) films (control group) and PLGL films were evaluated by MTTassay and SEM observation. Then, contact angle measurement, histological assessment and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing on inflammatory-related cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β1 were performed. The results showed that, compared with PDLLA, PLGL films possesses better hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, degradation property and less inflammatory reaction. The present study indicated that PLGL scaffolds would meet the requirements of artificial nerve scaffold and have a potential application in the fields of nerve regeneration.

  10. Electronic structure disorder, vibronic coupling, and charge transfer excitons in poly(fluorene-alt-bithiophene):fullerene films

    SciTech Connect

    Riisness, I.; Gordon, M. J.

    2013-03-18

    Charge transfer processes in conjugated polymer:fullerene blends play an important role in the operation of organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. Herein, near-infrared emission from poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-bithiophene) (F8T2) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blends was studied and attributed to charge transfer exciton (CTX) recombination. Polymer and CTX emission were monitored via low-temperature/transient photoluminescence and absorbance to elucidate the effects of annealing and composition on donor-acceptor morphology. CTX emission decreased and F8T2 vibronic structure was partially restored due to lower fullerene dispersion and polymer realignment upon annealing. Differences in the temperature-dependent emissions of the polymer singlet vs. CTX were attributed to exciton diffusion in the polymer phase vs. enhanced quenching at the donor-acceptor interface, respectively.

  11. Shape evolution of SrCO{sub 3} particles in the presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid)

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Jiaguo . E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com; Guo Hua; Cheng Bei

    2006-03-15

    In this paper, strontium carbonate particles with different morphologies were prepared by a simple precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with strontium nitrate in the absence and presence of poly-(styrene-alt-maleic acid) (PSMA). The as-prepared products were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the concentration of PSMA on the morphologies and phase structures of strontium carbonate particles were investigated and discussed. The results showed that SrCO{sub 3} particles with various shapes, such as bundles, dumbbells, irregular aggregates and spheres could be obtained by varying the concentration of PSMA. A schematic illustration was proposed to account for the shape evolution of the as-prepared SrCO{sub 3} particles.

  12. Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG Treatment Reduces Tumor Burden in a Carcinogen Induced Bladder Cancer Rat Model; a Role for Cytokine Production and NK Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O.; Rhode, Peter R.; Parker, Alexander S.; Chai, Karl X.; Wong, Hing C.; Rosser, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15Rα-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials. PMID:24896845

  13. Intravesical ALT-803 and BCG treatment reduces tumor burden in a carcinogen induced bladder cancer rat model; a role for cytokine production and NK cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Giacoia, Evan; Miyake, Makito; Goodison, Steve; Sriharan, Aravindhan; Zhang, Ge; You, Lijing; Egan, Jack O; Rhode, Peter R; Parker, Alexander S; Chai, Karl X; Wong, Hing C; Rosser, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to induce a specific immunologic response (i.e., activation of IL-2 and effector T-cells), while preclinical studies using ALT-803 (mutated IL-15 analogue combined with IL-15Rα-Fc fusion) have shown promising results by prolonging the agent's half-life and stimulating CD8+ T-cells. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the intravesical administration of ALT-803 along with BCG will generate an immunologic response leading to significant bladder tumor burden reduction. Using a well-established carcinogen induced rat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) model, we studied the effects of intravesical ALT-803 with and without BCG. Rat tissues were evaluated to document treatment response. Intravesical ALT-803 was safe and well tolerated alone and in combination with BCG. As a single treatment agent, ALT-803 reduced tumor burden by 35% compared to control whereas BCG alone only reduced tumor burden by 15%. However, the combination of ALT-803 plus BCG reduced tumor burden by 46% compared to control. Immune monitoring suggested that the antitumor response was linked to the production and secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β and RANTES, which in turn, induced the proliferation and activation of NK cells. Lastly, tumoral responses of the combinational treatment were associated with 76% reduction in angiogenesis, which is significantly higher than when assessed with either agent alone. The enhanced therapeutic index seen with this duplet provides justification for the development of this regimen for future clinical trials.

  14. Physical analysis of the complex rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 aluminium (aluminum) tolerance locus using a whole-genome BAC library of rye cv. Blanco.

    PubMed

    Shi, B-J; Gustafson, J P; Button, J; Miyazaki, J; Pallotta, M; Gustafson, N; Zhou, H; Langridge, P; Collins, N C

    2009-08-01

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Rye is highly tolerant of aluminum (Al) toxicity, and possesses a complex structure at the Alt4 Al tolerance locus not found at the corresponding locus in wheat. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies, and assess the library's suitability for investigating Al tolerance genes. The library provides 6 x genome coverage of the 8.1 Gb rye genome, has an average insert size of 131 kb, and contains only ~2% of empty or organelle-derived clones. Genetic analysis attributed the Al tolerance of Blanco to the Alt4 locus on the short arm of chromosome 7R, and revealed the presence of multiple allelic variants (haplotypes) of the Alt4 locus in the BAC library. BAC clones containing ALMT1 gene clusters from several Alt4 haplotypes were identified, and will provide useful starting points for exploring the basis for the structural variability and functional specialization of ALMT1 genes at this locus.

  15. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist, AZD4619, induces alanine aminotransferase-1 gene and protein expression in human, but not in rat hepatocytes: Correlation with serum ALT levels.

    PubMed

    Thulin, Petra; Bamberg, Krister; Buler, Marcin; Dahl, Björn; Glinghammar, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum is the standard biomarker for liver injury. We have previously described a clinical trial with a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist (AZD4619), which unexpectedly caused increased serum levels of ALT in treated individuals without any other evidence of liver injury. We pinpointed a plausible mechanism through which AZD4619 could increase serum ALT levels; namely through the PPARα-specific activation of the human ALT1 gene at the transcriptional level. In the present study, we present data from the preceding rat toxicity study, demonstrating that AZD4619 had no effect on rat serum ALT activity levels, and further experiments were performed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this species-related difference. Our results revealed that AZD4619 increased ALT1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in human, but not in rat primary hepatocytes. Cloning of the human and rat ALT1 promoters into luciferase vectors confirmed that AZD4619 induced only the human, but not the rat ALT1 gene promoter in a dose-dependent manner. In PPARα-GAL4 reporter gene assays, AZD4619 was >100-fold more potent on the human vs. rat PPARα levels, explaining the differences in induction of the ALT1 gene between the species at the concentration range tested. These data demonstrate the usefulness of the human and rat ALT1 reporter gene assays for testing future drug candidates at the preclinical stage. In drug discovery projects, these assays elucidate whether elevations in ALT levels observed in vivo or in the clinic are due to metabolic effects rather than a toxic event in the liver. PMID:27430334

  16. Cooperative therapeutic anti-tumor effect of IL-15 agonist ALT-803 and co-targeting soluble NKG2D ligand sMIC

    PubMed Central

    Basher, Fahmin; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing; Wu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Shedding of the human NKG2D ligand MIC (MHC class I-chain-related molecule) from tumor cell surfaces correlates with progression of many epithelial cancers. Shedding-derived soluble MIC (sMIC) enables tumor immune escape through multiple immune suppressive mechanisms, such as disturbing natural killer (NK) cell homeostatic maintenance, impairing NKG2D expression on NK cells and effector T cells, and facilitating the expansion of arginase I+ myeloid suppressor cells. Our recent study has demonstrated that sMIC is an effective cancer therapeutic target. Whether targeting tumor-derived sMIC would enhance current active immunotherapy is not known. Here, we determined the in vivo therapeutic effect of an antibody co-targeting sMIC with the immunostimulatory IL-15 superagonist complex, ALT-803, using genetically engineered transplantable syngeneic sMIC+ tumor models. We demonstrate that combined therapy of a nonblocking antibody neutralizing sMIC and ALT-803 improved the survival of animals bearing sMIC+ tumors in comparison to monotherapy. We further demonstrate that the enhanced therapeutic effect with combined therapy is through concurrent augmentation of NK and CD8 T cell anti-tumor responses. In particular, expression of activation-induced surface molecules and increased functional potential by cytokine secretion are improved greatly by the administration of combined therapy. Depletion of NK cells abolished the cooperative therapeutic effect. Our findings suggest that administration of the sMIC-neutralizing antibody can enhance the anti-tumor effects of ALT-803. With ALT-803 currently in clinical trials to treat progressive solid tumors, the majority of which are sMIC+, our findings provide a rationale for co-targeting sMIC to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of ALT-803 or other IL-15 agonists. PMID:26625316

  17. Free Enterprise: Contributions of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT) Program to the Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    The space shuttle orbiter was the first spacecraft designed with the aerodynamic characteristics and in-atmosphere handling qualities of a conventional airplane. In order to evaluate the orbiter's flight control systems and subsonic handling characteristics, a series of flight tests were undertaken at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 1977. A modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carried the Enterprise, a prototype orbiter, during eight captive tests to determine how well the two vehicles flew together and to test some of the orbiter s systems. The free-flight phase of the ALT program allowed shuttle pilots to explore the orbiter's low-speed flight and landing characteristics. The Enterprise provided realistic, in-flight simulations of how subsequent space shuttles would be flown at the end of an orbital mission. The fifth free flight, with the Enterprise landing on a concrete runway for the first time, revealed a problem with the space shuttle flight control system that made it susceptible to pilot-induced oscillation, a potentially dangerous control problem. Further research using various aircraft, particularly NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital-Fly-By-Wire testbed, led to correction of the problem before the first Orbital Test Flight.

  18. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  19. A monotopic aluminum telluride with an Al=Te double bond stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Daniel; Szilvási, Tibor; Irran, Elisabeth; Inoue, Shigeyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum chalcogenides are mostly encountered in the form of bulk aluminum oxides that are structurally diverse but typically consist of networks with high lattice energy in which the chalcogen atoms bridge the metal centres. This makes their molecular congeners difficult to synthesize because of a pronounced tendency for oligomerization. Here we describe the isolation of the monotopic aluminum chalcogenide (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 (LDip=1,3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-imidazolin-2-imine, LEt=1,3-diethyl-4,5-dimethyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene). Unique features of (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 are the terminal position of the tellurium atom, the shortest aluminum–tellurium distance hitherto reported for a molecular complex and the highest bond order reported for an interaction between these elements, to the best of our knowledge. At elevated temperature (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 equilibrates with dimeric {(LDipN)AlTe(LEt)}2 in which the chalcogen atoms assume their common role as bridges between the metal centres. These findings demonstrate that (LDipN)AlTe(LEt)2 comprises the elusive Al=Te double bond in the form of an N-heterocyclic carbene-stabilized species. PMID:26612781

  20. New semi-conducting poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s: Synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, Balkiss; Hriz, Khaled; Jaballah, Nejmeddine; Kreher, David; Majdoub, Mustapha

    2015-12-01

    An anthracene-based semi-conducting polymer (P1) and its cyano-analogue (P2) were synthesized via the Wittig and Knoevenagel polycondensations. The polymers were soluble in common organic solvents and have number-average molecular weights of 13,750 and 6430 g mol-1 for P1 and P2, respectively. The DSC analyzes show a good thermal stability and an amorphous morphology in solid state for these organic materials. The optical properties of the polymers were investigated by UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The HOMO and LUMO levels were estimated using cyclic voltammetry analysis. The effect of cyano group on the photophysical properties of poly(phenylene vinylene-alt-anthrylene vinylene)s was investigated. The results demonstrate an enhancement in the ionization potential and a significant improvement of the fluorescence yield due to introduction of such groups into the π-conjugated system. Single-layer diodes based on these organic semiconductors have been fabricated and showed relatively low turn-on voltages.

  1. Diluted Blood Reperfusion as a Model for Transplantation of Ischemic Rat Livers: ALT is a Direct Indicator of Viability

    PubMed Central

    Uygun, Korkut; Tolboom, Herman; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Basak; Sharma, Nripen; Yagi, Hiroshi; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Hertl, Martin; Berthiaume, François; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    Donors after Cardiac Death present a significant pool of untapped organs for transplantation, and use of machine perfusion strategies has been an active focus area in experimental transplantation. However, despite two decades of research, a gold standard is yet to emerge for machine perfusion systems and protocols. Whole blood reperfusion has been used as a surrogate for organ transplantation, especially as a model for the short-term response post transplantation, for optimization of perfusion systems. While it is known that there is a strong correlation between liver function in whole-blood reperfusion and survival, the exact nature of these correlations, and to what extent they can be considered as an indicator of viability for transplantation/recipient survival, remain unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that diluted whole-blood reperfusion can be used as a direct model for transplantation of ischemic rat liver grafts. Moreover, it was shown that recipient survival can be predicted based simply on the value of ALT during perfusion, and quantitative criteria of viability was developed for use in this animal model. These results indicate that in the rat model graft survival is highly correlated to hepatocellular damage. PMID:20832525

  2. Solvent effect on post-irradiation grafting of styrene onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoleão Geraldes, Adriana; Augusto Zen, Heloísa; Ribeiro, Geise; Fernandes Parra, Duclerc; Benévolo Lugão, Ademar

    2013-03-01

    Radiation-induced grafting of styrene onto ETFE films in different solvent was investigated after simultaneous irradiation (in post-irradiation condition) using a 60Co source. Grafting of styrene followed by sulfonation onto poly(ethylene-alt-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) are currently studied for synthesis of ion exchange membranes. The ETFE films were immersed in styrene/toluene, styrene/methanol and styrene/isopropyl alcohol and irradiated at 20 and 100 kGy doses at room temperature. The post-irradiation time was established at 14 day and the grafting degree was evaluated. The grafted films were sulfonated using chlorosulfonic acid and 1,2-dichloroethane 20:80 (v/v) at room temperature for 5 h. The degree of grafting (DOG) was determined gravimetrically and physical or chemical changes were evaluated by differential scanning calorimeter analysis (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC) values showed the best performance of sulfonation for ETFE membranes grafted in toluene solvent. Surface images of the grafted films by SEM technique have presented a strong effect of the solvents on the films morphology.

  3. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  4. Performance of an Optimized Paper-Based Test for Rapid Visual Measurement of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) in Fingerstick and Venipuncture Samples

    PubMed Central

    Noubary, Farzad; Coonahan, Erin; Schoeplein, Ryan; Baden, Rachel; Curry, Michael; Afdhal, Nezam; Kumar, Shailendra; Pollock, Nira R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A paper-based, multiplexed, microfluidic assay has been developed to visually measure alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in a fingerstick sample, generating rapid, semi-quantitative results. Prior studies indicated a need for improved accuracy; the device was subsequently optimized using an FDA-approved automated platform (Abaxis Piccolo Xpress) as a comparator. Here, we evaluated the performance of the optimized paper test for measurement of ALT in fingerstick blood and serum, as compared to Abaxis and Roche/Hitachi platforms. To evaluate feasibility of remote results interpretation, we also compared reading cell phone camera images of completed tests to reading the device in real time. Methods 96 ambulatory patients with varied baseline ALT concentration underwent fingerstick testing using the paper device; cell phone images of completed devices were taken and texted to a blinded off-site reader. Venipuncture serum was obtained from 93/96 participants for routine clinical testing (Roche/Hitachi); subsequently, 88/93 serum samples were captured and applied to paper and Abaxis platforms. Paper test and reference standard results were compared by Bland-Altman analysis. Findings For serum, there was excellent agreement between paper test and Abaxis results, with negligible bias (+4.5 U/L). Abaxis results were systematically 8.6% lower than Roche/Hitachi results. ALT values in fingerstick samples tested on paper were systematically lower than values in paired serum tested on paper (bias -23.6 U/L) or Abaxis (bias -18.4 U/L); a correction factor was developed for the paper device to match fingerstick blood to serum. Visual reads of cell phone images closely matched reads made in real time (bias +5.5 U/L). Conclusions The paper ALT test is highly accurate for serum testing, matching the reference method against which it was optimized better than the reference methods matched each other. A systematic difference exists between ALT values in fingerstick and paired

  5. An ADP-ribosyltransferase Alt of bacteriophage T4 negatively regulates the Escherichia coli MazF toxin of a toxin-antitoxin module.

    PubMed

    Alawneh, Abdulraheem M; Qi, Dan; Yonesaki, Tetsuro; Otsuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are linked to many roles in cell physiology, such as plasmid maintenance, stress response, persistence and protection from phage infection, and the activities of toxins are tightly regulated. Here, we describe a novel regulatory mechanism for a toxin of Escherichia coli TA systems. The MazF toxin of MazE-MazF, which is one of the best characterized type II TA systems, was modified immediately after infection with bacteriophage T4. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that the molecular weight of this modification was 542 Da, corresponding to a mono-ADP-ribosylation. This modification disappeared in cells infected with T4 phage lacking Alt, which is one of three ADP-ribosyltransferases encoded by T4 phage and is injected together with phage DNA upon infection. In vivo and in vitro analyses confirmed that T4 Alt ADP-ribosylated MazF at an arginine residue at position 4. Finally, the ADP-ribosylation of MazF by Alt resulted in the reduction of MazF RNA cleavage activity in vitro, suggesting that it may function to inactivate MazF during T4 infection. This is the first example of the chemical modification of an E. coli toxin in TA systems to regulate activity.

  6. Distribution of the HLA class I allele in chronic hepatitis C and its association with serum ALT level in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yasuteru; Kobayashi, Koju; Kobayashi, Tomoo; Shiina, Masaaki; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Satoh, Takaomi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2003-10-01

    An essential process for resolution of viral infections is the efficient recognition and elimination of intracellular virus. Recognition of viral antigens in the form of short peptides associated with HLA class I molecule is a major task of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this study, we have evaluated the frequency of the HLA class I alleles in patients with chronic hepatitis C. HLA-B51, -B52, -B55, -B56, -B61, B70, -Cw1, -Cw3, and -Cw4 are less frequent in patients with chronic hepatitis C than in Japanese individuals. The frequency of HLA-A2 is slightly lower in the patients but tends to be higher in patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level than in those with elevated ALT level (p = 0.07). Other HLA alleles are not significantly different between two groups. Comparison of HLA homozygosity at HLA-A and -B or -C or at two or three loci did not show a significant association with levels of serum ALT or with the clinical outcome of interferon therapy in patients with hepatitis C. These results suggest a possibility that the alterations of host response, which depends on genetic background, influence disease activities of HCV infection.

  7. Evaluation of CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers through molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Peiqing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-02-19

    Multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both used to evaluate the factors conclusive on the CO2-philicity of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) homopolymer and poly(vinyl acetate-alt-maleate) copolymers. The ab initio calculated interaction energies of the candidate CO2-philic molecule models with CO2, including vinyl acetate dimer (VAc), dimethyl maleate (DMM), diethyl maleate (DEM), and dibutyl maleate (DBM), showed that VAc was the most CO2-philc segment. However, the cohesive energy density, solubility parameter, Flory-Huggins parameter, and radial distribution functions calculated by using the molecular dynamics simulations for the four polymer and polymer-CO2 systems indicated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. The corresponding polymers were synthesized by using free radical polymerization. The measurement of cloud point pressures of the four polymers in CO2 also demonstrated that poly(VAc-alt-DBM) had the most CO2-philicity. Although copolymerization of maleate, such as DEM or DBM, with PVAc reduced the polymer-CO2 interactions, the weakened polymer-polymer interaction increased the CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The polymer-polymer interaction had a significant influence on the CO2-philicity of the polymer. Reduction of the polymer-polymer interaction might be a promising strategy to prepare the high CO2-philic polymers on the premise that the strong polymer-CO2 interaction could be maintained.

  8. Fibroscan Compared to FIB-4, APRI, and AST/ALT Ratio for Assessment of Liver Fibrosis in Saudi Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Hind I.; Akbar, Hisham O.; Fallatah, Alyaa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is being increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic liver disease. It has also been associated with devastating outcomes such as decompensated liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Objectives This study was conducted in order to assess liver fibrosis using Fibroscan, and to compare these results to the use of Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) scores, AST platelet ratio index (APRI scores), and the AST/ALT ratios on NAFLD patients. Patients and Methods A cross sectional study was conducted on NAFLD patients who underwent Fibroscan examinations between September 1, 2011 and June 30, 2014. Demographic data was collected, including sex, age, and nationality; serum alanine aminotransferase levels (ALT, 30 - 65 U/L), serum aspartate aminotransferase levels (AST, 15 - 37 U/L), and platelet counts (150 - 400 k/μL) were also determined. The stages of fibrosis (F0 1 - 6, F1 6.1 - 7, F2 7 - 9, F3 9.1 - 10.3, and F4 ≥ 10.4) were defined in kPa. For each patient, the AST/ALT ratio was also measured. The results of APRI and FIB-4 were compared with the Fibroscan fibrosis scores. Results The results of 122 patients were analyzed, including 65 (53.3%) males with a mean age of 50.2 years (SD: 13.7; range: 18 - 86). The males were significantly younger than the females (48.7 years (SD: 16.03) versus 51.8 years (SD: 10.3 P = 0.05), respectively). The mean stiffness score was 12.02 (SD: 12.7) kPa. Forty-four patients (36%) had advanced fibrosis. The mean platelet and serum ALT levels were normal. There was a significant positive correlation between the Fibroscan results and the AST/ALT ratios, the APRI scores, and the FIB-4 results. Similarly, there was a significant positive correlation between age and fibrosis score, and a significant negative correlation between platelet count and stiffness score. Conclusions The data showed that more than one-third of the cohort exhibited advanced

  9. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV) AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) AND RELATIONSHIP TO ALANINE TRANSFERASE (ALT) IN SAUDI WORKERS AT YANBU INDUSTRIAL CITY

    PubMed Central

    Kashgari, Rashad H.; Mohamad, Adel A.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCP) in a relatively new industrial community in Yanbu, and to find out whether any relationship exists between increased serum Alanine Transferase (ALT) and HBV infection. Method: A group of Saudi male workers (n=332) (mean age = 32 years) were screened for Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), and Alanine Transferase (ALT) level and the results were correlated with age and marital status. Results: Overall, the prevalence of anti-HBc, HBsAg, and anti-HCV were 23.2%, 7.7% and 0.6% respectively. Age-related HBsAg carrier rates were 7.8%, 6.4% and 9.4% for age groups 18-20, 21-30 and over 30 years respec-tively. Anti-HBc positivity rates lucre 7.8%, 24.3% and 23.1 M for the same age groups. Anti-HCV was positive in only two cases (0.6%) of all subjects. Con-sidering marital status, HBsAg and anti-HBc positivity rates were 7.8% and 20.5% for single subjects compared with 7.4% and 24.5% for married subjects (P=> 0.5 and > 0.5). Twenty-two percent of all subjects had ALT levels above 35 U/L with no correlation between the increase of ALT and anti-HBc or HBsAg positivity. Conclusions: The findings of this work: (1) Support the notion of relatively low prevalence of HCV in the Saudi Population as compared to HBV. (2) Provide clues regarding possible routes of transmission of HBV in Saudis that may help in vaccination policies for control of HBV infection. (3) Emphasize the fact that ALT level is an independent factor of HBV infection, and (4) Signify the need to screen industrial workers fir non-viral causes of liver disease. PMID:23008562

  10. Lower liver cancer risk with antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients with normal to minimally elevated ALT and no cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Joseph K.; Yang, Hwai-I; Le, An; Nguyen, Nghia H.; Lin, Derek; Vu, Vinh D.; Chaung, Kevin; Nguyen, Vincent; Trinh, Huy N.; Li, Jiayi; Zhang, Jian Q.; Chen, Chien-Jen; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For chronic hepatitis B (CHB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ULN) is often used as a major criteria to initiate treatment in absence of cirrhosis, though patients with lower ALT may not be free from future risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to examine the effect of antiviral therapy on HCC incidence based on ALT levels. We performed a retrospective study on 3665 patients consisting of United States and Taiwanese REVEAL-HBV cohort who were consecutive, treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic CHB patients aged ≥40 years. Patients were categorized by ALT cutoffs (≥2 × ULN vs <2 × ULN) and subgrouped by treatment status. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate cumulative incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of HCC adjusting for REACH-B scores. A total of 202 patients developed HCC. Antiviral treatment significantly reduced HCC risk: HR 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.10–0.58; P = 0.001. HCC incidence per 100,000 person-years was significantly higher in untreated versus treated patients, even for those with ALT < 2 × ULN: 314.46 versus 0 per 100,000 person-years, P = 0.0042. For patients with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) ≥ 2000 IU/mL, the number-needed-to-treat (NNT) were 15 and 14 to prevent 1 incident HCC at year 10 for patients with ALT < 2 × ULN and ≥2 × ULN, respectively. After adjustment by REACH-B score, antiviral treatment significantly decreased HCC incidence even in patients with ALT < 2 × ULN. NNT to prevent 1 incident HCC after 10 years of therapy was low (14–15) in patients with mildly elevated HBV DNA ≥ 2000 IU/mL regardless of ALT levels. PMID:27495067

  11. Patterns of viral load in chronic hepatitis B patients in Brazil and their association with ALT levels and HBeAg status.

    PubMed

    Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Gaburo, Nelson; Cheinquer, Hugo; L'Italien, Gilbert; Affonso de Araujo, Evaldo Stanislau; Mantilla, Patricia; Cure-Bolt, Nancy; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2009-01-01

    Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level is a predictor of the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B patients. Nevertheless, the distribution of viral load levels in chronic HBV patients in Brazil has yet to be described. This cross-sectional study included 564 participants selected in nine Brazilian cities located in four of the five regions of the country using the database of a medical diagnostics company. Admission criteria included hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity, availability of HBV viral load samples and age >or=18 years. Males comprised 64.5% of the study population. Mean age was 43.7 years. Most individuals (62.1%) were seronegative for the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Median serum ALT level was 34 U/L. In 58.5% of the patients HBV-DNA levels ranged from 300 to 99,999 copies/mL; however, in 21.6% levels were undetectable. Median HBV-DNA level was 2,351 copies/mL. Over 60% of the patients who tested negative for HBeAg and in whom ALT level was less than 1.5 times the upper limit of the normal range had HBV-DNA levels > 2,000 IU/mL, which has been considered a cut-off point for indicating a liver biopsy and/or treatment. In conclusion, HBV-DNA level identified a significant proportion of Brazilian individuals with chronic hepatitis B at risk of disease progression. Furthermore, this tool enables those individuals with high HBV-DNA levels who are susceptible to disease progression to be identified among patients with normal or slightly elevated ALT. PMID:20009133

  12. A search for natural bioactive compounds in Bolivia through a multidisciplinary approach. Part III. Evaluation Of the antimalarial activity of plants used by Alteños Indians.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, V; Sauvain, M; Bourdy, G; Arrázola, S; Callapa, J; Ruiz, G; Choque, J; Deharo, E

    2000-07-01

    A total of 40 plant extracts traditionally used by the Alteños Indians, a native community living between the Andean block and the tropical valleys of Bolivia, were screened for antimalarial activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant (Indo) strain, and in vivo on rodent malaria Plasmodium vinckei petteri. Eleven extracts displayed good or moderate activity in vivo, and ten extracts good or very good antimalarial activity in vitro. Results of the screening are discussed here, in relation with the traditional use of plants.

  13. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  14. New use of an old drug: chloroquine reduces viral and ALT levels in HCV non-responders (a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial).

    PubMed

    Peymani, Payam; Yeganeh, Behzad; Sabour, Siamak; Geramizadeh, Bita; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Keyvani, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Coombs, Kevin M; Ghavami, Saied; Lankarani, Kamran B

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces autophagy, but the virus assimilates the autophagic response into its own life cycle. Chloroquine (CQ) is an autophagy inhibitor that is clinically used to treat malaria. The aims of this pilot clinical trial were to evaluate the therapeutic potential and short-term safety of CQ in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1, who were unresponsive to a combination of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. Ten non-responders to previous antiviral treatment(s) were randomized to receive either CQ (150 mg daily for 8 weeks) or placebo, and were followed for 4 weeks after CQ therapy. HCV RNA load and plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were measured at baseline, week 4 (initial response), week 8 (end-of-treatment response), and at the end of 12 weeks. A significant decrease in HCV RNA after the treatments (week 8) was observed in all patients in the CQ group (P = 0.04). However, HCV RNA levels increased within 4 weeks after discontinuation of CQ treatment although they were still lower than baseline. In addition, the ALT normalized during treatment in the CQ group. However, this response was also lost after treatment cessation. This study provides preliminary evidence that CQ is possibly a safe treatment option for HCV non-responders.

  15. Synthesis of Cis,syndiotactic A-alt-B Copolymers from Two Enantiomerically Pure Trans-2,3-Disubstituted-5,6-Norbornenes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cis,syndiotacticA-alt-B copolymers, where A and B are two enantiomerically pure trans-2,3-disubstituted-5,6-norbornenes with “opposite” chiralities, can be prepared with stereogenic-at-metal initiators of the type M(NR)(CHR′)(OR”)(pyrrolide). Formation of a high percentage of alternating AB copolymer linkages relies on an inversion of chirality at the metal with each propagating step and a relatively fast formation of an AB sequence as a consequence of a preferred diastereomeric relationship between the chirality at the metal and the chirality of the monomer. This approach to formation of an alternating AB copolymer contrasts dramatically with the principle of forming AB copolymers from achiral monomers and catalysts. PMID:27725961

  16. Synthesis and Luminescence of Yellow/Orange-Emitting Poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-l,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(l,3-phenylenevinylene)]s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Liang; Pang, Yi; Ding, Liming; Karasz, Frank E.; Smith, Philip R.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Soluble yellow/orange-emitting poly[tris(2,5-dihexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene)-alt- (1,3-phenylenevinylene)] derivatives (6) have been synthesized and characterized. These polymers contain oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) chromophores of equal conjugation length, which are linked to a m-phenylene unit. Optical comparison between 6 and its model compound 8 at room and low temperature reveals the similarity in their absorption and fluorescence band structures. The vibronic band structure of 6 is assigned with the aid of the spectroscopic data for 8 at low temperature. Polymers 6 are electroluminescent with emission lambda (sub max), at approximately 565 nm. By using the device configuration of ITO/PEDOT/6/Ca, the polymer exhibits an external EL efficiency as high as 0.46%.

  17. Elevated Preoperative Serum Alanine Aminotransferase/Aspartate Aminotransferase (ALT/AST) Ratio Is Associated with Better Prognosis in Patients Undergoing Curative Treatment for Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shu-Lin; Li, Jian-Pei; Li, Lin-Fang; Zeng, Tao; He, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The level of anine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) ratio in the serum was often used to assess liver injury. Whether the ALT/AST ratio (LSR) was associated with prognosis for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) has not been reported in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative LSR in patients with GA. A retrospective study was performed in 231 patients with GA undergoing curative resection. The medical records collected include clinical information and laboratory results. We investigated the correlations between the preoperative LSR and overall survival (OS). Survival analysis was conducted with the Kaplan–Meier method, and Cox regression analysis was used to determine significant independent prognostic factors for predicting survival. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 231 patients were finally enrolled. The median overall survival was 47 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that preoperative LSR was an independent prognostic factor in GA. Patients with LSR ≤ 0.80 had a greater risk of death than those with LSR > 0.80. The LSR was independently associated with OS in patients with GA (hazard ratio: 0.610; 95% confidence interval: 0.388–0.958; p = 0.032), along with tumor stages (hazard ratio: 3.118; 95% confidence interval: 2.044–4.756; p < 0.001) and distant metastases (hazard ratio: 1.957; 95% confidence interval: 1.119–3.422; p = 0.019). Our study first established a connection between the preoperative LSR and patients undergoing curative resection for GA, suggesting that LSR was a simple, inexpensive, and easily measurable marker as a prognostic factor, and may help to identify high-risk patients for treatment decisions. PMID:27294917

  18. Ion irradiation effects on critical temperature of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-ALT="delta" /> and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-ALT="delta" />

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, Noriaki; Matsumoto, K.; Takai, Y.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured resistivity modification of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Bi-2212) films H+, 100 keV He+ and 1 MeV O+ irradiation at normal incidence and at room temperature. It appears that degradation of critical temperature (Tc) follows the nuclear collision process or scales with the displacement per atom as in other high critical temperature superconductor (HTSC) oxides such as YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (YBCO), assuming a displacement threshold energy of 20 eV. No significant difference of Tc degradation is observed between Bi-2223 and Bi-2212 phases. It is also found that Tc degradation of Bi-based HTSC oxide films is quite similar to that of Tl2Ca2Ba2Cu3O10-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (Tl-2223), indicating that Bi-based and Tl-based HTSC oxides are more sensitive to ion irradiation than YBCO.

  19. Rhodium-Coordinated Poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-Poly(arylene-vinylene) Copolymer Acting as Photocatalyst for Visible-Light-Powered NAD+/NADH Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 2,2′-bipyridyl-containing poly(arylene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(arylene-vinylene) polymer, acting as a light-harvesting ligand system, was synthesized and coupled to an organometallic rhodium complex designed for photocatalytic NAD+/NADH reduction. The material, which absorbs over a wide spectral range, was characterized by using various analytical techniques, confirming its chemical structure and properties. The dielectric function of the material was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Photocatalytic reduction of nucleotide redox cofactors under visible light irradiation (390–650 nm) was performed and is discussed in detail. The new metal-containing polymer can be used to cover large surface areas (e.g. glass beads) and, due to this immobilization step, can be easily separated from the reaction solution after photolysis. Because of its high stability, the polymer-based catalyst system can be repeatedly used under different reaction conditions for (photo)chemical reduction of NAD+. With this concept, enzymatic, photo-biocatalytic systems for solar energy conversion can be facilitated, and the precious metal catalyst can be recycled. PMID:25130570

  20. Encapsulation and stabilization of indocyanine green within poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) block-poly(styrene) micelles for near-infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Victoria B; Henry, Scott M; Hoffman, Allan S; Stayton, Patrick S; Li, Xingde; Pun, Suzie H

    2008-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a Federal Drug Administration-approved near-infrared imaging agent susceptible to chemical degradation, nonspecific binding to blood proteins, and rapid clearance from the body. In this study, we describe the encapsulation of ICG within polymeric micelles formed from poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-block-poly(styrene) (PSMA-b-PSTY) diblock copolymers to stabilize ICG for applications in near-infrared diagnostic imaging. In aqueous solution, the diblock copolymers self-assemble to form highly stable micelles approximately 55 nm in diameter with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of approximately 1 mg/L. Hydrophobic ICG salts readily partition into the PSTY core of these micelles with high efficiency, and produce no change in micelle morphology or CMC. Once loaded in the micelle core, ICG is protected from aqueous and thermal degradation, with no significant decrease in fluorescence emission over 14 days at room temperature and retaining 63% of its original emission at 37 degrees C. Free ICG does not release rapidly from the micelle core, with only 11% release over 24 h. The ICG-loaded micelles do not exhibit significant cell toxicity. This system has the potential to greatly improve near-infrared imaging in breast cancer detection by increasing the stability of ICG for formulation/administration, and by providing a means to target ICG to tumor tissue.

  1. ALT-GTS-Stem Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Thuan Nguyen

    2008-09-25

    In 2007, a study investigated options to manufacture stems utilizing methods that would replace crush form grinding while maintaining or improving quality at a comparative cost. Crush form grinding is a special process used at the Kansas City Plant to finish stem sections of reservoir products. However, crush form grinding is a complex process with many variables affecting the final product. This study identified two potential methods that can be applied to stems. Profile grinding was investigated in 2007. This project continued in 2008 proving that single point turning on a multi-turret is an option with additional benefits. It is an economical way to meet floor space limitations for our KCRIMS mission.

  2. Alt-Az Spacewatch Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Tom

    1997-01-01

    This grant funded about one third of the cost of the construction of a telescope with an aperture 1.8 meters in diameter to discover asteroids and comets and investigate the statistics of their populations and orbital distributions. This telescope has been built to the PI's specifications and installed in a dome on Kitt Peak mountain in Arizona. Funds for the dome and building were provided entirely by private sources. The dome building and telescope were dedicated in a ceremony at the site on June 7, 1997. The attached abstract describes the parameters of the telescope. The telescope is a new item of capital property. It is permanently located in University of Arizona building number 910 in the Steward Observatory compound on Kitt Peak mountain in the Tohono O'odham Nation, Arizona. fts property tag number is A252107. This grant did not include funds for the coma corrector lens, instrument derotator, CCD detector, detector electronics, or computers to acquire or process the data. It also did not include funds to operate the telescope or conduct research with it. Funds for these items and efforts are pending from NASA and other sources.

  3. Alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 21. Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  4. Beam-Target Double-Spin Asymmetry ALT in Charged Pion Production from Deep Inelastic Scattering on a Transversely Polarized He3 Target at 1.4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, J.; Allada, K.; Dutta, C.; Katich, J.; Qian, X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; et al

    2012-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the double-spin asymmetry ALT for charged pion electroproduction in semi-inclusive deep inelastic electron scattering on a transversely polarized 3He target. The kinematics focused on the valence quark region, 0.16 < x < 0.35 with 1.4 < Q2 < 2.7 GeV2. The corresponding neutron ALT asymmetries were extracted from the measured 3He asymmetries and proton/3He cross section ratios using the effective polarization approximation. These new data probe the transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function g1Tq and therefore provide access to quark spin-orbit correlations. Our results indicate a positive azimuthal asymmetry for π- production on 3Hemore » and the neutron, while our π+ asymmetries are consistent with zero.« less

  5. DFM in practice: results of a three way partnership between a leading fabless design house, foundry, and EDA company to implement alternating-phase shift mask (Alt-PSM) on a 90-nm FPGA chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chun-Chi; Shieh, Ming-Feng; Liu, Erick; Lin, Benjamin; Lin, Henry; Chacko, Manoj; Li, Xiaoyang; Lei, Wen-Kang; Ho, Jonathan; Wu, Xin

    2005-05-01

    At the sub 90nm nodes, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) such as optical proximity correction (OPC), phase-shifting masks (PSM), sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) have become essential steps in the post-physical verification 'Mask Synthesis' process and a key component of design for manufacturing (DFM). Several studies have been conducted and the results have been published on the implication and application of the different types of RETs on mask printability and costs. More specifically, double-exposure-based, dark-field, alternating PSM (Alt-PSM) technology has received lot of attention with respect to the mask manufacturing challenges and its implementation into a production flow, despite its yield and critical dimension (CD) control superiority. Implementation of Alt-PSM generally requires phase compliance rules and proper phase topology in the layout and this has been successful for the technology node with these rules implemented. However, this may not be true for a matured, production process technology, in this case 90 nm. Especially, in the foundry-fabless business model where the foundry provides a standard set of design rules to its customers for a given process technology, and where not all the foundry customers require Alt-PSM in their tapeout flow. What follows is an in-depth review of the DFM challenges to each partner faced, its effect on the tapeout flow, and how design, manufacturing, and EDA teams worked together to resolve phase conflicts, tapeout the chip, and finally verify the silicon results in production.

  6. Multifunctional electroactive electrospun nanofiber structures from water solution blends of PVA/ODA–MMT and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid): effects of Ag, organoclay, structural rearrangement and NaOH doping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Murat; Rzayev, Zakir M. O.; Bunyatova, Ulviya

    2016-06-01

    Novel multifunctional colloidal polymer nanofiber electrolytes were fabricated by green reactive electrospinning nanotechnology from various water solution/dispersed blends of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA–MMT) as matrix polymer nanocomposite and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid) (poly(MAc-alt-AA) and/or its Ag-carrying complex as partner copolymers. Polymer nanofiber electrolytes were characterized using FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC, TGA–DTG), SEM, and electrical analysis methods. Effects of partner copolymers, organoclay, in situ generated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and annealing procedure on physical and chemical properties of polymer composite nanofibers were investigated. The electrical properties (resistance, conductivity, activation energy) of nanofibers with/without NaOH doping agent were also evaluated. This work presented a structural rearrangement of nanofiber mats by annealing via decarboxylation of anhydride units with the formation of new conjugated double bond sites onto partner copolymer main chains. It was also found that the semiconductor behaviors of nanofiber structures were essentially improved with increasing temperature and fraction of partner copolymers as well as presence of organoclay and AgNPs in nanofiber composite.

  7. Multifunctional electroactive electrospun nanofiber structures from water solution blends of PVA/ODA-MMT and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid): effects of Ag, organoclay, structural rearrangement and NaOH doping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Murat; Rzayev, Zakir M. O.; Bunyatova, Ulviya

    2016-06-01

    Novel multifunctional colloidal polymer nanofiber electrolytes were fabricated by green reactive electrospinning nanotechnology from various water solution/dispersed blends of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) as matrix polymer nanocomposite and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid) (poly(MAc-alt-AA) and/or its Ag-carrying complex as partner copolymers. Polymer nanofiber electrolytes were characterized using FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC, TGA-DTG), SEM, and electrical analysis methods. Effects of partner copolymers, organoclay, in situ generated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and annealing procedure on physical and chemical properties of polymer composite nanofibers were investigated. The electrical properties (resistance, conductivity, activation energy) of nanofibers with/without NaOH doping agent were also evaluated. This work presented a structural rearrangement of nanofiber mats by annealing via decarboxylation of anhydride units with the formation of new conjugated double bond sites onto partner copolymer main chains. It was also found that the semiconductor behaviors of nanofiber structures were essentially improved with increasing temperature and fraction of partner copolymers as well as presence of organoclay and AgNPs in nanofiber composite.

