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Sample records for kraft andrew mullineux

  1. Andrew: CMU's New Computing Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabowski, Susan

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the progress and problems associated with the development of Carnegie Mellon University's new computing and communications system, "Andrew." Describes the accomplishments and capacities of the system and provides examples of the programs developed for "Andrew." (ML)

  2. Reply to Andrew Wright

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2005-01-01

    Andrew Wright has recently criticized an article penned by the author, which suggests that no good reasons have been given why religious education should be a compulsory school subject. In this article, the author explains the two misunderstandings Wright has about his position. First, Wright characterized the author's thesis as arguing "from the…

  3. Interview with Deborah Andrews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Deborah Andrews about her experiences during her editorship of "Business Communication Quarterly." From June 1997 to March 2005, Debby served as editor of the journal, encouraging all readers to ask important questions about their work: How should we define business communication? On which disciplines and…

  4. Andrew W. S. In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimoto, Warren

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Andrew W. S. In, professor and dean in the University of Hawai'i's College of Education from 1951 to 1984. Born and raised in Honolulu, In attended Royal Elementary, Central Junior High, and McKinley High schools, graduating from McKinley in 1938. He then attended the University of Hawai'i Teachers College…

  5. Stories Along the Way: Andrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Andrew is among the forgotten, the written-off, the hopeless...at least to many of the adults in his life--police, teachers, even family. But when you see that glimmer, that potential, you can't turn your back. Andrew stands as a person, but also a metaphor for believing that each student has a chance to succeed.

  6. Mortality from Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Lew, E O; Wetli, C V

    1996-05-01

    Hurricane Andrew, a category 4 storm, made landfall in South Florida on August 24, 1992, and caused extensive structural and environmental damage. The Dade County Medical Examiner Department investigated 15 deaths directly related to the storm and another 15 natural deaths indirectly related to the storm. The aftermath of the hurricane continued to create circumstances that lead to 32 accidental deaths, five suicides, and four homicides over the next six months. Traffic fatalities due to uncontrolled intersections accounted for one-third of the post-storm accidental deaths. Dyadic deaths (homicide-suicide) doubled in rate for the six months following the storm. The limited number of direct hurricane deaths is attributed to advance storm warnings, its occurrence on a weekend, the storm's passage through less populated areas of the county, and the relatively modest amount of accompanying rainfall.

  7. Faces of Marshall: Erika Andrews

    NASA Video Gallery

    Several Marshall employees were interviewed as part of Marshall's 50th Anniversary activities. Human Resources Specialist Erika Andrews tells how she came to work at NASA as a specialist in organiz...

  8. Benevolent Builder: Appraising Andrew Carnegie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitch, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of Andrew Carnegie era in American public library history focuses on library buildings financed and built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The building design which Carnegie developed, surviving Carnegie libraries in Philadelphia, procedures for obtaining a library, and comparison of architectural attractiveness of Carnegie libraries with…

  9. Libraries and Andrew Carnegie's Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorian, Vartan

    This essay by the president of the Carnegie Corporation of New York (reprinted from the 1998 annual report) opens by noting that the year 1999 marks the 100th anniversary of Andrew Carnegie's support for the planning and development of 65 branch libraries of the New York Public Library System, a gift that came to more than $5.2 million. Discussion…

  10. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  11. The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson. Web Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles, CA.

    This lesson presents the historical background of Abraham Lincoln's selection of Andrew Johnson as his running mate in the election of 1864. The lesson considers the climate in the U.S. Congress after President Lincoln's assassination. The details of the impeachment and trial of President Andrew Johnson are given. The lesson presents three…

  12. Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N

    1996-07-01

    The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.

  13. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    On 24 May 2008, Andrew Stephen Wilson passed away at the age of 61, in his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, from complications resulting from a painful spinal illness. Andrew was arguably one of the first truly multi-wavelength astronomers of his generation. His scientific work on active galactic nuclei [AGN] spanned the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to the X-rays. Andrew was born in Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, on 26 March 1947. He was the younger of two brothers whose births were separated by the Second World War. His father, Norman, came from a relatively affluent family who were coal merchants. His mother, Mary, came from a less comfortable background, one of seven children, daughter of a skilled cabinet maker/French polisher, who went through a very hard time during the depression. As a teacher, she placed enormous value on hard work and education as a way of gaining advancement in life. When Andrew was four, the family moved to Skipton, a nice market town in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew went to a small village school until age eleven when he entered Ermysted's Grammar School. He was an enthusiastic soccer and cricket player. He never lost his enthusiasm for soccer and supported the local soccer team, Leeds United, for all his life. Andrew also followed the Yorkshire county cricket team. Andrew's interest in astronomy stemmed from the fact that at Ermysted's Grammar School someone donated a four-inch refracting telescope, so he and his friends used to go back in the evenings to investigate the rings of Saturn, the moons of Jupiter, and various nebulae. While an undergraduate at Cambridge, Andrew joined the astronomy club and ground an 8-inch mirror by hand as a part of a telescope that he set up in the backyard of his parents' house. Andrew spent hours observing with this telescope, and it was the wonder of the family. At Cambridge, Andrew obtained his bachelor's degree with first-class honors in 1969. During a short visit in London with his

  14. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. A Reanalysis of Hurricane Andrew's Intensity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsea, Christopher W.; Franklin, James L.; McAdie, Colin J.; Beven, John L., II; Gross, James M.; Jarvinen, Brian R.; Pasch, Richard J.; Rappaport, Edward N.; Dunion, Jason P.; Dodge, Peter P.

    2004-11-01

    Hurricane Andrew of 1992 caused unprecedented economic devastation along its path through the Bahamas, southeastern Florida, and Louisiana. Damage in the United States was estimated to be $26 billion (in 1992 dollars), making Andrew one of the most expensive natural disasters in U.S. history. This hurricane struck southeastern Florida with maximum 1-min surface winds estimated in a 1992 poststorm analysis at 125 kt (64 m s-1). This original assessment was primarily based on an adjustment of aircraft reconnaissance flight-level winds to the surface.Based on recent advancements in the understanding of the eyewall wind structure of major hurricanes, the official intensity of Andrew was adjusted upward for five days during its track across the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico by the National Hurricane Center Best Track Change Committee. In particular, Andrew is now assessed by the National Hurricane Center to be a Saffir Simpson Hurricane Scale category-5 hurricane (the highest intensity category possible) at its landfall in southeastern Florida, with maximum 1-min winds of 145 kt (75 m s-1). This makes Andrew only the third category-5 hurricane to strike the United States since at least 1900. Implications for how this change impacts society's planning for such extreme events are discussed.

  16. Congruences for the Andrews spt function.

    PubMed

    Ono, Ken

    2011-01-11

    Ramanujan-type congruences for the Andrews spt(n) partition function have been found for prime moduli 5 ≤ ℓ ≤ 37 in the work of Andrews [Andrews GE, (2008) J Reine Angew Math 624:133-142] and Garvan [Garvan F, (2010) Int J Number Theory 6:1-29]. We exhibit unexpectedly simple congruences for all ℓ≥5. Confirming a conjecture of Garvan, we show that if ℓ≥5 is prime and (-δ/ℓ) = 1, then spt[(ℓ2(ℓn+δ)+1)/24] ≡ 0 (mod ℓ). This congruence gives (ℓ - 1)/2 arithmetic progressions modulo ℓ(3) which support a mod ℓ congruence. This result follows from the surprising fact that the reduction of a certain mock theta function modulo ℓ, for every ℓ≥5, is an eigenform of the Hecke operator T(ℓ(2)).

  17. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    On 24 May 2008, Andrew Stephen Wilson passed away at the age of 61, in his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, from complications resulting from a painful spinal illness. Andrew was arguably one of the first truly multi-wavelength astronomers of his generation. His scientific work on active galactic nuclei [AGN] spanned the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to the X-rays. Andrew was born in Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, on 26 March 1947. He was the younger of two brothers whose births were separated by the Second World War. His father, Norman, came from a relatively affluent family who were coal merchants. His mother, Mary, came from a less comfortable background, one of seven children, daughter of a skilled cabinet maker/French polisher, who went through a very hard time during the depression. As a teacher, she placed enormous value on hard work and education as a way of gaining advancement in life. When Andrew was four, the family moved to Skipton, a nice market town in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew went to a small village school until age eleven when he entered Ermysted's Grammar School. He was an enthusiastic soccer and cricket player. He never lost his enthusiasm for soccer and supported the local soccer team, Leeds United, for all his life. Andrew also followed the Yorkshire county cricket team. Andrew's interest in astronomy stemmed from the fact that at Ermysted's Grammar School someone donated a four-inch refracting telescope, so he and his friends used to go back in the evenings to investigate the rings of Saturn, the moons of Jupiter, and various nebulae. While an undergraduate at Cambridge, Andrew joined the astronomy club and ground an 8-inch mirror by hand as a part of a telescope that he set up in the backyard of his parents' house. Andrew spent hours observing with this telescope, and it was the wonder of the family. At Cambridge, Andrew obtained his bachelor's degree with first-class honors in 1969. During a short visit in London with his

  18. Andrew's Aftermath: Hurricane "Saves" Miami Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Lifer, Evan

    1994-01-01

    Examines the impact of Hurricane Andrew on the Miami-Dade Public Library System (MDPLS). Topics discussed include the community's response to the sudden lack of library services; the use of library branches as emergency relief centers and communications centers; library disaster policies; and visions for MDPLS under a new director. (LRW)

  19. Striking design suits St Andrews skyline.

    PubMed

    Bell, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Creating a new hospital that proves itself to be sustainable on a greenfield site is quite a challenge. Paul Bell, director at Ryder Architecture, describes how the St Andrews Community Hospital and Health Centre has been delivered to achieve just that for NHS Fife.

  20. Obituary: Andrew Lange (1957-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    2011-12-01

    The worlds of physics and astrophysics were stunned to learn on 22 January 2010 that Andrew Lange, the Marvin L. Goldberger Professor of Physics at Caltech, had taken his own life the night before. He had succumbed to the severe depression that he had suffered from for many years, unbeknownst to even his closest colleagues. Lange will perhaps be best remembered as the co-leader of Boomerang, the balloon-borne experiment that provided the first high-angular-resolution map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). And while this was certainly his most notable achievement, Andrew amassed a record of accomplishment as an instrumentalist, leader, mentor, and communicator that extended much further. Andrew was born in Urbana, Illinois on July 23, 1957, the son of an architect and a librarian, and raised primarily in Connecticut. His family and early friends remember him as a serious and extremely intelligent child and young man. Andrew Lange's lifelong interest in the CMB was nurtured as an undergraduate at Princeton University by David Wilkinson, and he recalled fondly a summer spent working with John Mather at Goddard Space Flight Center. Andrew Lange went to graduate school in physics at Berkeley where he worked in Paul Richards' group. Although his thesis project, the Berkeley-Nagoya rocket experiment, showed an anomalous sub-millimeter excess in the CMB spectrum that was shortly thereafter shown by a later flight of the same rocket and COBE-FIRAS to be incorrect, Lange's talents were recognized by the physics department at Berkeley who appointed him shortly after his PhD (1987) to their faculty. While on the Berkeley faculty, Andrew obtained early detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, upper limits to small-angle CMB fluctuations, and important infrared constraints to the interstellar medium. He also led a pioneering instrument operating 300 mK detectors for a small infrared satellite experiment. This early work showed high ambition and daring, and it pioneered

  1. A History of the Andrew File System

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-22

    Derrick Brashear and Jeffrey Altman will present a technical history of the evolution of Andrew File System starting with the early days of the Andrew Project at Carnegie Mellon through the commercialization by Transarc Corporation and IBM and a decade of OpenAFS. The talk will be technical with a focus on the various decisions and implementation trade-offs that were made over the course of AFS versions 1 through 4, the development of the Distributed Computing Environment Distributed File System (DCE DFS), and the course of the OpenAFS development community. The speakers will also discuss the various AFS branches developed at the University of Michigan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Carnegie Mellon University.

  2. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... emissions data that will enable a broader understanding of condensable PM emissions from pulp and paper... first review of the kraft pulp mills NSPS was completed on May 20, 1986 (51 FR 18544). The 1986 review..., 2000 (65 FR 61759); and September 21, 2006 (71 FR 55127)). The current kraft pulp mills NSPS...

  3. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  4. The human side of Hurricane Andrew

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.; Callander, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper examines the long-term psychological effects of the nation`s worst natural disaster on the employees of the Turkey Point nuclear power plant. It also examines the efforts made by plant personnel and company volunteers to aid employees` families affected by the storm. Despite significant damage at the plant, unit 4 was returned to service 5 weeks after the August 24, 1992, hurricane. Unit 3 was returned to service on December 3, 1992. Unit 3 was originally scheduled to start a refueling outage the day Hurricane Andrew struck. While plant personnel are still recovering from Andrew`s impact, the plant`s performance has never been better. On May 26, 1993, the plant completed a record-breaking 46-day refueling outage - 7 days ahead of schedule and $3 million under budget. Turkey Point`s recovery, return to service, and superior performance would not have been possible without the efforts of hundreds of employees who put their personal tragedies aside and focused on the common goal of the plant`s operation. To help employees with rebuilding their lives, the plant launched extensive assistance programs. Although the plant returned to normal operation, plant personnel continue to struggle in a community whose infrastructure (homes, schools, stores, etc.) have been almost eliminated.

  5. Effective saccharification of kraft pulp by using a cellulase cocktail prepared from genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Yoshie, Toshihide; Sakai, Shoji; Wakai, Satoshi; Asai-Nakashima, Nanami; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Ogino, Chiaki; Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp is a promising feedstock for bioproduction. The efficiency of kraft pulp saccharification was improved by using a cellulase cocktail prepared from genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae. Application of the cellulase cocktail was demonstrated by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, using kraft pulp and non-cellulolytic yeast. Such application would make possible to do an efficient production of other chemicals from kraft pulp.

  6. Children describe life after Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Coffman, S

    1994-01-01

    Hurricane Andrew, which devastated the south Florida coast in August 1992, left over 250,000 people homeless with multiple health and social problems. This nursing study explored the experiences of 17 children, ages 5 through 12, who lived in the geographic area of storm damage. Common experiences described by the children included remembering the storm, dealing with after-effects, and reestablishing a new life. In general, children described a sense of strangeness, articulated as "life is weird" after the hurricane. In addition to stressful responses, many positive reactions were described by children in the study, revealing that the disaster also had a maturing effect.

  7. The spt-function of Andrews.

    PubMed

    Folsom, Amanda; Ono, Ken

    2008-12-23

    Recently, Andrews introduced the function s(n) = spt(n) which counts the number of smallest parts among the integer partitions of n. We show that its generating function satisfies an identity analogous to Ramanujan's mock theta identities. As a consequence, we are able to completely determine the parity of s(n). Using another type of identity, one based on Hecke operators, we obtain a complete multiplicative theory for s(n) modulo 3. These congruences confirm unpublished conjectures of Garvan and Sellers. Our methods generalize to all integral moduli.

  8. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  9. Obituary: Andrew Lange (1957-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    2011-12-01

    The worlds of physics and astrophysics were stunned to learn on 22 January 2010 that Andrew Lange, the Marvin L. Goldberger Professor of Physics at Caltech, had taken his own life the night before. He had succumbed to the severe depression that he had suffered from for many years, unbeknownst to even his closest colleagues. Lange will perhaps be best remembered as the co-leader of Boomerang, the balloon-borne experiment that provided the first high-angular-resolution map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). And while this was certainly his most notable achievement, Andrew amassed a record of accomplishment as an instrumentalist, leader, mentor, and communicator that extended much further. Andrew was born in Urbana, Illinois on July 23, 1957, the son of an architect and a librarian, and raised primarily in Connecticut. His family and early friends remember him as a serious and extremely intelligent child and young man. Andrew Lange's lifelong interest in the CMB was nurtured as an undergraduate at Princeton University by David Wilkinson, and he recalled fondly a summer spent working with John Mather at Goddard Space Flight Center. Andrew Lange went to graduate school in physics at Berkeley where he worked in Paul Richards' group. Although his thesis project, the Berkeley-Nagoya rocket experiment, showed an anomalous sub-millimeter excess in the CMB spectrum that was shortly thereafter shown by a later flight of the same rocket and COBE-FIRAS to be incorrect, Lange's talents were recognized by the physics department at Berkeley who appointed him shortly after his PhD (1987) to their faculty. While on the Berkeley faculty, Andrew obtained early detections of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, upper limits to small-angle CMB fluctuations, and important infrared constraints to the interstellar medium. He also led a pioneering instrument operating 300 mK detectors for a small infrared satellite experiment. This early work showed high ambition and daring, and it pioneered

  10. Hurricane Andrew: Impact on hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Kastury, S.N. )

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck the eastern coast of South Florida with winds of 140 mph approximately and a storm surge of 15 ft. The Florida Department of Environmental Regulation finds that the Hurricane Andrew caused a widespread damage throughout Dade and Collier County as well as in Broward and Monroe County and has also greatly harmed the environment. The Department has issued an emergency final order No. 92-1476 on August 26, 1992 to address the environmental cleanup and prevent any further spills of contaminants within the emergency area. The order authorizes the local government officials to designate certain locations in areas remote from habitation for the open burning in air certain incinerators of hurricane generated yard trash and construction and demolition debris. The Department staff has assisted the county and FEMA staff in establishing procedures for Hazardous Waste Management, Waste Segregation and disposal and emergency responses. Local governments have issued these burn permits to public agencies including FDOT and Corps of Engineering (COE). Several case studies will be discussed on the Hazardous Waste Management at this presentation.

  11. Waste treatment of kraft effluents by white-rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, R.

    1996-10-01

    The residual lignin in unbleached kraft pulp is commonly removed to afford a fully bleached pulp through a multi-stage bleaching process consisting of chlorination and alkaline-extraction stages. The effluent from such a bleaching process is of growing environmental concern because it shows a dark brown color and contains numerous chlorinated organic substances. Moreover, this effluent is not easily recycled within a mill recovery system because of the potential corrosion problems created by its high chlorine content. White-rot fungi have even heavily modified lignin such as kraft lignin and atoms demonstrated that kraft bleaching effluent can be rot fungi, in particular, Trametes versicolor and this review lecture, the possibility of the application of kraft effluents will be discussed.

  12. 76 FR 48168 - Andrew K. Choi: Debarment Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Andrew K. Choi: Debarment Order AGENCY: Food and Drug... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) debarring Andrew K. Choi, M.D. for 4 years... K. Choi has been convicted of a misdemeanor under Federal law for conduct relating to the...

  13. Introduction of Dr. Andrew V Schally

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Valdés, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    I first met Dr. Andrew V Schally (PhD, MDhc (Multi), DSc, Distinguished Medical Research Scientist, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Professor of Pathology and Department of Medicine,
Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA) many years ago, probably around the beginning of the 1990's in one of his visits to Mexico City (Figure 1). He has many friends in my country since some of the investigations that led to the development of the LHRH agonists were made in a couple of Mexican hospitals in collaboration with some outstanding Mexican physicians that I will mention later. In that time, I was the head of the Department of Urology of the Mexican National Cancer Institute and our Director, Dr. Jaime de la Garza, invited him for a meeting. I was surprised by his humbleness, intelligence and easy going personality, in spite of being a Nobel Prize scientist. PMID:26112485

  14. 40 CFR 63.446 - Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for kraft pulping process... Standards for kraft pulping process condensates. (a) The requirements of this section apply to owners or operators of kraft processes subject to the requirements of this subpart. (b) The pulping...

  15. 9. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY L. D. ANDREW PHOTOGRAPHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY L. D. ANDREW - PHOTOGRAPHER SEPT. 7, 1936 BEAM, CORNICE, AND CEILING ORNAMENT IN FRONT HALL - Sorrel-Weed House, 6 West Harris Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  16. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer enlarged Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown Dec. 17, 1936 PORTION OF FRONT - Griffin-Mott House, Mott Street & Front Avenue, Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  17. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 CORNER OF WEST FRONT ROOM (SHOWING CORNICE AND WINDOW HEAD) - Wayne-Gordon House, 10 East Oglethorpe Avenue, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 CENTRAL PORTION OF REAR (Showing backsteps, stoop & stairhall, window) - Wayne-Gordon House, 10 East Oglethorpe Avenue, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photo From photo of Miss Edith Johnston, Savannah, Ga. 1936 VIEW OF FRONT AND RIGHT SIDE (Restoration 1936) - Wild Heron Plantation, Little Ogeechee River Vicinity, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photo From Photo of Miss Edith Johnston's, Savannah, Ga. 1936 VIEW OF FRONT AND SIDE (Before Restoration, 1936). - Wild Heron Plantation, Little Ogeechee River Vicinity, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  1. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew - Photographer June, 5, 1936 GARDEN LOOKING S.E. FROM SECOND STORY WINDOW - Kolb-Pou-Newton House, 218 South Second Street, Madison, Morgan County, GA

  2. 13. Circa 1880 view (from the north) across Andrew Hallidie ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Circa 1880 view (from the north) across Andrew Hallidie suspension bridge. Source: Searles Library, Nevada City, California. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

  3. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer From photograph furnished by Miss Edith D. Johnston, Savannah, Ga. Sept. 5, 1936 RED BRICK CHURCH (FORMER BUILDING 1811- 1837) - Christ Church (Episcopal), 28 Bull Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer, Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer, Enlarged Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown Nov. 14, 1936 VIEW OF EASTERN SLAVE CABIN - Bass Place (Slave Cabins), Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Enlarged Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown Nov. 14, 1936 GENERAL VIEW OF SLAVE CABINS - Bass Place (Slave Cabins), Columbus, Muscogee County, GA

  6. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. 27, 1936 CAP AND ENTABLATURE OF ENTRANCE PORTICO - Jerry Cowles House, 4596 Rivoli Drive (moved from 519 Walnut Street), Macon, Bibb County, GA

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 VIEW FROM MORRISON'S CAF? (CORNER OF WHITAKER & CONGRESS) SHOWING S. FACADE - Gibbons Block, Congress, Saint Julian, Barnard, Whitaker Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 30, 1936 VIEW FROM CORNER OF WHITAKER AND ST JULIAN SHOWING NORTH FACADE - Gibbons Block, Congress, Saint Julian, Barnard, Whitaker Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer (Enlarged ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer (Enlarged by) Aug. 6, 1936 Photographed by Harold Bush-Brown SIDE VIEW - Covered Bridge, Spanning Soap Creek, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 1936 From Photographs from Misses Baber-Blackshear, Macon, Georgia ARCH AND STAIRHALL - Baber House, Walnut Street, Macon, Bibb County, GA

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Dec. 1936 From Photograph furnished by W. Elliott Dunwody, Jr. Arch't., Macon, Ga. ENTRANCE STOOP AND DOORWAY - Baber House, Walnut Street, Macon, Bibb County, GA

  12. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. 2, 1936 PANELS AND VAULTED CEILING IN DRAWING ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Emerson & Holmes Building, 556 Mulberry Street, Macon, Bibb County, GA

  13. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Aug. 2, 1936 DETAIL OF DOUBLE OPENING WITH IRON GRATING IN THIRD STORY REAR ROOM - Emerson & Holmes Building, 556 Mulberry Street, Macon, Bibb County, GA

  14. Remote sensing for hurricane Andrew impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Schmidt, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Stennis Space Center personnel flew a Learjet equipped with instrumentation designed to acquire imagery in many spectral bands into areas most damaged by Hurricane Andrew. The calibrated airborne multispectral scanner (CAMS), a NASA-developed sensor, and a Zeiss camera acquired images of these areas. The information derived from the imagery was used to assist Florida officials in assessing the devastation caused by the hurricane. The imagery provided the relief teams with an assessment of the debris covering roads and highways so cleanup plans could be prioritized. The imagery also mapped the level of damage in residential and commercial areas of southern Florida and provided maps of beaches and land cover for determination of beach loss and vegetation damage, particularly the mangrove population. Stennis Space Center personnel demonstrated the ability to respond quickly and the value of such response in an emergency situation. The digital imagery from the CAMS can be processed, analyzed, and developed into products for field crews faster than conventional photography. The resulting information is versatile and allows for rapid updating and editing. Stennis Space Center and state officials worked diligently to compile information to complete analyses of the hurricane's impact.

  15. Interview: Professor Andrew Feinberg speaks to Epigenomics.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    Andrew Feinberg studied mathematics and humanities at Yale University (CT, USA) in the Directed Studies honors program, and he received his BA (1973) and MD (1976) from the accelerated medical program at Johns Hopkins University (MD, USA), as well as an MPH from Johns Hopkins (1981). He performed a postdoctoral fellowship in developmental biology at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD, CA, USA), clinical training in medicine and medical genetics at the University of Pennsylvania (PA, USA) and genetics research with Bert Vogelstein at Johns Hopkins, discovering altered DNA methylation in human cancer. Dr Feinberg continued to perform seminal work in cancer epigenetics as a Howard Hughes investigator at the University of Michigan (MI, USA), discovering human imprinted genes and loss of imprinting in cancer, and the molecular basis of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. He returned to John Hopkins in 1994 as King Fahd Professor of Medicine, Molecular Biology & Genetics and Oncology, and he holds an Adjunct Professorship at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden. Dr Feinberg is Director of the Center for Epigenetics, a National Human Genome Research Institute-designated Center of Excellence in Genome Sciences. The Center is pioneering genome-scale tools in molecular, statistical and epidemiological epigenetics, and is applying them to the study of cancer, neuropsychiatric disease and aging. As part of the center, Dr Feinberg has organized a highly innovative program to bring gifted minority high-school students into genetics and genomics. Dr Feinberg has also invented a number of widely used molecular tools, including random priming. His honors include election to the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as membership on the ISI most-cited authors list, a MERIT Award of the National Cancer Institute, a

  16. Appreciating Unity in Diversity: An Interview with Andrew Solomon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dane L.

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the AMS 2014 Annual Conference is "Unity in Diversity," a concept that also describes the work of conference keynote speaker Andrew Solomon. Solomon is a writer and lecturer on psychology and politics; winner of the National Book Award; and an activist for LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender] rights, mental health,…

  17. Adolescent Responses to the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Karen P.; Erbaugh, Susan E.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the ability of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC) to indicate drug abuse in high school students (N=135), adolescent psychiatric patients (N=171), and residents of a drug abuse treatment center (N=100). Results suggested the MAC can help discriminate between groups of adolescents with and without significant drug abuse. (JAC)

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Sept. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey L. D. Andrew, Photographer Sept. 5, 1936 Photograph from photograph furnished by Miss Edith D. Johnston, Savannah, GA. VIEW OF CHANCEL IN CHRIST CHURCH BEFORE DEMOLITION photo ABOUT 1870 - Christ Church (Episcopal), 28 Bull Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  19. The Mental Health Counselor's Role in Hurricane Andrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingman, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of Hurricane Andrew on disaster workers, followed by some reported experiences of workers as well as victims. Background on natural disasters in general is given, along with information about crisis intervention. Discusses mental health interventions and various skills needed by disaster mental health counselors. (Author/KW)

  20. Hurricane Andrew: Parent Conflict As a Moderator of Children's Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Shari B.; La Greca, Annette M.

    1998-01-01

    Three months after Hurricane Andrew, 89 children in grades four to six who lived in two-parent families and had experienced the hurricane were tested. Children's symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder were related to their perceptions of parental conflict; this relationship was stronger for Hispanic children than for other ethnic groups.…

  1. Valorisation of by Products from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. C.; Lopes, O. R.; Colodette, J. L.; Porto, A. O.; Rieumont, J.; Chaussy, D.; Belgacem, M. N.; Silva, G. G.

    2008-08-01

    Three industrial wastes arising from bleached hardwood kraft pulps, namely: unbleached screen rejects (USR), effluent treatment (ETW), and eucalyptus bark (EB) were analyzed with the aim of their possible valorization as an alternative source of cellulose. Their morphological properties were determined using MorFi apparatus. For this study the sample bleached kraft pulp, BKP, was analyzed as a reference. Lignin and carbohydrate contents were also quantified. These by-products were studied as such (i.e. without careful purification) because we intended to find rational and low-cost way of valorization. In fact any additional operation will induce an over cost. The results obtained indicate that these industrial wastes can be potential raw material in fibre-based applications (paper, composites…), since they contain a high proportion of cellulose with preserved fibrillar morphology. Some of these materials have low lignin and inorganic residue contents.

  2. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  3. 40 CFR 430.30 - Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from: the production of pulp and paper at unbleached kraft mills; the production of pulp and paper at unbleached kraft-neutral sulfite...

  4. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... pulp and fine papers at bleached kraft mills; and the integrated production of pulp and paper at soda... discharges resulting from: The production of market pulp at bleached kraft mills; the integrated...

  5. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... pulp and fine papers at bleached kraft mills; and the integrated production of pulp and paper at soda... discharges resulting from: The production of market pulp at bleached kraft mills; the integrated...

  6. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND... pulp and fine papers at bleached kraft mills; and the integrated production of pulp and paper at soda... discharges resulting from: The production of market pulp at bleached kraft mills; the integrated...

  7. 40 CFR 430.30 - Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... pulp and paper at unbleached kraft mills; the production of pulp and paper at unbleached kraft-neutral sulfite semi-chemical (cross recovery) mills; and the production of pulp and paper at combined...

  8. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND... pulp and fine papers at bleached kraft mills; and the integrated production of pulp and paper at soda... discharges resulting from: The production of market pulp at bleached kraft mills; the integrated...

  9. 40 CFR 430.30 - Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... pulp and paper at unbleached kraft mills; the production of pulp and paper at unbleached kraft-neutral sulfite semi-chemical (cross recovery) mills; and the production of pulp and paper at combined...

  10. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND... pulp and fine papers at bleached kraft mills; and the integrated production of pulp and paper at soda... discharges resulting from: The production of market pulp at bleached kraft mills; the integrated...

  11. 40 CFR 430.30 - Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... pulp and paper at unbleached kraft mills; the production of pulp and paper at unbleached kraft-neutral sulfite semi-chemical (cross recovery) mills; and the production of pulp and paper at combined...

  12. 40 CFR 430.30 - Applicability; description of the unbleached kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from: the production of pulp and paper at unbleached kraft mills; the production of pulp and paper at unbleached kraft-neutral sulfite...

  13. Parafermionic derivation of Andrews-type multiple sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, P.; Mathieu, P.

    2005-09-01

    A multi-parafermion basis of states for the {{\\bb Z}}_k parafermionic models is derived. Its generating function is constructed by elementary steps. It corresponds to the Andrews multiple sum which enumerates partitions whose parts separated by the distance k - 1 differ by at least 2. Two analogous bases are derived for graded parafermions; one of these entails a new expression for their fermionic characters.

  14. Injuries and illnesses related to Hurricane Andrew--Louisiana, 1992.

    PubMed

    1993-04-01

    On August 26, 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck Louisiana. On August 24, in anticipation of hurricane-related injuries and illnesses, the Office of Public Health (OPH), Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, in cooperation with hospital emergency room (ER) and public utility personnel and coroners, established an active emergency surveillance system in 19 parishes to monitor these events. This report summarizes the findings from this emergency surveillance system.

  15. A pioneer of tropical medicine worldwide: Andrew Balfour, of Khartoum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This is an archival account of the career of Sir Andrew Balfour in Khartoum, Sudan during the period 1902 to 1913. As the first director of the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum during the period, Andrew Balfour was tasked with establishing the laboratories and at the same time he was engaged in founding the health services in Khartoum. Balfour worked in close collaboration and support from Henry Wellcome and Reginald Wingate, the Governor General of the Sudan. The energetic and meticulous sanitary work of Balfour had a remarkable impact, with Khartoum declared mosquito-free by 1910. Establishing a research base in the laboratories was met with many challenges but eventually Balfour managed to recruit a team of dedicated researchers and to produce well-circulated publications in tropical medicine. Balfour’s work in Khartoum later lead him to a distinguished career in tropical medicine. In 1923 he was appointed the first Director of London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He was also elected President of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1925–27). Sir Andrew Balfour, KCMG, CB, LL D (1873–1931) PMID:27493361

  16. A pioneer of tropical medicine worldwide: Andrew Balfour, of Khartoum.

    PubMed

    Adeel, Ahmed A A

    2013-01-01

    This is an archival account of the career of Sir Andrew Balfour in Khartoum, Sudan during the period 1902 to 1913. As the first director of the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum during the period, Andrew Balfour was tasked with establishing the laboratories and at the same time he was engaged in founding the health services in Khartoum. Balfour worked in close collaboration and support from Henry Wellcome and Reginald Wingate, the Governor General of the Sudan. The energetic and meticulous sanitary work of Balfour had a remarkable impact, with Khartoum declared mosquito-free by 1910. Establishing a research base in the laboratories was met with many challenges but eventually Balfour managed to recruit a team of dedicated researchers and to produce well-circulated publications in tropical medicine. Balfour's work in Khartoum later lead him to a distinguished career in tropical medicine. In 1923 he was appointed the first Director of London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He was also elected President of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1925-27). Sir Andrew Balfour, KCMG, CB, LL D (1873 -1931).

  17. Dr. Christopher Kraft looks over packaged 'parasol' in bldg 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Dr. Christopher C. Kraft J. (left), JSC Director, and George A Post, JSC Crew Systems Division, look over the packaged 'parasol' during fabrication and checkout of the umbrella-like mechanical device in the Technical Services shop in bldg 10 at JSC. The 'parasol' is designed to fit into the T027 experiment photometer canister. The canopy portion of the 'parasol' measures 24 feet by 22 feet. The 'parasol' is one of several sunscreen possibilities being considered for use in shading the overheated Skylab 1 Orbital Workshop.

  18. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  19. Can unequal be more fair? A response to Andrew Avins.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S J; Braunholtz, D A

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, we respond to Andrew Avins's recent review of methods whose use he advocates in clinical trials, to make them more ethical. He recommends in particular, "unbalanced randomisation". However, we argue that, before such a recommendation can be made, it is important to establish why unequal randomisation might offer ethical advantages over equal randomisation, other things being equal. It is important to make a pragmatic distinction between trials of treatments that are already routinely available and trials of restricted treatments. We conclude that unequal randomisation could, indeed, be an ethical compromise between protecting the interests of participants and those of society. PMID:10860209

  20. ANDREWS MOUNTAIN, MAZOURKA, AND PAIUTE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin H.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, local areas near and within the Andrews Mountain, Mazourka, and Paiute Roadless Areas, California have probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential. The principal metallic mineral resources in these roadless areas are gold, copper, and silver with lead, zinc, and tungsten, as lesser resources. A zone of probable resource potential for talc, graphite, and marble is identified in the Mazourka Roadless Area. Metallic mineralization occurs mostly in vein deposits in silicic and carbonate metasedimentary rocks peripheral to Mesozoic plutons and locally in granitic rocks as well. There is little promise for the occurrence of fossil fuel resources in the roadless areas.

  1. Micropropagation and in vitro conservation of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews).

    PubMed

    Divakaran, Minoo; Babu, K Nirmal

    2009-01-01

    Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews (syn. V. fragrans Salisb.), a source of natural vanillin, plays a major positive role in the economy of several countries. A native to the Central America, its primary gene pool is threatened by deforestation and over collection that has resulted in disappearance of natural habitats and wild species. Therefore, multiplication and conservation of vanilla diversity is of paramount importance because of its narrow genetic base. It plays an important role in the production of disease free planting material for commercial cultivation. Simple protocols for micropropagation, in vitro conservation and synthetic seed production are described in this chapter which could further be applied to other related vanilla species as well.

  2. Prediction of posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Vernberg, E M; Silverman, W K; La Greca, A M; Prinstein, M J

    1996-05-01

    The authors used an integrative conceptual model to examine the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 568 elementary school-age children 3 months after Hurricane Andrew. The model included 4 primary factors: Exposure to Traumatic Events, Child Characteristics, Access to Social Support, and Children's Coping. Overall, 62% of the variance in children's self-reported PTSD symptoms was accounted for by the 4 primary factors, and each factor improved overall prediction of symptoms when entered in the analyses in the order specified by the conceptual model. The findings suggest that the conceptual model may be helpful to organize research and intervention efforts in the wake of natural disasters.

  3. Hurricane Andrew-related injuries and illnesses, Louisiana, 1992.

    PubMed

    McNabb, S J; Kelso, K Y; Wilson, S A; McFarland, L; Farley, T A

    1995-06-01

    To determine the extent and types of injuries and illnesses in Louisiana associated with or related to Hurricane Andrew, we gathered data from hospital emergency departments and coroner's offices on demographic variables, institution, nature and cause of the injury or illness, body part affected, location, and date and time of the event. A hurricane-related injury or illness was defined as one that occurred from noon on August 24, 1992, through midnight on September 21, 1992, as a direct or indirect result of the preparation for (preimpact), the impact of, or the clean-up after the hurricane (postimpact). Nineteen parishes in south-central Louisiana that were most affected by Hurricane Andrew provided data from patients seen in emergency departments and reports from coroner's offices. Active, advance surveillance of this type promotes and facilitates the reporting of disaster-related health outcomes. Future planning for hurricanes should take into account the high rate of cuts, lacerations, and puncture wounds, particularly during the postimpact phase.

  4. Pharmaceutical services at a medical site after Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Nestor, A; Aviles, A I; Kummerle, D R; Barclay, L P; Rey, J A

    1993-09-01

    The experiences of a group of volunteer clinical pharmacists who provided pharmacy services as part of a disaster relief effort following a hurricane are reported. Hurricane Andrew left many people in southern Florida without shelter and other basic necessities, including health care services. A group of seven pharmacists volunteered to provide services at a temporary medical site set up in a community center. The pharmacy stock consisted of donated drugs. The pharmacists dispensed medications directly to patients and worked closely with other volunteer medical personnel to make sure proper medications were used. Because the pharmacy stock was limited, physicians relied upon the pharmacists for information about therapeutic interchanges, dosage conversions, and new medications. Prescriptions were often ordered and dispensed with only oral instructions. The pharmacists also provided patient counseling, although problems caused by inexperience with certain types of patients, a language barrier, and substandard living conditions after the hurricane made counseling more difficult. The contributions of seven pharmacists who provided services at an emergency medical site after Hurricane Andrew were well received by other health care personnel and by the community.

  5. Characterization of cassava starch based foam blended with plant proteins, kraft fiber, and palm oil.

    PubMed

    Kaisangsri, Nattapon; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-09-22

    Cassava starch foam (CSF) trays blended with zein, gluten, soy protein, kraft fiber, and palm oil at various concentrations: 0, 5, 10 and 15% by weight of starch, were characterized. The addition of zein and gluten into CSF resulted in consolidated and homogeneous structural foams compared to its controls. Moreover, the flexural and compressive strength increased with increasing kraft, zein and gluten. CSF containing 15% kraft gave the highest flexural and compressive strength. However, the addition of palm oil into CSF gave the lowest flexural strength and compressive strength. The observed water absorption and water solubility index of CSFs blended with 15% zein and 15% gluten protein was lowest. Although kraft, zein and gluten could improve mechanical properties, water absorption and water solubility were greater than the expanded polystyrene foam (EPS). The CSF trays in this study might be an alternative for packing low water content foods.

  6. Smart Vapor Barrier: CertainTeed Dryright-vs-Kraft-Faced Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-08

    This fact sheet CertainTeed compares the hygrothermal performances of DryRight™ fiberglass batts and kraft-faced fiberglass batts in a south facing wall assembly with a moisture storage cladding material.

  7. Conversion of kraft lignin over hierarchical MFI zeolite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Soo; Lee, Hyung Won; Ryoo, Ryong; Kim, Wookdong; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Young-Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of kraft lignin was carried out using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Hierarchical mesoporous MFI was used as the catalyst and another mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was also used for comparison. The characteristics of mesoporous MFI were analyzed by X-ray diffraction patterns, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and temperature programmed desorption of NH3. Two catalyst/lignin mass ratios were tested: 5/1 and 10/1. Aromatics and alkyl phenolics were the main products of the catalytic pyrolysis of lignin over mesoporous MFI. In particular, the yields of mono-aromatics such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were increased substantially by catalytic upgrading. Increase in the catalyst dose enhanced the production of aromatics further, which is attributed to decarboxylation, decarbonlyation, and aromatization reactions occurring over the acid sites of mesoporous MFI.

  8. Bleaching kraft pulps with white-rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, I.D.; Paice, M.G.; Bourbonnais, R.

    1996-10-01

    Certain white-rot fungi, notably Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete sordida, and isolate IZU-154 can lower the residual lignin content and increase the brightness of kraft pulps without damaging the pulps` strength or yield. This biological delignification effect can be used in Elemental Chlorine Free and Totally Chlorine Free bleaching sequences. Physical contact between the fungal hyphae and the pulp fibers is not required, but the presence of the living fungus is necessary for continued delignification. In many but not a systems, delignification is correlated with manganese peroxidase activity. Experiments with pulps containing {sup 14}C-labelled lignin indicate that the residual lignin is solubilized, but not extensively mineralized, by T. versicolor. The solubilized lignin has the same molecular size as the residual lignin originally present in the pulp. Demethylation of the phenolic rings in the pulp is an early effect of incubation with the fungus.

