Moreau de Jonnès, in his statistical Documents on France, published in 1835, and in his Statistics of the Insane, recorded "idiocy" and "epilepsy" among the physical causes of insanity. In contrast, Parchappe held that "epilepsy" and "idiocy "constituted" in no way, real causes" of insanity. They were singular diseases, different from "madness". Their "cause" was "an imperfection of organization, and this is an essential cause", he emphasized, that was purely organic and physiological. During this quarrel, which occurred in 1843, Dr Parchappe wanted to make a clean sweep of medical data which did not differentiate sufficiently between the "moral" and "physical" causes of insanity.
Germer, Carina M; Tomaz, Juliana M; Carvalho, Ana F; Bassani, Rosana A; Bassani, José W M
The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the simplest and most effective non-invasive method to assess the electrical activity of the heart and to obtain information on the heart rate (HR) and rhythm. Because information on the HR of very small reptiles (body mass <10 g) is still scarce in the literature, in the present work we describe a procedure for recording the ECG in non-anesthetized geckos (Hemidactylus mabouia, Moreau de Jonnès, 1818) under different conditions, namely manual restraint (MR), spontaneous tonic immobility (TI), and in the non-restrained condition (NR). In the gecko ECG, the P, QRS and T waves were clearly distinguishable. The HR was 2.83 ± 0.02 Hz under MR, which was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than the HR under the TI (1.65 ± 0.09 Hz) and NR (1.60 ± 0.10 Hz) conditions. Spontaneously beating isolated gecko hearts contracted at 0.84 ± 0.03 Hz. The in vitro beating rate was affected in a concentration-dependent fashion by adrenoceptor stimulation with noradrenaline, as well as by the muscarinic cholinergic agonist carbachol, which produced significant positive and negative chronotropic effects, respectively (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the ECG morphology and HR values in geckos, particularly under TI. The methodology and instrumentation developed here are useful for non-invasive in vivo physiological and pharmacological studies in small reptiles without the need of physical restraint or anesthesia.
Novotny, Jerry F.; Macy, Thomas L.; Gardenier, James T.; Beeman, John W.
Pen rearing studies during 1986 completed the second of three years intended for rearing and releasing upriver bright fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from two study sites, a backwater and a pond, adjacent to the Columbia River; both areas are located in the Jonn Day Reservoir. Results of this study in 1984 and 1985 showed that fish could be successfully reared in net pens and that growth and physiological development of the off-station reared fish proceeded at a faster rate than in fish reared at a hatchery. Transfer of fish from the hatchery to off-station sites at Social Security Pond (pond) and Rock Creek (backwater) during early March increased the period of rearing in 1986 by about four weeks. The increased period of rearing allowed all treatments of fed fish to reach a minimum weight of YU fish/lb by release. Differences in growth of fed fish between regular density treatments and additional, high density treatments (double and triple the regular densities) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but growth of all fed fish reared off-station was again significantly better than that of hatchery reared fish (P < 0.05), Mortalities in all groups of fed fish were low. Physiological development of fed fish was similar in all treatments. At release, development of fish at Social Security Pond appeared to be somewhat ahead of fish at Rock Creek on the same dates however, none of the groups of fed fish achieved a high state of smoltification by release. Unfed fish grew poorly over the redring period, and at release were significantly smaller than either fed groups at the off-station sites, or the control groups reared at the hatchery (P < 0.05). Development of unfed fish toward smoltification was much slower than of fed fish. Mortality of all groups of unfed fish, including the barrier net, was relatively low. Health of all fish reared off-station remained good over the rearing period, and no outbreaks of disease were noted. On-site marking and