  8. Enhanced optophysical properties of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] via addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fuzi, Siti Aishah Ahmad Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali Abdulqader

    2015-09-25

    This work investigated the effect on 5 wt% addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption characteristics of Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT). Both materials were mixed using solution blending method and then spin coated onto ITO-coated glass substrate at 1000 rpm for 30s. The optical properties of the nanocomposite were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compares to pristine film, the absorption peak of the nanocomposite film improved and shifted to longer wavelength indicating reduction in the direct and indirect band gaps. Better optophysical properties of F8BT/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites is believed due to compatible band structures and efficient charge trapping effect displayed by the NPs.

  9. Synthesis and Photophysical and Electroluminescent Properties of Poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s with Various Dissymmetric Substitution of Alkoxy Side Chains

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a set of conjugated polymers, poly(1,4-phenylene–ethynylene)-alt-poly(1,4-phenylene–vinylene)s (PPE–PPVs), with a dissymmetrical configuration (partial or total) of alkoxy side chains is reported. Five new polymers bearing octyloxy and/or octadecyloxy side chains at the phenylene–ethynylene and phenylene–vinylene segments, respectively, were obtained. Two symmetrical substituted polymers were used for comparison. Polymers with weight-average molecular weight, Mw, up to 430 000 g/mol and degree of polymerization between 17 and 322 were obtained by a Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons olefination polycondensation reaction of the respective luminophoric dialdehydes and bisphosphonates. As expected, identical conjugated backbones in all polymers results in very similar photophysical response in dilute solution, with high fluorescence quantum yields between 50% and 80%. In contrast, the thin film properties are dependent on the combinatorial effects of side chain configuration, molecular weight, and film thickness parameters, which are the basis of the resulting comparison and discussion. PMID:26877550

  10. Orientation of thin YBa2Cu3O7-ALT="delta" />/YSZ films characterization by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. S.; Shen, Z. X.; Zhou, W. Z.; Xu, S. Y.; Ong, C. K.

    1999-05-01

    Micro-Raman scattering of thin YBa2Cu3O7-icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> films of various thicknesses, deposited by pulsed laser deposition on the yttrium-stabilized zirconia (001) substrates, was carried out at different scattering geometries. The fraction of c-axis orientation of the films was calculated from the intensity ratio of the O(2,3)-B1g and O(4)-Ag modes. It is shown that it is strongly dependent on the film thickness and the highest fraction of c-axis orientation occurs for film thickness around 80 nm. The lower c-axis fraction for thinner films was explained by the simultaneous growth of a- and c-axis-oriented grains at the interface region, while the lower c-axis fraction for thicker films was due to the faults and voids in the films. Several a- and b-axis in-plane orientations have been identified using polarized Raman spectra.

  11. ALT space shuttle barometric altimeter altitude analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The accuracy was analyzed of the barometric altimeters onboard the space shuttle orbiter. Altitude estimates from the air data systems including the operational instrumentation and the developmental flight instrumentation were obtained for each of the approach and landing test flights. By comparing the barometric altitude estimates to altitudes derived from radar tracking data filtered through a Kalman filter and fully corrected for atmospheric refraction, the errors in the barometric altitudes were shown to be 4 to 5 percent of the Kalman altitudes. By comparing the altitude determined from the true atmosphere derived from weather balloon data to the altitude determined from the U.S. Standard Atmosphere of 1962, it was determined that the assumption of the Standard Atmosphere equations contributes roughly 75 percent of the total error in the baro estimates. After correcting the barometric altitude estimates using an average summer model atmosphere computed for the average latitude of the space shuttle landing sites, the residual error in the altitude estimates was reduced to less than 373 feet. This corresponds to an error of less than 1.5 percent for altitudes above 4000 feet for all flights.

  12. Alt/Space 12(3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Malke, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This section is full of stories from teaching artists working to clarify what needs to change within their practices and moving toward solutions--whether it's supporting a classroom of learners in new and unexpected ways, reassessing one's approach in the classroom, shepherding an individual child toward success, or professionalizing an…

  13. Efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells with poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-bithiophene] and 6,6-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester blends and their application in tandem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dewei; Tang, Weihua; Ke, Lin; Tan, Swee Tiam; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2010-03-01

    We present herein efficient bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells via mixing poly[2,7-(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-alt-bithiophene] (F6T2) and 6,6-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with variable weight ratios. The photo-physics and morphology of F6T2:PCBM blend films and the electrical characteristics of their corresponding single cells were studied in details by changing PCBM concentration. The complete photoluminescence quenching of F6T2 emission occurs with only a small fraction of PCBM blended, demonstrating effective photoinduced charge transfer between F6T2 and PCBM. Morphology images from atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the phase separation in F6T2:PCBM blend films becomes pronounced with the increase of PCBM concentration, resulting in the increased fill factor from 25.2% (1:1) to 56.9% (1:6). A SEM image also shows the phase separation is within the range of 10 - 20 nm. With the optimized F6T2:PCBM weight ratio (1:2), the single cell exhibits a highest power conversion efficiency of 2.46% due to the balance of light absorption and charge transport. Finally, the polymer-small molecule tandem cells are constructed using F6T2:PCBM BHJ as the bottom cell and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc):fullerene (C(60)) as the top cell. The open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of tandem cell (1.27 V) is equal to the summation of the V(oc) values of the bottom cell (0.86 V) and the top cell (0.43 V). PMID:20356288

  14. TOPICAL REVIEW: High-pressure synthesis, crystal growth, phase diagrams, structural and magnetic properties of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x, HgBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+ALT="delta" /> and quasi-one-dimensional cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpinski, J.; Meijer, G. I.; Schwer, H.; Molinski, R.; Kopnin, E.; Conder, K.; Angst, M.; Jun, J.; Kazakov, S.; Wisniewski, A.; Puzniak, R.; Hofer, J.; Alyoshin, V.; Sin, A.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper we present a review of high-gas-pressure single crystal growth studies of YBa2Cu4O8 and Y2Ba4Cu7O15-x performed in oxygen pressure up to 3000 bar and Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-7) compounds in argon pressure up 11 000 bar at temperature up to 1200 °C. Chain compounds A1-xCuO2 (A = Sr, Ca, Ba) have been synthesized at high oxygen pressure up to 2000 bar. High-pressure phase diagram studies of the investigated systems are also discussed. Structure analyses of Y2Ba4CunO2n+x (n = 6-8), Hg1-xMxBa2Can- 1CunO2n+2+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> (M = Pb, Re; n = 1-8), Sr0.73CuO2 and (Sr,Ca)4Cu6O10 single crystals have been performed. The effects of substitutions and trends in bondlengths are discussed. The vortex state properties of HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> and YBa2Cu4O8 single crystals are compared. For Hg-based compounds, the influence of oxygen content, chemical substitutions and radiation defects on vortex pinning were determined. The quasi-one-dimensional cuprates Ca0.83CuO2 and Sr0.73CuO2 show an antiferromagnetically ordered state of long-range 3D character at T < 10 K. The spin dynamics of Sr0.73CuO2, measured by inelastic neutron scattering, indicate that this ordered state coexists with a dimerized singlet ground state.

  15. Pen and Pal are nucleotide-sugar dehydratases that convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and then to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc for CMP-pseudaminic acid synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP(+) and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-D-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc. Pal is NAD(+)-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-L-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4″-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity.

  16. Pen and Pal Are Nucleotide-Sugar Dehydratases That Convert UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-6-Deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene and Then to UDP-4-Keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc for CMP-Pseudaminic Acid Synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis*♦

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zi; Hwang, Soyoun; Ericson, Jaime; Bowler, Kyle; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    CMP-pseudaminic acid is a precursor required for the O-glycosylation of flagellin in some pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, a process known to be critical in bacterial motility and infection. However, little is known about flagellin glycosylation in Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we identified and functionally characterized an operon, named Bti_pse, in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis ATCC 35646, which encodes seven different enzymes that together convert UDP-GlcNAc to CMP-pseudaminic acid. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria complete this reaction with six enzymes. The first enzyme, which we named Pen, converts UDP-d-GlcNAc to an uncommon UDP-sugar, UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene. Pen contains strongly bound NADP+ and has distinct UDP-GlcNAc 4-oxidase, 5,6-dehydratase, and 4-reductase activities. The second enzyme, which we named Pal, converts UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene to UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc. Pal is NAD+-dependent and has distinct UDP-6-deoxy-d-GlcNAc-5,6-ene 4-oxidase, 5,6-reductase, and 5-epimerase activities. We also show here using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry that in B. thuringiensis, the enzymatic product of Pen and Pal, UDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-l-AltNAc, is converted to CMP-pseudaminic acid by the sequential activities of a C4″-transaminase (Pam), a 4-N-acetyltransferase (Pdi), a UDP-hydrolase (Phy), an enzyme (Ppa) that adds phosphoenolpyruvate to form pseudaminic acid, and finally a cytidylyltransferase that condenses CTP to generate CMP-pseudaminic acid. Knowledge of the distinct dehydratase-like enzymes Pen and Pal and their role in CMP-pseudaminic acid biosynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria provides a foundation to investigate the role of pseudaminic acid and flagellin glycosylation in Bacillus and their involvement in bacterial motility and pathogenicity. PMID:25414257

  17. Enhanced Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Combining ZnO Nanoparticles and Poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfeng; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ling; Qian, Lei; Yang, Ziyan; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yixing; Cao, Weiran

    2016-02-10

    A highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) has been successfully demonstrated by using a ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] (PFN) bilayer structure as an effective electron collecting layer. This ZnO/PFN bilayer structure is designed to combine the advantages of both ZnO and PFN, based on the performance comparison of ZnO-only, PFN-only, and ZnO/PFN bilayer devices in our work. ZnO NPs can serve as an efficient electron transport and buffer layer for reduced series resistance, while the PFN interlayer can improve the energy level alignment of devices through the formation of an interfacial dipole. With the enhanced electron extraction induced by the ZnO/PFN bilayer structure and PTB7:ICBA:PC71BM ternary system, the corresponding inverted PSC device shows a high PCE of 9.3%, which is more than a 15% improvement compared to the ZnO- or PFN-only devices.

  18. An RF link analysis of MSBLS during ALT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speir, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the microwave scanning beam landing system (MSBLS) ground station to orbiter radio frequency (RF) link was made to determine if the expected signal levels will be compatible with orbiter receiver capabilities. Of primary interest was whether or not loss of data will occur due to interference caused by the orbiter 101 nose boom which provides additional air data during the approach and landing test. The results of the analysis indicate that a small amount of data loss may occur due to the proximity of the MSBLS antennas and the nose boom. Tabulated data of antenna radiation patterns are given.

  19. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  20. Diorganosilacetylene-alt-diorganosilvinylene polymers and a process of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Barton, Thomas J.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina; Pang, Yi

    1993-08-31

    The present invention provides linear organosilicon polymers including acetylene and vinylene moieties, and a process for their preparation. These diorganosilacetylenealt-diorganosilvinylene linear polymers can be represented by the formula: --[--(R.sup.1)(R.sup.2)Si--C.ident.C--(R.sup.3)(R.sup.4)Si--CH=CH--].sub.n --, wherein n.gtoreq.2; each R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, and aralkyl radicals. The polymers are soluble in organic solvents, air stable, and can be pulled into fibers or cast into films. They can be thermally converted into silicon carbide ceramic materials.

  1. Second virial coefficient of poly(ethylene-alt-1-butene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  2. IL-15 superagonist/IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion complex (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) markedly enhances specific subpopulations of NK and memory CD8+ T cells, and mediates potent anti-tumor activity against murine breast and colon carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Kwilas, Anna R.; Xu, Wenxin; Alter, Sarah; Jeng, Emily K.; Wong, Hing C.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-15-N72D superagonist-complexed with IL-15RαSushi-Fc fusion protein (IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc; ALT-803) has been reported to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity in murine myeloma, rat bladder cancer, and murine glioblastoma models. In this study, we examined the immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects of IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc in tumor-free and highly metastatic tumor-bearing mice. Here, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly expanded natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. In examining NK cell subsets, the greatest significant increase was in highly cytotoxic and migrating (CD11b+, CD27hi; high effector) NK cells, leading to enhanced function on a per-cell basis. CD8+ T cell subset analysis determined that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc significantly increased IL-15 responding memory (CD122+, CD44+) CD8+ T cells, in particular those having the innate (NKG2D+, PD1−) phenotype. In 4T1 breast tumor–bearing mice, IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc induced significant anti-tumor activity against spontaneous pulmonary metastases, depending on CD8+ T and NK cells, and resulting in prolonged survival. Similar anti-tumor activity was seen in the experimental pulmonary metastasis model of CT26 colon carcinoma cells, particularly when IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc was combined with a cocktail of checkpoint inhibitors, anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-L1. Altogether, these studies showed for the first time that IL-15SA/IL-15RαSu-Fc (1) promoted the development of high effector NK cells and CD8+ T cell responders of the innate phenotype, (2) enhanced function of NK cells, and (3) played a vital role in reducing tumor metastasis and ultimately survival, especially in combination with checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26910920

  3. Exzellenz und Equity: Neue Bildungstheoretische Perspektiven FÜR ein Altes SPANNUNGSVERHÄLTNIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamm, Margrit; Viehhauser, Martin

    2009-07-01

    EXCELLENCE AND EQUITY: APPLYING NEW PERSPECTIVES IN THE THEORY OF EDUCATION TO A TRADITIONALLY TENSE RELATIONSHIP - The majority of international assessments of school performance, as well as the international standards-based education reform focus on optimising the skills of children who perform poorly in school. This article, however, places the focus on the top␣performers ("excellence") and links this with the theory of equal opportunities ("equity"). The article follows two main lines of argument. The argument relating to the theory of education deems the achievement of equal opportunities and equity likely only if and when all children start from an equal position and are then allowed to develop unequally and appropriately, according to their individual talents. The second argument highlights the tense relationship between excellence and equity with regard to school children's varying home backgrounds, and asks how intellectual potential can best be discovered and encouraged. At the same time, the article demonstrates that the concept of accelerated learning, in differentiating between individuals within homogenous groups of learners, opens up a number of interesting perspectives and can ultimately redress the tense relationship between excellence and equity.

  4. Think Students Are Technologically Savvy? Control-Alt-Delete That Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The trend in higher education these days is to speak of students' technological skills as if they are worlds different from those of individuals who actually teach them. Teachers are the dinosaurs who do not understand how to maneuver in this brave new world of technology, while students are the evolved birds who will live on into the future. Part…

  5. Advanced limiter test (ALT-1) in the TEXTOR tokamak: concept and experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Grontz, S.P.; Prinja, A.K.; Gauster, W.B.; Malinowski, H.E.; Pontau, A.E.; Blewer, R.S.; Whitley, J.B.; Dippel, K.H.; Fuchs, G.

    1983-01-01

    The concept and experimental design of a pump-limiter for the TEXTOR tokamak is described. The module is constructed of stainless steel with a compound curvature head designed to limit the maximum heat flux to 300 W/cm/sup 2/. The head is made of TiC-coated graphite containing a variable-aperture slot to admit plasma to a deflector plate for ballistic pumping action. The assembly is actively pumped using Zr-Al getters with an estimated hydrogen pumping speed of 3 x 10/sup 4/ 1/s. The aspect ratio of the pump duct and the length of the plasma channel are both variable to permit study of plasma plugging, ballistic scattering, and enhanced gas-conduction effects. The module can be moved radially by 10 cm to permit its operation either as the primary or secondary limiter. Major diagnostics include Langmuir and solid state probes, bolometers, infrared thermography, thermocouples, ion gauges, manometers, and a gas mass analyzer.

  6. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  7. Orbiter Landing Loads Math Model Description and Correlation with ALT Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, D. A.; Schliesing, J. A.; Zupp, G. A., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the space shuttle approach and landing test are examined in order to assess landing gear characteristics and performance and verify landing dynamic analyses. The landing gears were instrumented with load-calibrated strain gages, a wheel-speed sensor, and strut stroke measurement devices. The mathematical procedure used in predicting the shuttle touchdown loads and dynamics is presented together with the comparisons between measured flight data and the analytical predictions. Conclusions from these data are also presented.

  8. Modeling and calibration of pointing errors with alt-az telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Long; Ma, Wenli; Huang, Jinlong

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new model for improving the pointing accuracy of a telescope. The Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) convention was used to perform an error analysis of the telescope's kinematics. A kinematic model was used to relate pointing errors to mechanical errors and the parameters of the kinematic model were estimated with a statistical model fit using data from two large astronomical telescopes. The model illustrates the geometric errors caused by imprecision in manufacturing and assembly processes and their effects on the pointing accuracy of the telescope. A kinematic model relates pointing error to axis position when certain geometric errors are assumed to be present in a telescope. In the parameter estimation portion, the semi-parametric regression model was introduced to compensate for remaining nonlinear errors. The experimental results indicate that the proposed semi-parametric regression model eliminates both geometric and nonlinear errors, and that the telescope's pointing accuracy significantly improves after this calibration.

  9. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) on landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  10. Balanced Ambipolar Poly(diketopyrrolopyrrole-alt-tetrafluorobenzene) Semiconducting Polymers Synthesized via Direct Arylation Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Wang, Guojie; Wang, Mingfeng

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis of an ambipolar π-conjugated copolymer consisting of alternating diketopyrrolopyrrole and tetrafluorobenzene via direct arylation polymerization (DAP) is reported. Two different combinations of monomers are investigated under various catalytic conditions for DAP. The target polymer obtained under an optimized catalytic condition shows minimal structural defects, a number-average molecular weight of 33.2 kDa, and balanced electron and hole mobility of 1 × 10(-2) cm(2) V(-1) S(-1) in the organic field-effect transistors fabricated and tested under ambient conditions.

  11. The old Jesuit observatory in Graz. (German Title: Die alte Jesuiten-Sternwarte in Graz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmayr, Johann; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    We give a brief overview of the development of astronomical research at the University of Graz from the 16th to the 18th century. This period is intimately connected to the activities of the Jesuit Order and to the counter-reformation in Inner Austria (a territory roughly corresponding to today's Styria, Carinthia, Slovenia and the County of Görz in Italy). Since the opening of the University in 1585, several Jesuits achieved distinction as mathematicians, physicists and astronomers in Graz. Among them are Paul Guldin, who corresponded with Johannes Kepler and died in Graz in 1643, as well as Leopold Biwald and Karl Tirnberger. Between 1745 and 1774, the Jesuit University of Graz also had a chair of astronomy and an observatory. The chair and the observatory were well endowed at the beginning, but later on neglected by their former funders and closed down after less than 30 years. Efforts to re-establish an observatory at Graz at the beginning of the 19th century failed. They were successful only towards the end of the 19th century, which is however a period beyond the scope of the present paper.

  12. Phase I Trial of Universal Donor NK Cell Therapy in Combination With ALT803

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Myeloproliferative Syndromes; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Colon Carcinoma; Adenocarcinoma of Rectum; Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Ewing's Sarcoma; Rhabdomyosarcoma

  13. Skylab program earth resources experiment package. Volume 5: Sensor performance evaluation (S193 ALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    The results are summarized of S193 altimeter sensor performance evaluation based on data presented to the sensor performance evaluation interim reports. The results of additional analyses of S193 altimeter performance are presented, and techniques used in sensor performance evaluation are described. Significant performance degradation identified during the Skylab missions and the performance achieved are described in terms of pertinent S193 altimeter parameters. The additional analyses include final performance analyses completed after submittal of the SL4 interim sensor performance evaluation reports, including completion of detailed analyses of basic performance parameters initiated during the interim report periods.

  14. Association mapping provides insights into the origin and the fine structure of the sorghum aluminum tolerance locus, AltSB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transpo...

  15. Measurement of global oceanic winds from Seasat-SMMR and its comparison with Seasat-SASS and ALT derived winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Prem C.

    1987-01-01

    The retrieval of ocean-surface wind speed from different channel combinations of Seasat SMMR measurements is demonstrated. Wind speeds derived using the best two channel subsets (10.6 H and 18.0 V) were compared with in situ data collected during the Joint Air-Sea Interaction (JASIN) experiment and an rms difference of 1.5 m/s was found. Global maps of wind speed generated with the present algorithm show that the averaged winds are arranged in well-ordered belts.

  16. STS Approach and Landing Test (ALT): Flight 5 - Slow Motion video of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During 1977 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, hosted the Approach and Landing Tests for the space shuttle prototype Enterprise. Since the shuttles would land initially on Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to Dryden on Edwards Air Force Base, NASA had already modified a Boeing 747 to carry them back to their launch site at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Computer calculations and simulations had predicted the mated shuttle and 747 could fly together safely, but NASA wanted to verify that prediction in a controlled flight-test environment before the shuttles went into operation. The agency also wanted to glide test the orbiter to ensure it could land safely before sending it into space with human beings aboard. So NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, developed a three-phase test program. First, an unpiloted-captive phase tested the shuttle/747 combination without a crew on the Enterprise in case of a problem that required jettisoning the prototype. There were three taxi tests and five flight tests without a crew in the shuttle. That phase ended on March 2, 1977. The second or captive-active phase-completed on July 26, 1977, flew the orbiter mated to the 747 with a two-person crew inside. Finally there were five flights-completed on October 26, 1977, in which the orbiter separated from the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA, as the 747 was designated) and landed. Beginning on August 12, 1977, the first four landings took place uneventfully on lakebed runways, but the fifth occurred on the concrete, 15,000-foot runway at Edwards. For the first three flights, a tail cone was placed around the dummy main engines to reduce buffeting. The tail-cone fairing was removed for the last two flights. This movie clip begins with the Enterprise just prior to touchdown on the main runway at Edwards AFB after it's fifth and final unpowered free flight. Shuttle pilots Gordon Fullerton and Fred Haise were attempting a couple of firsts on this flight--a precision 'spot' landing on the concrete runway and flying the orbiter without it's tail-cone fairing, since the previous lakebed landing without the fairing had been made by Joe Engle and Richard Truly. Both Haise and Fullerton had prepared as well as possible for the variables of this mission by flying simulated approach profiles in NASA's shuttle training aircraft. However, as with most simulations, the performance wasn't completely identical to that of the real vehicle. Consequently Haise, the mission commander in the left seat, was too fast on the orbiter's landing approach. Deploying the speed brakes, he tried vainly to hit the assigned landing mark but in the stress of the moment, began to overcorrect the vehicle. The orbiter entered a pilot-induced oscillation or PIO along both it's roll and pitch axis causing the vehicle to begin to 'porpoise' down the runway. As it settled down to land it began to bounce from one main landing gear to the next before being brought under control and finally landed by the crew. Engineers at Dryden later determined that a roughly 270-millisecond time delay in the space shuttle's fly-by-wire system had been the cause of the problem, which was then explored with NASA Dryden's F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire aircraft and corrected with a suppression filter integrated into the orbiter's flight control system.

  17. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for enhanced stability and cellular internalization.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Almeida, Patrick V; Mäkilä, Ermei; Correia, Alexandra; Ferreira, Mónica P A; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-03-01

    Currently, developing a stable nanocarrier with high cellular internalization and low toxicity is a key bottleneck in nanomedicine. Here, we have developed a successful method to covalently conjugate poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE-MA) copolymer on the surface of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-functionalized thermally carbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (APSTCPSi NPs), forming a surface negatively charged nanovehicle with unique properties. This polymer conjugated NPs could modify surface smoothness, charge, and hydrophilicity of the developed NPs, leading to considerable improvement in the colloidal and plasma stabilities via enhanced suspensibility and charge repulsion. Furthermore, despite the surface negative charge of the polymer-conjugated NPs, the cellular internalization was increased in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results provide a proof-of-concept evidence that such polymer-based PSi nanocomposite can be extensively used as a promising candidate for intracellular drug delivery.

  18. Women's labour and economic globalisation: a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development (Alt-WID).

    PubMed

    Barton, C; Nazombei, E

    2000-03-01

    This article describes the aims, methods, materials and topics used in a participatory workshop created by Alternative Women in Development. The organization aims to bridge the gaps in analyzing human rights and economic justice in both North and South from a feminist perspective through a workshop. This workshop considers the varied roles that women play in the global economy and features a series of anecdotes to illustrate the diverse ways in which globalization affects women in all regions worldwide. The workshop runs for a minimum of 3 hours and is structured as follows: introduction; plenary: identifying the human rights of the women; small-group work, plenary: building a group analysis and discussion of alternatives to the existing policies; and individual and plenary evaluations. Furthermore, four anecdotes used at the workshop are presented. Among the outcomes of the workshop included the identification of the problem causes and development of strategies for action.

  19. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Association of Private Enterprise Education (11th, San Antonio, Texas, April 6-8,. 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Private Enterprise, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Papers in these proceedings are grouped under the following headings: addresses, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, free market economics, public policy, and economic education. Papers include "Economic Freedom and Private Enterprise" (Murray L. Weidenbaum); "Marxism and the Free, Capitalist Society" (Tibor R. Machan); "Knowledge,…

  1. Double-spin asymmetry ALT cos ϕS in semi-inclusive DIS at CLAS12 and EIC within the collinear framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Mao, Wenjuan; Lu, Zhun

    2016-10-01

    We study the longitudinal-transverse double-spin asymmetry with a cos ϕS modulation in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering for charged and neutral pion production. We consider the particular case in which the transverse momentum of the final-state hadron is integrated out. The corresponding asymmetry may be contributed by two parts: one is the convolution of the twist-3 distribution function gT(x ) and the unpolarized fragmentation function D1(z ); the other is related to the coupling of the transversity distribution function h1(x ) and the collinear twist-3 fragmentation function E ˜(z ). We take into account both contributions to predict the cos ϕS asymmetry at the kinematics of CLAS12 and a future Electron Ion Collider. We find that the asymmetry of pion production at CLAS12 is sizable, and E ˜(z ) can play an important role in the asymmetry in the large-z region.

  2. Successful performances of the EU-AltTF sample, a large size Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor with rectangular geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    della Corte, A.; Corato, V.; Di Zenobio, A.; Fiamozzi Zignani, C.; Muzzi, L.; Polli, G. M.; Reccia, L.; Turtù, S.; Bruzzone, P.; Salpietro, E.; Vostner, A.

    2010-04-01

    One of the design features which yet offers interesting margins for performance optimization of cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs), is their geometry. For relatively small size Nb3Sn CICCs, operating at high electromagnetic pressure, such as those for the EDIPO project, it has been experimentally shown that a design based on a rectangular layout with higher aspect ratio leads to the best performance, especially in terms of degradation with electromagnetic loads. To extend this analysis to larger size Nb3Sn CICCs, we manufactured and tested, in the SULTAN facility, an ITER toroidal field (TF) cable, inserted into a thick stainless steel tube and then compacted to a high aspect ratio rectangular shape. Besides establishing a new record in Nb3Sn CICC performances for ITER TF type cables, the very good test results confirmed that the conductor properties improve not only by lowering the void fraction and raising the cable twist pitch, as already shown during the ITER TFPRO and the EDIPO test campaigns, but also by the proper optimization of the conductor shape with respect to the electromagnetic force distribution. The sample manufacturing steps, along with the main test results, are presented here.

  3. Physical Analysis of the Complex Rye (Secale cereale L.) Alt4 Aluminium (Aluminum) Tolerance Locus Using a Whole-Genome BAC Library of Rye cv. Blanco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye is a diploid crop species with many outstanding qualities, and is also important as a source of new traits for wheat and triticale improvement. Here we describe a BAC library of rye cv. Blanco, representing a valuable resource for rye molecular genetic studies. The library provides a 6 × genome ...

  4. 75 FR 67166 - Unblocking of Two Specially Designated Nationals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... LIBI''), Viale Bligny 42, Milan, Italy; DOB 28 Nov 1980; POB Libya; alt. POB Palestine; alt. POB Jordan; alt. POB Gaza; nationality Libya; alt. nationality Jordan; alt. nationality Palestinian;...

  5. Space Shuttle Program Orbiter Approach and Landing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The orbiter approach and landing test (ALT) reports are published to provide senior NASA management with timely information on ALT program plans and accomplishments. The ALT reports will be comprised of this pre-ALT report, ALT pre-flight memoranda, and an ALT post-flight report following each flight. The purpose of this pre-ALT report is to provide an overview of the ALT program, describing the flight vehicles involved and summarizing the planned flights.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of PVA/ODA-MMT-poly(MA-alt-1-octadecene)-g-graphene oxide e-spun nanofiber electrolytes and their response to bone cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rzayev, Zakir M O; Salimi, Kouroush; Bunyatova, Ulviya; Acar, Selim; Salamov, Bahtiyar; Turk, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a new approach to fabrication and characterization of novel polymer nanofiber electrolytes from intercalated PVA/ODA-MMT nanocomposite as a matrix polymer and encapsulated graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with amphiphilic reactive copolymer as partner polymers using electrospinning method. The chemical and physical structures, surface morphology, thermal behaviors and electric conductivity of nanocomposites and nanofibers were investigated using analyses methods including FTIR, XRD, SEM, DSC-TGA and conductivity analysis. Significant improvements in nanofiber morphology and size distribution were observed when GO and reactive organoclay were incorporated as reinforcement fillers into various matrix/partner solution blends. The structural factors of matrix-partner polymer nanocomposite particles with higher zeta-potential play important roles in both chemical and physical interfacial interactions and phase separation processing and also lead to the formation of nanofibers with unique surface morphologies and good conductivities. The cytotoxic, necrotic and apoptotic effects of chosen nanofibers on osteocarcinoma cells were also investigated. These multifunctional, self-assembled, nanofibrous surfaces can serve as semi-conductive and bioactive platforms in various electrochemical and bio-engineering processes, as well as reactive matrices used for the immobilization of various biopolymer precursors.

  7. Natural weathering of archaeo-metallurgical slags: an analog for present day vitrified wastesL'altération naturelle des scories de la métallurgie ancienne : un analogue de déchets vitrifiés

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahé-Le Carlier, Cécile; Le Carlier de Veslud, Christian; Ploquin, Alain; Royer, Jean-Jacques

    2000-02-01

    The study of the natural alteration of ancient vitreous slags (100 to 4 000 years) suggests a single global mechanism. In a first stage, weathering consists of a selective extraction of the modifier cations of glass (including Pb and Ba). This phenomenon is associated with an increase of the solution pH, inducing the glass dissolution. The elements with a weak limit of solubility remain in place and can form hydroxides (Al, Fe). Pb and Ba are extracted from weathered glass. Pb is located in Fe-hydroxides, Ba may form sulfides. The rate of alteration varies from 20 to 180 μm per 1 000 years.

  8. ALT-C 95: Changing Education, Changing Technology. Conference Abstracts of the Association for Learning Technology Conference (2nd, Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom, September 11-13, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, David, Ed.

    This program for the 1995 Association for Learning Technology Conference summarizes the presentations of the discussions, demonstrations, workshops, and poster sessions. Abstracts of the following papers presented at the conference are included: "New Structures for Learning" (Patrick Allen & Kate Sankey); "Multiple System Conferencing" (Susan…

  9. Das Licht am Ende des Tunnels: Motivationsstrukturen fur den Deutschunterricht Reflexionen uber ein altes und stets neues Problem (The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Structures for Motivating German Teaching. Reflections on an Old and Continually New Problem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Argues that despite the decline in enrollments in German at elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, there is reason to hope that interest can be invigorated. Suggests that there are easy instructional methods and materials for developing a new motivation in learning the language. (Author/VWL)

  10. Fabrication and characterization of PVA/ODA-MMT-poly(MA-alt-1-octadecene)-g-graphene oxide e-spun nanofiber electrolytes and their response to bone cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rzayev, Zakir M O; Salimi, Kouroush; Bunyatova, Ulviya; Acar, Selim; Salamov, Bahtiyar; Turk, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a new approach to fabrication and characterization of novel polymer nanofiber electrolytes from intercalated PVA/ODA-MMT nanocomposite as a matrix polymer and encapsulated graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with amphiphilic reactive copolymer as partner polymers using electrospinning method. The chemical and physical structures, surface morphology, thermal behaviors and electric conductivity of nanocomposites and nanofibers were investigated using analyses methods including FTIR, XRD, SEM, DSC-TGA and conductivity analysis. Significant improvements in nanofiber morphology and size distribution were observed when GO and reactive organoclay were incorporated as reinforcement fillers into various matrix/partner solution blends. The structural factors of matrix-partner polymer nanocomposite particles with higher zeta-potential play important roles in both chemical and physical interfacial interactions and phase separation processing and also lead to the formation of nanofibers with unique surface morphologies and good conductivities. The cytotoxic, necrotic and apoptotic effects of chosen nanofibers on osteocarcinoma cells were also investigated. These multifunctional, self-assembled, nanofibrous surfaces can serve as semi-conductive and bioactive platforms in various electrochemical and bio-engineering processes, as well as reactive matrices used for the immobilization of various biopolymer precursors. PMID:26838849

  11. The molecular and electronic structure of poly-[2,7-(benzo[2,1;3,4-b";]dithiophene)-alt-2,2";-(3,3";-didodecyl-5,5";-bithiophenyl)] (PBTT): A periodic DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Solís, A.; Bernal-Jaquez, R.; Zicovich-Wilson, C. M.

    2014-06-01

    We report the results of periodic DFT calculations on quasi-2D chains of PBTT. Geometry optimizations used GGA and hybrid functionals. Several polymer space groups were explored, P 2122 yielding the lowest unit cell energy. The band gap varies from 1.15 to 2.39 eV vs. exp 2.0 eV. The B3LYP and B3PW functionals yield the best agreement, GGA ones predicting too small band gaps. When empirical dispersion effects are added, a reorganization of the lateral dodecyl chains occurs and the conjugation of main polymer backbone is lost; however, these changes seem unphysical. Further experiments and calculations of the real 3D material are needed.

  12. UV-Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical and in situ conductance studies of unusual stability of n- and p-doped poly(dimethyldioctylquaterthiophene-alt-oxadiazole) under high cathodic and anodic polarizations.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Z; Levi, M D; Salitra, G; Demadrille, R; Fisyuk, A; Zaban, A; Aurbach, D; Pron, A

    2008-02-21

    Combined CV studies and UV-Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical investigations revealed an unusual stability of the p- and n-doped PMOThOD in the wide potential window of 4 V. The n-doping process occurs in this polymer down to -2.7 V (vs. Ag/Ag+) in a non-destructive way with the characteristic development of the omega3 transition as a function of the doping level. In situ electronic transport studies revealed a high conductivity of the n-doped polymer which implies high mobility of the negatively charged carriers in the freshly doped PMOThOD film electrodes. An increase in the cathodic polarization, long-term cycling of the film electrodes, especially of higher thickness, results in a growing contribution of the negatively charged carriers trapping to the redox properties of the PMOThOD. The trapping of the charged carriers reduces gradually the electronic conductance of the PMOThOD film, but its effect on the redox-capacity of the film (in a typical scan rates range up to 50 mV s(-1)) is only minor.

  13. ALT-C 96: Integrating Technology into the Curriculum. Conference Programme and Abstracts of the Association for Learning Technology Conference (3rd, Glasgow, Scotland, September 16-18, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Shona, Ed.

    This program for the 1996 Association for Learning Technology Conference summarizes the poster sessions, discussions, workshops, and software demonstrations, and provides abstracts of the 38 papers presented. Topics covered by the papers include: hand-held technology for mathematics; modeling global warming; computer-mediated communications; Java;…

  14. Le gisement de cuivre or de Bolcana (monts Métallifères, Roumanie) : premières données sur les altérations et minéralisations associées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milu, Viorica; Leroy, Jacques L.; Piantone, Patrice

    2003-08-01

    The Bolcana ore deposit (Metaliferi Mountains, western Romania) is a porphyry ore deposit with associated epithermal veins. On the basis of different parageneses, four alteration types were distinguished: potassic, phyllic, argillic and propylitic. The mineralogical and geochemical data and estimated crystallisation temperatures of alteration minerals indicate an evolution of the system from an early period of porphyry type mineralisation (Cu+Au) to a late period of low-sulphidation epithermal mineralisation (Au+base metal). To cite this article: V. Milu et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  15. The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust Part 1: Six refugees who fled.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bock, Julia; Hoenig, Leonard J; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    2016-01-01

    From the times of Moritz Kaposi, Hungarian Jewish physicians have significantly contributed to the development of dermatology. Part 1 of this special report highlights some of the early Jewish dermatologists in Hungary. It also tells the stories of five Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who fled anti-Semitism in Hungary, or other European countries, between 1920 and 1941: Frederick Reiss, Emery Kocsard, Stephen Rothman, Peter Flesch, and George Csonka. A sixth Hungarian dermatologist, Tibor Benedek, was persecuted by the Nazis, because he had a Jewish wife, forcing the couple to flee Germany. Part 2 will focus on the ordeal faced by Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who did not leave their homeland during World War II.

  16. 78 FR 21007 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 13348

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ..., Vladimir Abramovich); DOB 14 Dec 1947; alt. DOB 18 Oct 1946; nationality Ukraine; Passport 5280007248D... Ukraine; Passport AC251295 (Ukraine); alt. Passport KC024178 (Ukraine) (individual) . 8....

  17. 75 FR 20672 - Additional Identifying Information Associated With Persons Whose Property and Interests in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., Yemen; Diplomatic Passport 000021986 (Yemen); alt. Diplomatic Passport A011892 (Yemen); alt. Diplomatic Passport A009829 (Yemen); National ID No. 1417576 (Yemen) issued 7 Jan 1996; Passport 00514146...

  18. Clinical significance of serum alanine aminotransferase and lifestyle intervention in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Kyoung Ah; Chun, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the effect of lifestyle intervention on NAFLD. Methods The clinical data of 86 children diagnosed with NAFLD were reviewed retrospectively. Forty-six patients belonged to the elevated ALT group and 40 to the normal ALT group. The clinical parameters of patients with NAFLD were also compared based on the status of ALT levels after lifestyle intervention. Results Patients with elevated ALT had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) scores than those with normal ALT (P<0.05). Of all the patients with elevated ALT, 89% exhibited moderate or severe degree of fatty change in the liver on ultrasonographic examination, whereas most patients with normal ALT exhibited mild or moderate degree changes. Liver biopsy was performed in 15 children with elevated ALT and all showed mild histological changes. Of all patients with elevated ALT, 49% achieved normal ALT levels after lifestyle intervention. Those with more severe histological changes tended to have continuously increasing ALT levels. There was no correlation between the normalization of posttreatment ALT level and BMI, as well as ultrasonographic findings at diagnosis. Conclusion ALT elevation in NAFLD is highly associated with higher BMI scores and more severe degree of fatty changes on ultrasonographic examination. Lifestyle intervention can significantly improve ALT in children with NAFLD. The degree of histologic changes appears to be a predictor of the treatment response to NAFLD. PMID:27721840

  19. Results of an aerodynamic investigation of a space shuttle orbiter/747 carrier vehicle configuration to establish a free-stream data base for ALT separation investigations, utilizing a 0.0125-scale model (48-0/AX1318I-1) in the ARC 14-foot wind tunnel (CA23A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Force and moment data are presented which were obtained for each vehicle separately at a Mach number of 0.6, and for the mated orbiter/747 configuration at Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7. Orbiter angles of attack from 0 degrees to +12 degrees and 747/Carrier angles of attack from -3 degrees to +7 degrees were investigated at angles of sideslip of 0 degrees and -5 degrees. Model variables include orbiter elevon and rudder deflections, orbiter tail cone-on and off, various orbiter/747 attach structure configurations, 747 stabilizer and rudder deflections, and 747 CAM modification components-on and off. Photographs of test configurations are included.

  20. Analyse de cartes pédologiques pour identifier le rôle du régime tectonique sur la répartition régionale de la perméabilité des altérites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplot, Vincent; Curmi, Pierre; Walter, Christian; Bernoux, Martial

    2000-04-01

    Soil maps analysis to identify the role of the tectonic regime on saprolite permeability regional distribution. For applied geology, e.g., geotechnics or hydrogeology, it is of prime interest to know the spatial distribution of the saprolite permeability. This study focuses on the role of the tectonic regime on saprolite permeability regional distribution. Comparison of data concerning the uplift regime and soil organisation data from several pedological maps of the Armorican Massif (France) showed that blocks in relative uplift were characterized by a low proportion of hydromorphic soils, whereas a higher proportion marked blocks in relative downlift. Such differences can be related to the denudation regime, which affects the saprolite permeability.