  9. Green Diesel from Kraft Lignin in Three Steps.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Joakim; Dahlstrand, Christian; Orebom, Alexander; Meuzelaar, Gerrit; Sawadjoon, Supaporn; Galkin, Maxim V; Agback, Peter; Wimby, Martin; Corresa, Elena; Mathieu, Yannick; Sauvanaud, Laurent; Eriksson, Sören; Corma, Avelino; Samec, Joseph S M

    2016-06-22

    Precipitated kraft lignin from black liquor was converted into green diesel in three steps. A mild Ni-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis using 2-propanol generated a lignin residue in which the ethers, carbonyls, and olefins were reduced. An organocatalyzed esterification of the lignin residue with an in situ prepared tall oil fatty acid anhydride gave an esterified lignin residue that was soluble in light gas oil. The esterified lignin residue was coprocessed with light gas oil in a continous hydrotreater to produce a green diesel. This approach will enable the development of new techniques to process commercial lignin in existing oil refinery infrastructures to standardized transportation fuels in the future. PMID:27246391

  10. Technical assistance document for monitoring total reduced sulfur (TRS) from kraft pulp mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T.

    1985-12-01

    This document supports enforcement personnel in determining whether a total reduced sulfur (TRS) continuous emission monitoring (CEM) system is operating properly after initial compliance, in order to assure continuous compliance of Kraft pulp mills with TRS standards. The Kraft process, the applicable NSPS (Subpart BB), common TRS CEM Systems, performance specification tests, and QA/QC are covered. Evaluation forms covering all aspects of the TRS CEM system are provided.

  11. A Meta-Analytic Review of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Hakim, Amy; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2002-01-01

    Using meta analysis, examined the predictive validity of scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (C. MacAndrew, 1965). Compared results for 161 studies with results for 63 studies using cut scores. Discusses why the use of continuous measures rather than cut scores is recommended. (SLD)

  12. Generating an Empirical Probability Distribution for the Andrews-Pregibon Statistic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Michele G.

    A probability distribution was developed for the Andrews-Pregibon (AP) statistic. The statistic, developed by D. F. Andrews and D. Pregibon (1978), identifies multivariate outliers. It is a ratio of the determinant of the data matrix with an observation deleted to the determinant of the entire data matrix. Although the AP statistic has been used…

  13. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  14. Simpler May Still Be Better: A Reply to Eggerth and Andrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Brown, Steven D.

    2006-01-01

    Eggerth and Andrew (2006 [this issue]) provide a valuable contribution to researchers and practitioners using the C index to measure congruence when person or environment codes contain fewer than three letters. However, the computational procedures outlined by Eggerth and Andrew may be more complex than they need be. A simpler alternative to…

  15. Food-related coping strategies after Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Magnus, M H

    1994-06-01

    This telephone survey examined food-related coping strategies in Floridian households after Hurricane Andrew. Approximately 137 households of university faculty and staff who lived in hurricane-damaged areas were interviewed. The average respondent was a college-educated woman between 41 and 60 years old. Prevailing food-purchasing problems included food stores that were either closed, without perishable food, distant, or crowded. In the absence of electricity and water, changes in food preparation included preparation of meals without a stove, more frequent use of grills and canned food, simpler meals, and less cooking. Changes in kitchen cleanup included using more disposables, cleaning more often, washing dishes by hand, and cleaning up less often because of damage in the kitchen. Respondents indicated that the hurricane experience taught them that they should have acquired more general supplies (eg, coolers, thermoses, propane stoves, and gas burners), more water and ice, and more nonperishable foods before the hurricane.

  16. Measurement of perceived disruption during rebuilding following Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Burnett, K; Ironson, G; Benight, C; Wynings, C; Greenwood, D; Carver, C S; Cruess, D; Baum, A; Schneiderman, N

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a measure of perceived disruption during rebuilding following a disaster. Two eight-item scales, which measured intensity of disruption during the entire repair phase (Intensity-RP) and intensity of disruption during the past month (Intensity-PM) were developed and administered to 135 survivors of Hurricane Andrew. At 9 to 12 months postdisaster, Intensity-RP and Intensity-PM were both significantly associated with scores on the Global Severity Index of the SCL-90-R, and with scores on the Impact of Event-Intrusion Scale; Intensity-PM alone was significantly associated with PTSD scores. Regression analyses indicated that each scale contributed significant unique variance in predicting mental health symptoms, even after controlling for relevant demographic and initial disaster exposure variables.

  17. The McAndrews Leadership Lecture: February 2015, by Dr Scott Haldeman. Challenges of the Past, Challenges of the Present.

    PubMed

    Haldeman, Scott; McAndrews, George P; Goertz, Christine; Sportelli, Louis; Hamm, Anthony W; Johnson, Claire

    2015-12-01

    The McAndrews Leadership Lecture was developed by the American Chiropractic Association to honor the legacy of Jerome F. McAndrews, DC, and George P. McAndrews, JD, and their contributions to the chiropractic profession. This article is a transcription of the presentation made by Dr Scott Haldeman on February 28, 2015, in Washington, DC, at the National Chiropractic Leadership Conference.

  18. 76 FR 70433 - Andrew Peklo III; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing with the Commission, Intent to Waive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Andrew Peklo III; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing with the...: Exemption From Licensing. b. Project No.: 12790-001. c. Date filed: February 16, 2011. d. Applicant: Andrew.... Applicant Contact: Andrew Peklo III, 29 Pomperaug Road, Woodbury, CT 06798, (203) 263-4566,...

  19. 78 FR 21921 - Andrew Peklo III; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Intent To Waive Scoping, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Andrew Peklo III; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Intent To Waive... License. b. Project No.: 12790-002. c. Date filed: January 17, 2013. d. Applicant: Andrew Peklo III. e... Pursuant to: Federal Power Act (FPA) 16 U.S.C. 791 (a)- 825(r). h. Applicant Contact: Andrew Peklo III,...

  20. A transnational conference romance: Elsie Andrews, Hildegarde Kneeland, and the Pan-Pacific Women's Association.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Elsie Andrews, a feminist activist from New Zealand, met Dr. Hildegarde Kneeland, a progressive economist from the United States, at the 1934 Pan-Pacific Women's Association conference in Honolulu. Andrews wrote diaries of her attendance at conferences, and in these writes openly of her attraction and romantic feelings for Kneeland, despite her own long-term domestic partnership back in New Plymouth with Muriel Kirton. This article considers the role conference romances may have played for Andrews and others in encouraging their interest in women's organizations, in the context of literature on romantic friendships and lesbianism.

  1. A transnational conference romance: Elsie Andrews, Hildegarde Kneeland, and the Pan-Pacific Women's Association.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Elsie Andrews, a feminist activist from New Zealand, met Dr. Hildegarde Kneeland, a progressive economist from the United States, at the 1934 Pan-Pacific Women's Association conference in Honolulu. Andrews wrote diaries of her attendance at conferences, and in these writes openly of her attraction and romantic feelings for Kneeland, despite her own long-term domestic partnership back in New Plymouth with Muriel Kirton. This article considers the role conference romances may have played for Andrews and others in encouraging their interest in women's organizations, in the context of literature on romantic friendships and lesbianism. PMID:19830617

  2. Viscoelastic properties of high solids softwood kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The linear viscoelastic functions of several softwood slash pine kraft black liquors from a two level, four variable factorially designed pulping experiment were determined for solids concentrations from 65% to 81% and temperatures from 40 to 85 C. At high solids and lower temperatures, black liquors behave like un-cross-linked polymers.The exact level of dynamic viscosity and storage modulus at any given condition is dependent upon the solids composition which will vary from liquor to liquor. The linear viscoelastic functions were described using Cross and Carreau-Yasuda models. Superposition principles developed for polymer melts and concentrated polymer solutions were applied to obtain reduced correlations for dynamic viscosity and storage modulus. The data for dynamic viscosity were shifted over the whole range of temperature, solids concentrations, and frequency, and a single curve for dynamic viscosity behavior of every liquor was obtained. The data for storage modulus did not superimpose into a single curve for the effects of solids concentration. The reduced correlations were used to estimate the viscoelasticity of the liquors near normal firing conditions and found that black liquors will not have any problem in droplet formation for concentrations up to 81% solids and temperatures above 120 C. The viscometric and linear viscoelastic functions of black liquors were compared (Cox-Merz rule), and it was shown that at sufficiently low shear rates and frequencies both shear viscosity and the magnitude of the complex viscosity approach zero shear rate viscosity.

  3. Helmholtz's early empiricism and the Erhaltung der Kraft.

    PubMed

    Jurkowitz, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Hermann Helmholtz has often been understood to have started research under the influence of Kant, and then to have made a transition to a later mature empiricist phase. Without claiming that in 1847 Helmholtz held the same positions that he later espoused, I suggest that already in his 1847 'Uber die Erhaltung der Kraft' one may find important aspects of his later empiricism. I highlight the ways in which, from early on, Helmholtz turned Kant to use in developing an empirical program of inquiry into possible basic natural causes. To that end, I indicate how, throughout his arguments, Helmholtz employed, sometimes explicitly, but often tacitly, an empiricist logic, one that ran contrary to any form of transcendental deduction, and even to all a priori knowledge. Instead of deriving aspects about the ultimate constituents of nature, Helmholtz aimed to define the proper project for physical natural science. The first part of the paper describes the context of discussion in which Helmholtz entered. The bulk of the paper then analyzes Helmholtz's arguments in order to make space between (1) Kantian, and other, deductions of characteristics that must be true of nature and (2) Helmholtz's delineation of empirically determinable characteristics of presumed ultimate elements of nature, ones that he meant to be specified and delimited through future experimental research. The paper highlights that throughout his discussion Helmholtz meant to define the proper project for physical natural science, a project rife with empiricist aspects. PMID:20503777

  4. Hot Corrosion at Air-Ports in Kraft Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Russell, James H.

    2003-01-01

    Hot corrosion can occur on the cold-side of airports in Kraft recovery boilers. The primary corrosion mechanism involves the migration of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide vapors through leaks in the furnace wall at the airports and their subsequent condensation. It has been reported that stainless steel is attacked much faster than carbon steel in composite tubes, and that carbon steel tubing, when used with a low-chromium refractory, does not exhibit this type of corrosion. For hot corrosion fluxing of metal oxides, either acidic or basic fluxing takes place, with a solubility minimum at the basicity of transition between the two reactions. For stainless steel, if the basicity of the fused salt is between the iron and chromium oxide solubility minima, then a synergistic effect can occur that leads to rapid corrosion. The products of one reaction are the reactants of the other, which eliminates the need for rate-controlling diffusion. This effect can explain why stainless steel is attacked more readily than carbon steel.

  5. Helmholtz's early empiricism and the Erhaltung der Kraft.

    PubMed

    Jurkowitz, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Hermann Helmholtz has often been understood to have started research under the influence of Kant, and then to have made a transition to a later mature empiricist phase. Without claiming that in 1847 Helmholtz held the same positions that he later espoused, I suggest that already in his 1847 'Uber die Erhaltung der Kraft' one may find important aspects of his later empiricism. I highlight the ways in which, from early on, Helmholtz turned Kant to use in developing an empirical program of inquiry into possible basic natural causes. To that end, I indicate how, throughout his arguments, Helmholtz employed, sometimes explicitly, but often tacitly, an empiricist logic, one that ran contrary to any form of transcendental deduction, and even to all a priori knowledge. Instead of deriving aspects about the ultimate constituents of nature, Helmholtz aimed to define the proper project for physical natural science. The first part of the paper describes the context of discussion in which Helmholtz entered. The bulk of the paper then analyzes Helmholtz's arguments in order to make space between (1) Kantian, and other, deductions of characteristics that must be true of nature and (2) Helmholtz's delineation of empirically determinable characteristics of presumed ultimate elements of nature, ones that he meant to be specified and delimited through future experimental research. The paper highlights that throughout his discussion Helmholtz meant to define the proper project for physical natural science, a project rife with empiricist aspects.

  6. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  7. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  8. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  9. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  10. ISS Update: RATS Principal Investigator Andrew Abercromby -- 08.29.12

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks to the Research And Technology Studies (RATS) Principal Investigator Andrew Abercromby in the Space Vehicle Mock-Up Facility at Johnson Space Center in...

  11. Effect of shortening kraft pulping integrated with extended oxygen delignification on biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Chunyun; Hu, Huichao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the impact of shortening kraft pulping (KP) process integrated with extended oxygen delignification (OD) on the biorefinery process performance of eucalyptus. Data showed that using kraft pulps with high kappa number could improve the delignification efficiency of OD, reduce hexenuronic acid formation in kraft pulps. Pulp viscosity for a target kappa number of ∼10 was comparable to that obtained from conventional KP and OD process. The energy and alkali consumption in the integrated biorefinery process could be optimized when using a KP pulp with kappa number of ∼27. The process could minimize the overall methanol formation, but greater amounts of carbonate and oxalate were formed. The information from this study will be helpful to the future implementation of short-time KP integrated with extended OD process in actual pulp mill applications for biorefinery, aiming at further improvement in the biorefinery effectiveness of hardwood.

  12. Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    2002-02-07

    Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

  13. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  14. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... waterline to 30°09′57.5″ N, 085°44′37″ W; then northerly to point of origin. (2) Area BA-1. The area...

  15. Biological modification of loblolly pine chips with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora prior to kraft pulping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalba, Laura L.

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to selectively degrade lignin in loblolly pine chips and the effect on kraft pulps was investigated. The effect of fungal treatment was assessed by comparing changes in untreated wood chips with chips incubated for two and four weeks. The kraft pulping step included two different cooking times and two levels of chemical dosage as the variables, 16 and 22% for the effective alkali and 60 and 90 min at 170°C. The other cooking variables were kept constant for all the experiments and were: sulfidity, 22%; liquor/wood ratio 4:1; time to Tmax 90 min.; Tmax 170°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the colonization introduced significant chemical and physical changes. Pore size distribution analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in the average pore size as fungal treatment progressed. Significant reduction in the extractives content (23%) was found in the first 2 weeks, after which the reduction leveled off. Lignin losses reached 2% in the first 2 weeks of incubation, followed by an 11% loss after 4 weeks of treatment. Lignin phenolic hydroxyl groups increased 14% after 4 weeks of incubation. Fungal treatment caused 4 and 6% carbohydrate loss in 2 and 4 weeks-treated chips, respectively. The selectivity of the fungal treatment was emphasized in the subsequent kraft pulping. The best response regarding improved delignification was found in kraft pulps processed at the mildest pulping conditions without affecting pulp viscosity. Benefits of fungal treatment regarding freeness of kraft pulps were evidenced after 4 weeks of incubation with a maximum of 35% freeness reduction in kraft pulps refined at 12,000 rev in a PFI mill. Strength properties of kraft pulps of fungal treated chips were superior to those of the control. This method involves chemical and physical modification of wood chips using fungi. The approach improved chip impregnation, which in turn, led to more uniform

  16. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  17. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  18. Andrew meets Rensch: sexual size dimorphism and the inverse of Rensch's rule in Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi).

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen Bo; Liu, Wen Chao; Merilä, Juha

    2015-02-01

    Variation in sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon and is commonly attributed to variation in sex-specific patterns of selection. According to Rensch's rule, SSD increases with increasing body size when males are the larger sex, and decreases when females are the larger sex. Using data from 17 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi), we tested whether the patterns of SSD conform to Rensch's rule. Using field experiments, we also evaluated the hypothesis that sexual selection favours large male body size and that fecundity selection favours large female body size. The results revealed that the degree of SSD increased with increasing mean size in females, consistent with the inverse of Rensch's rule. Although experiments revealed evidence for a large-male mating advantage, selection for large male size was weak at best, and hence unlikely to be an important source of variation in SSD. However, fecundity selection favouring large females was evident, and likely to explain the observed inverse of Rensch's rule. After correcting male and female body size for age differences, the patterns of SSD remained the same, suggesting that the intra- and interpopulational variation in SSD is not driven by sex differences in age structure. Hence, these findings suggest that the strong fecundity selection favouring large females drives the evolution of female-biased SSD in B. andrewsi, providing an explanation for the inverse of Rensch's rule. As such, the study provides an important addition to the small body of literature that uses an intraspecific approach to demonstrate the inverse of Rensch's rule.

  19. IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY OF KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Vitro Androgenic Activity of Kraft Mill Effluent is Associated with Masculinization of Female Fish. Lambright, CS 1 , Parks, LG 1, Orlando, E 2, Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Ankley, G 3, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville ...

  20. 40 CFR 63.446 - Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... condensates. 63.446 Section 63.446 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Standards for kraft pulping process condensates. (a) The requirements of this section apply to owners or... condensates from the following equipment systems shall be treated to meet the requirements specified...

  1. 40 CFR 63.446 - Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... condensates. 63.446 Section 63.446 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Standards for kraft pulping process condensates. (a) The requirements of this section apply to owners or... condensates from the following equipment systems shall be treated to meet the requirements specified...

  2. Metabolic effects of kraft mill effluents on the eel Anguilla anguilla L

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, M.A.; Pires, F.; Hall, A. )

    1990-08-01

    Yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) with an average weight of 60 g were used in this experiment. The fish were caught in June/July at the Aveiro Lagoon on the Portuguese West Coast, transported to the Department of Biology, Aveiro University, and kept in aerated aquaria for 1 week before the experiment started. The eels were then exposed for 1 and 3 weeks to 75 and 50% of the kraft pulp mill effluent. The eels exposed to the kraft pulp mill effluent developed an increase in red blood cell number per cubic millimeter and several biochemical changes, such as an increase in plasma lactate and sodium and a decrease in plasma pyruvate and potassium. Histological examination of the experimental eels exposed to the 50% kraft pulp mill effluent revealed deep alteration of the tissue structure, such as disruption of the skin and edematous hypertrophy of covering epithelial cells in secondary gill lamellae. The kidney had damage of the renal tubules. The liver developed necrosis supported by a significant decrease in GOT and GPT activity. The spleen had an increase in blood content as well as in pigment centers. Previous results indicated the kraft pulp mill effluent causes tissue damage and consequent metabolic changes in the eel Anguilla anguilla L.

  3. An Analytical System Designed to Measure Multiple Malodorous Compounds Related to Kraft Mill Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulik, J. D.; And Others

    Reported upon in this research study is the development of two automated chromatographs equipped with flame photometric detectors for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of both low- and high-molecular weight sulfur compounds in kraft mill effluents. In addition the study sought to determine the relationship between total gaseous sulfur and…

  4. The McAndrews Leadership Lecture: February 2015, by Dr Scott Haldeman. Challenges of the Past, Challenges of the Present

    PubMed Central

    Haldeman, Scott; McAndrews, George P.; Goertz, Christine; Sportelli, Louis; Hamm, Anthony W.; Johnson, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The McAndrews Leadership Lecture was developed by the American Chiropractic Association to honor the legacy of Jerome F. McAndrews, DC, and George P. McAndrews, JD, and their contributions to the chiropractic profession. This article is a transcription of the presentation made by Dr Scott Haldeman on February 28, 2015, in Washington, DC, at the National Chiropractic Leadership Conference. PMID:26770177

  5. Hurricane Andrew's impact on natural gas and oil facilities on the outer continental shelf (interim report as of November 1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The interim report reviews Hurricane Andrew's impact on Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) natural gas and oil drilling and production facilities. The report provides background on Hurricane Andrew's progression, discusses how OCS operators responded to the storm, summarizes the types of damage to offshore facilies caused by Hurricane Andrew, and discusses Minerals Management Service's continuing damage assessment and repair efforts. The summaries of damage estimates are presented in tables in Appendix 1. A glossary of report terminology is provided in Appendix 2.

  6. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In

  7. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    SciTech Connect

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R.; Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  8. Preliminary report: medical examiner reports of deaths associated with Hurricane Andrew--Florida, August 1992.

    PubMed

    1992-09-01

    On August 24, 1992, at 1:40 a.m. eastern daylight time (EDT), rain bands associated with Hurricane Andrew reached the eastern coast of Florida. At 4:45 a.m. EDT, Hurricane Andrew made landfall 35 miles southeast of Miami at Homestead, with sustained winds of 145 miles per hour (mph) and gusts of 164 mph. These winds extended 45 miles outward of the storm center. The storm moved across the state at 18 mph toward the Gulf of Mexico (Figure 1). The tidal surge on the eastern coast was estimated at 7-19 feet. During the storm, approximately 2.5 million Florida residents were left without electrical power, and approximately 56,000 family dwelling units were destroyed or severely damaged. This report presents preliminary data from Florida medical examiner (ME) offices about deaths attributed to Hurricane Andrew.

  9. Andrew Sexton Gray (1826-1907). A founder of Australian ophthalmology: his life and times.

    PubMed

    Lowe, R F

    1985-11-01

    Andrew Sexton Gray was born in Limerick, Ireland, medically trained in Dublin, and was assistant to William Wilde, the distinguished oculist and aurist. He migrated to Victoria in 1859, was surgeon to a railway's construction company, then in 1862 began practice as a surgeon and oculist in Melbourne. In 1863 he founded a charitable eye and ear hospital, and had a very active, long life devoted mostly to ophthalmology. The hospital progressively expanded and became the centre for training for many ophthalmologists, as well as the nucleus for the cohesion of Victorian ophthalmology. History shows Andrew Sexton Gray to have been a founder of Australian ophthalmology. PMID:3914312

  10. Analyzing after-action reports from Hurricanes Andrew and Katrina: repeated, modified, and newly created recommendations.

    PubMed

    Knox, Claire Connolly

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen years after Hurricane Andrew struck Homestead, FL, Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, Alabama, and southeastern Louisiana. Along with all its destruction, the term "catastrophic" was redefined. This article extends the literature on these hurricanes by providing a macrolevel analysis of The Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee Final Report from Hurricane Andrew and three federal after-action reports from Hurricane Katrina, as well as a cursory review of relevant literature. Results provide evidence that previous lessons have not been learned or institutionalized with many recommendations being repeated or modified. This article concludes with a discussion of these lessons, as well as new issues arising during Hurricane Katrina.

  11. Andrew's bridge system: an aesthetic and functional option for rehabilitation of compromised maxillary anterior dentition

    PubMed Central

    Tambe, Abhijit; Patil, Sanjayagouda B; Bhat, Sudhakara; Badadare, Mokshada M

    2014-01-01

    Summary A patient with several missing teeth in the anterior aesthetic region along with severe ridge defect poses a greater challenge for prosthodontic rehabilitation. In such cases treatment using fixed partial denture (FPD) may not be feasible because of the extent of edentulous span and the periodontal conditions of the abutment teeth. To present a case of multiple missing maxillary anterior teeth with class III ridge defect rehabilitated using FPD-removable partial denture. A 38-year-old female patient was successfully rehabilitated using Andrew's bridge system in the maxillary anterior region. The fixed-removable Andrew's bridge system provides a good prognosis if diagnosed and planned meticulously. PMID:25035444

  12. Capacities of template-type platforms in the Gulf of Mexico during hurricane Andrew

    SciTech Connect

    Bea, R.G.; Loch, K.J.; Young, P.L.

    1997-02-01

    This paper details results from nonlinear analyses of the ultimate limit state performance characteristics of four Gulf of Mexico (GOM) platforms subjected to intense loadings from hurricane Andrew. These four platforms were located to the east of the track of hurricane Andrew, and were thus in the most intense portion of the storm (Smith, 1993). The nonlinear analyses are able to replicate details of the observed behavior of the four structures. This replication is very dependent on realistic characterization of the performance characteristics of the pile foundations and on accurate information on the as is condition of the platforms before the storm.

  13. The Concurrent and Construct Validity of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale among At-Risk Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the empirical validity of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale in adolescent male offenders (N=160). Results supported the concurrent validity of the MacAndrew Scale as a measure of alcohol abuse among young at-risk males and was also sensitive to polydrug use among youth who abuse alcohol. (LLL)

  14. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters...

  15. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters...

  16. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters...

  17. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters...

  18. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions... Manufacturing Pt. 98, Subpt. AA, Table AA -2 Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98—Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based emissions factors (kg/mmBtu HHV) Kraft lime...

  19. Acid hydrolysis of cellulosic fibres: Comparison of bleached kraft pulp, dissolving pulps and cotton textile cellulose.

    PubMed

    Palme, Anna; Theliander, Hans; Brelid, Harald

    2016-01-20

    The behaviour of different cellulosic fibres during acid hydrolysis has been investigated and the levelling-off degree of polymerisation (LODP) has been determined. The study included a bleached kraft pulp (both never-dried and once-dried) and two dissolving pulps (once-dried). Additionally, cotton cellulose from new cotton sheets and sheets discarded after long-time use was studied. Experimental results from the investigation, together with results found in literature, imply that ultrastructural differences between different fibres affect their susceptibility towards acid hydrolysis. Drying of a bleached kraft pulp was found to enhance the rate of acid hydrolysis and also result in a decrease in LODP. This implies that the susceptibility of cellulosic fibres towards acid hydrolysis is affected by drying-induced stresses in the cellulose chains. In cotton cellulose, it was found that use and laundering gave a substantial loss in the degree of polymerisation (DP), but that the LODP was only marginally affected.

  20. [Air stripping-UASB process for the treatment of evaporator condensate from a Kraft pulp mill].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-li; Qin, Xiao-peng; Yu, Jun; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ukita, Masao

    2006-04-01

    Evaporator condensate from a kraft pulp mill is characterized by high temperature, high strength, poor nutrition, and some odor and inhibitive materials. In this study, air stripping-UASB process was developed to treat the wastewater from a kraft pulp mill. The lab scale study demonstrated that air stripping process removed 70%-80% of the volatile organic sulfur compounds. After that, the UASB reactor showed high efficiency, at the organic loading rate (COD) of 30 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), COD removal was retained about 95%. On the other hand, the inoculated granules were broken in the new surroundings and were replaced with the newly formed granules The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) observation showed wide difference of the predominant anaerobic microorganisms in the seed and newly formed granules.

  1. Management of nonprocess elements in low-effluent bleached kraft pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing environmental regulation for the discharge of chlorinated organics in bleach plant effluents has required most manufacturers in the pulp and paper industry to reduce the charge of elemental chlorine in the bleaching of kraft pulp. The best long term solution for reducing effluent pollutants from bleached kraft pulp mills is to move towards low-effluent (closed-cycle) bleaching. Closure of operating bleach plants would dramatically reduce both the volume and the pollutant concentration of pulp mill effluents. However, closing the mill creates many operational problems including a concentration build-up of nonprocess elements (NPE`s) in process streams. NPE`s usually enter the pulp process as trace constituents of wood. Recent studies have lead to a fundamental understanding of how NPE`s partition between the solid cellulose phase and the liquid aqueous phase in pulp mill process streams. This knowledge will help in the design, operation and optimization of future low-effluent bleach plants.

  2. TCF bleaching sequence in kraft pulping of olive tree pruning residues.

    PubMed

    Requejo, A; Rodríguez, A; Colodette, J L; Gomide, J L; Jiménez, L

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to find a suitable Kraft cooking process for olive tree pruning (OTP), in order to produce pulp of kappa number about 17. The Kraft pulp produced under optimized conditions showed a viscosity of 31.5 mPa·s and good physical, mechanical, and optical properties, which are suitable for paper production. The physical-mechanical and optical properties were measured before and after bleaching. Although the OTP pulp was bleached to 90.9% ISO brightness (kappa<1), the process demanded a long sequence of stages, OZQPOZQPO. The bleached pulp showed a brightness reversion equal to 1.3%. Furthermore, this bleached pulp did not need a high intensity of beating due to high drainability degree in the unbeaten pulp. So that, OTP is suggested as an interesting raw material for cellulosic pulp production because its properties are comparable to those of other agricultural residues, currently used in the paper industry.

  3. Astronauts Mario Runco, Jr. and Andrew S. W. Thomas, both mission specialists, pose for photo while

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- Astronauts Mario Runco, Jr. and Andrew S. W. Thomas, both mission specialists, pose for photo while in the mid-deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  4. 75 FR 41895 - Whirlpool Corporation, Evansville Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Andrews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Workers From Andrews International, Inc., M.H. Equipment, and Kenco Logistics Services, LLC, Evansville... notice was published in the Federal Register on March 5, 2010 (75 FR 10321). The notice was amended on... published on the Federal Register on June 7, 2010 (75 FR 32221). At the request of the petitioners,...

  5. 77 FR 2968 - Pomperaug Hydro Project, Andrew Peklo III; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments and Reply...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pomperaug Hydro Project, Andrew Peklo III; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments and Reply Comments On December 15, 2011, the Commission issued notice that Office of Energy Projects staff will hold a site visit...

  6. Athena, Andrew and Stanford: A Look at Implementation and Evaluation in Three Large Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Geoff

    1989-01-01

    Describes implementation, support, and evaluation of computer assisted learning (CAL) projects at three universities: Project Athena at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Andrew network at Carnegie Mellon University; and a project at Stanford University. Topics discussed include work stations, microcomputers, computer networks, graphics,…

  7. 78 FR 78349 - Andrew Peklo III; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Commission's (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Andrew Peklo III; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental...

  8. Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Allen was joined by four other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia. The photograph was taken with a 70mm handheld camera.

  9. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  10. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  11. 75 FR 10457 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Forest Service Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration... statement. SUMMARY: The AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project is a district-wide project that... endangered smooth coneflower. The AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project is located on...

  12. Because Everyone Has a Story to Tell: Interview with Andrew Wright

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floris, Flora Debora

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Andrew Wright, a widely recognized author, illustrator, storyteller, and teacher trainer. Wright has published many ELT books, authored six "Spellbinder" graded readers (1992-1994), and a collection of short stories. As a teacher trainer, Wright worked extensively with both teachers and students in…

  13. Amos Kendall's Role in the Election of Andrew Jackson as President of the United States, 1828.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowell, Bob

    Amos Kendall's place in journalism history rests largely on his service as a journalist turned government official in the two administrations of President Andrew Jackson. Historians have claimed that Kendall was an influential journalist of the "partisan press" era, but they have provided little documentation. That documentation has been provided…

  14. 14. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; Building No. 6 at right, Building No. 1 in background, gateposts in foreground - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  15. 22. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; Building No. 1 at left, Building No. 4 at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  16. 16. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking southeast; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking southeast; Building No. 6 at center, roof of Building No. 1 at left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  17. 18. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking north; Building No. 3 at center right, Building No. 2 at center distance, Dundee Canal at left - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  18. 20. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking southeast; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking southeast; Building No. 2 at left, Building No. 3 at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  19. 76 FR 79675 - Pomperaug Hydro Project Andrew Peklo III; Notice of Site Visit and Technical Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pomperaug Hydro Project Andrew Peklo III; Notice of Site Visit and Technical Meeting On January 18, 2012, Office of Energy Projects staff will hold a site visit and technical...

  20. Commentary on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Gary; Coulson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence." The authors believe that Coulson's paper is a very interesting review of the literature on the ability of market-produced education to outperform government-produced education. Coulson's response on this commentary…

  1. 17. View looking north; Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill, Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View looking north; Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill, Building No. 1, at right, Botany Worsted Mills at left distance - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  2. 19. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking south; Building No. 2 at center, Botany Mills Lanolin Retrieval plant site in foreground - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  3. 56. Aerial view looking west; Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Aerial view looking west; Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill at bottom, Dundee Canal at center, Botany Worsted Mills at top - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  4. 23. View of open firststory passageway of Andrew McLean Company ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. View of open first-story passageway of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill Building No. 1, looking west - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  5. 15. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking northeast; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking northeast; Building No. 1 at left, Building No. 6 at center - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  6. 31. View looking north from Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. View looking north from Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill; Dundee Canal at center, Botany Worsted Mills in background - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  7. 30. View looking north from Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View looking north from Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill; Dundee Canal at center, Botany Worsted Mills in background - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  8. 77 FR 20621 - Pomperaug Hydro Project; Andrew Peklo III; Notice Extending Deadline for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pomperaug Hydro Project; Andrew Peklo III; Notice Extending Deadline for Comments On January 18, 2012, Office of Energy Projects staff held a technical meeting in Woodbury, CT....

  9. News of Hurricane Andrew: The Agenda of Sources and the Sources' Agendas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salwen, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Studies quotations in newspaper coverage of Hurricane Andrew, showing that individuals who were not affiliated with government or business were quoted most often. Shows that most sources were quoted as experts, with individuals represented as suffering victims, providing the news media with human interest quotations. Notes that most sources…

  10. Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Social Support among College Students after Hurricane Andrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, Jeffrey; And Others

    1995-01-01

    One month after Hurricane Andrew, surveyed students who reported experiencing the most severe impact damage from the storm also reported experiencing the most stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that material and emotional social support were significant predictors of anxiety and depression scores after the…

  11. Stressing Memory: Long-Term Relations among Children's Stress, Recall and Psychological Outcome following Hurricane Andrew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Fivush, Robyn; Parker, Janat; Bahrick, Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    We examined relations among stress, children's recall, and psychological functioning following Hurricane Andrew. Thirty-five children from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds were divided into low-, moderate-, and high-stress groups and were interviewed about the hurricane immediately after the storm and 6 years later. Our primary interest, stemming…

  12. Crisis Intervention with Survivors of Natural Disaster: Lessons from Hurricane Andrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Janine S.; Tredinnick, Michael G.

    1995-01-01

    Crisis intervention has typically been conceptualized as seeking a return of clients to a state of equilibrium. Personal work experience with Hurricane Andrew survivors has led to an appreciation of the importance of several considerations. Develops a proactive approach, attempting to recognize and extend clients' preexisting strengths. Offers…

  13. Traversing the Gap: Andrew Wright, John Hick and Critical Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teece, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of Andrew Wright's version of a liberal, critical religious education and his criticisms of some other views of modern religious education. This is attempted not by examining these "other views" as such but by concentrating on the work of John Hick. The reason for this is that Wright, like Cooling (in his book "A…

  14. Kraft Pulp Bleaching and Delignification by Dikaryons and Monokaryons of Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Addleman, Katherine; Archibald, Frederick

    1993-01-01

    The ability of 10 dikaryotic and 20 monokaryotic strains of Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor to bleach and delignify hardwood and softwood kraft pulps was assessed. A dikaryon (52P) and two of its mating-compatible monokaryons (52J and 52D) derived via protoplasting were compared. All three regularly bleached hardwood kraft pulp more than 20 brightness points (International Standards Organization) in 5 days and softwood kraft pulp the same amount in 12 days. Delignification (kappa number reduction) by the dikaryon and the monokaryons was similar, but the growth of the monokaryons was slower. Insoluble dark pigments were commonly found in the mycelium, medium, and pulp of the dikaryon only. Laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) but not lignin peroxidase activities were secreted during bleaching by all three strains. Their laccase and MnP isozyme patterns were compared on native gels. No segregation of isozyme bands between the monokaryons was found. Hardwood kraft pulp appeared to adsorb several laccase isozyme bands. One MnP isozyme (pI, 3.2) was secreted in the presence of pulp by all three strains, but a second (pI, 4.9) was produced only by 52P. A lower level of soluble MnP activity in one monokaryon (52D) was associated with reduced bleaching ability and a lower level of methanol production. Since monokaryon 52J bleached pulp better than its parent dikaryon 52P, especially per unit of biomass, this genetically simpler monokaryon will be the preferred subject for further genetic manipulation and improvement of fungal pulp biological bleaching. Images PMID:16348851

  15. Decolorization of kraft bleaching effluent by advanced oxidation processes using copper (II) as electron acceptor.

    PubMed

    Yeber, María C; Oñate, Katherine P; Vidal, Gladys

    2007-04-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), TiO2/UV/O2 and TiO2/UV/Cu (II), were used to remove color from a Kraft bleaching effluent. The optimal decoloration rate was determined by multivariate analysis, obtaining a mathematical model to evaluate the effect among variables. TiO2 and Cu (II) concentrations and the reaction times were optimized. The experimental design resulted in a quadratic matrix of 30 experiments. Additionally, the pH influence on the color removal was determined by multivariate analysis. Results indicate that color removal was 94% at acidic pH (3.0) in the presence of Cu (11) as an electron acceptor. Under this condition, the biodegradation of the effluent increased from 0.3 to 0.6. Moreover, 70% of COD (chemical oxygen demand) was removed, and the ecotoxicity, measured by Daphnia magna, was reduced. Photocatalytic oxidation to remove the color contained in the Kraft mill bleaching effluent was effective under the following conditions: short reaction time, acidic pH values, and without the addition of oxygen due to the presence of Cu (II) in the effluent. Moreover, residual Cu (II) was a minimum (0.05.mg L(-1)) and was not toxic to the next biological stage. The experimental design methodology indicated that a quadratic polynomial model may be used to representthe efficiencyfor degradation of the Kraft bleach pulp effluent by a photocatalytic process. PMID:17438808

  16. Removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluent by aerobic biological treatment with steroidal metabolite detection.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Soledad; Vergara, Juan P; Jarpa, Mayra; Hernandez, Victor; Becerra, Jose; Vidal, Gladys

    2016-10-14

    Stigmasterol is a phytosterol contained in Kraft mill effluent that is able to increase over 100% after aerobic biological treatment. This compound can act as an endocrine disrupter as its structure is similar to that of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluents treated by a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with steroidal metabolite detection. The MBBR was operated for 145 days, with a hydraulic retention time of 2 days. Stigmasterol and steroidal metabolites were detected by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector during MBBR operation. The results show that the MBBR removed 87.4% of biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 61.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 24.5% of phenol and 31.5% of lignin, expressed in average values. The MBBR system successfully removed 100% of the stigmasterol contained in the influent (33 µg L(-1)) after 5 weeks of operation. In that case, the organic load rate was 0.343 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Furthermore, different steroidal compounds (e.g., testosterone propionate, stigmast-4-en-3-one, 5α-pregnan-12-one-20α-hydroxy, 5α-pregnane-3,11,20-trione and 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstane-11,17-dione were detected in the Kraft mill effluent as potential products of phytosterol biotransformation. PMID:27399163

  17. Decolorization of kraft bleaching effluent by advanced oxidation processes using copper (II) as electron acceptor.

    PubMed

    Yeber, María C; Oñate, Katherine P; Vidal, Gladys

    2007-04-01

    Two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), TiO2/UV/O2 and TiO2/UV/Cu (II), were used to remove color from a Kraft bleaching effluent. The optimal decoloration rate was determined by multivariate analysis, obtaining a mathematical model to evaluate the effect among variables. TiO2 and Cu (II) concentrations and the reaction times were optimized. The experimental design resulted in a quadratic matrix of 30 experiments. Additionally, the pH influence on the color removal was determined by multivariate analysis. Results indicate that color removal was 94% at acidic pH (3.0) in the presence of Cu (11) as an electron acceptor. Under this condition, the biodegradation of the effluent increased from 0.3 to 0.6. Moreover, 70% of COD (chemical oxygen demand) was removed, and the ecotoxicity, measured by Daphnia magna, was reduced. Photocatalytic oxidation to remove the color contained in the Kraft mill bleaching effluent was effective under the following conditions: short reaction time, acidic pH values, and without the addition of oxygen due to the presence of Cu (II) in the effluent. Moreover, residual Cu (II) was a minimum (0.05.mg L(-1)) and was not toxic to the next biological stage. The experimental design methodology indicated that a quadratic polynomial model may be used to representthe efficiencyfor degradation of the Kraft bleach pulp effluent by a photocatalytic process.

  18. Production and Characterization of Trametes versicolor Mutants Unable To Bleach Hardwood Kraft Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Addleman, K.; Dumonceaux, T.; Paice, M. G.; Bourbonnais, R.; Archibald, F. S.

    1995-01-01

    Protoplasts of the monokaryotic strain 52J of Trametes versicolor were treated with UV light and screened for the inability to produce a colored precipitate on guaiacol-containing agar plates. Mutants unable to oxidize guaiacol had absent or very low secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) proteins. All isolates unable to secrete MnP were also unable to bleach or delignify kraft pulp. One mutant strain, M49, which grew normally but did not oxidize guaiacol, was tested further with a number of other substrates whose degradation has been associated with delignification by white rot fungi. Compared with the parent, 52J, mutant M49, secreting no MnP and low laccase, could not brighten or delignify kraft pulp, produced less ethylene from 2-keto methiolbutyric acid, released much less (sup14)CO(inf2) from [(sup14)C]DHP (a synthetic lignin-like polymerizate), and produced much less methanol from pulp. This mutant also displayed decreased abilities to oxidize the dyes poly B-411, poly R-478, and phenol red compared with the wild-type strain and was also unable to decolorize kraft bleachery effluent or mineralize its organochlorine. Addition of purified MnP in conjunction with H(inf2)O(inf2), MnSO(inf4), and an Mn(III) chelator to M49 cultures partially restored methanol production, pulp delignification, and biobleaching in some cases. PMID:16535150

  19. Removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluent by aerobic biological treatment with steroidal metabolite detection.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Soledad; Vergara, Juan P; Jarpa, Mayra; Hernandez, Victor; Becerra, Jose; Vidal, Gladys

    2016-10-14

    Stigmasterol is a phytosterol contained in Kraft mill effluent that is able to increase over 100% after aerobic biological treatment. This compound can act as an endocrine disrupter as its structure is similar to that of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of stigmasterol from Kraft mill effluents treated by a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with steroidal metabolite detection. The MBBR was operated for 145 days, with a hydraulic retention time of 2 days. Stigmasterol and steroidal metabolites were detected by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector during MBBR operation. The results show that the MBBR removed 87.4% of biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 61.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 24.5% of phenol and 31.5% of lignin, expressed in average values. The MBBR system successfully removed 100% of the stigmasterol contained in the influent (33 µg L(-1)) after 5 weeks of operation. In that case, the organic load rate was 0.343 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Furthermore, different steroidal compounds (e.g., testosterone propionate, stigmast-4-en-3-one, 5α-pregnan-12-one-20α-hydroxy, 5α-pregnane-3,11,20-trione and 3α-hydroxy-5α-androstane-11,17-dione were detected in the Kraft mill effluent as potential products of phytosterol biotransformation.

  20. Biobutanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum using xylose recovered from birch Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika L; Helmerius, Jonas; Nilsson, Robert T; Sjöblom, Magnus; Hodge, David B; Rova, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied using acid-hydrolyzed xylan recovered from hardwood Kraft black liquor by CO2 acidification as the only carbon source. Detoxification of hydrolyzate using activated carbon was conducted to evaluate the impact of inhibitor removal and fermentation. Xylose hydrolysis yields as high as 18.4% were demonstrated at the highest severity hydrolysis condition. Detoxification using active carbon was effective for removal of both phenolics (76-81%) and HMF (38-52%). Batch fermentation of the hydrolyzate and semi-defined P2 media resulted in a total solvent yield of 0.12-0.13g/g and 0.34g/g, corresponding to a butanol concentration of 1.8-2.1g/L and 7.3g/L respectively. This work is the first study of a process for the production of a biologically-derived biofuel from hemicelluloses solubilized during Kraft pulping and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing xylan recovered directly from industrial Kraft pulping liquors as a feedstock for biological production of biofuels such as butanol. PMID:25460986

  1. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at...

  2. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at...

  3. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at...

  4. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at...

  5. Comparative bacterial degradation and detoxification of model and kraft lignin from pulp paper wastewater and its metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhishek, Amar; Dwivedi, Ashish; Tandan, Neeraj; Kumar, Urwashi

    2015-05-01

    Continuous discharge of lignin containing colored wastewater from pulp paper mill into the environment has resulted in building up their high level in various aquatic systems. In this study, the chemical texture of kraft lignin in terms of pollution parameters (COD, TOC, BOD, etc.) was quite different and approximately twofold higher as compared to model lignin at same optical density (OD 3.7 at 465 nm) and lignin content (2000 mg/L). For comparative bacterial degradation and detoxification of model and kraft lignin two bacteria Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens were isolated, screened and applied in axenic and mixed condition. Bacterial mixed culture was found to decolorize 87 and 70 % model and kraft lignin (2000 mg/L), respectively; whereas, axenic culture Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens decolorized 64, 60 % model and 50, 55 % kraft lignin, respectively, at optimized condition (34 °C, pH 8.2, 140 rpm). In addition, the mixed bacterial culture also showed the removal of 76, 61 % TOC; 80, 67 % COD and 87, 65 % lignin from model and kraft lignin, respectively. High pollution parameters (like TOC, COD, BOD, sulphate) and toxic chemicals slow down the degradation of kraft lignin as compared to model lignin. The comparative GC-MS analysis has suggested that the interspecies collaboration, i.e., each bacterial strain in culture medium has cumulative enhancing effect on growth, and degradation of lignin rather than inhibition. Furthermore, toxicity evaluation on human keratinocyte cell line after bacterial treatment has supported the degradation and detoxification of model and kraft lignin.

  6. Analyzing after-action reports from Hurricanes Andrew and Katrina: repeated, modified, and newly created recommendations.

    PubMed

    Knox, Claire Connolly

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen years after Hurricane Andrew struck Homestead, FL, Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, Alabama, and southeastern Louisiana. Along with all its destruction, the term "catastrophic" was redefined. This article extends the literature on these hurricanes by providing a macrolevel analysis of The Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee Final Report from Hurricane Andrew and three federal after-action reports from Hurricane Katrina, as well as a cursory review of relevant literature. Results provide evidence that previous lessons have not been learned or institutionalized with many recommendations being repeated or modified. This article concludes with a discussion of these lessons, as well as new issues arising during Hurricane Katrina. PMID:24180096

  7. Impact of an extreme event on the sediment budget: Hurricane Andrew in the Louisiana barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, Jeffrey H.; Hansen, Mark E.; Sallenger,, Asbury H.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Edge, B.L

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of Hurricane Andrew on the sediment budget of an 80-kilometer section of the Louisiana barrier islands west of the modern Mississippi delta. Because long-term bathymetric change has been extensively studied in this area, excellent baseline data are available for evaluating the impact of Hurricane Andrew. Results show that despite the high intensity of the storm and a storm track optimally positioned to impact the study area, the storm did not have an overwhelming influence on the sediment budget when compared to the changes occurring over the previous 50 years. For the Louisiana barrier islands, a 50-year record appears to be adequate for averaging the long-term contributions of both major and minor storm events to the sediment budget.

  8. Joint Task Force Andrew: the 44th Medical Brigade mental health staff officer's after action review.

    PubMed

    Holsenbeck, L S

    1994-03-01

    The massive Department of Defense deployment in support of Hurricane Andrew relief cast the military medical departments in a new role. Military medical personnel were challenged to apply the traditional principles of combat medicine to a noncombat environment, within the continental United States, within an existing health care infrastructure, in a role subordinate to local civilian health care agencies. As a medical "subject matter expert" assigned to the Joint Task Force Andrew Surgeon's staff, the author worked at the civil-military interface. The lessons learned in his role as a special staff officer should benefit any health care provider involved in disaster relief. They focus on problem areas peculiar to the disaster relief scenario.

  9. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen... Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and Richard Kosiba...

  10. In celebration of the 60th birthday of Professor Andrew D. Hamilton FRS.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sam; Wilson, Andrew J; Battersby, Alan R

    2013-10-01

    An on-line collection of articles celebrating the 60th birthday of Professor Andrew D. Hamilton FRS has been published featuring contributions from students and colleagues past and present. This article hopes to provide an insight into the rise of a star in molecular recognition, ground breaking discoveries, and on a more light-hearted note, some fond reminiscences of research in Cambridge, Princeton, Pittsburgh, Yale and Oxford.

  11. Dessler, Jimenez, Klein, and Nenes Receive 2012 Atmospheric Sciences Ascent Awards: Citation for Andrew E. Dessler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Peter J.

    2013-11-01

    The Atmospheric Sciences section of AGU awards one of the four Ascent Awards to Professor Andrew E. Dessler of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Texas A&M University for fundamental contributions to the understanding of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange processes and the physics of ozone depletion and for attempts to unravel water vapor and cloud feedbacks in the climate system. In addition, he is commended for his ceaseless work in communicating the science of climate change to the public.

  12. 21. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking west; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of Andrew McLean Company Textile Mill looking west; Building No. 4 at left, Building No. 1 at left center, Building No. 3 at center, Building No. 2 at right center, Building No. 5 at right - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  13. Rapid health needs assessment following hurricane Andrew--Florida and Louisiana, 1992.

    PubMed

    1992-09-18

    Following the impact phase of Hurricane Andrew in Florida (August 24) and Louisiana (August 26) (Figure 1), the primary objectives of the public health response have been to address the health and medical needs of residents in the storm-damaged areas and to provide data for relief interventions and decision-making. This report presents the combined findings from rapid health needs assessment surveys conducted by state health departments with CDC assistance 3-10 days postimpact.

  14. Andrew Wyeth and N.C. Wyeth: a psychodynamic perspective on father and son.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between two extraordinary artists, father and son--N.C. Wyeth (1882-1945) and Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009)--and their art. N.C. Wyeth, the father, the most famous illustrator of his day, painted scenes full of drama and action, often of men engaged in violent life and death struggles. N.C. was unable to separate from his powerful mother and yearned for his iconic father. He thought himself an artistic failure and dedicated himself to raising his children to be geniuses. The youngest son, Andrew Wyeth, who lived a "secret life," painted scenes often characterized by pathos: bleak and barren landscapes, leaden skies, tire tracks, gray framed houses, desiccated fields, and circling buzzards. In the father-son relationship, we often seen three themes perpetuated developmentally: (1) the son's identification with the innermost conflicts of his father; (2) the yearning for the iconic father of his youth; and (3) a continuation and disavowal of his father's life. These themes are played out in the relationship between Andrew Wyeth and his father.

  15. Characterization of kraft pulp mill particulate emissions—A summary of existing measurements and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, John E.; Blosser, Russell O.

    Particulate matter emission sources at a kraft pulp mill include kraft recovery furnaces, lime kilns, smelt dissolving tanks and power boilers. Chemical and physical characteristics of these paniculate emissions are reviewed. Measurements of particle size distributions for these sources made with cascade impactors and microscopic counting techniques both before and after paniculate control devices such as multiple cyclones, wet scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitalors are discussed. In general, particles with equivalent diameters less than 3 jim comprise the bulk of the controlled paniculate emissions from all sources. Sodium sulfate is the dominant paniculate emission from kraft recovery furnaces, smelt dissolving tanks and lime kilns. Results from a field investigation of the relationship between human observations of near-stack plume opacity and measured in-stack paniculate concentrations and opacities are summarized. Trained cenified panels of observers were used in the investigation to estimate plume opacities from two kraft recovery furnaces, a combination wood/coal-fired boiler, and a combination wood/oil-fired boiler at four different pulp mill locations. Plume opacities were varied from near-zero to 45 % by adjustment of the paniculate control equipment operation. The effects of different background viewing conditions, observer positions, observer experience levels, and plume characteristics are enumerated. It is concluded that there can be substantial variations between measured in-stack opacities and human perceptions of near-stack plume opacities. The degree of agreement between the human judgements and measured in-stack opacities is significantly affected by the background viewing conditions. It is further shown that even with a panel of six or seven trained observers with similar visual acuity, there can be significant departures of individual opacity readings from the panel mean opacity. Although this investigation deals with questions of human

  16. Nanocrystalline cellulose from aspen kraft pulp and its application in deinked pulp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinghua; Gao, Yang; Qin, Menghua; Wu, Kaili; Fu, Yingjuan; Zhao, Jian

    2013-09-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) isolated from bleached aspen kraft pulp was characterized, and its application as pulp strengthening additive and retention aid was investigated. Results showed that NCC with high crystallinity of more than 80% can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The structure of nanocrystalline cellulose is parallelepiped rod-like, and their cross-sectional dimension is in the nanometer range with a high aspect ratio. The formation of microparticle retention systems during the application of NCC together with cationic polyacrylamide and cationic starch in deinked pulp was able to further improve pulp retention and strength properties without negative influence on the drainage.

  17. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  18. Krafting an agreement: Negotiations to reduce pollution from the Nordic pulp industry, 1985--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Auer, M.R.

    1996-05-01

    International environmental accords frequently contain obligations that may be easily satisfied by their signatories. Observers have speculated why it is in a state`s interests to sign agreements that lack strict conditions, but policy analysts lack a coherent model explaining how such agreements are formalized. Knowledge, values, and authority are key forces that elucidate how environmental accords are developed with provisions that are easily executable. This dissertation examines the formulation of Helsinki Commission recommendations to reduce emissions of organochlorines from Nordic kraft pulp mills. The kraft pulp industry, the largest industrial pollution emitter to the Baltic Sea, is also a crucial foreign exchange earner for both Sweden and Finland. Hence, Swedes and Finns were the most active participants in regional negotiations to reduce organochlorine emissions. Key variable analysis explains how obstacles in various regional negotiations were overcome, and how parties constructed a recommendation with obligations that could be easily accommodated. The two sides never agreed about the level of risk posed by organochlorines in the marine environment. This problem influenced the strictness of pollution limits specified in the final agreement. But, the parties overcame formidable obstacles in the negotiations, including: (1) concerns about costs to industry and competitive disadvantages in the pulp and paper sector; (2) disagreement about technologies to combat the problem; and (3) domestic rule-making schedules that were out of sync.

  19. Correlations for viscosity of kraft black liquors at low solids concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The kinematic viscosities of several kraft black liquors from a two-level, four-variables, factorial-designed experiments for pulping slash pine were determined for solids concentrations from 10 to 50% and temperatures up to 80 C by glass capillary methods. The four pulping variables were cooking time, cooking temperature, sulfidity, and effective alkali. Relationships between temperature and kinematic viscosity have been developed by using free volume and absolute rate theories. The results from these two methods have been compared and discussed. A reduced variables method for dilute polymer solutions was used to correlate the viscosity with the combined effect of temperature and solids concentration. The viscosity of black liquor is an important parameter in the design and performance of kraft recovery systems. The energy efficiency will be increased by firing black liquors at higher solids concentrations. To evaporate the liquor most efficiently and to achieve higher concentrations, knowledge of viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and solids concentrations is essential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of various fundamentally based models for correlating viscosity data of black liquors as a function of temperature and concentration of nonvolatile components in the region in which the liquors behave a Newtonian fluids.

  20. Fate of Residual Lignin during Delignification of Kraft Pulp by Trametes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.

    1998-01-01

    The fungus Trametes versicolor can delignify and brighten kraft pulps. To better understand the mechanism of this biological bleaching and the by-products formed, I traced the transformation of pulp lignin during treatment with the fungus. Hardwood and softwood kraft pulps containing 14C-labelled residual lignin were prepared by laboratory pulping of lignin-labelled aspen and spruce wood and then incubated with T. versicolor. After initially polymerizing the lignin, the fungus depolymerized it to alkali-extractable forms and then to soluble forms. Most of the labelled carbon accumulated in the water-soluble pool. The extractable and soluble products were oligomeric; single-ring aromatic products were not detected. The mineralization of the lignin carbon to CO2 varied between experiments, up to 22% in the most vigorous cultures. The activities of the known enzymes laccase and manganese peroxidase did not account for all of the lignin degradation that took place in the T. versicolor cultures. This fungus may produce additional enzymes that could be useful in enzyme bleaching systems. PMID:9603823

  1. Molecular analysis of bacterial isolates and total community DNA from kraft pulp mill effluent treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Fortin, N; Fulthorpe, R R; Allen, D G; Greer, C W

    1998-06-01

    Chloroaliphatics are major components of bleached kraft mill effluents. Gene probes and oligonucleotide primers were developed to monitor kraft pulp mill effluent treatment systems for the presence of key genes (dehalogenases) responsible for the dehalogenation of chloroaliphatic organics. The primers were used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of genomic DNA extracted from dehalogenating bacterial isolates and from total community DNA extracted from water and sediments of mill effluent treatment system. PCR amplification with oligonucleotide primers designed from dhlB, encoding the haloacid dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus, revealed the presence of dehalogenase genes in both aerated lagoons and stabilization basins. Similarly, positive results were obtained with mmoX primers designed from the soluble methane monooxygenase gene of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The haloacetate dehalogenase encoding gene (dehH2) from Moraxella sp. was typically not detected in mill effluent treatment systems unless the biomass was selectively enriched. DNA sequence analysis of several PCR fragaments revealed significant similarity to known dehalogenase amd methane monooxygenase genes. The results indicated a broad distribution of known dehalogenation genes and bacteria with chloroorganic-degrading potential in the mill effluent treatment systems. PMID:9734304

  2. Spectroscopic changes on fulvic acids from a kraft pulp mill effluent caused by sun irradiation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Sandra I M; Otero, Marta; Duarte, Armando C; Santos, Eduarda B H

    2008-12-01

    Large volumes of wastewater with a high organic load are generated by the pulp and paper industry that negatively affect the quality of receiving waters. The main waste products in the pulp mill effluents are lignin derived macromolecular compounds, which are similar to natural humic substances and very resistant to wastewater treatments. Fulvic acids (FA) represent the higher percentage of these humic substances and it was observed that solar irradiation modify their properties. Several analytic tools, namely, UV-Visible, molecular fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopies, were used to assess the effect of solar exposition on fulvic acids from a kraft pulp mill effluent. It may be concluded that sun irradiation may alter to a high extent the physicochemical properties of macromolecular organic matter, namely fulvic acids, released by kraft pulp mill effluents. After solar exposition, the aromaticity decreases, the aliphatic structures become more oxygenated, and the fulvic acids from the pulp mill effluent remaining in solution are more similar to aquatic fulvic acids from non polluted sites. PMID:18804839

  3. Monitoring endocrine activity in kraft mill effluent treated by aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Chamorro, S; Pozo, G; Jarpa, M; Hernandez, V; Becerra, J; Vidal, G

    2010-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated at three different hydraulic retention times for a period of 414 days. The fate of the extractive compounds and the estrogenic activity of the Pinus radiata kraft mill effluents were evaluated using Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Results show that the MBBR reactor is able to remove between 80-83% of estrogenic activity present in the kraft mill Pinus radiata influent, where the values of the effluent's estrogenic activity ranged between 0.123-0.411 ng L(-1), expressed as estrogenic equivalent (EEqs) of 17-a-ethynylestradiol (EE2 eq.). Additionally, the biomass of the MBBR reactor accumulated estrogenic activity ranging between 0.29-0.37 ng EEqs EE2 during the different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) operations. The main groups present in pulp mills effluents, corresponding to fatty acids, hydrocarbons, phenols, sterols and triterpenes, were detected by solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results suggest that the sterols produce the estrogenic activity in the evaluated effluent. PMID:20595766

  4. Recycling of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by using electrodialysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Fracaro, A. T.; Henry, M. P.; Pfromm, P.; Tsai, S.-P.

    1999-01-15

    Conservation of water in bleached kraft pulp mills by recycling the bleach plant effluent directly without treatment will cause accumulation of inorganic ''non-process elements'' (NPEs) and serious operational problems. In this work, an electrodialysis process is being developed for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached kraft pulp mills. In this process, electrodialysis functions as a selective kidney to remove inorganic NPEs from bleach plant effluents, before they reach the recovery cycle. Acidic bleach plant effluents from several mills using bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The total dissolved solids were mostly inorganic NPEs. Sodium was the predominant cation and chloride was present at significant levels in all these effluents. In laboratory electrodialysis experiments, selective removal of chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently. Rejection of organic compounds was up to 98%. Electrodialysis was shown to be resistant to membrane fouling and scaling, in a 100-hour laboratory experiment. Based on a model mill with 1,000 ton/day pulp production, the economic analysis suggests that the energy cost of electrodialysis is less than $200/day, and the capital cost of the stack is about $500,000.

  5. Elimination of the Calcium Cycle: Direct Electrolytic Causticizing of Kraft Smelt, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    P. Pfromm, J. Winnick

    1999-01-31

    An electrochemical molten salt alternative to the classic kraft causticizing process has been investigated and the feasibility of the process was successfully shown. The experiments included (a) determination of background thermal decomposition gases, (b) the electrolysis of a sodium-carbonate-only smelt to show that sodium oxide can be electrochemically produced, and (c) electrolysis of a synthetic smelt containing 80 mole% Na2-CO3 and 20 mole% Na2-S. The experiments show that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was produced by the electrochemical reduction of sodium carbonate to sodium oxide in the molten state. In the experiment containing sodium sulfide, there was formation of less than 5 mole% of polysulfide. Energy savings on the order of 500,000 BTU per ton of kraft pulp produced are estimated, based on the energy used by the mill. Operating costs are estimated to be currently similar to conventional processing. However, price increases of fossil fuels and increased co-generation of electricity in the mill will give the electrolytical process significant cost advantages.

  6. Elimination of the calcium cycle: direct electrolytic causticizing of Kraft smelt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pfromm, P.; Winnick, J.

    1999-01-19

    An electrochemical molten salt alternative to the classic Kraft causticizing process has been investigated and the feasibility of the process was successfully shown. The experiments include (A) the determination of background thermal decomposition gases, (B) the electrolysis of a sodium carbonate only smelt to show that sodium oxide can be electrochemically produced, and (C) electrolysis of a synthetic smelt containing 80 mole % Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and 20 mole % Na{sub 2}S. The experiments show, that sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was produced by the electrochemical reduction of sodium carbonate to sodium oxide in the molten state. In the experiment containing sodium sulfide, there was formation of less than 5 mole % of polysulfide. Energy savings on the order of 500,000 BTU per ton of kraft pulp produced are estimated, based on the energy used by the mill. Operating costs are estimated to be currently similar to conventional processing. However, price increases of fossil fuels and increased co-generation of electricity in the mill will give the electrolytical process significant cost advantages.

  7. Membrane treatment of alkaline bleaching effluents from elementary chlorine free kraft softwood cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Oñate, Elizabeth; Rodríguez, Edgard; Bórquez, Rodrigo; Zaror, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports experimental results on the sequential use of ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to fractionate alkaline extraction bleaching effluents from kraft cellulose production. The aim was to unveil the way key pollutants are distributed when subjected to sequential UF/NF/RO membrane separation processes. Alkaline bleaching effluents were obtained from a local pinewood-based mill, featuring elementary chlorine free bleaching to produce high-brightness cellulose. The experimental system was based on a laboratory-scale membrane system, DSS LabStak® M20 Alfa Laval, using Alfa Laval UF and NF/RO membranes, operated at a constant transmembrane pressure (6 bar for UF membranes and 32 bar for NF/RO membranes), at 25°C. Results show that 78% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenols, 82% adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) and 98% colour were retained by UF membranes which have molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) above 10 kDa. In all, 16% of original COD, total phenols and AOX, and the remaining 2% colour were retained by UF membranes within the 1 to 10 kDa MWCO range. Chloride ions were significantly present in all UF permeates, and RO was required to obtain a high-quality permeate with a view to water reuse. It is concluded that UF/NF/RO membranes offer a feasible option for water and chemicals recovery from alkaline bleaching effluents in kraft pulp production. PMID:25253193

  8. Effect of Cellulases and Xylanases on Refining Process and Kraft Pulp Properties

    PubMed Central

    Przybysz Buzała, Kamila; Kalinowska, Halina; Derkowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bleached kraft pine cellulosic pulp, either treated with an enzyme preparation (a Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase, an Aspergillus sp. cellulase, and a multienzyme preparation NS-22086 containing both these activities) or untreated, were refined in a laboratory PFI mill. The treatment with cellulases contained in the last two preparations significantly improved the pulp’s susceptibility to refining (the target freeness value of 30°SR was achieved in a significantly shorter time), increased water retention value (WRV) and fines contents while the weighted average fiber length was significantly reduced. These changes of pulp parameters caused deterioration of paper strength properties. The treatment with the xylanase, which partially hydrolyzed xylan, small amounts of which are associated with cellulose fibers, only slightly loosened the structure of fibers. These subtle changes positively affected the susceptibility of the pulp to refining (refining energy was significantly reduced) and improved the static strength properties of paper. Thus, the treatment of kraft pulps with xylanases may lead to substantial savings of refining energy without negative effects on paper characteristics. PMID:27557079

  9. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE MOSQUITO FISH IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT -CONTAMINATED FENHOLLOWAY RIVER WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AGONIST ACTIVITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp-mill effluent (PME) from the Fen...

  10. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE MOSQUITOFISH IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT-CONTAMINATED FENHOLLOWAY RIVER WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGEN RECEPTOR AGONIST ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp mill effluent (PME) from the Fe...

  11. IN VITRO CONFIRMATION OF ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT WHICH IS ASSOCIATED WITH MASCULINIZED FEMALE MOSQUITOFISH FORP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female mosquitofish downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent response. This effect can be introduced in the laboratory with exposure to either paper mill effluent (PME) or to androgenic drugs. Hence, it has been h...

  12. A comment on Andrew C. Papanicolaou's "Beyond Eddington's argument": pragmatism in scientific knowledge and perception.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    I agree with Andrew C. Papanicolaou's claim that human beings' cognitive ability can reach to the real world, but don't agree with his claim that the order of this world is akin to our thought. In this commentary paper, I will first defend a recent pragmatic scientific realism called as "entity realism" or "referential realism" which affirms that we are able to reach the real world not by inference but by technological, engineering settings. In the second half of this paper, I will also affirm that our perceptual ability directly reaches the reality too, in referring to the ecological psychology of James J. Gibson.

  13. Emergency mosquito control associated with Hurricane Andrew--Florida and Louisiana, 1992.

    PubMed

    1993-04-01

    Hurricane Andrew crossed south Florida on August 24, 1992 entered the Gulf of Mexico, and struck the Louisiana coast on August 26. In Florida, an estimated 25,000 housing units were destroyed and 37,000 severely damaged in a 200,000-acre area in the southern portion of Dade County; in Louisiana, an estimated 25,000 housing units were destroyed or severely damaged by the storm, primarily in the coastal sections of the 36-parish disaster area. Initial assessment of the disaster areas indicated a need for vector surveillance and control (1). This report summarizes actions to assess and alleviate mosquito-related problems in Florida and Louisiana.

  14. Wireless Andrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of the Internet and laptops help Carnegie Mellon University students carry out sophisticated research anywhere on campus. How the university became a wireless community is discussed. (GR)

  15. James Gregory, the University observatory and the early acquisition of scientific instruments at the University of St Andrews

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Helen C.

    2015-01-01

    James Gregory, inventor of the reflecting telescope and Fellow of the Royal Society, was the first Regius Professor of Mathematics of the University of St Andrews, 1668–74. He attempted to establish in St Andrews what would, if completed, have been the first purpose-built observatory in the British Isles. He travelled to London in 1673 to purchase instruments for equipping the observatory and improving the teaching and study of natural philosophy and mathematics in the university, seeking the advice of John Flamsteed, later the first Astronomer Royal. This paper considers the observatory initiative and the early acquisition of instruments at the University of St Andrews, with reference to Gregory's correspondence, inventories made ca. 1699–ca. 1718 and extant instruments themselves, some of which predate Gregory's time. It examines the structure and fate of the university observatory, the legacy of Gregory's teaching and endeavours, and the meridian line laid down in 1748 in the University Library.

  16. ANDREWES'S CHRISTMAS FAIRY TALE: ATYPICAL THINKING ABOUT CANCER AETIOLOGY IN 1935.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Neeraja; van Helvoort, Ton

    2016-06-20

    This paper uses a short 'Christmas fairy-story for oncologists' sent by Christopher Andrewes with a 1935 letter to Peyton Rous as the centrepiece of a reflection on the state of knowledge and speculation about the viral aetiology of cancer in the 1930s. Although explicitly not intended for public circulation at the time, the fairy-story merits publication for its significance in the history of ideas about viruses, which are taken for granted today. Andrewes and Rous were prominent members of the international medical research community and yet faced strong resistance to their theory that viruses could cause such tumours as chicken sarcomas and rabbit papillomas. By looking at exchanges between these men among themselves and other proponents of their theories and with their oncologist detractors, we highlight an episode in the behind-the-scenes workings of medical science and show how informal correspondence helped keep alive a vital but then heterodox idea about the role of viruses in causing cancer. PMID:27386716

  17. Delayed tree mortality in the Atchafalaya Basin of Southern Louisiana following Hurricane Andrew

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeland, B.D.; Gorham, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes can damage trees in forested wetlands, and the potential for mortality related to these storms exists due to the effects of tree damage over time. In August 1992, Hurricane Andrew passed through the forested wetlands of southern Louisiana with winds in excess of 225 kph. Although more than 78 of the basal area was destroyed in some areas, most trees greater than 2.5 cm dbh were alive and resprouting prolifically the following year (98.8). Survival of most tree species was similarly high two years after the hurricane, but mortality rates of some species increased dramatically. For example, Populus heterophylla (swamp cottonwood) mortality increased from 7.8 to 59.2 (n 76) and Salix interior (sandbar willow) mortality increased from 4.5 to 57.1 (n 21). Stem sprouts on many up-rooted hardwood trees of other species were still alive in 1998, 6 years after the hurricane. Due to the understory tree species composition, regeneration, and high levels of resprouting, there was little change in species composition or perhaps a slight shift toward more shade and flood tolerant species six years following the hurricane event. Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) was found on some of the sites heavily disturbed by Hurricane Andrew, and may proliferate at the expense of native tree species. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  18. Discriminative validity of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale with Cluster B personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R; Hilsenroth, M J

    2001-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the ability of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC-R) to differentiate between outpatients with personality disorders with Substance-Related Disorders (SRDs) and without SRDs. MMPI-2 validity, clinical, and MAC-R scale scores were compared in an SRD Cluster B group (comprised of Narcissistic, Antisocial, Borderline, and Histrionic; n = 15), a non-SRD Cluster B group (n = 33), and a non-SRD group with personality disorders from Clusters A and C (n = 18). Results revealed that the substance-abusing Cluster B group scored significantly higher on the MAC-R ( p <.0001) as well as the Psychopathic Deviate scale ( p <.01). Dimensional analyses illustrated that MAC-R scores were related to the presence of an SRD diagnosis (rpb =.70, p <.0001) and diagnostic criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder (r =.60, p <.0001). Stepwise regression revealed that (in order of magnitude) the presence of a substance-abuse diagnosis followed by diagnostic criteria for Antisocial and Histrionic Personality Disorders were most related to MAC-R scores (R =.78, R(2) =.60). This indicates that the MAC-R may be more related to the presence of an SRD than has been suggested, and when used in outpatient settings as MacAndrew (1965) intended, the MAC-R may be useful as a screening device for assessing SRD among outpatients with Axis II psychopathology.

  19. Impacts of Hurricane Andrew on carbonate platform environments, northern Great Bahama Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Stephen K.; Neumann, A. Conrad

    1993-10-01

    The northern (most energetic) quadrant of Hurricane Andrew (August 1992) passed over leeward-margin sand waves, bank-top sand shoals, reefs, and low islands of Great Bahama Bank for which an extensive prestorm data base exists. A reconnaissance survey seven weeks after Hurricane Andrew evaluated storm impacts on these bank-top settings. Resurveyed seismic profiles showed that positions, dimensions, and orientations of platform sand bodies were unchanged relative to fixed bedrock features. Surveys of reef communities indicated only minor storm-related disturbance. Coral bleaching may be due to storm-induced environmental stress. In addition, storm-wave plucking of boulders from emergent rocky cays resulted in localized crushing of reef biota. On low islands, beach erosion and storm surge were insignificant, and storm damage to Casuarina forests was minor and substrate-specific. Observed minimal hurricane impacts on northern Great Bahama Bank environments lying 10-75 km from the hurricane eye are reconciled by analysis of meteorological data, which show significant weakening of the storm (expressed as a rise in central barometric pressure of ˜20 mbar) during passage across the bank-top. This study demonstrates the importance of specific dynamic aspects of hurricanes (e.g., varying intensity, strength, size, forward speed, duration) which influence their geologic potential, even over relatively short distances along the storm track of an individual hurricane.

  20. ANDREWES'S CHRISTMAS FAIRY TALE: ATYPICAL THINKING ABOUT CANCER AETIOLOGY IN 1935.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Neeraja; van Helvoort, Ton

    2016-06-20

    This paper uses a short 'Christmas fairy-story for oncologists' sent by Christopher Andrewes with a 1935 letter to Peyton Rous as the centrepiece of a reflection on the state of knowledge and speculation about the viral aetiology of cancer in the 1930s. Although explicitly not intended for public circulation at the time, the fairy-story merits publication for its significance in the history of ideas about viruses, which are taken for granted today. Andrewes and Rous were prominent members of the international medical research community and yet faced strong resistance to their theory that viruses could cause such tumours as chicken sarcomas and rabbit papillomas. By looking at exchanges between these men among themselves and other proponents of their theories and with their oncologist detractors, we highlight an episode in the behind-the-scenes workings of medical science and show how informal correspondence helped keep alive a vital but then heterodox idea about the role of viruses in causing cancer.

  1. Development of pile foundation bias factors using observed behavior of platforms during Hurricane Andrew

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, R.K.; Litton, R.W.; Cornell, C.A.; Tang, W.H.; Chen, J.H.; Murff, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of more than 3,000 offshore platforms in the Gulf of Mexico was observed during the passage of Hurricane Andrew in August 1992. This event provided an opportunity to test the procedures used for platform analysis and design. A global bias was inferred for overall platform capacity and loads in the Andrew Joint Industry Project (JIP) Phase 1. It was predicted that the pile foundations of several platforms should have failed, but did not. These results indicated that the biases specific to foundation failure modes may be higher than those of jacket failure modes. The biases in predictions of foundation failure modes were therefore investigated further in this study. The work included capacity analysis and calibration of predictions with the observed behavior for 3 jacket platforms and 3 caissons using Bayesian updating. Bias factors for two foundation failure modes, lateral shear and overturning, were determined for each structure. Foundation capacity estimates using conventional methods were found to be conservatively biased overall.

  2. Demographic effects of natural disasters: a case study of Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Smith, S K; McCarty, C

    1996-05-01

    Many studies have considered the economic, social, and psychological effects of hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, tornadoes, and other natural disasters, but few have considered their demographic effects. In this paper we describe and evaluate a method for measuring the effects of Hurricane Andrew on the housing stock and population distribution in Dade County, Florida. Using information collected through sample surveys and from other data sources, we investigate the extent of housing damages, the number of people forced out of their homes, where they went, how long they stayed, and whether they returned to their prehurricane residences. We conclude that more than half the housing units in Dade County were damaged by Hurricane Andrew; that more than 353,000 people were forced to leave their homes, at least temporarily; and that almost 40,000 people left the county permanently as a direct result of the hurricane. We believe that this study will provide methodological guidance to analysts studying the demographic effects of other large-scale natural disasters.

  3. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from St. Andrew Bay, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.; Kohn, N.P.; Pinza, M.R.; Karle, L.M.; Ward, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Mobile District, requested that the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conduct field sampling and chemical and biological testing to determine the suitability of potential dredged material for open ocean disposal. Sediment from St. Andrew Bay was chemically characterized and evaluated for biological toxicity and bioaccumulation of contaminants. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material). To meet these requirements, the MSL conducted suspended-particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, solid-phase toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation testing on sediment representing potential dredged material from Panama City Harbor. Physical and chemical characterization of sediment to support toxicity and bioaccumulation results was also conducted on both the test and reference sediments. The MSL collected sediment samples from five sites in St. Andrew Bay and one reference site near Lands End Peninsula. The five test sediments and the reference sediment were analyzed for physical and chemical sediment characteristics, SPP chemical contaminants, solid-phase toxicity, SPP toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants.

  4. Newtonian viscosity of high solids kraft black liquors: Effects of temperature and solids concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    The Newtonian (zero shear rate) viscosities of four different softwood kraft black liquors from a four variable-two level factorially designed experiment for pulping slash pine were determined for solids concentrations up to 84% and temperatures up to 140 C (413.2 K). Methods of measurement and estimation of zero shear rate viscosities from viscosity-shear rate data have been described and compared. The combination of the absolute reaction rates and free-volume concepts were used to express the relationship between the Newtonian viscosity and temperature. Attempts were made to obtain a generalized correlation for Newtonian viscosity as a function of temperature and solids concentrations. The results of this model and results of the previous empirical correlation have been compared and discussed.

  5. Hydro- and solvothermolysis of kraft lignin for maximizing production of monomeric aromatic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-shik; Jae, Jungho; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin

    2016-03-01

    The hydro-/solvothermolysis of kraft lignin using water and ethanol as a solvent were investigated in this study. The effect of the water-to-ethanol ratio on the yields of monomeric aromatic chemicals (MACs) and the kinetic behavior of MACs was studied in a series of batch experiments. The yields of MACs other than catechol increased as the ratio of ethanol increased, and the content of the total MACs in bio-crude oil (BCO) reached 35% when the ratio of ethanol was 100% at a reaction temperature of 300 °C. The formation of phenol, guaiacol, and alkylguaiacols was enhanced in ethanol, while the formation of catechol was dominant in water. The formation of more substituted MACs such as vanillin, acetoguaiacone, and homovanillic acid was not affected by the solvent. The role of reaction parameters on the yields of MACs was elucidated, and the main reaction pathways in water and in ethanol were proposed. PMID:26722814

  6. Kraft lignin biodegradation by Novosphingobium sp. B-7 and analysis of the degradation process.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuehui; Chai, Liyuan; Tang, Chongjian; Yang, Zhihui; Zheng, Yu; Shi, Yan; Zhang, Huan

    2012-11-01

    This study focused on the biodegradation of kraft lignin (KL) by Novosphingobium sp. B-7 using KL as sole carbon source. Results revealed that Novosphingobium sp. B-7 reduced the chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 34.7% in KL mineral salt medium after 7days of incubation. Additionally, the maximum activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) of 3229.8Ul(-1) and laccase (Lac) of 1275Ul(-1) were observed at 4th and 5th day, respectively. GC-MS analysis indicated that after incubated with Novosphingobium sp. B-7, low molecular weight alcohols and lignin-related monomer compounds such as ethanediol, p-hydroxy benzoic acid and vanillic acid were formed in the system, which strongly confirmed the degradation of KL by Novosphingobium sp. B-7. PMID:22921251

  7. Hydro- and solvothermolysis of kraft lignin for maximizing production of monomeric aromatic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-shik; Jae, Jungho; Ha, Jeong-Myeong; Suh, Dong Jin

    2016-03-01

    The hydro-/solvothermolysis of kraft lignin using water and ethanol as a solvent were investigated in this study. The effect of the water-to-ethanol ratio on the yields of monomeric aromatic chemicals (MACs) and the kinetic behavior of MACs was studied in a series of batch experiments. The yields of MACs other than catechol increased as the ratio of ethanol increased, and the content of the total MACs in bio-crude oil (BCO) reached 35% when the ratio of ethanol was 100% at a reaction temperature of 300 °C. The formation of phenol, guaiacol, and alkylguaiacols was enhanced in ethanol, while the formation of catechol was dominant in water. The formation of more substituted MACs such as vanillin, acetoguaiacone, and homovanillic acid was not affected by the solvent. The role of reaction parameters on the yields of MACs was elucidated, and the main reaction pathways in water and in ethanol were proposed.

  8. Combined System of Activated Sludge and Ozonation for the Treatment of Kraft E1 Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Assalin, Marcia Regina; dos Santos Almeida, Edna; Durán, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of paper mill effluent for COD, TOC, total phenols and color removal was investigated using combined activated sludge-ozonation processes and single processes. The combined activated sludge-O3/pH 10 treatment was able to remove around 80% of COD, TOC and color from Kraft E1 effluent. For the total phenols, the efficiency removal was around 70%. The ozonation post treatment carried out at pH 8.3 also showed better results than the single process. The COD, TOC, color and total phenols removal efficiency obtained were 75.5, 59.1, 77 and 52.3%, respectively. The difference in the concentrations of free radical produced by activated sludge-O3/pH 10 and activated sludge-O3/pH 8.3 affected mainly the TOC and total phenol removal values. PMID:19440438

  9. Molecular Characteristics of Kraft-AQ Pulping Lignin Fractionated by Sequential Organic Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Xu, Feng; Sun, Runcang

    2010-01-01

    Kraft-AQ pulping lignin was sequentially fractionated by organic solvent extractions and the molecular properties of each fraction were characterized by chemical degradation, GPC, UV, FT-IR, 13C-NMR and thermal analysis. The average molecular weight and polydispersity of each lignin fraction increased with its hydrogen-bonding capacity (Hildebrand solubility parameter). In addition, the ratio of the non-condensed guaiacyl/syringyl units and the content of β-O-4 linkages increased with the increment of the lignin fractions extracted successively with hexane, diethylether, methylene chloride, methanol, and dioxane. Furthermore, the presence of the condensation reaction products was contributed to the higher thermal stability of the larger molecules. PMID:21152286

  10. Development of viscometers for kraft black liquor. Summary report, Phase 2 and 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Crisalle, O.D.

    1996-11-01

    This report documents the results of the evaluation of the on-line prototype viscometers for kraft black liquors carried out at the Pilot Plant facilities of the University of Florida. The original plan called for the evaluation of five prototype on-line viscometers along with laboratory bench versions. At a later stage in the project an additional experimental prototype under development at Southwest Research Institute was added. The viscometers are evaluated for accuracy and repeatability under varying process conditions, such as black liquor species, solids content, temperature, flow rate, and contaminants, as well as for maintenance and reliability. This document reports extensive results of the evaluations and recommendations for design modifications and for the installation of the instruments in industrial pulping mills for further field evaluations in Phase 3 of the project. The report also documents relevant details of the final design of the pilot flow loop used to support the experiments.

  11. Application of ozonation process in industrial wastewaters: textile, kraft E1 and whey effluents.

    PubMed

    Assalin, M R; Almeida, E S; Rosa, M A; Moraes, S G; Duran, N

    2004-08-01

    A large variety of organic and inorganic compounds can be found in wastewater from industrial processes. In this work, Advanced Oxidative Processes (AOPs) have been applied for the control of water pollution and the ozonation of different effluents was investigated. Wastewater from textile, kraft E1 and cheese manufacturing processes were chosen as examples of industrial effluents. The efficiency of substrate mineralization has been comparatively analyzed by the decrease in total organic carbon (TOC), color, and toxicity. The results revealed that the ozonation process can be a method for decolorization of effluent, but it is not effective for TOC reduction. The whey effluent was the most recalcitrant wastewater for ozone treatment which produced no TOC removal.

  12. Effects of Kraft Mill effluent on the sexuality of fishes: An environmental early warning

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.P.; Bortone, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Arrhenoid or masculinized female fish species of the live-bearing family, Poeciliidae, have been observed for over thirteen years in specific southern streams which receive waste effluents from pulping mills. The complex mixture of organic compounds in kraft mill effluent (KME) has inhibited specific identification of causal agent(s). However, microbially degraded phytosterols (e.g. sitosterol or stigmastanol) in experimental exposures induce the same intersexual states that characterize affected female poeciliids sampled from KME streams. KME-polluted streams often exhibit a drastic reduction of fish species diversity and degrees of physiological stress, all of which suggests reduced reproduction in surviving forms. A potential ontogenetic or developmental response is demonstrated in American eels captured in one of these streams as well. The authors examine available information, including laboratory and experimental field exposures, and suggest directions for additional research as well as the need for environmental concern.

  13. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  14. Multimedia sampling for dioxin at a strip mine reclaimed with sludge from bleached kraft wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C. ); Proctor, J.L. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper reports that mead conducted a two-year dioxin testing program on strip-mined land being reclaimed with sludge from the wastewater treatment plant of its bleached kraft mill. Many different samples were analyzed for both 2,3,7,8-TCDD (or dioxin) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (or furan). The study included biodiversity studies to determine the total environmental impact. The results indicate that the sludge is an excellent reclamation material that improves the biodiversity at the site. The tracer dioxin in the sludge does not exhibit any significant migration or bioavailability when used for reclaiming strip mines. These findings differ from assumptions sometimes used in assessing the environmental risks of dioxin.