  1. Letter of Appreciation to 2004 Journal of Optical Networking Reviewers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    The international scientific and engineering professions rely on the work of countless reviewers to ensure the quality of the research published in technical journals. Like all such journals, JON benefits from the tireless efforts of these volunteers. Below is a list of 2004 JON reviewers who have agreed to have their names published. We sincerely thank these reviewers, as well as those not listed, for their assistance to JON and praise them for their dedication to their profession. The system simply would not work without them. Charalambos Anastassiou Ivan Andonovic Nirwan Ansari Chris Bintjas Martin Birk Zoran Bojkovic Xiren Cao Yang Cao Calvin C.K. Chan Yongmao Chang Yang Chen Kwok-Wai Cheung Nim-Kwan Cheung Su Fong Chien Wilson Chu Yun Chung Tibor Cinkler Ignacio de Miguel Jiun S. Deng Jitender Deogun H.J.S. Dorren Mark Feuer Samrat Ganguly

  2. The fate of Hungarian Jewish dermatologists during the Holocaust Part 1: Six refugees who fled.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Walter H C; Bock, Julia; Hoenig, Leonard J; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    2016-01-01

    From the times of Moritz Kaposi, Hungarian Jewish physicians have significantly contributed to the development of dermatology. Part 1 of this special report highlights some of the early Jewish dermatologists in Hungary. It also tells the stories of five Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who fled anti-Semitism in Hungary, or other European countries, between 1920 and 1941: Frederick Reiss, Emery Kocsard, Stephen Rothman, Peter Flesch, and George Csonka. A sixth Hungarian dermatologist, Tibor Benedek, was persecuted by the Nazis, because he had a Jewish wife, forcing the couple to flee Germany. Part 2 will focus on the ordeal faced by Hungarian Jewish dermatologists who did not leave their homeland during World War II. PMID:26903191

  3. Impact of Camping on Soil Properties at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Tibor, Matthew A.

    2014-05-01

    Recreational activity at campsites can cause compaction and metal contamination of soils. This study compared the bulk densities, penetration resistance values, organic matter contents, and Zn, Mn, and Cu contents of soils sampled from zones of varying recreational activity within the campsites at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota, USA. The results of this study showed that there were statistically significant increases in the soil bulk densities and soil penetration resistance values compared to the controls. However, the low recreational intensity has not compacted the surface soils beyond an average of 1.36 g cm-3, which is not dense enough to hinder the root growth of the surrounding vegetation. There were no statistically significant differences between the soil organic matter content of the different activity zones at the 95% confidence interval. Zinc values were four orders of magnitude and Cu values three to four orders of magnitude below US EPA guideline limits. The EPA does not have guidelines for Mn, but Mn levels were lower than reported typical natural values for a nearby area. Therefore, metal contents were not high enough to be of concern. Taken together, these results were interpreted to indicate that the low-intensity camping activities that occur at Strawberry Lake campground have not had a significant negative impact on the soils found there. Additional information on this study can be found in Tibor and Brevik (2013). Reference Tibor, M.A., and E.C. Brevik. 2013. Anthropogenic Impacts on Campsite Soils at Strawberry Lake, North Dakota. Soil Horizons 54: doi:10.2136/sh13-06-0016.

  4. Alanine Aminotransferase-Old Biomarker and New Concept: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhengtao; Que, Shuping; Xu, Jing; Peng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is a common, readily available, and inexpensive laboratory assay in clinical practice. ALT activity is not only measured to detect liver disease, but also to monitor overall health. ALT activity is influenced by various factors, including viral hepatitis, alcohol consumption, and medication. Recently, the impact of metabolic abnormalities on ALT variation has raised concern due to the worldwide obesity epidemic. The normal ranges for ALT have been updated and validated considering the metabolic covariates in the various ethnic districts. The interaction between metabolic and demographic factors on ALT variation has also been discussed in previous studies. In addition, an extremely low ALT value might reflect the process of aging, and frailty in older adults has been raised as another clinically significant feature of this enzyme, to be followed with additional epidemiologic investigation. Timely updated, comprehensive, and systematic introduction of ALT activity is necessary to aid clinicians make better use of this enzyme. PMID:25013373

  5. 78 FR 10000 - Unblocking of Five (5) Individuals as Specially Designated Global Terrorists Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    .... DARWISH, Sulayman Khalid (a.k.a. ``ABU AL-GHADIYA''), Syria; DOB 1976; alt. DOB circa 1974; POB Outside Damascus, Syria; nationality Syria; Passport 3936712 (Syria); alt. Passport 11012 (Syria)...

  6. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may signal a decrease in kidney function. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) , alanine amino transferase (ALT) , aspartate amino transferase (AST) , and bilirubin ; ALP, ALT, and AST are liver enzymes; bilirubin is produced by the liver. Elevated concentrations ...

  7. 76 FR 54535 - Designation of Three Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ..., Abdurrochim); DOB 16 Nov 1977; alt. DOB 16 Nov 1974; POB Solo, Indonesia; alt. POB Sukoharjo, Central Java... 1970; POB Central Java, Indonesia; nationality Indonesia (individual) . Dated: August 16, 2011....

  8. Alternaria alternata and its allergens: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Kustrzeba-Wójcicka, Irena; Siwak, Emilia; Terlecki, Grzegorz; Wolańczyk-Mędrala, Anna; Mędrala, Wojciech

    2014-12-01

    Alternaria alternata is mainly an outdoor fungus whose spores disseminate in warm, dry air, so in temperate climates, their count peaks in the summers. Alternaria may also be found in damp, insufficiently ventilated houses, where its allergenic properties cocreate the sick building syndrome. Mold-induced respiratory allergies and research on Alternaria both have a lengthy history: the first was described as early as 1698 and the second dates back to 1817. However, the two were only linked in 1930 when Alternaria spores were found to cause allergic asthma. The allergenic extracts from Alternaria hyphae and spores still remain in use but are variable and insufficiently standardized as they are often a random mixture of allergenic ingredients and coincidental impurities. In contrast, contemporary biochemistry and molecular biology make it possible to obtain pure allergen molecules. To date, 16 allergens of A. alternata have been isolated, many of which are enzymes: Alt a 4 (disulfide isomerase), Alt a 6 (enolase), Alt a 8 (mannitol dehydrogenase), Alt a 10 (alcohol dehydrogenase), Alt a 13 (glutathione-S-transferase), and Alt a MnSOD (Mn superoxide dismutase). Others have structural and regulatory functions: Alt a 5 and Alt a 12 comprise the structure of large ribosomal subunits and mediate translation, Alt a 3 is a molecular chaperone, Alt a 7 regulates transcription, Alt a NTF2 facilitates protein import into the nucleus, and Alt a TCTP acts like a cytokine. The function of four allergenic proteins, Alt a 1, Alt a 2, Alt a 9, and Alt a 70 kDa, remains unknown.

  9. Measuring Academic Learning Time: Some Insights through the Looking Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, JoAnne E.

    Detroit's Peer Teachers as Mirrors and Monitors Project is intended to validate cost effective methods for increasing Academic Learning Time (ALT) for students in grades one through four. A major problem in this research effort has been the design of valid and reliable measures of the components of ALT. One very important component of ALT is…

  10. Effect of Caffeine-Containing Beverage Consumption on Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Hospital-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yachiyo; Ohfuji, Satoko; Fukushima, Wakaba; Tamori, Akihiro; Enomoto, Masaru; Habu, Daiki; Iwai, Shuji; Uchida-Kobayashi, Sawako; Fujii, Hideki; Shiomi, Susumu; Kawada, Norifumi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To date, there have been no prospective studies examining the effect of coffee consumption on serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level among individuals infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among patients with chronic HCV infection to assess an association between baseline coffee consumption and subsequent ALT levels for 12 months. Materials and Methods From 1 August 2005 to 31 July 2006, total 376 HCV-RNA positive patients were recruited. A baseline questionnaire elicited information on the frequency of coffee consumption and other caffeine-containing beverages. ALT level as a study outcome was followed through the patients’ medical records during 12 months. The association between baseline beverage consumption and subsequent ALT levels was evaluated separately among patients with baseline ALT levels within normal range (≤45 IU/L) and among those with higher ALT levels (>45 IU/L). Results Among 229 patients with baseline ALT levels within normal range, 186 (81%) retained normal ALT levels at 12 months after recruitment. Daily drinkers of filtered coffee were three times more likely to preserve a normal ALT level than non-drinkers (OR=2.74; P=0.037). However, decaffeinated coffee drinkers had a somewhat inverse effect for sustained normal ALT levels, with marginal significance (OR=0.26; P=0.076). In addition, among 147 patients with higher baseline ALT levels, 39 patients (27%) had ALT reductions of ≥20 IU/L at 12 months after recruitment. Daily drinkers of filtered coffee had a significantly increased OR for ALT reduction (OR=3.79; P=0.034). However, in decaffeinated coffee drinkers, OR could not be calculated because no patients had ALT reduction. Conclusion Among patients with chronic HCV infection, daily consumption of filtered coffee may have a beneficial effect on the stabilization of ALT levels. PMID:24349501

  11. Estimating 1992-2000 average active layer thickness on the Alaskan North Slope from remotely sensed surface subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Zhang, Tingjun; Wahr, John

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of temporal changes in active layer thickness (ALT) is crucial to monitoring permafrost degradation in the Arctic. We develop a retrieval algorithm to estimate long-term average ALT using thaw-season surface subsidence derived from spaceborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements. Our algorithm uses a model of vertical distribution of water content within the active layer accounting for soil texture, organic matter, and moisture. We determine the 1992-2000 average ALT for an 80 × 100 km study area of continuous permafrost on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay. We obtain an ALT of 30-50 cm over moist tundra areas, and a larger ALT of 50-80 cm over wet tundra areas. Our estimated ALT values match in situ measurements at Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites within uncertainties. Our results demonstrate that InSAR can provide ALT estimates over large areas at high spatial resolution.

  12. PML body meets telomere

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Inn; Osterwald, Sarah; Deeg, Katharina I.; Rippe, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The unlimited proliferation potential of cancer cells requires the maintenance of their telomeres. This is frequently accomplished by reactivation of telomerase. However, in a significant fraction of tumors an alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism is active. The molecular mechanism of the ALT pathway remains elusive. In particular, the role of characteristic complexes of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) with telomeres, the ALT-associated PML-NBs (APBs), is currently under investigation. Here, we review recent findings on the assembly, structure and functions of APBs. It is discussed how genomic aberrations in ALT-positive cancer cells could result in the formation of APBs and in ALT activity. We conclude that they are important functional intermediates in what is considered the canonical ALT pathway and discuss deregulations of cellular pathways that contribute to the emergence of the ALT phenotype. PMID:22572954

  13. Evaluation of the characteristics of the organic thin film solar cell fabricated by poly[4,8-bis(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-octanoyl-5-fluoro-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate)-2,6-diyl]/[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komura, Tatsushi; Santhakumar, Kannappan; Kumar, Palanisamy; Shin, Paik-Kyun; Kojima, Kenzo; Ochiai, Shizuyasu

    2012-09-01

    Solar energy is the most abundant and reliable source of energy and we have to provide for the multi-terawatt challenge we are facing. In recent years organic photovoltaic's have become one of the most interesting research areas due to their potential towards a cheap and broad applicability. We report the optical and electrical properties of PBDTTT-CF: PC71BM bulk hetero-junction (BHJ) solar cell. The devices were prepared by spin coating technique with the device structure of Glass/ITO/PEDOT: PSS/Active layer/Al. The ratio of polymer donor and fullerene acceptor varied between 1:1 to 1:4. Optical absorption spectroscopy measurements of the films indicated absorption peaks in the range from 500-800 nm which were attributed to PBDTTT-CF. The surface morphology of the active layers deposited was examined using Atomic Force Microscopy. The current density (J)-voltage (V) characteristics of the PBDTTT-CF: PC71BM bulk hetero-junction solar cells were studied. The devices fabricated using the selective active layer show overall power conversion efficiency of 3%.

  14. Sex and the Library. Confirmed by the Research: There is Sex in the Library [and] Alt.sex: Detour off the Information Highway [and] Sex in Public (Libraries): An Historical Sampler of What Every Librarian Should Know [and] Mission Position: Censorship in the Corporate Library [and] Hard Cases: Some Issues Concerning the First Amendment's Protection of Free Speech and Free Press [and] Subtle Censors: Collection Development in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracy, Pauletta Brown, Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Six articles address issues of censorship and sexuality in libraries. Highlights include: surveys of censorship in North Carolina, acceptable use policies for the Internet, perceptions of librarians' sexuality, the proprietary nature of corporate library holdings, contemporary views and interpretation of First Amendment rights, and collection…

  15. A Micro-Platinum Wire Biosensor for Fast and Selective Detection of Alanine Aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Thuy, Tran Nguyen Thanh; Tseng, Tina T-C

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a miniaturized biosensor based on permselective polymer layers (overoxidized polypyrrole (Ppy) and Nafion(®)) modified and enzyme (glutamate oxidase (GlutOx)) immobilized micro-platinum wire electrode for the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was fabricated. The proposed ALT biosensor was measured electrochemically by constant potential amperometry at +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The ALT biosensor provides fast response time (~5 s) and superior selectivity towards ALT against both negatively and positively charged species (e.g., ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA), respectively). The detection range of the ALT biosensor is found to be 10-900 U/L which covers the range of normal ALT levels presented in the serum and the detection limit and sensitivity are found to be 8.48 U/L and 0.059 nA/(U/L·mm²) (N = 10), respectively. We also found that one-day storage of the ALT biosensor at -20 °C right after the sensor being fabricated can enhance the sensor sensitivity (1.74 times higher than that of the sensor stored at 4 °C). The ALT biosensor is stable after eight weeks of storage at -20 °C. The sensor was tested in spiked ALT samples (ALT activities: 20, 200, 400, and 900 U/L) and reasonable recoveries (70%~107%) were obtained. PMID:27240366

  16. A Micro-Platinum Wire Biosensor for Fast and Selective Detection of Alanine Aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Tran Nguyen Thanh; Tseng, Tina T.-C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a miniaturized biosensor based on permselective polymer layers (overoxidized polypyrrole (Ppy) and Nafion®) modified and enzyme (glutamate oxidase (GlutOx)) immobilized micro-platinum wire electrode for the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was fabricated. The proposed ALT biosensor was measured electrochemically by constant potential amperometry at +0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The ALT biosensor provides fast response time (~5 s) and superior selectivity towards ALT against both negatively and positively charged species (e.g., ascorbic acid (AA) and dopamine (DA), respectively). The detection range of the ALT biosensor is found to be 10–900 U/L which covers the range of normal ALT levels presented in the serum and the detection limit and sensitivity are found to be 8.48 U/L and 0.059 nA/(U/L·mm2) (N = 10), respectively. We also found that one-day storage of the ALT biosensor at −20 °C right after the sensor being fabricated can enhance the sensor sensitivity (1.74 times higher than that of the sensor stored at 4 °C). The ALT biosensor is stable after eight weeks of storage at −20 °C. The sensor was tested in spiked ALT samples (ALT activities: 20, 200, 400, and 900 U/L) and reasonable recoveries (70%~107%) were obtained. PMID:27240366

  17. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres.

    PubMed

    Napier, Christine E; Huschtscha, Lily I; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R; Hendrickson, Eric A; Reddel, Roger R

    2015-06-30

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here that knockout or knockdown of ATRX in mortal cells or immortal telomerase-positive cells is insufficient to activate ALT. Notably, however, in SV40-transformed mortal fibroblasts ATRX loss results in either a significant increase in the proportion of cell lines activating ALT (instead of telomerase) or in a significant decrease in the time prior to ALT activation. These data indicate that loss of ATRX function cooperates with one or more as-yet unidentified genetic or epigenetic alterations to activate ALT. Moreover, transient ATRX expression in ALT-positive/ATRX-negative cells represses ALT activity. These data provide the first direct, functional evidence that ATRX represses ALT.

  18. Regulation of TB vaccine-induced airway luminal T cells by respiratory exposure to endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuerong; Xiu, Fangming; Horvath, Carly N; Damjanovic, Daniela; Thanthrige-Don, Niroshan; Jeyanathan, Mangalakumari; Xing, Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) vaccine-induced airway luminal T cells (ALT) have recently been shown to be critical to host defense against pulmonary TB. However, the mechanisms that maintain memory ALT remain poorly understood. In particular, whether respiratory mucosal exposure to environmental agents such as endotoxin may regulate the size of vaccine-induced ALT population is still unclear. Using a murine model of respiratory genetic TB vaccination and respiratory LPS exposure, we have addressed this issue in the current study. We have found that single or repeated LPS exposure increases the number of antigen-specific ALT which are capable of robust secondary responses to pulmonary mycobacterial challenge. To investigate the potential mechanisms by which LPS exposure modulates the ALT population, we have examined the role of ALT proliferation and peripheral T cell recruitment. We have found that LPS exposure-increased ALT is not dependent on increased ALT proliferation as respiratory LPS exposure does not significantly increase the rate of proliferation of ALT. But rather, we find it to be dependent upon the recruitment of peripheral T cells into the airway lumen as blockade of peripheral T cell supplies markedly reduces the initially increased ALT. Thus, our data suggest that environmental exposure to airborne agents such as endotoxin has a profound modulatory effect on TB vaccine-elicited T cells within the respiratory tract. Our study provides a new, M.tb antigen-independent mechanism by which the respiratory mucosal anti-TB memory T cells may be maintained.

  19. Unusual telomeric DNAs in human telomerase-negative immortalized cells.

    PubMed

    Nabetani, Akira; Ishikawa, Fuyuki

    2009-02-01

    A significant fraction of human cancer cells and immortalized cells maintain telomeres in a telomerase-independent manner called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). It has been suggested that ALT involves homologous recombination that is expected to generate unique intermediate DNAs. However, the precise molecular mechanism of ALT is not known. To gain insight into how telomeric DNAs (T-DNAs) are maintained in ALT, we examined the physical structures of T-DNAs in ALT cells. We found abundant single-stranded regions in both G and C strands of T-DNAs. Moreover, two-dimensional gel electrophoreses and native in-gel hybridization analyses revealed novel ALT-specific single-stranded T-DNAs, in addition to previously reported t-circles. These newly identified ALT-specific T-DNAs include (i) the t-complex, which consists of highly branched T-DNAs with large numbers of internal single-stranded portions; (ii) ss-G, which consists of mostly linear single-G-strand T-DNAs; and (iii) ss-C, which consists of most likely circular single-C-strand T-DNAs. Cellular-DNA fractionation by the Hirt protocol revealed that t-circles and ss-G exist in ALT cells as extrachromosomal and chromatin-associated DNAs. We propose that such ALT-specific T-DNAs are produced by telomere metabolism specific to ALT, namely, homologous recombination and the rolling-circle replication mechanism.

  20. Follow-up of mild alanine aminotransferase elevation identifies hidden hepatitis C in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Helsper, Charles; van Essen, Gerrit; Frijling, Bernard D; de Wit, Niek J

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV) virus infection can lead to serious complications if left untreated, but often remain undetected in primary care. Mild alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations (30–100 IU/l) are commonly found and could be associated with viral hepatitis; unfortunately, these findings frequently remain without follow-up. Aim To determine if and how mild ALT elevation can be used to identify hidden HCV and HBV infection in primary care. Design and setting Primary care patients referred for liver enzyme testing were selected by a large primary care Diagnostic Centre (Saltro). Method First, 750 anonymous samples were collected in three categories of ALT elevation (30–50 IU/l, 50–70 IU/l, and 70–100 IU/l) and tested for HCV and HBV. Second, the national prevalence of each ALT elevation was estimated by analysing all annual ALT tests performed at Saltro. Results HCV prevalence was 1.6% and 1.2% in patients with an ALT of 50–70 IU/l and 70–100 IU/l respectively. In patients with an ALT of 30–50 IU/l, HCV prevalence was normal (≤0.1%). HBV prevalence was normal (≤0.4%) in all groups. The estimated number of ALT tests performed nationally each year in primary care was 1.1 million. An ALT of 30–50 IU/l was found in 21.1%, an ALT of 50–70 IU/l in 5.6%, and 2.6% had an ALT of 70–100 IU/l. Conclusion In primary care patients with an ALT level of 50–100 IU/l, HCV prevalence is tenfold the population prevalence, whereas HBV prevalence is not elevated. Therefore, diagnostic follow-up for HCV is indicated in these patients, even when other explanations for ALT elevation are present. PMID:22429439

  1. Effect of argon laser trabeculoplasty on the rate of filtering surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, C.M.; Brown, R.H.; Lynch, M.G.

    1986-03-01

    We examined the impact of argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) on the overall rate of filtering surgery on a resident service. From 1981 through 1984, 121 eyes underwent ALT for treatment of uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma despite maximum tolerated medical therapy. Mean intraocular pressure decreased from 27 +/- 4 mmHg to 20 +/- 5 mmHg (median follow-up, 9 months). From 1978 through 1981, the mean annual rate of filtering surgery was 16. Only one filtering procedure was performed in 1982, the first full year of ALT use. However, 15 filtering procedures were performed in 1983 and 18 were performed in 1984. Despite a large number of apparently effective ALT treatments and despite an overall reduction in outpatient visits of 20%, the rate of filtering surgery has returned to the pre-ALT level. This suggests that ALT may be effective in delaying the need for surgery, but in many cases it probably does not prevent surgery.

  2. Rate-dependent force, intracellular calcium, and action potential voltage alternans are modulated by sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of thin filament regulation in human heart failure: A myocyte modeling study.

    PubMed

    Zile, Melanie A; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-01-01

    Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies heart failure patients at risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias at near-resting heart rates (<110 beats per minute). Since pressure alternans occurs simultaneously with MTWA and has a higher signal to noise ratio, it may be a better predictor of arrhythmia, although the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between force alternans (FORCE-ALT), the cellular manifestation of pressure alternans, and action potential voltage alternans (APV-ALT), the cellular driver of MTWA. Our goal was to uncover the mechanisms linking APV-ALT and FORCE-ALT in failing human myocytes and to investigate how the link between those alternans was affected by pacing rate and by physiological conditions such as sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters. To achieve this, a mechanically-based, strongly coupled human electromechanical myocyte model was constructed. Reducing the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake current (Iup) to 27% was incorporated to simulate abnormal calcium handling in human heart failure. Mechanical remodeling was incorporated to simulate altered thin filament activation and crossbridge (XB) cycling rates. A dynamical pacing protocol was used to investigate the development of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i), voltage, and active force alternans at different pacing rates. FORCE-ALT only occurred in simulations incorporating reduced Iup, demonstrating that alternans in the intracellular calcium concentration (CA-ALT) induced FORCE-ALT. The magnitude of FORCE-ALT was found to be largest at clinically relevant pacing rates (<110 bpm), where APV-ALT was smallest. We found that the magnitudes of FORCE-ALT, CA-ALT and APV-ALT were altered by heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters and sarcomere length due to the presence of myofilament feedback. These findings provide important insight into the relationship between heart

  3. Vitamin E and changes in serum alanine aminotransferase levels in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hoofnagle, J. H.; Van Natta, M. L.; Kleiner, D. E.; Clark, J. M.; Kowdley, K. V.; Loomba, R.; Neuschwander-Tetri, B. A.; Sanyal, A. J.; Tonascia, J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common cause of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations and chronic liver disease, but it is unclear how well ALT elevations reflect the liver injury. Aim To assess how well changes in ALT elevations reflect improvements in liver histology in response to vitamin E therapy. Methods The vitamin E and placebo arms of the Pioglitazone vs. Vitamin E vs. Placebo in Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (PIVENS) trial were reassessed for associations among changes in ALT levels, body weight and liver histology. An ALT response was defined as a decrease to ≤40 U/L and by ≥30% of baseline. Liver biopsies taken before and after treatment were scored for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity (NAS) and fibrosis. Results ALT responses were more frequent among vitamin E (48%) than placebo (16%) recipients (P < 0.001). Among vitamin E recipients, ALT responses were associated with decreases in NAS (P < 0.001), but not fibrosis scores (P = 0.34), whereas among placebo recipients, ALT responses were associated with significant decreases in both (P < 0.05). Weight loss (≥2 kg) was also associated with ALT response (P < 0.001), improvements in NAS (P < 0.001) and fibrosis (P < 0.02), but vitamin E had an added effect both with and without weight loss. Weight gain (≥2 kg) was associated with lack of ALT response and worsening NAS and fibrosis scores in patients not on vitamin E. Conclusions Decrease of ALT levels to normal in patients with NASH is usually associated with improved histological activity. Management should stress the value of weight loss and strongly discourage weight gain. Vitamin E can improve both ALT levels and histology with and without weight loss. Clinical Trial Number: NCT00063622. PMID:23718573

  4. Diurnal Variation in Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Activity in the United States Population

    PubMed Central

    Everhart, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Goals & Background Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity has been reported to be greater in the afternoon than the early morning, but data are scarce. We examined diurnal variation of ALT in a national population-based sample. Study Participants in the 1999–2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were randomly assigned to morning (AM) (n=4,474 adolescents, 11,235 adults) or afternoon/evening (PM) (n=4,887 adolescents, 11,735 adults) examinations. We examined ALT distributions graphically and compared both geometric mean ALT and the prevalence of elevated ALT, defined as >31 IU/L for adolescent boys, >24 IU/L for adolescent girls, >43 IU/L for adult men and >30 IU/L for adult women, between AM and PM examination groups. Results The examination groups were similar with the exception in the AM group of a longer fasting time and slightly higher prevalence of diabetes among adolescents and viral hepatitis B among adult women. ALT distributions were similar between examination sessions among the four groups. Among adolescents and men, neither mean ALT nor prevalence of abnormal ALT differed by examination group. Among women, mean ALT was statistically significantly, but minimally higher in the PM (19.6 IU/L) than the AM group (19.1 IU/L; p=0.009). Among one subgroup, women with chronic viral hepatitis, there was a higher prevalence of abnormal ALT in the PM (p=0.018 in unadjusted analysis). Adjusting for liver injury risk factors had little effect on the difference in mean ALT. Conclusions In general, clinically significant diurnal variation in ALT activity was not found in the U.S. population. PMID:23164687

  5. Relationship between the Clinical Characteristics and Intervention Scores of Infants with Apparent Life-threatening Events.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Joung; Kim, Yeo Hyang

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the clinical presentations, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, and prognosis from follow-up of infants with apparent life-threatening events (ALTE). In addition, the relationship between the clinical characteristics of patients and significant intervention scores was analyzed. We enrolled patients younger than 12 months who were diagnosed with ALTE from January 2005 to December 2012. There were 29 ALTE infants with a peak incidence of age younger than 1 month (48.3%). The most common symptoms for ALTE diagnosis were apnea (69.0%) and color change (58.6%). Eleven patients appeared normal upon arrival at hospital but 2 patients required cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the initial ALTE. The most common ALTE cause was respiratory disease, including respiratory infection and upper airway anomalies (44.8%). There were 20 cases of repeat ALTE and 2 cases of death during hospitalization. Four patients (15.4%) experienced recurrence of ALTE after discharge and 4 patients (15.4%) showed developmental abnormalities during the follow-up period. The patients with ALTE during sleep had lower significant intervention scores (P=0.015) compared to patients with ALTE during wakefulness and patients with previous respiratory symptoms had higher significant intervention scores (P=0.013) than those without previous respiratory symptoms. Although not statistically significant, there was a weak positive correlation between the patient's total ALTE criteria and total significant intervention score (Fig. 2, r=0.330, P=0.080). We recommend that all ALTE infants undergo inpatient observation and evaluations with at least 24 hr of cardiorespiratory monitoring, and should follow up at least within a month after discharge. PMID:26028930

  6. Irreducible tensor phenomenology for pd→3Heπ+π-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, G.; Deepak, P. N.

    2000-03-01

    A phenomenology based on the irreducible tensor formalism is developed for the reaction pdicons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> 3 Heicons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> + icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> - , to study incisively the P-wave dominance noticed in the recent kinematically complete experiment at c.m. excess energy of 70 MeV at the MOMO facility.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and organic field effect transistor performance of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-fluorenone copolymer.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Prashant; Ha, Tae-Jun; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2013-05-28

    A diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) with fluorenone (FN) based low band gap alternating copolymer (PDPPT-alt-FN) has been synthesized via Suzuki coupling. PDPPT-alt-FN exhibits a deep HOMO level with a lower band gap. Fabricated organic thin film transistors using PDPPT-alt-FN as a channel semiconductor show p-channel behaviour with the highest hole mobility of 0.083 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) measured in air.

  8. Alternaria extract activates autophagy that induces IL-18 release from airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Murai, Hiroki; Okazaki, Shintaro; Hayashi, Hisako; Kawakita, Akiko; Hosoki, Koa; Yasutomi, Motoko; Sur, Sanjiv; Ohshima, Yusei

    2015-09-01

    Alternaria alternata is a major outdoor allergen that causes allergic airway diseases. Alternaria extract (ALT-E) has been shown to induce airway epithelial cells to release IL-18 and thereby initiate Th2-type responses. We investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in IL-18 release from ALT-E-stimulated airway epithelial cells. Normal human bronchial epithelial cells and A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were stimulated with ALT-E in the presence of different inhibitors of autophagy or caspases. IL-18 levels in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. The numbers of autophagosomes, an LC3-I to LC3-II conversion, and p62 degradation were determined by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin, which inhibit the formation of preautophagosomal structures and autolysosomes, respectively, suppressed ALT-E-induced IL-18 release by cells, whereas caspase 1 and 8 inhibitors did not. ALT-E-stimulation increased autophagosome formation, LC-3 conversion, and p62 degradation in airway epithelial cells. LPS-stimulation induced the LC3 conversion in A549 cells, but did not induce IL-18 release or p62 degradation. Unlike LPS, ALT-E induced airway epithelial cells to release IL-18 via an autophagy dependent, caspase 1 and 8 independent pathway. Although autophagy has been shown to negatively regulate canonical inflammasome activity in TLR-stimulated macrophages, our data indicates that this process is an unconventional mechanism of IL-18 secretion by airway epithelial cells.

  9. Inhibition study of alanine aminotransferase enzyme using sequential online capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lina; Chen, Yuanfang; Yang, Li

    2014-12-15

    We report the study of several inhibitors on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme using sequential online capillary electrophoresis (CE) assay. Using metal ions (Na(+) and Mg(2+)) as example inhibitors, we show that evolution of the ALT inhibition reaction can be achieved by automatically and simultaneously monitoring the substrate consumption and product formation as a function of reaction time. The inhibition mechanism and kinetic constants of ALT inhibition with succinic acid and two traditional Chinese medicines were derived from the sequential online CE assay. Our study could provide valuable information about the inhibition reactions of ALT enzyme.

  10. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

  11. The systems perspective at the crossroads between chemistry and biology.

    PubMed

    de la Escosura, Andrés; Briones, Carlos; Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa

    2015-09-21

    During the last century a number of authors pointed to the inherently systemic and dynamic nature of the living, yet their message was largely ignored by the mainstream of the scientific community. Tibor Ganti was one of those early pioneers, proposing a theoretical framework to understand the living principles in terms of chemical transformation cycles and their coupling. The turn of the century then brought with it a novel 'systems' paradigm, which shined light on all that previous work and carried many implications for the way we conceive of chemical and biological complexity today. In this article tribute is paid to some of those seminal contributions, highlighting the importance of adopting a systems view in present chemistry, particularly if plausible mechanisms of chemical evolution toward the first living entities want to be unraveled. We examine and put in perspective recent discoveries in the emerging subfield of 'prebiotic systems chemistry', reaching the conclusion that the functional coupling of protocellular subsystems (i.e., protometabolism, protogenome and membrane compartment) is the most challenging target to make qualitative advances in the problem of the origins of life. For the long-awaited goal of assembling an autonomous protocell from its most basic molecular building blocks, we further suggest that a systems integrative strategy should be considered from the earliest synthetic steps, already at the level of monomer precursors, opening the way to biogenesis. PMID:25983045

  12. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants.

    PubMed

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D

    2013-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Four bacterial strains, designated as ALT3A, ALT3B, ALT17, and MR1, produced inhibitory effects on growth of LAB. Sequencing of rRNA identified these strains as species of Bacillus subtilis (ALT3A and ALT3B) and B. cereus (ALT17 and MR1). Cell mass from colonies and agar samples from inhibition zones were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The spectra of ALT3A and ALT3B showed a strong signal at m/z 1,060, similar in mass to the surfactin family of antimicrobial lipopeptides. ALT3A and ALT3B were analyzed by zymogram analysis using SDS-PAGE gels placed on agar plates inoculated with LAB. Cell lysates possessed an inhibitory protein of less than 10 kDa, consistent with the production of an antibacterial lipopeptide. Mass spectra of ALT17 and MR1 had notable signals at m/z 908 and 930 in the whole cell extracts and at m/z 687 in agar, but these masses do not correlate with those of previously reported antibacterial lipopeptides, and no antibacterial activity was detected by zymogram. The antibacterial activities produced by these strains may have application in the fuel ethanol industry as an alternative to antibiotics for prevention and control of bacterial contamination.

  13. DNA Damage Response Factors from Diverse Pathways, Including DNA Crosslink Repair, Mediate Alternative End Joining

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Sean M.; Yanez, Diana A.; Stark, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative end joining (Alt-EJ) chromosomal break repair involves bypassing classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ), and such repair causes mutations often with microhomology at the repair junction. Since the mediators of Alt-EJ are not well understood, we have sought to identify DNA damage response (DDR) factors important for this repair event. Using chromosomal break reporter assays, we surveyed an RNAi library targeting known DDR factors for siRNAs that cause a specific decrease in Alt-EJ, relative to an EJ event that is a composite of Alt-EJ and c-NHEJ (Distal-EJ between two tandem breaks). From this analysis, we identified several DDR factors that are specifically important for Alt-EJ relative to Distal-EJ. While these factors are from diverse pathways, we also found that most of them also promote homologous recombination (HR), including factors important for DNA crosslink repair, such as the Fanconi Anemia factor, FANCA. Since bypass of c-NHEJ is likely important for both Alt-EJ and HR, we disrupted the c-NHEJ factor Ku70 in Fanca-deficient mouse cells and found that Ku70 loss significantly diminishes the influence of Fanca on Alt-EJ. In contrast, an inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) causes a decrease in Alt-EJ that is enhanced by Ku70 loss. Additionally, the helicase/nuclease DNA2 appears to have distinct effects from FANCA and PARP on both Alt-EJ, as well as end resection. Finally, we found that the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a cancer therapeutic that has been shown to disrupt FANC signaling, causes a significant reduction in both Alt-EJ and HR, relative to Distal-EJ, as well as a substantial loss of end resection. We suggest that several distinct DDR functions are important for Alt-EJ, which include promoting bypass of c-NHEJ and end resection. PMID:25629353

  14. 78 FR 8985 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in Statistical Area 620 in the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), February 4, 2013, through 1200 hrs, A.l.t., March 10, 2013. FOR... for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012) and inseason adjustment (78 FR 267, January 3... recent, relevant data only became available as of February 3, 2013. The AA also finds good cause to...

  15. The Education and Training of Learning Technologists: A Competences Approach (Report to IEEE Technical Committee on Learning Technologies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Kinshuk; Koper, Rob; Okamoto, Toshio; Spector, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The educational and training requirements of Advanced Learning Technology (ALT) need to engage with curricula that reflect the varied requirements of the workplace and of society. Students have a range of interests and ambitions in ALT which the instructional process has to accommodate and support. With these considerations in mind the IEEE…

  16. Effects of Computer-Based Early-Reading Academic Learning Time on Early-Reading Achievement: A Dose-Response Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuston, Edward Benjamin Hull

    2010-01-01

    Academic learning time (ALT) has long had the theoretical underpinnings sufficient to claim a causal relationship with academic achievement, but to this point empirical evidence has been lacking. This dearth of evidence has existed primarily due to difficulties associated with operationalizing ALT in traditional educational settings. Recent…

  17. 78 FR 66105 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    .... CALLE QUIROS, Luis Santiago, Madrid, Spain; Lima, Peru; DOB 22 Jul 1965; POB Madrid, Spain; citizen Spain; alt. citizen Peru; D.N.I. 01927713-Z (Spain); alt. D.N.I. 10831176-8 (Peru) (individual) (Linked To: TEXTIMAX SPAIN S.L.; Linked To: CASTIZAL MADRILENA S.L.; Linked To: INMOBILIARIA CASTIZAL...

  18. Hepatitis C virus-infected patients with a persistently normal alanine aminotransferase: do they exist and is this really a group with mild disease?

    PubMed

    Lawson, A

    2010-01-01

    Opinion varies on whether or not hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients with persistently normal aminotransferase (PNALT) levels represent a group with mild disease. To evaluate the risk of ALT flare and fibrosis progression in patients with PNALT followed up as part of the Trent HCV cohort. Treatment-naïve patients with an elevated ALT (n = 1140) or PNALT, the latter defined as either an ALT < or = 30 IU/L (n = 43) or an ALT < or = 40 IU/L (n = 87) on > or =2 occasions in the 6 months following diagnosis, and no ALT > 40 U/L were included. The likelihood of maintaining a PNALT < or = 30 IU/L was 42.2% and PNALT < or = 40 IU/L 41.7% at 3 years. The Ishak fibrosis score was > or =3 in 3.7%, 8.3% and 29.6% of patients with PNALT < or = 30 IU/L, PNALT < or = 40 IU/L and elevated ALT, respectively. Fibrosis progression between paired biopsies was similar for patients with PNALT < or = 30 IU/L (0.33 +/- 0.94 Ishak fibrosis points/year), PNALT < or = 40 IU/L (0.35 +/- 0.82) and elevated ALT (0.19 +/- 0.48). The majority of those defined as PNALT subsequently have an abnormal ALT. They have a similar risk of disease progression to other HCV infected patients and, therefore, warrant the same consideration with regard to treatment. PMID:19656289

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Alternanthera mosaic virus, Isolated from Achyranthes bidentata in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Yusa, Akira; Nishida, Shuko; Tanno, Kazuyuki; Keima, Takuya; Nijo, Takamichi; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) infecting Achyranthes bidentata was first detected in Asia, and the complete genome sequence (6,604 nucleotides) was determined. Sequence identity analysis and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that this isolate is the most phylogenetically distant AltMV isolate worldwide. PMID:26988034

  20. 78 FR 20390 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to the Foreign...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... INTERNACIONALES DEL ECUADOR NIDEGROUP S.A., Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador; c/o SNACK PARTY, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador.... 172101469-2 (Ecuador); Passport B716164 (Uruguay); alt. Passport C144880 (Uruguay); alt. Passport 02952296-8 (Uruguay) (individual) . Entity SNACK PARTY, Los Vinedos 19 y Venezuela, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador;...

  1. THE BINDING OF COCAINE TO CYCLODEXTRINS. (R826653)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Cocaine binds into alt="small beta, Greek" border=0>-cyclodextrin, but not detectably into alt="small alpha, Greek" border=...

  2. Space shuttle orbiter test flight series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, D.; Gordon, R.; Jackson, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed studies on the space shuttle orbiter test taxi runs and captive flight tests were set forth. The orbiter test flights, the approach and landing tests (ALT), and the ground vibration tests were cited. Free flight plans, the space shuttle ALT crews, and 747 carrier aircraft crew were considered.

  3. 76 FR 33809 - Amendment and Update to the Entry for an Individual Named in the Annex to Executive Order 13219...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... amended: Karadzic, Luka; DOB 31 April 1951; POB Savnik, Serbia and Montenegro (individual) . The proposed... Vukotica Street No 24, Rastoci, Municipality of Niksic, Montenegro; DOB 31 July 1951; alt. DOB 1 July 1951; POB Savnik, Serbia and Montenegro; alt. POB Petnic, Serbia and Montenegro (individual) Dated: June...

  4. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... FR 11778, March 12, 2010), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., June 10, 2010, through 1200 hrs, A.l.t... specifications for Pacific cod included in the final harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR... unused amount of Pacific cod from trawl catcher vessels to catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3...

  5. Flu I.Q. Widget

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/images/campaigns/seasonalflu/flu0913-Winter-150x172.gif" style="width:150px; height:172px; border:0px;" alt="The ... gov/images/campaigns/seasonalflu/flu0913-Fall-150x172.gif" style="width:150px; height:172px; border:0px;" alt="The ...

  6. 75 FR 77044 - Blocking of Specially Designated National Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ..., Felicien (a.k.a. IRAKEZA, Fred); DOB 1967; POB Murama, Kinyinya, Rubungo, Kigali, Rwanda; nationality Rwanda; Lt. Col. (individual) 2. ZIMURINDA, Innocent; DOB 1 Sep 1972; alt. DOB 1975; POB Ngungu, Masisi... District (Northern Province), Rwanda; alt. POB Nyakinama, Ruhengeri, Rwanda; FDLR President; FDLR 2nd...

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis A viral RNA and antibodies among Chinese blood donors.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Su, N; Lin, F Z; Ma, L; Wang, H J; Rong, X; Dai, Y D; Li, J; Jian, Z W; Tang, L H; Xiao, W; Li, C Q

    2015-12-09

    Like other developing countries, China was reported to have a relatively high seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis A antibodies (anti-HAV). However, no studies have evaluated the prevalence of anti-HAV and HAV RNA among voluntary blood donors with or without elevated serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Anti-HAV antibodies were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was carried out for detection of HAV RNA. In the current study, we analyzed a total of 450 serum samples with elevated ALT levels (≥40 U/L) and 278 serum samples with non-elevated ALT levels. Seroprevalence rates of anti-HAV were 51.6% in donors with elevated ALT and 41.4% in donors with non-elevated ALT; however, none of the samples was positive for HAV RNA. The results of our study showed lower seroprevalence rates of anti-HAV in blood donors (irrespective of ALT levels) than those in published data on Chinese populations. Although donors with elevated ALT had statistically higher prevalence rates of anti- HAV than did those with non-elevated ALT, none of the serum samples had detectable levels of the active virus. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the transmission of hepatitis A by blood transfusion will occur rarely.

  8. 78 FR 16617 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... season will open 1200 hours, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), March 23, 2013, and will close 1200 hours, A.l.t... the International Pacific Halibut Commission. The IFQ and CDQ halibut season is specified by a... Federal Register, November 9, 1993 (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement...

  9. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... season will open 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), March 17, 2012, and will close 1200 hrs, A.l.t... the International Pacific Halibut Commission. The IFQ and CDQ halibut season is specified by a... Federal Register, November 9, 1993 (58 FR 59375) and subsequent amendments. This announcement...

  10. RHODIUM CATALYZED CONJUGATED ADDITION OF UNSATURATED CARBONYL COMPOUNDS BY TRIPHENYLBISMUTH IN AQUEOUS MEDIA AND UNDER AN AIR ATMOSPHERE. (R822668)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    In the presence of a rhodium catalyst, alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>,alt="small beta, Greek" border=0>-unsaturated est...

  11. Neural correlate of autistic-like traits and a common allele in the oxytocin receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuki; Suga, Motomu; Tochigi, Mamoru; Abe, Osamu; Yahata, Noriaki; Kawakubo, Yuki; Liu, Xiaoxi; Kawamura, Yoshiya; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-10-01

    Sub-clinical autistic-like traits (ALTs) are continuously distributed in the general population and genetically linked to autism. Although identifying the neurogenetic backgrounds of ALTs might enhance our ability to identify those of autism, they are largely unstudied. Here, we have examined the neuroanatomical basis of ALTs and their association with the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) rs2254298A, a known risk allele for autism in Asian populations which has also been implicated in limbic-paralimbic brain structures. First, we extracted a four-factor structure of ALTs, as measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, including 'prosociality', 'communication', 'details/patterns' and 'imagination' in 135 neurotypical adults (79 men, 56 women) to reduce the genetic heterogeneity of ALTs. Then, in the same population, voxel-based morphometry revealed that lower 'prosociality', which indicates strong ALTs, was significantly correlated to smaller regional grey matter volume in the right insula in males. Males with lower 'prosociality' also had less interregional structural coupling between the right insula and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, males with OXTR rs2254298A had significantly smaller grey matter volume in the right insula. These results show that decreased volume of the insula is a neuroanatomical correlate of ALTs and a potential intermediate phenotype linking ALTs with OXTR in male subjects.

  12. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--National Alternative High School Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steven A.; Ross, James G.; Gowda, Vani R.; Collins, Janet L.; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    1999-01-01

    The Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), which monitors six categories of health risk behaviors among youth and young adults. The 1998 ALT-YRBS measured priority health risk behaviors among students at alternative high schools. It used a three-stage…

  13. 78 FR 36302 - Designation of Four (4) Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 of September 23, 2001...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...) (individual) . 3. FAWAZ, Abbas Loutfe (a.k.a. FAWWAZ, 'Abbas Abu-Ahmad; a.k.a. FOUAZ, Abbas), Dakar, Senegal; DOB 07 Aug 1978; POB Jwaya, Lebanon; alt. POB Dakar, Senegal; citizen Lebanon; alt. citizen Senegal; Personal ID Card 096574S (Senegal) (individual) . 4. KHANAFER, Hicham Nmer (a.k.a. KANAFER, Hicham;...

  14. NEW METABOLITES FROM THE MICROBIAL OXIDATION OF FLUORINATED AROMATIC COMPOUNDS. (R826113)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    m-Bromo-alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>,alt="small alpha, Greek" border=0>,Apparent life-threatening event in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee Joung

    2016-01-01

    An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as the combination of clinical presentations such as apnea, marked change in skin and muscle tone, gagging, or choking. It is a frightening event, and it predominantly occurs during infancy at a mean age of 1–3 months. The causes of ALTE are categorized into problems that are: gastrointestinal (50%), neurological (30%), respiratory (20%), cardiovascular (5%), metabolic and endocrine (2%–5%), or others such as child abuse. Up to 50% of ALTEs are idiopathic, where the cause cannot be diagnosed. Infants with an ALTE are often asymptomatic at hospital and there is no standard workup protocol for ALTE. Therefore, a detailed initial history and physical examination are important to determine the extent of the medical evaluation and treatment. Regardless of the cause of an ALTE, all infants with an ALTE should require hospitalization and continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring and evaluation for at least 24 hours. The natural course of ALTEs has seemed benign, and the outcome is generally associated with the affected infants' underlying disease. In conclusion, systemic diagnostic evaluation and adequate treatment increases the survival and quality of life for most affected infants. PMID:27721838

  15. Telomere maintenance through recruitment of internal genomic regions

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Beomseok; Kim, Chuna; Hills, Mark; Sung, Sanghyun; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Eunkyeong; Lim, Daisy S.; Oh, Hyun-Seok; Choi, Rachael Mi Jung; Chun, Jongsik; Shim, Jaegal; Lee, Junho

    2015-01-01

    Cells surviving crisis are often tumorigenic and their telomeres are commonly maintained through the reactivation of telomerase. However, surviving cells occasionally activate a recombination-based mechanism called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). Here we establish stably maintained survivors in telomerase-deleted Caenorhabditis elegans that escape from sterility by activating ALT. ALT survivors trans-duplicate an internal genomic region, which is already cis-duplicated to chromosome ends, across the telomeres of all chromosomes. These ‘Template for ALT' (TALT) regions consist of a block of genomic DNA flanked by telomere-like sequences, and are different between two genetic background. We establish a model that an ancestral duplication of a donor TALT region to a proximal telomere region forms a genomic reservoir ready to be incorporated into telomeres on ALT activation. PMID:26382656

  16. Antibiotic lock therapy: review of technique and logistical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic lock therapy (ALT) for the prevention and treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections is a simple strategy in theory, yet its real-world application may be delayed or avoided due to technical questions and/or logistical challenges. This review focuses on these latter aspects of ALT, including preparation information for a variety of antibiotic lock solutions (ie, aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, folate antagonists, glycopeptides, glycylcyclines, lipopeptides, oxazolidinones, polymyxins, and tetracyclines) and common clinical issues surrounding ALT administration. Detailed data regarding concentrations, additives, stability/compatibility, and dwell times are summarized. Logistical challenges such as lock preparation procedures, use of additives (eg, heparin, citrate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), timing of initiation and therapy duration, optimal dwell time and catheter accessibility, and risks of ALT are also described. Development of local protocols is recommended in order to avoid these potential barriers and encourage utilization of ALT where appropriate. PMID:25548523

  17. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-05-01

    Active layer thickness (ALT), the uppermost layer of soil that thaws on an annual basis, is a direct control on the amount of organic carbon potentially available for decomposition and release to the atmosphere as carbon-rich Arctic permafrost soils thaw in a warming climate. We investigate how key site characteristics affect ALT using an integrated surface/subsurface permafrost thermal hydrology model. ALT is most sensitive to organic layer thickness followed by snow depth but is relatively insensitive to the amount of water on the landscape with other conditions held fixed. The weak ALT sensitivity to subsurface saturation suggests that changes in Arctic landscape hydrology may only have a minor effect on future ALT. However, surface inundation amplifies the sensitivities to the other parameters and under large snowpacks can trigger the formation of near-surface taliks.

  18. Influences and interactions of inundation, peat, and snow on active layer thickness

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Atchley, Adam L.; Coon, Ethan T.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Wilson, Cathy J.

    2016-05-18

    The effect of three environmental conditions: 1) thickness of organic soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content or water table height above and below the soil surface, on active layer thickness (ALT) are investigated using an ensemble of 1D thermal hydrology models. Sensitivity analyses of the ensemble exposed the isolated influence of each environmental condition on ALT and their multivariate interactions. The primary and interactive influences are illustrated in the form of color maps of ALT change. Results show that organic layer acts as a strong insulator, and its thickness is the dominant control of ALT, but themore » strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is dependent on the saturation state. Snow depth, subsurface saturation, and ponded water depth are strongly codependent and positively correlated to ALT.« less

  19. Association between Serum Uric Acid and Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Sun, Guozhe; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both the serum uric acid (SUA) level and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are related to metabolic syndrome. However, the association between SUA and elevated ALT has not been elucidated in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between SUA and elevated ALT in the general population of China; Methods: A total of 11,572 adults (≥35 years of age) participated in this survey. Elevated ALT was defined as >40 U/L. SUA ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in males or ≥6.0 mg/dL in females was defined as hyperuricemia. SUA within the reference range was divided into quartiles, and its associations with elevated ALT were evaluated by logistic regressions; Results: A total of 7.4% participants had elevated ALT. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.9% in males and 7.3% in females. There was a significantly positive dose-response association between SUA levels and the prevalence of elevated ALT. After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive relationship for elevated ALT was observed in subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio [OR]: 2.032, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.443–2.861 for men; OR: 2.045, 95% CI: 1.221–3.425 for women, both p < 0.05). Within the reference range, the association between SUA and elevated ALT persisted in the fourth quartile (OR: 1.467, 95% CI: 1.063–2.025 for men; OR: 1.721, 95% CI: 1.146–2.585 for women, both p < 0.05); Conclusions: Our results indicated that an increased SUA level, even within the reference range, was independently associated with elevated ALT in Chinese adults. PMID:27563918

  1. Relationships between serum aminotransferase levels, liver histologies and virological status in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Luo, J C; Hwang, S J; Lai, C R; Lu, C L; Li, C P; Tsay, S H; Wu, J C; Chang, F Y; Lee, S D

    1998-07-01

    In patients with chronic hepatitis C, the relationships between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, histological liver injury and serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA titres remain controversial. To evaluate these relationships, 93 Chinese patients with histological diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C were enrolled for this study. Serum ALT levels, HCV-RNA titres and HCV genotypes were examined. The histology was evaluated according to a modified histological activity score based on the degree of periportal necro-inflammation, intralobular necro-inflammation, portal inflammation, total necro-inflammation and fibrosis. The mean serum ALT level was significantly higher in patients with severe intralobular necro-inflammation activity than in patients with mild or no activity (P = 0.013). However, scores of intralobular activity were only weakly correlated with serum ALT levels (r = 0.27) and could not be used to adequately predict ALT values. Serum ALT levels showed no significant correlation with the scores of portal inflammation, periportal necro-inflammation, total necro-inflammation and fibrosis. Also, there was no significant difference in the mean serum ALT level among different serum HCV-RNA levels and HCV genotypes. Serum HCV-RNA titres and genotypes showed no significant correlation with liver histology and serum HCV-RNA titres were only weakly correlated with the total necro-inflammatory score (r = 0.27). In conclusion, although serum ALT levels were higher in patients with more severe intralobular necro-inflammatory activity, the correlation was not strong enough to adequately predict ALT values. Serum HCV-RNA titres and genotypes also showed no significant correlation with serum ALT levels and liver histologies.

  2. Plasma Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the First Trimester Identify High Risk Chinese Women for Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Junhong; Zhang, Cuiping; Wang, Peng; Li, Nan; Li, Weiqin; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Ma, Ronald CW; Chan, Juliana CN; Yang, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) predicts type 2 diabetes but it is uncertain whether it also predicts gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We recruited 17359 Chinese women with ALT measured in their first trimester. At 24–28 weeks of gestation, all women underwent a 50-gram 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by a 75-gram 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test if GCT result was ≥7.8 mmol/L. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used to examine full-range risk associations of ALT levels with GDM. Relative excess risk due to interaction, attributable proportion due to interaction and synergy index were used to estimate additive interaction between high ALT and overweight/obesity for GDM. Finally, 1332 (7.7%) women had GDM. ALT levels were positively associated with GDM risk without a clear threshold. Using ALT levels <22 U/L as the referent, the middle ALT levels (≥22 to <40 U/L) [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals): 1.41(1.21–1.65)] and high ALT levels (≥40 U/L) [1.62 (1.31–2.00)] were associated with increased GDM risk. Maternal overweight/obesity greatly enhanced the OR of ALT ≥22 U/L from 1.44 (1.23–1.69) to 3.46 (2.79–4.29) with significant additive interactions. In conclusion, elevated ALT levels in the first trimester even within normal range predicted GDM risk, further enhanced by overweight/obesity. PMID:27264612

  3. Carbohydrate supplementation improves time-trial cycle performance during energy deficit at 4,300-m altitude.

    PubMed

    Fulco, C S; Kambis, K W; Friedlander, A L; Rock, P B; Muza, S R; Cymerman, A

    2005-09-01

    Carbohydrate supplementation (CHOS) typically improves prolonged time-trial (TT) performance at sea level (SL). This study determined whether CHOS also improves TT performance at high altitude (ALT; 4,300 M) despite increased hypoxemia and while in negative energy balance (approximately 1,250 kcal/day). Two groups of fasting, fitness-matched men performed a 720-kJ cycle TT at SL and while living at ALT on days 3 (ALT3) and 10 (ALT10). Eight men drank a 10% carbohydrate solution (0.175 g/kg body wt) and eight drank a placebo (PLA; double blind) at the start of and every 15 min of the TT. Blood glucose during each TT was higher (P < 0.05) for CHOS than for PLA. At SL, TT duration (approximately 59 min) and watts (approximately 218 or approximately 61% of peak watts; %SL Wpeak) were similar for both groups. At ALT, the TT was longer for both groups (P < 0.01) but was shorter for CHOS than for PLA on ALT3 (means +/- SE: 80 +/- 7 vs. 105 +/- 9 min; P < 0.01) and ALT10 (77 +/- 7 vs. 90 +/- 5 min; P < 0.01). At ALT, %SL Wpeak was reduced (P < 0.01) with the reduction on ALT3 being larger for PLA (to 33 +/- 3%) than for CHOS (to 43 +/- 2%; P < 0.05). On ALT3, O2 saturation fell similarly from 84 +/- 2% at rest to 73 +/- 1% during the TT for both groups (P < 0.05), and on ALT10 O2 saturation fell more (P < 0.02) for CHOS (91 +/- 1 to 76 +/- 2%) than for PLA (90 +/- 1 to 81 +/- 1%). %SL Wpeak and O2 saturation were inversely related during the TT for both groups at ALT (r > or = -0.76; P < or = 0.03). It was concluded that, despite hypoxemia exacerbated by exercise, CHOS greatly improved TT performance at ALT in which there was a negative energy balance.

  4. Special Issue: Very large eddy simulation. Issue Edited by Dimitris Drikakis.Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My Profile

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    Volume 39, Issue 9, Pages 763-864(30 July 2002)

    Research Article

    Embedded turbulence model in numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drikakis, D.

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the use of numerical methods for hyperbolic conservation laws as an embedded turbulence modelling approach. Different Godunov-type schemes are utilized in computations of Burgers' turbulence and a two-dimensional mixing layer. The schemes include a total variation diminishing, characteristic-based scheme which is developed in this paper using the flux limiter approach. The embedded turbulence modelling property of the above methods is demonstrated through coarsely resolved large eddy simulations with and without subgrid scale models. Copyright

  5. Special Issue: Tenth International Conference on Finite Elements in Fluids, Tucson, Arizona.Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My Profile

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    Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-406(15 September 1999)

    Preface

    Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oden, J. T.; Prudhomme, S.

    1999-09-01

    We present a new approach to deliver reliable approximations of the norm of the residuals resulting from finite element solutions to the Stokes and Oseen equations. The method is based upon a global solve in a bubble space using iterative techniques. This provides an alternative to the classical equilibrated element residual methods for which it is necessary to construct proper boundary conditions for each local problem. The method is first used to develop a global a posteriori error estimator. It is then applied in a strategy to control the numerical error in specific outputs or quantities of interest which are functions of the solutions to the Stokes and Oseen equations. Copyright

  6. Special Issue: Tenth International Congress on Numerical Methods in Laminar and Turbulent Flow. Issue Edited by Esteban Saatdjian.Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Save Title to My Profile

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    Volume 29, Issue 7, Pages 735-895(15 April 1999)

    Preface

    Tenth international congress on numerical methods in laminar and turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamuro, Takaji; Yoshino, Masato; Ogino, Fumimaru

    1999-04-01

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the fifteen-velocity model is applied to simulations of isothermal flows in a three-dimensional porous structure. A periodic boundary condition with a pressure difference at the inlet and outlet is presented. Flow characteristics at a pore scale and pressure drops through the porous structure are calculated for various Reynolds numbers. It is found that at high Reynolds numbers, unsteady vortices appear behind bodies and the flow field becomes time-dependent. Calculated pressure drops through the structure are compared with well-known empirical equations based on experimental data. The results agree well with the Blake-Kozeny equation for low Reynolds numbers and with the Ergun equation for high Reynolds numbers. Copyright

  7. Volume 10, Issue 11-12© 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag Berlin GmbH, Fed. Rep. of GermanySave Title to My Profile

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    Volume 10, Issue 11-12, Pages 887-984(November 2001)

    Original Paper

    Imaging of atomic orbitals with the Atomic Force Microscope - experiments and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessibl, F. J.; Bielefeldt, H.; Hembacher, S.; Mannhart, J.

    2001-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a mechanical profiling technique that allows to image surfaces with atomic resolution. Recent progress in reducing the noise of this technique has led to a resolution level where previously undetectable symmetries of the images of single atoms are observed. These symmetries are related to the nature of the interatomic forces. The Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface is studied by AFM with various tips and AFM images are simulated with chemical and electrostatic model forces. The calculation of images from the tip-sample forces is explained in detail and the implications of the imaging parameters are discussed. Because the structure of the Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface is known very well, the shape of the adatom images is used to determine the tip structure. The observability of atomic orbitals by AFM and scanning tunneling microscopy is discussed.

  8. Volume 51, Issue 7-8Copyright © 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, WeinheimSave Title to My Profile

    alt="E-Mail" title="E-Mail This Page" />alt="Print" title="Print This Page" />

    Volume 51, Issue 7-8, Pages 639-896(July 2003)

    Preface

    Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, O.

    2003-07-01

    We briefly review a possible scheme for getting the known QCD scaling laws within string theory. In particular, we consider amplitudes for exclusive scattering of hadrons at large momentum transfer and hadronic form factors.

  9. Estimating Active Layer Thickness from Remotely Sensed Surface Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K. M.; Zhang, T.; Wahr, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    We estimate active layer thickness (ALT) from remotely sensed surface subsidence during thawing seasons derived from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) measurements. Ground ice takes up more volume than ground water, so as the soil thaws in summer and the active layer deepens, the ground subsides. The volume of melted ground water during the summer thaw determines seasonal subsidence. ALT is defined as the maximum thaw depth at the end of a thawing season. By using InSAR to measure surface subsidence between the start and end of summer season, one can estimate the depth of thaw over a large area (typically 100 km by 100 km). We developed an ALT retrieval algorithm integrating InSAR-derived surface subsidence, observed soil texture, organic matter content, and moisture content. We validated this algorithm in the continuous permafrost area on the North Slope of Alaska. Based on InSAR measurements using ERS-1/2 SAR data, our estimated values match in situ measurements of ALT within 1--10 cm at Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites within the study area. The active layer plays a key role in land surface processes in cold regions. Current measurements of ALT using mechanical probing, frost/thaw tubes, or inferred from temperature measurements are of high quality, but limited in spatial coverage. Using InSAR to estimate ALT greatly expands the spatial coverage of ALT observations.

  10. Algorithmic approach to lower abdominal, perineal, and groin reconstruction using anterolateral thigh flaps.

    PubMed

    Zelken, Jonathan A; AlDeek, Nidal F; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Chang, Nai-Jen; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Hung

    2016-02-01

    Lower abdominal, perineal, and groin (LAPG) reconstruction may be performed in a single stage. Anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps are preferred here and taken as fasciocutaneous (ALT-FC), myocutaneous (ALT-MC), or vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC) flaps. We aim to present the results of reconstruction from a series of patients and guide flap selection with an algorithmic approach to LAPG reconstruction that optimizes outcomes and minimizes morbidity. Lower abdomen, groin, perineum, vulva, vagina, scrotum, and bladder wounds reconstructed in 22 patients using ALT flaps between 2000 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. Five ALT-FC, eight ALT-MC, and nine VL-MC flaps were performed. All flaps survived. Venous congestion occurred in three VL-MC flaps from mechanical cause. Wound infection occurred in six cases. Urinary leak occurred in three cases of bladder reconstruction. One patient died from congestive heart failure. The ALT flap is time tested and dependably addresses most LAPG defects; flap variations are suited for niche defects. We propose a novel algorithm to guide reconstructive decision-making.

  11. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Katharina I.; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT.

  12. Effects of ventromedial and lateral hypothalamic stimulation on chemically-induced liver injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, M.; Shimazu, T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of hypothalamic stimulation on experimental liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCL/sub 4/) or dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) were studied in rats, by measuring plasma alanine amino-transferase (ALT) activity as an index of acute liver injury. Electrical stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VHM) in CCl/sub 4/-treated rats caused a marked increase in plasma ALT activity, accompanied by a significant decrease in ALT activity in the liver, although CCl4 treatment alone had no significant effect on plasma ALT activity. A similar effect of VHM stimulation on plasma ALT activity was observed in rats treated with DMN, another hepatotoxic chemical. No such exaggerated effect of VMH stimulation on plasma ALT activity was observed after stimulation of the lateral hypothalamic area (LH). Surgical sympathetic denervation of the liver greatly suppressed the increase in plasma ALT activity after CCl/sub 4/ injection and VMH stimulation. Measurement of regional blood flow indicated that VMH stimulation did not produce a significant change in blood flow to the liver. These results suggest that the VMH is involved in the progress of chemically-induced liver injury through activation of the sympathetic nerve, possibly by affecting liver metabolism more than the blood flow change to the liver.

  13. Phosphorylation inhibits DNA-binding of alternatively spliced aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator

    SciTech Connect

    Kewley, Robyn J. . E-mail: rkewley@csu.edu.au; Whitelaw, Murray L.

    2005-12-09

    The basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM homology (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) is a key component of various pathways which induce the transcription of cytochrome P450 and hypoxia response genes. ARNT can be alternatively spliced to express Alt ARNT, containing an additional 15 amino acids immediately N-terminal to the DNA-binding basic region. Here, we show that ARNT and Alt ARNT proteins are differentially phosphorylated by protein kinase CKII in vitro. Phosphorylation had an inhibitory effect on DNA-binding to an E-box probe by Alt ARNT, but not ARNT, homodimers. This inhibitory phosphorylation occurs through Ser77. Moreover, a point mutant, Alt ARNT S77A, shows increased activity on an E-box reporter gene, consistent with Ser77 being a regulatory site in vivo. In contrast, DNA binding by an Alt ARNT/dioxin receptor heterodimer to the xenobiotic response element is not inhibited by phosphorylation with CKII, nor does Alt ARNT S77A behave differently from wild type Alt ARNT in the context of a dioxin receptor heterodimer.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and biocompatibility of alternating block polyurethanes based on PLA and PEG.

    PubMed

    Mei, Tingzhen; Zhu, Yonghe; Ma, Tongcui; He, Tao; Li, Linjing; Wei, Chiju; Xu, Kaitian

    2014-09-01

    A series of alternating block polyurethanes (abbreviated as PULA-alt-PEG) and random block polyurethanes (abbreviated as PULA-ran-PEG) based on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were synthesized. The differences of PULA-alt/ran-PEG chemical structure, molecular weight, distribution, thermal properties, mechanical properties and static contact angle were systematically investigated. The PULA-alt/ran-PEG polyurethanes exhibited low T(g) (-47.3 ∼ -34.4°C), wide mechanical properties (stress σ(t): 4.6-32.6 MPa, modulus E: 11.4-323.9 MPa and strain ε: 468-1530%) and low water contact angle (35.4-51.4°). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that PULA-alt-PEG film displays rougher and more patterned surface morphology than PULA-ran-PEG does, due to more regular structures of PULA-alt-PEG. Hydrolytic degradation shows that degradation rate of random block polyurethane series PULA-ran-PEG is higher than the alternating counterpart PULA-alt-PEG. PLA segment degradation is faster than urethane linkage and PEG segment almost does not degrade in the buffer solution. Platelet adhesion study showed that all the polyurethanes possess excellent hemocompatibility. The cell culture assay revealed that PULA-alt/ran-PEG polyurethanes were cell inert and unfavorable for the attachment of rat glial cell due to the hydrophilic characters of the materials.

  15. Telomere elongation chooses TERRA ALTernatives.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rajika; Azzalin, Claus M

    2015-01-01

    Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) mechanisms allow telomerase-negative immortal cells to buffer replicative telomere shortening. ALT is naturally active in a number of human cancers and might be selected upon telomerase inactivation. ALT is thought to operate through homologous recombination (HR) occurring between telomeric repeats from independent chromosome ends. Indeed, suppression of a number of HR factors impairs ALT cell proliferation. Yet, how HR is initiated at ALT telomeres remains elusive. Mounting evidence suggests that the long noncoding telomeric RNA TERRA renders ALT telomeres recombinogenic by forming RNA:DNA hybrids with the telomeric C-rich strand. TERRA and telomeric hybrids act in concert with a number of other factors, including the RNA endoribonuclease RNaseH1 and the single stranded DNA binding protein RPA. The functional interaction network built upon these different players seems indispensable for ALT telomere maintenance, and digging into the molecular details of this previously unappreciated network might open the way to novel avenues for cancer treatments.

  16. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Katharina I; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT. PMID:27602331

  17. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Katharina I.; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT. PMID:27602331

  18. Stress-Induced Isoforms of MDM2 and MDM4 Correlate with High-Grade Disease and an Altered Splicing Network in Pediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma12

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Aishwarya G; O'Brien, Dennis; Singh, Ravi K; Comiskey, Daniel F; Littleton, Robert M; Mohammad, Fuad; Gladman, Jordan T; Widmann, Maria C; Jeyaraj, Selvi C; Bolinger, Cheryl; Anderson, James R; Barkauskas, Donald A; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen; Chandler, Dawn S

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a morphologically and genetically heterogeneous malignancy commonly classified into three histologic subtypes, namely, alveolar, embryonal, and anaplastic. An issue that continues to challenge effective RMS patient prognosis is the dearth of molecular markers predictive of disease stage irrespective of tumor subtype. Our study involving a panel of 70 RMS tumors has identified specific alternative splice variants of the oncogenes Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2) and MDM4 as potential biomarkers for RMS. Our results have demonstrated the strong association of genotoxic-stress inducible splice forms MDM2-ALT1 (91.6% Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group stage 4 tumors) and MDM4-ALT2 (90.9% MDM4-ALT2-positive T2 stage tumors) with high-risk metastatic RMS. Moreover, MDM2-ALT1-positive metastatic tumors belonged to both the alveolar (50%) and embryonal (41.6%) subtypes, making this the first known molecular marker for high-grade metastatic disease across the most common RMS subtypes. Furthermore, our results show that MDM2-ALT1 expression can function by directly contribute to metastatic behavior and promote the invasion of RMS cells through a matrigel-coated membrane. Additionally, expression of both MDM2-ALT1 and MDM4-ALT2 increased anchorage-independent cell-growth in soft agar assays. Intriguingly, we observed a unique coordination in the splicing of MDM2-ALT1 and MDM4-ALT2 in approximately 24% of tumor samples in a manner similar to genotoxic stress response in cell lines. To further explore splicing network alterations with possible relevance to RMS disease, we used an exon microarray approach to examine stress-inducible splicing in an RMS cell line (Rh30) and observed striking parallels between stress-responsive alternative splicing and constitutive splicing in RMS tumors. PMID:24027430

  19. Upper Limits of Normal for Alanine Aminotransferase Activity in the United States Population

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Constance E.; Everhart, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Rationale Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an important test for liver disease, yet there is no generally accepted upper limit of normal (ULN) in the United States. Furthermore, the ability of ALT to differentiate persons with and without liver disease is uncertain. We examined cut-offs for ALT for their ability to discriminate between persons with positive hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and those at low risk for liver injury in the U.S. population. Methods Among adult participants in the 1999–2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 259 were positive for serum HCV RNA and 3,747 were at low risk for liver injury (negative HCV RNA and hepatitis B surface antigen, low alcohol consumption, no evidence of diabetes, normal body mass index and waist circumference). Serum ALT activity was measured centrally. Results Maximum correct classification was achieved at ALT=29 IU/L for men (88% sensitivity, 83% specificity) and 22 (89% sensitivity, 82% specificity) for women. The cut-off for 95% sensitivity was an ALT=24 IU/L (70% specificity) for men and 18 (63% specificity) for women. The cut-off for 95% specificity was an ALT=44 IU/L (64% sensitivity) for men and 32 (59% sensitivity) for women. The area under the curve was 0.929 for men and 0.915 for women. If the cut-offs with the best correct classification were applied to the entire population, 36.4% of men and 28.3% of women would have had abnormal ALT. Conclusion ALT discriminates persons infected with HCV from those at low risk of liver disease, but would be considered elevated in a large proportion of the U.S. population. PMID:21987480

  20. The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Thierry, Aaron; Charman, Dan J; Wolfe, Stephen A; Hartley, Iain P; Murton, Julian B; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-09-01

    Carbon release from thawing permafrost soils could significantly exacerbate global warming as the active-layer deepens, exposing more carbon to decay. Plant community and soil properties provide a major control on this by influencing the maximum depth of thaw each summer (active-layer thickness; ALT), but a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of plant and soil characteristics, and their interactions in determine ALTs, is currently lacking. To address this, we undertook an extensive survey of multiple vegetation and edaphic characteristics and ALTs across multiple plots in four field sites within boreal forest in the discontinuous permafrost zone (NWT, Canada). Our sites included mature black spruce, burned black spruce and paper birch, allowing us to determine vegetation and edaphic drivers that emerge as the most important and broadly applicable across these key vegetation and disturbance gradients, as well as providing insight into site-specific differences. Across sites, the most important vegetation characteristics limiting thaw (shallower ALTs) were tree leaf area index (LAI), moss layer thickness and understory LAI in that order. Thicker soil organic layers also reduced ALTs, though were less influential than moss thickness. Surface moisture (0-6 cm) promoted increased ALTs, whereas deeper soil moisture (11-16 cm) acted to modify the impact of the vegetation, in particular increasing the importance of understory or tree canopy shading in reducing thaw. These direct and indirect effects of moisture indicate that future changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration may have large influences on ALTs. Our work also suggests that forest fires cause greater ALTs by simultaneously decreasing multiple ecosystem characteristics which otherwise protect permafrost. Given that vegetation and edaphic characteristics have such clear and large influences on ALTs, our data provide a key benchmark against which to evaluate process models used to predict

  1. Strong similarities in seasonal concentration ratios of SO42, NO3 and NH4+ in precipitation between Sweden and the northeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Lars O.; Granat, Lennart; Likens, Gene E.; Rodhe, Henning

    1990-11-01

    We analyzed 21-year long records of precipitation chemistry from central Scandinavia and the north-eastern US to compare seasonal variations of three major pollutant ions, SO42alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">, NO3alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold"> and NH4+. Seasonal variations in concentrations of the individual ions were distinctly different between the two regions. However, despite these differences, we found strong and unexpected similarities between the two regions in seasonal variations of the concentration ratios NO3alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">/SO42alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">, NH4+/NO3alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold"> and NH4+/SO42alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">. A preliminary analysis suggests that these similarities are due to similarities between the two regions in chemical transformation and removal processes affecting SO42alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold"> and NO3alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold"> in the atmosphere, and to a coupling between NH4+ and SO42alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold"> aerosol in long-range transport. Ion ratios appear to be less sensitive to seasonal variations in SO2 and NOx emissions compared to individual ion concentrations.

  2. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine decorated polymeric nanoparticles for targeted delivery of doxorubicin: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baocheng; Ding, Yuanyuan; Han, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Han, Yuzhen; Han, Jingtian

    2015-06-01

    A novel targeting drug delivery system containing poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)58-b-polystyrene130 (P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130) as a copolymer backbone, N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) as a targeting moiety was designed and synthesized. The NAG grafted copolymer (NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130) was characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR. The NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles exhibited spherical shapes with an average diameter about 56.27±0.43 nm, low critical micelle concentration of 0.028 mg/mL, negative zeta potential -41.46±0.99 mV, high drug loading 25.83±1.09% and encapsulation efficiency 69.69±3.98%. In vitro cell cytotoxicity was conducted to confirm the safety of the NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM) results showed that the NAG targeting moiety enhanced the internalization and targeting ability of NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles. Anticancer activity toward MCF-7 cells and HT29 cells showed that DOX-loaded NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles exhibited a higher antitumor activity compared to DOX-loaded P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles, which could attribute to NAG receptor-mediated endocytosis. These results suggest that the biocompatible and non-toxic NAG-P(St-alt-MA)58-b-PSt130 nanoparticles may be used as an effective targeting drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  3. The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Fisher, James P; Estop-Aragonés, Cristian; Thierry, Aaron; Charman, Dan J; Wolfe, Stephen A; Hartley, Iain P; Murton, Julian B; Williams, Mathew; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2016-09-01

    Carbon release from thawing permafrost soils could significantly exacerbate global warming as the active-layer deepens, exposing more carbon to decay. Plant community and soil properties provide a major control on this by influencing the maximum depth of thaw each summer (active-layer thickness; ALT), but a quantitative understanding of the relative importance of plant and soil characteristics, and their interactions in determine ALTs, is currently lacking. To address this, we undertook an extensive survey of multiple vegetation and edaphic characteristics and ALTs across multiple plots in four field sites within boreal forest in the discontinuous permafrost zone (NWT, Canada). Our sites included mature black spruce, burned black spruce and paper birch, allowing us to determine vegetation and edaphic drivers that emerge as the most important and broadly applicable across these key vegetation and disturbance gradients, as well as providing insight into site-specific differences. Across sites, the most important vegetation characteristics limiting thaw (shallower ALTs) were tree leaf area index (LAI), moss layer thickness and understory LAI in that order. Thicker soil organic layers also reduced ALTs, though were less influential than moss thickness. Surface moisture (0-6 cm) promoted increased ALTs, whereas deeper soil moisture (11-16 cm) acted to modify the impact of the vegetation, in particular increasing the importance of understory or tree canopy shading in reducing thaw. These direct and indirect effects of moisture indicate that future changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration may have large influences on ALTs. Our work also suggests that forest fires cause greater ALTs by simultaneously decreasing multiple ecosystem characteristics which otherwise protect permafrost. Given that vegetation and edaphic characteristics have such clear and large influences on ALTs, our data provide a key benchmark against which to evaluate process models used to predict

  4. Enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidney of black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in plasma, liver, and kidney, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was measured in liver and kidney of black ducks (Anas rubripes). Activities of ALT, AST, GGT, and ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT) were assayed in plasma, liver, and kidney of game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Appreciable OCT and AST activity occurred in both liver and kidney. Activities of ALT, CPK, ALP and GGT were higher in kidney, while LDH was higher in liver, GGT was detected in plasma from one of four mallards.

  5. Transaminase Activity Predicts Survival in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Yukinori; Takemoto, Norihiko; Yasui, Toshimichi; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Uno, Atsuhiko; Miyabe, Haruka; Ashida, Naoki; Shimizu, Kotaro; Nakahara, Susumu; Hanamoto, Atshushi; Fukusumi, Takahito; Michiba, Takahiro; Cho, Hironori; Yamamoto, Masashi; Inohara, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Various serum biomarkers have been developed for predicting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) prognosis. However, none of them have been proven to be clinically significant. A recent study reported that the ratio of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) to alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) had a prognostic effect on non-metastatic cancers. This study aimed to examine the effect of the AST/ALT ratio on the survival of patients with HNSCC. Clinical data of 356 patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC were collected. The effect of the AST/ALT ratio on overall survival was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Moreover, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to divide the patients into groups on the basis of the clinical stage and AST/ALT ratio. The prognostic ability of this grouping was validated using an independent data set (N = 167). The AST/ALT ratio ranged from 0.42 to 4.30 (median, 1.42) and was a prognostic factor for overall survival that was independent of age, primary sites, and tumor stage (hazard ratio: 1.36, confidence interval: 1.08−1.68, P = 0.010). RPA divided patients with stage IVA into the following two subgroups: high AST/ALT (≥2.3) and low AST/ALT (<2.3) subgroups. The 5-year survival rate for patients with stage III, stage IVA with a low AST/ALT ratio, stage IVA with a high AST/ALT ratio, and stage IVB were 64.8%, 49.2%, 28.6%, and 33.3%, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared with the low AST/ALT group, the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 2.17 for high AST/ALT group (confidence interval: 1.02–.22 P = 0.045). The AST/ALT ratio was demonstrated to be a prognostic factor of HNSCC. The ratio subdivided patients with stage IVA into low- and high-risk groups. Moreover, intensified treatment for the high-risk group may be considered. PMID:27732629

  6. An evaluation of the MSBLS/nose boom interference for the approach and landing test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis was performed to investigate whether or not the obstruction caused by boom-mounted probes forward of the Orbiter nose could cause Microwave Scan Beam Landing System (MSBLS) data dropout during the autoland flight phase of the Approach and Landing Test (ALT). The results indicate that there will be no interference from the nose boom to cause MSBLS data dropout for the flight conditions under which the ALT is to be performed. Additional analysis considering approach trajectories in more extreme wind conditions than anticipated for the ALT also indicates that the nose boom creates no interference.

  7. Anterolateral thigh flap salvage following failed deep inferior epigastric artery perforator breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Krochmal, Daniel J; Rebecca, Alanna M; Casey, William J; Smith, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    The deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap is an option for women desiring autologous tissue breast reconstruction. If this reconstruction fails, other autologous tissue flaps, including the gluteal artery perforator and latissimus dorsi flaps, may be used for salvage. The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap offers adequate tissue volume for breast reconstruction, acceptable fat quality and a long vascular pedicle. Other advantages include obviating the need for intraoperative position changes and harvesting tissue outside of the radiation field. Two cases involving ALT flaps used in the setting of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator failure are presented with favourable results. A review of the anatomy of the ALT flap is included. PMID:22379371

  8. Chlorine isotope variations across the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jaime D.; Sharp, Zachary D.; Fischer, Tobias P.