  15. Environmental assessment before and after conversion of a kraft mill to elemental-chlorine-free bleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Deardorff, T.L.; Renard, J.J.; Phillips, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    As part of our continuing efforts to understand the potential impact of biologically treated effluents to the aquatic ecosystem, we critically examined several environmental parameters before and after the conversion to elemental-chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching at a kraft pulp and paper mill. The study involved evaluation of filtrates, pulps, sludges, and wastewater treatment within the mill and an integrated field study of the receiving stream, which included comprehensive water and sediment toxicity testing, benthic community evaluations, fish health testing, and physicochemical and biological parameters of water quality. Following ECF conversion, no detectable levels of 2,3,7,8-dioxin or polychlorinated phenolic compounds at the bleach plant and no indications of detrimental impacts to the ecosystem from the effluent were found.

  16. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-10-22

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

  17. Source emission testing of the medical waste incinerator, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. Final report, 8-9 July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, R.J.

    1992-12-01

    Source emission testing for particulate matter and hydrogen chloride was conducted on the medical waste incinerator located at Bldg 1055, Andrews AFB MD. Compliance standards are found in Temporary Operating Permit No. 16-0655-2-0116N, issued by the State of Maryland on 20 October 1991. Test results indicate incinerator emissions are above the state standard for particulate matter and below the state standard for hydrogen chloride. Recommendations are made to reduce particulate emissions and to retest.... Particulate matter, Hydrogen chloride, Andrews AFB, Medical waste incinerator, Source emission testing.

  18. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.680 Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance... the Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance within a rectangular area beginning at...

  19. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operated at a minimum temperature of 871 °C (1600 °F) and a minimum residence time of 0.75 seconds; or (4... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a...)(ii)(C) of this section. (A) Each knotter system with emissions of 0.05 kilograms or more of total...

  20. [The Andrew Heiskell Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.] A Library with a Difference. Projects and Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarkon, Joe; Fitzpatrick, Vicki, Ed.

    This publication describes the Andrew Heiskell Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, a regional library for the National Library Service (NLS) example of the creative use of physical space and innovative technology. The publication focuses on the materials-handling system designed for the new facility, including system design…

  1. 75 FR 81637 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of the St. Andrew Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... (63 FR 70053). The endangered St. Andrew beach mouse is now found in two populations: East Crooked... recovery plan available for public comment from April 22, 2009 through June 22, 2009 (74 FR 18403). We... feral cats and hogs in beach mouse habitat. 4. In areas with known populations of beach mice...

  2. Should Community College Be Free? Forum. "Education Next" Talks with Sara Goldrick-Rab and Andrew P. Kelly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Kelly, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, "Education Next" talks with Sara Goldrick-Rab and Andrew Kelly. President Obama's proposal for tuition-free community college, seems to have laid down a marker for the Democratic Party. Vermont senator Bernie Sanders is touting his plan for free four-year public college on the primary trail; Massachusetts senator…

  3. The Psychological Effects of Hurricane Andrew on Ethnic Minority and Caucasian Children and Adolescents: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Russell T.; Frary, Robert; Cunningham, Phillippe; Weddle, J. David; Kaiser, Lisa

    2001-01-01

    Several measures of children's reactions to disasters were employed with 212 elementary and middle school students 6 months after experiencing Hurricane Andrew. Higher levels of intrusive symptomatology were found for girls and for elementary school children. Discusses lack of findings concerning race and implications for future research.…

  4. Protocols for Biotechnological Interventions in Improvement of Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews.).

    PubMed

    Divakaran, Minoo; Babu, K Nirmal; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews (syn. V. fragrans Salisb.), a native of Central America, is the primary source of natural vanillin and plays a major role in the global economy. The gene pool of vanilla is threatened by deforestation and overcollection that has resulted in disappearance of natural habitats and wild species. Continuous vegetative propagation and lack of natural seed set and sufficient variations in the gene pool hamper crop improvement programs. In vitro techniques, one of the key tools of plant biotechnology, can be employed for overcoming specific problems, viz. production of disease-free clones, inducing somaclonal variations, developing hybrids, gene pool conservation, incorporating desired traits by distant hybridization, genetic engineering, etc. However, realization of these objectives necessitates standardization of protocols. This chapter describes the various protocols optimized for crop improvement in Vanilla species. PMID:27108309

  5. The psychometric assessment of alcoholism in forensic groups: the MacAndrew scale and response bias.

    PubMed

    Wasyliw, O E; Haywood, T W; Grossman, L S; Cavanaugh, J L

    1993-04-01

    Although the MacAndrew Alcoholism scale is the most widely used Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) measure of vulnerability to alcohol abuse, its accuracy has not been studied in patients intrinsically motivated to exaggerate or minimize psychopathology. We examined the usefulness of the MAC in predicting alcohol abuse in a forensic clinical sample. Results indicate the MAC (a) was not more effective than direct inquiry in this group, (b) scores were correlated negatively with minimization and positively with exaggeration for subjects with histories of alcohol abuse, (c) offered advantages over direct inquiry both in screening for alcohol history (sensitivity) and in confirming it (specificity), and (d) scores were only moderately more accurate in valid than in minimized or exaggerated MMPI protocols. The results suggest that clinicians should use the MAC cautiously, particularly when they suspect motivation to minimize psychopathology.

  6. STS-89 M.S. Andrew Thomas, poses the day before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-89 Mission Specialist Andrew Thomas, Ph.D., poses at KSC's Launch Pad 39A wearing a miniature koala bear on the day before the scheduled launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour that will carry him up to the Russian Space Station Mir. Final preparations are under way toward liftoff on Jan. 22 on the eighth mission to dock with Mir. After docking, Dr. Thomas will transfer to the space station, succeeding David Wolf, M.D., who will return to Earth aboard Endeavour. Dr. Thomas, who was born and educated in South Australia, will live and work on Mir until June. STS-89 is scheduled for liftoff at 9:48 p.m. EST.

  7. Prosthetic rehabilitation of severe Siebert's Class III defect with modified Andrews bridge system.

    PubMed

    Rathee, Manu; Sikka, Neha; Jindal, Sahil; Kaushik, Ashutosh

    2015-03-01

    Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. The treatment of edentulous areas with ridge defects poses a challenging task for the dentist. Management of such cases involves a wide range of treatment options comprising mainly of surgical interventions and non surgical techniques such as use of removable, fixed or fixed- removable partial dentures. But each treatment plan undertaken should be customized according to patient needs. A variety of factors such as quality and quantity of existing contiguous hard and soft tissues, systemic condition and economic status of the patient play an important role in treatment planning, clinical outcome and prognosis. This case report presents the restoration of a Seibert's Class III ridge defect by an economical modification of Andrews Bridge in a 32 Year old patient. PMID:25821362

  8. Prosthetic rehabilitation of severe Siebert's Class III defect with modified Andrews bridge system.

    PubMed

    Rathee, Manu; Sikka, Neha; Jindal, Sahil; Kaushik, Ashutosh

    2015-03-01

    Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. The treatment of edentulous areas with ridge defects poses a challenging task for the dentist. Management of such cases involves a wide range of treatment options comprising mainly of surgical interventions and non surgical techniques such as use of removable, fixed or fixed- removable partial dentures. But each treatment plan undertaken should be customized according to patient needs. A variety of factors such as quality and quantity of existing contiguous hard and soft tissues, systemic condition and economic status of the patient play an important role in treatment planning, clinical outcome and prognosis. This case report presents the restoration of a Seibert's Class III ridge defect by an economical modification of Andrews Bridge in a 32 Year old patient.

  9. Protocols for Biotechnological Interventions in Improvement of Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews.).

    PubMed

    Divakaran, Minoo; Babu, K Nirmal; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews (syn. V. fragrans Salisb.), a native of Central America, is the primary source of natural vanillin and plays a major role in the global economy. The gene pool of vanilla is threatened by deforestation and overcollection that has resulted in disappearance of natural habitats and wild species. Continuous vegetative propagation and lack of natural seed set and sufficient variations in the gene pool hamper crop improvement programs. In vitro techniques, one of the key tools of plant biotechnology, can be employed for overcoming specific problems, viz. production of disease-free clones, inducing somaclonal variations, developing hybrids, gene pool conservation, incorporating desired traits by distant hybridization, genetic engineering, etc. However, realization of these objectives necessitates standardization of protocols. This chapter describes the various protocols optimized for crop improvement in Vanilla species.

  10. A conversation with Andrew Benson: reflections on the discovery of the Calvin-Benson cycle.

    PubMed

    Benson, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    On June 26-27, 2012, one of us (BBB) made a video based on an interview conducted with Andrew A. Benson, Professor Emeritus, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA. The video was first shown in a seminar presented by BBB on July 27, 2012 at the Calvin Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, to mark the departure of the Energy Biosciences Institute to a new building. Here we record the conversation taking place during the interview. The Brancraft Library on the Berkeley campus will house the video's transcript in its oral histories collection, and the video will be housed in its motion picture collection. The video and the transcript have also been posted on You Tube (http://youtu.be/GfQQJ2vR_xE).

  11. The post-disaster negative health legacy: pregnancy outcomes in Louisiana after Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Antipova, Anzhelika; Curtis, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Disasters and displacement increasingly affect and challenge urban settings. How do pregnant women fare in the aftermath of a major disaster? This paper investigates the effect of pregnancies in disaster situations. The study tests a hypothesis that pregnant women residing in hurricane-prone areas suffer higher health risks. The setting is Louisiana in the Gulf Coast, United States, a state that continually experiences hurricane impacts. The time period for the analysis is three years following the landfall of Hurricane Andrew in 1992. We analysed low birth weight and preterm deliveries before and after landfall, as a whole and by race. Findings support an association between hazards and health of a community and indicate that pregnant women in the affected area, irrespective of race, are more likely to experience preterm deliveries compared to pre-event births. Results suggest there is a negative health legacy impact in Louisiana as a result of hurricane landfall.

  12. Business closure and relocation: a comparative analysis of the Loma Prieta earthquake and Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Wasileski, Gabriela; Rodríguez, Havidán; Diaz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of a number of large-scale disasters or catastrophes in recent years, including the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), the Kashmir earthquake (2005), Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Ike (2008), have raised our awareness regarding the devastating effects of disasters on human populations and the importance of developing mitigation and preparedness strategies to limit the consequences of such events. However, there is still a dearth of social science research focusing on the socio-economic impact of disasters on businesses in the United States. This paper contributes to this research literature by focusing on the impact of disasters on business closure and relocation through the use of multivariate logistic regression models, specifically focusing on the Loma Prieta earthquake (1989) and Hurricane Andrew (1992). Using a multivariate model, we examine how physical damage to the infrastructure, lifeline disruption and business characteristics, among others, impact business closure and relocation following major disasters.

  13. Prosthetic rehabilitation of severe Siebert's Class III defect with modified Andrews bridge system

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Manu; Sikka, Neha; Jindal, Sahil; Kaushik, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. The treatment of edentulous areas with ridge defects poses a challenging task for the dentist. Management of such cases involves a wide range of treatment options comprising mainly of surgical interventions and non surgical techniques such as use of removable, fixed or fixed- removable partial dentures. But each treatment plan undertaken should be customized according to patient needs. A variety of factors such as quality and quantity of existing contiguous hard and soft tissues, systemic condition and economic status of the patient play an important role in treatment planning, clinical outcome and prognosis. This case report presents the restoration of a Seibert's Class III ridge defect by an economical modification of Andrews Bridge in a 32 Year old patient. PMID:25821362

  14. Children's predisaster functioning as a predictor of posttraumatic stress following Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    La Greca, A M; Silverman, W K; Wasserstein, S B

    1998-12-01

    This study examined (a) children's predisaster behavioral and academic functioning as a predictor of posttraumatic stress (PTS) following Hurricane Andrew and (b) whether children who were exposed to the disaster would display a worsening of prior functioning. Fifteen months before the disaster, 92 4th through 6th graders provided self-reports of anxiety; peers and teachers rated behavior problems (anxiety, inattention, and conduct) and academic skills. Measures were repeated 3 months postdisaster; children also reported PTS symptoms and hurricane-related experiences (i.e., exposure). PTS symptoms were again assessed 7 months postdisaster. At 3 months postdisaster, children's exposure to the disaster, as well as predisaster ratings of anxiety, inattention, and academic skills, predicted PTS symptoms. By 7 months, only exposure, African American ethnicity, and predisaster anxiety predicted PTS. Prior anxiety levels also worsened as a result of exposure to the disaster. The findings have implications for identifying and treating children at risk for stress reactions following a catastrophic disaster.

  15. Stability and change in stress, resources, and psychological distress following natural disaster: Findings from hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Norris, F H; Perilla, J L; Riad, J K; Kaniasty, K; Lavizzo, E A

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The stress, resource, and symptom levels of 241 residents of southern Dade County, Florida were assessed 6 and 30 months after Hurricane Andrew. Percentages meeting study criteria for depression and PTSD did not change over time. Whereas mean levels of intrusion and arousal decreased, depressive symptoms remained stable, and avoidance/numbing symptoms actually increased. Intrusion and arousal were associated more strongly with pre-disaster factors (gender, ethnicity) and within-disaster factors (injury, property loss) than with post-disaster factors (stress, resources), but the reverse was true for depression and avoidance. Changes over time in symptoms were largely explained by changes over time in stress and resources. The findings indicate that ongoing services are needed to supplement the crisis-oriented assistance typically offered to disaster victims.

  16. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children after Hurricane Andrew: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    La Greca, A; Silverman, W K; Vernberg, E M; Prinstein, M J

    1996-08-01

    The authors examined symptoms of posttraumatic stress in 3rd-5th grade children during the school year after Hurricane Andrew. From a conceptual model of the effects of traumatic events, 442 children were evaluated 3, 7, and 10 months postdisaster with respect to (a) their exposure to traumatic events during and after the disaster, (b) their preexisting demographic characteristics, (c) the occurrence of major life stressors, (d) the availability of social support, and (e) the type of coping strategies used to cope with disaster-related distress. Although symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) declined over time, a substantial level of symptomatology was observed up to 10 months after the disease. All 5 factors in the conceptual model were predictive of children's PTSD symptoms 7 and 10 months postdisaster. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of the model for organizing thinking about factors that predict the emergence and persistence of PTSD symptoms in children.

  17. Comprehensive assessment of health needs 2 months after Hurricane Andrew--Dade County, Florida, 1992.

    PubMed

    1993-06-11

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck southern Florida. More than 28,000 houses, mobile homes, and apartment buildings were destroyed, and approximately 107,000 additional dwellings sustained major damage. An estimated 180,000 persons were left homeless; insured damages were estimated at $15.5 billion and total damages at more than $30 billion. During the recovery period, many private and public health-care facilities damaged or destroyed in the storm were not functional. During November 3-13, to help prioritize health needs and direct public health resources, the Dade County Public Health Unit of the Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services conducted a survey to assess health needs and the availability of health-care services during the recovery phase with funds provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This report summarizes the results of the survey.

  18. Physical symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome are exacerbated by the stress of Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Lutgendorf, S K; Antoni, M H; Ironson, G; Fletcher, M A; Penedo, F; Baum, A; Schneiderman, N; Klimas, N

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Hurricane Andrew on physical symptoms and functional impairments in a sample of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients residing in South Florida. In the months after Hurricane Andrew (September 15-December 31, 1992), 49 CFS patients were assessed for psychosocial and physical functioning with questionnaires, interviews, and physical examinations. This sample was made up of 25 CFS patients living in Dade county, a high impact area, and 24 patients in Broward and Palm Beach counties, areas less affected by the hurricane. Based on our model for stress-related effects on CFS, we tested the hypothesis that the patients who had the greatest exposure to this natural disaster would show the greatest exacerbation in CFS symptoms and related impairments in activities of daily living (illness burden). In support of this hypothesis, we found that the Dade county patients showed significant increases in physician-rated clinical relapses and exacerbations in frequency of several categories of self-reported CFS physical symptoms as compared to the Broward/Palm Beach county patients. Illness burden, as measured on the Sickness Impact Profile, also showed a significant increase in the Dade county patients. Although extent of disruption due to the storm was a significant factor in predicting relapse, the patient's posthurricane distress response was the single strongest predictor of the likelihood and severity of relapse and functional impairment. Additionally, optimism and social support were significantly associated with lower illness burden after the hurricane, above and beyond storm-related disruption and distress responses. These findings provide information on the impact of environmental stressors and psychosocial factors in the exacerbation of CFS symptoms.

  19. Development of a combined piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor using a chemical protective coating for Kraft pulp digester process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Abdolreza R.; Bennington, Chad P. J.; Chiao, Mu

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an integrated piezoresistive pressure and temperature sensor for multiphase chemical reactors, primarily Kraft pulp digesters (pH 13.5, temperatures up to 175 °C, reaching a local maximum of 180 °C and pressures up to 2 MPa). The absolute piezoresistive pressure sensor consisted of a large square silicon diaphragm (1000 × 1000 µm2) and high resistance piezoresistors (10 000 Ω). A 4500 Ω buried piezoresistive wire was patterned on the silicon chip to form a piezoresistive temperature sensor which was used for pressure sensor compensation and temperature measurement. A 4 µm thick Parylene HT® coating, a chemically resistant epoxy and a silicone conformal coating were deposited to passivate the pressure sensor against the caustic environment in Kraft digesters. The sensors were characterized up to 2 MPa and 180 °C in an environment chamber. A maximum thermal error of ±0.72% full-scale output (FSO), an average sensitivity of 0.116 mV (V kPa)-1 and a power consumption of 0.3 mW were measured in the pressure sensor. The sensors' resistances were measured before and after test in a Kraft pulping cycle and showed no change in their values. SEM pictures and topographical surfaces were also analyzed before and after pulp liquor exposure and showed no observable changes.

  20. Removal of the organic content from a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by a treatment with silica-alginate-fungi biocomposites.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Katia; Justino, Celine I L; Pereira, Ruth; Panteleitchouk, Teresa S L; Freitas, Ana C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Duarte, Armando C

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts a treatment strategy of a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent with Rhizopus oryzae or Pleurotus sajor caju encapsulated on silica-alginate (biocomposite of silica-alginate-fungi, with the purpose of reducing its potential impact in the environment. Active (alive) or inactive (death by sterilization) Rhizopus oryzae or Pleurotus sajor caju was encapsulated in alginate beads. Five beads containing active and inactive fungus were placed in a mold and filled with silica hydrogel (biocomposites). The biocomposites were added to batch reactors containing the bleached kraft pulp mill effluent. The treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by active and inactive biocomposites was performed throughout 29 days at 28°C. The efficiency of treatment was evaluated by measuring the removal of organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand and the relative absorbance ratio over time. Both fungi species showed potential for removal of organic compounds, colour and chemical oxygen demand. Maximum values of reduction in terms of colour (56%), chemical oxygen demand (65%) and organic compounds (72-79%) were attained after 29 days of treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by active Rhizopus oryzae biocomposites. The immobilization of fungi, the need for low fungal biomass, and the possibility of reutlization of the biocomposites clearly demonstrate the industrial and environmental interest in bleached kraft pulp mill effluent treatment by silica-alginate-fungi biocomposites. PMID:23043338

  1. Acclimatization of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L. ), to toxic components of kraft pulp mill effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Oikari, A.; Kukkonen, J.

    1988-06-01

    Roach (Rutilus rutilus) were exposed, along with their appropriate controls, to a simulated bleached kraft mill effluent (KME-Sa + CP) first for 38 days at a concentration of 0.035 X LC50 and then for 14 days at 0.07 X LC50. During the experiment, their tolerances to KME-Sa + CP were tested five times by measuring the 48-hr LC50 values. In addition, the growth of roach was monitored. At the end of the exposure, accumulation of (/sup 14/C)pentachlorophenol in various parts of the fish (total PCP in water 15.6 micrograms/liter) was measured. When the fish were preexposed to KME-Sa + CP, the acute tolerance of this mixture in roach increased by 30-39%, but the response was abolished in 31 days. Fish growth remained unchanged during the experiment. Measurement of PCP accumulation revealed no difference in the absorption rate, but under steady-state conditions the degree of bioconcentration was 16% lower (P less than 0.02) in preexposed roach than in their unexposed controls. This difference was entirely accounted for in the head and visceral parts of the fish. Even when no final changes were noted in tolerance and growth rate of the fish, the authors suggest that the significantly lowered body burden implied acclimatizatory compensation under subchronic exposure of this xenobiotic.

  2. Kraft lignin/silica-AgNPs as a functional material with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Rzemieniecki, Tomasz; Krawczyk, Magdalena; Malina, Dagmara; Norman, Małgorzata; Zdarta, Jakub; Majchrzak, Izabela; Dobrowolska, Anna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2015-10-01

    Advanced functional silica/lignin hybrid materials, modified with nanosilver, were obtained. The commercial silica Syloid 244 was used, modified with N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane to increase its chemical affinity to lignin. Similarly, kraft lignin was oxidized using a solution of sodium periodate to activate appropriate functional groups on its surface. Silver nanoparticles were grafted onto the resulting silica/lignin hybrids. The systems obtained were comprehensively tested using available techniques and methods, including transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. An evaluation was also made of the electrokinetic stability of the systems with and without silver nanoparticles. Conclusions were drawn concerning the chemical nature of the bonds between the precursors and the effectiveness of the method of binding nanosilver to the hybrid materials. The antimicrobial activity of the studied materials was tested against five species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of silver nanoparticles to the silica/lignin hybrids led to inhibition of the growth of the analyzed bacteria. The best results were obtained against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dangerous human pathogen.

  3. Acid-catalysed xylose dehydration into furfural in the presence of kraft lignin.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, Kaisa; Ahola, Juha; Tanskanen, Juha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effects of kraft lignin (Indulin AT) on acid-catalysed xylose dehydration into furfural were studied in formic and sulphuric acids. The study was done using D-optimal design. Three variables in both acids were included in the design: time (20-80 min), temperature (160-180°C) and initial lignin concentration (0-20 g/l). The dependent variables were xylose conversion, furfural yield, furfural selectivity and pH change. The results showed that the xylose conversion and furfural yield decreased in sulphuric acid, while in formic acid the changes were minor. Additionally, it was showed that lignin has an acid-neutralising capacity, and the added lignin increased the pH of reactant solutions in both acids. The pH rise was considerably lower in formic acid than in sulphuric acid. However, the higher pH did not explain all the changes in conversion and yield, and thus lignin evidently inhibits the formation of furfural.

  4. Production of polyols via direct hydrolysis of kraft lignin: effect of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Nubla; Yuan, Zhongshun; Schmidt, John; Charles Xu, Chunbao

    2013-07-01

    Kraft lignin (KL) was successfully depolymerized into polyols of moderately high hydroxyl number and yield with moderately low weight-average molecular weight (Mw) via direct hydrolysis using NaOH as a catalyst, without any organic solvent/capping agent. The effects of process parameters including reaction temperature, reaction time, NaOH/lignin ratio (w/w) and substrate concentration were investigated and the polyols/depolymerized lignins (DLs) obtained were characterized with GPC-UV, FTIR-ATR, (1)H NMR, Elemental & TOC analyzer. The best operating conditions appeared to be at 250°C, 1h, and NaOH/lignin ratio ≈0.28 with 20 wt.% substrate concentration, leading to <0.5% solid residues and ∼92% yield of DL (aliphatic-hydroxyl number ≈352 mg KOH/mg and Mw≈3310 g/mole), suitable for replacement of polyols in polyurethane foam synthesis. The overall % carbon recovery under the above best conditions was ∼90%. A higher temperature favored reduced Mw of the polyols while a longer reaction time promoted dehydration/condensation reactions. PMID:23644065

  5. Recovery of kraft lignin from pulping wastewater via emulsion liquid membrane process.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Zing-Yi; Harruddin, Norlisa; Othman, Norasikin

    2015-01-01

    Kraft lignin (KL) is a renewable source of many valuable intermediate biochemical products currently derived from petroleum. An excessive of lignin comes from pulping wastewater caused an adverse pollution problems hence affecting human and aquatic life. A comprehensive study pertaining to emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) extraction of lignin from pulping wastewater was presented. ELM formulation contains Aliquat 336 as carrier, kerosene as diluent, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) as stripping agent and Span 80 as surfactant. The emulsion stability was investigated at different surfactant concentrations, homogenizer speed and emulsification time. Modifier (2-ethyl-1-hexanol) was added to avoid segregation of third phase while improving the emulsion stability. At optimum conditions, 95% and 56% of lignin were extracted and recovered, respectively at 10 min of extraction time, 0.007 M of Aliquat 336, 0.1 M of NaHCO3 and 1:5 of treat ratio. Additional of modifier was contributed to highest recovery up to 98%. The ELM process was found to be equally feasible and quite effective in the recovery of KL from real pulping wastewater. Therefore, ELM process provides a promising alternative technology to recover KL from pulping wastewater while solving the environmental problems simultaneously. PMID:26101101

  6. Effect of depth beating on the fiber properties and enzymatic saccharification efficiency of softwood kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenhua; Xiang, Zhouyang; Chen, Kefu; Yang, Rendang; Yang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Commercial bleached softwood kraft pulp was mechanically fibrillated by a PFI-mill with beating revolution from 5000 to 30,000 r. The extent of fibrillating on the pulp was evaluated by beating degree, fiber morphological properties (fiber length, width, coarseness and curls index), water retention value (WRV) and physical properties of paper made from the pulp. Depth beating process significantly affected the pulp fibrillations as showed by the decreased fiber length and width as well as the SEM analysis, but the effects were limited after beating revolution of 15,000. Depth beating process also improved the total internal pore and inter-fibril surface areas as shown by the increased WRV values. Substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of beaten pulp at 5000 revolutions could reach 95% at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g of glucan. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, the size of the pulp residues was reduced to micro-scale, and a relative uniform size distribution of the residues appeared at 10,000 r beating revolution. PMID:25965499

  7. Use of Electrochemical Noise to Assess Corrosion in Kraft Continuous Digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, S.J.

    2004-11-29

    Electrochemical noise (EN) probes were deployed in two continuous kraft digesters at a variety of locations representative of corrosion throughout the vessels. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of up to 60 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously during each experiment. The results indicate that changes in furnish composition and process upsets were invariably associated with concurrent substantial changes in EN activity throughout the vessels. Post-test evaluation of the mild steel electrode materials in both vessels confirmed general corrosion of a magnitude consistent with historical trends in the respective vessels as well as values qualitatively (and semi-quantitatively) related to EN current sums for each electrode pair. Stainless steel electrodes representing 309LSi and 312 overlay repairs exhibited zero wastage corrosion--as did the actual overlays--but the EN data indicated periodic redox activity on the stainless steel that varied with time and position within the vessel. Little or no correlation between EN probe activity and other operational variables was observed in either vessel. Additional details for each digester experiment are summarized.

  8. Preparation of porous carbons from polymeric precursors modified with acrylated kraft lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiesiak, M.

    2016-04-01

    The presented studies concern the preparation of porous carbons from a BPA.DA-St polymer containing acrylated kraft lignin as a monomer. The porous polymeric precursor in the form of microspheres was synthesized in suspension polymerization process. Next samples of the polymer were impregnated with acetic acid or aqueous solution of acetates (potassium or ammonia), dried and carbonised in nitrogen atmosphere at 450°C. After carbonization microspherical shape of the materials was remained, that is desired feature for potential application in chromatography or SPE technique. Chemical and textural properties of the porous carbon adsorbents were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), thermogravimetry analyses with mass spectrometry of released gases (TG-MS) and nitrogen sorption experiments. The presented studies revealed the impregnation is useful method for development of porous structure of carbonaceous materials. The highest values of porous structure parameters were obtained when acetic acid and ammonium acetate were used as impregnating substances. On the surface of the materials oxygen functional groups are present that is important for specific interactions during sorption processes. The highest contents of functionalities were observed for carbon BPA.DA-St-LA-C-AcNH4.

  9. Investigating the degradation process of kraft lignin by β-proteobacterium, Pandoraea sp. ISTKB.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Madan; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Singhal, Anjali; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigates the kraft lignin (KL) degrading potential of novel alkalotolerant Pandoraea sp. ISTKB utilizing KL as sole carbon source. The results displayed 50.2 % reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 41.1 % decolorization after bacterial treatment. The maximum lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity detected was 2.73 and 4.33 U ml(-1), respectively, on day 3. The maximum extracellular and intracellular laccase activities observed were 1.32 U ml(-1) on day 5 and 4.53 U ml(-1) on day 4, respectively. The decolorization and degradation was maximum on day 2. Further, it registered an increase with the production of extracellular laccase. This unusual trend of decolorization and degradation was studied using various aromatic compounds and dyes. SEM and FTIR results indicated significant change in surface morphology and functional group composition during the course of degradation. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis confirmed KL degradation by emergence of new peaks and the identification of low molecular weight aromatic intermediates in treated sample. The degradation of KL progressed through the generation of phenolic intermediates. The identified intermediates implied the degradation of hydroxyphenyl, ferulic acid, guaiacyl, syringyl, phenylcoumarane, and pinoresinol components commonly found in lignin. The degradation, decolorization, and GC-MS analysis indicated potential application of the isolate Pandoraea sp. ISTKB in treatment of lignin-containing pollutants and KL valorization.

  10. Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two Kraft recovery boilers.

    PubMed

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma K; Hillamo, Risto; Makkonen, Ulla; Raukola, Antti; Rintanen, Jaakko; Saviharju, Kari

    2006-01-15

    Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration atthe ESP inlet was 11-24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30-40 mg/ Nm3 at boiler A and 12-15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 microm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6-99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3-3 microm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.

  11. Methanol fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin: impact on the lignin properties.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomonori; Perkins, Joshua H; Vautard, Frederic; Meyer, Harry M; Messman, Jamie M; Tolnai, Balazs; Naskar, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    The development of technologies to tune lignin properties for high-performance lignin-based materials is crucial for the utilization of lignin in various applications. Here, the effect of methanol (MeOH) fractionation on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, glass transition temperature (Tg ), thermal decomposition, and chemical structure of lignin were investigated. Repeated MeOH fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin successfully removed the low-molecular-weight fraction. The separated high-molecular-weight lignin showed a Tg of 211 °C and a char yield of 47 %, much higher than those of as-received lignin (Tg 153 °C, char yield 41 %). The MeOH-soluble fraction of lignin showed an increased low-molecular-weight fraction and a lower Tg (117 °C) and char yield (32%). The amount of low-molecular-weight fraction showed a quantitative correlation with both 1/Tg and char yield in a linear regression. This study demonstrated the efficient purification or fractionation technology for lignin; it also established a theoretical and empirical correlation between the physical characteristics of fractionated lignins. PMID:24458739

  12. Simulation of Water Balance and Forest Treatment Effects at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest

    SciTech Connect

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wemple, Beverley C.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2005-10-30

    The watershed model DHSVM was applied to the small watersheds WS1,2,3 in H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA), Oregon and tested for skill in simulating observed forest treatment effects on streamflow. These watersheds in the rain-snow transition zone underwent road and clearcut treatments during 1959-66 and subsequent natural regeneration. DHSVM was applied with 10 m and 1 hr resolution to 1958-98, most of the period of record. Water balance for old-growth WS2 indicated that evapotranspiration and streamflow were unlikely to be the only loss terms, and groundwater recharge was included to account for about 12% of precipitation; this term was assumed zero in previous studies. After limited calibration, overall efficiency in simulating hourly streamflow exceeded 0.7, and mean annual error was less than 10%. Model skill decreased at the margins, with overprediction of low flows and underprediction of high flows. However, statistical analyses of simulated and observed peakflows yielded similar characterizations of treatment effects. Primary simulation weaknesses were snowpack accumulation, snowmelt under rain-on-snow conditions, and production of quickflow. This challenging test of DHSVM moved the model closer to a practical tool for forest management.

  13. Unsaturated flow modeling for performance assessment of a radioactive waste disposal facility in Andrews County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Baquero, G. F.; Singh, A.; Holt, R. M.; grisak, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitifying infiltration rates is a key component of the performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal facilities. In arid regions with scarce infiltration data, this is a challenging problem because of the computational limitations of available numerical implementations to solve water flow and transport equations. This work summarizes methodology and analysis performed to overcome some of these challenges and to generate infiltration scenarios for a low level waste disposal site in Andrews County, Texas. The work presented here includes preparation of a two dimensional finite element model in HYDRUS that includes the cover system and adjacent geologic units, calibration of hydraulic properties and root water uptake parameters based on soft information, preparation of atmospheric forcings based on current and hypothesized future climatic conditions, evaluation of impacts related to temporal and spatial discretization of forcings and model domain, and definition of scenarios for cover degradation and wetter climate conditions. Results of this work include a sensitivity analysis of infiltration rates to changes in boundary conditions under quasi-steady state, evaluation of the impact of temporal discretization of the atmospheric forcings in terms of water balance error and computational efficiency, and the estimation of infiltration rates under different scenarios. Infiltration rates from this work are being incorporated into a transport model to estimate potential radiological doses based on performance assessment modeling analyses. Findings from this work seek to contribute towards robust approaches to estimate infiltration in arid regions.

  14. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India.

    PubMed

    Madhubala, R; Bhadramurthy, V; Bhat, A I; Hareesh, P S; Retheesh, S T; Bhai, R S

    2005-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae. Nicotiana benthamiana was found to be a suitable host for the propagation of CMV. The virus was purified from inoculated N. benthamiana plants and negatively stained purified preparations contained isometric particles of about 28 nm in diameter. The molecular weight of the viral coat protein subunits was found to be 25.0 kDa. Polyclonal antiserum was produced in New Zealand white rabbit, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified and conjugated with alkaline phosphatase enzyme. Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) method was standardized for the detection of CMV infection in vanilla plants. CP gene of the virus was amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. Sequenced region contained a single open reading frame of 657 nucleotides potentially coding for 218 amino acids. Sequence analyses with other CMV isolates revealed the greatest identity with black pepper isolate of CMV (99%) and the phylogram clearly showed that CMV infecting vanilla belongs to subgroup IB. This is the first report of occurrence of CMV on V. planifolia from India.

  15. Wind damage effects of Hurricane Andrew on mangrove communities along the southwest coast of Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, T.W.; Smith, T. J.; Robblee, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew downed and defoliated an extensive swath of mangrove trees across the lower Florida peninsula. Permanent field sites were established to assess the extent of forest damage and to monitor the rate and process of forest recovery. Canopy trees suffered the highest mortality particularly for sites within and immediately north of the storm's eyewall. The type and extent of site damage, windthrow, branch loss, and defoliation generally decreased exponentially with increasing distance from the storm track. Forest damage was greater for sites in the storm's right quadrant than in the left quadrant tor the same given distance from the storm center. Stand exposure, both horizontally and vertically, increased the susceptibility and probability of forest damage and accounted for much of the local variability. Slight species differences were found. Laguncularia racemosa exceeded Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle in damage tendency under similar wind conditions. Azimuths of downed trees were strongly correlated with maximum wind speed and vector based on a hurricane simulation of the storm. Lateral branch loss and leaf defoliation on sites without windthrow damage indicated a degree of crown thinning and light penetration equivalent to treefall gaps under normally intact forest conditions. Mangrove species and forests are susceptible to catastrophic disturbance by hurricanes; the impacts of which are significant to changes in forest structure and function.

  16. Genomewide scan for adaptive differentiation along altitudinal gradient in the Andrew's toad Bufo andrewsi.

    PubMed

    Guo, Baocheng; Lu, Di; Liao, Wen Bo; Merilä, Juha

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of humans, dogs and rodents have started to discover the genetic underpinnings of high altitude adaptations, yet amphibians have received little attention in this respect. To identify possible signatures of adaptation to altitude, we performed a genome scan of 15 557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained with restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of pooled samples from 11 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) from the edge of the Tibetan Plateau, spanning an altitudinal gradient from 1690 to 2768 m.a.s.l. We discovered significant geographic differentiation among all sites, with an average FST   = 0.023 across all SNPs. Apart from clear patterns of isolation by distance, we discovered numerous outlier SNPs showing strong associations with variation in altitude (1394 SNPs), average annual temperature (1859 SNPs) or both (1051 SNPs). Levels and patterns of genetic differentiation in these SNPs were consistent with the hypothesis that they have been subject to directional selection and reflect adaptation to altitudinal variation among the study sites. Genes with footprints of selection were significantly enriched in binding and metabolic processes. Several genes potentially related to high altitude adaptation were identified, although the identity and functional significance of most genomic targets of selection remain unknown. In general, the results provide genomic support for results of earlier common garden and low coverage genetic studies that have uncovered substantial adaptive differentiation along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients in amphibians. PMID:27289071

  17. Long-term effects of Hurricane Andrew: revisiting mental health indicators.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, S; Troiano, R P; Barker, N; Noji, E; Hlady, W G; Hopkins, R

    1995-09-01

    Two population-based surveys of South Dade County, Florida, were conducted after Hurricane Andrew to compare hurricane-related symptoms of mental distress and describe the impact of mental health outreach teams. Households were selected by three-stage cluster sampling and findings from the two surveys, 13 months apart, were compared. Response rates were 75 per cent and 84 per cent. The prevalence of symptoms of mental distress decreased over time. However, in the households contacted by the teams (25 per cent of sample), the prevalence of symptoms (50 per cent) did not differ from households not contacted (43 per cent). Households contacted by teams that reported symptoms were just as likely to have been referred for help by the teams (72 per cent) as those without symptoms (68 per cent). Households reporting symptoms were equally likely to get counselling regardless of whether the teams visited. Mental health teams had no significant impact on mental health symptoms or the use of mental health services. Alternative approaches to mental health outreach teams need to be explored.

  18. Storm-tide elevations produced by Hurricane Andrew along the southern Florida coasts, August 24, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, Mitchell H.

    1994-01-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew crossed southern peninsular Florida. The combined effects of storm surge from the hurricane and astronomical tide, referred to as storm tide, caused flooding over a large part of southern Florida. Subsequent to the flooding, many high-water marks were identified, described, and surveyed along the south- eastern coast of Florida (Miami to Key Largo) and at selected areas along the southwestern coast of Florida (Flamingo to Goodland). Descriptions of these 336 high-water makrs are presented in tabular form in this report and their locations are plotted on nineteen 7.5-minute topographic quadrangle maps. For the southeastern coast, north-south profiles of the high-water makrs along the outher and inner barrier islands and the western shoreline of Biscayne Bay are presented. Average storm-tide elevations (relative to sea level) ranged from 4 to 6 feet in northern Biscayne Bay, were as much as 17 feet on the western shoreline near the center of the bay and ranged from 3 to 6 feet in southern Biscayne Bay and Barnes Sound. Storm-tide elevations along the southwestern coast ranged from 4 to 5 feet at Flamingo and 5 to 7 feet at Goodland in the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  19. Weathering the storm: children's long-term recall of Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Fivush, Robyn; Sales, Jessica McDermott; Goldberg, Amy; Bahrick, Lorraine; Parker, Janat

    2004-01-01

    Children who experienced a highly stressful natural disaster, Hurricane Andrew, were interviewed within a few months of the event, when they were 3-4 years old, and again 6 years later, when they were 9-10 years old. Children were grouped into low, moderate, or high stress groups depending on the severity of the experienced storm. All children were able to recall this event in vivid detail 6 years later. In fact, children reported over twice as many propositions at the second interview as at the first. At the initial interview, children in the high stress group reported less information than children in the moderate stress group, but 6 years later, children in all three stress groups reported similar amounts of information. However children in the high stress group needed more questions and prompts than children in the other stress groups. Yet children in the high stress group also reported more consistent information between the two interviews, especially about the storm, than children in the other stress groups. Implications for children's developing memory of stressful events are discussed.

  20. Effect of replacing polyol by organosolv and kraft lignin on the property and structure of rigid polyurethane foam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignin is one of the three major components in plant cell walls, and it can be isolated (dissolved) from the cell wall in pretreatment or chemical pulping. However, there is a lack of high-value applications for lignin, and the commonest proposal for lignin is power and steam generation through combustion. Organosolv ethanol process is one of the effective pretreatment methods for woody biomass for cellulosic ethanol production, and kraft process is a dominant chemical pulping method in paper industry. In the present research, the lignins from organosolv pretreatment and kraft pulping were evaluated to replace polyol for producing rigid polyurethane foams (RPFs). Results Petroleum-based polyol was replaced with hardwood ethanol organosolv lignin (HEL) or hardwood kraft lignin (HKL) from 25% to 70% (molar percentage) in preparing rigid polyurethane foam. The prepared foams contained 12-36% (w/w) HEL or 9-28% (w/w) HKL. The density, compressive strength, and cellular structure of the prepared foams were investigated and compared. Chain extenders were used to improve the properties of the RPFs. Conclusions It was found that lignin was chemically crosslinked not just physically trapped in the rigid polyurethane foams. The lignin-containing foams had comparable structure and strength up to 25-30% (w/w) HEL or 19-23% (w/w) HKL addition. The results indicated that HEL performed much better in RPFs and could replace more polyol at the same strength than HKL because the former had a better miscibility with the polyol than the latter. Chain extender such as butanediol could improve the strength of lignin-containing RPFs. PMID:23356502

  1. Masculinization of female mosquitofish in Kraft mill effluent-contaminated Fenholloway River water is associated with androgen receptor agonist activity.