    2008-11-01

    Chlorine isotope ratios were determined for volcanic gas, geothermalwell, ash, and lava samples along the Izu-Bonin-Mariana volcanicfront, serpentinite clasts and muds from serpentine seamounts(Conical, South Chamorro, Torishima), basalts from the Guguancross-chain, and sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)Sites 800, 801, 802, and 1149. There is no systematic variationin ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">37Cl values along the volcanic front in either gas or ashsamples. In contrast, distinct variations occur across the arc,implying variations in the fluid source at different depthswithin the subduction zone. Serpentinite clasts and serpentinemuds from the seamounts tap a source of 30 km depth and haveALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">37Cl values of structurally bound chloride of +0.4ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> ±0.4ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> (n = 24), identical to most seafloor serpentinites, suggestinga serpentinite (chrysotile and/or lizardite to antigorite transition)fluid source. Tapping deeper levels of the subduction zone ( 115-130km depth), volcanic gases and ashes have ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">37Cl values averaging-1.1ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> ± 1.0ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> (n = 29), precisely overlapping therange measured in sediments from ODP cores (-1.1ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> ±+0.7ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0">, n = 11) and limited altered oceanic crust (AOC). Bothsediments and AOC are possible Cl sources in the volcanic front.The Guguan cross-chain basalts come from the greatest depthsand have an average ALT="{delta}" BORDER="0">37Cl value of +0.2ALT="{per thousand}" BORDER="0"> ± 0.2ALT="{per thousand

  9. Evaluation of lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides of different epitopic structures in the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of brucellosis in small ruminants and cattle.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Marín, C; Aragón, V; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I

    1998-11-01

    Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis have surface lipopolysaccharides and polysaccharides carrying B. melitensis-type (M) and B. abortus-type (A) epitopes as well as common (C) epitopes present in all smooth Brucella biotypes. Crude lipopolysaccharides, hydrolytic O polysaccharides, and native hapten polysaccharides of MC or AC specificity were evaluated in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with polyclonal, monoclonal, or protein G conjugates by using sera from cattle, sheep, and goats infected with AC, MC, or AMC Brucella biotypes. Regardless of the antigen, the levels of antibodies were lower in goats than in sheep and highest in cattle. The diagnostic performance of the assay was not affected by the absence of lipid A-core epitopes, the presence of contaminating outer membrane proteins, the AC or MC epitopic structure of the absorbed antigen, or the conjugate used. Moreover, with sera from cattle vaccinated with B. abortus S19 (AC) or from sheep and goats vaccinated with B. melitensis Rev 1 (MC), AC and MC antigens showed similar levels of reactivity. The results show that antibodies to the C epitopes largely dominate in infection, and this is consistent with the existence of multiple overlapping C epitopes (V. Weynants, D. Gilson, A. Cloeckaert, A. Tibor, P. A. Denoel, F. Godfroid, J. N. Limet, and J.-J. Letesson, Infect. Immun. 65:1939-1943, 1997) rather than with one or two C epitopes. It is concluded that, by adaptation to the corresponding antibody levels, brucellosis in cattle, sheep, and goats can be diagnosed by immunosorbent assay with a single combination of conjugate and antigen.

  10. Evaluation to the effect of B2O3-La2O3-SrO-Na2O-Al2O3 bonding agent on Ti6Al4V-porcelain bonding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C Q; Wu, S Q; Lu, Y J; Gan, Y L; Guo, S; Lin, J J; Huang, T T; Lin, J X

    2016-10-01

    Low-fusing bonding agents have been widely applied in Ti-ceramics restorations. As an important category, borate bonding agents have great potentials in increasing Ti-porcelain bonding. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of borate bonding agent with addition of Na2O and Al2O3 on Ti6Al4V-porcelain bonding. The thermal properties of borate bonding agent, such as glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization peak temperature (Tp), were investigated to establish the sintering process. And the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was to evaluate the matching effect of porcelain to Ti6Al4V. The bond strength was analyzed by the three point bending test. The microscopic morphology of the borate bonding agent surface after sintering, the interface of Ti-borate bonding agent-porcelain, and the fracture mode after porcelains fracture, were studied to assess the influence of borate bonding agent on Ti6Al4V-ceramics. With the addition of Na2O and Al2O3, the porcelain residues were observed increased indication on the Ti6Al4V surface after porcelain fracture and the bond strength was acquired the maximum (49.45MPa) in the bonding agent composition of 75.70B2O3-5.92La2O3-11.84SrO-4.67Na2O-1.87Al2O3. Those results suggest that borate bonding agent is an effective way to improve the Ti6Al4V-ceramics bond strength. And the addition of Na2O and Al2O3 strengthen this effect. PMID:27344231

  11. 77 FR 19146 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., January 20, 2012, through..., octopuses, and sculpins. This prohibition does not apply to fishing for pollock by vessels using...

  12. 77 FR 54837 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., September 1, 2012, through..., octopuses, and sculpins. This prohibition does not apply to fishing for pollock by vessels using...

  13. 77 FR 33103 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2012, through..., octopuses, and sculpins. This prohibition does not apply to fishing for pollock by vessels using...

  14. 77 FR 42193 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., July 1..., octopuses, and sculpins. This prohibition does not apply to fishing for pollock by vessels using...

  15. Suppression of the alternative lengthening of telomere pathway by the chromatin remodelling factor ATRX

    PubMed Central

    Clynes, David; Jelinska, Clare; Xella, Barbara; Ayyub, Helena; Scott, Caroline; Mitson, Matthew; Taylor, Stephen; Higgs, Douglas R.; Gibbons, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen per cent of cancers maintain telomere length independently of telomerase by the homologous recombination (HR)-associated alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway. A unifying feature of these tumours are mutations in ATRX. Here we show that expression of ectopic ATRX triggers a suppression of the pathway and telomere shortening. Importantly ATRX-mediated ALT suppression is dependent on the histone chaperone DAXX. Re-expression of ATRX is associated with a reduction in replication fork stalling, a known trigger for HR and loss of MRN from telomeres. A G-quadruplex stabilizer partially reverses the effect of ATRX, inferring ATRX may normally facilitate replication through these sequences that, if they persist, promote ALT. We propose that defective telomere chromatinization through loss of ATRX promotes the persistence of aberrant DNA secondary structures, which in turn present a barrier to DNA replication, leading to replication fork stalling, collapse, HR and subsequent recombination-mediated telomere synthesis in ALT cancers. PMID:26143912

  16. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  17. Metachronous carcinoma of rectum with reconstruction of a full-thickness abdominal wall defect using a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Amy Siu Yan

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of large, complex defects of the abdominal wall after resection of malignant tumors can be challenging. The transfer of an anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a feasible and effective option. However, no report has been published on the use of ALT flap after metachronous colonic tumor resection so far. We present an original case of resection of metachronous carcinoma of rectum with reconstruction of the abdominal wall defect using an ALT flap harvested with its aponeurosis. The postoperative course was uncomplicated. Functional and esthetic results were satisfactory. There was no postoperative incisional hernia or tumor recurrence. We conclude that abdominal wall defects of large sizes can be successfully reconstructed using an appropriately designed ALT flap; a simple, single-stage effective reconstruction. PMID:27161142

  18. 76 FR 6843 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ..., Jalisco, Mexico; Ciudad Victoria, Allende Hwy, Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico; Ocampo 49, Tecalitlan, Jalisco...; Fraccionamiento Santa Isabel, Paseo San Eliseo 1695, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico; DOB 11 Aug 1976; alt. DOB 2...

  19. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... does not cause symptoms until it affects liver function. Blood clots in the liver's main artery may cause ... will be done: Blood tests to check liver function ( AST and ALT ) Doppler ultrasound of the liver's blood vessels

  20. OXIDATIVE STRESS MEDIATES AIR POLLUTION PARTICLE-INDUCED ACUTE LUNG INJURY AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Insight into the mechanism(s) by which ambient air particulate matter (PM) mediates adverse health effects is needed to provide biological plausibility to epidemiological studies demonstrating associations between PM exposure and increased morbidity and mortality. Alt...

  1. Combined Use of Anterolateral Thigh and Gluteal Fold Flaps for Complex Groin Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Masahide; Miyamoto, Shimpei; Arikawa, Masaki; Sakuraba, Minoru

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of an epithelioid sarcoma of the right groin in which wide resection resulted in a complex groin defect involving the full thickness of the abdominal wall and the perineum. We reconstructed the defect using a combination of pedicled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap and gluteal fold flap. The functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory. The ALT flap with a robust iliotibial tract is the flap of choice for abdominal wall reconstruction; however, the area covered by the skin island of the flap is restricted because the skin island is tethered to the iliotibial tract. In such cases, a gluteal fold flap is ideal for an ALT flap. Therefore, using a combination of a pedicled ALT flap and a gluteal fold flap could be a reliable option for the reconstruction of a complex groin defect. PMID:26579347

  2. Thyroid hormone status and pituitary function in adult rats given oral doses of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in humans and wildlife. Prior toxicological studies have reported decreased total and free thyroid hormones in serum without a major compensatory rise in thyrotropin (TSH) or altered thyroid gland histology. Alt...

  3. A WATERSHED-LEVEL APPROACH TO STUDY THE PUTATIVE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LANDUSE CHANGE AND SURFACE WATER FLOW ALTERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inter-generationally prudent management of watershed resources will require attention to the interdependence between shifting landuse distributions and their effects on watershed hydrology. Development and increased proportion of impervious surface area has been found to alte lan...

  4. 75 FR 54290 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., September 1, 2010, through... pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead sole, Atka mackerel, skates, and ``other...

  5. 77 FR 24154 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2012, through 1200...-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing by...

  6. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Shallow-Water Species Fishery by Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... of the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 11, 2011), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., September 1, 2011, through... pollock, Pacific cod, shallow-water flatfish, flathead sole, Atka mackerel, skates, and ``other...

  7. 75 FR 23189 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2010, through 1200..., deep-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing...

  8. 76 FR 23511 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011), for the period 1200 hrs, A.l.t., April 1, 2011, through 1200 hrs...-water flatfish, rex sole, and arrowtooth flounder. This closure does not apply to fishing by...

  9. 77 FR 14596 - Supplemental Identification Information for Thirteen Individuals and One Entity Designated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Market, Dar Salaam Buildings, Mogadishu, Somalia; 26 Urtegata Street, Oslo 0187, Norway; DOB 22 Sep 1959; POB Mogadishu, Somalia; nationality Norway; National ID No. 22095919778 (Norway); Passport 26941812...; Mogadishu, Somalia; Djibouti, Djibouti; DOB 1954; POB Eilbur, Somalia; citizen Somalia; alt....

  10. 76 FR 46896 - Designation of Six Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ..., Izz al-Din Abd al-Farid); DOB 1982; POB al-Qamishli, Syria; nationality Syria; ethnicity Kurdish.... ``RAWANSARI, Shahin''); DOB 1967; nationality Syria; alt. nationality Iran; ethnicity Kurdish...

  11. 50 CFR 679.5 - Recordkeeping and reporting (R&R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... documentation, logbooks, forms, reports, receipts, computer printouts, and requests for inspection described in... Alaska local time (A.l.t.); if handwritten, in indelible ink; if computer-generated, as a legible...

  12. 50 CFR 679.5 - Recordkeeping and reporting (R&R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are not limited to, paper and electronic documentation, logbooks, forms, reports, receipts, computer... Alaska local time (A.l.t.); if handwritten, in indelible ink; if computer-generated, as a legible...

  13. 50 CFR 679.5 - Recordkeeping and reporting (R&R).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are not limited to, paper and electronic documentation, logbooks, forms, reports, receipts, computer... Alaska local time (A.l.t.); if handwritten, in indelible ink; if computer-generated, as a legible...

  14. 75 FR 23847 - Blocking of Specially Designated National Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ..., Democratic Republic of the; DOB 1973; POB Nord-Kivu, DRC; alt. POB Rwanda; nationality Congo, Democratic.... MUTEBUZI, Jules), Rwanda; DOB 6 Jul 1960; POB South Kivu, DRC; nationality Congo, Democratic Republic...

  15. Knee and Ankle Reconstruction With Reverse Anterolateral Thigh and Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap From One Donor Site.

    PubMed

    Choi, KyeongBeom; Cho, JaeHo; Park, MyongChul; Park, Dong Ha; Lee, Il Jae

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap is used in distal lower extremity reconstruction. Reverse ALT flap has become one of the most popular choices for knee joint soft tissue defects. A 53-year-old man sustained a degloving injury in the right lateral side of the lower extremity from the lateral malleolar area to the knee joint area. The contamination was severe, necessitating serial debridement and negative pressure wound therapy. After 4 weeks, no more soft tissue necrosis was evident. No more microorganism growth was confirmed by swab culture. ALT free flap using proximal perforator was planned for lateral malleolar area reconstruction and reverse ALT flap using distal perforator was planned to cover knee joint after confirming the pedicle length was sufficient for simultaneous knee and lateral malleolar area reconstruction. PMID:27317019

  16. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, P.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.

    1993-11-30

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an ``authentic lung tissue`` or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  17. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, Peter C.; Gordon, N. Ross; Simmons, Kevin L.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an "authentic lung tissue" or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  18. Biliary Tract Disorders, Gallbladder Disorders, and Gallstone Pancreatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of bile from the liver (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin). Inflammation of the pancreas is best ... associated with an increase in the products and enzymes made by the liver, gallbladder and pancreas, which ...

  19. EX VIVIO DETECTION OF KINASE AND PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITIES IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL BIOPSIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Protein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification involved in every aspect cellular function. Levels of protein phosphotyrosine, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine are regulated by the opposing activities of kinases and phosphatases, the expression of which can be alt...

  20. Disorders of Smell and Taste

    MedlinePlus

    ... Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Disorders of Smell & Taste Jeremiah A. Alt, MD, PhD Arthur Wu, ... M. Patel MD INTRODUCTION Olfaction (the sense of smell) is an important function of the nasal cavity ...

  1. Optimization of an Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Liver Model: Clearance Studies with 7-Ethoxycoumarin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated trout livers were perfused using methods designed to preserve tissue viability and function. Liver performance was evaluated by measuring O2 consumption (VO2), vascular resistance, K+ leakage, glucose flux, lactate flux, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, and meta...

  2. Altrenogest treatment during late pregnancy did not reduce colostrum yield in primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Foisnet, A; Farmer, C; David, C; Quesnel, H

    2010-05-01

    The decrease in circulating concentrations of progesterone is the lactogenic trigger in many species. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an orally active progestogen, altrenogest, administered in late gestation, on lactogenesis in sows. Gilts were treated with altrenogest (20 mg/d) from d 109 to 112 of gestation (ALT112, n = 6) or d 113 (ALT113, n = 8) or were not treated (control, n = 9). Colostrum production, estimated from the BW gains of the piglets, was measured during 24 h starting at the onset of parturition. Colostrum samples were collected at the onset of parturition until 48 h later. Jugular blood samples were taken from d -8 prepartum until d 3 postpartum. Altrenogest treatment extended the gestation length of ALT113 sows in comparison with control sows (116.3 vs. 114.7 d; P < 0.05). Litter size and litter weight at birth did not differ between groups (P > 0.1). Estimated colostrum yield was not reduced in altrenogest-treated sows compared with control sows (4.20 kg) and tended to be greater in ALT112 (4.73 kg) than in ALT113 sows (3.74 kg; P = 0.09). Altrenogest reduced endogenous progesterone concentrations during the 2 d prepartum in ALT113 relative to control sows (P < 0.05), likely because luteolysis occurred earlier in relation to parturition in ALT113 sows. Altrenogest reduced estradiol-17beta concentrations during the 2 d prepartum in ALT113 (P < 0.05) and ALT112 (P < 0.1) sows. Altrenogest treatment did not influence the timing of the prepartum peak of prolactin in relation to parturition. The ALT113 sows had lesser (P < 0.05) concentrations of lactose in plasma and a lesser Na:K ratio in colostrum after parturition than Control and ALT112 sows, indicating that the junctions between their mammary epithelial cells were tighter. Concentrations of colostral IgG in sows that received altrenogest tended to be less than in control sows (P = 0.08). In conclusion, altrenogest administered from d 109 to 112 or 113 of pregnancy

  3. Incomplete transfer of accessory loci influencing SbMATE expression underlies genetic background effects for aluminum tolerance in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Melo, Janaina O; Lana, Ubiraci G P; Piñeros, Miguel A; Alves, Vera M C; Guimarães, Claudia T; Liu, Jiping; Zheng, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Maron, Lyza G; Schaffert, Robert E; Kochian, Leon V; Magalhaes, Jurandir V

    2013-01-01

    Impaired root development caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction in crops cultivated on acid soils, which are widespread worldwide. In sorghum, the major Al-tolerance locus, AltSB , is due to the function of SbMATE, which is an Al-activated root citrate transporter. Here we performed a molecular and physiological characterization of various AltSB donors and near-isogenic lines harboring various AltSB alleles. We observed a partial transfer of Al tolerance from the parents to the near-isogenic lines that was consistent across donor alleles, emphasizing the occurrence of strong genetic background effects related to AltSB . This reduction in tolerance was variable, with a 20% reduction being observed when highly Al-tolerant lines were the AltSB donors, and a reduction as great as 70% when other AltSB alleles were introgressed. This reduction in Al tolerance was closely correlated with a reduction in SbMATE expression in near-isogenic lines, suggesting incomplete transfer of loci acting in trans on SbMATE. Nevertheless, AltSB alleles from the highly Al-tolerant sources SC283 and SC566 were found to retain high SbMATE expression, presumably via elements present within or near the AltSB locus, resulting in significant transfer of the Al-tolerance phenotype to the derived near-isogenic lines. Allelic effects could not be explained by coding region polymorphisms, although occasional mutations may affect Al tolerance. Finally, we report on the extensive occurrence of alternative splicing for SbMATE, which may be an important component regulating SbMATE expression in sorghum by means of the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway. PMID:22989115

  4. Association between Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Urosepsis in Children with Acute Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongwan; Lee, Sung Hyun; Ryoo, Eell; Cho, Hye Kyung; Kim, Yun Mi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate the association between elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urosepsis in children with acute pyelonephritis (APN). Methods We retrospectively identified all children who were managed in our hospital with APN during a decade period. In our study a diagnosis of APN was defined as having a positive urine culture and a positive (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. We compared those with elevated ALT and those with normal ALT according to the following variables: age, gender, duration of fever prior to admission, presence of hypotension, C-reactive protein (CRP), creatinine, presence of anemia, white blood cells count, platelet count, blood culture result, and grades of vesicoureteral reflux. In addition, the correlation between elevated ALT and positive blood culture was analyzed in detail. Results A total of 996 children were diagnosed with APN, of which 883 were included in the study. ALT was elevated in 81 children (9.2%). In the analysis of demographic characteristics, the number of children with elevated ALT was higher in children between 0 to 3 months, boys, and in those with positive blood culture (p=0.002, 0.036, and 0.010, respectively). In multivariate analysis of variables associated with positive blood culture, age younger than 3 months, elevated ALT, elevated CRP, and elevated creatinine showed statistical significance (p=0.004, 0.030, 0.043, and 0.044, respectively). Conclusion Our study demonstrates the association between elevated ALT and increased prevalence of urosepsis in addition to elevated CRP, elevated creatinine, and age younger than 3 months in children with APN. PMID:27066449

  5. Characterisation of Alternaria alternata manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase, a cross-reactive allergen homologue to Asp f 6.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Antonio; Suñén, Ester; Guisantes, Jorge; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    It is well known that Alternaria alternata presents a significant level of allergenic cross-reactivity with several other phylogenetically related and non-related allergenic moulds. To improve the molecular diagnosis, the identification and characterisation of all clinically relevant allergens, including both species-specific and cross-reacting proteins, is required. In this study we report the molecular and immunological characterisation of the A. alternata manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (Alt a MnSOD) and its cross-reactivity with Asp f 6, a diagnostic marker allergen in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). The cDNA coding for Alt a MnSOD sequence was isolated by RACE and PCR. Alt a MnSOD is a protein of 191 amino acids that presented significant homology and potential cross-reactive epitopes with Asp f 6. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and the immunoreactivity was evaluated in patient sera. Immunoblotting analyses showed that seven of sixty-one A. alternata-sensitised patient sera and two ABPA patient sera reacted with the recombinant Alt a MnSOD. The native counterpart contained in both A. alternata and Aspergillus fumigatus extracts inhibited IgE binding to the recombinant molecule. The allergen was named Alt a 14 by the official Allergen nomenclature subcommittee. Thus, Alt a 14 is a relevant allergen in A. alternata sensitisation that may be used to improve diagnostic procedures. Evidence of cross-reactivity between Asp f 6 and Alt a 14-recognition by ABPA patient sera suggest the existence of an Alt a 14-mediated mechanism that, similar to Asp f 6, may be related to the pathogenesis of ABPA.

  6. Ischaemic Markers in Acute Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Sushanta Kumar; Nanda, Rachita; Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nayak, Parsuram

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatic injury of varied aetiology may progress to Acute Liver Failure (ALF). Compromised microcirculation is thought to be a deciding factor of hepatic hypoxia may be involved in disease progression that needs early detection. Ischaemia markers like serum Ischaemia- modified albumin (IMA), ALT-LDH ratio and ALT-LDH index have been suggested for its detection at early stage. Aim To find out the association of Ischaemia markers like serum IMA, ALT-LDH ratio and ALT-LDH index in acute hepatic injury cases. Materials and Methods Forty one diagnosed acute liver injury cases of varied aetiology admitted in Department of Medicine, and Gastroenterology of SCB Medical College, Cuttack were enrolled in the study along with 30 age and sex matched healthy controls. Blood collected at time of admission and at time of discharge (1st day and 7th day) were evaluated for FPG, RFT, LFT, Serum Albumin along with serum LDH, IMA, PT-INR and platelet count. Result Serum bilirubin, hepatic enzymes, IMA, PT-INR was more markedly raised in cases than controls on the 1st day of admission. ALT-LDH ratio and index were significantly low in complicated cases. However, on responding to treatment the ALT-LDH index on 7th day registered a rise in comparison to the 1st day, while serum IMA revealed an insignificant decline showing improvement in hepatic hypoxia. ALT-LDH ratio remains more or less same on response to treatment. Conclusion Serum IMA and ALT-LDH Index reveals association with disease process in Acute Hepatic Injury cases both clinically and biochemically and can be used as supportive parameters for the diagnosis of disease process. PMID:27190791

  7. AltitudeOmics: impaired pulmonary gas exchange efficiency and blunted ventilatory acclimatization in humans with patent foramen ovale after 16 days at 5,260 m.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jonathan E; Laurie, Steven S; Kern, Julia P; Beasley, Kara M; Goodman, Randall D; Kayser, Bengt; Subudhi, Andrew W; Roach, Robert C; Lovering, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO), present in ∼40% of the general population, is a potential source of right-to-left shunt that can impair pulmonary gas exchange efficiency [i.e., increase the alveolar-to-arterial Po2 difference (A-aDO2)]. Prior studies investigating human acclimatization to high-altitude with A-aDO2 as a key parameter have not investigated differences between subjects with (PFO+) or without a PFO (PFO-). We hypothesized that in PFO+ subjects A-aDO2 would not improve (i.e., decrease) after acclimatization to high altitude compared with PFO- subjects. Twenty-one (11 PFO+) healthy sea-level residents were studied at rest and during cycle ergometer exercise at the highest iso-workload achieved at sea level (SL), after acute transport to 5,260 m (ALT1), and again at 5,260 m after 16 days of high-altitude acclimatization (ALT16). In contrast to PFO- subjects, PFO+ subjects had 1) no improvement in A-aDO2 at rest and during exercise at ALT16 compared with ALT1, 2) no significant increase in resting alveolar ventilation, or alveolar Po2, at ALT16 compared with ALT1, and consequently had 3) an increased arterial Pco2 and decreased arterial Po2 and arterial O2 saturation at rest at ALT16. Furthermore, PFO+ subjects had an increased incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at ALT1 concomitant with significantly lower peripheral O2 saturation (SpO2). These data suggest that PFO+ subjects have increased susceptibility to AMS when not taking prophylactic treatments, that right-to-left shunt through a PFO impairs pulmonary gas exchange efficiency even after acclimatization to high altitude, and that PFO+ subjects have blunted ventilatory acclimatization after 16 days at altitude compared with PFO- subjects.

  8. Trunk Fat is Associated with Increased Serum Levels of Alanine Aminotransferase in the US

    PubMed Central

    Ruhl, Constance E.; Everhart, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Liver injury is associated with obesity and related measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. The relationship between liver injury and body composition has not been evaluated in a population-based study. Methods Using data from a US population-based survey, we examined the contributions of body composition, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity among 11,821 adults without viral hepatitis. Trunk fat, extremity fat, trunk lean, and extremity lean mass were divided by height squared and used to categorize subjects into quintiles; logistic regression odds ratios (OR) were calculated for increased ALT. Results Increased ALT was associated with higher measures of fat and lean mass (p<0.001) after adjustment for alcohol consumption and other liver injury risk factors in separate models for each DXA measure. Trunk fat was associated with increased ALT (p≤0.001) in models also including any 1 of the other 3 measures. Extremity fat was independently inversely associated among women (p<0.001). Trunk and extremity lean mass were not independently related to increased ALT. In models that contained all 4 DXA measures, the OR (95% confidence interval) for increased ALT for the highest, relative to lowest, quintile of trunk fat/height squared was 13.8 (5.4-35.3) for men and 7.8 (3.9-15.8) for women. When BMI, waist circumference, and trunk fat were considered together, only trunk fat remained independently associated with increased ALT. Conclusions Trunk fat is a major body composition determinant of increased ALT, supporting the hypothesis that liver injury can be induced by metabolically active intra-abdominal fat. PMID:20060831

  9. Alanine-aminotransferase: an early marker for insulin resistance?

    PubMed

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Curciarello, Jose O; Aizpurua, Marcelo; Adrover, Raul E; Riondet, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    In a population-based sample, after excluding alcohol consumption, hepatotoxic drugs and hepatitis B and C infected, we investigated if alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) was associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, and if this association was caused by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The sample (432 female and 119 male) was divided into two ALT thresholds corresponding to the 50th and 75th percentiles (P) (female > or = 15 and > or = 19 U/L; male > or = 17 and > or = 23 U/I, respectively). Blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, cholesterol, HDL cholesterol (HDLc), triglyceride (TG), TG/HDLc ratio, glycemia and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were compared between those above and below each ALT threshold. Female placed above the 50th P of ALT had higher levels of TG/HDLc ratio (p=0.029), glycemia (p=0.028), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, (p=0.045), and above the 75th P had higher SBP (p=0.036), DBP (p=0.018), TG (p=0.024), TG/HDLc ratio (p=0.028), glycemia (p=0.004) and HOMA-IR (p=0.0014). Male placed above the 50th P of ALT had higher BMI (p=0.017) and TG/HDLc ratio (p=0.048), and above the 75th P had lower values of HDLc (p=0.042). Only 16.5% of women and 14.5% of men, above the 75th P of ALT, showed an increase in liver brightness in the echography. This work shows in woman an early association of ALT with TG/HDLc ratio and HOMA-IR. Since the last two are independent predictors of cardiovascular risk, attention should be drawn to ALT values near the upper limit of the normal range even in the absence of NAFLD and obesity. PMID:17593595

  10. Extrapolating active layer thickness measurements across Arctic polygonal terrain using LiDAR and NDVI data sets

    PubMed Central

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Rowland, Joel C; Hubbard, Susan S; Brumby, Steven P; Liljedahl, Anna K; Wainwright, Haruko; Wilson, Cathy J; Altmann, Garrett L; Dafflon, Baptiste; Peterson, John; Ulrich, Craig; Tweedie, Craig E; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2014-01-01

    Landscape attributes that vary with microtopography, such as active layer thickness (ALT), are labor intensive and difficult to document effectively through in situ methods at kilometer spatial extents, thus rendering remotely sensed methods desirable. Spatially explicit estimates of ALT can provide critically needed data for parameterization, initialization, and evaluation of Arctic terrestrial models. In this work, we demonstrate a new approach using high-resolution remotely sensed data for estimating centimeter-scale ALT in a 5 km2 area of ice-wedge polygon terrain in Barrow, Alaska. We use a simple regression-based, machine learning data-fusion algorithm that uses topographic and spectral metrics derived from multisensor data (LiDAR and WorldView-2) to estimate ALT (2 m spatial resolution) across the study area. Comparison of the ALT estimates with ground-based measurements, indicates the accuracy (r2 = 0.76, RMSE ±4.4 cm) of the approach. While it is generally accepted that broad climatic variability associated with increasing air temperature will govern the regional averages of ALT, consistent with prior studies, our findings using high-resolution LiDAR and WorldView-2 data, show that smaller-scale variability in ALT is controlled by local eco-hydro-geomorphic factors. This work demonstrates a path forward for mapping ALT at high spatial resolution and across sufficiently large regions for improved understanding and predictions of coupled dynamics among permafrost, hydrology, and land-surface processes from readily available remote sensing data. PMID:25558114

  11. InSAR analysis of surface deformation over permafrost to estimate active layer thickness based on one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiwei; Zhao, Rong; Hu, Jun; Wen, Lianxing; Feng, Guangcai; Zhang, Zeyu; Wang, Qijie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to estimate active layer thickness (ALT) over permafrost based on InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) observation and the heat transfer model of soils. The time lags between the periodic feature of InSAR-observed surface deformation over permafrost and the meteorologically recorded temperatures are assumed to be the time intervals that the temperature maximum to diffuse from the ground surface downward to the bottom of the active layer. By exploiting the time lags and the one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils, we estimate the ALTs. Using the frozen soil region in southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as examples, we provided a conceptual demonstration of the estimation of the InSAR pixel-wise ALTs. In the case study, the ALTs are ranging from 1.02 to 3.14 m and with an average of 1.95 m. The results are compatible with those sparse ALT observations/estimations by traditional methods, while with extraordinary high spatial resolution at pixel level (~40 meter). The presented method is simple, and can potentially be used for deriving high-resolution ALTs in other remote areas similar to QTP, where only sparse observations are available now. PMID:26480892

  12. Characterization of photosynthetic gas exchange in leaves under simulated adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Li, Yu-Ting; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Yang, Cheng; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations on photosynthesis have been performed on leaves irradiated from the adaxial surface. However, leaves usually sway because of wind. This action results in the alternating exposure of both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces to bright sunlight. To simulate adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation (ad-ab-alt irradiation), the adaxial or abaxial surface of leaves were exposed to light regimes that fluctuated between 100 and 1,000 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Compared with constant adaxial irradiation, simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration (E) but not water use efficiency. These suppressions were aggravated by an increase in alternant frequency of the light intensity. When leaves were transferred from constant light to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, the maximum Pn and E during the high light period decreased, but the rate of photosynthetic induction during this period remained constant. The sensitivity of photosynthetic gas exchange to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation was lower on abaxial surface than adaxial surface. Under simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, higher Pn and E were measured on abaxial surface compared with adaxial surface. Therefore, bifacial leaves can fix more carbon than leaves with two "sun-leaf-like" surfaces under ad-ab-alt irradiation. Photosynthetic research should be conducted under dynamic conditions that better mimic nature. PMID:27377989

  13. Parallel Olfactory Processing in the Honey Bee Brain: Odor Learning and Generalization under Selective Lesion of a Projection Neuron Tract

    PubMed Central

    Carcaud, Julie; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The function of parallel neural processing is a fundamental problem in Neuroscience, as it is found across sensory modalities and evolutionary lineages, from insects to humans. Recently, parallel processing has attracted increased attention in the olfactory domain, with the demonstration in both insects and mammals that different populations of second-order neurons encode and/or process odorant information differently. Among insects, Hymenoptera present a striking olfactory system with a clear neural dichotomy from the periphery to higher-order centers, based on two main tracts of second-order (projection) neurons: the medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). To unravel the functional role of these two pathways, we combined specific lesions of the m-ALT tract with behavioral experiments, using the classical conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER conditioning). Lesioned and intact bees had to learn to associate an odorant (1-nonanol) with sucrose. Then the bees were subjected to a generalization procedure with a range of odorants differing in terms of their carbon chain length or functional group. We show that m-ALT lesion strongly affects acquisition of an odor-sucrose association. However, lesioned bees that still learned the association showed a normal gradient of decreasing generalization responses to increasingly dissimilar odorants. Generalization responses could be predicted to some extent by in vivo calcium imaging recordings of l-ALT neurons. The m-ALT pathway therefore seems necessary for normal classical olfactory conditioning performance. PMID:26834589

  14. Dimethylformamide-induced liver damage among synthetic leather workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Lai, M.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Lin, J.M.; Chiang, J.R.; Shiau, S.J.; Chang, W.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Prevalence of liver injury associated with dimethylformamide (DMF) exposure was determined. Medical examinations, liver function tests, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) determinations were performed on 183 of 204 (76%) employees of a synthetic leather factory. Air concentrations of solvents were measured with personal samplers and gas chromatography. The concentration of DMF in air to which each worker was exposed was categorized. High exposure concentrations of DMF (i.e., 25-60 ppm) were significantly associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (ALT greater than or equal to 35 IU/l), a result that did not change even after stratification by hepatitis B carrier status. Modeling by logistic regression demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DMF was associated with an elevated ALT (p = .01), whereas hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was slightly but independently associated with an elevated ALT (p = .07). In those workers who had normal ALT values, there occurred still significantly higher mean ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, especially among those who were not HBsAg carriers. A significant association existed between elevated CPK levels and exposure to DMF. However, an analysis of the CPK isoenzyme among 143 workers did not reveal any specific damage to muscles. This outbreak of liver injury among synthetic leather workers is ascribed to DMF. It is recommended that the occupational standard for DMF and its toxicity among HBsAg carriers be evaluated further.

  15. Characterization of photosynthetic gas exchange in leaves under simulated adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Li, Yu-Ting; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Yang, Cheng; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2016-07-05

    Previous investigations on photosynthesis have been performed on leaves irradiated from the adaxial surface. However, leaves usually sway because of wind. This action results in the alternating exposure of both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces to bright sunlight. To simulate adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation (ad-ab-alt irradiation), the adaxial or abaxial surface of leaves were exposed to light regimes that fluctuated between 100 and 1,000 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Compared with constant adaxial irradiation, simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration (E) but not water use efficiency. These suppressions were aggravated by an increase in alternant frequency of the light intensity. When leaves were transferred from constant light to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, the maximum Pn and E during the high light period decreased, but the rate of photosynthetic induction during this period remained constant. The sensitivity of photosynthetic gas exchange to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation was lower on abaxial surface than adaxial surface. Under simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, higher Pn and E were measured on abaxial surface compared with adaxial surface. Therefore, bifacial leaves can fix more carbon than leaves with two "sun-leaf-like" surfaces under ad-ab-alt irradiation. Photosynthetic research should be conducted under dynamic conditions that better mimic nature.

  16. Characterization of photosynthetic gas exchange in leaves under simulated adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Li, Yu-Ting; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Yang, Cheng; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations on photosynthesis have been performed on leaves irradiated from the adaxial surface. However, leaves usually sway because of wind. This action results in the alternating exposure of both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces to bright sunlight. To simulate adaxial and abaxial surfaces alternant irradiation (ad-ab-alt irradiation), the adaxial or abaxial surface of leaves were exposed to light regimes that fluctuated between 100 and 1,000 μmol m−2 s−1. Compared with constant adaxial irradiation, simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation suppressed net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and transpiration (E) but not water use efficiency. These suppressions were aggravated by an increase in alternant frequency of the light intensity. When leaves were transferred from constant light to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, the maximum Pn and E during the high light period decreased, but the rate of photosynthetic induction during this period remained constant. The sensitivity of photosynthetic gas exchange to simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation was lower on abaxial surface than adaxial surface. Under simulated ad-ab-alt irradiation, higher Pn and E were measured on abaxial surface compared with adaxial surface. Therefore, bifacial leaves can fix more carbon than leaves with two “sun-leaf-like” surfaces under ad-ab-alt irradiation. Photosynthetic research should be conducted under dynamic conditions that better mimic nature. PMID:27377989

  17. Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript 2 protein treatment attenuates experimentally-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Vishal; Amdare, Nitin; Yadav, Ravi Shankar; Tarnekar, Aaditya; Goswami, Kalyan; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami

    2015-11-01

    Helminths are known to modulate host's immunity by suppressing host protective pro-inflammatory responses. Such immunomodulatory effects have been experimentally shown to have therapeutic implications in immune mediated disorders. In the present study, we have explored a filarial protein i.e. Brugia malayi recombinant abundant larval transcript 2 (rBmALT2) for its therapeutic effect in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis in mouse model. The immunomodulatory activity of rBmALT-2 was initially confirmed by demonstrating that it suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide synthesis and down-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro by peritoneal exudate cells of mice. Treatment with rBmALT2 reduced severity of colitis associated with significant reduction in weight loss, disease activity, colon damage, mucosal edema and histopathological score including myeloperoxidase activity in colon tissues. rBmALT2 was comparatively more effective in attenuation of colitis when used in the preventive mode than when used for curative purpose. The therapeutic effect of rBmALT2 was found to be associated with downregulation of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17 and upregulation of IL-10 cytokines. These results provide strong experimental evidence that BmALT2 could be a potential alternative therapeutic agent in colitis. PMID:26669016

  18. A dual-phase-lag diffusion model for predicting thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. K.; Beraun, J. E.; Tzou, D. Y.

    2000-03-01

    A dual-phase-lag diffusion (DPLD) model, which extends Fick's law by including two lagging times, icons/Journals/Common/tau" ALT="tau" ALIGN="TOP"/> j for the mass flux vector and icons/Journals/Common/tau" ALT="tau" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/rho" ALT="rho" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> for the density gradient, is developed to predict thin film growth. Depending upon the phase lag ratio icons/Journals/Common/tau" ALT="tau" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/rho" ALT="rho" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> /icons/Journals/Common/tau" ALT="tau" ALIGN="TOP"/> j , the DPLD model uniquely characterizes four types of growth kinetics as reported in the literature. The model validation with experimental data of silicon oxidation and Hg1-x Cdx Te film deposition demonstrates that the present model captures the anomalous behaviour of thin film growth from the very beginning of the process to relatively long times very well.

  19. Parallel Olfactory Processing in the Honey Bee Brain: Odor Learning and Generalization under Selective Lesion of a Projection Neuron Tract.

    PubMed

    Carcaud, Julie; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The function of parallel neural processing is a fundamental problem in Neuroscience, as it is found across sensory modalities and evolutionary lineages, from insects to humans. Recently, parallel processing has attracted increased attention in the olfactory domain, with the demonstration in both insects and mammals that different populations of second-order neurons encode and/or process odorant information differently. Among insects, Hymenoptera present a striking olfactory system with a clear neural dichotomy from the periphery to higher-order centers, based on two main tracts of second-order (projection) neurons: the medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). To unravel the functional role of these two pathways, we combined specific lesions of the m-ALT tract with behavioral experiments, using the classical conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER conditioning). Lesioned and intact bees had to learn to associate an odorant (1-nonanol) with sucrose. Then the bees were subjected to a generalization procedure with a range of odorants differing in terms of their carbon chain length or functional group. We show that m-ALT lesion strongly affects acquisition of an odor-sucrose association. However, lesioned bees that still learned the association showed a normal gradient of decreasing generalization responses to increasingly dissimilar odorants. Generalization responses could be predicted to some extent by in vivo calcium imaging recordings of l-ALT neurons. The m-ALT pathway therefore seems necessary for normal classical olfactory conditioning performance. PMID:26834589

  20. InSAR analysis of surface deformation over permafrost to estimate active layer thickness based on one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwei; Zhao, Rong; Hu, Jun; Wen, Lianxing; Feng, Guangcai; Zhang, Zeyu; Wang, Qijie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to estimate active layer thickness (ALT) over permafrost based on InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) observation and the heat transfer model of soils. The time lags between the periodic feature of InSAR-observed surface deformation over permafrost and the meteorologically recorded temperatures are assumed to be the time intervals that the temperature maximum to diffuse from the ground surface downward to the bottom of the active layer. By exploiting the time lags and the one-dimensional heat transfer model of soils, we estimate the ALTs. Using the frozen soil region in southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as examples, we provided a conceptual demonstration of the estimation of the InSAR pixel-wise ALTs. In the case study, the ALTs are ranging from 1.02 to 3.14 m and with an average of 1.95 m. The results are compatible with those sparse ALT observations/estimations by traditional methods, while with extraordinary high spatial resolution at pixel level (~40 meter). The presented method is simple, and can potentially be used for deriving high-resolution ALTs in other remote areas similar to QTP, where only sparse observations are available now. PMID:26480892

  1. Scaffolds from alternating block polyurethanes of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol) with stimulation and guidance of nerve growth and better nerve repair than autograft.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yuqing; Li, Linjing; Chen, Kevin C; Chen, Feiran; Liu, Xiangyu; Ye, Jianfu; Li, Wei; Xu, Kaitian

    2015-07-01

    Nerve repair scaffolds from novel alternating block polyurethanes (PUCL-alt-PEG) based on PCL and PEG without additional growth factors or proteins were prepared by a particle leaching method. The scaffolds have pore size 10-20 µm and porosity 92%. Mechanical tests showed that the polyurethane scaffolds have maximum loads of 5.97 ± 0.35 N and maximal stresses of 8.84 ± 0.5 MPa. Histocompatiblity of the nerve repair scaffolds was tested in a SD rat model for peripheral nerve defect treatment. Two types of treatments including PUCL-alt-PEG scaffolds and autografts were compared in rat model. After 32 weeks, bridging of a 12 mm defect gap by the regenerated nerve was observed in all rats. The nerve regeneration was systematically characterized by sciatic function index (SFI), electrophysiology, histological assessment including HE staining, immunohistochemistry, ammonia sliver staining, Masson's trichrome staining and TEM observation. Results revealed that nerve repair scaffolds from PUCL-alt-PEG exhibit better regeneration effects compared to autografts. Electrophysiological recovery was seen in 90% and 87% of rats in PUCL-alt-PEG and autograft groups respectively. Biodegradation in vitro and in vivo shows good degradation match of PUCL-alt-PEG scaffolds with nerve regeneration. It demonstrates that plain nerve repair scaffolds from PUCL-alt-PEG biomaterials can achieve peripheral nerve regeneration satisfactorily.

  2. The association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with within-reference range alanine aminotransferase levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Soo; Oh, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Dae-Jung; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Park, Seok Won; Cho, Yong-Wook; Huh, Kap-Bum

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the evaluation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by ultrasound provides additional benefit in assessing carotid atherosclerotic burden in subjects with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations within the reference range. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 769 healthy individuals (326 men and 443 women) with an ALT concentration ≤ 40 IU/L and alcohol consumption < 140 g/week. Mean carotid artery intima-media thickness (C-IMT) was measured using ultrasound. NAFLD was defined as a mild or greater degree of hepatic steatosis on ultrasound. Although all subjects had an ALT concentration within the reference range, the prevalence of NAFLD increased with increasing quartiles of ALT concentration (27.1%, 40.0%, 54.7%, 75.3% in men, P for trend < 0.001; 22.0%, 34.4%, 35.7%, 55.0% in women, P for trend < 0.001). In the 3rd and 4th quartiles of ALT concentration, women with NAFLD had a significantly higher C-IMT than those without NAFLD (0.671±0.019 mm vs. 0.742±0.025 mm, P=0.023 in Q3; 0.651±0.023 mm vs. 0.737±0.021 mm, P=0.005 in Q4). These differences remained significant even after adjusting for a broad spectrum of potential confounders. In contrast, although men with NAFLD tended to have a higher C-IMT than those without NAFLD in each quartile, these differences were not statistically significant. Women with an upper normal range ALT concentration showed increased C-IMT only when they had NAFLD. Therefore, in women with an elevated ALT level within the reference range, further evaluation for NAFLD, such as liver ultrasound, could potentially identify those patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease.

  3. Relation between Liver Transaminases and Dyslipidaemia among 2-10 y.o. Northern Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Salas, Rogelio; Nuñez, Georgina M.; Villarreal, Jesús Z.; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The increase in overweight and obese children may be linked to increased rates of liver damage and dyslipidaemia. This study aimed to explore the associations of liver biomarkers with overweight/obesity and dyslipidaemia in Mexican children. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the State of Nuevo León, Mexico. The study included a 414 subjects aged between 2 and 10 years old (47.8% girls) who took part in the State Survey of Nutrition and Health–Nuevo León 2011/2012. Associations between alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), ALT/AST ratio, and major components of serum lipid profile were assessed. Results Children with high ALT (defined as ≥P75) showed higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia than their counterparts, with high prevalence of high TChol (P = 0.053), non-HDL-chol, TG, and low HDL-chol. Children with an AST/ALT ≥T3 ratio were 0.43-times (95% CI: 0.25–0.74) and 0.27-times (95% CI: 0.17–0.44) low likely to be overweight/obese and to have dyslipidaemia than those with an AST/ALT ALT ratio groups. Conclusions Our results pose the need for further investigation on whether AST/ALT may be useful as screening test in the assessment of children with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:27203747

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Femoral Dialysis Access Placement: A Single-Center Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Deven; Gopal, Palepu B.; Sathyanarayanan, Mohan; Subhramanyam, Sreepada; Gandhe, Sridhar; Nayak, k. Shivanand

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Insertion of dialysis catheters (DCs) is a prerequisite for successful initiation of hemodialysis. We attempted to determine if ultrasonography-guided (USG) insertion was superior and safer than the anatomical landmark-guided technique (ALT) for the femoral vein (FV). Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a randomized prospective study on 110 patients requiring FV DCs in a tertiary care hospital. Patients were randomized into two groups: USG and ALT. Data were collected on demography, operator experience, and side of insertion. The USG group had their catheters inserted under USG guidance, whereas the ALT group had their DC inserted by ALT. Outcome measures included successful insertion of DC, number of attempts, and complications. Results: Both groups were comparable regarding age and gender of patients, operator experience, and the side of catheterization. The overall success rate was 89.1%, with 80% using ALT and 98.2% under USG guidance (P = 0.002). First attempt success rate was 54.5% in the ALT group as compared with 85.5% in the USG group (P = 0.000). The complication rate was 18.2% in the ALT group and 5.5% in the USG group (P = 0.039). The odds ratio (OR) for complications with two or more attempts was 10.73 with a relative risk (RR) of 3.2. The OR for successful insertion using USG was 13.5 (95% CI: 1.7 to 108.7). Conclusions: USG significantly improves success rate, reduces number of attempts, and decreases the incidence of complications related to FV DC insertion. PMID:19965532

  5. Association between liver enzymes and incident type 2 diabetes in Singapore Chinese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye-Li; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pan, An

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the association between liver enzymes and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a Chinese population. Methods A nested case–control study comprising 571 T2D cases and 571 matched controls was conducted within the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were quantified in baseline plasma collected from them, while γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) was assayed among 255 T2D cases with baseline hemoglobin A1c <6.5% and 255 matched controls. Participants were free of diagnosed diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at blood collections (1999–2004). Incident self-reported T2D cases were identified at follow-up II interview (2006–2010). Controls were matched to cases on age, sex, dialect group, and date of blood collection. Results Higher levels of ALT and GGT were significantly associated with increased risk of T2D (p for trend <0.001 for ALT, p for trend=0.03 for GGT), and the ORs (95% CIs) comparing highest versus lowest tertiles of ALT and GGT were 2.00 (1.01 to 3.96) and 2.38 (1.21 to 4.66), respectively. A null association was observed for AST, ALP, and LDH with T2D risk. Adding GGT (<23 vs ≥23 IU/L) or ALT (<21 vs ≥21 IU/L) to a prediction model resulted in significant gain in net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement of T2D prediction (all p<0.001). Conclusions Higher levels of GGT and ALT are associated with increased T2D risk. GGT ≥23 IU/L and ALT ≥21 IU/L may identify people at higher risk of developing T2D in this Chinese population. PMID:27738514

  6. AltitudeOmics: rapid hemoglobin mass alterations with early acclimatization to and de-acclimatization from 5260 m in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Benjamin J; Wachsmuth, Nadine B; Schmidt, Walter F; Byrnes, William C; Julian, Colleen G; Lovering, Andrew T; Subudhi, Andrew W; Roach, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    It is classically thought that increases in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) take several weeks to develop upon ascent to high altitude and are lost gradually following descent. However, the early time course of these erythropoietic adaptations has not been thoroughly investigated and data are lacking at elevations greater than 5000 m, where the hypoxic stimulus is dramatically increased. As part of the AltitudeOmics project, we examined Hbmass in healthy men and women at sea level (SL) and 5260 m following 1, 7, and 16 days of high altitude exposure (ALT1/ALT7/ALT16). Subjects were also studied upon return to 5260 m following descent to 1525 m for either 7 or 21 days. Compared to SL, absolute Hbmass was not different at ALT1 but increased by 3.7 ± 5.8% (mean ± SD; n = 20; p<0.01) at ALT7 and 7.6 ± 6.6% (n = 21; p<0.001) at ALT16. Following descent to 1525 m, Hbmass was reduced compared to ALT16 (-6.0 ± 3.7%; n = 20; p = 0.001) and not different compared to SL, with no difference in the loss in Hbmass between groups that descended for 7 (-6.3 ± 3.0%; n = 13) versus 21 days (-5.7 ± 5.0; n = 7). The loss in Hbmass following 7 days at 1525 m was correlated with an increase in serum ferritin (r =  -0.64; n = 13; p<0.05), suggesting increased red blood cell destruction. Our novel findings demonstrate that Hbmass increases within 7 days of ascent to 5260 m but that the altitude-induced Hbmass adaptation is lost within 7 days of descent to 1525 m. The rapid time course of these adaptations contrasts with the classical dogma, suggesting the need to further examine mechanisms responsible for Hbmass adaptations in response to severe hypoxia.

  7. AltitudeOmics: enhanced cerebrovascular reactivity and ventilatory response to CO2 with high-altitude acclimatization and reexposure.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jui-Lin; Subudhi, Andrew W; Evero, Oghenero; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Lovering, Andrew T; Roach, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    The present study is the first to examine the effect of high-altitude acclimatization and reexposure on the responses of cerebral blood flow and ventilation to CO2. We also compared the steady-state estimates of these parameters during acclimatization with the modified rebreathing method. We assessed changes in steady-state responses of middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), cerebrovascular conductance index (CVCi), and ventilation (V(E)) to varied levels of CO2 in 21 lowlanders (9 women; 21 ± 1 years of age) at sea level (SL), during initial exposure to 5,260 m (ALT1), after 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16), and upon reexposure to altitude following either 7 (POST7) or 21 days (POST21) at low altitude (1,525 m). In the nonacclimatized state (ALT1), MCAv and V(E) responses to CO2 were elevated compared with those at SL (by 79 ± 75% and 14.8 ± 12.3 l/min, respectively; P = 0.004 and P = 0.011). Acclimatization at ALT16 further elevated both MCAv and Ve responses to CO2 compared with ALT1 (by 89 ± 70% and 48.3 ± 32.0 l/min, respectively; P < 0.001). The acclimatization gained for V(E) responses to CO2 at ALT16 was retained by 38% upon reexposure to altitude at POST7 (P = 0.004 vs. ALT1), whereas no retention was observed for the MCAv responses (P > 0.05). We found good agreement between steady-state and modified rebreathing estimates of MCAv and V(E) responses to CO2 across all three time points (P < 0.001, pooled data). Regardless of the method of assessment, altitude acclimatization elevates both the cerebrovascular and ventilatory responsiveness to CO2. Our data further demonstrate that this enhanced ventilatory CO2 response is partly retained after 7 days at low altitude.

  8. Diffusion-driven blow-up in a reaction-diffusion model for n(≥1)th-order autocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwoch, J.; Needham, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a model, isothermal, autocatalytic chemical reaction scheme based on the n (icons/Journals/Common/ge" ALT="ge" ALIGN="TOP"/> 1)th-order autocatalytic step, Aicons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> B at rate kabn , where a and b are the concentrations of reactant A and autocatalyst B , respectively, and k is the rate constant. We examine the evolution which occurs when a quantity of the autocatalyst B is introduced locally into an expanse of the reactant A , which is initially at uniform concentration. In addition, the molecular diffusivity of B , say DB , is very much smaller than that of reactant A , say DA , so that DB /DA <<1. We concentrate on the case when DB /DA icons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> 0. Under these conditions, single-point blowup occurs in the concentration of the autocatalyst B as ticons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/> , when 1icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> nicons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> 2, and in finite t , when n >2. We develop both small- and large-time asymptotic solutions for the cases 12, with the cases of n = 1 and 2 having been studied in detail by Billingham J and Needham D J 1991 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 336 497-539. Finally, we discuss the situation when DB /DA is small but finite, i.e. 0

  9. Identification and pharmacological characterization of the prostaglandin FP receptor and FP receptor variant complexes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Y; Woodward, D F; Guzman, V M; Li, C; Scott, D F; Wang, J W; Wheeler, L A; Garst, M E; Landsverk, K; Sachs, G; Krauss, A H-P; Cornell, C; Martos, J; Pettit, S; Fliri, H

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: A prostamide analogue, bimatoprost, has been shown to be effective in reducing intraocular pressure, but its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Hence, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of this effect of bimatoprost, we focused on pharmacologically characterizing prostaglandin FP receptor (FP) and FP receptor variant (altFP) complexes. Experimental approach: FP receptor mRNA variants were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The FP-altFP4 heterodimers were established in HEK293/EBNA cells co-expressing FP and altFP4 receptor variants. A fluorometric imaging plate reader was used to study Ca2+ mobilization. Upregulation of cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (Cyr61) mRNA was measured by Northern blot analysis, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by western analysis. Key results: Six splicing variants of FP receptor mRNA were identified in human ocular tissues. Immunoprecipitation confirmed that the FP receptor is dimerized with altFP4 receptors in HEK293/EBNA cells co-expressing FP and altFP4 receptors. In the studies of the kinetic profile for Ca2+ mobilization, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) elicited a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ followed by a steady state phase. In contrast, bimatoprost elicited an immediate increase in intracellular Ca2+ followed by a second phase. The prostamide antagonist, AGN211335, selectively and dose-dependently inhibited the bimatoprost-initiated second phase of Ca2+ mobilization, Cyr61 mRNA upregulation and MLC phosphorylation, but did not block the action of PGF2α. Conclusion and implications: Bimatoprost lacks effects on the FP receptor but may interact with the FP-altFP receptor heterodimer to induce alterations in second messenger signalling. Hence, FP-altFP complexes may represent the underlying basis of bimatoprost pharmacology. PMID:18587449

  10. Alternative end-joining repair pathways are the ultimate backup for abrogated classical non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination repair: Implications for the formation of chromosome translocations.

    PubMed

    Iliakis, George; Murmann, Tamara; Soni, Aashish

    2015-11-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are the most deleterious lesions for the integrity of the genome, as their misrepair can lead to the formation of chromosome translocations. Cells have evolved two main repair pathways to suppress the formation of these genotoxic lesions: homology-dependent, error-free homologous recombination repair (HRR), and potentially error-prone, classical, DNA-PK-dependent non-homologous end-joining (c-NHEJ). The most salient feature of c-NHEJ, speed, will largely suppress chromosome translocation formation, while sequence alterations at the junction remain possible. It is now widely accepted that when c-NHEJ is inactivated, globally or locally, an alternative form of end-joining (alt-EJ) removes DSBs. Alt-EJ operates with speed and fidelity markedly lower than c-NHEJ, causing thus with higher probability chromosome translocations, and generating more extensive sequence alterations at the junction. Our working hypothesis is that alt-EJ operates as a backup to c-NHEJ. Recent results show that alt-EJ can also backup abrogated HRR in G2 phase cells, again at the cost of elevated formation of chromosome translocations. These observations raise alt-EJ to a global rescuing mechanism operating on ends that have lost their chromatin context in ways that compromise processing by HRR or c-NHEJ. While responsible for eliminating from the genome highly cytotoxic DNA ends, alt-EJ provides this function at the price of increased translocation formation. Here, we analyze recent literature on the mechanisms of chromosome translocation formation and propose a functional hierarchy among DSB processing pathways that makes alt-EJ the global backup pathway. We discuss possible ramifications of this model in cellular DSB management and pathway choice, and analyze its implications in radiation carcinogenesis and the design of novel therapeutic approaches.

  11. The roles of intrahepatic Valpha14(+) NK1.1(+) T cells for liver injury induced by Salmonella infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Ishigami, M; Nishimura, H; Naiki, Y; Yoshioka, K; Kawano, T; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, M; Kakumu, S; Yoshikai, Y

    1999-06-01

    To investigate the roles of intrahepatic T cells in liver injury after Salmonella infection, we examined serum alanine transaminase (ALT), histopathology, and bacterial numbers in liver after infection with Salmonella choleraesuis strain 31N-1 in mice genetically lacking TCRalpha beta+, CD4(+), CD8(+), or NK1.1(+)T cells with C57BL/6 background. In control (+/+) mice, serum ALT reached a peak level by day 7 after an intraperitoneal inoculation of 2 x 10(6) CFU Salmonella choleraesuis 31N-1. In TCR-beta-/- mice, liver injury, as assessed by serum ALT level and histological examination, was significantly suppressed on day 7 after Salmonella infection but the numbers of bacteria in liver did not differ from those in normal mice, suggesting that alpha beta T cells are responsible for liver injury induced by Salmonella infection. To further determine which subsets in alpha beta T cells are important for the liver injury, we compared serum ALT level in mice genetically lacking CD4, CD8, beta2-microglobulin (beta2m, IAbeta, or Jalpha281 after Salmonella infection. In CD4(-/-) mice, serum ALT was significantly lower in comparison with control mice, but there was no difference in serum ALT levels in CD8(-/-) and IAbeta-/- mice from that in control mice. Notably, serum ALT levels and pathological lesions in liver were significantly decreased in beta2m-/- or Jalpha281(-/-) mice, which lacked in NK1.1(+) T cells bearing TCR Valpha14-Jalpha281 specific for beta2m-associated CD1d, following Salmonella infection. Taken together, it is suggested that alpha beta T cells bearing NK1.1 and CD4 may be main effector cells for liver injury after Salmonella infection.

  12. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of Cerebrovascular CO2 Reactivity Following Acclimatization to High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jui-Lin; Subudhi, Andrew W; Duffin, James; Lovering, Andrew T; Roach, Robert C; Kayser, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv) responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL), upon ascent (ALT1) and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16) to 5260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95 vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P = 0.024) and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5%/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P = 0.026) to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177, 95% CI [139, 215], P < 0.001; slope: 10.3%/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P = 0.003) compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P = 0.982), while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P = 0.001 vs. SL), indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude.

  13. Urban Geocryology: Mapping Urban-Rural Contrasts in Active-Layer Thickness, Barrow Penninsula, Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klene, A. E.; Nelson, F. E.

    2014-12-01

    As development proceeds in the high latitudes, information about interactions between urban influences and the thickness of the active layer above permafrost becomes vital, particularly given the possibility of increasing temperatures accompanying climate change. Permafrost characteristics are often mapped at small geographical scales (i.e., over large areas), at low resolution, and without extensive field validation. Although maps of active-layer thickness (ALT) have been created for areas of relatively undisturbed terrain, this has rarely been done within urbanized areas, even though ALT is a critical factor in the design of roads, buildings, pipelines, and other elements of infrastructure. The need for detailed maps of ALT is emphasized in work on potential hazards in permafrost regions associated with global warming scenarios. Northern Alaska is a region considered to be at moderate to high risk for thaw-induced damage under climatic warming. The Native Village of Barrow (71°17'44"N; 156°45' 59"W), the economic, transportation, and administrative hub of the North Slope Borough, is the northernmost community in the USA, and the largest native settlement in the circum-Arctic. A winter urban heat island in Barrow, earlier snowmelt in the village, and dust deposition downwind of gravel pads and roads are all urban effects that could increase ALT. A recent empirical study documented a 17 to 41 cm difference in ALT between locations in the village of Barrow and surrounding undeveloped tundra, even in similar land-cover classes. We mapped ALT in the Barrow Peninsula, with particular attention to contrasts between the urbanized village and relatively undisturbed tundra in the nearby Barrow Environmental Observatory. The modified Berggren solution, an advanced analytic solution to the general Stefan problem of calculating frost and thaw depth, was used in a geographic context to map ALT over the 150 km² area investigated in the Barrow Urban Heat Island Study. The

  14. A conserved alternative form of the purple sea urchin HEB/E2-2/E2A transcription factor mediates a switch in E-protein regulatory state in differentiating immune cells.

    PubMed

    Schrankel, Catherine S; Solek, Cynthia M; Buckley, Katherine M; Anderson, Michele K; Rast, Jonathan P

    2016-08-01

    E-proteins are basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors with essential roles in animal development. In mammals, these are encoded by three loci: E2-2 (ITF-2/ME2/SEF2/TCF4), E2A (TCF3), and HEB (ME1/REB/TCF12). The HEB and E2-2 paralogs are expressed as alternative (Alt) isoforms with distinct N-terminal sequences encoded by unique exons under separate regulatory control. Expression of these alternative transcripts is restricted relative to the longer (Can) forms, suggesting distinct regulatory roles, although the functions of the Alt proteins remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the single sea urchin E-protein ortholog (SpE-protein). The organization of the SpE-protein gene closely resembles that of the extended HEB/E2-2 vertebrate loci, including a transcript that initiates at a homologous alternative transcription start site (SpE-Alt). The existence of an Alt form in the sea urchin indicates that this feature predates the emergence of the vertebrates. We present additional evidence indicating that this transcript was present in the common bilaterian ancestor. In contrast to the widely expressed canonical form (SpE-Can), SpE-Alt expression is tightly restricted. SpE-Alt is expressed in two phases: first in aboral non-skeletogenic mesenchyme (NSM) cells and then in oral NSM cells preceding their differentiation and ingression into the blastocoel. Derivatives of these cells mediate immune response in the larval stage. Inhibition of SpE-Alt activity interferes with these events. Notably, although the two isoforms are initially co-expressed, as these cells differentiate, SpE-Can is excluded from the SpE-Alt(+) cell population. This mutually exclusive expression is dependent on SpE-Alt function, which reveals a previously undescribed negative regulatory linkage between the two E-protein forms. Collectively, these findings reorient our understanding of the evolution of this transcription factor family and highlight fundamental properties of E

  15. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of Cerebrovascular CO2 Reactivity Following Acclimatization to High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jui-Lin; Subudhi, Andrew W.; Duffin, James; Lovering, Andrew T.; Roach, Robert C.; Kayser, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv) responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL), upon ascent (ALT1) and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16) to 5260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95 vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P = 0.024) and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5%/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P = 0.026) to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177, 95% CI [139, 215], P < 0.001; slope: 10.3%/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P = 0.003) compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P = 0.982), while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P = 0.001 vs. SL), indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude. PMID:26779030

  16. Long-term day-and-night rotating shift work poses a barrier to the normalization of alanine transaminase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Hsieh, I-Chun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of day-and-night rotating shift work (RSW) on liver health, we performed a retrospective analysis of the association between long-term RSW exposure and the normalization of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) levels over a five-year period. The data from physical examinations, blood tests, abdominal sonographic examinations, personal histories, and occupational records were collected from a cohort of workers in a semiconductor manufacturing company. The sample population was divided into three subgroups for analysis, according to self-reported shift work status over the five-year interval: persistent daytime workers, workers exposed intermittently to RSW (i-RSW), and workers exposed persistently to RSW (p-RSW). Records were analyzed for 1196 male workers with an initial mean age of 32.5 years (SD 6.0 years), of whom 821 (68.7%) were identified as rotating shift workers, including 374 i-RSW (31.3%) and 447 p-RSW workers (37.4%). At the beginning of the follow-up, 275 were found to have elevated ALT (e-ALT): 25.1% daytime workers, 23.0% i-RSW workers, and 21.3% p-RSW workers (p = 0.098). Of those with e-ALT at the beginning, 101 workers showed normalized serum ALT levels at the end of five-year follow-up: 40 (10.7%) of 375 daytime workers, 32 (8.6%) of 374 i-RSW workers, and 29 (6.5%) of 447 p-RSW workers (p = 0.016). Compared with the workers having persistent e-ALT at the end of follow-up, the workers normalized serum ALT levels had significantly lesser exposures to RSW during follow-up. By performing multivariate logistic regression analyses, and comparing with the persistent daytime co-workers, after controlling for confounding variables (age, occupational factors, educational levels, lifestyle factors, metabolic syndrome, hepatovirus infection, and fatty liver), analysis indicated that the workers exposed to p-RSW were 46% less likely (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.30-0.95; p = 0.03) to attain normal ALT levels within a five-year interval

  17. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and hepatotoxicity in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longhao; Chen, Qiyan; Li, Ling; Kwong, Joey S W; Jia, Pengli; Zhao, Pujing; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Mingming; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) was reported to be associated with several rare adverse hepatic events, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the risk of hepatotoxicity associated with the use of AGIs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fourteen studies (n = 2881) were eligible, all of which were RCTs. Meta-analysis of data regarding elevation of more than 3-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) of AST and ALT showed statistically significant differences between AGIs treatment versus control (OR 6.86, 95% CI 2.50 to 18.80; OR 6.48, 95% CI 2.40 to 17.49). Subgroup analyses of elevation of more than 1.8-fold ULN of AST and ALT by dose of AGIs showed differential effects on AST and ALT (AST: OR 0.38 vs 7.31, interaction P = 0.003; ALT: OR 0.32 vs 4.55, interaction p = 0.02). Meta-analysis showed that AGIs might increase the risk of hepatotoxicity, and higher dose appeared to be associated with higher risk of hepatotoxicity. However, the evidence is limited with surrogate measures (i.e. ALT and AST), and no clinically important adverse events were observed. PMID:27596383

  18. Extending airborne electromagnetic surveys for regional active layer and permafrost mapping with remote sensing and ancillary data, Yukon Flats ecoregion, central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pastick, Neal J.; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Wylie, Bruce K.; Minsley, Burke J.; Ji, Lei; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Rose, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    Machine-learning regression tree models were used to extrapolate airborne electromagnetic resistivity data collected along flight lines in the Yukon Flats Ecoregion, central Alaska, for regional mapping of permafrost. This method of extrapolation (r = 0.86) used subsurface resistivity, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) at-sensor reflectance, thermal, TM-derived spectral indices, digital elevation models and other relevant spatial data to estimate near-surface (0–2.6-m depth) resistivity at 30-m resolution. A piecewise regression model (r = 0.82) and a presence/absence decision tree classification (accuracy of 87%) were used to estimate active-layer thickness (ALT) (< 101 cm) and the probability of near-surface (up to 123-cm depth) permafrost occurrence from field data, modelled near-surface (0–2.6 m) resistivity, and other relevant remote sensing and map data. At site scale, the predicted ALTs were similar to those previously observed for different vegetation types. At the landscape scale, the predicted ALTs tended to be thinner on higher-elevation loess deposits than on low-lying alluvial and sand sheet deposits of the Yukon Flats. The ALT and permafrost maps provide a baseline for future permafrost monitoring, serve as inputs for modelling hydrological and carbon cycles at local to regional scales, and offer insight into the ALT response to fire and thaw processes.

  19. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  20. Molecular characterization of Aeromonas species isolated from farmed eels (Anguilla japonica).

    PubMed

    Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2013-05-31

    Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel.

  1. Meta-analysis of the influence of TM6SF2 E167K variant on Plasma Concentration of Aminotransferases across different Populations and Diverse Liver Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    A nonsynonymous E167K (rs58542926 C/T) variant in TM6SF2 gene was recently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We explored the association between E167K and plasma concentrations of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases through a meta-analysis. We also estimated the strength of the effect across diverse liver phenotypes, including NAFLD and chronic viral hepatitis; fourteen studies were included. We found that ALT (p = 3.2 × 10−6, n = 94,414) and AST (p = 0007, n = 93,809) levels were significantly associated with rs58542926 in NAFLD. By contrast, rs58542926 was not associated with either ALT (p = 0.24, n = 4187) or AST (p = 0.17, n = 2678) levels in four studies on chronic hepatitis. In conclusion, the results of the pooled estimates in patients with NAFLD showed that carriers of the T allele (EK + KK), when compared with homozygous subjects for the C allele (EE genotype) have increased levels of aminotransferases; however, this increase represents –2.5 (9.8%) and 1.2 (5%) IU/L of ALT and AST respectively, which is fairly small compared with the large effect of PNPLA3- rs738409-G allele that is associated with a –28% increase in serum ALT. PMID:27278285

  2. Large-scale analysis of factors influencing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its relationship with liver enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bi, W R; Yang, C Q; Shi, Q; Xu, Y; Cao, C P; Ling, J; Wang, X Y

    2014-01-01

    Serum liver enzyme levels are often used effectively for the evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to investigate the associations between serum liver enzyme levels and risks for NAFLD in over 8000 cases in a large-scale analysis. A cross-sectional survey with multiple stages and random samplings was performed from May 2007 to May 2009 on 8102 workers at Tongji University. A questionnaire was given, assessments of physical measurements, plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and liver enzymes were made, and real-time liver ultrasounds conducted. The prevalence of NAFLD in Tongji University was 22.2%. It was higher in males than in females (P = 0.0023). The body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum total triglycerides, serum total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) values were all higher in the NAFLD group than in the control group. For moderate and severe NAFLD patients, the ALT, AST and GGT values were significantly increased, high density lipoprotein cholesterol was decreased, and drinking much, heavy entertainment and less exercise were more prevalent (P < 0.001). There were strong correlations between serum liver enzyme levels and NAFLD (P < 0.001), with GGT being a more sensitive marker for NAFLD than ALT or AST. ALT and GGT were independent predictors for NAFLD, and GGT was a better predictor than ALT for NAFLD. PMID:25117346

  3. Metabolic disease in 10 patients with sudden unexpected death in infancy or acute life-threatening events.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tomoo; Yamada, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Yuki; Taketani, Takeshi; Fukuda, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2015-06-01

    In order to determine the associations between sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) or acute life-threatening events (ALTE) and inborn errors of metabolism, particularly organic acidemia and fatty acid oxidation disorders, we evaluated clinical features in patients with SUDI or ALTE. The subjects were infants between the ages of 7 days and 3 years who developed SUDI or ALTE between January 2004 and December 2013. They were then diagnosed as having inborn errors of metabolism on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and/or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The age distribution, onset forms, and clinical findings were evaluated during the acute phase. Inborn errors of metabolism were detected in three of 196 patients with SUDI, and in seven of 167 patients with ALTE. Of these 10 patients, nine had a history of poor feeding and somnolence during the neonatal period, and symptoms of infection such as cough, fever or vomiting during infancy. Routine laboratory tests during an acute phase indicated hyperammonemia, liver dysfunction, increased blood creatine kinase, acidosis, positive ketone bodies in urine or blood, or hypoglycemia. When SUDI or ALTE are encountered in the emergency unit, it is essential that a detailed medical history is taken, particularly with regard to the neonatal period, and that specific abnormalities are investigated on routine laboratory tests. Moreover, samples such as urine, serum, and filter paper blood specimens should be collected for GC/MS and/or MS/MS of organic acids and acylcarnitines, to identify inborn metabolic disorders.

  4. Can Aging in Place Be Cost Effective? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Graybill, Erin M.; McMeekin, Peter; Wildman, John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study To systematically review cost, cost-minimization and cost-effectiveness studies for assisted living technologies (ALTs) that specifically enable older people to ‘age in place’ and highlight what further research is needed to inform decisions regarding aging in place. Design People aged 65+ and their live-in carers (where applicable), using an ALT to age in place at home opposed to a community-dwelling arrangement. Methods Studies were identified using a predefined search strategy on two key economic and cost evaluation databases NHS EED, HEED. Studies were assessed using methods recommended by the Campbell and Cochrane Economic Methods Group and presented in a narrative synthesis style. Results Eight eligible studies were identified from North America spread over a diverse geographical range. The majority of studies reported the ALT intervention group as having lower resource use costs than the control group; though the low methodological quality and heterogeneity of the individual costs and outcomes reported across studies must be considered. Implications The studies suggest that in some cases ALTs may reduce costs, though little data were identified and what there were was of poor quality. Methods to capture quality of life gains were not used, therefore potential effects on health and wellbeing may be missed. Further research is required using newer developments such as the capabilities approach. High quality studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of ALTs for ageing in place are required before robust conclusion on their use can be drawn. PMID:25058505

  5. [Telomere Recombination in Normal Mammalian Cells].

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, N S; Rubtsov, N B

    2016-01-01

    Two mechanisms of telomere length maintenance are known to date. The first includes the use of a special enzymatic telomerase complex to solve the problems that arise during the replication of linear DNA in a normal diploid and part of tumor cells. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), which is based on the homologous recombination of telomere DNA, represents the second mechanism. Until recently, ALT was assumed to be expressed only in 15-20% of tumors lacking active telomerase and, together with telomerase reactivation represented one of two possibilities to overcome the replicative senescence observed in somatic mammalian cells due to aging or during cell culturing in vitro. Previously described sporadic cases of combinations of the two mechanisms of telomere length maintenance in several cell lines in vitro were attributed to the experimental design rather than to a real biological phenomenon, since active cellular division without active telomerase was considered to be the "gold standard" of ALT. The present review describes the morphological and functional reorganizations of mammalian telomeres observed with ALT activation, as well as recently observed,and well-documented cases of combinations between ALT-like and telomerase-dependent mechanisms in mammalian cells. The possible role of telomere recombination in telomerase-dependent cells is discussed.

  6. Comparison of donor-site morbidity and satisfaction between anterolateral thigh and parascapular free flaps in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sebastian; Klinkenberg, Marek; Behr, Bjoern; Hirsch, Tobias; Kremer, Thomas; Hernekamp, Frederick; Kolbenschlag, Jonas; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Kneser, Ulrich; Daigeler, Adrien

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare donor-site morbidity after anterolateral thigh (ALT) and parascapular (PS) free flap harvest in the same patient. A total of 13 patients were included in this study. Because of initial flap loss, each patient received ALT as well as PS free flap transplantation. A total of 10 patients were available for follow-up. The average follow-up time was 44.5 months. Besides physical examination, range of motion and scar dimensions were assessed to objectify donor-site deficiencies. The subjective donor-site morbidity was assessed by the patients using a self-report questionnaire. In addition, patients were requested to state their donor-site preference. ALT donor site revealed more sensitivity deficiencies compared with the PS harvest site (8 vs. 4). The latter provoked less functional impairments (1 vs. 2). Scar dimensions were larger at PS harvest site (25.8 × 4.3 cm vs. 23.3 × 3.6 cm). Patients' satisfaction was in favor of the PS donor site (1.9 vs. 2.7). Among the 10 patients, 7 patients preferred the PS and 3 patients preferred the ALT donor site. Comparison of donor-site morbidities in the same patient reveals a valuable tool to diminish individual bias. Despite the low number of cases, we were able to demonstrate the superiority of PS compared with ALT donor sites.The Level of Evidence of the study is III.

  7. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tomas K.; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  8. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and hepatotoxicity in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Longhao; Chen, Qiyan; Li, Ling; Kwong, Joey S. W.; Jia, Pengli; Zhao, Pujing; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Mingming; Sun, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) was reported to be associated with several rare adverse hepatic events, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the risk of hepatotoxicity associated with the use of AGIs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fourteen studies (n = 2881) were eligible, all of which were RCTs. Meta-analysis of data regarding elevation of more than 3-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) of AST and ALT showed statistically significant differences between AGIs treatment versus control (OR 6.86, 95% CI 2.50 to 18.80; OR 6.48, 95% CI 2.40 to 17.49). Subgroup analyses of elevation of more than 1.8-fold ULN of AST and ALT by dose of AGIs showed differential effects on AST and ALT (AST: OR 0.38 vs 7.31, interaction P = 0.003 ALT: OR 0.32 vs 4.55, interaction p = 0.02). Meta-analysis showed that AGIs might increase the risk of hepatotoxicity, and higher dose appeared to be associated with higher risk of hepatotoxicity. However, the evidence is limited with surrogate measures (i.e. ALT and AST), and no clinically important adverse events were observed.

  9. Comparative toxicity of pentachlorophenol to three earthworm species in artificial soil

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, D.; Lanno, R.P.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    Although methods for standardized toxicity tests with earthworms exist, many of the test parameters and conditions have not been validated in actual tests and with different species of worms. This study evaluated the toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to three species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida, and Eudrilus eugeniae using various methods of data analysis and body residues. Tests were conducted in artificial soil for a period of 28 days or until an Acute Lethality Threshold (ALT) was reached. An intensive temporal sampling regime was applied to generate sufficient data for the accurate estimation of ALTs using both LC50/time and time-to-death/soil concentration methods of data analysis. L. terrestris was tested at 15 C, E. eugeniae at 24 C, and E. fetida at both temperatures. Total body residues of PCP were measured by GC following cryogenic separation of the lipid fraction of the worm. ALTs were significantly different between E. fetida and the two larger species of worms. No effect of temperature on the ALT for E. fetida was observed, although the time taken to reach the ALT increased at the lower temperature. The relationship of PCP residues at mortality will be discussed in terms of the effects of species, body size and temperature. Limitations of the artificial soil based upon growth curves of worms will also be examined.