    PubMed

    Parks, L G; Lambright, C S; Orlando, E F; Guillette, L J; Ankley, G T; Gray, L E

    2001-08-01

    Female mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki) downstream from Kraft paper mills in Florida display masculinization of the anal fin, an androgen-dependent trait. The current investigation was designed to determine if water contaminated with pulp-mill effluent (PME) from the Fenholloway River in Florida displayed androgenic activity in vitro and to relate this activity to the reproductive status of female mosquitofish taken from this river. We tested water samples for androgenic activity from a reference site upstream of a Kraft pulp and paper mill on the Fenholloway River, from 3 sites downstream from the mill, and from another reference site on the Econfina River, also in Florida, where there is no paper mill. We also examined anal fin ray morphology in mosquitofish from these rivers for evidence of masculinization. Eighty percent of the female mosquitofish from the Fenholloway River were partially masculinized while another 10% were completely masculinized, based upon the numbers of segments in the longest anal fin ray (18.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 28.1 +/- 0.9 [p < 0.001]) in the Econfina River vs. the Fenholloway River, respectively). In a COS whole cell-binding assay, all 3 PME samples displayed affinity for human androgen receptor (hAR) (p < 0.001). In addition, PME induced androgen-dependent gene expression in CV-1 cells (cotransfected with pCMV hAR and MMTV luciferase reporter), which was inhibited by about 50% by coadministration of hydroxyflutamide (1 microM), an AR antagonist. Water samples collected upstream of the Kraft mill or from the Econfina River did not bind hAR or induce luciferase expression. When CV-1 cells were transfected with human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) rather than hAR, PME failed to significantly induce MMTV-luciferase expression. Further evidence of the androgenicity was observed using a COS cell AR nuclear-translocalization assay. PME bound hAR and induced translocalization of AR into the nucleus. In contrast, AR remained perinuclear when

  2. A dynamical systems proof of Kraft-McMillan inequality and its converse for prefix-free codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Nithin

    2009-03-01

    Uniquely decodable codes are central to lossless data compression in both classical and quantum communication systems. The Kraft-McMillan inequality is a basic result in information theory which gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a code to be uniquely decodable and also has a quantum analogue. In this letter, we provide a novel dynamical systems proof of this inequality and its converse for prefix-free codes (no codeword is a prefix of another—the popular Huffman codes are an example). For constrained sources, the problem is still open.

  3. A dynamical systems proof of Kraft-McMillan inequality and its converse for prefix-free codes.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Nithin

    2009-03-01

    Uniquely decodable codes are central to lossless data compression in both classical and quantum communication systems. The Kraft-McMillan inequality is a basic result in information theory which gives a necessary and sufficient condition for a code to be uniquely decodable and also has a quantum analogue. In this letter, we provide a novel dynamical systems proof of this inequality and its converse for prefix-free codes (no codeword is a prefix of another-the popular Huffman codes are an example). For constrained sources, the problem is still open. PMID:19335000

  4. Correlation of Process Data and Electrochemical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Kamloops Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2002-05-09

    Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at five locations roughly equi-spaced from top to bottom of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 60 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of one year. Historical vessel inspection data, including inspections accomplished immediately prior to and immediately following probe deployment, and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare corrosion indications from the probes with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. The results indicate that furnish composition is a significant variable influencing digester corrosion, with increasing amounts of Douglas fir in the nominal furnish correlating directly with increased corrosion activity on the ECN probes. All five probes detected changes in furnish composition approximately simultaneously, indicating rapid chemical communication through the liquor, but the effect was strongest and persisted longest relatively high in the digester. The ECN probes also indicate significant corrosion activity occurred at each probe position during shutdown/restart transients. Little or no correlation between ECN probe corrosion activity and other operational variables was observed. Post-test evaluation of the probes confirmed general corrosion of a magnitude that closely agreed with corrosion current sums calculated for each probe over the exposure period and with historical average corrosion rates for the respective locations. Further, no pitting was observed on any of the electrodes, which is consistent with the ECN data, relevant polarization curves developed for steel in liquor removed from the digester, and the post-test inspection of the digester.

  5. SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF DEPOSITION IN KRAFT CHEMICAL RECOVERY BOILERS AND MONITORING GLASS FURNACES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Peter Ariessohn

    2003-04-15

    Combustion Specialists, Inc. has just completed a project designed to develop the capability to monitor and control the formation of deposits on the outside of boiler tubes inside an operating kraft recovery furnace. This project, which was carried out in the period from April 1, 2001 to January 31, 2003, was funded by the Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations program. The primary objectives of the project included the development and demonstration of the ability to produce clear images of deposits throughout the convective sections of operating recovery boilers using newly developed infrared imaging technology, to demonstrate the automated detection and quantification of these deposits using custom designed image processing software developed as part of the project, and to demonstrate the feasibility of all technical elements required for a commercial ''smart'' sootblowing control system based on direct feedback from automated imaging of deposits in real-time. All of the individual tasks have been completed and all objectives have been substantially achieved. Imaging of deposits throughout the convective sections of several recovery boilers has been demonstrated, a design for a combined sootblower/deposit inspection probe has been developed and a detailed heat transfer analysis carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this design, an improved infrared imager which can be sufficiently miniaturized for this application has been identified, automated deposit detection software has been developed and demonstrated, a detailed design for all the necessary communications and control interfaces has been developed, and a test has been carried out in a glass furnace to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared imaging sensor in that environment. The project was completed on time and within the initial budget. A commercial partner has been identified and further federal funding will be sought to support a project to develop a commercial prototype

  6. Biological treatment of the effluent from a bleached kraft pulp mill using basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi.

    PubMed

    Freitas, A C; Ferreira, F; Costa, A M; Pereira, R; Antunes, S C; Gonçalves, F; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Diniz, M S; Castro, L; Peres, I; Duarte, A C

    2009-05-01

    Three white-rot fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju, Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium) and one soft-rot fungi (Rhizopus oryzae) species confirmed their potential for future applications in the biological treatment of effluents derived from the secondary treatment of a bleached kraft pulp mill processing Eucalyptus globulus. Among the four species P. sajor caju and R. oryzae were the most effective in the biodegradation of organic compounds present in the effluent, being responsible for the reduction of relative absorbance (25-46% at 250 nm and 72-74% at 465 nm) and of chemical oxygen demand levels (74 to 81%) after 10 days of incubation. Laccase (Lac), lignin (Lip) and manganese peroxidases (MnP) expression varied among fungal species, where Lac and LiP activities were correlated with the degradation of organic compounds in the effluent treated with P. sajor caju. The first two axes of a principal component analysis explained 88.9% of the total variation among sub-samples treated with the four fungus species, after different incubation periods. All the variables measured contributed positively to the first component except for the MnP enzyme activity which was the only variable contributing negatively to the first component. Absorbances at 465 nm, LiP and Lac enzyme activities were the variables with more weight on the second component. P. sajor caju revealed to be the only species able to perform the biological treatment without promoting an increment in the toxicity of the effluent to the Vibrio fischeri, as it was assessed by the Microtox assay. The opposite was recorded for the treatments with the other three species of fungus. EC(50-5 min) values ranging between 28 and 57% (effluent concentrations) were recorded even after 10 to 13 days of treatment with P. chrysosporium, R. oryzae or with T. versicolor. PMID:19269018

  7. On remembering and forgetting our autobiographical pasts: retrograde amnesia and Andrew Mayes's contribution to neuropsychological method.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, M D; Bright, P

    2012-11-01

    Andrew Mayes's contribution to the neuropsychology of memory has consisted in steadily teasing out the nature of the memory deficit in the amnesic syndrome. This has been done with careful attention to matters of method at all stages. This particularly applies to his investigations of forgetting rates in amnesia and to his studies of retrograde amnesia. Following a brief outline of his work, the main current theories of retrograde amnesia are considered: consolidation theory, episodic-to-semantic shift theory, and multiple trace theory. Findings across the main studies in Alzheimer dementia are reviewed to illustrate what appears to be consistently found, and what is much more inconsistent. A number of problems and issues in current theories are then highlighted--including the nature of the temporal gradient, correlations with the extent of temporal lobe damage, what we would expect 'normal' remote memory curves to look like, how they would appear in focal retrograde amnesia, and whether we can pinpoint retrograde amnesia to hippocampal/medial temporal damage on the basis of existing studies. A recent study of retrograde amnesia is re-analysed to demonstrate temporal gradients on recollected episodic memories in hippocampal/medial temporal patients. It is concluded that there are two requirements for better understanding of the nature of retrograde amnesia: (i) a tighter, Mayesian attention to method in terms of both the neuropsychology and neuroimaging in investigations of retrograde amnesia; and (ii) acknowledging that there may be multiple factors underlying a temporal gradient, and that episodic and semantic memory show important interdependencies at both encoding and retrieval. Such factors may be critical to understanding what is remembered and what is forgotten from our autobiographical pasts.

  8. Low-Frequency Response Following the Passage of Hurricane Andrew on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, S. M.; Smith, D. C.; Dimarco, S. F.

    2009-12-01

    During August 24th through 27th in 1992, Hurricane Andrew passed through the Gulf Of Mexico almost directly over several moorings on the easternmost Louisiana shelf portion of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf (LATEX) coastal ocean monitoring program. Examination of the current meter time-series showed the existence of fast moving, long shelf waves over the entire Texas-Louisiana shelf west of the storm passage for up to 12 days after direct forcing ceased. The LATEX program featured 31 moorings each with 3 current meters over the 10, 20, 50, and 200 meter isobaths in 5 cross sectional lines with additional coverage on the 200 meter isobath from the Louisiana-Mississippi River delta, to Corpus Christi, Texas. Additionally, several pressure records from LATEX and several NOAA historical coastal tide gauge data from Sabine Pass to Port Isabella, Texas were incorporated. Raw, 3-hour low pass filtered, and 40-hour low pass filtered versions of the current data were analyzed. The pressure data used were detided using a least squares fit, and the tidal records were detided using the NOAA predicted tides for that location. All data were analyzed using a wavelet analysis to determine the spectra over time. The analyzed data shows that the shelf response was largely dominated in the internal Kelvin wave mode. The wave propagated towards the west on the shelf at approximately 400 km/day. These results are contrasted and compared with wave modes predicted for coastal trapped wave solutions. The output of a coastal ocean model simulation using a forced wind field similar to the storm are also contrasted and compared with the observed data.

  9. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    PubMed

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  10. Cylindric partitions, {{\\boldsymbol{ W }}}_{r} characters and the Andrews-Gordon-Bressoud identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foda, O.; Welsh, T. A.

    2016-04-01

    We study the Andrews-Gordon-Bressoud (AGB) generalisations of the Rogers-Ramanujan q-series identities in the context of cylindric partitions. We recall the definition of r-cylindric partitions, and provide a simple proof of Borodin’s product expression for their generating functions, that can be regarded as a limiting case of an unpublished proof by Krattenthaler. We also recall the relationships between the r-cylindric partition generating functions, the principal characters of {\\hat{{sl}}}r algebras, the {{\\boldsymbol{ M }}}r r,r+d minimal model characters of {{\\boldsymbol{ W }}}r algebras, and the r-string abaci generating functions, providing simple proofs for each. We then set r = 2, and use two-cylindric partitions to re-derive the AGB identities as follows. Firstly, we use Borodin’s product expression for the generating functions of the two-cylindric partitions with infinitely long parts, to obtain the product sides of the AGB identities, times a factor {(q;q)}∞ -1, which is the generating function of ordinary partitions. Next, we obtain a bijection from the two-cylindric partitions, via two-string abaci, into decorated versions of Bressoud’s restricted lattice paths. Extending Bressoud’s method of transforming between restricted paths that obey different restrictions, we obtain sum expressions with manifestly non-negative coefficients for the generating functions of the two-cylindric partitions which contains a factor {(q;q)}∞ -1. Equating the product and sum expressions of the same two-cylindric partitions, and canceling a factor of {(q;q)}∞ -1 on each side, we obtain the AGB identities.

  11. On remembering and forgetting our autobiographical pasts: retrograde amnesia and Andrew Mayes's contribution to neuropsychological method.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, M D; Bright, P

    2012-11-01

    Andrew Mayes's contribution to the neuropsychology of memory has consisted in steadily teasing out the nature of the memory deficit in the amnesic syndrome. This has been done with careful attention to matters of method at all stages. This particularly applies to his investigations of forgetting rates in amnesia and to his studies of retrograde amnesia. Following a brief outline of his work, the main current theories of retrograde amnesia are considered: consolidation theory, episodic-to-semantic shift theory, and multiple trace theory. Findings across the main studies in Alzheimer dementia are reviewed to illustrate what appears to be consistently found, and what is much more inconsistent. A number of problems and issues in current theories are then highlighted--including the nature of the temporal gradient, correlations with the extent of temporal lobe damage, what we would expect 'normal' remote memory curves to look like, how they would appear in focal retrograde amnesia, and whether we can pinpoint retrograde amnesia to hippocampal/medial temporal damage on the basis of existing studies. A recent study of retrograde amnesia is re-analysed to demonstrate temporal gradients on recollected episodic memories in hippocampal/medial temporal patients. It is concluded that there are two requirements for better understanding of the nature of retrograde amnesia: (i) a tighter, Mayesian attention to method in terms of both the neuropsychology and neuroimaging in investigations of retrograde amnesia; and (ii) acknowledging that there may be multiple factors underlying a temporal gradient, and that episodic and semantic memory show important interdependencies at both encoding and retrieval. Such factors may be critical to understanding what is remembered and what is forgotten from our autobiographical pasts. PMID:22884958

  12. Damage to unburied flowlines in the Gulf of Mexico during Hurricane Andrew

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.I.

    1995-12-31

    The US Minerals Management Service reported that 454 sub-sea pipelines were damaged during Hurricane Andrew. Previously, damage to pipelines and flowlines has been reported in a series of papers by Blumberg (1964). In the present paper a formulation of the hydrodynamic loads acting on a flowline which is lying on the seafloor in the presence of waves and currents is summarized. In general, the line dynamics can be represented by a fourth order differential equation with nonlinear forcing but a method is presented which assumes that the complete response can be broken down into distinct phases from ``early motion`` to ``taut line`` to ``yield and breaking``. The selection of appropriate force coefficients and boundary layer interactions is discussed. The initial stages of pipeline migration across the seafloor is shown to be followed by loading of the flowline once all of the ``slack`` is taken up. The loads are shown to be a function of the current orientation and the maximum tension is approximately proportional to the square of the distance between risers. Comparisons of predicted and observed damages confirm that ``effective`` boundary layer thicknesses at the seafloor and typical drag and lift coefficients which were selected based on available literature are consistent with observed flowline damage. The results of sidescan sonar mosaics of pipeline migrations and reported damage are consistent with the loads predicted by relatively simple hydrodynamic/structural models. The material presented in this paper permits the evaluation of the risk of damage to unburied flowlines using relatively simple tools. Guidelines to the assumptions of force coefficients and flowline responses are provided. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Marielle; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for the biogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibre sludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludge and activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, the Ca:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abated by short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robust conditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4g volatile solids (VS)L(-1)day(-1), a hydraulic retention time of 4days and a methane production of 230±10NmL per g VS.

  14. Degradation of Chlorophenols by Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4) in Bleached Kraft Mill Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, J.; Bumann, U.; Cespedes, R.; Padilla, L.; Gonzalez, B.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134(pJP4) to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and other chlorophenols in a bleached kraft mill effluent was studied. The efficiency of degradation and the survival of strain JMP134 and indigenous microorganisms in short-term batch or long-term semicontinuous incubations performed in microcosms were assessed. After 6 days of incubation, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (400 ppm) or 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (40 to 100 ppm) were extensively degraded (70 to 100%). In short-term batch incubations, indigenous microorganisms were unable to degrade such of compounds. Degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by strain JMP134 was significantly lower at 200 to 400 ppm of compound. This strain was also able to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol when bleached Kraft mill effluent was amended with mixtures of these compounds. On the other hand, the chlorophenol concentration and the indigenous microorganisms inhibited the growth and survival of the strain in short-term incubations. In long-term (>1-month) incubations, strain JMP134 was unable to maintain a large, stable population, although extensive 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation was still observed. The latter is probably due to acclimation of the indigenous microorganisms to degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Acclimation was observed only in long-term, semicontinuous microcosms. PMID:16535488

  15. High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria; Karlsson, Marielle; Truong, Xu-Bin; Björn, Annika; Karlsson, Anna; Svensson, Bo H; Ejlertsson, Jörgen

    2016-10-01

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for the biogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibre sludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludge and activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, the Ca:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abated by short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robust conditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4g volatile solids (VS)L(-1)day(-1), a hydraulic retention time of 4days and a methane production of 230±10NmL per g VS. PMID:27453288

  16. Correlation of Process Data and Electrochemical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Spring Grove Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2003-06-18

    Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank. The probes consisted of carbon steel electrodes, representing the vessel construction material, and 309LSi stainless steel overlay electrodes, representing the weld overlay repair in a portion of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 32 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare ECN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate ECN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the high general corrosion rates of steel observed just below the extraction screens--on the order of 35 mils/y for the past few years--accelerated further during the period of probe deployment. The maximum wastage of steel (normalized to one full year exposure) was about 85 mils/y at the ring 6N probe just below the extraction screens. Consistent with recent historical observations, the steel corrosion rate at the ring 6S probe--at the same elevation but directly across the digester from ring 6N--was significantly lower at about 50 mils/y. Just prior to probe deployment, the digester shell below the extraction screens was overlaid with 309LSi stainless steel, which was observed to be essentially immune to corrosion at this location. While the ECN probes detected differences in electrochemical behavior between steel probes and between 309LSi probes at rings 6N and 6S, there was only poor quantitative correlation of current sums with actual corrosion rates at these locations. A significant contribution of redox reactions on both steel

  17. A tale of two storms: Surges and sediment deposition from Hurricanes Andrew and Wilma in Florida’s southwest coast mangrove forests: Chapter 6G in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.; Anderson, Gordon H.; Tiling, Ginger

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes can be very different from each other. Here we examine the impacts that two hurricanes, Andrew and Wilma, had in terms of storm surge and sediment deposition on the southwest coast of Florida. Although Wilma was the weaker storm, it had the greater impact. Wilma had the higher storm surge over a larger area and deposited more sediment than did Andrew. This effect was most likely due to the size of Wilma's eye, which was four times larger than that of Andrew.

  18. Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20--30, 1992. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hebdon, F.J.

    1993-03-01

    On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew, a Category 4 hurricane, struck the Turkey Point Electrical Generating Station with sustained winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). This is the report of the team that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) jointly sponsored (1) to review the damage that the hurricane caused the nuclear units and the utility`s actions to prepare for the storm and recover from it, and (2) to compile lessons that might benefit other nuclear reactor facilities.

  19. Medical societies and insanity in late-eighteenth-century London: the fight between Andrew Marshal and John Hunter.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2005-03-01

    In 1789, at a meeting of a small London society for the promotion of medical and surgical knowledge, Andrew Marshal (1742-1813) and John Hunter (1728-1793) engaged in heated debate regarding the association between mania and the structure of the brain. Marshal claimed to have observed abnormalities when dissecting brains of those who died insane and Hunter denied this connection. At the next meeting a scuffle between them ensued and they had to be parted. Although Marshal did not publish his observations during his lifetime, they were assembled by his assistant in 1815. Marshal's descriptions of the brains of hydrophobics and maniacs are worthy of note.

  20. The psychological effects of Hurricane Andrew on ethnic minority and Caucasian children and adolescents: a case study.

    PubMed

    Jones, R T; Frary, R; Cunningham, P; Weddle, J D; Kaiser, L

    2001-02-01

    The impact of Hurricane Andrew on 212 African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic elementary and middle school children was examined at 6 months postdisaster. Using self-report instruments, this case study examined the predictive utility of several hypothesized mediators of children's reactions to disaster. Results showed higher levels of intrusive symptomatology for girls and for elementary school children as compared with their middle school counterparts. No differences were found with reference to race. The lack of findings concerning race is addressed, as well as implications for future studies.

  1. Evaluation of Hydraulically Significant Discontinuities in Dockum Group Mudrocks in Andrews County, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, R. M.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Cao, S.; Powers, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Triassic mudrocks of the Dockum Group (Cooper Canyon Formation) host four, below-grade landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WSC) site in Andrews County, Texas, including: a hazardous waste landfill and three radioactive waste landfills. At the study site, the Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. Rock discontinuities, including fractures and syndepositional slickensided surfaces, were mapped during the excavation of the WCS radioactive waste landfills along vertical faces prepared by the construction contractor. Face locations were selected to insure a sampled area with nearly complete vertical coverage for each landfill. Individual discontinuities were mapped and their strike, dip, length, roughness, curvature, staining, and evidence of displacement were described. In the three radioactive waste disposal landfills, over 1750 discontinuities across 35 excavated faces were mapped and described, where each face was nominally 8 to 10 ft tall and 50 to 100 ft long. Genetic units related to paleosol development were identified. On average, the orientation of the discontinuities was horizontal, and no other significant trends were observed. Mapping within the landfill excavations shows that most discontinuities within Dockum rocks are horizontal, concave upward, slickensided surfaces that developed in the depositional environment, as repeated wetting and drying cycles led to shrinking and swelling of floodplain vertisols. Fractures that showed staining (a possible indicator of past or present hydraulic activity) are rare, vertical to near-vertical, and occur mainly in, and adjacent to, mechanically stiff siltstone and sandstone interbeds

  2. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is designed to operate at

  3. Mangroves, hurricanes, and lightning strikes: Assessment of Hurricane Andrew suggests an interaction across two differing scales of disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Thomas J.; Robblee, Michael B.; Wanless, Harold R.; Doyle, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    The track of Hurricane Andrew carried it across one of the most extensive mangrove for ests in the New World. Although it is well known that hurricanes affect mangrove forests, surprisingly little quantitative information exists concerning hurricane impact on forest structure, succession, species composition, and dynamics of mangrove-dependent fauna or on rates of eco-system recovery (see Craighead and Gilbert 1962, Roth 1992, Smith 1992, Smith and Duke 1987, Stoddart 1969).After Hurricane Andrew's passage across south Florida, we assessed the environmental damage to the natural resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks. Quantitative data collected during subsequent field trips (October 1992 to July 1993) are also provided. We present measurements of initial tree mortality by species and size class, estimates of delayed (or continuing) tree mortality, and observations of geomorphological changes along the coast and in the forests that could influence the course of forest recovery. We discuss a potential interaction across two differing scales of disturbance within mangrove forest systems: hurricanes and lightning strikes.

  4. Evaluation of long-term community recovery from Hurricane Andrew: sources of assistance received by population sub-groups.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, S; Troiano, R P; Barker, N; Noji, E; Hlady, W G; Hopkins, R

    1995-12-01

    Two three-stage cluster surveys were conducted in South Dade County, Florida, 14 months apart, to assess recovery following Hurricane Andrew. Response rates were 75 per cent and 84 per cent. Sources of assistance used in recovery from Hurricane Andrew differed according to race, per capita income, ethnicity, and education. Reports of improved living situation post-hurricane were not associated with receiving relief assistance, but reports of a worse situation were associated with loss of income, being exploited, or job loss. The number of households reporting problems with crime and community violence doubled between the two surveys. Disaster relief efforts had less impact on subjective long-term recovery than did job or income loss or housing repair difficulties. Existing sources of assistance were used more often than specific post-hurricane relief resources. The demographic make-up of a community may determine which are the most effective means to inform them after a disaster and what sources of assistance may be useful.

  5. Patterns and drivers of Holocene vegetational change near the prairie-forest ecotone in Minnesota: revisiting McAndrews' transect.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David M; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2008-07-01

    Holocene vegetational dynamics along the prairie-forest border of Minnesota were first documented in McAndrews' classic work. Despite numerous subsequent paleo-studies, a number of questions remain unanswered about the vegetation history of the region. Here, pollen, stable-isotope, mineral, and charcoal data are described from three lakes near McAndrews' sites. These data were compared with other paleoenvironmental records to reconstruct vegetation, aridity, and fire. The climate was relatively wet with increasing summer temperatures before approximately 8000 yr before present (BP). The rates of changes were asymmetric for the onset and termination of middle-Holocene aridity, with an abrupt increase at approximately 8000 yr BP and a gradual, but variable, decline from approximately 7800 to 4000 yr BP. Early-Holocene coniferous forests changed to mixed-grass prairie without an intervening period of tallgrass prairie or deciduous forest, whereas the retreat of prairie was characterized by transitions from mixed-grass to tallgrass prairie to deciduous forest and finally to coniferous forest. Within the middle Holocene, the composition and structures of grass-dominated vegetation varied both temporally and spatially. Fire primarily responded to changes in climate and fuel loads. Vegetation was more strongly influenced by climatic changes than by fire-regime shifts.

  6. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films.

  7. Effects of Kraft lignin on hydrolysis/dehydration of sugars, cellulosic and lignocellulosic biomass under hot compressed water.

    PubMed

    Daorattanachai, Pornlada; Viriya-empikul, Nawin; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

    2013-09-01

    The effect of Kraft lignin presenting on the hydrolysis and dehydration of C5 and C6 sugars, cellulose, hemicelluloses and biomass under hot compressed water (HCW) in the presence of H3PO4 catalyst was intensively studied. The lignin strongly inhibited the acid hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to glucose and xylose, respectively. Interestingly, the admixed lignin markedly promoted the isomerization of glucose to fructose, and dehydration of fructose (except at the low catalyst loading), resulting in high 5-hydroxymethylfurfural yields. Nonetheless, lignin inhibited the hydrolysis of xylan to xylose and dehydration of xylose to furfural. Moreover, the acidity of the system significantly affects the hydrolysis/dehydration of biomass. It was revealed that the presence of lignin strongly interfered the yields of sugars and furans produced from raw corncob, while the delignified corncob provided significant improvement of product yields, confirming the observed role of lignin in the biomass conversion system via sugar platforms. PMID:23907066

  8. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films. PMID:26572370

  9. A Cost-Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Eric D. Larson; Stefano Consonni; Ryan E. Katofsky; Kristiina Iisa; W. James Frederick

    2007-03-31

    Production of liquid fuels and chemicals via gasification of kraft black liquor and woody residues (''biorefining'') has the potential to provide significant economic returns for kraft pulp and paper mills replacing Tomlinson boilers beginning in the 2010-2015 timeframe. Commercialization of gasification technologies is anticipated in this period, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are in most cases already commercially established today in the ''gas-to-liquids'' industry. These conclusions are supported by detailed analysis carried out in a two-year project co-funded by the American Forest and Paper Association and the Biomass Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. This work assessed the energy, environment, and economic costs and benefits of biorefineries at kraft pulp and paper mills in the United States. Seven detailed biorefinery process designs were developed for a reference freesheet pulp/paper mill in the Southeastern U.S., together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. Commercial (''Nth'') plant levels of technology performance and cost were assumed. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which would be refined to vehicle fuels at existing petroleum refineries), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or LPG substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. Compared to installing a new Tomlinson power/recovery system, a biorefinery would require larger capital investment. However, because the biorefinery would have higher energy efficiencies, lower air emissions, and a more diverse product slate (including transportation fuel), the internal rates of return (IRR) on the incremental capital investments would be attractive under many circumstances. For nearly all of the

  10. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, M S; Ruessler, D S; Denslow, N D; Holm, S E; Schoeb, T R; Gross, T S

    2001-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of effluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  11. Assessment of reproductive effects in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Ruessler, D.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Holm, S.E.; Schoeb, T.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential effects of different concentrations of bleached/unbleached kraft mill effluent (B/UKME) on several reproductive endpoints in adult largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The kraft mill studied produces a 50/50 mix of bleached/unbleached market pulp with an estimated release of 36 million gal of efffluent/day. Bleaching sequences were C90d10EopHDp and CEHD for softwood (pines) and hardwoods (mainly tupelo, gums, magnolia, and water oaks), respectively. Bass were exposed to different effluent concentrations (0 [controls, exposed to well water], 10, 20, 40, or 80%) for either 28 or 56 days. At the end of each exposure period, fish were euthanized, gonads collected for histological evaluation and determination of gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma was analyzed for 17??-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, and vitellogenin (VTG). Largemouth bass exposed to B/UKME responded with changes at the biochemical level (decline in sex steroids in both sexes and VTG in females) that were usually translated into tissue/organ-level responses (declines in GSI in both sexes and in ovarian development in females). Although most of these responses occurred after exposing fish to 40% B/UKME concentrations or greater, some were observed after exposures to 20% B/UKME. These threshold concentrations fall within the 60% average yearly concentration of effluent that exists in the stream near the point of discharge (Rice Creek), but are above the <10% effluent concentration present in the St. Johns River. The chemical(s) responsible for such changes as well as their mode(s) of action remain unknown at this time.

  12. Recovery of lignocelluloses from pre-hydrolysis liquor in the lime kiln of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process by adsorption to lime mud.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Fatehi, Pedram; Soleimani, Pendar; Ni, Yonghao

    2011-11-01

    Dissolved lignocelluloses from the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process were recovered by adsorption to lime mud produced in the causticizing plant of the kraft process. The adsorption of lignocelluloses was a fast process, and could be completed within one hour. The addition of polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) significantly increased the amounts of adsorbed lignin and hemicelluloses, which more than doubled at the PDADMAC dosage of 0.1% (based on the weight of PHL). The measured heating values of the adsorbed lignocelluloses indicate that adsorption of lignocelluloses to lime mud may result in the energy saving of the lime kiln. The process proposed in this study could also be adapted to decrease inhibitor concentrations (lignin and acetic acid) if the dissolved hemicelluloses in the PHL were used to produce value-added products, e.g., ethanol, xylitol, based on the fermentation process.

  13. 40 CFR Table Aa-1 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O AA Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O Wood furnish Biomass-based emissions...

  14. 40 CFR Table Aa-1 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O AA Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O Wood furnish Biomass-based emissions...

  15. 40 CFR Table Aa-1 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O AA Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O Wood furnish Biomass-based emissions...

  16. 40 CFR Table Aa-1 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kraft Pulping Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O AA Table AA-1 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Liquor Emissions Factors for Biomass-Based CO2, CH4, and N2O Wood furnish Biomass-based emissions...

  17. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based...

  18. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based...

  19. 40 CFR Table Aa-2 to Subpart Aa of... - Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kraft Lime Kiln and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O AA Table AA-2 to Subpart AA of Part 98 Protection of Environment... and Calciner Emissions Factors for Fossil Fuel-Based CH4 and N2O Fuel Fossil fuel-based...

  20. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas is... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base,...

  1. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted.... Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla... referred to as the “Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor.” (b) The regulations. (1) Military usage of areas...

  2. The brain and the biology of belief: An interview with Andrew Newberg, MD. Interview by Nancy Nachman-Hunt.

    PubMed

    Newberg, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Andrew Newberg, MD, is an associate professor in the Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, with secondary appointments in the Departments of Psychiatry and Religious Studies. He is actively involved in neuroimaging research projects, including the study of the neurophysiological correlates of meditation and other types of complementary therapies. Dr Newberg's research now largely focuses on how brain function is associated with various mental states, in particular, the relationship between brain function and mystical or religious experiences. He has authored several books, including Why God Won't Go Away: Brain Science and the Biology of Belief (Ballantine/Random House, 2001) and coauthor with Eugene G. d'Aquili, MD, of The Mystical Mind: Probing the Biology of Religious Experience (Fortress Press, 1999). His most recent book is How God Changes Your Brain, with coauthor Mark Waldman (Ballantine Books, 2009).

  3. Study of lignin biotransformation by Aspergillus fumigatus and white-rot fungi using /sup 14/C-labeled and unlabeled kraft lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Kadam, K.K.; Drew, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    The biodegradation of lignin by fungi was studied in shake flasks using /sup 14/C-labeled kraft lignin and in a deep-tank fermentor using unlabeled kraft lignin. Among the fungi screened, A. fumigatus - isolated in our laboratories - was most potent in lignin biotransformation. Dialysis-type fermentation, designed to study possible accumulation of low MW lignin-derived products, showed no such accumulation. Recalcitrant carbohydrates like microcrystalline cellulose supported higher lignolytic activity than easily metabolized carbohydrates like cellobiose. An assay developed to distinguish between CO/sub 2/ evolved from lignin and carbohydrate substrates demonstrated no stoichiometric correlation between the metabolism of the two cosubstrates. The submerged fermentations with unlabeled liqnin are difficult to monitor since chemical assays do not give accurate and true results. Lignolytic efficiencies that allowed monitoring of such fermentations were defined. Degraded lignins were clearly superior to C. versicolor in all aspects of lignin degradation; A fumigatus brought about substantial demethoxylation and dehydroxylation, whereas C. versicolor degraded lignins closely resembled undegraded kraft lignin. There was a good agreement among the different indices of lignin degradation, namely, /sup 14/CO evolution, OCH/sub 3/ loss, OH loss, and monomer and dimer yield after permanganate oxidation.

  4. Comparative study of lignin characteristics from wheat straw obtained by soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment and effect on the following enzymatic hydrolysis process

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Haitao; Xie, Yimin; Zheng, Xing; Pu, Yunqiao; Huang, Fang; Meng, Xianzhi; Wu, Weibing; Ragauskas, Arthur; Yao, Lan

    2016-02-18

    With this study, to understand the structural changes of lignin after soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment, milled straw lignin, black liquor lignin and residual lignin extracted from wheat straw were characterized by FT-IR, UV, GPC and NMR. The results showed that the main lignin linkages were β-aryl ether substructures (β-O-4'), followed by phenylcoumaran (β-5') and resinol (β-β') substructures, while minor content of spirodienone (β-1'), dibenzodioxocin (5-5') and α,β-diaryl ether linkages were detected as well. After pretreatment, most lignin inter-units and lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) linkages were degraded and dissolved in black liquor, with minor amount left in residual pretreated biomass. In addition,more » through quantitative 13C and 2D-HSQC NMR spectral analysis, lignin and LCC were found to be more degraded after kraft pretreatment than soda-AQ pretreatment. Furthermore, the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis results showed that more cellulose in wheat straw was converted to glucose after kraft pretreatment, indicating that LCC linkages were important in the enzymatic hydrolysis process.« less

  5. Modification of xylan in alkaline treated bleached hardwood kraft pulps as classified by attenuated total-internal-reflection (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwen; Hu, Thomas Q; Jang, Ho Fan; Grant, Edward

    2015-08-20

    The glucuronoxylan composition of a pulp affects the bonding between cellulosic fibres, and thus correlates with such network properties as tensile strength. Here, we demonstrate the promise of attenuated total-internal-reflection (ATR) FTIR spectroscopy as a rapid means for classifying the xylan contained in commercial bleached kraft pulps. This study draws upon samples composed of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulps and combinations of eucalyptus with other commercial bleached kraft pulps. We subject these pulp samples to systematic extraction by sodium hydroxide solutions with concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 6% to build a standard sample library with varying xylan content, quantified by acid hydrolysis, HPLC carbohydrate separation and titration. This pulp chemistry of mild alkaline extraction removes up to two-thirds of the xylan. In the NaOH concentration regime of 0.5-4%, the infrared spectral variance reflects the decrease in hemicellulose concentration as well as the cellulose crystallinity. A residual xylan component remains resistant to base solutions of higher concentrations. Principal component analysis of infrared spectra distinguishes this residual xylan as structurally variant. Both partial least squares multivariate analysis and univariate analysis confined to a feature at 964 cm(-1) in normalized second derivative IR spectra show a very good correlation with xylan content quantified by HPLC. PMID:25965501

  6. Long-term effects of bleached kraft mill effluents on red and white blood cell status, ion balance, and vertebral structure in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Haerdig, J.A.; Andersson, T.; Bengtsson, B.E.; Foerlin, L.L.; Larsson, A.

    1988-02-01

    In a laboratory investigation fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) were exposed for 5-9 months to wastewater from pine and birch lines from a bleached kraft pulp plant. This long-term exposure to bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) affected the hematology, the ion balance, and the vertebral structure. Decreased values for hematocrit and hemoglobin and a reduced red blood cell count, as well as increased levels of methemoglobin, indicated disturbances in the red blood cell status. The white blood cell picture was not significantly affected by the BKME exposure. Decreased levels of potassium and chloride ions in the blood plasma in some of the exposed fish suggest an impaired ability to maintain ion homeostasis. Elevated frequencies of vertebral deformations in fish exposed to BKME confirm previous observations of vertebral damage in feral fourhorn sculpin caught in the receiving body of water of the same bleached kraft pulp industry. Many of the parameters analyzed in this investigation may be used as health indicators in future laboratory and field studies on fish exposed to BKME.

  7. Comparative study of lignin characteristics from wheat straw obtained by soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment and effect on the following enzymatic hydrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haitao; Xie, Yimin; Zheng, Xing; Pu, Yunqiao; Huang, Fang; Meng, Xianzhi; Wu, Weibing; Ragauskas, Arthur; Yao, Lan

    2016-05-01

    To understand the structural changes of lignin after soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment, milled straw lignin, black liquor lignin and residual lignin extracted from wheat straw were characterized by FT-IR, UV, GPC and NMR. The results showed that the main lignin linkages were β-aryl ether substructures (β-O-4'), followed by phenylcoumaran (β-5') and resinol (β-β') substructures, while minor content of spirodienone (β-1'), dibenzodioxocin (5-5') and α,β-diaryl ether linkages were detected as well. After pretreatment, most lignin inter-units and lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) linkages were degraded and dissolved in black liquor, with minor amount left in residual pretreated biomass. In addition, through quantitative (13)C and 2D-HSQC NMR spectral analysis, lignin and LCC were found to be more degraded after kraft pretreatment than soda-AQ pretreatment. Furthermore, the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis results showed that more cellulose in wheat straw was converted to glucose after kraft pretreatment, indicating that LCC linkages were important in the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

  8. Syntrophic co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumonia for degradation of kraft lignin discharged from rayon grade pulp industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

    2015-07-01

    In order to search the degradability of kraft lignin, the potential bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis (GU193980) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (GU193981) were isolated, screened and applied in axenic and co-culture conditions. Results revealed that mixed culture showed better decolorization efficiency (80%) and reduction of pollution parameters (COD 73% and BOD 62%) than axenic culture. This indicated syntrophic growth of these two bacteria rather than any antagonistic effect. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples of kraft lignin has shown the reduction in peak area compared to control, suggesting that decrease in color intensity might be largely attributed to the degradation of lignin by isolated bacteria. Further, the GC-MS analysis showed that most of the compounds detected in control were diminished after bacterial treatment. Further, the seed germination test using Phaseolus aureus has supported the detoxification of bacterial decolorized kraft lignin for environmental safety. All these observations have revealed that the developed bacterial co-culture was capable for the effective degradation and decolorization of lignin containing rayon grade pulp mill wastewater for environmental safety. PMID:26141897

  9. Syntrophic co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumonia for degradation of kraft lignin discharged from rayon grade pulp industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

    2015-07-01

    In order to search the degradability of kraft lignin, the potential bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis (GU193980) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (GU193981) were isolated, screened and applied in axenic and co-culture conditions. Results revealed that mixed culture showed better decolorization efficiency (80%) and reduction of pollution parameters (COD 73% and BOD 62%) than axenic culture. This indicated syntrophic growth of these two bacteria rather than any antagonistic effect. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples of kraft lignin has shown the reduction in peak area compared to control, suggesting that decrease in color intensity might be largely attributed to the degradation of lignin by isolated bacteria. Further, the GC-MS analysis showed that most of the compounds detected in control were diminished after bacterial treatment. Further, the seed germination test using Phaseolus aureus has supported the detoxification of bacterial decolorized kraft lignin for environmental safety. All these observations have revealed that the developed bacterial co-culture was capable for the effective degradation and decolorization of lignin containing rayon grade pulp mill wastewater for environmental safety.

  10. Plant phenology patterns at three sites on the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, 1987 to 2007.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, D. C.; Creel, C.; Downing, G.; Remillard, S.; O'Connell, K.

    2007-12-01

    Plant phenology data has been collected at three sites on the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon since the late 1970's. The sites were visited once every three weeks year-round. Current efforts to clean and archive this data are on-going. Here we present on a 20 year data set from 1987 to 2007. The three sites are located at Watersheds (WS) 10, 8, and 7/6, at an elevation of 466 m, 993 m, and 905/950 m respectively. Forests were old growth (WS 8) and regenerating clearcuts (WS 6, 10), or shelterwood clearcut with overstory removed in 1984 (WS 7) dominated by Douglas-fir, western hemlock, true firs, and western redcedar. One tree (Douglas-fir), two evergreen shrubs, three deciduous shrubs, and four herbs were followed for vegetative and flowering phenology, including bud swell, bud bread, leaf expansion, leaf color change, leaf fall, flower bud swell, blooming, petal loss, fruit formation, and seed dispersal. Weather stations are located at each site and tied into a network of stations in this LTER site. Physical factors such as snow depth, snow coverage, freeze-thaw activity, as well as lichen condition were also noted. We are asking two key questions regarding plant phenology patterns. 1. Has the growing season lengthened in the mountainous watershed of the HJ Andrews, and is this similar for a low elevation site (WS 10) versus a mid elevation site (WS 8, 7/6)? 2. Do snow-pack dynamics influence plant phenology more so than temperature (degree days)?