  10. Lower extremity reconstruction with the anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Naveed; Chao, Albert H; Chang, David W; Yu, Peirong

    2012-05-01

    The versatility and location of the anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap make it well suited for lower extremity reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate surgical and functional outcomes by specific anatomic regions in the lower extremity to better define the role of the ALT flap in lower extremity reconstruction. A retrospective review of patients undergoing lower extremity reconstruction with an ALT flap between July 2002 and December 2010 was performed. Total 46 patients underwent lower extremity reconstruction with an ALT flap, of whom 29 (63%) had a pedicled flap and 17 (37%) a microvascular free flap. Defects were located in the hip/buttocks (n = 8), groin (n = 13), thigh (n = 8), knee (n = 5), leg (n = 6), and foot/ankle (n = 6). The mean postoperative follow-up was 4 months. Total flap loss occurred in two patients (4%). There were 11 recipient site complications (24%). The most common complication was recipient site seroma, which occurred in five patients (11%), all of whom had hip/buttock or groin defects. Overall, 38 patients (83%) returned to their preoperative functional status. The ALT flap is an effective method of lower extremity reconstruction. It can be performed as a pedicled or free flap, with good surgical and functional outcomes. PMID:22399252

  11. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and hepatotoxicity in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longhao; Chen, Qiyan; Li, Ling; Kwong, Joey S. W.; Jia, Pengli; Zhao, Pujing; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Mingming; Sun, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) was reported to be associated with several rare adverse hepatic events, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the risk of hepatotoxicity associated with the use of AGIs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fourteen studies (n = 2881) were eligible, all of which were RCTs. Meta-analysis of data regarding elevation of more than 3-fold the upper limit of normal (ULN) of AST and ALT showed statistically significant differences between AGIs treatment versus control (OR 6.86, 95% CI 2.50 to 18.80; OR 6.48, 95% CI 2.40 to 17.49). Subgroup analyses of elevation of more than 1.8-fold ULN of AST and ALT by dose of AGIs showed differential effects on AST and ALT (AST: OR 0.38 vs 7.31, interaction P = 0.003; ALT: OR 0.32 vs 4.55, interaction p = 0.02). Meta-analysis showed that AGIs might increase the risk of hepatotoxicity, and higher dose appeared to be associated with higher risk of hepatotoxicity. However, the evidence is limited with surrogate measures (i.e. ALT and AST), and no clinically important adverse events were observed. PMID:27596383

  12. Telomere Transcripts Target Telomerase in Human Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kreilmeier, Theresa; Mejri, Doris; Hauck, Marlene; Kleiter, Miriam; Holzmann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding transcripts from telomeres, called telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), were identified as blocking telomerase activity (TA), a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM), in tumors. We expressed recombinant TERRA transcripts in tumor cell lines with TA and with alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to study effects on TMM and cell growth. Adeno- and lentivirus constructs (AV and LV) were established for transient and stable expression of approximately 130 units of telomere hexanucleotide repeats under control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human RNase P RNA H1 (hH1) promoters with and without polyadenylation, respectively. Six human tumor cell lines either using telomerase or ALT were infected and analyzed for TA levels. Pre-infection cells using telomerase had 1%-3% of the TERRA expression levels of ALT cells. AV and LV expression of recombinant TERRA in telomerase positive cells showed a 1.3-2.6 fold increase in TERRA levels, and a decrease in TA of 25%-58%. Dominant-negative or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) viral expression against human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) results in senescence, not induced by TERRA expression. Population doubling time, cell viability and TL (telomere length) were not impacted by ectopic TERRA expression. Clonal growth was reduced by TERRA expression in TA but not ALT cell lines. ALT cells were not affected by treatments applied. Established cell models and tools may be used to better understand the role of TERRA in the cell, especially for targeting telomerase. PMID:27537914

  13. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners. PMID:26783415

  14. Hepatic necroinflammation and severe liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B with undetectable HBV DNA and persistently normal alanine aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Alam, M M; Mahtab, M A; Akbar, S M F; Kamal, M; Rahman, S

    2014-12-01

    Both consensus and controversy remains regarding surrogacy of hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), however, these markers are used to ascertain the extent of liver damages and to guide therapeutic options in patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, little is known about liver histology of patients with chronic hepatitis B with undetectable HBV DNA and persistently normal ALT. Thirty-five incidentally-detected patients with chronic HBV infection (assessed by expression of hepatitis B surface antigen for more than 6 months) with undetectable HBV DNA and normal serum ALT were enrolled in this study. Liver biopsy specimens were taken from all patients and the extent of hepatic necroinflammation and liver fibrosis were evaluated. Moderate degree of hepatic necroinflammation was detected in 2 of 35 patients and severe hepatic fibrosis was seen in 6 of 35 patients. Two patients with undetectable HBV DNA and sustained normal ALT had moderate hepatic necroinflammation and severe hepatic fibrosis. In spite of undetectable HBV DNA for prolonged period and persistently normal ALT, some patients with chronic hepatitis B express evidences of progressive liver diseases. Large scale studies in different races and geographical regions should be accomplished to develop insights about management of these patients. Studies about extent of liver diseases in these patients should be accomplished in Treatment recommendation and management strategies should be developed for these patients. PMID:26402972

  15. Marine Magnetic Anomalies of the Northern Part of the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zoubi, A.

    2009-04-01

    MARINE MAGNETIC ANOMALIES OF THE NORTHERN PART OF THE GULF OF AQABA, DEAD SEA RIFT Al-Zoubi (1), Z. Ben-Avraham (2), T. M. Niemi (3), E. Akawi (1), G. Tibor (4), R. Al-Rzouq (1), J.K. Hall (5), A. Abueladas (1), G. Hartman (2) (1) Surveying & Geomatics Department, Al-Balqa' Applied University, Salt, Jordan (2) Department of Geophysics & Planetary Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel (3) University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA. (4) Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Haifa, Israel (5) Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, Israel A high-resolution marine magnetic survey in the northern part of the Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift was carried out during October and November 2006. The survey led by an international research group (Israel, Jordan, and USA) funded by MERC, USA and aims to provide the municipalities of Aqaba and Elat a base map of active faults for seismic hazard assessment. The total magnetic intensity at sea surface was measured by a proton precession magnetometer. Diurnal magnetic variation was corrected from the data by using the observation located in southern part of Israel during the survey period. The correction of the external field variation was carried out based on the continuous magnetic observations at a reference magnetic observatory close to the survey area. For calculations of the total intensity of magnetic anomaly, the IGRF model was used as the core field model in accordance with the recommendation of the IAGA. Geomagnetic total intensity anomaly map of the study area has been produced. The magnetic anomaly map shows that there are two major magnetic trends appear in the study area. These are the magnetic high across the northwest section of the Gulf and a magnetic low across the southeast section. These two general trends are divided by a northeast-trending boundary. The magnetic map reveals a complex faults system between the deep part of the Gulf as a pull-apart basin and the on land transform fault in the Araba

  16. Geochemical characterization of fluids along the Dead Sea Rift: implications for fluids sources and regional geodynamic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Censi, Paolo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Zuddas, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea Fault where a lateral displacement between the African and Arabian plates occurs is characterized by anomalous heat flux in the northern Israel area close to the border with Syria and Jordan (Shalev et al., 2012). The concentrations of He and CO2, and isotopic composition of He and total dissolved inorganic carbon were studied in cold and thermal waters collected along the Dead Sea Fault, in order to investigate the source of volatiles and their relationship with the tectonic framework of the Dead Sea Fault. The waters with higher temperature (up to 57.2 ° C) are characterized by higher amounts of CO2and helium (up to 55.72 and 1.91*10-2 cc l-1, respectively). Helium isotopic data (R/Ra from 0.11 to 2.14) and 4He/20Ne ratios (0.41 - 106.86) show the presence of deep-deriving fluids consisting of a variable mixture of mantle and crust end-members, with the former reaching up to 35%. Carbon isotope signature of total dissolved carbon from hot waters falls within the range of magmatic values, suggesting the delivery of deep-seated CO2. The geographical distribution of helium isotopic data and isotopic carbon (CO2) values coupled with (CO2/3He ratios) indicate a larger contribution of mantle-derived fluids affecting the northern part of the investigated area, where the waters reach the highest temperature and anomalous heat flux was recognized by Shalev et al. (2012). Such occurrence is probably favoured by the peculiar tectonic framework recognized in the northern part of Israel (Segev et al., 2006), including a Moho discontinuity up-rise and/or the presence of a deep fault system coupled with the recent magmatic activity. References: Segev, A., Rybakov, M., Lyakhovsky, V, Hofstetter, A, Tibor, G., Goldshmidt, V., 2006. The structure, isostasy and gravity field of the Levant continental margin and the southeast Mediterranean area. Tectonophysics 425, 137-157. Shalev, E., Lyakhosky, V., Weinstein, Y., Ben-Avraham, Z., 2013. The thermal structure of Israel

  17. The Online Mineral Library at the University of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Burdette, E.; Clayton, M.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Minnesota maintains a world-class mineral collection comprising over 7000 specimens, many of which are museum quality. Prof. Newton H. Winchell started the collection in the 1850s shortly after the founding of the University itself. Many of the specimens come from pioneering mineralogists such as Winchell, George F. Kunz, and Tibor Zoltai. A small fraction of the most eye-catching samples are on public display within the Department of Earth Sciences, but until recently the vast majority of the collection was housed in locked metal cabinets, which meant that the collection received very little use by students and researchers. To improve the visibility and accessibility of our mineral collection we created an elegant, database-driven website (http://mineral.esci.umn.edu/). This dynamic website is one of the more extensive of its kind and allows the collection to be used as a tool for teaching and research. The searchable, online database contains high-resolution photographs of the University's mineral collection and provides access to the complete collection. Administrators can link numerous specimens to create online "collections" that emphasize particular themes, e.g., economic mineralogy, common mineral donors, or common geographic origin. The online database has already been interwoven into courses for Earth Science majors and non-majors. Researchers are able to explore the library for mineral standards for instrument calibration or more involved experimental research. Further, the online library allows graduate students and faculty to "check out" certain mineral specimens for research, which for the first time allows us to accurately track the use of the collection. The electronic framework for the Online Mineral Library was constructed using the Drupal open source content management system. Undergraduate interns are in the process of systematically photographing each of the mineral specimens for inclusion in the Online Library. Additionally

  18. The past, present and future tasks of Hungarian dendrological research.

    PubMed

    Bartha, D

    2010-01-01

    Hungarian dendrological research (research of living woody plants) has more than 200 years old history; the first general work by János Keresztély Grossinger was published in 1797. Further basic works in our time yet are: Forest Botany by Lajos Fekete and Sándor Mágócsy-Dietz (1896); and the chorological work, Distribution of trees and shrubs of sylvicultural importance in the region of Hungarian State by Lajos Fekete and Tibor Blattny (1913). A few dendrologists and many botanists have helped to get better knowledge of Hungarian dendroflora. From the point of view of taxonomy, chorology and habitat - which are interested by field botanists - it can be said that knowledge is fairly heterogeneous. There are sufficient information about most of the rare (protected/endangered) woody plants (an about 50 species) and the important adventives, above all invasive trees and shrubs (an about 10 species). From these two groups beyond there are only few taxa which can be said thoroughly worked up and known (e.g. Castanea sativa, Cornus mas, Fraxinus spp., Quercus spp.). List of the dendrotaxa, hardly known in the above-mentioned point of view is rich in species that are important for forestry or horticulture (e.g. Alnus glutinosa, Acer spp., Betula pendula, Corylusavellana and most of Salix spp.), supplemented with other species (e.g. Clematis vitalba, Colutea arborescens, Lonicera xylosteum, Padus avium, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, Viburnum spp.).Followings can be asked from our field botanists: i) look for a specialist in cases of critical dendrotaxa; ii) a circumspect identification is necessary - especially in the case of leaves - by right of great number of samples from the adequate part of shoot; iii) keep in view frequent hybridization (e.g. in the case of Betula, Crataegus, Pyrus, Tilia), and frequent appearance of hybrids (e.g. Betula × rhombifolia, Cerasus × eminens, Salix × rubens); iv) appearance of interim forms are usually typical in the cases of

  19. Coexposure of lead- and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in rats: involvement of nitric oxide-initiated oxidative stress and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Yie; Cheng, Yu-Jung; Chen, Cheng-Kuang; Yang, Bei-Chang

    2005-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lead (Pb) and the involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and oxidative stress in Pb-plus-LPS (Pb/LPS)-induced liver damage in rats. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-alpha, nitric oxide (NO), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in rats treated with Pb and/or LPS. Pb ranging from 0 to 15 mg/kg dose dependently increased AST, ALT, NO, or LPO in LPS-treated rats. Pretreatment with iNOS inhibitor 1400W reduced NO, LPO, TNF-alpha, AST, and ALT in Pb/LPS-treated rats. Thus, Pb increased LPS-induced liver damage, which might be associated with increased NO-initiated oxidative stress and TNF-alpha in rats.

  20. [Severe apparent life-threatening event during "skin-to-skin": treatment with hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Marin, N; Valverde, E; Cabañas, F

    2013-10-01

    'Skin-to-skin' in healthy newborn infants is currently routine practice in Spanish maternity wards. This practice has shown benefits in increasing the duration of breast-feeding and maternal bonding behaviour with no significant adverse events. Early sudden deaths and severe apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) during the first 24 hours of life are infrequent, but well recognised. Risk factors during 'skin to skin' have been established. These events can lead to high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hypothermia is now the standard of care for moderate to severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and has shown to reduce mortality and neurological morbidity in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Although there are no clinical trials that evaluate hypothermia after a severe ALTE, neonates who suffer it should be considered for this treatment. We present a case of a healthy newborn who had an ALTE during skin-to-skin with his mother and was treated with hypothermia.

  1. Diode versus argon-green laser panretinal photocoagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a randomized study in 44 eyes with a long follow-up time.

    PubMed

    Bandello, F; Brancato, R; Trabucchi, G; Lattanzio, R; Malegori, A

    1993-09-01

    A clinical randomized study using argon-green (532 nm) and diode (810 nm) lasers was carried out on 44 eyes (34 patients) affected by proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), with the aim of evaluating the long-term effects of diode panretinal photocoagulation. Of the total 44 eyes, 22 were randomized to argon laser treatment (ALT) and 22 to diode laser treatment (DLT). The mean follow-up time was 25 +/- 5 months in the ALT group versus 24 +/- 4 months in the DLT group. In the ALT group 20 eyes (91%) showed regression of PDR whereas 2 eyes (9%) deteriorated. In the DLT group regression of neovascularization was observed in 22 eyes (100%). These results show that the long-term efficacy of diode laser PRP in the treatment of PDR is similar to that of argon-green laser PRP. PMID:8224951

  2. Abnormal liver function in workers exposed to low levels of ethylene dichloride and vinyl chloride monomer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, T J; Huang, M L; You, N C; Du, C L; Chau, T T

    1999-12-01

    We investigated whether exposure to ethylene dichloride (EDC) and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) resulted in increased risk of liver damage. Epidemiological information, including occupational, medical, smoking, and drinking history, was obtained by interview from 251 male workers. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were used as indicators of liver damage. Exposure to moderate or low levels of ECD and VCM resulted in a higher risk of developing abnormal ALT levels than did exposure to lower levels of the chemicals. Results were similar for AST. GGT was not associated with EDC or VCM exposure. Combined exposure to EDC and VCM showed a dose-response relationship in association with abnormal ALT levels. We concluded that relatively low concentrations of VCM and EDC cause liver damage.

  3. Genomes of surface isolates of Alteromonas macleodii: the life of a widespread marine opportunistic copiotroph.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Onyshchenko, Olga; Ghavidel, Akbar; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii is a marine gammaproteobacterium with widespread distribution in temperate or tropical waters. We describe three genomes of isolates from surface waters around Europe (Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea) and compare them with a previously described deep Mediterranean isolate (AltDE) that belongs to a widely divergent clade. The surface isolates are quite similar, the most divergent being the Black Sea (BS11) isolate. The genomes contain several genomic islands with different gene content. The recruitment of very similar genomic fragments from metagenomes in different locations indicates that the surface clade is globally abundant with little effect of geography, even the AltDE and the BS11 genomes recruiting from surface samples in open ocean locations. The finding of CRISPR protospacers of AltDE in a lysogenic phage in the Atlantic (English Channel) isolate illustrates a flow of genetic material among these clades and a remarkably wide distribution of this phage. PMID:23019517

  4. Use of the anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of the pediatric anophthalmic orbit.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Sally L; Forrest, Christopher R; Borschel, Gregory H

    2016-01-01

    Children with acquired anophthalmia pose unique reconstructive challenges. With implant-based reconstruction, the current standard of care, there is a tendency toward intraorbital and adnexal tissue contraction and an increasing volume discrepancy with orbital growth, resulting in enophthalmos and eyelid retraction, and also difficulty in retaining an ocular prosthesis. We describe a novel technique for secondary reconstruction of the pediatric anophthalmic orbit using a small free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. The technique involves release of retracted eyelids and restoration of orbital volume with an ALT flap based on the superficial temporal vessels. The purpose of this study is to detail the results of treatment of a series of four consecutive patients with unilateral acquired anophthalmia managed with ALT flaps. Improved symmetry, successful retention of an ocular prosthesis, and patient satisfaction were achieved in all cases.

  5. Genomes of surface isolates of Alteromonas macleodii: the life of a widespread marine opportunistic copiotroph

    PubMed Central

    López-Pérez, Mario; Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Onyshchenko, Olga; Ghavidel, Akbar; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Alteromonas macleodii is a marine gammaproteobacterium with widespread distribution in temperate or tropical waters. We describe three genomes of isolates from surface waters around Europe (Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea) and compare them with a previously described deep Mediterranean isolate (AltDE) that belongs to a widely divergent clade. The surface isolates are quite similar, the most divergent being the Black Sea (BS11) isolate. The genomes contain several genomic islands with different gene content. The recruitment of very similar genomic fragments from metagenomes in different locations indicates that the surface clade is globally abundant with little effect of geography, even the AltDE and the BS11 genomes recruiting from surface samples in open ocean locations. The finding of CRISPR protospacers of AltDE in a lysogenic phage in the Atlantic (English Channel) isolate illustrates a flow of genetic material among these clades and a remarkably wide distribution of this phage. PMID:23019517

  6. Use of Innovative Technologies in Pediatric Lower Extremity Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mountziaris, Paschalia M; Soteropulos, Carol E; Rezak, Kristen M; Patel, Ashit

    2016-08-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap has proven to be a reliable option for the coverage of soft tissue defects in adults and more recently in the pediatric population. When considering the use of the ALT flap in the pediatric patient, there are few studies that detail techniques specific to pediatric free flap management. We present a unique case of a 14- × 8-cm ALT flap used for traumatic wound coverage in a distal tibial injury in a 6-year-old girl. This case highlights innovative techniques in pediatric perioperative free flap monitoring and the use of continuous external tissue expansion to achieve delayed primary closure of the donor site. PMID:27622093

  7. Use of Innovative Technologies in Pediatric Lower Extremity Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mountziaris, Paschalia M.; Soteropulos, Carol E.; Rezak, Kristen M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap has proven to be a reliable option for the coverage of soft tissue defects in adults and more recently in the pediatric population. When considering the use of the ALT flap in the pediatric patient, there are few studies that detail techniques specific to pediatric free flap management. We present a unique case of a 14- × 8-cm ALT flap used for traumatic wound coverage in a distal tibial injury in a 6-year-old girl. This case highlights innovative techniques in pediatric perioperative free flap monitoring and the use of continuous external tissue expansion to achieve delayed primary closure of the donor site. PMID:27622093

  8. Variation in metabolic enzymatic activity in white muscle and liver of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus, in response to long-term thermal acclimatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Elsayed M.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of rearing temperature on white muscle and hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined in fingerlings of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. The experiment was conducted for 14 weeks at temperatures of 18, 22, 26, 30, and 34°C. The activity of the glycolytic enzymes PFK, PK, and LDH in white muscle increased significantly with increase in water temperature. A reverse trend was observed for these enzymes in the liver, except for LDH, which behaved in the same manner as in white muscle. Cytosolic AST and ALT activity increased in both white muscle and liver in response to warm thermal acclimatization, while a reduction in mitochondrial AST and ALT activity was noticed at high temperatures in comparison with those at a lower temperature.

  9. Sarcocystis fusiformis: some protein metabolic enzymes in various fractions of sarcocysts of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Kushwah, H S; Kushwah, A

    1993-01-01

    An investigation on the relative presence of some protein metabolic enzymes, namely aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), NAD+ and NADP+ dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and arginase in cyst wall (CW), cyst fluid (CF) and zoite (ZT) fractions of the sarcocysts of Sarcocystis fusiformis in the oesophageal muscles of Indian water buffalo was carried out. Both the transaminases were present in all the fractions of the cyst, although in variable amounts. There was a higher level of AST activity than of ALT activity. AST activity was the highest in ZT, whereas ALT activity was at a maximum in the CF fraction. The levels of activity of NAD+ and NADP+ dependent GLDH and arginase remained beyond detectable limits. The study revealed that the intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism are linked to protein metabolism by transaminases. The possibility of concomitant removal of ammonia and its subsequent incorporation into the urea cycle is ruled out in this parasitic protozoan.

  10. [Severe apparent life-threatening event during "skin-to-skin": treatment with hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Marin, N; Valverde, E; Cabañas, F

    2013-10-01

    'Skin-to-skin' in healthy newborn infants is currently routine practice in Spanish maternity wards. This practice has shown benefits in increasing the duration of breast-feeding and maternal bonding behaviour with no significant adverse events. Early sudden deaths and severe apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) during the first 24 hours of life are infrequent, but well recognised. Risk factors during 'skin to skin' have been established. These events can lead to high neonatal morbidity and mortality. Hypothermia is now the standard of care for moderate to severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and has shown to reduce mortality and neurological morbidity in children with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Although there are no clinical trials that evaluate hypothermia after a severe ALTE, neonates who suffer it should be considered for this treatment. We present a case of a healthy newborn who had an ALTE during skin-to-skin with his mother and was treated with hypothermia. PMID:24051185

  11. Successful Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap Reconstruction for a Recurrent Ischial Pressure Ulcer: A Case With Multiple Recurrences Over a 7-year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Yu; Shih, Yu-Jen; Chou, Chang-Yi; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Ischial pressure ulcers are difficult ulcers to treat and have a low treatment success rate compared to sacral and trochanteric ulcers; regional flap failure further complicates the treatment. Reported here is a case of a 65-year-old man who experienced a spinal injury with paraplegia due to trauma 20 years ago. The patient experienced a recurrent ischial ulcer since 2007, and underwent several types of flap reconstruction with poor outcomes over a 7-year period. Therefore, the chosen intervention was a pedicled anterolateral thigh (pALT) fasciocutaneous flap reconstruction for the ischial ulcer via a subcutaneous route. Over the 10-month follow-up, the recurrent ischial ulcer healed without wound dehiscence. Island pALT reconstruction appears to be an alternative technique for treating recurrent ischial pressure ulcers. Though reconstruction of ischial ulcers via the pALT technique has been described previously, this may be the first case report to describe pALT flap in a patient with recurrent ischial ulcers after failed reconstructions using a gluteus maximus flap, V-Y advancement flap, and hatchet flap.Ischial pressure ulcers are difficult to treat and have a low treatment success rate1 compared to sacral and trochanteric ulcers. In addition, there are many different techniques that can be used to treat ischial pressure ulcers, including primary wound closure, gluteus maximus flaps, V-Y advancement flaps, or inferior gluteal artery perforator flaps. However, several experts have recently described using the pedicled anterolateral thigh (pALT) flap for reconstruction of recurrent ischial pressure ulcers.1,2 In the presented case, the authors followed a single patient with paraplegia with a recurrent ischial ulcer who had undergone several types of wound treatment over a 7-year period. The indurated ulcer was ultimately resolved by pALT reconstruction.

  12. Use of Databases for Early Recognition of Risk of Diabetic Complication by Analysis of Liver Enzymes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Malenica, Maja; Prnjavorac, Besim; Causevic, Adlija; Dujic, Tanja; Bego, Tamer; Semiz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Because of increasing prevalence of T2MD worldwide, it’s very important to recognize risk factors for diabetic complications, as soon as possible. Symptoms of complications appear a few or many years after tissue damage. So, it’s imperative to establish surveillance of diabetics with laboratory and other diagnostic procedures for early recognition of diabetic complications. Follow up of clinical curs of diabetes, by using databases of patients, provide possibility for permanent analysis of important laboratory parameters and any changes could be registered. Although an emerging evidence suggests a strong association of ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and γGT (gamma glutamyl transferase) activity with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), only a limited number of studies have analyzed the association of AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT, γGT, and ALP (alkaline phosphatase) activities in controlled T2DM. Material and Methods: Gender differences are of special interest in trying to follow diabetes progression and development of its complications. Here the activities of ALT, AST, γGT, ALP were analyzed as well as levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in 40 T2DM patients and 40 age-matched healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected from all participants in regular 3-months intervals up to 6 months period. Standard IFCC enzyme protocols were used to determine enzyme activities. Results and discussion: In first measured interval, significantly higher activities of ALT (p= 0,050) and glucose levels (p=0,045) were shown in male. A significant correlation was shown between ALT and AST activity with FPG and HbA1c levels in first and third measured interval. ALT activity was much higher in the group of patients with poor glycemia control. Average levels of activities of enzymes stay nearly in normal limits, but changes of enzymes activities should be recognized as soon as possible, earlier than tissue changes and

  13. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 – 2 x 103CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 101 – 2.4 x 104 cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water. PMID:24949108

  14. Aerobic Conditioning Might Protect Against Liver and Muscle Injury Caused by Short-Term Military Training.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Daleprane, Julio B; Pitaluga-Filho, Mario V; de Oliveira, Cyntia F; Gonçalves, Mariana C; Passos, Magna C F

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the biochemical markers of muscle and liver injury and total antioxidant capacity in army cadets after a traditional army physical training program and to correlate these effects with aerobic conditioning. Male army cadets (n = 87; age, 20 ± 2 years) were evaluated 12 hours before the start of training (T0), 12 hours after a 30-km march (T1), and 48 hours after military training (T2). Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum levels were measured using an autoanalyzer. Total antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (Sc%). Seventy-four percent of army cadets were classified as having excellent aerobic conditioning (53.9 ± 3.0 ml · kg(-) · min(-1) predicted VO2max from the Cooper test). The median serum concentration of all enzymes increased 12 hours after marching (T1: CK 675%; ALT 59%; AST 336%; AST/ALT ratio 85%; p = 0.001) and 48 hours after the end of training (T2: CK 878%; ALT 256%; AST 418%; AST/ALT ratio 180%; p = 0.001). Sc% was higher in T2 (31.1 ± 9.8%; p = 0.01) than in T0 (3.4% change). Maximal oxygen consumption (ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) correlated negatively with CK (r = -0.25; p = 0.009) and ALT (r = -0.21; p = 0.03) serum levels, and positively with the change in Sc% (r = 0.22; p = 0.04) at T2. The results indicate that intense military training can cause liver and muscle injury and that aerobic conditioning can be considered as a protective factor for these injuries. PMID:26813633

  15. Polyclonality of Concurrent Natural Populations of Alteromonas macleodii

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Aitor; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; López-Pérez, Mario; Megumi Mizuno, Carolina; García-Heredia, Inmaculada; Kimes, Nikole E.; Lopez-García, Purificación; Moreira, David; Ussery, David; Zaballos, Mila; Ghai, Rohit; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed a natural population of the marine bacterium, Alteromonas macleodii, from a single sample of seawater to evaluate the genomic diversity present. We performed full genome sequencing of four isolates and 161 metagenomic fosmid clones, all of which were assigned to A. macleodii by sequence similarity. Out of the four strain genomes, A. macleodii deep ecotype (AltDE1) represented a different genome, whereas AltDE2 and AltDE3 were identical to the previously described AltDE. Although the core genome (∼80%) had an average nucleotide identity of 98.51%, both AltDE and AltDE1 contained flexible genomic islands (fGIs), that is, genomic islands present in both genomes in the same genomic context but having different gene content. Some of the fGIs encode cell surface receptors known to be phage recognition targets, such as the O-chain of the lipopolysaccharide, whereas others have genes involved in physiological traits (e.g., nutrient transport, degradation, and metal resistance) denoting microniche specialization. The presence in metagenomic fosmids of genomic fragments differing from the sequenced strain genomes, together with the presence of new fGIs, indicates that there are at least two more A. macleodii clones present. The availability of three or more sequences overlapping the same genomic region also allowed us to estimate the frequency and distribution of recombination events among these different clones, indicating that these clustered near the genomic islands. The results indicate that this natural A. macleodii population has multiple clones with a potential for different phage susceptibility and exploitation of resources, within a seemingly unstructured habitat. PMID:23212172

  16. An Integrated Observational and Model Synthesis Approach to Examine Dominant Environmental Controls on Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchley, A. L.; Coon, E.; Painter, S. L.; Harp, D. R.; Wilson, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The active layer thickness (ALT) - the annual maximum depth of soil with above 0°C temperatures - in part determines the volume of carbon-rich stores available for decomposition and therefore potential greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere from Arctic tundra. However, understanding and predicting ALT in polygonal tundra landscapes is difficult due to the complex nature of hydrothermal atmospheric-surface-subsurface interactions in freezing/thawing soil. Simply deconvolving effects of single environmental controls on ALT is not possible with measurements alone as processes act in concert to drive thaw depth formation. Process-rich models of thermal hydrological dynamics, conversely, are a valuable tool for understanding the dominant controls and uncertainties in predicting permafrost conditions. By integrating observational data with known physical relationships to form process-rich models, synthetic experiments can then be used to explore a breadth of environmental conditions encountered and the effect of each environmental attribute may be assessed. Here a process rich thermal hydrology model, The Advanced Terrestrial Simulator, has been created and calibrated using observed data from Barrow, AK. An ensemble of 1D thermal hydrologic models were simulated that span a range of three environmental factors 1) thickness of organic rich soil, 2) snow depth, and 3) soil moisture content, to investigate the role of each factor on ALT. Results show that organic layer thickness acts as a strong insulator and is the dominant control of ALT, but the strength of the effect of organic layer thickness is also dependent on the saturation state. Using the ensemble results, the effect of peat thickness on ALT was then examined on a 2D domain. This work was supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project LDRD201200068DR and by the The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project. NGEE-Arctic is supported by the Office of Biological and

  17. Hyper-CK-emia in pediatric celiac disease: prevalence and clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Selimoglu, Mukadder Ayse; Ertekin, Vildan; Altinkaynak, Sevin

    2007-08-01

    Hyper-transaminasemia (HT) is a well-known laboratory sign of celiac disease (CD); however, hyper-creatine phosphokinase (CK)-emia (HCK) is not so familiar. As there are reported cases of myopathy associated CD in the literature, we aimed to investigate serum CK levels of children with CD. Newly diagnosed 126 children were included. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and CK levels were determined. Mean age was 8.7+/-4.4 years (11 mo to 18 y). Of patients, 77 (61.1%) had classic form, 49 (38.9%) had atypical form. Elevated levels of AST, ALT, and CK, respectively, were found in 65 (51.6%), 45 (35.7%), and 50 (39.7%) patients. Isolated HCK was detected in 9 (7.1%) patients. AST, ALT, and CK were all elevated in 29 (23.0%) children. Mean serum AST, ALT, and CK levels were found as 56.1+/-53.7 U/L (11 to 403), 44.7+/-44.0 U/L (7 to 290), and 258.0+/-686.5 U/L (36 to 5956), respectively. In 95 (75.4%) children, AST/ALT value was greater than 1, and in 19 (15.1%) it was greater than 2. We found positive correlations with the level of CK and AST, and ALT (P=0.01). CK level was inversely correlated with hemoglobin and cholesterol levels (P=0.013 and 0.007). In conclusion, this is the first study, which determined elevated serum levels of CK in CD and demonstrated that HCK is as common as HT in children with CD. We emphasize that HT seen in CD is not necessarily a sign of liver injury, but may also be due to myopathy. PMID:17667050

  18. Association between clinical features and YMDD mutations in patients with chronic hepatitis B following lamivudine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Yuan, Yujun; Ma, Xianglin; Tang, Boru; Hu, Ximei; Feng, Juan; Tian, Li; Ji, Yaohua; Dou, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between feature and genotype with regard to the tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) mutation in chronic hepatitis B patients after lamivudine (LAM) therapy. A total of 30 patients with chronic hepatitis B were recruited, who underwent one year of LAM therapy. The patients' alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion were evaluated, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was genotyped using a new genotyping method and YMDD mutations were analyzed prior to treatment and at 6 and 12 months after LAM treatment. Furthermore, the secondary protein structure of the HBV DNA polymerase gene (P gene) was analyzed. Following treatment, the results suggested that LAM therapy improved ALT normalization. There was no correlation between clinical effects and ALT level before treatment. After 12 months treatment, the rate of HBeAg loss increased and the rate of HBeAg seroconversion decreased linearly with the rise of baseline ALT level. While ALT normalization and HBeAg seroconversion were highest in patients with HBV genotype B, HBeAg loss and HBVDNA loss were highest in those with genotype C. The effect was predominant in genotype D. No YMDD mutations were identified prior to 6 months of LAM therapy. The rate of YMDD mutations after 12 months LAM therapy was 12.12%. Two patients with rtM204V + rtL180M belonged to genotype C and another patient with rtL180M alone belonged to genotype D. The turn of secondary protein structure of P gene changed to β sheet when a rtM204V mutation occurred, and no change of secondary protein structure was associated with the rtL180M mutation. Thus, the present results indicate that one year of LAM therapy is able to improve ALT normalization. Long-term LAM therapy may induce YMDD mutation and drug resistance. PMID:27446286

  19. Molecular Detection, Quantification, and Toxigenicity Profiling of Aeromonas spp. in Source- and Drinking-Water.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Boakai K; Harden, Carol; Selvaraju, Suresh B; Pradhan, Suman; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has been associated with a number of extra-gastrointestinal and gastrointestinal illnesses. This warrants monitoring of raw and processed water sources for pathogenic and toxigenic species of this human pathogen. In this study, a total of 17 different water samples [9 raw and 8 treated samples including 4 basin water (partial sand filtration) and 4 finished water samples] were screened for Aeromonas using selective culturing and a genus-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay. The selective culturing yielded Aeromonas counts ranging 0 - 2 x 10(3)CFU/ml and 15 Aeromonas isolates from both raw and treated water samples. The qPCR analysis indicated presence of a considerable nonculturable population (3.4 x 10(1) - 2.4 x 10(4) cells/ml) of Aeromonas in drinking water samples. Virulence potential of the Aeromonas isolates was assessed by multiplex/singleplex PCR-based profiling of the hemolysin and enterotoxin genes viz cytotoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (act), heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt), heat-stable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast), and aerolysin (aerA) genes. The water isolates yielded five distinct toxigenicity profiles, viz. act, alt, act+alt, aerA+alt, and aerA+alt+act. The alt gene showed the highest frequency of occurrence (40%), followed by the aerA (20%), act (13%), and ast (0%) genes. Taken together, the study demonstrated the occurrence of a considerable population of nonculturable Aeromonads in water and prevalence of toxigenic Aeromonas spp. potentially pathogenic to humans. This emphasizes the importance of routine monitoring of both source and drinking water for this human pathogen and role of the developed molecular approaches in improving the Aeromonas monitoring scheme for water.

  20. Anthropometric Indices in Adults: Which Is the Best Indicator to Identify Alanine Aminotransferase Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Guo, Xiaofan; Yu, Shasha; Zhou, Ying; Li, Zhao; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the correlations between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and anthropometric indices including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and a new body index, the A Body Shape Index (ABSI) in Chinese adults. Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in rural areas of China in 2012–2013, and 11,331 adults were included in our final analysis. Results: BMI, WC, HC, WHtR, WHR and ABSI were significantly positively correlated with ALT levels. Spearman rank test showed that WHtR (r = 0.346 for men, r = 0.282 for women, both p < 0.001) had the highest correlation coefficient for ALT level, whereas ABSI showed the lowest, and the correlation coefficient of each measure was higher in men than that in women. Comparing the lowest with the highest quintile of each anthropometric measure, the multivariate logistic model presented that WHtR had the superiority of identifying the presence of elevated ALT (OR 4.38; 95% CI 3.15–6.08 for men, OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.91–6.33 for women, both p < 0.001), and the ABSI was the poorest predictor in men (OR 2.51; 95% CI 1.93–3.27, p < 0.001). No association was observed for ABSI in women. Conclusions: Our results indicated that BMI, WC, HC, WHtR and WHR were able to determine elevated ALT presence, while ABSI was not capable. WHtR and to some extent BMI were the best body indices, for predicting the ALT levels in this population. Nevertheless, the predictive ability of ABSI as a novel body index was not superior compared to established anthropometric indices. PMID:26901214

  1. Hypovolemia During Early Exposure to 2,800 m Altitude: Effect of Rehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Farrell, P. A.; Loomis, J. L.; Fedele, M.; West, J.; Roessler, A.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism for reduction of total body water and plasma volume (PV) during initial exposure to acute attitude (ALT) is not clear. Ten man (25+/-SD 3yr. 1.99+/-0.l9sq m) were confined (sitting) for 12 hr in a chamber a 2800m ALT or at 305m(ground). They ate a controlled breakfast (450 kcal + 3ml/kg H2O) on the ground, and lunch and dinner at ALT for a total daily intake of 2,850 kcal (14%PRO, 67%CHO, 16%FAT, 26gNaCl). At hr 10 they consumed fluid-electrolyte drinks or water (12ml/kg, 948ml/day) with sessions at weekly intervals: (a) 185mEq/L Na, 283mOsm/kg; (b) 21.6Na, 365mOsm: and (c) water at ALT: and (d) water on the ground. After 10 hr at ALT%(Delta)PV(Hb-Hct) decreased (P<0.05) by (a) 9.0+/-SE1.5%, (b) 6.2+/-1.7%, (c) 7.4+/-2.2%. and (d) 9.0+/-2.4%. respectively. After drinking at 1200 hr PV increased by (a) 8.3% (P<0.05), (b) 2.8% (NS), (c) -0.9% (NS). and (d) by 0.8% (NS). respectively. The ground-induced hypovolemia suggests a confinement rather than an ALT effect. The increase in PV after the NaCl-NaCitrate drink (a) indicates that drink composition is mom important than as Osm for restoring PV in these Conditions.

  2. Bilateral anterolateral thigh flaps for large-volume breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jason J; Chandawarkar, Rajiv; Ross, Merrick I; Chevray, Pierre M

    2004-01-01

    Autologous tissue reconstruction of a large breast in patients who are not candidates for a TRAM flap is a difficult problem. We present a case report of the use of bilateral free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps for immediate reconstruction of a unilateral large breast in a patient who had a previous abdominoplasty. Use of ALT flaps allows two or three surgical teams to work simultaneously, does not require intraoperative patient repositioning, has minimal donor-site morbidity, and can provide ample malleable soft tissue for breast reconstruction. These are advantages compared to the use of gluteal donor sites. The disadvantages include more conspicuous donor-site scarring on the anterior thighs.

  3. Head and neck reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Prabha

    2013-01-01

    Whatever is excisable, is reconstructable! “You excise, we will reconstruct” are the confident words of reconstructive surgeons today. Reconstruction with multiple flaps has become routine. Radial artery (FRAF), Antero lateral thigh (ALT) and Fibula osteo cutaneous flap (FFOCF) are three most popular free flaps which can reconstruct any defect with excellent asthetics and performance. Radial Artery provides thin, pliable innervated skin; ALT large amount of skin & bulk; and FFOCF strong 22 to 25 centimetres of bone and reliable skin paddle. Free flap survival has gone to 98% in most of the renouned institutes and is an established escalator in management of defects. PMID:24501464

  4. Effect of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf aqueous extract on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhanwra, S; Singh, J; Khosla, P

    2000-01-01

    The effect of aqueous leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) was evaluated in paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver necrosis was produced by administering single dose of paracetamol (2 g/kg, p.o.). The liver damage was evidenced by elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and by histopathological observations of liver sections. Aqueous A. indica leaf extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced these elevated levels of AST, ALT and gamma-GT. Paracetamol induced liver necrosis was also found to be reduced as observed macroscopically and histologically. PMID:10919097

  5. PubMed Central

    Pellini, R.; Mercante, G.; Pichi, B.; Manciocco, V.; Marchesi, P.; Ferreli, F.; Spriano, G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY In the last decade, the antero-lateral thigh free flap (ALT) has become the most popular free flap for tongue reconstruction because of less donor site morbidity and better cosmetic outcomes. However, fascio-cutaneous ALT may be insufficient to reconstruct major tongue defects, while its muscular-cutaneous variant (using the vastus lateralis muscle) may be too bulky. The present study describes our preliminary experience of tongue reconstruction with vastus lateralis myofascial flap, which could potentially offer unique advantages in head and neck reconstruction including adequate bulk when needed, optimal functional results and obliteration of dead space thus preventing fistulas and infections with minimal morbidity. PMID:27734986

  6. Liposarcoma of the maxillary antrum: A case report.

    PubMed

    Priyal, G; Shakil, Moidin; Jose, Maji; Hussain, Akther

    2015-01-01

    Atypical Lipomatous Tumor/Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma. (ALT/WDL) is a soft tissue sarcoma of intermediate malignant behavior, which most frequently affects the retroperitoneum and lower extremities. Liposarcomas of head and neck are rare, representing only 2-8% of all sarcomas in this region. The majority of liposarcomas occur in middle-aged adults; however, very uncommonly cases have been reported in infancy and early childhood. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl diagnosed as ALT/WDL of the maxillary antrum. PMID:26881583

  7. Rapid development of new protein biosensors utilizing peptides obtained via phage display.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Park, Jong Pil; Dooley, Kevin; Cropek, Donald M; West, Alan C; Banta, Scott

    2011-01-01

    There is a consistent demand for new biosensors for the detection of protein targets, and a systematic method for the rapid development of new sensors is needed. Here we present a platform where short unstructured peptides that bind to a desired target are selected using M13 phage display. The selected peptides are then chemically synthesized and immobilized on gold, allowing for detection of the target using electrochemical techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is also used as a diagnostic tool during biosensor development. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by creating a novel peptide-based electrochemical biosensor for the enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a well-known biomarker of hepatotoxicity. Biopanning of the M13 phage display library over immobilized ALT, led to the rapid identification of a new peptide (ALT5-8) with an amino acid sequence of WHWRNPDFWYLK. Phage particles expressing this peptide exhibited nanomolar affinity for immobilized ALT (K(d,app) = 85±20 nM). The newly identified ALT5-8 peptide was then chemically synthesized with a C-terminal cysteine for gold immobilization. The performance of the gold-immobilized peptides was studied with cyclic voltammetry (CV), QCM, and EIS. Using QCM, the sensitivity for ALT detection was 8.9±0.9 Hz/(µg/mL) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 60 ng/mL. Using EIS measurements, the sensitivity was 142±12 impedance percentage change %/(µg/mL) and the LOD was 92 ng/mL. In both cases, the LOD was below the typical concentration of ALT in human blood. Although both QCM and EIS produced similar LODs, EIS is preferable due to a larger linear dynamic range. Using QCM, the immobilized peptide exhibited a nanomolar dissociation constant for ALT (K(d) = 20.1±0.6 nM). These results demonstrate a simple and rapid platform for developing and assessing the performance of sensitive, peptide-based biosensors for new protein targets

  8. Upper Limits of Normal for Serum Alanine Aminotransferase Levels in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ming-Hua; Shi, Ke-Qing; Fan, Yu-Chen; Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Xian-Feng; Li, Ling-Fei; Chen, Yong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity is the most common tool for the assessment of liver diseases. However, it is not clear whether the current normal ALT range really discriminate patients with or without liver diseases. The present study was to establish a new normal range of ALT and examine its ability to identify patients with hepatitis B or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Chinese Han population. Methods 53037 adults were included in this study from January 1st 2008 to August 31st 2010. The 95th percentile of ALT in population with relative low risk factors for liver diseases was set as the new upper limits of normal ALT in gender-specific manner. Results The 95th percentile levels at low risk factors for liver diseases were achieved at 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women. The concordance statistics for detection were 0.873 (95%CI: 0.865–0.881) for HBV and 0.932 (95%CI: 0.927–0.937) for NAFLD in men while 0.857 (95%CI: 0.850–0.864) for HBV and 0.909 (95%CI: 0.903–0.915) for NAFLD in women. The median sensitivity of the current used ALT upper limit (40 U/L) was 6.6% for HBV and 29.7% for NAFLD and median specificity was 98.7% for men and 99.4% for women. Using our new-derived thresholds, the sensitivities ranged from 35.3% to 61.1% and the specificities were 94.8% for men and 94.6% for women. Conclusions Our results suggest that upper limits of ALT 35 U/L for men and 23 U/L for women in Chinese Han population. Re-consideration of normal limits of ALT should be recommended. Trial Registration ChiCTR.org ChiCTR-OCS-11001173 PMID:22962588

  9. Environmentally friendly synthesis of supportless Pt based nanoreactors in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Michael N.; Malardier-Jugroot, Cecile; Jugroot, Manish

    2014-09-01

    Using the amphiphilic alternating copolymer poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride), the hydrophobic salt PtCl2, is reduced into platinum nanoparticles that are less than 3 nm in an aqueous biocompatible environment. The nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The formation of unsupported nanoparticles embedded in the polymer nanotemplate take advantage of the confinement effect in reactions due to the dynamic formation of the poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) nanotube. This enhanced catalytic effect is demonstrated with the polymerization of pyrrole.