  11. Structure of Thermobifida fusca DyP-type peroxidase and activity towards Kraft lignin and lignin model compounds.

    PubMed

    Rahmanpour, Rahman; Rea, Dean; Jamshidi, Shirin; Fülöp, Vilmos; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2016-03-15

    A Dyp-type peroxidase enzyme from thermophilic cellulose degrader Thermobifida fusca (TfuDyP) was investigated for catalytic ability towards lignin oxidation. TfuDyP was characterised kinetically against a range of phenolic substrates, and a compound I reaction intermediate was observed via pre-steady state kinetic analysis at λmax 404 nm. TfuDyP showed reactivity towards Kraft lignin, and was found to oxidise a β-aryl ether lignin model compound, forming an oxidised dimer. A crystal structure of TfuDyP was determined, to 1.8 Å resolution, which was found to contain a diatomic oxygen ligand bound to the heme centre, positioned close to active site residues Asp-203 and Arg-315. The structure contains two channels providing access to the heme cofactor for organic substrates and hydrogen peroxide. Site-directed mutant D203A showed no activity towards phenolic substrates, but reduced activity towards ABTS, while mutant R315Q showed no activity towards phenolic substrates, nor ABTS.

  12. Milt characteristics, reproductive performance, and larval survival and development of white sucker exposed to bleached kraft mill effluent

    SciTech Connect

    McMaster, M.E.; Portt, C.B.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Dixon, D.G. )

    1992-02-01

    White sucker from a Lake Superior bay which receives bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) show increased hepatic mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) activity, reduced plasma sex steroid levels, decreased egg and gonad size, a decrease in the occurrence of secondary sexual characteristics, and an increased age to maturation. This study evaluated the reproductive performance of that white sucker population relative to a similar reference population. Spawning male white sucker from the BKME site had reduced spermatozoan motility but no significant differences in milt volume, spermatocrit levels, or seminal plasma constituents. BKME male and female fish had equal or greater fertilization potential compared to both male and female fish at the reference site. There was no difference either in the hatchability of the eggs or in larval size at hatch. BKME larvae did show reduced growth rates by 24 days posthatch but showed equal rates of yolk utilization. No difference in larval MFO activity was detected between sites at 21 days posthatch, indicating no parental transfer of induction to the progeny.

  13. Purification and Characterization of a Thermostable Laccase from Trametes trogii and Its Ability in Modification of Kraft Lignin.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ming-Qiang; Wang, Fang-Fang; Huang, Feng

    2015-08-01

    A blue laccase was purified from a white rot fungus of Trametes trogii, which was a monomeric protein of 64 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme acted optimally at a pH of 2.2 to 4.5 and a temperature of 70°C and showed high thermal stability, with a half-life of 1.6 h at 60°C. A broad range of substrates, including the non-phenolic azo dye methyl red, was oxidized by the laccase, and the laccase exhibited high affinity towards ABTS and syringaldazine. Moreover, the laccase was fairly metal-tolerant. A high-molecular-weight kraft lignin was effectively polymerized by the laccase, with a maximum of 6.4-fold increase in weight-average molecular weight, as demonstrated by gel permeation chromatography. Notable structural changes in the polymerized lignin were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H NMR spectroscopy. This revealed an increase in condensed structures as well as carbonyl and aliphatic hydroxyl groups. Simultaneously, phenolic hydroxyl and methoxy groups decreased. These results suggested the potential use of the laccase in lignin modification. PMID:25876603

  14. Potential of thermo and alkali stable xylanases from Thielaviopsis basicola (MTCC-1467) in biobleaching of wood kraft pulp.

    PubMed

    Goluguri, Baby Rani; Thulluri, Chiranjeevi; Cherupally, Madhu; Nidadavolu, Nagaraju; Achuthananda, Das; Mangamuri, Lakshmi Narasu; Addepally, Uma

    2012-08-01

    Thermo- and alkali-stable xylanases produced from Thielaviopsis basicola (MTCC-1467) on low-cost carbon source like rice straw were evaluated for their potential application in biobleaching of wood kraft pulp. Enzyme treatment at retention time of 240 min with 20 IU/gm of dried pulp resulted in ~85.2 % of reduction in kappa number. When compared to control, 110.8, 93, and 72.2 % of enhancement in brightness (percent International Organization of Standardization), whiteness, and fluorescence, respectively, were observed for enzyme-treated pulp. Spectroscopic analysis showed significant release of chromophoric compounds from enzyme-treated pulp. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope studies of unbleached and enzyme bleached pulp revealed the effectiveness of enzymatic treatment. The enzyme-treated pulp subjected to later stages of chemical bleaching resulted in 16 % decrease in chlorine consumption along with considerable reduction in chemical oxygen demand percentage (14.5 %) level of effluent. Various pulp properties like fiber length, fiber width, burst strength, burst index, tear strength, tear index, tensile strength, and breaking length were also significantly improved after enzyme treatment when compared to control.

  15. Recovery in the health of fish populations and communities following remedial activities at a bleached kraft mill facility

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Adams, S.M.; Saylor, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    Fish populations and communities were studied over a seven year period in a river receiving bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME). The period of these investigations preceded and accompanied the extensive modernization of mill facilities and the implementation of design changes to reduce contaminant discharges and minimize impacts on the river ecology. Before modernization, reaches of the river downstream of the discharges were characterized by depauperate fish communities and severely skewed population distributions. The relative condition of both individual fish and fish populations in the river prior to remediation was consistent with effects frequently attributed to exposure to endocrine disrupting agents, including a sex ratio strongly skewed towards male fish, alterations in reproductive hormone levels, pronounced atresia of the developing oocytes in female fish, and a general absence of young fish suggesting near total reproductive failure in a sentinel fish population. Following modernization, sex ratios have trended towards normality, young fish have returned to the mainstream river, and fish communities have become more diverse coincident with corresponding decreases in body burdens of dioxin and other indirect indicators of contaminant exposure, including liver detoxification enzyme activity. The significance of these studies lie in the establishment of distinct links between both: (1) the exposure of individual wild fish to BKME and alterations in fish population and community structure, and (2) the implementation of process changes in a mill producing BKME and noticeable improvements in fish health from the individual to community levels of biological organization.

  16. Corporate image and public health: an analysis of the Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé websites.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Companies need to maintain a good reputation to do business; however, companies in the infant formula, tobacco, and processed food industries have been identified as promoting disease. Such companies use their websites as a means of promulgating a positive public image, thereby potentially reducing the effectiveness of public health campaigns against the problems they perpetuate. The author examined documents from the websites of Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé for issue framing and analyzed them using Benoit's typology of corporate image repair strategies. All three companies defined the problems they were addressing strategically, minimizing their own responsibility and the consequences of their actions. They proposed solutions that were actions to be taken by others. They also associated themselves with public health organizations. Health advocates should recognize industry attempts to use relationships with health organizations as strategic image repair and reject industry efforts to position themselves as stakeholders in public health problems. Denormalizing industries that are disease vectors, not just their products, may be critical in realizing positive change. PMID:22420639

  17. Selected resin acids in effluent and receiving waters derived from a bleached and unbleached kraft pulp and paper mill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, B.P.; Booth, M.M.; Delfino, J.J.; Holm, S.E.; Gross, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    Water samples were collected on three dates at 24 sites influenced by effluent from Georgia-Pacific's Palatka Pulp and Paper Mill Operation, a bleached and unbleached kraft mill near Palatka, Florida, USA. The sampling sites were located within the mill retention ponds, Rice Creek, and the St. John's River. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids, all of which are potentially toxic by-products of pulp production. Isopimaric acid concentrations greater than 12 mg/L were measured at the mill's effluent outfall but were less than 20 ??g/L at the end of Rice Creek. This result indicates that the waters of Rice Creek provide dilution or conditions conducive for degradation or sorption of these compounds. Large differences in resin acid concentrations were observed between sampling events. In two sampling events, the maximum observed concentrations were less than 2 mg/L for each analyte. In a third sampling event, all of the compounds were detected at concentrations greater than 10 mg/L. Data from the three sample dates showed that resin acid concentrations were below 20 ??g/L before the confluence of Rice Creek and the St. John's River in all cases.

  18. Corporate image and public health: an analysis of the Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé websites.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Companies need to maintain a good reputation to do business; however, companies in the infant formula, tobacco, and processed food industries have been identified as promoting disease. Such companies use their websites as a means of promulgating a positive public image, thereby potentially reducing the effectiveness of public health campaigns against the problems they perpetuate. The author examined documents from the websites of Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé for issue framing and analyzed them using Benoit's typology of corporate image repair strategies. All three companies defined the problems they were addressing strategically, minimizing their own responsibility and the consequences of their actions. They proposed solutions that were actions to be taken by others. They also associated themselves with public health organizations. Health advocates should recognize industry attempts to use relationships with health organizations as strategic image repair and reject industry efforts to position themselves as stakeholders in public health problems. Denormalizing industries that are disease vectors, not just their products, may be critical in realizing positive change.

  19. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has been conducted over this last period so as to systematically collect data on properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics very carefully by methods that have developed during this program. Complete data has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at different pulping conditions. In addition, data has been collected for mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to. pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. In the near future, we fully expect to accomplish our goal of developing generalized correlations relating physical properties of Slash Pine kraft black liquors to liquor composition. This interim report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  20. Corporate Image and Public Health: An Analysis of the Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé Websites

    PubMed Central

    SMITH, ELIZABETH

    2012-01-01

    Companies need to maintain a good reputation to do business; however, companies in the infant formula, tobacco, and processed food industries have been identified as promoting disease. Such companies use their websites as a means of promulgating a positive public image, thereby potentially reducing the effectiveness of public health campaigns against the problems they perpetuate. The author examined documents from the websites of Philip Morris, Kraft, and Nestlé for issue framing and analyzed them using Benoit’s typology of corporate image repair strategies. All three companies defined the problems they were addressing strategically, minimizing their own responsibility and the consequences of their actions. They proposed solutions that were actions to be taken by others. They also associated themselves with public health organizations. Health advocates should recognize industry attempts to use relationships with health organizations as strategic image repair and reject industry efforts to position themselves as stakeholders in public health problems. Denormalizing industries that are disease vectors, not just their products, may be critical in realizing positive change. PMID:22420639

  1. Purification and Characterization of a Thermostable Laccase from Trametes trogii and Its Ability in Modification of Kraft Lignin.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ming-Qiang; Wang, Fang-Fang; Huang, Feng

    2015-08-01

    A blue laccase was purified from a white rot fungus of Trametes trogii, which was a monomeric protein of 64 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme acted optimally at a pH of 2.2 to 4.5 and a temperature of 70°C and showed high thermal stability, with a half-life of 1.6 h at 60°C. A broad range of substrates, including the non-phenolic azo dye methyl red, was oxidized by the laccase, and the laccase exhibited high affinity towards ABTS and syringaldazine. Moreover, the laccase was fairly metal-tolerant. A high-molecular-weight kraft lignin was effectively polymerized by the laccase, with a maximum of 6.4-fold increase in weight-average molecular weight, as demonstrated by gel permeation chromatography. Notable structural changes in the polymerized lignin were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 1H NMR spectroscopy. This revealed an increase in condensed structures as well as carbonyl and aliphatic hydroxyl groups. Simultaneously, phenolic hydroxyl and methoxy groups decreased. These results suggested the potential use of the laccase in lignin modification.

  2. Post-treatment of anaerobic effluent by ozone and ozone/UV of a kraft cellulose pulp mill.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, T R; Pires, E C

    2015-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents represent a challenge when treatment technologies are considered, not only to reduce organic matter, but also to reduce the toxicological effects. Although anaerobic treatment has shown promising results, as well as advantages when compared with an aerobic system, this process alone is not sufficient to reduce recalcitrant compounds. Thus, an advanced oxidation process was applied. This experiment was performed to determine the effect of ozone and ozone/UV treating a horizontal anaerobic immobilized biomass reactor effluent from a kraft cellulose pulp mill for 306 days with an organic volumetric load of 2.33 kgCOD/m³/day. The removal of organic compounds was measured by the following parameters: adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX), total phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon and absorbance values in the UV-visible spectral region. Moreover, ecotoxicity and genotoxicity tests were conducted before and after treatment with ozone and ozone/UV. At an applied ozone dosage of 0.76 mgO₃/mgCOD and an applied UV dosage of 3.427 Wh/m(3), the organochlorine compounds measured as AOX reached removal efficiencies of 40%. Although the combination of ozone/UV showed better results in colour (79%) and total phenols (32%) compared with only ozone, the chronic toxicity and the genotoxicity that had already been removed in the anaerobic process were slightly increased.

  3. TRIGGER SELF-CONTROL AND SEIZURE ARREST IN THE ANDREWS/REITER BEHAVIORAL APPROACH TO EPILEPSY: A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SEIZURE FREQUENCY

    PubMed Central

    Michaelis, Rosa; Schonfeld, Warren; Elsas, Siegward-M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to describe changes of seizure frequency in epilepsy patients who participated in the Andrews/Reiter behavioral intervention for epilepsy. For this uncontrolled retrospective study, data was extracted from patients’ medical journals. Intention-to-treat-analyses were restricted to patients with sufficient documentation supporting a diagnosis of probable or definite epilepsy. Main outcome variable was a comparison of mean seizure frequency at baseline and towards completion of the program. The seizure frequency of 30 (50%%) patients showed a clinically meaningful improvement (>50% reduction of seizures) towards the end of the intervention. Twenty-two (37%) patients became seizure-free at the end of the intervention. In summary, a clinically meaningful reduction in reported seizure frequency was observed in epilepsy patients who received the Andrews/Reiter intervention for epilepsy. Prospective trials are needed to further investigate the program’s efficacy and to study epileptic seizure triggers. PMID:22341960

  4. Genetic fidelity of long-term micropropagated shoot cultures of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) as assessed by molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Sreedhar, Reddampalli V; Venkatachalam, Lakshmanan; Bhagyalakshmi, Neelwarne

    2007-08-01

    Occurrence of genetic variants during micropropagation is occasionally encountered when the cultures are maintained in vitro for long period. Therefore, the micropropagated multiple shoots of Vanilla planifolia Andrews developed from axillary bud explants established 10 years ago were used to determine somaclonal variation using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and intersimple sequence repeats markers (ISSR). One thousand micro-plants were established in soil of which 95 plantlets (consisting of four phenotypes) along with the mother plant were subjected to genetic analyses using RAPD and ISSR markers. Out of the 45 RAPD and 20 ISSR primers screened, 30 RAPD and 7 ISSR primers showed 317 clear, distinct and reproducible band classes resulting in a total of 30 115 bands. However, no difference was observed in banding patterns of any of the samples for a particular primer, indicating the absence of variation among the micropropagated plants. Our results allow us to conclude that the micropropagation protocol that we have used for in vitro proliferation of vanilla plantlets for the last 10 years might be applicable for the production of clonal plants over a considerable period of time.

  5. Lessons learned from Hurricane Andrew: recommendations for care of the elderly in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M A; Weston, M; Llorente, M; Beber, C; Tam, R

    1995-06-01

    We report on the experience of a 500-bed, long-term care facility in Miami, Fla, which provides housing and nursing care units for patients--ranging from those who are independently ambulatory to those who are acutely ill and feeble--in preparing for, during, and in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Andrew, which struck on August 24, 1992. The problems encountered included a massive influx of evacuated elderly to the facility, facility isolation, loss of electrical power, loss of running water, special dietary needs, and limited professional staffing due to personal property losses or loss of transportation. Overwhelmed county emergency medical services, limited access to hospitals and patient care, and difficulty in procuring supplies exacerbated the already complicated situation resulting from the storm. As a result of these catastrophic conditions, a number of challenges specific to the care of the elderly were identified. In conjunction with the Florida Department of Elder Affairs, we drafted a comprehensive blueprint that could serve as a disaster plan for other long-term care facilities facing a similar threat during the hurricane season.

  6. Design of one-dimensional power spectrum using two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for discrimination of paper-based kraft tapes.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Sara; Saito, Koichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Moribe, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2015-12-01

    A novel type of spectrum, the one-dimensional power spectrum (1D-PS), was designed for the discrimination of adhesive packing tapes, i.e., kraft tapes. The 1D-PS offered complementary information to that provided by the improved two-dimensional PS (2D-PS), which was calculated using our previously established image processes combined with a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to obtain information about the spatial periodicity within kraft tapes. The 1D-PS was calculated using a three-step image process: (i) the 2D-FFT was applied to 50 randomly selected areas in a transmitted light image; (ii) the obtained 2D-PSs were accumulated without applying a logarithmic transform; (iii) the wavenumber and the maximum intensity were plotted on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Through an intra-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs collected from single rolls showed similar profiles. In an inter-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs from 50 commercially available brand-name products were classified into 29 groups. The 1D-PSs contained other useful information than that provided by the improved 2D-PSs: they presented more peaks and absolute intensity with a wider range. The 1D-PSs enabled us to compare the spectra quickly and easily, owing to their unchanging profiles regardless of the orientation of the scanned images. A combined use of the 1D-PSs with the improved 2D-PSs-both spectrum types being convenient, rapid, non-destructive, and applicable to dirty and/or damaged samples-could further improve the identification of kraft tapes. PMID:26461031

  7. Design of one-dimensional power spectrum using two-dimensional fast Fourier transform for discrimination of paper-based kraft tapes.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, Sara; Saito, Koichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Moribe, Kunikazu; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2015-12-01

    A novel type of spectrum, the one-dimensional power spectrum (1D-PS), was designed for the discrimination of adhesive packing tapes, i.e., kraft tapes. The 1D-PS offered complementary information to that provided by the improved two-dimensional PS (2D-PS), which was calculated using our previously established image processes combined with a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) to obtain information about the spatial periodicity within kraft tapes. The 1D-PS was calculated using a three-step image process: (i) the 2D-FFT was applied to 50 randomly selected areas in a transmitted light image; (ii) the obtained 2D-PSs were accumulated without applying a logarithmic transform; (iii) the wavenumber and the maximum intensity were plotted on the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. Through an intra-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs collected from single rolls showed similar profiles. In an inter-roll comparison, the 1D-PSs from 50 commercially available brand-name products were classified into 29 groups. The 1D-PSs contained other useful information than that provided by the improved 2D-PSs: they presented more peaks and absolute intensity with a wider range. The 1D-PSs enabled us to compare the spectra quickly and easily, owing to their unchanging profiles regardless of the orientation of the scanned images. A combined use of the 1D-PSs with the improved 2D-PSs-both spectrum types being convenient, rapid, non-destructive, and applicable to dirty and/or damaged samples-could further improve the identification of kraft tapes.

  8. Development of a strategy for energy efficiency improvement in a Kraft process based on systems interactions analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos-Espejel, Enrique

    The objective of this thesis is to develop, validate, and apply a unified methodology for the energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process that addresses globally the interactions of the various process systems that affect its energy performance. An implementation strategy is the final result. An operating Kraft pulping mill situated in Eastern Canada with a production of 700 adt/d of high-grade bleached pulp was the case study. The Pulp and Paper industry is Canada's premier industry. It is characterized by large thermal energy and water consumption. Rising energy costs and more stringent environmental regulations have led the industry to refocus its efforts toward identifying ways to improve energy and water conservation. Energy and water aspects are usually analyzed independently, but in reality they are strongly interconnected. Therefore, there is a need for an integrated methodology, which considers energy and water aspects, as well as the optimal utilization and production of the utilities. The methodology consists of four successive stages. The first stage is the base case definition. The development of a focused, reliable and representative model of an operating process is a prerequisite to the optimization and fine tuning of its energy performance. A four-pronged procedure has been developed: data gathering, master diagram, utilities systems analysis, and simulation. The computer simulation has been focused on the energy and water systems. The second stage corresponds to the benchmarking analysis. The benchmarking of the base case has the objectives of identifying the process inefficiencies and to establish guidelines for the development of effective enhancement measures. The studied process is evaluated by a comparison of its efficiency to the current practice of the industry and by the application of new energy and exergy content indicators. The minimum energy and water requirements of the process are also determined in this step. The third stage is

  9. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  10. A process for enhancing the accessibility and reactivity of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp for viscose rayon production by cellulase treatment.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingxian; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Tian, Chao; Zheng, Linqiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2014-02-01

    The commercial pre-hydrolysis kraft-based dissolving pulp production process can be a typical example for the demonstration/implementation of the integrated forest biorefinery concept. In this study, the concept of cellulase treatment of this dissolving pulp for enhancement of accessibility/reactivity in terms of viscose rayon production was demonstrated. The cellulase treatment resulted in the formation of additional openings/surface areas in the fiber structure via the possible action of "etching". As a result, the pore volume of pulp fibers increased, which led to the increase in the accessibility to xanthation, and thus Fock reactivity. Results showed that the cellulase treatment was effective in increasing the Fock reactivity, at a cellulase dosage of 2u/g (based on the dry weight of pulp), the Fock reactivity increased from 47.67% to 79.9%. The adoption of cellulase treatment to hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp can provide an efficient approach for enhancing its performance in the commercial viscose-rayon process. PMID:24384317

  11. A process for enhancing the accessibility and reactivity of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp for viscose rayon production by cellulase treatment.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingxian; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Tian, Chao; Zheng, Linqiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2014-02-01

    The commercial pre-hydrolysis kraft-based dissolving pulp production process can be a typical example for the demonstration/implementation of the integrated forest biorefinery concept. In this study, the concept of cellulase treatment of this dissolving pulp for enhancement of accessibility/reactivity in terms of viscose rayon production was demonstrated. The cellulase treatment resulted in the formation of additional openings/surface areas in the fiber structure via the possible action of "etching". As a result, the pore volume of pulp fibers increased, which led to the increase in the accessibility to xanthation, and thus Fock reactivity. Results showed that the cellulase treatment was effective in increasing the Fock reactivity, at a cellulase dosage of 2u/g (based on the dry weight of pulp), the Fock reactivity increased from 47.67% to 79.9%. The adoption of cellulase treatment to hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp can provide an efficient approach for enhancing its performance in the commercial viscose-rayon process.

  12. Sequence and expression of a xylanase gene from the hyperthermophile Thermotoga sp. strain FjSS3-B.1 and characterization of the recombinant enzyme and its activity on kraft pulp.

    PubMed Central

    Saul, D J; Williams, L C; Reeves, R A; Gibbs, M D; Bergquist, P L

    1995-01-01

    A gene expressing xylanase activity was isolated from a genomic library of Thermotoga sp. strain FjSS3-B.1. The sequence of the gene shows that it encodes a single domain, family 10 xylanase. The recombinant enzyme has extremely high thermal stability, activity over a relatively broad pH range, and activity on Pinus radiata kraft pulp. PMID:8526526

  13. Exposure to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent disrupts the pituitary-gonadal axis of white sucker at multiple sites

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Kraak, G.J.; Munkittrick, K.R.; McMaster, M.E.; Portt, C.B.; Chang, J.P. )

    1992-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated reproductive problems in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) exposed to bleached kraft pulp mill effluent (BKME) at Jackfish Bay on Lake Superior. These fish exhibit delayed sexual maturity, reduced gonadal size, reduced secondary sexual characteristics, and circulating steroid levels depressed relative to those of reference populations. The present studies were designed to evaluate sites in the pituitary-gonadal axis of prespawning white sucker affected by BKME exposure. At the time of entry to the spawning stream, plasma levels of immunoreactive gonadotropin (GtH)-II (LH-type GtH) in male and female white sucker were 30- and 50-fold lower, respectively, than the levels in fish from a reference site. A single intraperitoneal injection of D-Arg6, Pro9N-Et sGnRH (sGnRH-A, 0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma GtH levels in male and female fish at both sites, although the magnitude of the response was greatly reduced in BKME-exposed fish. Fish at the BKME site did not ovulate in response to sGnRH-A, while 10 of 10 fish from the reference site ovulated within 6 hr. Plasma 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20 beta-P) levels were depressed in BKME-exposed fish and unlike fish at the reference site, failed to increase in response to sGnRH-A. Testosterone levels in both sexes and 11-ketostestosterone levels in males were elevated in fish from the reference site but were not further increased by GnRH treatment. In contrast, BKME-exposed fish exhibit a transitory increase in testosterone levels in response to the GnRH analog. In vitro incubations of ovarian follicles obtained from fish at the BKME site revealed depressed basal secretion of testosterone and 17,20 beta-P and reduced responsiveness to the GtH analog human chorionic gonadotropin and to forskolin, a direct activator of adenylate cyclase.

  14. Nomina nova in Platyhelminthes pro Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882 (non [Gmelin, 1801]; non Dunker, 1843), and Leptocleidus Mueller, 1936 (non Andrews, 1922).

    PubMed

    Hornung, Jahn J

    2016-08-19

    Two genus-group names of flat-worms-Leptocleidus Mueller, 1936 and Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882-are junior homonyms that are preoccupied by fossil diapsid reptile genera-Leptocleidus Andrews, 1922, and Macrorhynchus Dunker, 1843-and an extant teleost fish genus-Macrorhynchus [Gmelin, 1801] ex La Cépède, 1800. These are replaced by nomina nova (Pharyngodytes nom. nov.; Graffiellus nom. nov.). Macrorhynchus [Gmelin, 1801] is an objective senior synonym of Macrorhyncus Dumeríl, 1805 ex La Cépède, 1800 (syn. nov.), and a senior homonym of Macrorhynchus Dunker, 1843, and Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882.

  15. Nomina nova in Platyhelminthes pro Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882 (non [Gmelin, 1801]; non Dunker, 1843), and Leptocleidus Mueller, 1936 (non Andrews, 1922).

    PubMed

    Hornung, Jahn J

    2016-01-01

    Two genus-group names of flat-worms-Leptocleidus Mueller, 1936 and Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882-are junior homonyms that are preoccupied by fossil diapsid reptile genera-Leptocleidus Andrews, 1922, and Macrorhynchus Dunker, 1843-and an extant teleost fish genus-Macrorhynchus [Gmelin, 1801] ex La Cépède, 1800. These are replaced by nomina nova (Pharyngodytes nom. nov.; Graffiellus nom. nov.). Macrorhynchus [Gmelin, 1801] is an objective senior synonym of Macrorhyncus Dumeríl, 1805 ex La Cépède, 1800 (syn. nov.), and a senior homonym of Macrorhynchus Dunker, 1843, and Macrorhynchus von Graff, 1882. PMID:27615836

  16. Effect of hot-water extraction (HWE) severity on bleached pulp based biorefinery performance of eucalyptus during the HWE-Kraft-ECF bleaching process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Li, Meng; Luo, Xiaolin; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of a biorefinery based on an HWE-Kraft-ECF bleaching process and the end use of pulp was systematically evaluated. Using a P-factor of 198, nearly 30% of xylan-based sugars were recovered. The resulting pulp and paper properties were found to be comparable with the control. A maximum xylan-based sugar recovery of nearly 50% was achieved at a P-factor of 738. Although the strength of this P-factor induced handsheet was lower than that of the control by about 20%, the corresponding pulp was sufficient for dissolving pulp application. However, once the P-factor rose above 1189, hemicellulose sugars were significantly degraded into furans; pulp and paper properties were also deteriorated due to cellulose degradation, lignin deposition and condensation. Thus, considering the different end use of pulps, the performance of an HWE-based biorefinery could be balanced by its HWE severity.

  17. Recovering/concentrating of hemicellulosic sugars and acetic acid by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis from prehydrolysis liquor of kraft based hardwood dissolving pulp process.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Laboni; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

    2014-03-01

    This work investigated the feasibility of recovering and concentrating sugars and acetic acid (HAc) from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp process prior to fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars, by the combination of activated carbon adsorption, nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes. To reduce the fouling PHL was subjected to adsorption on activated carbon, then the treated PHL (TPHL) passed through a nanofiltration (NF DK) membrane to retain the sugars, and the permeate of acetic acid rich solution was passed through a reverse osmosis membrane (RO SG). It was found that for NF process sugars were concentrated from 48 to 227g/L at a volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5 while 80 to 90% of acetic acid was permeated. For the reverse osmosis process, 68% of acetic acid retention was achieved at pH 4.3 and 500 psi pressure and the HAc concentration increased from 10 to 50g/L.

  18. Integration of a kraft pulping mill into a forest biorefinery: pre-extraction of hemicellulose by steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, Maria E; Moreno, Jassir A; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Growing interest in alternative and renewable energy sources has brought increasing attention to the integration of a pulp mill into a forest biorefinery, where other products could be produced in addition to pulp. To achieve this goal, hemicelluloses were extracted, either by steam explosion or by steam treatment, from Eucalyptus globulus wood prior to pulping. The effects of both pre-treatments in the subsequent kraft pulping and paper strength were evaluated. Results showed a similar degree of hemicelluloses extraction with both options (32-67% of pentosans), which increased with the severity of the conditions applied. Although both pre-treatments increased delignification during pulping, steam explosion was significantly better: 12.9 kappa number vs 22.6 for similar steam unexploded pulps and 40.7 for control pulp. Finally, similar reductions in paper strength were found regardless of the type of treatment and conditions assayed, which is attributed to the increase of curled and kinked fibers.

  19. Recovering/concentrating of hemicellulosic sugars and acetic acid by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis from prehydrolysis liquor of kraft based hardwood dissolving pulp process.

    PubMed

    Ahsan, Laboni; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

    2014-03-01

    This work investigated the feasibility of recovering and concentrating sugars and acetic acid (HAc) from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp process prior to fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars, by the combination of activated carbon adsorption, nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes. To reduce the fouling PHL was subjected to adsorption on activated carbon, then the treated PHL (TPHL) passed through a nanofiltration (NF DK) membrane to retain the sugars, and the permeate of acetic acid rich solution was passed through a reverse osmosis membrane (RO SG). It was found that for NF process sugars were concentrated from 48 to 227g/L at a volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5 while 80 to 90% of acetic acid was permeated. For the reverse osmosis process, 68% of acetic acid retention was achieved at pH 4.3 and 500 psi pressure and the HAc concentration increased from 10 to 50g/L. PMID:24434701

  20. Correlation of Process Data and Electrocheical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Second Year at Spring Grove

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, SJ

    2004-04-27

    Electrochemical noise (EN) probes were deployed in the carbon steel continuous kraft digester at Spring Grove at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank for a second consecutive year of a corrosion study. The probes contained dual electrodes of 309LSi stainless steel overlay--representing a field repair material applied to a portion of the vessel--and dual electrodes of 312 stainless steel overlay. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of 23 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were again monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare EN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate EN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the corrosion conditions aggressive to mild steel persist within the digester, as post-test inspection of the vessel revealed localized corrosion of mild steel in locations previously free of attack. Further, there was evidence that the depth of localized attack of exposed steel had increased in some locations. Nevertheless, the stainless steel overlay in the digester was essentially immune to corrosion, as evidenced by retained surface relief and heat tint associated with the original deposition process. The 309LSi electrodes also appeared visually pristine, and post-exposure metallographic examination of the 309LSi electrode materials revealed no attack. The 312 electrode materials were similar in appearance, but exhibited very minor interdendritic attack over the exposed surface. The silver electrodes in the probes were consumed (to Ag{sub 2}S) to variable degree over the course of the exposure indicating a useful life of not more than a year in digester service in this vessel

  1. An Analysis and Comparison of Two Short Writings: "Inaugural Address at the University of St. Andrew's" by J.S. Mill and "The University of Utopia" by R.M. Hutchins, Based on Five Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Jeannine M.

    Focusing on the concept of education for work vs. education for living, the author presents a comparative analysis of two works on liberal education, each of which was originally delivered orally to university students: "The Inaugural Address at the University of St. Andrew" by John Stuart Mill and "The University of Utopia" by Robert Maynard…

  2. Book Review: Maxwell's Demon 2: Entropy, classical and quantum information, computing. Harvey Leff and Andrew Rex (Eds.); Institute of Physics, Bristol, 2003, 500pp., US 55, ISBN 0750307595

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenker, Orly R.

    2004-09-01

    In 1867, James Clerk Maxwell proposed a perpetuum mobile of the second kind, that is, a counter example for the Second Law of thermodynamics, which came to be known as "Maxwell's Demon." Unlike any other perpetual motion machine, this one escaped attempts by the best scientists and philosophers to show that the Second Law or its statistical mechanical counterparts are universal after all. "Maxwell's demon lives on. After more than 130 years of uncertain life and at least two pronouncements of death, this fanciful character seems more vibrant than ever." These words of Harvey Leff and Andrew Rex (1990), which open their introduction to Maxwell's Demon 2: Entropy, Classical and Quantum Information, Computing (hereafter MD2) are very true: the Demon is as challenging and as intriguing as ever, and forces us to think and rethink about the foundations of thermodynamics and of statistical mechanics.

  3. The impact of Hurricane Andrew on deviant behavior among a multi-racial/ethnic sample of adolescents in Dade County, Florida: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Khoury, E L; Warheit, G J; Hargrove, M C; Zimmerman, R S; Vega, W A; Gil, A G

    1997-01-01

    Findings from a longitudinal study are presented on the relationships between the problems and stresses resulting from Hurricane Andrew and posthurricane minor deviant behavior. The sample (N = 4,978) included Hispanic, African-American, and White non-Hispanic middle school students enrolled in Dade County, Florida public schools. Two waves of data were collected prior to the hurricane; a third was obtained approximately 6 months following the storm. Results indicated that females were likely to report higher levels of hurricane-related stress symptoms than males. After controlling for prehurricane levels of minor deviance, family support, and race/ethnicity, hurricane stress symptom level remained a significant predictor of posthurricane minor deviant behavior. The findings lend support to stress theories of social deviance. PMID:9018678

  4. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Allen J. Bard and Dr. Andrew Sessler, February 2014 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Ernest Moniz)

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest [U.S. Energy Secretary

    2016-07-12

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On February 3, 2014 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists. The first to be recognized is Dr. Allen J. Bard, 'for international leadership in electrochemical science and technology, for advances in photoelectrochemistry and photocatalytic materials, processes, and devices, and for discovery and development of electrochemical methods including electrogenerated chemiluminescence and scanning electrochemical microscopy.' The other honoree is Dr. Andrew Sessler, 'for advancing accelerators as powerful tools of scientific discovery, for visionary direction of the research enterprise focused on challenges in energy and the environment, and for championing outreach and freedom of scientific inquiry worldwide.' Dr. Patricia Dehmer opened the ceremony, and Dr. Ernest Moniz presented the awards.

  5. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Pine Beach, St. Andrews Bay and Fort Morgan quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of St. Andrews Bay, Mobile Bay, and Bon Secour Bay from Fort Morgan eastward to about four miles east of Gasque, Ala. The storm tide went completely across the land between the beach and Mobile Bay throughout much of the area. Most homes on the beach side of Alabama State Highway 180 were completely destroyed, and the highway was washed out in several places. Damage to homes and other structures on the bay side was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  6. The impact of Hurricane Andrew on deviant behavior among a multi-racial/ethnic sample of adolescents in Dade County, Florida: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Khoury, E L; Warheit, G J; Hargrove, M C; Zimmerman, R S; Vega, W A; Gil, A G

    1997-01-01

    Findings from a longitudinal study are presented on the relationships between the problems and stresses resulting from Hurricane Andrew and posthurricane minor deviant behavior. The sample (N = 4,978) included Hispanic, African-American, and White non-Hispanic middle school students enrolled in Dade County, Florida public schools. Two waves of data were collected prior to the hurricane; a third was obtained approximately 6 months following the storm. Results indicated that females were likely to report higher levels of hurricane-related stress symptoms than males. After controlling for prehurricane levels of minor deviance, family support, and race/ethnicity, hurricane stress symptom level remained a significant predictor of posthurricane minor deviant behavior. The findings lend support to stress theories of social deviance.

  7. Enrico Fermi Awards Ceremony for Dr. Allen J. Bard and Dr. Andrew Sessler, February 2014 (Presentations, including remarks by Energy Secretary, Dr. Ernest Moniz)

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest

    2014-02-03

    The Fermi Award is a Presidential award and is one of the oldest and most prestigious science and technology honors bestowed by the U.S. Government. On February 3, 2014 it was conferred upon two exceptional scientists. The first to be recognized is Dr. Allen J. Bard, 'for international leadership in electrochemical science and technology, for advances in photoelectrochemistry and photocatalytic materials, processes, and devices, and for discovery and development of electrochemical methods including electrogenerated chemiluminescence and scanning electrochemical microscopy.' The other honoree is Dr. Andrew Sessler, 'for advancing accelerators as powerful tools of scientific discovery, for visionary direction of the research enterprise focused on challenges in energy and the environment, and for championing outreach and freedom of scientific inquiry worldwide.' Dr. Patricia Dehmer opened the ceremony, and Dr. Ernest Moniz presented the awards.

  8. Manganese Is Not Required for Biobleaching of Oxygen-Delignified Kraft Pulp by the White Rot Fungus Bjerkandera sp. Strain BOS55

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, M. T.; Feijoo, G.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Lema, J.; Field, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 extensively delignified and bleached oxygen-delignified eucalyptus kraft pulp handsheets. Biologically mediated brightness gains of up to 14 ISO (International Standards Organization units) were obtained, providing high final brightness values of up to 80% ISO. In nitrogen-limited cultures (2.2 mM N), manganese (Mn) greatly improved manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) production. However, the biobleaching was not affected by the Mn nutrient regimen, ranging from 1,000 (mu)M added Mn to below the detection limit of 0.26 (mu)M Mn in EDTA-extracted pulp medium. The lowest Mn concentration tested was at least several orders of magnitude lower than the K(infm) known for MnP. Consequently, it was concluded that Mn is not required for biobleaching in Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55. Nonetheless, fast protein liquid chromatography profiles indicated that MnP was the predominant oxidative enzyme produced even under culture conditions in the near absence of manganese. High nitrogen (22 mM N) and exogenous veratryl alcohol (2 mM) repressed biobleaching in Mn-deficient but not in Mn-sufficient culture medium. No correlation was observed between the titers of extracellular peroxidases and the biobleaching. However, the decolorization rate of the polyaromatic dye Poly R-478 was moderately correlated to the biobleaching under a wide range of Mn and N nutrient regimens. PMID:16535591

  9. Electro-coagulation treatment efficiency of graphite, iron and aluminum electrodes using alum and wood ash electrolytes on a Kraft pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Orori, O B; Etiégni, L; Senelwa, K; Mwamburi, M M; Balozi, K B; Barisa, G K; Omutange, E S

    2010-01-01

    Specific power consumption and reduction of BOD, COD, TS, pH, and chemical elements were used to determine the treatment efficiency of Fe, graphite and Al electrodes with alum and wood ash as supporting electrolytes on the effluent from a Kraft pulp and paper mill in Kenya. Five sampling points were selected along mill's effluent treatment system: primary settling tank (SP1), first aerated lagoon (SP2), second aerated lagoon (SP3), stabilization pond (SP4), and at discharge point (SP5). Operating costs were also compared between treatments. Graphite electrodes combined with alum showed the lowest power consumption (0.5 to 3.9 mWh/m³), followed by Al and Fe. All the electrodes reduced color from a maximum of 3,200°H to the minimum local standard of 15°H. However Al electrode with alum was the most effective method for BOD and COD reduction by over 60% and 58.8% respectively and generated less sludge at all sampling points. The cost of treatment was lowest with graphite electrode (US$0.006 to 0.0008 per m³ of effluent), but highest with Al electrodes combined with wood ash (US$31.74 to 8.34 per m³). Further study is required for the effectiveness of increasing the concentration of wood ash leachate at higher concentration and current density. PMID:20935369

  10. Effect of organic load and nutrient ratio on the operation stability of the moving bed bioreactor for kraft mill wastewater treatment and the incidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pozo, G; Villamar, C A; Martínez, M; Vidal, G

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of organic load rate (OLR) and nutrient ratio on operation stability of the moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) for kraft mill wastewater treatment, analyzing the incidence of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. The MBBR operating strategy was to increase OLR from 0.25 ± 0.05 to 2.41 ± 0.19 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) between phases I and IV. The BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1 and 100:1:0.2) was evaluated as an operation strategy for phases IV to V. A stable MBBR operation was found when the OLR was increased during 225 days in five phases. The maximum absolute fluorescence against the proportion of cells accumulating PHA was obtained for an OLR of 2.41 ± 0.19 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) and a BOD(5):N:P relationship of 100:1:0.2. The increase of PHA biosynthesis is due to the increased OLR and is not attributable to the increased cell concentration, which is maintained constant in stationary status during bioreactor biosynthesis. PMID:22699342

  11. Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining at Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in the United States, Part A: Background and Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E. D.; Consonni, S.; Katofsky, R. E.; Iisa, K.; Frederick, W. J., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Commercialization of black liquor and biomass gasification technologies is anticipated in the 2010-2015 time frame, and synthesis gas from gasifiers can be converted into liquid fuels using catalytic synthesis technologies that are already commercially established in the gas-to-liquids or coal-to-liquids industries. This set of two papers describes key results from a major assessment of the prospective energy, environmental, and financial performance of commercial gasification-based biorefineries integrated with kraft pulp and paper mills [1]. Seven detailed biorefinery designs were developed for a reference mill in the southeastern United States, together with the associated mass/energy balances, air emissions estimates, and capital investment requirements. The biorefineries provide chemical recovery services and co-produce process steam for the mill, some electricity, and one of three liquid fuels: a Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude oil (which could be refined to vehicle fuels at an existing petroleum refinery), dimethyl ether (a diesel engine fuel or propane substitute), or an ethanol-rich mixed-alcohol product. This paper describes the key assumptions that underlie the biorefinery designs. Part B will present analytical results.

  12. Biobleaching of Acacia kraft pulp with extracellular enzymes secreted by Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 using low-cost media.

    PubMed

    Afrida, Sitompul; Tamai, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    The white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 have been shown in previous studies to have high biobleaching activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities and stabilities of extracellular enzymes, prepared from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus culture grown in three types of economical media of agricultural and forestry wastes, for biobleaching of Acacia oxygen-delignified kraft pulp using kappa number reduction as an indicator of delignification. After 3 days of incubation, the extracellular enzymes preparations from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus cultures in media of Acacia mangium wood powder supplemented with rice bran and addition 1 % glucose (WRBG), resulted in significant decrease of 4.4 and 6.7 %, respectively. A slightly higher kappa number reduction (7.4 %) was achieved with the combine extracellular enzymes from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus. One of the strategies for reducing the cost of enzyme production for treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry is the utilization of agricultural and forestry waste. Thus, WRBG has potential as a culture medium for producing stable lignolytic enzymes simply and economically.

  13. Bioaccumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in feral fish collected from a bleach-kraft paper mill receiving stream

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, J.D. ); Campbell, D.M.; Lowe, E. )

    1993-11-01

    Bleach-kraft mill (BKM) processes may result in the formation and release of a number of chlorinated organic compounds, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by TCDD is of concern due to the chemical's toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and persistence in the environment. Sediment samples and tissues from three species of fish an done invertebrate were collected downstream from a BKM facility and were analyzed for TCDD. Concentrations of TCDD were greatest in the bowfin, particularly in the ovary of a gravid female. There appeared to be no correlation between either trophic position of habitat classification (i.e., epibenthic or pelagic) and TCDD tissue concentrations. Sediments collected near the mill outfall contained elevated levels of TCDD as great as 52.8 ppt. Sediment-based BAFs and lipid- and carbon-normalized bioavailability indexes (BI) were calculated for the fish livers and gonads, and blue crab hepatopancreas. BAF*s varied by a factor of 27, depending on species and organ, whereas BIs had an approximate seven-fold variation. It appears that organic carbon- and lipid-normalization factors may be more accurate predictors of the extent of bioaccumulation in resident biota from TCDD-contaminated sediments than either BAF*s or BCFs. As there is currently only a limited understanding of species variability in absorption and deposition of TCDD, a more accurate estimation of TCDD levels in feral fish tissues may not be possible.

  14. Evaluation of dioxin mobility and spoils leaching in a surface coal mine reclaimed with bleached kraft pulp and paper mill biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, D.P.; Krouskop, D.J.; Ayers, K.C.; Proctor, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    A surface coal mine in southeastern Ohio has been reclaimed with approximately 15 to 25 cm thickness of biosolids from a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment plant. Soil, vegetation, rodents, earthworms, insects, fish, frogs, sediment, and algae samples were collected and analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Water samples from lakes receiving drainage from unreclaimed and biosolids reclaimed areas were collected and analyzed for various parameters, including pH and metals. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in the pulp and paper mill biosolids did not bioaccumulate in rodents, insects, or earthworms or translocate into plants living in the reclaimed area. The trace levels of dioxin and furan in biosolids did not sufficiently migrate to a drainage lake to result in significant concentrations in fish, frogs, algae, or vegetation. The biosolids reclamation resulted in dramatic decreases in spoils leaching of acid, aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and zinc. This work supports the thesis that surface mine reclamation with pulp and paper mill biosolids is safe and effective. 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Electro-coagulation treatment efficiency of graphite, iron and aluminum electrodes using alum and wood ash electrolytes on a Kraft pulp and paper mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Orori, O B; Etiégni, L; Senelwa, K; Mwamburi, M M; Balozi, K B; Barisa, G K; Omutange, E S

    2010-01-01

    Specific power consumption and reduction of BOD, COD, TS, pH, and chemical elements were used to determine the treatment efficiency of Fe, graphite and Al electrodes with alum and wood ash as supporting electrolytes on the effluent from a Kraft pulp and paper mill in Kenya. Five sampling points were selected along mill's effluent treatment system: primary settling tank (SP1), first aerated lagoon (SP2), second aerated lagoon (SP3), stabilization pond (SP4), and at discharge point (SP5). Operating costs were also compared between treatments. Graphite electrodes combined with alum showed the lowest power consumption (0.5 to 3.9 mWh/m³), followed by Al and Fe. All the electrodes reduced color from a maximum of 3,200°H to the minimum local standard of 15°H. However Al electrode with alum was the most effective method for BOD and COD reduction by over 60% and 58.8% respectively and generated less sludge at all sampling points. The cost of treatment was lowest with graphite electrode (US$0.006 to 0.0008 per m³ of effluent), but highest with Al electrodes combined with wood ash (US$31.74 to 8.34 per m³). Further study is required for the effectiveness of increasing the concentration of wood ash leachate at higher concentration and current density.

  16. Correlation of brightening with cumulative enzyme activity related to lignin biodegradation during biobleaching of kraft pulp by white rot fungi in the solid-state fermentation system.

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, N; Tsutsumi, Y; Nishida, T

    1995-01-01

    Biobleaching of hardwood unbleached kraft pulp (UKP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor was studied in the solid-state fermentation system with different culture media. In this fermentation system with low-nitrogen and high-carbon culture medium, pulp brightness increased by 15 and 30 points after 5 days of treatment with T. versicolor and P. chrysosporium, respectively, and the pulp kappa number decreased with increasing brightness. A comparison of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccase activities assayed by using fungus-treated pulp and the filtrate after homogenizing the fungus-treated pulp in buffer solution indicated that enzymes secreted from fungi were adsorbed onto the UKP and that assays of these enzyme activities should be carried out with the treated pulp. Time course studies of brightness increase and MnP activity during treatment with P. chrysosporium suggested that it was difficult to correlate them on the basis of data obtained on a certain day of incubation, because the MnP activity fluctuated dramatically during the treatment time. When brightness increase and cumulative MnP, LiP, and laccase activities were determined, a linear relationship between brightness increase and cumulative MnP activity was found in the solid-state fermentation system with both P. chrysosporium and T. versicolor. This result suggests that MnP is involved in brightening of UKP by white rot fungi. PMID:7574600

  17. Biobleaching of Acacia kraft pulp with extracellular enzymes secreted by Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 using low-cost media.

    PubMed

    Afrida, Sitompul; Tamai, Yutaka; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2014-08-01

    The white-rot fungi Irpex lacteus KB-1.1 and Lentinus tigrinus LP-7 have been shown in previous studies to have high biobleaching activity in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the activities and stabilities of extracellular enzymes, prepared from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus culture grown in three types of economical media of agricultural and forestry wastes, for biobleaching of Acacia oxygen-delignified kraft pulp using kappa number reduction as an indicator of delignification. After 3 days of incubation, the extracellular enzymes preparations from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus cultures in media of Acacia mangium wood powder supplemented with rice bran and addition 1 % glucose (WRBG), resulted in significant decrease of 4.4 and 6.7 %, respectively. A slightly higher kappa number reduction (7.4 %) was achieved with the combine extracellular enzymes from I. lacteus and L. tigrinus. One of the strategies for reducing the cost of enzyme production for treatment processes in the pulp and paper industry is the utilization of agricultural and forestry waste. Thus, WRBG has potential as a culture medium for producing stable lignolytic enzymes simply and economically. PMID:24699808

  18. Bio-conventional bleaching of kadam kraft-AQ pulp by thermo-alkali-tolerant xylanases from two strains of Coprinellus disseminatus for extenuating adsorbable organic halides and improving strength with optical properties and energy conservation.

    PubMed

    Lal, Mohan; Dutt, Dharm; Tyagi, C H

    2012-04-01

    Two novel thermo-alkali-tolerant crude xylanases namely MLK-01 (enzyme-A) and MLK-07 (enzyme-B) from Coprinellus disseminatus mitigated kappa numbers of Anthocephalus cadamba kraft-AQ pulps by 32.5 and 34.38%, improved brightness by 1.5 and 1.6% and viscosity by 5.75 and 6.47% after (A)XE(1) and (B)XE(1)-stages, respectively. The release of reducing sugars and chromophores was the highest during prebleaching of A. cadamba kraft-AQ pulp at enzyme doses of 5 and 10 IU/g, reaction times 90 and 120 min, reaction temperatures 75 and 65°C and consistency 10% for MLK-01 and MLK-07, respectively. MLK-07 was more efficient than MLK01 in terms of producing pulp brightness, improving mechanical strength properties and reducing pollution load. MLK-01 and MLK-07 reduced AOX by 19.51 and 42.77%, respectively at 4% chlorine demands with an increase in COD and colour due to removal of lignin carbohydrates complexes. A. cadamba kraft-AQ pulps treated with xylanases from MLK-01 to MLK-07 and followed by CEHH bleaching at half chlorine demand (2%) showed a drastic reduction in brightness with slight improvement in mechanical strength properties compared to pulp bleached at 4% chlorine demand. MLK-01 reduced AOX, COD and colour by 43.83, 39.03 and 27.71% and MLK-07 by 38.34, 40.48 and 30.77%, respectively at half chlorine demand compared to full chlorine demand (4%). pH variation during prebleaching of A. cadamba kraft-AQ pulps with strains MLK-01 and MLK-07 followed by CEHH bleaching sequences showed a decrease in pulp brightness, AOX, COD and colour with an increase in mechanical strength properties, pulp viscosity and PFI revolutions to get a beating level of 35 ± 1 °SR at full chlorine demand. PMID:22805918

  19. Application of a Novel Alkali-Tolerant Thermostable DyP-Type Peroxidase from Saccharomonospora viridis DSM 43017 in Biobleaching of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huoqing; Zheng, Fei; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yuying; Li, Kangjia; Xie, Xiangming; Jin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomonospora viridis is a thermophilic actinomycete that may have biotechnological applications because of its dye decolorizing activity, though the enzymatic oxidative system responsible for this activity remains elusive. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a DyP-type peroxidase gene in the genome of S. viridis DSM 43017 with sequence similarity to peroxidase from dye-decolorizing microbes. This gene, svidyp, consists of 1,215 bp encoding a polypeptide of 404 amino acids. The gene encoding SviDyP was cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and then purified. The recombinant protein could efficiently decolorize several triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinonic and azo dyes under neutral to alkaline conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for SviDyP was pH 7.0 and 70°C, respectively. Compared with other DyP-type peroxidases, SviDyP was more active at high temperatures, retaining>63% of its maximum activity at 50–80°C. It also showed broad pH adaptability (>35% activity at pH 4.0–9.0) and alkali-tolerance (>80% activity after incubation at pH 5–10 for 1 h at 37°C), and was highly thermostable (>60% activity after incubation at 70°C for 2 h at pH 7.0). SviDyP had an accelerated action during the biobleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp, resulting in a 21.8% reduction in kappa number and an increase of 2.98% (ISO) in brightness. These favorable properties make SviDyP peroxidase a promising enzyme for use in the pulp and paper industries. PMID:25333297

  20. Exposure of fish to biologically treated bleached-kraft effluent; 1: Biochemical, physiological and pathological assessment of Rocky Mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) and longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus)

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepper-Sams, P.J.; Owens, J.W. ); Swanson, S.M. ); Marchant, T. . Dept. of Biology); Schryer, R. )

    1994-09-01

    A suite of biochemical, physiological, and pathological measures was used to assess possible effects of exposure to bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) on wild longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus=LS) and mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni=MW) in the Wapiti/Smoke River system, as compared to similar populations in a reference river system without BKME inputs. Individual fish body burden data were examined for correlations between chemical exposure and biological response. General incidence of gross pathology and histopathology showed no relationship with exposure to BKME, and no neoplastic or preneoplastic lesions were observed in either exposed or reference fish. The few significant differences observed in LS blood parameters were not correlated with exposure to BKME and appeared to reflect habitat gradients. Liver somatic indexes were higher for female BKME-exposed LS, but were not significantly different in male LS nor in MW. Some differences in circulating sex steroid levels were observed in LS exposed to BKME (but not in MW, the species with higher contaminant body burdens). Steroid profile differences may have been related to natural differences in duration of spawning periods in the two fish populations. Other measures of reproductive capacity (relative gonad size, fecundity, young-of-the-year) showed no reductions in exposed fish. The detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A was induced in both species, with greater induction in MW than in LS. MW P4501A induction correlated well with some BKME exposure measures, but not with liver or gonad weights, pathology, reproductive capacity, or population-level parameters. Increased liver size and apparent differences in sex steroid profiles in LS did not translate to other health effects or population-level effects. Thus, exposure to this biologically treated BKME produced one consistent biochemical marker of exposure in the two fish species that was not associated with any adverse effects on fish health.

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) living downstream from a bleached-kraft pulp mill in the Miramichi Estuary, New Brunswick, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Couillard, C.M.; Nellis, P.

    1999-11-01

    Mummichog, a small-sized sentinel fish species, has been proposed for use in environmental effects monitoring programs conducted by pulp mills that release their effluent in marine waters. In order to evaluate the suitability of mummichog as a sentinel species and to support the interpretation of biological effects data, tissue concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, (PCDD/Fs), chlorophenolic compounds (CPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides were investigated in mummichog sampled in the Miramichi Estuary, which was receiving a bleached-kraft mill (BKM) effluent, and in a reference estuary, the Bouctouche Estuary. Higher concentrations PCDD/Fs, CPs, DDT, and PCBs were found in mummichog sampled at the upstream site of the Miramichi Estuary. At this site, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalent concentrations were slightly above the threshold for ethoxy resorufin O-deethylase induction. Multivariate analyses on congener profiles revealed that the contamination by PCDD/Fs and CPs originated both from the BKM and from a former wood-preservation plant and that PCDD/Fs and CPs typical of the BKM were transported 40 km downstream from the mill. Patterns and levels of persistent contaminants differed between sites within the Estuary, indicating that the fish did not mix during their growing period. These findings support the use of mummichog in environmental effects monitoring programs, because this species bioaccumulates chlorinated compounds contained in BKM effluent and is sedentary. The cause-effect relationship between exposure to the BKM effluent and the observed biological responses will have to be demonstrated by laboratory studies because of the presence of multiple sources of contamination.

  2. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase Ia - Low-temperature gasifier evaluation. Final report, November 1, 1995--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Blude, J.D.; Dickinson, J.A.

    1997-06-01

    This project, conducted under The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94GO10002/A002, was part of a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies that improve the energy efficiency and economics of chemical process recovery in the pulp and paper industry. The approach taken was to consider two major alternatives in two phases. Phase I, conducted previously, considered means to improve pulp mill recovery boilers using high-solids advanced combustion of black liquor; while this project, Phase la, considered means to recover kraft pulping mill process chemicals by low-temperature black liquor gasification. The principal steps previously proposed in this program were: (1) Evaluate these two technologies, high-solids advanced combustion and gasification, and then select a path forward using the more promising of these two options for future work. (2) Design and construct a pilot-scale unit based on the selected technology, and using that unit, develop the precompetitive data necessary to make commercialization attractive. (3) Develop and deploy a first-of-a-kind (FOAK) commercial unit in a kraft pulp mill. Phase I, which evaluated the high-solids advanced combustion option, was concluded in 1995. Results of that project phase were reported previously. This report describes the work conducted in Phase Ia. The work is described in Sections 1 through 4 and six appendices provide additional detail.

  3. Computer Modeling of Hydrology, Weathering, and Isotopic Fractionation in Andrews Creek, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado for Water Years 1992 through 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R. M. T.; Parkhurst, D. L.; Mast, A.; Clow, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Water, Energy, and Biogeochemical Model (WEBMOD) was used to simulate hydrology, weathering, and isotopic fractionation in the 1.7 square kilometer Andrews Creek alpine watershed. WEBMOD includes hydrologic modules derived from the USGS Precipitation Runoff Modeling System, the National Weather Service Hydro-17 snow model, and TOPMODEL. PHREEQC, a geochemical reaction model, is coupled with the hydrologic model to simulate the geochemical evolution of waters as they evaporate, mix, and react within the landscape. Major solute concentrations and δ18O were modeled over the period 1992-2012. Variations of chloride and inorganic nitrogen respond almost entirely to variations in atmospheric deposition and preferential elution of snowpack. Both evaporation and melting result in isotopic enrichment of heavy isotopes in the residual snowpack throughout the summer. Magnesium and potassium, derived mostly from weathering with some atmospheric inputs, vary seasonally with uptake during the growing season and release during the fall and winter. The weathering of granitic minerals—oligoclase, biotite, chlorite, pyrite, calcite, and formation of secondary minerals—kaolinite, goethite, gibbsite, and smectite-illite—were selected as primary reactions based on mole-balance modeling of basin outflows. The rates of these reactions were quantified by calibrating WEBMOD to match observed concentrations and loads. Exported annual loads of most weathering products are highly correlated with discharge, whereas silica loads are less correlated with discharge, suggesting a source that is more active during dry years and less active during wet years. Potential sources include net dissolution of kaolinite and smectite-illite or mineralization of colloids with high silica content. WEBMOD is a valuable tool for simulating water quality variations in response to climate change, acid mine drainage, acid rain, biological transformations, and other

  4. Spatial distribution and compositional variation of APS minerals related to uranium deposits in the Kiggavik-Andrew Lake structural trend, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, Thomas; Quirt, Dave; Beaufort, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    The Kiggavik-Andrew Lake structural trend consists of four mineralized zones, partially outcropping, lying 2 km south of the erosional contact with the unmetamorphosed sandstone and basal conglomerates of the Paleoproterozoic Thelon Formation. The mineralization is controlled by a major E-W fault system associated with illite and sudoite alteration halos developed in the Archean metagraywackes of the Woodburn Lake Group. Aluminum phosphate sulfate (APS) minerals from the alunite group crystallized in association with the clay minerals in the basement alteration halo as well as in the overlying sandstones, which underwent mostly diagenesis. APS minerals are Sr- and S-rich (svanbergite end-member) in the sedimentary cover overlying the unconformity, whereas they are light rare earth elements (LREE)-rich (florencite end-member) in the altered basement rocks below the unconformity. The geochemical signature of each group of APS minerals together with the petrography indicates three distinct generations of APS minerals related to the following: (1) paleoweathering of continental surfaces prior to the basin occurrence, (2) diagenetic processes during the burial history of the lower unit of the Thelon sandstones, and (3) hydrothermal alteration processes which accompanied the uranium deposition in the basement rocks and partially overlap the sedimentary-diagenetic mineral parageneses. In addition, the association of a first generation of APS minerals with both detrital cerium oxide and aluminum oxy-hydroxide highlights the fact that a part of the detrital material of the basal Thelon Formation originated from eroded paleolaterite (allochthonous regolith). The primary rare earth element (REE)-bearing minerals (e.g., monazite, REE carbonates, and allanite) of the host rocks were characterized to identify the potential sources of REE. The REE chemical composition highlights a local re-incorporation of the REE released from the alteration processes in the APS minerals of

  5. Segment-scale and intrasegment lithospheric thickness and melt variations near the Andrew Bain megatransform fault and Marion hot spot: Southwest Indian Ridge, 25.5°E-35°E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Christopher S.; Sclater, John G.; Grindlay, Nancy R.; Madsen, John A.; Rommevaux-Jestin, CéLine

    2010-07-01

    We analyze bathymetric, gravimetric, and magnetic data collected on cruise KN145L16 between 25.5°E and 35°E on the ultraslow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge, where the 750 km long Andrew Bain transform domain separates two accretionary segments to the northeast from a single segment to the southwest. Similar along-axis asymmetries in seafloor texture, rift valley curvature, magnetic anomaly amplitude, magnetization intensity, and mantle Bouguer anomaly (MBA) amplitude within all three segments suggest that a single mechanism may produce variable intrasegment lithospheric thickness and melt delivery. However, closer analysis reveals that a single mechanism is unlikely. In the northeast, MBA lows, shallow axial depths, and large abyssal hills indicate that the Marion hot spot enhances the melt supply to the segments. We argue that along-axis asthenospheric flow from the hot spot, dammed by major transform faults, produces the inferred asymmetries in lithospheric thickness and melt delivery. In the southwest, strong rift valley curvature and nonvolcanic seafloor near the Andrew Bain transform fault indicate very thick subaxial lithosphere at the end of the single segment. We suggest that cold lithosphere adjacent to the eastern end of the ridge axis cools and thickens the subaxial lithosphere, suppresses melt production, and focuses melt to the west. This limits the amount of melt emplaced at shallow levels near the transform fault. Our analysis suggests that the Andrew Bain divides a high melt supply region to the northeast from an intermediate to low melt supply region to the southwest. Thus, this transform fault represents not only a major topographic feature but also a major melt supply boundary on the Southwest Indian Ridge.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Trends in the Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Isotopes of Stream DOM From 10 Watersheds at the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frentress, J.; Kendall, C.; Lajtha, K.; Jones, J.

    2008-12-01

    In order to better understand sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streams from the small to large watershed scales, we initiated a one-year investigation of the chemical and isotopic characteristics of DOM at the HJ Andrews Experimental Forest (HJA) in Blue River, OR. DOM is a biologically significant loss from these watersheds, but its sources (forest floor, mineral soil, riparian zones, stream biota) are debated. Traditional chemical characterizations of DOM like SUVA and FI have been useful in conceptualizing and modeling streamflow sources, however, an improved method for assessing DOM quality is needed to adequately differentiate DOM from sources within the watershed. The isotopic characterization of inorganic molecules like nitrate has provided insight to the role of subsurface and surface processes governing the production and transport of critical nutrients, and yet to date, little work has been done to examine the usefulness of isotopic characterization of organically bound nutrients. We apply the isotopic characterization approach to DOM in order to better understand DOM production, transformation, and transport to streams in a range of watershed sizes. Major questions addressed in this research are: 1) Where in the watershed does stream DOM come from? 2) How do DOM sources vary temporally? 3) How do physical attributes of the watershed mediate DOM quality? A relatively new solid-phase extraction technique using C-18 resin was used to isolate DOM in water samples from 10 watersheds, ranging in size from 10 to 6200 hectares, on 3-week intervals from May 2007 to June 2008. The modified technique allowed for small (1 Liter) sample sizes and short processing times to reduce the costs of analysis. The capacity of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopic characterizations of DOM, as well as traditional methods like SUVA and C:N, to predict physical watershed attributes (i.e. mean residence time, soil depth, elevation, gradient) and land use history (timber

  7. A combined process of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment and membrane concentration for recovery of dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Kaur, Ishneet; Baktash, Mir Mojtaba; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-01

    To recover dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process, a new combined process concept of sequential steps of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment, and membrane concentration, was proposed. The removal of lignin in the PHL was achieved in the activated carbon adsorption step, which also facilitates the subsequent operations, such as the membrane filtration and ion exchange resin treatment. The ion exchange resin treatment resulted in the removal/concentration of acetic acid, which opens the door for acetic acid recovery. The membrane filtration is to recover/concentrate the dissolved sugars. The combined process resulted in the production of PHL-based concentrate with relatively high concentration of hemicellulosic sugars, i.e., 22.13%.

  8. Bioaccumulation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and extractable organic chlorine at a bleached-kraft mill site in a northern Canadian river system

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, J.W. ); Swanson, S.M. ); Birkholz, D.A. )

    1994-02-01

    Abiotic and biotic environmental compartments in a northern Canadian river system have been analyzed for poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and extractable organochlorines (EOCl) down-stream of a bleached-kraft mill. The water column, deposited and suspended sediments, invertebrates, and tissues from several fish species were analyzed. The data indicate that (a) conversion of the mill bleaching process to 100% chlorine dioxide virtually eliminated the discharge of PCDDs and PCDFs; (b) PCDD, PCDF, and EOCl transport occurred primarily in suspended sediments; and (c) the food choice of filter-feeding insects by specific fish species such as the mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) was an important determinant in the food-chain transfer of the principal compounds, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF). Relative to mountain whitefish, TCDD and TCDF levels in another bottom feeding species, longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), were at least an order of magnitude lower. Food-chain biomagnification of TCDD and TCDF was not observed in omnivorous and predatory species, burbot (Lota lota) and walleye (Stizostedium vitreum), for which lipid-adjusted levels were similar to those in the longnose sucker. These data indicate that organism lipid levels alone are not sufficient to predict species-specific bioaccumulation of these hydrophobic compounds, and that site-specific transport and species food choice parameters should be included in bioaccumulation models for hydrophobic compounds such as PCDDs and PCDFs.

  9. A comparison of mercury burdens between St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and St. Andrew Bay, Florida: Evaluation of fish body burdens and physiological responses in largemouth bass, spotted seatrout, striped mullet, and sunfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huge, D.H.; Rauschenberger, R.H.; Wieser, F.M.; Hemming, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Musculature from the dorsal region of 130 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), 140 sunfish (Lepomis sp.), 41 spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) and 67 striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) were collected from five estuarine and five freshwater sites within the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge and two estuarine and two freshwater sites from St. Andrew Bay, Florida, United States of America. Musculature was analyzed for total mercury content, sagittal otoliths were removed for age determination and physiological responses were measured. Largemouth bass and sunfish from the refuge had higher mercury concentrations in musculature than those from the bay. Male spotted seatrout, male striped mullet, male and female sunfish and female largemouth bass had mercury burdens positively correlated with length. The majority of all four species of fish from both study areas contained mercury levels below 1.5 part per million, the limit for safe consumption recommended the Florida Department of Health. In comparison, a significant percentage of largemouth bass and sunfish from several sampled sites, most notably Otter Lake and Lake Renfroe within St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, had mercury levels consistent with the health department's guidelines of 'limited consumption' or 'no consumption guidelines.'

  10. Sir Henry Solomon Wellcome and Dr Andrew Balfour: an enterprise on the Nile and the early foundation of public health and medical research in the Sudan (1899-1935).

    PubMed

    Elhadd, T A

    2015-01-01

    In Sudan, modern medical practice and medical research began soon after the creation of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan at the turn of the 20th century. The benevolent involvement of Sir Henry Solomon Wellcome, and the ingenious feat of his protégé Sir Andrew Balfour, was crucial to the strong foundation of that establishment. Sir Henry Wellcome provided the financial sponsorship plus influential, logistical and moral support. Dr Balfour put great energy into making the enterprise one of the most amazing medical achievements in colonial medicine. Improvement in the public health of the capital Khartoum was emulated by other doctors working in this vast country. Research was not restricted to tropical medicine; it also encompassed agricultural and chemical research. This helped with the establishment of the first modern medical school in the country in 1924 and resulted in the medical service in Sudan being described as one of the best in the world. Many British doctors flocked to Sudan to make a fortune and to set a path for their career back in Britain.

  11. Modeling total reduced sulfur and sulfur dioxide emissions from a kraft recovery boiler using an artificial neural network, and, Investigating volatile organic compounds in an urban intermountain valley using a TD/GC/MS methodology and intrinsic tracer molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, Christopher Louis

    2000-11-01

    Back-propagation neural networks were trained to predict total reduced sulfur (TRS) and SO2 emissions from kraft recovery boiler operational data. A 0.721 coefficient of correlation was achieved between actual and predicted sulfur emissions on test data withheld from network training. The artificial neural network (ANN) models found an inverse, linear relationship between TRS/SO2 emissions and percent opacity. A number of relationships among operating parameters and sulfur emissions were identified by the ANN models. These relationships were used to formulate strategies for reducing sulfur emissions. Disagreement between ANN model predictions on a subsequent data set revealed an additional scenario for sulfur release not present in the training data. ANN modeling was demonstrated to be an effective tool for analyzing process variables when balancing productivity and environmental concerns. Five receptor sites distributed in the Missoula Valley, Montana, were employed to investigate possible VOC (benzene, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-/p-xylene, o-xylene, naphthalene, acetone, chloroform, α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene and limonene) sources. The most dominant source of VOCs was found to be vehicle emissions. Furthermore, anthropogenic sources of terpenoids overwhelmed biogenic emissions, on a local scale. Difficulties correlating wind direction and pollutant levels could be explained by wind direction variability, low wind speed and seasonally dependent meteorological factors. Significant evidence was compiled to support the use of p-cymene as a tracer molecule for pulp mill VOC emissions. Apportionment techniques using o-xylene and p-cymene as tracers for automobile and pulp mill emissions, respectively, were employed to estimate each source's VOC contribution. Motor vehicles were estimated to contribute between 56 and 100 percent of the aromatic pollutants in the Missoula Valley airshed, depending upon the sampling location. Pulp mill emissions

  12. Millikan, Robert Andrews (1868-1953)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Physicist, born in Morrison, IL, Nobel prizewinner (1923) for his determination of the charge on the electron by Millikan's oil-drop experiment, and confirmation of Einstein's quantum photoelectric theory. Coined the term `cosmic rays'....

  13. The Future of the Andrew File System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The talk will discuss the ten operational capabilities that have made AFS unique in the distributed file system space and how these capabilities are being expanded upon to meet the needs of the 21st century. Derrick Brashear and Jeffrey Altman will present a technical road map of new features and technical innovations that are under development by the OpenAFS community and Your File System, Inc. funded by a U.S. Department of Energy Small Business Innovative Research grant. The talk will end with a comparison of AFS to its modern days competitors.

  14. Wireless Andrew: Everywhere You Want To Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futhey, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Describes the wireless local area network at Carnegie Mellon University. Highlights include classroom applications, particularly in the Business School; the use of laptop computers configured with wireless technology; handheld computers, including use for testing; and assuring appropriate uses of wireless technology. (LRW)

  15. Materials selection for kraft batch digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Wensley, A.; Moskal, M.; Wilton, W.

    1997-08-01

    Several candidate materials were evaluated by corrosion testing in autoclaves containing white and black liquors for batch digesters. The relationship between corrosion rate and corrosion potential was determined for ASTM SA516-Grade 70 carbon steel, UNS S30403 (Type 304L) austenitic stainless steel, UNS S31803 (2205) and UNS S32550 (2605) duplex stainless steels, and two stainless steel weld overlays, applied by the GMAW (gas metal arc welding) and SAW (submerged arc welding) processes. The tests revealed that SA516-Grade 70 carbon steel and type 304L stainless steel can experience high rates of corrosion. For the duplex stainless steels and weld overlays, corrosion resistance improved with chromium content. A chromium content of at least 25% was found to be necessary for good corrosion resistance.

  16. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. )

    1993-04-01

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  17. Speaking Unassisted: Comments on a Paper by Andrews et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Marcel E.

    1983-01-01

    In a reply to a review of replicated findings on stuttering, the author adds 14 points concerning symptoms, prevalence, incidence, stutterer-nonstutterer differences, and variability of stuttering. He takes exception to the review's statements on treatment and theories of stuttering. (CL)

  18. Human reproductive cloning: an analysis of the Andrews Report.

    PubMed

    Little, Kim

    2002-01-01

    There is nothing like an overwhelming consensus of opinion to encourage a less than rigourous approach to analyzing complex ethical issues. Unfortunately, this is nowhere more apparent than in the discussion of human reproductive cloning contained in the federal House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs' report on human cloning, released last August. The report may well fulfil the first half of its project, namely the empirical task of adequately summarizing and categorizing the various submissions made to the Committee. However, it is clearly inadequate as a discussion of the ethical and legal permissibility of human reproductive cloning.

  19. General Christopher C. Andrews: Leading the Minnesota Forestry Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Anna M.

    2002-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, America's burgeoning population certainly did grab all the timber it could. Vast pine forests stretched from Maine to Dakota, and the lumber industry voraciously consumed them from east to west. In 1800, the Minnesota territory was sparsely sprinkled with fur traders and American Indians. By 1850, its bounteous forests…

  20. Parents' struggles to rebuild family life after Hurricane Andrew.

    PubMed

    Coffman, S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain a deeper understanding of the meaning of parents' everyday experiences after a major natural disaster. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 parents who lived in the hurricane-damaged area. The essence of being a parent emerged as "struggling to rebuild family life." The struggles were superimposed on top of ongoing issues such as divorce and job responsibilities. Parents described feelings of being thankful to be alive, being overwhelmed, being limited by environmental aftereffects, being responsible for children, balancing needs and roles, constantly changing amidst uncertainty, and finding meaning in the disaster. Study findings support the need for nursing interventions that address family needs, support strengths, and involve parents as active decision makers.

  1. "On the margins": A dialogue with Andrew Greeley.

    PubMed

    Moss, D M

    1990-12-01

    This dialogue is between two priests who share common interests from different perspectives. One is an Episcopalian and a psychoanalytic psychotherapist. The other is a Roman Catholic and a sociologist widely known for his controversial novels and political commentaries. Their conversation primarily focuses on the latter's ministry-especially his investigations into paranormal experiences and his use of fiction as a homiletical avenue. They also discuss: Christian atheism; the Resurrection as a metaphor; Real Presence and liturgical sensibility; contemporary ecumenical trends; celibacy and tenures of active ministry; sexual equality and population control; religious addiction; and examples of the mythic impact of cinema.

  2. A resolution honoring the life of Andrew Wyeth.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2009-01-27

    01/27/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S946-947; text as passed Senate: CR S947; text of measure as introduced: CR S899-900) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. New butane isomerization unit is unvieled by Andrews Petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, H.

    1990-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a butane isomerization unit which will help reduce butane surplus by fractionating it into other LPG products. Other features of this California project increase on-site storage.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY IN KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of In Vitro Androgenic Activity in Feedlot Effluent. Lambright, CS 1 , Guillette, LJ, Jr.2, Gray, LE, Jr.1 , 1USEPA, NHEERL, RTP, NC, 2 University of Florida, Dept. of Zoology, Gainesville FL

    Recent studies have shown the presence of androgenic activity in water...

  5. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  6. Assessment of opacimeter calibration on kraft pulp mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Joa˜o. F. P.

    This paper describes the methodology and specific techniques for calibrating automatic on-line industrial emission analysers, specifically equipments that measure total suspended dust installed in pulp mills within the scope of Portuguese Regulation No. 286/93 on air quality. The calibration of opacimeters is a multi-parameter relationship instead of the bidimensional calibration which is used in industrial practice. For a stationary source from a pulp mill such as the recovery boiler stack, which is subjected to significant variations, the effects of parameters such as the humidity and gas temperature, deviations of isokinetism, size range of particles and characteristic transmittance of equipment are analysed. The multivariable analysis of a considerable set of data leads to an estimate of about 98% of equipment transmittance over the other parameters with a level of significance greater than 0.99 which is a validation of the bidimensional practical calibrations.

  7. Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

    2002-05-15

    This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

  8. IN VITRO ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY OF KRAFT MILL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In: Environmental Sciences in the 21st Century: Paradigms, Opportunities, and Challenges: Abstract Book: SETAC 21st Annual Meeting, 12-16 November 2000, Nashville, TN. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Pensacola, FL. Pp. 102.

    Female mosquito fish (Gambusia...

  9. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  10. 78 FR 38877 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    .... World Wide Web. The EPA Web site containing information for this rulemaking is: http://www.epa.gov/ttn... the proposed rule published May 23, 2013 (78 FR 31315), is being extended by 15 days to July 23, 2013... mail, by facsimile or through hand delivery/courier. Please refer to the proposal (78 FR 31315) for...

  11. Detecting Outliers in Marathon Data by Means of the Andrews Plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlík, Milan; Wald, Helmut; Bielik, Viktor; Petrovič, Juraj

    2011-09-01

    For an optimal race performance, it is important, that the runner keeps steady pace during most of the time of the competition. First time runners or athletes without many competitions often experience an "blow out" after a few kilometers of the race. This could happen, because of strong emotional experiences or low control of running intensity. Competition pace of half marathon of the middle level recreational athletes is approximately 10 sec quicker than their training pace. If an athlete runs the first third of race (7 km) at a pace that is 20 sec quicker than is his capacity (trainability), he would experience an "blow out" in the last third of the race. This would be reflected by reducing the running intensity and inability to keep steady pace in the last kilometers of the race and in the final time as well. In sports science, there are many diagnostic methods ([3], [2], [6]) that are used for prediction of optimal race pace tempo and final time. Otherwise there is lacking practical evidence of diagnostics methods and its use in the field (competition, race). One of the conditions that needs to be carried out is that athletes have not only similar final times, but it is important that they keep constant pace as much as possible during whole race. For this reason it is very important to find outliers. Our experimental group consisted of 20 recreational trained athletes (mean age 32,6 years±8,9). Before the race the athletes were instructed to run on the basis of their subjective feeling and previous experience. The data (running pace of each kilometer, average and maximal heart rate of each kilometer) were collected by GPS-enabled personal trainer Forerunner 305.

  12. Fascia Research Congress evidence from the 100 year perspective of Andrew Taylor Still.

    PubMed

    Findley, Thomas W; Shalwala, Mona

    2013-07-01

    More than 100 years ago A.T. Still MD founded osteopathic medicine, and specifically described fascia as a covering, with common origins of layers of the fascial system despite diverse names for individual parts. Fascia assists gliding and fluid flow and is highly innervated. Fascia is intimately involved with respiration and with nourishment of all cells of the body, including those of disease and cancer. This paper reviews information presented at the first three International Fascia Research Congresses in 2007, 2009 and 2012 from the perspective of Dr Still, that fascia is vital for organism's growth and support, and it is where disease is sown.

  13. Seizing Opportunities: Genie Tyburski--Ballard Spahr Andrews & Ingersoll, LLP, Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Genie Tyburski did not set out to be a law librarian. When asked at Drexel's library school what kind of librarian she wanted to be, she was surprised that "a good one" was not one of the options. But six weeks into the semester, she landed a part-time cataloging job at Community Legal Services in Philadelphia; six months later she was the library…

  14. Multiple species of wild tree peonies gave rise to the 'king of flowers', Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shi-Liang; Zou, Xin-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Jing; Xu, Chao; Yu, Jing; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Da-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Ge, Song; Sang, Tao; Pan, Kai-Yu; Hong, De-Yuan

    2014-12-22

    The origin of cultivated tree peonies, known as the 'king of flowers' in China for more than 1000 years, has attracted considerable interest, but remained unsolved. Here, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of explicitly sampled traditional cultivars of tree peonies and all wild species from the shrubby section Moutan of the genus Paeonia based on sequences of 14 fast-evolved chloroplast regions and 25 presumably single-copy nuclear markers identified from RNA-seq data. The phylogeny of the wild species inferred from the nuclear markers was fully resolved and largely congruent with morphology and classification. The incongruence between the nuclear and chloroplast trees suggested that there had been gene flow between the wild species. The comparison of nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies including cultivars showed that the cultivated tree peonies originated from homoploid hybridization among five wild species. Since the origin, thousands of cultivated varieties have spread worldwide, whereas four parental species are currently endangered or on the verge of extinction. The documentation of extensive homoploid hybridization involved in tree peony domestication provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the origins of garden ornamentals and the way of preserving natural genetic resources through domestication.

  15. 77 FR 59163 - Andrew Pickens Ranger District; South Carolina; AP Loblolly Pine Removal and Restoration Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    .... This change in condition would improve ecosystem ] health; increasing species diversity of native... CONTACT: Victor Wyant, 864-638-9568. Correction 1. In the Federal Register of March 8, 2010, in FR/Vol. 75... expected by December 2012. 2. In the Federal Register of March 8, 2010, in FR/Vol. 75, No. 44, on...

  16. Detectives Nemorin and Andrews Anti-Gun Trafficking Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. King, Peter T. [R-NY-2

    2013-02-14

    04/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Additional dates of Sir Andrew Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Low, Martyn E Y; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-05-14

    We update the collation of the dates of publication of Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa provided by Waterhouse (1880) and Barnard (1950, 1952). In the case of nine parts, we are able to provide more accurate dates of publication (including day-dates for seven of these parts). For workers of invertebrate taxonomy, we provide an accurate date of publication for W. S. Macleay's volume on Annulosa. 

  18. 76 FR 57043 - Andrew N. Finkel; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... proposed order. This matter involves the advertising of a mobile software application (``app'') called Acne Pwner which respondent developed and sold in Google's Android Marketplace. Respondent claimed that Acne Pwner effectively treats acne. The instructions for this app directed consumers to hold the...

  19. Involvement of Colonizing Bacillus Isolates in Glucovanillin Hydrolysis during the Curing of Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonggan; Gu, Fenglin; Li, Jihua; He, Shuzhen; Xu, Fei; Fang, Yiming

    2015-08-01

    Vanilla beans were analyzed using biochemical methods, which revealed that glucovanillin disperses from the inner part to the outer part of the vanilla bean during the curing process and is simultaneously hydrolyzed by β-d-glucosidase. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to occur on the surface of the vanilla beans. Transcripts of the β-d-glucosidase gene (bgl) of colonizing microorganisms were detected. The results directly indicate that colonizing microorganisms are involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the colonizing microorganisms mainly belonged to the Bacillus genus. bgl was detected in all the isolates and presented clustering similar to that of the isolate taxonomy. Furthermore, inoculation of green fluorescent protein-tagged isolates showed that the Bacillus isolates can colonize vanilla beans. Glucovanillin was metabolized as the sole source of carbon in a culture of the isolates within 24 h. These isolates presented unique glucovanillin degradation capabilities. Vanillin was the major volatile compound in the culture. Other compounds, such as α-cubebene, β-pinene, and guaiacol, were detected in some isolate cultures. Colonizing Bacillus isolates were found to hydrolyze glucovanillin in culture, indirectly demonstrating the involvement of colonizing Bacillus isolates in glucovanillin hydrolysis during the vanilla curing process. Based on these results, we conclude that colonizing Bacillus isolates produce β-d-glucosidase, which mediates glucovanillin hydrolysis and influences flavor formation. PMID:25979899

  20. A resolution electing Andrew B. Willison as the Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper of the Senate.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2014-05-05

    05/05/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S2625; text as passed Senate: CR S2649) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Localization of beta-D-glucosidase activity and glucovanillin in vanilla bean (Vanilla planifolia Andrews).