  10. Oral subchronic toxicity of aqueous crude extract of Plantago australis leaves.

    PubMed

    Palmeiro, N M S; Almeida, C E; Ghedini, P C; Goulart, L S; Pereira, M C F; Huber, S; da Silva, J E P; Lopes, S

    2003-09-01

    The toxic effects of chronic oral administration (60 days) of aqueous crude extract (AE) of Plantago australis Lam. (Plantaginaceae) in rats at doses of 850 and 1700 mg/kg on biochemical (ALT, AST, creatinine, urea, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins and albumin), hematological (complete hemogram), and histopathological (heart, lung, liver, kidney, esophagus, stomach and gut) parameters were studied. All biochemical and hematological parameters were found to be in the normal range, but ALT in animals that received AE of 850 mg/kg was higher. Histopathological analysis of organs, especially the liver did not present alterations. PMID:12902047

  11. [How I EXPLORE ... AN APPARENT LIFE THREATENING EVENT OF THE INFANT].

    PubMed

    Zambelli, L; Battisti, O

    2016-04-01

    The ALTE (Apparent Life Threatening Event) of the infant is a frequent presenting complaint. The clinical presentation is varied, ranging from an innocuous event (as a change in skin color) to something as tragic as a sudden infant death. In all circumstances, it is always a very worrying event for the parents and the family circle. Many etiologies can explain the ALTE, and their investigation can be complicated. In this paper, the etiologies and diagnostic tests will be briefly introduced, with a reminder of the sudden infant death syndrome.

  12. Light deflection in gadolinium molybdate ferroelastic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniorowski, Piotr; Bornarel, Jean

    2000-02-01

    The deflection of a He-Ne light beam by polydomain gadolinium molybdate (GMO) crystals has been studied with respect to incidence angle icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> i on the sample at room temperature. The A and B deflected beams do not cross each other during the icons/Journals/Common/alpha" ALT="alpha" ALIGN="TOP"/> i variation, in contrast to results and calculations previously published. The model using the Fresnel equation confirms this result. The model presented is more accurate for numerical calculation than that using the Huygens construction.

  13. Effect of the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Moresco, Rafael Noal; Sperotto, Rita Leal; Bernardi, Anie Schiavo; Cardoso, Ricardo França; Gomes, Patrícia

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the aqueous Syzygium cumini leaf extract, given either as a single dose or by 7 days of pretreatment, on hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats. Blood samples obtained after treatments were measured for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). A significant increase in the AST and ALT activities occurred after carbon tetrachloride administration alone, which was significantly lowered by preadministration with the aqueous extract of Syzygium cumini, but not by a single dose. This suggests that the extract may be useful for liver protection but needs to be given over a significant period and prior to liver injury. PMID:17450508

  14. Gevrey class regularity for the attractor of the laser equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Govind

    1999-11-01

    Constantin, Foais and Gibbon proved that the laser equations (Lorenz PDE) define a dynamical system in L2 with a Cicons/Journals/Common/infty" ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/> attractor. We extend this theorem to show that the attractor is contained in every Gevrey class, Gs, for 1ALT="infty" ALIGN="TOP"/>. This demonstrates a remarkable smoothing mechanism for this hyperbolic system. We consider the consequences of this theorem for finite-dimensionality of the dynamics.

  15. See Also:Mechanics of Cohesive-frictional MaterialsCopyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Get Sample Copy

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  1. USE OF SEDIMENT CORES TO ESTABLISH REFERENCE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to assess the degree to which integrity of waterbodies have been degraded, comparisons are made to "reference" conditions. Finding systems with similar ecological components, but absent the specific stressors of concern, may often be difficult or even impossible. An alt...

  2. Cabin Pressure Monitors Notify Pilots to Save Lives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, San Diego-based Aviation Technology Inc. obtained an exclusive license for the technology behind the cabin pressure monitor invented at Kennedy Space Center and built its own version of the product. The Alt Alert is designed to save lives by alerting aircraft pilots and crews when cabin pressure becomes dangerously low.

  3. LASER DESORPTION-IONIZATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FROM GLASS SURFACES WITH ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS. (R826769)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed as adsorbates on borosilicate glass at levels from 40 pg (5.5 pg mm-2) to 7 alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>g (1 

  4. Cross-site comparisons of state-change dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the state of a system, for example from grasslands to shrublands or from dominance by one fish species to another species, with associated changes in other parts of the system, are often irreversible. Most of these state changes bring forth negative impacts on ecosystem, resulting in alte...

  5. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of two iridoids from Mussaenda 'dona aurora'.

    PubMed

    Vidyalakshmi, Kandulva Sethuraman; Nagarajan, Sulochana; Vasanthi, Hannah Rachel; Venkappaya; Rajamanickam, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Mussaenda 'dona aurora' (sepals) has been investigated for its hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. The highest activity was observed in the ethyl acetate fraction. The separation of the ethyl acetate fraction gave two iridoids, sanshiside-D and lamalbide. Sanshiside-D exhibited a hepatoprotective activity greater than silimarin as was evidenced by significant reduction of ALT and AST in the serum enzyme levels.

  6. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of Increasing Academic Learning Time for College Undergraduate Students' Achievement in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Mohammad, Anwar; Al-Shammari, Bandar

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of increasing ALT for college students' achievement in Kuwait. In Phase 1, 37 students participated (22, experimental; 15, control); in Phase 2, 19 students participated (8, sub-experimental; 11, sub-control). Several experimental research methods used in conducting this study, including development of a…

  7. ESTROGENIC RESPONSES TO XENOBIOTICS IN CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS) (R823450)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Several environmentally relevant contaminants are characterized as xenoestrogens by virtue of their ability to induce responses similar to 17alt="small beta, Greek" border=0>-estradiol (E2). T...

  8. Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for Risk Assessment (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Final report"> This EPA report provides an overview of the types of mechanisms underlying the lymphoh...

  9. Creating Flexible E-Learning through the Use of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasseter, Marie; Rogers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    For five years, Advanced Learning Technologies (ALT), a unit within the Board of Regents of the University System of Georgia (USG), has worked with faculty and staff to develop the eCore, an electronically delivered core curriculum for the University System of Georgia. The eCore contains courses leading to the completion of the first two years of…

  10. A Framework Incorporating Community Preferences in Use Attainment and Related Water Quality Decision-Making (2010 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Framework for Use Attainment 2011 Final Report "> The report is intended to assist water quality officials, wate...

  11. Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the 2015 Preamble Report"> The Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments, or "Preamble", is an overview document o...

  12. Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickola, Marisa; Gaylard, Mike; Quick, Jonathan; Combrinck, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    HartRAO provides the only fiducial geodetic site in Africa, and it participates in global networks for VLBI, GNSS, SLR, and DORIS. This report provides an overview of geodetic VLBI activities at HartRAO during 2012, including the conversion of a 15-m alt-az radio telescope to an operational geodetic VLBI antenna.

  13. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Next Generation of Risk Assessment Final report" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> This final report, "Next Generation Risk Assessment: Recent Advances in Molec...

  14. Next Generation Risk Assessment: Incorporation of Recent Advances in Molecular, Computational, and Systems Biology (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Next Generation of Risk Assessment (External Review Draft)" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA is releasing a draft report "Next Generation Risk Assessment: I...

  15. DNA Polymerase θ: A Unique Multifunctional End-Joining Machine.

    PubMed

    Black, Samuel J; Kashkina, Ekaterina; Kent, Tatiana; Pomerantz, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The gene encoding DNA polymerase θ (Polθ) was discovered over ten years ago as having a role in suppressing genome instability in mammalian cells. Studies have now clearly documented an essential function for this unique A-family polymerase in the double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway alternative end-joining (alt-EJ), also known as microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ), in metazoans. Biochemical and cellular studies show that Polθ exhibits a unique ability to perform alt-EJ and during this process the polymerase generates insertion mutations due to its robust terminal transferase activity which involves template-dependent and independent modes of DNA synthesis. Intriguingly, the POLQ gene also encodes for a conserved superfamily 2 Hel308-type ATP-dependent helicase domain which likely assists in alt-EJ and was reported to suppress homologous recombination (HR) via its anti-recombinase activity. Here, we review our current knowledge of Polθ-mediated end-joining, the specific activities of the polymerase and helicase domains, and put into perspective how this multifunctional enzyme promotes alt-EJ repair of DSBs formed during S and G2 cell cycle phases. PMID:27657134

  16. Basins and Wepp Climate Assessment Tools (Cat): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tool: Case Study Final report"> This final report supports application of two recently developed...

  17. Problem Formulation for Human Health Risk Assessments of Pathogens in Land-Applied Biosolids (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Land-Applied Biosolids 2011 Final Report "> Millions of tons of treated sewage sludges or “biosolids” are applied annually to f...

  18. Serum hepatic enzyme activity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile Men.

    PubMed

    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). In addition, to examine possible interaction between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and liver tests in relation to male reproductive health, standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones and liver tests were measured in 245 male partners of pregnant women at a University Hospital Andrology Centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that after adjustment for covariates GGT was negatively related to sperm concentration and total sperm count. These significant changes appeared from a GGT >35.5 U/L. Next to these changes ALT was not related to sperm parameters. Both enzymes, GGT and ALT, were not related to reproductive hormones. Alcohol consumption was positively related to GGT and in cases with elevated GGT alcohol use was negatively related to sperm concentration and total sperm count. Alcohol consumption was positively related to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Our findings also confirm results of previous studies that BMI and WC are associated positively with ALT and GGT. According to the study, increased GGT activity might represent a possible connection between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and semen quality.

  19. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  20. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity ...

  1. Accelerated Life Testing and Service Lifetime Prediction for PV Technologies in the Twenty-First Century

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A. W.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    1999-07-13

    The purposes of this paper are to (1) discuss the necessity for conducting accelerated life testing (ALT) in the early stages of developing new photovoltaic (PV) technologies, (2) elucidate the crucial importance for combining ALT with real-time testing (RTT) in terrestrial environments for promising PV technologies for the 21st century, and (3) outline the essential steps for making a service lifetime prediction (SLP) for any PV technology. The specific objectives are to (a) illustrate the essential need for ALT of complete, encapsulated multilayer PV devices, (b) indicate the typical causes of degradation in PV stacks, (c) elucidate the complexity associated with quantifying the durability of the devices, (d) explain the major elements that constitute a generic SLP methodology, (e) show how the introduction of the SLP methodology in the early stages of new device development can reduce the cost of technology development, and (f) outline the procedure for combining the results of ALT and RTT, establishing degradation mechanisms, using sufficient numbers of samples, and applying the SLP methodology to produce a SLP for existing or new PV technologies.

  2. ALDOL REACTION VIA IN SITU OLEFIN MIGRATION IN WATER. (R828129)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mingwen Wang and Chao-Jun Lialt="Corresponding Author Contact Information" border=0>

    Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, Ne...

  3. An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (Pbde) (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the PBDE Final Report "> This final report provides a comprehensive assessment of the exposure of Americans to this class of persistent ...

  4. Mammalian Polymerase Theta Promotes Alternative-NHEJ and Suppresses Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Mateos-Gomez, Pedro A.; Gong, Fade; Nair, Nidhi; Miller, Kyle M.; Lazzerini-Denchi, Eros; Sfeir, Agnel

    2016-01-01

    The alternative nonhomologous end-joining (alt-NHEJ) machinery facilitates a number of genomic rearrangements, some of which can lead to cellular transformation. This error-prone repair pathway is triggered upon telomere de-protection to promote the formation of deleterious chromosome end-to-end fusions1,2,3. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we found that repair by alt-NHEJ yields non-TTAGGG nucleotide insertions at fusion breakpoints of dysfunctional telomeres. Investigating the enzymatic activity responsible for the random insertions enabled us to identify Polymerase theta (Polθ; encoded by PolQ) as a critical alt-NHEJ factor in mammalian cells. PolQ inhibition suppresses alt-NHEJ at dysfunctional telomeres, and hinders chromosomal translocations at non-telomeric loci. In addition, we found that PolQ loss results in increased rates of homology directed repair (HDR), evident by recombination of dysfunctional telomeres and accumulation of Rad51 at double stranded breaks. Lastly, we show that depletion of PolQ has a synergistic impact on cell survival in the absence of BRCA genes, suggesting that the inhibition of this mutagenic polymerase represents a valid therapeutic avenue for tumors carrying mutations in HDR genes. PMID:25642960

  5. Wildlife Scenario Builder and User's Guide (Version 1.0, Beta Test)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Wildlife Scenario Builder User's Manual" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> The Wildlife Scenario Builder (WSB) was developed to improve the quality of wildlif...

  6. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the EPA Fish Consumption Final Report" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific...

  7. Weltall im Wandel. Die neue Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, H.

    Contents: Alte und neue Astronomie. Die Sterne des Milchstraßensystems. Sternentstehung und interstellare Materie. Unser Sonnensystem und seine Geschichte. Interplanetarer Staub. Vom Sterben der Sterne. Arbeitsmittel der optischen Astronomie. Ein neues Zentrum astronomischer Forschung. Galaxien. Ursprung und Entwicklung des Weltalls.

  8. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for P...

  9. Highlights of the Exposure Factors Handbook (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Highlights of the Exposure Factors Handbook"> This Highlights document presents an overview of the information provided in the E...

  10. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides – Health Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the SOx ISA 2008 Report"> EPA has announced the release of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Su...

  11. EPA's Report on the Environment (ROE) (2008 Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the EPA's 2008 Report on the Environment">The Environmental Protection Agency's 2008 Report on the Environment, also referred to ...

  12. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur Ecological Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen and Sulfur Final Report "> EPA has released the final report, Integrated S...

  13. EPA's Report on the Environment (ROE) 2014 Draft

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the news

    alt="EPA's Blog - It all starts with Science" width="45" height="67" style="float: left; padding: 4px 4px 2px 3px; margin-bottom:10px;" >EPA's ...

  14. 2013 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment of Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA is announcing the availability of the <...

  15. 2013 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA released the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (...

  16. 2008 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the NOx ISA 2008 Report"> The Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen – Health Criteria document represent...

  17. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios (2008 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios"> EPA has released the final report entitled, An Explor...

  18. Exposure Factors Handbook 2011 Edition (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition"> The mission of National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of EPA's ...

  19. 78 FR 30242 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Deep-Water Species Fishery by Vessels Using...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013), for the period 1200 hours, A.l.t., April 1, 2013, through... from the fishery. The Acting Assistant Administrator for Fisheries, NOAA (AA), finds good cause to... of May 16, 2013. The AA also finds good cause to waive the 30-day delay in the effective date of...

  20. STUDY OF ULTRAFINE PARTICLES NEAR A MAJOR HIGHWAY WITH HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRAFFIC. (R827352C011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motor vehicle emissions usually constitute the most significant source of ultrafine particles (diameter <0.1 alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>m) in an urban environment. Zhu et al. (J. Air Waste Manage. As...

  1. CONCENTRATIONS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE AND PM2.5 PARTICLES IN THREE EUROPEAN CITIES. (R827354C002)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total number concentrations, number concentrations of ultrafine (0.01¯0.1 alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>m) and accumulation (0.1¯0.5 MEASURING GROWTH OF A PHENANTHRENE DEGRADING BACTERIAL INOCULUM IN SOIL WITH A QUANTITATIVE COMPETITIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION METHOD. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured growth of a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium, Arthrobacter, strain RP17, in Forbes soil, amended with 500 alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>g g−1 phenanthrene using a quantitati...

  2. PCB UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION BY OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) EXPOSED VIA A CONTAMINATED ALGAL DIET. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Reproductively active oysters were fed daily with 0.2 g algal paste containing 0, 0.1, and 1.0 alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>g polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (1:1:1 mixture of Aroclor 1242, 1...

  3. EFFECTS OF PCBS SORBED TO ALGAL PASTE AND SEDIMENTS ON THE STRESS PROTEIN RESPONSE (HSP70 FAMILY) IN THE EASTERN OYSTER, CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    This study examined the stress protein response (HSP70 family) of reproductively inactive oysters fed 0.7 g algal paste containing 0, 0.35 and 3.5 alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>g polychlorinate...

  4. Stressor Identification (Si) at Contaminated Sites: Upper Arkansas River, Colorado (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the CADDIS Arkansas River, CO Case Study Final Report "> This report describes a causal assessment for...

  5. Defect printability of alternating phase-shift mask: a critical comparison of simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Ken; Komizo, Tooru; Kikuchi, Koji; Ohnuma, Hidetoshi; Kawahira, Hiroichi

    2002-07-01

    An alternative phase shift mask (alt-PSM) is a promising device for extending optical lithography to finer design rules. There have been few reports, however, on the mask's ability to identify phase defects. We report here an alt-PSM of a dual-trench type for KrF exposure, with programmed quartz defects used to evaluate defect printability by measuring aerial images with a Zeiss MSM100 measuring system. The experimental results are simulated using the TEMPEST program. First, a critical comparison of the simulation and the experiment is conducted. The actual measured topography of quartz defects are used in the simulation. Moreover, a general simulation study on defect printability using an alt-PSM for ArF exposure is conducted. The defect dimensions, which produce critical CD errors are determined by simulation that takes into account the full 3-dimensional structure of phase defects as well as a simplified structure. The critical dimensions of an isolated defect identified by the alt-PSM of a single-trench type for ArF exposure are 240 nm in bottom diameter and 50 degrees in height (phase) for the cylindrical shape and 240 nm in bottom diameter and 90 degrees in height (phase) for the rotating trapezoidal shape, where the CD error limit is +/- 5%.

  6. Defect printability of ArF alternative phase-shift mask: a critical comparison of simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Ken; Komizo, Tooru; Ohnuma, Hidetoshi

    2002-07-01

    An alternative phase shift mask (alt-PSM) is a promising device for extending optical lithography to finer design rules. There have been few reports, however, on the mask's ability to identify phase defects. We report here an alt-PSM of a single-trench type with undercut for ArF exposure, with programmed phase defects used to evaluate defect printability by measuring aerial images with a Zeiss MSM193 measuring system. The experimental results are simulated using the TEMPEST program. First, a critical comparison of the simulation and the experiment is conducted. The actual measured topographies of quartz defects are used in the simulation. Moreover, a general simulation study on defect printability using an alt-PSM for ArF exposure is conducted. The defect dimensions, which produce critical CD errors, are determined by simulation that takes into account the full 3-dimensional structure of phase defects as well as a simplified structure. The critical dimensions of an isolated bump defect identified by the alt-PSM of a single-trench type with undercut for ArF exposure are 300 nm in bottom dimension and 74 degrees in height (phase) for the real shape, where the depth of wet-etching is 100 nm and the CD error limit is +/- 5 percent.

  7. National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn) Report of the Results of Atmospheric Measurements of Pcdds, Pcdfs, and Dioxin-Like PCBs in Rural and Remote Areas of the U.S. from June 1998 Through November 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the EPA Dioxin-like Compounds 2013 Final Report" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the Nation...

  8. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Nanoscale Silver Final report"> This final report presents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on...

  9. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Case Study Final Report" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> This final report presents a case study of multiwalled carbon nanotube...

  10. 77 FR 60022 - Supplemental Identification Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    .... JUMALI, Ahmed Ali), P.O. Box 3312, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Mogadishu, Somalia; Djibouti, Djibouti; DOB 20 May 1954; POB Eilbur, Somalia; nationality Somalia; citizen Somalia; alt. citizen Djibouti; Passport A0181988 (Somalia) issued 01 Oct 2001 expires 23 Jan 2011; Additional Djiboutian passport...

  11. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook (External Review Draft) 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook"> Children are often more heavily exposed to environmental toxicants than adults. They consume more...

  12. Obese Mexican American children have elevated MCP-1, TNF-alpha, monocyte concentration, and dyslipidemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic disease. The prevalence of obesity is especially high among Mexican American children. Peripheral blood monocytes are altered with obesity contributing to elevated systemic inflammation and increased risk of chronic disease. In addition, obesity alte...

  13. Characterization of the extrachromosomal function (ECF) sigma factors of Arcobacter butzleri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported cause of bacterial foodborne illness in North America. C. jejuni decorates its surface polysaccharides with a variety of variable phosphorylated structures, including O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modifications on the capsular polysaccharide. Alt...

  14. INDIUM MEDIATED REACTIONS IN WATER: SYNTHESIS OF BETA-HYDROXYL ESTERS. (R822668)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A variety of alt="small beta, Greek" border=0>-hydroxyl esters were synthesized efficiently through indium mediated carbon-carbon bond formation in water followed by ozonolysis.

  15. AltitudeOmics: cerebral autoregulation during ascent, acclimatization, and re-exposure to high altitude and its relation with acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Subudhi, Andrew W; Fan, Jui-Lin; Evero, Oghenero; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Julian, Colleen G; Lovering, Andrew T; Panerai, Ronney B; Roach, Robert C

    2014-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) acts to maintain brain blood flow despite fluctuations in perfusion pressure. Acute hypoxia is thought to impair CA, but it is unclear if CA is affected by acclimatization or related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). We assessed changes in CA using transfer function analysis of spontaneous fluctuations in radial artery blood pressure (indwelling catheter) and resulting changes in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (transcranial Doppler) in 21 active individuals at sea level upon arrival at 5,260 m (ALT1), after 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16), and upon re-exposure to 5,260 m after 7 days at 1,525 m (POST7). The Lake Louise Questionnaire was used to evaluate AMS symptom severity. CA was impaired upon arrival at ALT1 (P < 0.001) and did not change with acclimatization at ALT16 or upon re-exposure at POST7. CA was not associated with AMS symptoms (all R < 0.50, P > 0.05). These findings suggest that alterations in CA are an intrinsic consequence of hypoxia and are not directly related to the occurrence or severity of AMS.

  16. An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study (Final Report) 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) Case Study Report"> This final report is a description of an approach to evaluate genomic data for use in ris...

  17. Insights into accelerated aging of SSL luminaires

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J. Lynn; Lamvik, Michael; Bittle, James; Shepherd, Sarah; Yaga, Robert; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy

    2013-09-30

    Although solid-state lighting (SSL) products are often intended to have product lifetimes of 15 years or more, the rapid change in technology has created a need for accelerated life tests (ALTs) that can be performed in the span of several months. A critical element of interpreting results from any systems-level ALT is understanding of the impact of the test environment on each component. Because of its ubiquity in electronics, the use of temperature-humidity environments as potential ALTs for SSL luminaires was investigated. Results from testing of populations of three commercial 6” downlights in environments of 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH) and 75oC and 75% RH are reported. These test environments were found to accelerate lumen depreciation of the entire luminaire optical system, including LEDs, lenses, and reflectors. The effects of aging were found to depend strongly on both the optical materials that were used and the design of the luminaire; this shows that the lumen maintenance behavior of SSL luminaires must be addressed at the optical systems level. Temperature-Humidity ALTs can be a useful test in understand lumainaire depreciation provided that proper consideration is given to the different aging rates of various materials. Since the impact of the temperature-humidity environment varies among components of the optical system, uniform aging of all system components in a single test is difficult to achieve.

  18. 75 FR 76004 - Agency Information Collection Activities OMB Responses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Number 1975.08; NESHAP for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; 40 CFR part 63, subparts...; Emissions Certification, Compliance and In- use Testing Requirements for On-highway Heavy Duty Engines and Vehicles Equipped with On-Board Diagnostics (PR for Alt Fuel Conversion of Heavy-duty Engines); in 40...

  19. Astronaut Gordon Fullerton first pilot for Shuttle Approach and Landing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton, pilot of the first crew for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT), is photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  1. Astronaut Richard Truly, second pilot for Shuttle Approach and Landing Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly, pilot of the second crew for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing Tests (ALT), is photographed at the Rockwell International Space Division's Orbiter assembly facility at Palmdale, California on the day of the rollout of the Shuttle Orbiter 101 'Enterprise' spacecraft. The DC-9 size airplane-like Orbiter 101 is in the background.

  2. Tissue expansion techniques to minimize morbidity of the anterolateral thigh perforator flap donor site.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2013-11-01

    Selection of any free flap donor site must not only meet the requirements of the recipient site but also minimize untoward sequela at the donor site itself. Although the anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap is an ideal soft tissue donor site, a major drawback can be its nonesthetic appearance if a skin graft was needed. This detriment can be ameliorated by using traditional tissue expansion techniques. In a retrospective review over the past decade, 14 patients had ALT free flap donor site tissue expansion. These were subcategorized as pretransfer, concurrent, or posttransfer tissue expansion. In this group, mean ALT flap width was 12.2 ± 4.2 cm, which precluded direct donor site closure. Rectangular expanders were generally recommended. Multiple expanders are suggested for larger defects. The duration of expansion averaged 291.4 ± 163.9 days. The mean instilled volume ratio exceeded 2.43 ± 0.9 times the maximum vendor recommendation. Small skin graft residua were still left in four patients. Tissue expansion proved to be an important modality to consider for minimizing the stigmata of the skin grafted ALT free flap donor site. However, this process is time consuming and requires an additional surgical procedure. As such, this option must be reserved for the most motivated and compliant patients.

  3. 78 FR 24468 - Unblocking of 1 Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order 13572

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... of Certain Persons with Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria'' from the list of Specially..., ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons with Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria,'' (the ``Order....k.a. KUZBARI, Nabil R.); DOB 20 Sep 1936; POB Damascus, Syria; citizen Syria; alt. citizen...

  4. 78 FR 25532 - Actions Taken Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... FR 38567, July 1, 2005) (the ``Order''), effective at 12:01 a.m. eastern daylight time on June 29... Labuan, Labuan 87000, Malaysia; 19A-31-3A, Level 31, Business Suite, Wisma UOA, No. 19 Jalan Pinang, Kuala Lumpur, 50450, Malaysia; SWIFT/BIC FIIB MY KA; alt. SWIFT/BIC FIIB MY KA KUL . 3....

  5. An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska (First External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Bristol Bay, Alaska Draft Assessment Report"> [UPDATE] In March 2014, EPA released a response to public comment...

  6. An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska (Second External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Second Draft of the Bristol Bay Assessment Report"> [UPDATE] In March 2014, EPA released a response to public commen...

  7. 78 FR 79078 - Designation of 2 individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13224 of September 23, 2001, “Blocking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... AYED''; a.k.a. ``ABU AYID''), Yemen; DOB 04 Aug 1972; POB al-Zahir, al-Bayda', Yemen; Passport 03902409 (Yemen) issued 13 Jun 2010 expires 13 Jun 2016; alt. Passport 01772281 (Yemen); Personal ID Card 1987853 (Yemen) (individual) . 2. AL-NU'AYMI, 'Abd al-Rahman bin 'Umayr (a.k.a. AL NAIMEH, Abdelrahman Imer...

  8. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: CATALYST DEACTIVATION. (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deactivation of 0.5 wt.% Pt/alt="small gamma, Greek" border=0>-Al2O3 catalysts during trichloroethylene (TCE)–steam reforming was studied with experiments at 700°C, H

  9. Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the external review draft of the hydraulic fracturing drinking water research report"> This assessment provides a review and synthesi...

  10. Freshwater Biological Traits Database (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Freshwater Biological Traits Database Final Report"> This final report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biolo...

  11. Voices from Team-Teaching Classrooms: A Case Study in Junior High Schools in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto-Adamson, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Team-teaching between a Japanese teacher of language (JTL) and a native-English speaker assistant language teacher (ALT) has been widely implemented in English-language classrooms in Japanese schools for more than 20 years under the Japan Exchange Teaching Program (JET) launched in 1987. This study focuses on the classroom roles and…

  12. Evaluation of Risk Factors and Follow-Up Criteria for Severity of Snakebite in Children

    PubMed Central

    Aktar, Fesih; Aktar, Safak; Yolbas, Ilyas; Tekin, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Background Snakebites are an emergency medical condition and require rapid treatment procedures in children. Objectives This study aimed to present an overview of the demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, laboratory findings, severity, and complications that developed in pediatric patients due to snakebites. Patients and Methods A total of 151 children with snakebite were enrolled in the study. All patients had a history of snakebite obtained between June 2006 and August 2015 retrospectively. Results Duration of hospitalization (P < 0.001), rural occurrence (P < 0.001), white blood cell (WBC) count (P = 0.002), aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio (P = 0.010), hypoproteinemia (P = 0.001), hypoalbuminemia (P < 0.001), and hypocalcemia (P = 0.005) were significantly high in the severe snakebite group. WBC (P = 0.006) and AST/ALT ratio (P = 0.018) were significantly higher on the first day of the snakebite than on subsequent days. Conclusions Children admitted to the hospital due to snakebite should be monitored for at least 24 - 48 hours even if no signs of clinical envenomation could be observed. According to the severity of the disease, antivenom should be administered to the patients. Duration of hospitalization, rural occurrence, WBC count, AST/ALT ratio, CK, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypocalcemia can be associated with the severity of snakebite. WBC AST/ALT ratio can be used as follow-up criteria in children with snakebite PMID:27729959

  13. Evaluation of background exposures of Americans to dioxin-like compounds in the 1900s and 2000s (Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Elsevier Journal, Vol 77, Issue 5 October 2009"> The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Reassessment of dioxins an...

  14. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide in Water Treatment and in Topical Sunscreen (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Nanomaterial Case Studies Final Report "> This document is a starting point to determine what is known and what needs to b...

  15. Academic Learning Time in the District of Columbia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Research Information Center.

    Papers generated for a symposium entitled "Effectiveness of Stallings' Use of Time Training for Teachers in Washington, D.C." are presented. The intitial presentation, "Academic Learning Time: The Current Status of the Stallings Training" (Geraldine Williams Bethune), reviews the Stallings research and describes the Academic Learning Time (ALT)…

  16. Adult Literacy & Technology Newsletter. Vol. 4. Nos. 1-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Literacy & Technology Newsletter, 1990

    1990-01-01

    These four issues comprise Volume 4 of the "Adult Literacy & Technology (AL&T) Newsletter." Issue 1 contains the following articles: "Preparing Our Children for Their Future, Not Our Past" (David Thornburg); "The Video Project" (Michael Hanish); "Images of the Future" (Terilyn Turner); "Hyperapplications: Implications for Reading and Writing" (Jay…

  17. Parenting Behavior and Adolescent Conduct Problems: Reciprocal and Mediational Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Chen, Rusan; Hand, Laura Shaffer; Haynie, Denise L.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between parenting practices and adolescent conduct problems and the mediation of these relationships by two parent-adolescent relationship variables, conflict and psychological autonomy. Autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) analyses were used to assess relationships over time between parent practices and…

  18. Synthesis and characterization of organic semiconducting polymers containing dithienylfluorenone for use in organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Byun, Yun-Sun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jong Baek; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2014-08-01

    2,7-Bis(5-bromo-4-hexylthiophen-2-yl)-9H-fluoren-9-one (DTFO) was synthesized as a new electron-accepting material in semiconducting polymers for use in photovoltaic devices. The synthesized DTFO was polymerized with two different electron-donating counter monomers: 2,7-dibromo-9,9-dioctyl-9H-fluorene (DOF) and 2,6-bis(trimethyltin)-4,8-di(2-ethylhexyloxyl)benzo [1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT). Two alternating copolymers, poly(DTFO-alt-DOF) and poly(DTFO-alt-BDT), were synthesized through the Suzuki and Stille coupling polymerizations, respectively. The synthesized polymers exhibited good solubility in common solvents and show good thermal stability up to 350 °C. The optical band gap energies of poly(DTFO-alt-DOF) and poly(DTFO-alt-BDT) were determined to be 2.44 and 2.23 eV, respectively. The positions of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the polymers were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). One of these devices showed a power conversion efficiency of 0.50%, with an open-circuit voltage of 0.67 V, a short-circuit current of 2.34 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 0.30 under air mass (AM) 1.5 global (1.5 G) illumination conditions (100 mW/cm2).

  19. Effect of Syzygium calophyllifolium Walp. seed extract on transaminases and phosphatases in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Gurusamy, K.; Kokilavani, R; Teepa, K. S. Ananta

    2007-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of an aqueous seed extract of Syzygium calophyllifolium Walp. was studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Changes in serum and tissue AST, ALT LDH, ACP and ALP, enzymes activities in alloxan induced rats were studied and found to be reversed by the oral administration of S.calophyllifolium seed extract. PMID:22557266

  20. Ultrastructural Changes in Human Trabecular Meshwork Tissue after Laser Trabeculoplasty

    PubMed Central

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Seibold, Leonard K.; Ammar, David A.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare morphologic changes in human trabecular meshwork (TM) after selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT). Design. Laboratory evaluation of ex vivo human eye TM after laser trabeculoplasty. Methods. Corneoscleral rims from human cadaver eyes were sectioned and treated with varying powers of either SLT or ALT. Specimens were examined using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results. TEM of SLT at all powers resulted in disrupted TM cells with cracked and extracellular pigment granules. SEM of SLT samples treated at high power revealed tissue destruction with scrolling of trabecular beams. SEM of ALT-treated tissue showed increasing destruction with exposure to higher power. The presence or absence of “champagne” bubbles during SLT did not alter the histologic findings. Conclusions. SLT-treated human TM revealed disruption of TM cells with cracked, extracellular pigment granules, particularly at higher treatment powers. Tissue scrolling was noted at very high SLT energy levels. ALT-treated tissue showed significant damage to both the superficial and deeper TM tissues in a dose-dependent fashion. Further studies are needed to guide titration of treatment power to maximize the IOP-lowering effect while minimizing both energy delivered and damage to target tissues. PMID:26064672

  1. Incomplete transfer of accessory loci influencing SbMATE expression underlies genetic background effects for aluminum tolerance in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impaired root development caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause for grain yield reduction for crops cultivated on acid soils which are widespread worldwide. In sorghum, the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, is due to the function of SbMATE, which is an Al-activated root citrate transporte...

  2. An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of volume 1 of the Bristol Bay, Alaska Final Assessment Report"> The Bristol Bay watershed in southwestern Alaska supports the largest soc...

  3. Anthelmintic activity of Artemisia annua L. extracts in vitro and the effect of an aqueous extract and artemisinin in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no effective natural alternative control for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants, with Haemonchus contortus being the most economically important GIN. Despite frequent reports of multidrug-resistant GIN, there is no new commercial anthelmintic to substitute failing ones. Alt...

  4. CHEMISTRY OF FOG WATERS IN CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY: 1. IN SITU PHOTOFORMATION OF HYDROXYL RADICAL AND SINGLET MOLECULAR OXYGEN. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aqueous-phase photoformation of hydroxyl radical (alt="character" border=0>OH) and singlet molecular oxygen (O2(1Δg) or 1O*

  5. PHOSPHORUS-RICH WATERS AT GLOVERS REEF, BELIZE? (R830414)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Table 1. Concentrations (alt="small mu, Greek" border=0>M) of ammonium, nitrate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN=ammonium + nitrate + nitrite), PO43−–P (...

  6. 75 FR 11471 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sablefish Managed Under the Individual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... is a regulatory regime designed to promote the conservation and management of these fisheries and to further the objectives of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act and the Northern... Federal Register of annual management measures. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, A.l.t., March 6, 2010,...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  8. Insights into accelerated aging of SSL luminaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. Lynn; Lamvik, Michael; Bittle, James; Shepherd, Sarah; Yaga, Robert; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy

    2013-09-01

    Although solid-state lighting (SSL) products are often intended to have product lifetimes of 15 years or more, the rapid change in technology has created a need for accelerated life tests (ALTs) that can be performed in the span of several months. A critical element of interpreting results from any systems-level ALT is understanding of the impact of the test environment on each component. Because of its ubiquity in electronics, the use of temperature-humidity environments as potential ALTs for SSL luminaires was investigated. Results from testing of populations of three commercial 6" downlights in environments of 85°C and 85% relative humidity (RH) and 75°C and 75% RH are reported. These test environments were found to accelerate lumen depreciation of the entire luminaire optical system, including LEDs, lenses, and reflectors. The effects of aging were found to depend strongly on both the optical materials that were used and the design of the luminaire; this shows that the lumen maintenance behavior of SSL luminaires must be addressed at the optical systems level. Temperature-Humidity ALTs can be a useful test in understand lumainaire depreciation provided that proper consideration is given to the different aging rates of various materials. Since the impact of the temperature-humidity environment varies among components of the optical system, uniform aging of all system components in a single test is difficult to achieve.

  9. Student Reflections as Artifacts of Self-Regulatory Behaviors for Learning: A Tale of Two Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigenho, Christopher William

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of online and blended learning environments in both higher education and K-12, along with the development of innovative game based, narrative driven, problem-based learning (PBL) systems known as Alternate Reality Games (AltRG), has led to the need to understand student's abilities to self-regulate their learning behaviors…

  10. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    alt="Cover of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for ...

  11. Effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from a self-rating questionnaire, in 1113 Japanese salesmen. The thresholds of associations between alcohol consumption and liver markers were estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The AST, ALT and GGT were positively correlated with alcohol intake (p<0.001), as well as age and body mass index (BMI); the relations to alcohol were statistically significant even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking habit. Although the AST and GGT were associated with four types of alcoholic beverage (p<0.01), it was only whiskey that had close relation to the ALT (p<0.05). The thresholds of alcohol consumption (ethanol g/week), i.e., 95% lower confidence limits of the BMD, were 362 for AST, 660 for ALT, and 252 for GGT. The thresholds for GGT and AST in Japanese men seem to be somewhat higher than those reported in Western countries. It is suggested that hepatocellular injury (i.e., AST elevation) in Japanese men may emerge at the ethanol level of more than 50 g/day. PMID:14738322

  12. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  13. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.1 The Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated... AES record requirements. When an exemption from filing the Shipper's Export Declaration or...

  14. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  15. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  16. VERSATILE AEROSOL CONCENTRATION ENRICHMENT SYSTEM (VACES) FOR SIMULTANEOUS IN VIVO AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF ULTRAFINE, FINE AND COARSE AMBIENT PARTICLES. PART II: FIELD EVALUATION. (R827352C001)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents results from a field evaluation of a mobile versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES), designed to enhance the ambient concentrations of ultrafine (less than 0.18 alt="small m...

  17. Patterns of range-wide genetic variation in six North American bumble bee (Apidae: Bombus) species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing evidence for population declines in bumble bee (Bombus) species worldwide has accelerated research efforts to explain losses in these important native pollinators. In North America, a number of once widespread Bombus species have suffered serious reductions in range and abundance, alt...

  18. Probing alanine transaminase catalysis with hyperpolarized 13CD3-pyruvate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barb, A. W.; Hekmatyar, S. K.; Glushka, J. N.; Prestegard, J. H.

    2013-03-01

    Hyperpolarized metabolites offer a tremendous sensitivity advantage (>104 fold) when measuring flux and enzyme activity in living tissues by magnetic resonance methods. These sensitivity gains can also be applied to mechanistic studies that impose time and metabolite concentration limitations. Here we explore the use of hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in mechanistic studies of alanine transaminase (ALT), a well-established biomarker of liver disease and cancer that converts pyruvate to alanine using glutamate as a nitrogen donor. A specific deuterated, 13C-enriched analog of pyruvic acid, 13C3D3-pyruvic acid, is demonstrated to have advantages in terms of detection by both direct 13C observation and indirect observation through methyl protons introduced by ALT-catalyzed H-D exchange. Exchange on injecting hyperpolarized 13C3D3-pyruvate into ALT dissolved in buffered 1H2O, combined with an experimental approach to measure proton incorporation, provided information on mechanistic details of transaminase action on a 1.5 s timescale. ALT introduced, on average, 0.8 new protons into the methyl group of the alanine produced, indicating the presence of an off-pathway enamine intermediate. The opportunities for exploiting mechanism-dependent molecular signatures as well as indirect detection of hyperpolarized 13C3-pyruvate and products in imaging applications are discussed.

  19. Polymers at liquid-liquid interfaces: Photophysics and photoredox chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, S.E.

    1990-11-01

    Research continued on polymers at liquid-liquid interfaces. This quarter, work concentrated on: preparation of poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid-co-chromophore) polymers; studies of vinylnapthalene-maleic acid polymers as emulsifying agents for water-octane; and assembly of optical fiber reticon-based transient absorption system. 3 refs., 1 fig. (CBS)

  20. Few multiyear precipitation-reduction experiments find a shift in the productivity-precipitation relationship

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precipitation is a key driver of ecosystem net primary productivity and carbon cycling. Global warming is altering precipitation patterns globally, and longer and more intense drought episodes are projected for many temperate and Mediterranean regions. The challenge of predicting the effects of alt...