    PubMed

    Odoux, E; Escoute, J; Verdeil, J-L; Brillouet, J-M

    2003-09-01

    The morphology, anatomy and histology of mature green vanilla beans were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Beans have a triangular cross-section with a central cavity containing seeds. Each angle is lined with tubular cells, or papillae, while the cavity sides consist of placental laminae. The epicarp and endocarp are formed by one or two layers of very small cells, while the mesocarp contains large, highly vacuolarized cells, the cytoplasm being restricted to a thin layer along the cell walls. The radial distributions of glucovanillin and beta-glucosidase activity, measured on p-nitrophenyl-beta-glucopyranoside and glucovanillin, are superimposable and show how beta-glucosidase activity increases from the epicarp towards the placental zone, whereas glucovanillin is exclusively located in the placentae and papillae. Subcellular localization of beta-glucosidase activity was achieved by incubating sections of vanilla beans in a buffer containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside as a substrate. Activity was observed in the cytoplasm (and/or the periplasm) of mesocarp and endocarp cells, with a more diffuse pattern observed in the papillae. A possible mechanism for the hydrolysis of glucovanillin and release of the aromatic aglycon vanillin involves the decompartmentation of cytoplasmic (and/or periplasmic) beta-glucosidase and vacuolar glucovanillin.

  2. Purification and characterization of vanilla bean (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beta-D-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Odoux, Eric; Chauwin, Audrey; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2003-05-01

    Vanilla bean beta-D-glucosidase was purified to apparent homogeneity by successive anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size-exclusion chromatography. The enzyme is a tetramer (201 kDa) made up of four identical subunits (50 kDa). The optimum pH was 6.5, and the optimum temperature was 40 degrees C at pH 7.0. K(m) values for p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and glucovanillin were 1.1 and 20.0 mM, respectively; V(max) values were 4.5 and 5.0 microkat.mg(-1). The beta-D-glucosidase was competitively inhibited by glucono-delta-lactone and 1-deoxynojirimycin, with respective K(i) values of 670 and 152 microM, and not inhibited by 2 M glucose. The beta-D-glucosidase was not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and DTNB and fully inhibited by 1.5-2 M 2-mercaptoethanol and 1,4-dithiothreitol. The enzyme showed decreasing activity on p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside. The enzyme was also active on prunasin, esculin, and salicin and inactive on cellobiose, gentiobiose, amygdalin, phloridzin, indoxyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and quercetin-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  3. Involvement of Colonizing Bacillus Isolates in Glucovanillin Hydrolysis during the Curing of Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yonggan; Gu, Fenglin; Li, Jihua; He, Shuzhen; Xu, Fei; Fang, Yiming

    2015-08-01

    Vanilla beans were analyzed using biochemical methods, which revealed that glucovanillin disperses from the inner part to the outer part of the vanilla bean during the curing process and is simultaneously hydrolyzed by β-d-glucosidase. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to occur on the surface of the vanilla beans. Transcripts of the β-d-glucosidase gene (bgl) of colonizing microorganisms were detected. The results directly indicate that colonizing microorganisms are involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the colonizing microorganisms mainly belonged to the Bacillus genus. bgl was detected in all the isolates and presented clustering similar to that of the isolate taxonomy. Furthermore, inoculation of green fluorescent protein-tagged isolates showed that the Bacillus isolates can colonize vanilla beans. Glucovanillin was metabolized as the sole source of carbon in a culture of the isolates within 24 h. These isolates presented unique glucovanillin degradation capabilities. Vanillin was the major volatile compound in the culture. Other compounds, such as α-cubebene, β-pinene, and guaiacol, were detected in some isolate cultures. Colonizing Bacillus isolates were found to hydrolyze glucovanillin in culture, indirectly demonstrating the involvement of colonizing Bacillus isolates in glucovanillin hydrolysis during the vanilla curing process. Based on these results, we conclude that colonizing Bacillus isolates produce β-d-glucosidase, which mediates glucovanillin hydrolysis and influences flavor formation.

  4. Planning for Andrew: The Use of COACH and VISTA in an Inclusive Preschool Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; Whiteford, Timothy; Whiteford, Lucie; Doyle, Mary Beth

    1998-01-01

    This case study chronicles the use of two educational planning tools, COACH (Choosing Outcomes and Accommodations for Children) and VISTA (Vermont Interdependent Services Team Approach) for a 4-year-old with Down syndrome who attends a general education preschool. The decision-making process and follow-up interviews are described, illustrating the…

  5. A resolution honoring former Senator and Rear Admiral Jeremiah Andrew Denton, Jr.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Sessions, Jeff [R-AL

    2014-03-31

    03/31/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S1881; text as passed Senate: CR S1874) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Utilization of Special Forces medical assets during disaster relief: the Hurricane Andrew experience.

    PubMed

    Godbee, D C; Odom, J W

    1997-02-01

    Special Forces units and their innate assets are presented as the ideal first-response unit to natural disasters due to their breadth of skill, speed of response, and ability to work independently in remote areas. "Green Beret" soldiers are particularly suited to work under the most extreme hardships, with little or no supervision, and can demonstrate tremendous amounts of initiative and creativity in unique and changing situations. The compact, versatile, and adaptable detachments of which Special Forces Groups are composed can serve as vital resources in humanitarian and disaster relief operations as well as in combat.

  7. Involvement of Colonizing Bacillus Isolates in Glucovanillin Hydrolysis during the Curing of Vanilla planifolia Andrews

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonggan; Li, Jihua; He, Shuzhen; Xu, Fei; Fang, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Vanilla beans were analyzed using biochemical methods, which revealed that glucovanillin disperses from the inner part to the outer part of the vanilla bean during the curing process and is simultaneously hydrolyzed by β-d-glucosidase. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to occur on the surface of the vanilla beans. Transcripts of the β-d-glucosidase gene (bgl) of colonizing microorganisms were detected. The results directly indicate that colonizing microorganisms are involved in glucovanillin hydrolysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the colonizing microorganisms mainly belonged to the Bacillus genus. bgl was detected in all the isolates and presented clustering similar to that of the isolate taxonomy. Furthermore, inoculation of green fluorescent protein-tagged isolates showed that the Bacillus isolates can colonize vanilla beans. Glucovanillin was metabolized as the sole source of carbon in a culture of the isolates within 24 h. These isolates presented unique glucovanillin degradation capabilities. Vanillin was the major volatile compound in the culture. Other compounds, such as α-cubebene, β-pinene, and guaiacol, were detected in some isolate cultures. Colonizing Bacillus isolates were found to hydrolyze glucovanillin in culture, indirectly demonstrating the involvement of colonizing Bacillus isolates in glucovanillin hydrolysis during the vanilla curing process. Based on these results, we conclude that colonizing Bacillus isolates produce β-d-glucosidase, which mediates glucovanillin hydrolysis and influences flavor formation. PMID:25979899

  8. In-series columns adsorption performance of Kraft mill wastewater pollutants onto volcanic soil.

    PubMed

    Navia, R; Fuentes, B; Lorber, K E; Mora, M L; Diez, M C

    2005-08-01

    Two in-series columns systems with volcanic soil were tested for wastewater pollutants adsorption capacity. The first system was tested with acidified volcanic soil and the second with a reactivated volcanic soil. The reactivated soil was obtained by washing the previous spent acidified soil system with an acid solution. The systems parameters were obtained using the Bohardt and Adams model for fixed-beds. The acidified soil parameters indicated an adsorption capacity q of 28 and 139 mg/g of phenolic compounds and color, respectively (for each column), compared to 12 and 39 mg/g for the reactivated soil system. The adsorption rate constant k ranged between 1.5x10(-6) and 2.8x10(-6) l/min mg and no significant difference was observed for each analysed column system and pollutant. Furthermore, the molecular weight distribution analysis of input and output samples of one acidified soil column indicated that the fraction >30000 Da is the most adsorbed until the breakpoint. Moreover, the CODs and tannins and lignin removal efficiencies at the breakpoint reached values between 60% and 70% in each column and each system, indicating that lower biodegradable compounds were retained effectively. The results indicate that it is possible to compare the acidified volcanic soil adsorption capacity with natural zeolites, and a preliminary costs evaluation indicates that volcanic soil could be also competitive, even when comparing with activated carbon.

  9. Scale deposits in kraft pulp bleach plants with reduced water consumption: a review.

    PubMed

    Huber, Patrick; Burnet, Auphélia; Petit-Conil, Michel

    2014-08-01

    The general tendency in the pulp industry towards reduced fresh water consumption and minimum effluent causes major deposit problems in mills. Chemical pulp bleach plants are affected by several types of mineral deposits, the most frequent being calcite, barite and calcium oxalate. In this review, the phenomena leading to scaling in chemical pulp bleaching are discussed, together with strategies for limiting deposits. The merits of various chemical methods in estimating scaling risks are compared. Chemical speciation methods are used throughout this review to gain a better understanding and prediction of scaling phenomena. Coupled chemical process simulations are anticipated to be a crucial way of solving deposition problems in bleach plants.

  10. Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-05-01

    Cellulase treatment for decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity of dissolving pulp is a promising approach to reduce the use of toxic chemicals, such as hypochlorite in the dissolving pulp manufacturing process in the industry. Improving the cellulase treatment efficiency during the process is of practical interest. In the present study, the concept of using cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) to enhance the cellulase treatment efficiency was demonstrated. This was mainly attributed to the increased cellulase adsorption onto cellulose fibers based on the patching/bridging mechanism. Results showed that the cellulase adsorption was increased by about 20% with the addition of 250 ppm of CPAM under the same conditions as those of the control. It was found that the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase for the cellulase treatment was enhanced from using CPAM. The CPAM-assisted cellulase treatment concept may provide a practical alternative to the present hypochlorite-based technology for viscosity control in the industry.

  11. High consistency cellulase treatment of hardwood prehydrolysis kraft based dissolving pulp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-01-01

    For enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp, there is a need to improve the process to facilitate its commercialization. For this purpose, the high consistency cellulase treatment was conducted based on the hypothesis that a high cellulose concentration would favor the interactions of cellulase and cellulose, thus improves the cellulase efficiency while decreasing the water usage. The results showed that compared with a low consistency of 3%, the high consistency of 20% led to 24% increases of cellulase adsorption ratio. As a result, the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase at consistency of 20% were enhanced from 510 mL/g and 70.3% to 471 mL/g and 77.6%, respectively, compared with low consistency of 3% at 24h. The results on other properties such as alpha cellulose, alkali solubility and molecular weight distribution also supported the conclusion that a high consistency of cellulase treatment was more effective than a low pulp consistency process.

  12. Kinematics of the six-degree-of-freedom force-reflecting Kraft Master

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert L., II

    1991-01-01

    Presented here are kinematic equations for a six degree of freedom force-reflecting hand controller. The forward kinematics solution is developed and shown in simplified form. The Jacobian matrix, which uses terms from the forward kinematics solution, is derived. Both of these kinematic solutions require joint angle inputs. A calibration method is presented to determine the hand controller joint angles given the respective potentiometer readings. The kinematic relationship describing the mechanical coupling between the hand and controller shoulder and elbow joints is given. These kinematic equations may be used in an algorithm to control the hand controller as a telerobotic system component. The purpose of the hand controller is two-fold: operator commands to the telerobotic system are entered using the hand controller, and contact forces and moments from the task are reflected to the operator via the hand controller.

  13. Field-inspection notebook for monitoring total reduced sulfur (TRS) from kraft pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Winberry, W.T.

    1984-12-01

    Field-performance audit procedures were developed for three of the most common total reduced sulfur (TRS) continuous-emission-monitoring systems (CEMS). These procedures were designed to assist state/federal field inspectors in the evaluation of TRS-CEMS. Contained in the notebook are checklists and data-entry tables covering preparation for the inspection, preliminary review of records, preliminary on-site meeting with source personnel, and general guidelines for inspection of any type TRS-CEMS. Specific audit procedures for three of the most common models of TRS CEMS: Sampling Technology Inc. Model 100 TRS CEM System; Barton Titrator TRS System; and Bendix Gas Chromatograph TRS System are provided as sectional inserts. In auditing these monitors the inspector should follow the specific procedure rather than the general guidelines given in the body of the field notebook. Conscientious use of this notebook will aid the inspector in conducting a thorough audit of the TRS CEMS and provide a comprehensive original record of all phases of the inspection.

  14. Multivariate statistical analysis of a high rate biofilm process treating kraft mill bleach plant effluent.

    PubMed

    Goode, C; LeRoy, J; Allen, D G

    2007-01-01

    This study reports on a multivariate analysis of the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) wastewater treatment system at a Canadian pulp mill. The modelling approach involved a data overview by principal component analysis (PCA) followed by partial least squares (PLS) modelling with the objective of explaining and predicting changes in the BOD output of the reactor. Over two years of data with 87 process measurements were used to build the models. Variables were collected from the MBBR control scheme as well as upstream in the bleach plant and in digestion. To account for process dynamics, a variable lagging approach was used for variables with significant temporal correlations. It was found that wood type pulped at the mill was a significant variable governing reactor performance. Other important variables included flow parameters, faults in the temperature or pH control of the reactor, and some potential indirect indicators of biomass activity (residual nitrogen and pH out). The most predictive model was found to have an RMSEP value of 606 kgBOD/d, representing a 14.5% average error. This was a good fit, given the measurement error of the BOD test. Overall, the statistical approach was effective in describing and predicting MBBR treatment performance. PMID:17486834

  15. Kraft Board Odor Evaluation by Gas Chromatography and Odor Judging Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenot, J. L.

    This is an experimental study which was undertaken to determine if a gas chromatographic technique could be used to measure paperboard odor levels. Because there are many variations to odor testing using a panel of judges - which is the generally accepted method - the author states that, obviously, an objective method for ascertaining odor levels…

  16. 40 CFR 430.10 - Applicability; description of the dissolving kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... provisions of this subpart apply to discharges resulting from the production of dissolving pulp at...

  17. 40 CFR 430.10 - Applicability; description of the dissolving kraft subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... provisions of this subpart apply to discharges resulting from the production of dissolving pulp at...

  18. 40 CFR 63.446 - Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... condensates from the following equipment systems shall be treated to meet the requirements specified in... process condensate from the equipment systems listed in paragraph (b) of this section shall be treated... pulping process condensate below the liquid surface of a biological treatment system and treat the...

  19. 40 CFR 63.446 - Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... megagram (7.2 pounds per ton) of ODP for mills that do not perform bleaching or 5.5 kilograms or more of total HAP per megagram (11.1 pounds per ton) of ODP for mills that perform bleaching. (d) The pulping... do not perform bleaching, treat the pulping process condensates to remove 3.3 kilograms or more...

  20. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  1. Bioconversion of kraft paper mill sludges to ethanol by SSF and SSCF.

    PubMed

    Kang, Li; Wang, Wei; Lee, Yoon Y

    2010-05-01

    Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material composed of pulp residues and ash generated from pulping and paper making processes. The carbohydrate portion of the sludge has chemical and physical characteristics similar to pulp. Because of its high carbohydrate content and well-dispersed structure, the sludges can be biologically converted to value-added products without pretreatment. In this study, two different types of paper mill sludges, primary sludge and recycle sludge, were evaluated as a feedstock for bioconversion to ethanol. The sludges were first subjected to enzymatic conversion to sugars by commercial cellulase enzymes. The enzymatic conversion was inefficient because of interference by ash in the sludges with the enzymatic reaction. The main cause was that the pH level is dictated by CaCO3 in ash, which is two units higher than the pH optimum of cellulase. To alleviate this problem, simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) using cellulase (Spezyme CP) and recombinant Escherichia coli (ATCC-55124), and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC-200062) were applied to the sludges without any pretreatment. Ethanol yields of 75-81% of the theoretical maximum were obtained from the SSCF on the basis of total carbohydrates. The yield from the SSF was also found to be in the range of 74-80% on the basis of glucan. The SSCF and SSF proceeded under stable condition with the pH staying near 5.0, close to the optimum for cellulase. Decrease of pH occurred due to carbonic acid and other organic acids formed during fermentation. The ash was partially neutralized by the acids produced from the SSCF and SSF and acted as a buffer to stabilize the pH during fermentation. When the SSF and SSCF were operated in fed-batch mode, the ethanol concentration in the broth increased from 25.5 and 32.6 g/L (single feed) to 45 and 42 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration was limited by the tolerance of the microorganism in the case of SSCF. The ethanol yield in fed-batch operation decreased to 68% for SSCF and 70% for SSF. The high-solids condition in the bioreactor appears to create adverse effects on the cellulase reaction. PMID:20099047

  2. 40 CFR 63.864 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... kiln, sulfite combustion unit, or kraft or soda smelt dissolving tank equipped with a wet scrubber must... opacity; (ii) For a new or existing kraft or soda recovery furnace, kraft or soda smelt dissolving tank... quarterly period; (iii) For a new or existing kraft or soda recovery furnace, kraft or soda smelt...

  3. 40 CFR 63.864 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... kiln, sulfite combustion unit, or kraft or soda smelt dissolving tank equipped with a wet scrubber must... opacity; (ii) For a new or existing kraft or soda recovery furnace, kraft or soda smelt dissolving tank... quarterly period; (iii) For a new or existing kraft or soda recovery furnace, kraft or soda smelt...

  4. 40 CFR 63.864 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... kiln, sulfite combustion unit, or kraft or soda smelt dissolving tank equipped with a wet scrubber must... opacity; (ii) For a new or existing kraft or soda recovery furnace, kraft or soda smelt dissolving tank... quarterly period; (iii) For a new or existing kraft or soda recovery furnace, kraft or soda smelt...

  5. Relationship of Ordovician and Silurian reservoir development to unconformities at Midland farms and Inez fields, Andrews County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mear, C.E.; Becher, J.W.

    1986-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are being produced at Midland Farms and Inez fields from Ellenburger dolomites and Fusselman limestones. Reservoirs developed there during Ordovician and Silurian periods of minor folding and faulting, followed by regional uplift and subaerial exposure of the carbonates. Vuggy, cavernous, and solution-enlarged fracture porosity was developed in the Lower Ordovician Ellenburger dolomites prior to deposition of the overlying Middle Ordovician shales of the Simpson Group. Vuggy and cavernous porosity developed in the Lower Silurian Fusselman crinoid-ostracod-pellet packstones and grainstones before deposition of the overlying Silurian Wristen shales. Montoya siliceous limestones of Late Ordovician age were truncated during a period of pre-Silurian erosion, but porosity development is not indicated in Montoya rock cuttings. Only minor amounts of porosity developed in the Lower to Middle Devonian Thirty-one packstones and wackestones as a result of uplift and erosion in the Middle Devonian. Regional compression during the post-Mississippian enhanced doubly plunging anticlines now having up to 91 m (300 ft) of closure at the Ellenburger through Thirty-one formations at Midland Farms and Inez fields. Fractures may have developed in Paleozoic limestones during this period of folding, but reservoir enhancement appears to have resulted only in the Ellenburger dolomites. Representative porosity measurements of the Ellenburger and Fusselman pay zones cannot be made from wireline log calculations, due to the fractured, vuggy, and cavernous nature of the porosity.

  6. Understanding and Helping Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Approach, by Andrew I. Schwebel and Mark A. Fine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews and evaluates 1993 text integrating theory, research, and application. Describes book as useful for researchers and practitioners as well as for instructors who emphasize how family research and theory inform family practice. Outlines text by three sections: model description, creation and maintenance of healthy families, and critique of…

  7. 77 FR 15600 - Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix; Saint Andrew Bay; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand... crews, vessels, and persons on navigable waters during the Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix high... received an application for a Marine Event Permit on January 31, 2011 from Super Boat International,...

  8. Multiple species of wild tree peonies gave rise to the ‘king of flowers’, Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shi-Liang; Zou, Xin-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Jing; Xu, Chao; Yu, Jing; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Da-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Ge, Song; Sang, Tao; Pan, Kai-Yu; Hong, De-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The origin of cultivated tree peonies, known as the ‘king of flowers' in China for more than 1000 years, has attracted considerable interest, but remained unsolved. Here, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of explicitly sampled traditional cultivars of tree peonies and all wild species from the shrubby section Moutan of the genus Paeonia based on sequences of 14 fast-evolved chloroplast regions and 25 presumably single-copy nuclear markers identified from RNA-seq data. The phylogeny of the wild species inferred from the nuclear markers was fully resolved and largely congruent with morphology and classification. The incongruence between the nuclear and chloroplast trees suggested that there had been gene flow between the wild species. The comparison of nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies including cultivars showed that the cultivated tree peonies originated from homoploid hybridization among five wild species. Since the origin, thousands of cultivated varieties have spread worldwide, whereas four parental species are currently endangered or on the verge of extinction. The documentation of extensive homoploid hybridization involved in tree peony domestication provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the origins of garden ornamentals and the way of preserving natural genetic resources through domestication. PMID:25377453

  9. Introduction: Andrew Thomson and the Centre for Metalloprotein Spectroscopy and Biology at the University of East Anglia.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael T

    2008-12-01

    The present article briefly relates the early history and growth of the Centre for Metalloprotein Spectroscopy and Biology at UEA (University of East Anglia) under the joint directorship of A.J. Thomson and C. Greenwood, and charts the exceptional success that this centre has had in fostering bioinorganic chemistry in the U.K. and the impact that it has had internationally.

  10. 76 FR 12094 - Andrew Peklo III; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ....net . i. FERC Contact: Steve Kartalia, (202) 502-6131 or Stephen.kartalia@ferc.gov . j. Cooperating....gov/docs-filing/ferconline.asp). Commenters can submit brief comments up to 6,000 characters, without prior registration, using the eComment system at http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing/ecomment.asp . You...

  11. 78 FR 27126 - East Bay, St. Andrews Bay and the Gulf of Mexico at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida; Restricted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... an anonymous access system, which means we will not know your identity or contact information unless... and crafts (sailing, motorized, and/or rowed/towed or otherwise self-propelled), private and... craft, including pleasure vessels and crafts (sailing, motorized, and/or rowed/towed or otherwise...

  12. Comparison of four kinds of extraction techniques and kinetics of microwave-assisted extraction of vanillin from Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhizhe; Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-04-15

    Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest R²(adj) was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters C(eq), k₁, k₂, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time.

  13. "Show Me Where You Study!"--An Interactive Project between German Language Students in Nottingham and St Andrews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Insa; Reisenleutner, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Interactive projects among students of a Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR) A1+/A2 level seem difficult to set up due to the limited language repertoire of the students. Thus, our aim was to take up the challenge and start a project with the objective of applying their language skills. We chose a collaborative approach to…

  14. Assessing the skill of hydrology models at simulating the water cycle in the HJ Andrews LTER: Assumptions, strengths and weaknesses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Simulated impacts of climate on hydrology can vary greatly as a function of the scale of the input data, model assumptions, and model structure. Four models are commonly used to simulate streamflow in model assumptions, and model structure. Four models are commonly used to simu...

  15. 70 FR 22719 - In the Matter of Andrew Siemaszko; Order Prohibiting Involvement in NRC-Licensed Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2005-05-02

    ... discovered on top of the thermal insulation under the CRD flanges. Boron accumulated on the top of the thermal insulation resulted from the CRD leakage. The CRD leakage issues are discussed in CR 2000-0782... the reactor head and the thermal insulation was removed during the cleaning process performed under...

  16. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by latitude 30°09′45.6″ N., longitude 85°44′20.6″ W.; thence proceed 100 feet waterward of the mean high water line directly to a point at latitude 30°09′46.8″ N., longitude 85°44′20.6″ W. From this... mean high water line to a point at latitude 30°10′16.7″ N., longitude 85°45′01.2″ W. located east...

  17. In response to "The Knowledge of Our Knowledge": a reflection on McAndrews' view of epistemology.

    PubMed

    Winterstein, James

    2012-12-01

    This commentary considers one of the articles published in the first volume of this journal and reflects on the status of research and knowledge at that time. The chiropractic profession has witnessed advancement in the use of the scientific method in the past several decades, and scholarly journals have helped support this substantial growth.

  18. Furfural formation from the pre-hydrolysis liquor of a hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haitang; Hu, Huiren; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to produce furfural from the PHL. Results showed best furfural yield of 32.8% and the furfural selectivity of 37.7% in the monophase system (170 °C, 100 min), while they were 60.1% and 69.8%, respectively in the biphase system. The lower furfural selectivity in the monophase system was explained by more side reactions, such as fragmentation, condensation reactions, resinification and others. Model compounds such as: xylose, furfural, syringaldehyde, were used to confirm/identify these side reactions. The addition of dilute sulfuric acid/acetic acid in the system under the same conditions decreased the recovery of furfural. The addition of syringaldehyde into the PHL also led to a decrease in the furfural yield, supporting the conclusion that lignin structures in the PHL may also be involved in the side reactions, thus decreasing the furfural yield.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... surface aeration, submerged aeration rates, biomass concentration, concentrations of organic compounds... the biomass concentration are obtained for the open biological treatment unit. After the site specific... concentrations; and (3) The biomass concentration in the open biological treatment unit. C. One...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... surface aeration, submerged aeration rates, biomass concentration, concentrations of organic compounds... the biomass concentration are obtained for the open biological treatment unit. After the site specific... concentrations; and (3) The biomass concentration in the open biological treatment unit. C. One...

  1. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS RECOVERY BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Form 1 to estimate f bio for the treatment unit. G. Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QA/QC) A QA/QC... Conditions) Use Form 1 with your zone concentration information to estimate the value of f bio under...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Form 1 to estimate f bio for the treatment unit. G. Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QA/QC) A QA/QC... Conditions) Use Form 1 with your zone concentration information to estimate the value of f bio under...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 63 - Monitoring Procedure for Nonthoroughly Mixed Open Biological Treatment Systems at Kraft Pulp...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Form 1 to estimate f bio for the treatment unit. G. Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QA/QC) A QA/QC... Conditions) Use Form 1 with your zone concentration information to estimate the value of f bio under...

  5. Assessment of Population Status for a White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    A predictive model was developed to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected in the field to alterations in population growth rate. Application of this density dependent population ...

  6. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  7. Comparison of two continuous fungal bioreactors for posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor from kraft pulp mills.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Clemente, Alfredo; Marín-Mezo, G; Ponce-Noyola, M T; Montes-Horcasitas, M C; Caffarel-Méndez, S; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate and compare two continuous systems of posttreatment of anaerobically pretreated weak black liquor (WBL). The first system consisted of a packed bed reactor (PBR) with Trametes versicolor (Tv) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak (biocubes). The second system was a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) with Lentinus edodes (Le) immobilized on wood cubes of holm oak. The reactors operated for 65 days at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days, at 28 degrees C, with continuous aeration. Response variables monitored were conventional and specific, unit, net removal efficiency (eta and eta(sun), respectively) of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, and ligninoids, and enzymatic activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), laccase (Lac) and proteases. The PBR showed an average color eta superior to that of the FBR (52.42 +/- 21.78% and 25.34 +/- 14.38% for PBR and FBR, respectively); removals of COD and ligninoids presented a similar pattern to that of color. Lac activity was significantly larger in PBR than in FBR. Activity of MnP in PBR was higher than that of the FBR (0.004 and 0.002 U MnP/mL, respectively). This difference could be ascribed to the different fungi present in each bioreactor. LiP activity was very low in both reactors. Average value of proteases was almost double in the FBR as compared with PBR (0.472 and 0.209 U Proteases/mL, respectively). During the last 2 weeks of operation, biocubes in the FBR experienced a significant loss of the attached Le biomass, probably by attrition. This and higher protease activity in the FBR could explain the lower pollutant removals achieved in the FBR. Overall, PBR with immobilized Tv showed a better performance than the FBR with Le for the posttreatment of the recalcitrant anaerobic effluent. Extended and sustained pollutant removal (65 days) was achieved in the PBR, although more research is needed to evaluate bioreactor performance at shorter hydraulic retention times. PMID:16937406

  8. Assessment of Population Status for a White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Population Exposed to Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill Effluent

    EPA Science Inventory

    Credible ecological risk assessments often need to include analysis of population-level impacts. In the present study, a predictive model was developed to translate changes in the fecundity and the age structure of a breeding population of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) co...

  9. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stopping through this area at any time unless warned by helicopter or patrol boat. (4) The area will be patrolled by helicopter/vessels during periods of hazardous military activity. Verbal warnings...

  10. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stopping through this area at any time unless warned by helicopter or patrol boat. (4) The area will be patrolled by helicopter/vessels during periods of hazardous military activity. Verbal warnings...

  11. 33 CFR 334.770 - Gulf of Mexico and St. Andrew Sound, south of East Bay, Fla., Tyndall Drone Launch Corridor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stopping through this area at any time unless warned by helicopter or patrol boat. (4) The area will be patrolled by helicopter/vessels during periods of hazardous military activity. Verbal warnings...

  12. 78 FR 76812 - In the Matter of: Andrew Vincent O'Donnell, Inmate Number-62355-019, USP Atlanta, U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... (78 FR 49107 (August 12, 2013)), has continued the Regulations in effect under the International..., or is intended to be, exported from the United States; or E. Engage in any transaction to service...

  13. Depositional and diagenetic controls on porosity permeability and oil production in McFarland/Magutex (Queen) reservoirs, Andrews County, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, M.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The McFarland/Magutex Queen reservoir complex lies along the northeastern edge of the Central basin platform in the west Texas Permian basin and produces oil from the Permian Queen Formation. Current production from this complex totals 42 million stock-tank barrels (MMSTB) of an estimated 219 MMSTB of original oil in place, with an estimated 90 MMSTB of remaining mobile oil (RMO). The gross pay interval contains two parasequences consisting of progradational, 30-ft-thick, upward-shoaling facies packages. Facies include shoreface, mixed tidal channel and intertidal flat, and supratidal. Elongate shoreface facies are characterized by poorly consolidated, massive to thinly laminated sandstones. The supratidal facies, which act as permeability barriers, are characterized by algal-laminated dolostone and nodular, laminated, and massive anhydrite containing halite and gypsum pseudomorphs. Highest production and the largest amount of the 90 MMSTB of RMO is associated with the shoreface and tidal-channel facies. Bulk pore volume storage capacity and permeability are also highest within these two facies. Sandstones are arkosic, containing anhydrite and dolomite cements. Accessory minerals are clays, authigenic feldspar, and dolomite. Three main pore types are recognized: interparticle, moldic and intraconstituent, and micropores. Moldic and intraconstituent porosity is associated with leached feldspars and anhydrite cement dissolution. Microporosity is associated with syndepositional, grain-coating corrensite, dissolution-enhanced feldspar cleavage planes, and authigenic multifaceted dolomite. Microporosity derived from clays and dolomite is formed preferentially in tidal-channel and intertidal flat facies.

  14. NIOSH testimony on Kuwait before the subcommittee on hospitals and health care, committee on veterans' affairs by J. S. Andrews, September 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-16

    The testimony summarizes potential adverse health effects related to service in the Persian Gulf as presented by the Department of Health and Human Services. An estimated 9,000 workers from 43 different countries battled the burning oil wells in Kuwait from February 1991 through early November 1991 when the last was capped. Exposures and health effects in US military personnel, Kuwaiti citizens, and fire fighters were described. The hazards to the soldiers were largely dependent on the concentration of the pollutants in the air near the camps. Fortunately, the plume from the fires rose up to 10,000 and 12,000 feet, mixed with the air and then dispersed for several thousand miles downwind over a period of several weeks. The particles and gases contained in the plume were diluted as the plume travelled. Even so, some minor respiratory problems were present among the soldiers. Some of the hydrocarbons measured at low concentrations have been shown to produce cancer in laboratory animals only when present at higher levels of exposure. Based on the exposure information gathered, the author concludes that there will not likely be a detectable increase in lung cancer in Gulf War Veterans as a result of the oil well fires.

  15. Caring: some reflections on the impact of the culture care theory by McFarland & Andrews and a conversation with Leininger.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Pamela N; McFarland, Marilyn R; Andrews, Margaret M; Leininger, Madeleine

    2009-07-01

    This column is the first of two with a special focus on the construct of caring. In this dialogue, two Leininger scholars together address the questions related to the global impact on practice and the contribution of the model to scientific development in nursing. Then, in a special conversation, nurse theorist Madeleine Leininger offers her view of the impact of her work as well as some of her early experiences.

  16. Society News: RAS Awards 2012; Prof. Andy Fabian; Prof. John C Brown; Prof. Andrew Fazakerley; Dr. Mike Irwin; Joss Bland-Hawthorn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Each year the RAS recognizes outstanding achievement in astronomy and geophysics by the award of medals and prizes. Candidates are nominated by Fellows and the awards made by a committee of Fellows, ensuring that these scientists have earned the respect and admiration of their peers in the research community.

  17. From School to Adult Living: A Forum on Issues and Trends. An Interview with Lou Brown, Andrew S. Halpern, Susan Brody Hasazi, and Paul Wehman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gary M., Ed.; Knowlton, H. Earl, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    An interview with four leaders (L. Brown, A. Halpern, S. Hasazi, and P. Wehman) on the conceptualization and implementation of transition programming for handicapped students focuses on such issues as the role of political factors, the possibility of effective school/adult service agency coordination, the importance of social skills, and emerging…

  18. Chemometric analysis of chromatographic fingerprints shows potential of Cyclopia maculata (Andrews) Kies for production of standardized extracts with high xanthone content.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Alexandra E; de Beer, Dalene; de Villiers, André; Manley, Marena; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2014-10-29

    Cyclopia species are used for the production of honeybush tea and food ingredient extracts associated with many health benefits. A species-specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for Cyclopia maculata, developed and validated, allowed quantification of the major compounds in extracts from "unfermented" and fermented C. maculata. Two xanthones were tentatively identified for the first time in a Cyclopia species, whereas an additional four compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in C. maculata. "Fermentation" (oxidation) decreased the content of all compounds, with the exception of vicenin-2. Similarity analysis of the chromatographic fingerprints of unfermented C. maculata aqueous extracts showed extremely low variation (r ≥ 0.97) between samples. Some differences between wild-harvested and cultivated seedling plants were, however, demonstrated using principal component analysis. Quantitative data of selected compounds confirmed the low level of variation, making this Cyclopia species ideal for the production of standardized food ingredient extracts.

  19. One World, Many Cultures. Papers from the International Conference on Adult Education and the Arts (4th, St. Andrews, Scotland, July 10-14, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David, Ed.; McConnell, Bridget, Ed.; Normie, Gerald, Ed.

    The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Bridget McConnell); "Introduction" (David J. Jones); opening addresses by George Robertson MP, Shadow Scottish Secretary, and by Charlie McConnell, Executive Director, Scottish Community Education Council; and speech by Christine Hamilton, Deputy Director, Scottish Arts Council; "Keynote Speech:…

  20. Modification of Chitin with Kraft Lignin and Development of New Biosorbents for Removal of Cadmium(II) and Nickel(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Wysokowski, Marcin; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Moszyński, Dariusz; Bartczak, Przemysław; Szatkowski, Tomasz; Majchrzak, Izabela; Siwińska-Stefańska, Katarzyna; Bazhenov, Vasilii V.; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2014-01-01

    Novel, functional materials based on chitin of marine origin and lignin were prepared. The synthesized materials were subjected to physicochemical, dispersive-morphological and electrokinetic analysis. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method of synthesis of functional chitin/lignin materials. Mechanism of chitin modification by lignin is based on formation of hydrogen bonds between chitin and lignin. Additionally, the chitin/lignin materials were studied from the perspective of waste water treatment. The synthetic method presented in this work shows an attractive and facile route for producing low-cost chitin/lignin biosorbents with high efficiency of nickel and cadmium adsorption (88.0% and 98.4%, respectively). The discovery of this facile method of synthesis of functional chitin/lignin materials will also have a significant impact on the problematic issue of the utilization of chitinous waste from the seafood industry, as well as lignin by-products from the pulp and paper industry. PMID:24727394

  1. Aerobic moving bed bioreactor performance: a comparative study of removal efficiencies of kraft mill effluents from Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus as raw material.

    PubMed

    Villamar, C A; Jarpa, M; Decap, J; Vidal, G

    2009-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated during 333 days. Two different effluents were fed in six different phases. Phases I and II were fed with effluent where Pinus radiata was used as raw material, while phases III to VI were fed with effluent where Eucalyptus globulus was used as raw material. The HRT was reduced from 85 to 4 h, and the BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1, 100:3:1 and 100:1:1) was also simultaneously evaluated as an operation strategy. When MBBR was operated with Pinus radiata influent, the performance presents a high BOD(5) removal level (above 95%), although COD removal is below 60%. Most of the recalcitrant COD contained in the effluent has a molecular weight higher than 10,000 Da. When MBBR was operated with Eucalyptus globulus influent, the performance is around 97.9-97.6% and 68.6-65.1% for BOD(5) and COD, respectively (with HRT up to 17 h). In the Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globus effluents, the color was mainly found in the molecular weight fraction up to 10,000 Daltons. PMID:19214005

  2. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: A KRAFT PROCESS HOGGED FUEL BOILER AT A PULP AND PAPER FACILITY, VOLUMES 1 AND 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or less (PM-2.5) has been found harmful to human health, and a National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 was promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in July 1997. A national network of ambient monitorin...

  3. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry Kraft recovery boilers. Final report, Phase 1, Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The objectives are to develop a preliminary design of a recovery furnace simulator; evaluate the economics of high-solids; and delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies to improve chemical recovery.

  4. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  5. Modification of chitin with kraft lignin and development of new biosorbents for removal of cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Wysokowski, Marcin; Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Moszyński, Dariusz; Bartczak, Przemysław; Szatkowski, Tomasz; Majchrzak, Izabela; Siwińska-Stefańska, Katarzyna; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2014-04-01

    Novel, functional materials based on chitin of marine origin and lignin were prepared. The synthesized materials were subjected to physicochemical, dispersive-morphological and electrokinetic analysis. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method of synthesis of functional chitin/lignin materials. Mechanism of chitin modification by lignin is based on formation of hydrogen bonds between chitin and lignin. Additionally, the chitin/lignin materials were studied from the perspective of waste water treatment. The synthetic method presented in this work shows an attractive and facile route for producing low-cost chitin/lignin biosorbents with high efficiency of nickel and cadmium adsorption (88.0% and 98.4%, respectively). The discovery of this facile method of synthesis of functional chitin/lignin materials will also have a significant impact on the problematic issue of the utilization of chitinous waste from the seafood industry, as well as lignin by-products from the pulp and paper industry. PMID:24727394

  6. 77 FR 59001 - Fee for Services To Support FEMA's Offsite Radiological Emergency Preparedness Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Andrew Mitchell, Director, Technological Hazards Division, Department of Homeland...), or (email) Andrew.Mitchell2@fema.dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: As authorized by 42...

  7. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  8. 40 CFR 98.272 - GHGs to report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... each kraft or soda chemical recovery furnace. (b) CO2, biogenic CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each... each kraft or soda pulp mill lime kiln. (e) CO2 emissions from addition of makeup chemicals...

  9. 40 CFR 98.272 - GHGs to report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... each kraft or soda chemical recovery furnace. (b) CO2, biogenic CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each... each kraft or soda pulp mill lime kiln. (e) CO2 emissions from addition of makeup chemicals...

  10. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... this section: (1) Chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills (including recovery furnaces that... facilities. (4) Pulp mill lime kilns at kraft and soda facilities. (5) Systems for adding makeup...

  11. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... this section: (1) Chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills (including recovery furnaces that... facilities. (4) Pulp mill lime kilns at kraft and soda facilities. (5) Systems for adding makeup...

  12. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... this section: (1) Chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills (including recovery furnaces that... facilities. (4) Pulp mill lime kilns at kraft and soda facilities. (5) Systems for adding makeup...

  13. 40 CFR 98.272 - GHGs to report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... each kraft or soda chemical recovery furnace. (b) CO2, biogenic CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each... each kraft or soda pulp mill lime kiln. (e) CO2 emissions from addition of makeup chemicals...

  14. 40 CFR 98.272 - GHGs to report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... each kraft or soda chemical recovery furnace. (b) CO2, biogenic CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each... each kraft or soda pulp mill lime kiln. (e) CO2 emissions from addition of makeup chemicals...

  15. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section: (1) Chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills (including recovery furnaces that... facilities. (4) Pulp mill lime kilns at kraft and soda facilities. (5) Systems for adding makeup...

  16. 40 CFR 98.272 - GHGs to report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... each kraft or soda chemical recovery furnace. (b) CO2, biogenic CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions from each... each kraft or soda pulp mill lime kiln. (e) CO2 emissions from addition of makeup chemicals...

  17. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... this section: (1) Chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills (including recovery furnaces that... facilities. (4) Pulp mill lime kilns at kraft and soda facilities. (5) Systems for adding makeup...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1524 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1973. (b) No. 11 Kraft recovery ......do 15 ......do Jan. 1974. (c) No. 8 Kraft recovery boiler main stack ......do 15 ......do July 1974. (d) No. 8 Kraft recovery smelt tank vent ......do 15 ......do Dec. 1974. (e) Heavy black liquor oxidation ......do 15 ......do June 1974. (f) No. 1 lime kiln...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1524 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1973. (b) No. 11 Kraft recovery ......do 15 ......do Jan. 1974. (c) No. 8 Kraft recovery boiler main stack ......do 15 ......do July 1974. (d) No. 8 Kraft recovery smelt tank vent ......do 15 ......do Dec. 1974. (e) Heavy black liquor oxidation ......do 15 ......do June 1974. (f) No. 1 lime kiln...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1524 - Compliance schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1973. (b) No. 11 Kraft recovery ......do 15 ......do Jan. 1974. (c) No. 8 Kraft recovery boiler main stack ......do 15 ......do July 1974. (d) No. 8 Kraft recovery smelt tank vent ......do 15 ......do Dec. 1974. (e) Heavy black liquor oxidation ......do 15 ......do June 1974. (f) No. 1 lime kiln...